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Sample records for antigen psa test

  1. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for prostate cancer, such as ethnicity and family history Men at high risk may need to have more tests. These may include: Repeating your PSA test, most often sometime within 3 months A prostate biopsy A follow-up test called a free PSA ( ...

  2. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Laboratory Tests Prostate Cancer—Patient Version Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Tumor Markers Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health Guide for Men ...

  3. The validity of rapid test to detect prostate-specific antigen (PSA in seminal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Henky

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine whether the rapid test device can be used to detect PSA in seminal fluid specifically, for solving sexual assault cases.Methods: A cross sectional study has been conducted. A total of 45 samples were taken consecutively. Semen was diluted in serially up to 1:5.000.000 and male urin up to 1:200 using distilled water, whereas female urin was not diluted. Samples were analyzed using rapid test PSA.Results: The proportion of positive results of PSA in seminal fluid, male urin and female urin respectively was 100%, 6.67%, and 0%. Statistically, these differences are highly significant. The analysis revealed that the PSA rapid test device was 100% sensitive and 96.67% specific to detect seminal fluid. The test also have PPV 93.75%, NPV 100%, LR(+ 33.33, LR(- 0, and AUC 0.983.Conclusion: PSA Rapid Test is very specific and sensitive to detect PSA in seminal fluid. Therefore, this device is suggested for forensic use in sexual assault cases. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:278-82Keywords: PSA, rapid test, sexual assault

  4. Impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Hirdes, Willem H.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Nijman, Rien M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) publication in 2009 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level testing by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in men aged 40 years. Materials and Methods Retrospective study with a Dutch insurance

  5. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  6. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of PSA and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prostate cancer in Cuba is a problem of health (2672 diagnosed cases and 2769 deaths in 2007). Various diagnostic methods have been implemented for the detection and management of this disease, emphasizing among them (PSA) prostate-specific antigen serological determination. At this work was generated and characterized a panel of 11 antibodies (AcMs) monoclonal IgG1 detected with high affinity described major epitopes of the PSA, both in solution and attached to the test plate. From the panel obtained AcMs was the standardization of an essay type ELISA for the detection of serum total PSA (associated and free) equimolar, based on antibody monoclonal CB-PSA.4 in the coating and the CB-PSA.9 coupled with biotin as liner, with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Similarly, standardized system for detection in serum free PSA, based on the AcMs CB-PSA.4 (coating) and CB-PSA.2 coupled with biotin (liner), with a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, with the purpose of using PSA as standard in trials type ELISA, developed a simple method of inmunopurificación based on the AcM, CB-PSA.2, which was obtained the PSA with a purity exceeding 90%. Immunoassay Centre on the basis of the AcMs panel and the results of this study, developed and recorded two diagnostic systems for the detection of PSA in human serum. (author)

  7. Sequential versus staggered testing towards dynamic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of aspects of progression from off-line time independent Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) towards on-line time dependent PSA or dynamic PSA, which is needed step leading to the Living PSA, is shown in the paper. It is the comparison of both testing strategies applied to the redundant components or systems. They are sequential and staggered testing strategies using subsystem mean unavailabilities which are the roots for the mean values, are shown and compared for the both cases. (author)

  8. Point-of-care PSA testing: an evaluation of PSAwatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, O; Rao, A; Emberton, M; Cochrane, D; Partridge, M; Edwards, P; Walker, I; Davidson, I

    2007-01-01

    We present a new quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay using a portable, point-of-care test (PSAwatch) and reader system (BioScan) for measuring PSA concentrations in the range from 0.5 to BioScan system. PSA concentrations in 188 men were < or =25 microg/l and studied. Correlation between the two methods was good (R(2)=0.88) with a standard error of 1.588. The regression line had a bias of -0.02 at the concentration of 4.00 microg/l. This is the first report of a quantitative, portable, point-of-care PSA test and reader system. PSAwatch may reduce the number of hospital visits for patients with prostate disease. PMID:17353914

  9. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Mattsson

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3 exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  10. Raising cut-off value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for biopsy in symptomatic men in India to reduce unnecessary biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini Agnihotri; Mittal, R. D.; Kapoor, R; Anil Mandhani

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for trans-rectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are not well defined. This study was carried out to analyse the threshold of PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India. Methods: From January 2000 to June 2011, consecutive patients who had digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA testing done for LUTS were included in this study. PSA was done with ELISA te...

  11. Arraying prostate specific antigen PSA and Fab anti-PSA using light-assisted molecular immobilization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parracino, Antonietta; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; di Gennaro, Ane Kold; Pettersson, Kim; Lövgren, Timo; Petersen, Steffen B

    2010-01-01

    We here report for the first time the creation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Fab anti-PSA biosensor arrays using UV light-assisted molecular immobilization (LAMI), aiming at the detection and quantification of PSA, a cancer marker. The technology involves formation of free, reactive thiol groups upon UV excitation of protein aromatic residues located in spatial proximity of disulphide bridges, a conserved structural feature in both PSA and Fab molecules. The created thiol groups bind onto thiol reactive surfaces leading to oriented covalent protein immobilization. Protein activity was confirmed carrying out immunoassays: immobilized PSA was recognized by Fab anti-PSA in solution and immobilized Fab anti-PSA cross-reacted with PSA in solution. LAMI technology proved successful in immobilizing biomedically relevant molecules while preserving their activity, highlighting that insight into how light interacts with biomolecules may lead to new biophotonic technologies. Our work focused on the application of our new engineering principles to the design, analysis, construction, and manipulation of biological systems, and on the discovery and application of new engineering principles inspired by the properties of biological systems. PMID:20665692

  12. Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Amanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Discussion Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM or shared decision making (SDM approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA

  13. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  14. The PSA testing dilemma: GPs' reports of consultations with asymptomatic men: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine Brian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Health Service Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP has recommended that screening for prostate cancer is available for asymptomatic men, on the understanding that they have been provided with full and balanced information about the advantages and limitations of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA test. Guidance has been distributed to all GPs in England and Wales to assist in the provision of information to men. This study aimed to elicit GPs' accounts of their discussions with asymptomatic men who consult with concerns about prostate cancer in order to identify the degree to which the PCRMP guidance was reflected in these consultations. Methods Qualitative interview study. Semi-structured telephone interviews with 21 GPs from 18 GP practices in Oxfordshire. Results All GPs reported undertaking some discussion with asymptomatic men about the PSA test. They described focussing most of the discussion on the false-positive and false-negative rates of the test, and the risks associated with a prostate biopsy. They reported less discussion of the potential for diagnosing indolent cancers, the dilemmas regarding treatment options for localised prostate cancer and the potential benefits of testing. Considerable variation existed between GPs in their accounts of the degree of detail given, and GP's presentation of information appeared to be affected by their personal views of the PSA test. Conclusion The GPs in this study appear to recognise the importance of discussions regarding PSA testing; however, a full and balanced picture of the associated advantages and limitations does not seem to be consistently conveyed. Factors specific to PSA testing which appeared to have an impact on the GPs' discussions were the GP's personal opinions of the PSA test, and the need to counter men's primarily positive views of the benefits of PSA testing. Awareness of the impact of their views on the consultations may help GPs

  15. Factors prompting PSA-testing of asymptomatic men in a country with no guidelines: a national survey of general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Ireland is estimated to have one of the highest prostate cancer incidences in Europe and has no national guidelines for prostate cancer screening. GPs have a pivotal role in influencing PSA testing, therefore, our aim was to describe GP testing practices and to identify factors influencing these. METHODS: A postal survey, including questions on clinical practice and experience, knowledge and demographics was distributed to all GPs (n = 3,683). The main outcomes were (i) PSA testing asymptomatic men and (ii) "inappropriate" PSA testing, defined as testing asymptomatic men aged < 50 or > 75 years. Factors associated with these outcomes were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,625 GPs responded (response rate corrected for eligibility = 53%). Most respondents (79%) would PSA test asymptomatic men. Of these, 34% and 51% would test asymptomatic men < 50 and > 75 years, respectively. In multivariate analyses, GPs were more likely to test asymptomatic men if they were >or= 50 years, in practice >or= 10 years, female or less knowledgeable about PSA efficacy. Male GPs who would have a PSA test themselves were > 8-times more likely to PSA test asymptomatic men than GPs who would not have a test. GPs who had an asymptomatic patient diagnosed with prostate cancer following PSA testing, were > 3-times more likely to test asymptomatic men. Practice-related factors positively associated with testing included: running \\'well man\\' clinics, performing occupational health checks and performing other tests routinely with PSA. Factors positively associated with \\'inappropriate\\' testing included; being male and willing to have a PSA test, having worked\\/trained in the UK and supporting annual PSA testing. 91% of respondents supported the development of national PSA testing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that widespread PSA testing

  16. PSA-operations synergism for the advanced test reactor shutdown operations PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for shutdown operations, cask handling, and canal draining is a successful example of the importance of good PSA-operations synergism for achieving a realistic and accepted assessment of the risks and for achieving desired risk reduction and safety improvement in a best and cost-effective manner. The implementation of the agreed-upon upgrades and improvements resulted in the reductions of the estimated mean frequency for core or canal irradiated fuel uncovery events, a total reduction in risk by a factor of nearly 1000 to a very low and acceptable risk level for potentially severe events

  17. Postoperative monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA after treatment with high-intensive focused ultrasound (HIFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blyumberg B.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to estimate efficiency of treatment of prostate cancer using high-intensive focused ultrasound on the basis of laboratory analysis of postoperative level prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Objects of research. Objects of research consisted of 110 patients treated in urological clinic of Hospital n.a. S. R. Mirotvortsev (Saratov State Medical University during the period February, 2009 — March, 2012. Patients took 110 sessions of primary operative treatment of prostate cancer by HIFU therapy method. Technique and research methods. Concentration of PSA in blood changed in all patients every 1,5 month within 6 months after operation, irrespective of its kind (including after repeated HIFU, further — after every 3 month till one year, and later on after 6 months. We were guided by references of the International Consensus, which considers PSA level more than 0,5 ng/ml in blood after 3 months of treatment to be unsatisfactory result. We also headed for PSA level before treatment and oncological risk degree. Results. Median nadir formed 0,5 ng/ml PSA by 3 months after treatment. Patients demonstrated different indicators of PSA dynamics depending on oncological risk, stage and hormonal therapy management. Patients with low oncological risk had initially lower PSA concentration, further PSA concentration reached nadir level faster. At patients with widespread forms of prostate cancer accurate dependence of PSA concentration according to prevalence of process was traced. Time of PSA nadir amount did not differ and was marked as 12-14 weeks on average. At patients received hormonal therapy, lower value of PSA nadir was marked. The conclusion. Monitoring of PSA concentration (PSA nadir by 3 months, dynamics of PSA concentration change is of great importance in early revealing of relapse after prostate HIFU therapy. High level of PSA nadir and PSA growth according to time period are important prognostic factors.

  18. 3D label-free prostate specific antigen (PSA) immunosensor based on graphene-gold composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Sun Kyung; Chang, Hankwon; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-01-15

    Highly sensitive and label-free detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical immunosensor capable of sensitive and label-free detection of PSA is reported. This unique immunosensor is equipped with a highly conductive graphene (GR)-based gold (Au) composite modified electrode. The GR-based Au composite is prepared using aerosol spray pyrolysis and the morphology of the composite is the shape of a crumpled GR ball decorated with Au nanoparticles. Unlike the previous research, this novel 3D immunosensor functions very well over a broad linear range of 0-10 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.59 ng/mL; furthermore, it exhibits a significantly increased electron transfer and high sensitivity toward PSA. The highest rate of current change with respect to the PSA concentration is 5 μA/(ng/mL). Satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility, and stability of the 3D immunosensor are also exhibited. PMID:25150936

  19. Take Charge. Take the Test. "You Know" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening: has the pendulum swung too far?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason M Phillips; E David Crawford

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) along with digital rectal exam has been the standard for prostate cancer screening in the United States for the past 20 years.1 During this time period,the improved detection of prostate cancer decreased related mortality more than 30%? In fact,metastases and their comorbidities have decreased more than 75% since the early 1990s,resulting in a higher incidence of early organ-confined disease.While it is clear that prostate cancer mortality statistics have improved,it is unclear whether men are overscreened.

  1. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA/hK3): a further player in the field of breast cancer diagnostics?

    OpenAIRE

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Gazzanelli, Giancarlo

    2001-01-01

    Since its identification, much information has been obtained about prostate-specific antigen (PSA, or human glandular kallikrein 3 [hK3]), a kallikrein-like serine protease that is the most valuable tumour marker for the screening, diagnosis and management of human prostate carcinoma. Recently, it has become widely accepted that PSA is also present in many nonprostatic sources, casting doubts about the specificity of its tissue expression. Here we summarize the findings on the biomolecular ex...

  2. False positives observed on the Seratec® PSA SemiQuant Cassette Test with condom lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Sara E

    2012-11-01

    In the course of the validation of a new component of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) SemiQuant Cassette Test marketed by Seratec(®) , a false-positive reaction was observed when testing samples collected from the surface of unused, lubricated condoms. A variety of personal lubricants and condoms were tested to determine the frequency of the false positive, as well as its potential source. Samples were extracted in both water and the manufacturer-provided buffer, and the test was performed according to the manufacturer's suggested protocol. The false positive was observed intermittently, but occurred consistently with samples containing nonoxynol-9, a strong detergent utilized as a spermicide. The reaction may be attributable to the combination of latex and nonoxynol-9. Because of the unreliability of the test to confirm the presence of PSA in samples collected from condoms, the PSA cassette is an unsuitable method for confirming the presence of seminal fluid in condoms. PMID:22494324

  3. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Petitdidier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA, from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA, combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  4. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K;

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune...... to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes...

  5. Variation in general practice prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate cancer outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    Brugen af prostata-specifikt antigen (PSA) er mangedoblet i dansk almen praksis siden introduktionen i 1990’erne. Dansk Urologisk Selskab anbefaler brug af testen ved relevante symptomer og arvelig disposition, men ikke til screening. Alligevel varierer brugen af PSA-tests i almen praksis. Dette ...

  6. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All About Food Allergies Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size What's in ... sample is used to determine if H. pylori antigens are present in your child's gastrointestinal (GI) system. ...

  7. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  8. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  9. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  10. Prostate specific antigen testing policy worldwide varies greatly and seems not to be in accordance with guidelines : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Löwik, Sabine; Hirdes, Willem H.; Nijman, Rien M.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing is widely used, but guidelines on follow-up are unclear. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine follow-up policy after PSA testing by general practitioners (GPs) and non-urologic hospitalists, the use of a cut-off

  11. Proposal for the development of IRMA kits for prostate specific antigen, PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following are the major objectives of this research proposal: (1) To establish a protocol for biotinylation of monoclonal antibody, mabs or polyclonal antibody against the antigen, PSA. This shall include the purifying procedure using size exclusion chromatography on HPLC for use in binding assays to determine its binding capacity with PSA. (2) To establish an immunoassay protocol for IRMAs, using the technique of immobilizing the capture mabs on solid phase (surfaces of polystyrene) and the radioiodine labeled streptavidin-biotinylated bridge system. This will include optimization of the assay design and a Quality Control Assessment with the inclusion of standards derived from the Agency and subsequent work to determine its sensitivity (Minimum Detection Limit) and working range (the phenomenon of Hooke's Effect). An in-house quality control would also be useful to determine the assay's suitability for screening the tumour marker from patient samples obtained from neighboring hospitals (such as the Science University of Malaysia Hospital and the National University Hospital) and private clinical pathology laboratory (such as the Pantai Medical Centre) which compare concurrently the results with existing commercial immunoassay kits (RIA/IRMA). These work and that described earlier in (1) shall be done entirely at MINT. (3) To perform an external coordinated external Quality Control Assurance Programme with other research institutes (such as the Department of Immunology, Medical faculty, Science University of Malaysia and government hospitals) in Malaysia on several batches of the IRMA kits (produced at MINT and proven to be suitable for screening PSA in human serum from in-house Quality Control data, as mentioned earlier in (2)). This coordinated work shall include analyzing and documenting all values obtained from a group of patient's sample in clinical conditions such as batch to batch variation, inter and intra-assay variations and mean values for negative

  12. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    ículas seminais e testículos. Observou-se nos Hamsters adultos (n=20, setenta por cento de alterações nos anexos sexuais a saber: um caso (5% de processo supurativo das vesículas seminais, um caso (5% de processo inflamatório isolado das vesículas seminais, um caso (5% de Processo inflamatório das vesículas seminais, HBP e prostatite concomitante e um caso (5% de infarto testicular e prostatite. Onze animais (55%, dos Hamsters adultos, apresentaram HBP (Hiperplasia Benigna da Próstata. Conclusão: A técnica cirúrgica descrita mostrou-se eficiente para a obtenção dos orgãos e estruturas do aparelho geniturinário, estudo histológico desses orgãos e dosagem do PSA no Hamster Sírio, Mesocricetus auratus.Purpose: To explain the available technique in collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and the genitourinary system extracting from Syrian Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, and correspond PSA findings to anexed sexual histologic changes. Methods: Thirty (n=30 Hamsters were used in the experiment: ten (n=10 animals were on the average age of 47,5 days on the decease mourent, being qualified as young and twenty ( n=20 animals over the age of one year were qualified as adults. After being under chetamina cloridate and diazepam anesthesia, on the superior abdomen level, c. 1,5mL to 2,0mL of blood were collected for total PSA dosing though ELISA method, with human antigen. They died after blood extracting. After verifying the animal death, laparatomy was carried out, extracting in complete monoblock the genitourinary system for a histologic study of sexual anexes. A PSA correlation was set with the found histologic changes. Results: An excellent anesthesian plan was obtained after shooting chetamina cloridate and diazepam intraperitoneum on the animals, that made possible to collect blood through the cava vein trans-derm via to the superior abdomen for the PSA dosing. The animal died after blood collecting. Laparatomy was carried out with the complete

  13. Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ferro

    Full Text Available Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77 was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76 and PCA3 (0.73 with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247. These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60, % fPSA (AUC = 0.62 and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63. At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  14. Routine PSA Testing: An Analysis of the Controversy Concerning Its Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namath S. Hussain

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer in American males today. PSA screening has been used for over 10 years as an important diagnostic tool for the disease. Because of its lack of sensitivity and specificity, however, PSA testing should be used with caution.

  15. Development of simple immunoradiometric assay kits for measurement of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes our results obtained in the field of PSA IRMA kits development. In these experiments, we used Avidin-Biotin technology for coating of antibodies on beads/tubes and studied various parameters, such as investigation of different types of tubes, incubation time, volume of samples etc., as well as comparing two types of Mabs of PSA (free and total) for coating on the surface of bead/tube and obtaining optimized requirements to achieve reliable and simplified assays of PSA (free and total) in serum. (author)

  16. EuroTrough collector prototype under testing at PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luepfert, E.; Geyer, M. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Platforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (Spain); Schiel, W. [Schlaich Bergermann und Partner (SBP), Stuttgart (Germany); Esteban, A.; Osuna, R. [INABENSA, Div. Taller, Sevilla (Spain); Zarza, E.; Rojas, E. [CIEMAT-PSA, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain); Nava, P. [Flabeg Solar International, Cologne (Germany); Brakmann, G. [Fichtner Solar, Stuttgart (Germany); Kotsaki, E. [CRES, Athens (Greece)

    2001-07-01

    In international project collaboration a parabolic trough collector has been developed for various applications in the 200-400 C temperature range in solar fields up to the hundreds Megawatts range. The design of a new support structure of the collector included concept studies, wind tunnel measurements, finite elements method (FEM) analyses and resulted in a structure with a central framework element. This torque box design has lower weight and less deformation of the collector structure than the other designs considered. It will be possible in future to connect more collector elements on one drive which results in reduced total number of drives and interconnecting pipes, thus reducing the installation cost and thermal losses. In terms of the degree of material usage further weight reduction will be possible. The presented design has a significant potential for cost reduction, the most important goal of the EuroTrough project. The prototype has been set-up and is under testing at PSA (Plataforma Solar de Almeria) for its thermal and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  17. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rate of decline post external beam radiotherapy predicts prostate cancer death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To assess the association between PSA velocity (PSAV) in the first 24 months after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and all cause mortality. Materials and methods: All eligible patients in the South Australian (SA) Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes registry were followed. 848 Patients treated by definitive EBRT with more than one PSA recorded in the two year post-treatment were included. We calculated PSAV by linear regression. Results: The mean number of PSA measurements in the 2 year period was 4.4 (SD1.9). The median PSAVs across quartiles (Q1–Q4) were −4.17, −1.29, −0.38 and 0.20 ng/ml/yr. In multivariable analysis, a U-shaped relationship was seen between PSAV and PCSM with Q1–Q4 hazard ratios (HR) being 3.82 (1.46–10.00), 3.07 (1.10–8.58), 1, 5.15 (1.99–13.30) respectively. HR for all cause mortality in a similar model were 1.79 (1.07–2.98), 1.55 (0.93–2.59), 1.00 and 1.74 (1.04–2.90) for Q1 to Q4 respectively. A rapid PSA decline in the first year was a strong predictor of PCSM. However, in the second year PSA increase was positively associated with PCSM. Conclusion: A rapid decline in PSA in the first year following EBRT is positively associated with PCSM. This may be a useful early indicator of the need for additional therapies

  18. The association of general practitioners’ risk attitudes, level of empathy and burnout status with PSA testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Når alment praktiserende læger sammenlignes, finder man ofte stor variation i raten af PSA-tests foretaget på mandlige patienter. Dette studie viser, at lægens risikovillighed influerer på raten af PSA-tests. Således har patienter, som er registreret hos en læge, som har mange bekymringer for fej...

  19. [5ARI and PSA: open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, Andrea; Puccini, Federica; De Nunzio, Cosimo

    2014-09-23

    No consensus has ever been reached on the predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen(PSA) for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Limitations of PSA testing in clinical practice have beenoften discussed in the peer-reviewed literature following data derived from clinical trials such as theProstate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events(REDUCE) study that showed a linear rise in the risk of prostate cancer with increasing PSA levels.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a known confounding factor for the use of PSA as a marker of prostatecancer. Increased prostate volume observed with ageing, urinary retention, acute and chronicinflammatory conditions of the prostate, sexual activity and digital rectal examination may all cause anincrease of PSA values. Both finasteride and dutasteride, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) used inthe treatment of BPH, are known to induce a significant decrease of serum PSA levels close to 50%.The observed change in PSA values following 5ARI treatment has raised questions about the accuracyof PSA testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients on finasteride/dutasteride treatment.Careful analysis of data from various clinical trials on pharmacological treatment of LUTS due toBPH suggested that the accuracy of PSA testing is not just maintained but rather increased following5ARI use. Then, the question of PSA accuracy during 5ARI treatment can be considered closed. PMID:25350562

  20. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels. PMID:23315126

  1. National STD Awareness Month and GYT: Get Yourself Tested PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-03

    April is National STD Awareness Month. In this PSA, native communities, especially adolescents and young adults, are encouraged to get educated, tested, and treated by visiting gytnow.org.  Created: 3/3/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 3/3/2011.

  2. Take Charge. Take the Test. "Look Out For Yourself" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  3. Importance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA as a predictive factor for concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and RADICAL prostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gianni de Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby highlighting the importance of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA level as a predictive factor of concordance. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 253 radical prostatectomy cases performed between 2006 and 2011. The patients were divided into 4 groups for the data analysis and dichotomized according to the preoperative PSA, <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL. A p-score <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The average patient age was 63.3±7.8 years. The median PSA level was 9.3±4.9 ng/mL. The overall concordance between the Gleason scores was 52%. Patients presented preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/mL in 153 of 235 cases (65% and ≥10 ng/mL in 82 of 235 cases (35%. The Gleason scores were identical in 86 of 153 cases (56% in the <10 ng/mL group and 36 of 82 (44% cases in the ≥10 ng/mL group (p = 0.017. The biopsy underestimated the Gleason score in 45 (30% patients in the <10 ng/mL group and 38 (46% patients in the ≥10 ng/mL (p = 0.243. Specifically, the patients with Gleason 3 + 3 scores according to the biopsies demonstrated global concordance in 56 of 110 cases (51%. In this group, the patients with preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/dL had higher concordance than those with preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/dL (61% x 23%, p = 0.023, which resulted in 77% upgrading after surgery in those patients with PSA levels ≥10 ng/dl. CONCLUSION: The Gleason scores of needle prostate biopsies and those of the surgical specimens were concordant in approximately half of the global sample. The preoperative PSA level was a strong predictor of discrepancy and might improve the identification of those patients who tended to be upgraded after surgery, particularly in patients with Gleason scores of 3 + 3 in the prostate biopsy and preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/mL.

  4. Prostate specific antigen testing policy worldwide varies greatly and seems not to be in accordance with guidelines: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Meer Saskia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate specific antigen (PSA testing is widely used, but guidelines on follow-up are unclear. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine follow-up policy after PSA testing by general practitioners (GPs and non-urologic hospitalists, the use of a cut-off value for this policy, the reasons for repeating a PSA test after an initial normal result, the existence of a general cut-off value below which a PSA result is considered normal, and the time frame for repeating a test. Data sources. MEDLINE, Embase, PsychInfo and the Cochrane library from January 1950 until May 2011. Study eligibility criteria. Studies describing follow-up policy by GPs or non-urologic hospitalists after a primary PSA test, excluding urologists and patients with prostate cancer. Studies written in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian or Spanish were included. Excluded were studies describing follow-up policy by urologists and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. The quality of each study was structurally assessed. Results Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were of high quality. Follow-up differed greatly both after a normal and an abnormal PSA test result. Only one study described the reasons for not performing follow-up after an abnormal PSA result. Conclusions Based on the available literature, we cannot adequately assess physicians’ follow-up policy after a primary PSA test. Follow-up after a normal or raised PSA test by GPs and non-urologic hospitalists seems to a large extent not in accordance with the guidelines.

  5. Have You Been Tested for Colorectal Cancer? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the November 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer screening saves lives, but only if you get tested. If you’re between 50 and 75, talk with your doctor about which test is best for you. If you have inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, ask your doctor if you should start screening before age 50.  Created: 11/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/5/2013.

  6. Ageing PSA incorporating effectiveness of maintenance and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. An example of application is presented, which centres on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of the several alternatives is quantified and the results shows that such risk depends largely on the model parameters, such as ageing factor, maintenance effectiveness, test efficiency. - Highlights: • New approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA). • Ageing, maintenance and testing addressed simultaneously and explicitly in APSA. • APSA for Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) to support NPP Safety Review. • RIDM on changes to maintenance management programs. • RIDM on changes to surveillance requirements

  7. Quality PSA for PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety guideline defines with more precision Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic requirements of the quality of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for PSA application. Term of quality of PSA is explained in detail. Procedure for determining the quality of PSA is provided. The categorization of PSA study according the quality of PSA is suggested. A comprehensive list of PSA applications for nuclear facilities is provided. What technical features of a PSA should be satisfied to support the PSA applications of interest is stated. (authors)

  8. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal; Alcino Lázaro da Silva; Luiz Mauro Andrade da Fonseca; Dilermando Fazito de Rezende

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen ) e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30) Hamsters: dez (n=10) animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20) animais considerados adultos com idade superior à...

  9. The Use and Results of Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in General Practice in the Former Aarhus County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukai, Thomas; Bro, Flemming; Pedersen, Knud Venborg;

    Background: Prostate Cancer (PC) is the most common type of cancer among Danish men, and the incidence is increasing. PC is often asymptomatic, making it difficult to establish a clinical diagnosis. The general practitioner can use prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing as a tool for diagnosing ...

  10. Vergleichende Einschätzung der diagnostischen Aussagekraft der Kenngrößen freies PSA, Alpha1-Antichymotrypsin-PSA und komplexiertes PSA in der Diagnostik des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgart E

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziel der Studie war die vergleichende Einschätzung der diagnostischen Aussagekraft von Gesamt-PSA (tPSA, freiem PSA (fPSA, alpha1-Antichymotrypsin-PSA (ACT-PSA und komplexiertem PSA (cPSA sowie der entsprechenden Quotienten zur Differenzierung zwischen einem Prostatakarzinom (PCa und einer Benignen Prostatahyperplasie (BPH. Die Bestimmung erfolgte bei insgesamt 324 Männern (PCa: n = 144; BPH: n = 89; Kontrollen: n = 91. Die tPSA- und cPSA-Konzentrationen wurden mit dem Bayer Immuno 1 System (Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, USA durchgeführt; die tPSA- und fPSA-Bestimmungen erfolgten mit dem Elecsys System (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Deutschland. Der ACT-PSA-Test ist ein Prototyp für klinische Untersuchungen auf dem ES-System (Roche Diagnostics. Die medianen Konzentrationen von tPSA, ACT-PSA, cPSA und die Quotienten fPSA/tPSA, ACT-PSA/tPSA, cPSA/tPSA waren zwischen PCa- und BPH-Patienten signifikant unterschiedlich. Zur Objektivierung der Diskriminierungsfähigkeit wurde das "Receiver Operating Characteristics Analysis" Verfahren (tPSA 20µg/l eingesetzt. Die Quotienten fPSA/tPSA, ACT-PSA/tPSA und cPSA/tPSA unterschieden sich signifikant vom tPSA. ACT-PSA und cPSA waren nicht signifikant unterschiedlich von tPSA. Signifikante Unterschiede zwischen den Quotienten fPSA/tPSA, ACT-PSA/tPSA und cPSA/tPSA wurden nicht festgestellt. Die Bestimmung von ACT-PSA oder cPSA sowie der entsprechenden Quotienten verbessert nicht die PCa-Diagnostik im Vergleich zum Quotienten fPSA/tPSA. Die Quotienten ACT-PSA/tPSA und cPSA/tPSA können als Alternative zum fPSA/tPSA in Betracht gezogen werden.

  11. HIV Testing – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-30

    This 60 second PSA is based on the December, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that last year, 82.9 million adults between 18 and 64 reported having been tested for HIV, yet 55 percent of adults – and 28.3 percent of adults with a risk factor for HIV – haven't been tested.  Created: 11/30/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/30/2010.

  12. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  13. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeron Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50. Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1, and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9. In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007. In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p Conclusion High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF.

  14. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50). Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1), and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9). In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007). In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p < 0.0001). High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF

  15. Association of GPs' risk attitudes, level of empathy, and burnout status with PSA testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette F; Carlsen, Anders H; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel undersøger, om variationen i raten af PSA-tests mellem alment praktiserende læger kan forklares af psykologiske faktorer som f.eks. lægens risikovillighed. Resultaterne viser, at lægens risikovillighed influerer på raten af PSA-tests. Forfatterne finder blandt andet, at patienter, som...... er registreret hos en læge med mange bekymringer for fejlbehandlinger, har større sandsynlighed for at få taget en PSA-test. Patienter, som er registreret hos en læge, som har en høj tolerance for flertydighed i lægearbejdet, har derimod mindre sandsynlighed for at få foretaget en PSA-test. Patienter......, som er registreret hos en læge med høj tolerance for flertydighed eller en tilbøjelighed til risikobetonet adfærd, har en mindre sandsynlighed for at få gentaget en tidligere normal PSA-test. Undersøgelsen bygger på spørgeskemabesvarelser fra 129 alment solo-praktiserende læger i Region Midtjylland...

  16. Rationalisation of Legionella Urinary Antigen Testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Breda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legionnaires’ is a severe pneumonia, the diagnosis of which can be confirmed by a positive Legionella Urinary Antigen (LUA) test. The British Thoracic Society has specific guidelines for its use. Incorrect LUA test requests can result in false-positive results while accumulating costs. Aims and Objectives: The aim is the rationalisation of LUA testing. The first objective is to educate clinicians on indications for testing reducing unnecessary orders. The second is to develop...

  17. What is living PSA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the pioneering work into living probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) within Nuclear Electric plc as part of its strategic development programme. This programme is targeted to provide risk management tools to assist in optimizing the testing and maintenance arrangements for the essential safety systems within the company's nuclear power plants. Three broad categories of living PSA development are described with their advantages. The first is a Stage 1 living PSA which is an off-line PSA which can be upgraded on a regular basis. Then a Stage 2 living PSA which is an on-line time-independent PSA, in which standby component failure probabilities are modelled at the end of their inspection period, and is updated by the plant operator as and when changes in plant configuration (i.e. opening/closing sectioning valves) or plant availability occur. Finally a Stage 3 living PSA which is an on-line dynamic PSA, in which all standby components are modelled with respect to their last inspection time, and is updated by the plant operator as and when changes in plant configuration and plant availability occur and when testing takes place. (author)

  18. Time to second prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure is a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer death in prospective trials of therapy for localized disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose In assessing the efficacy of the competing curative therapies for prostate cancer the most relevant endpoint is cancer specific death. Due to the long natural history of the disease and the use of salvage androgen suppression prospective trials need to mature for at least a decade to provide meaningful results. An endpoint that predicted for cancer death with high probability would allow more rapid completion of prospective studies, hopefully before the tested therapies become outdated. Materials and methods 202 patients entered into a single institution prospective randomized study for T3-4 prostate cancer between 1982 and 1992 were evaluated. All received radical irradiation to either a standard dose of 67.2Gy or a higher dose of 75.6Gy (the latter employing a proton beam boost). 76 men have received androgen suppression or orchiectomy for salvage following relapse (median follow-up 6.9 years). Of this group 35 experienced a second relapse heralded by a rise in the serum PSA. Second failure was scored on the date that the serum PSA rose to greater than 10% above the post-androgen suppression nadir. Kaplan-Meier analysis was made of survival from the time of second PSA failure and the cause of death established in all patients who subsequently died. Results The median duration of response to hormone therapy following first failure was 27.2 months. The actuarial survival from the time of second biochemical relapse was 93%, 66%, 35%, and 0% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years respectively (50% at 32 months). 16 patients have so far died after second failure all from causes related to their prostate cancer. Conclusion Second PSA failure appears to be a secure surrogate for impending prostate cancer death. Its use as an endpoint in prospective studies should allow earlier reporting by 2 - 3 years

  19. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  20. Long-Term Follow-Up of HLA-A2+ Patients with High-Risk, Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer Vaccinated with the Prostate Specific Antigen Peptide Homologue (PSA146-154)

    OpenAIRE

    Perambakam, Supriya; Xie, Hui; Edassery, Seby; Peace, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were immunized with a peptide homologue of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154, between July 2002 and September 2004 and monitored for clinical and immune responses. Fifty percent of the patients developed strong PSA146-154-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses, tetramer and/or IFN-γ responses within one year. Thirteen patients had stable or declining serum...

  1. Long-Term Follow-Up of HLA-A2+ Patients with High-Risk, Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer Vaccinated with the Prostate Specific Antigen Peptide Homologue (PSA146-154)

    OpenAIRE

    Perambakam, Supriya; Xie, Hui; Edassery, Seby; Peace, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were immunized with a peptide homologue of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154, between July 2002 and September 2004 and monitored for clinical and immune responses. Fifty percent of the patients developed strong PSA146-154-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses, tetramer and/or IFN-γ responses within one year. Thirteen patients had stable or declining serum...

  2. Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    William Derval Aiken; Anzinger, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    A man with prostate cancer on a regime of active surveillance had a laboratory-confirmed acute Chikungunya virus infection. The patient experienced a sudden increase in serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) during the acute illness that caused him anxiety and confounded interpretation of the PSA test. Six weeks after the onset of Chikungunya Fever symptoms, the elevated serum PSA returned to baseline. The association of Chikungunya Fever and elevated serum PSA may result in misinterpretation ...

  3. FATORES DEMOGRÁFICOS ASSOCIADOS À REALIZAÇÃO DO ANTÍGENO PROSTÁTICO ESPECÍFICO (PSA EM MUNICÍPIO SUL BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA is considered the most important marker to detect, monitor and internship prostate cancer. This study aimed to characterize the men who were examined for measurement of PSA in 2009 in a basic health unit of Maringá-PR. Were collected information about age, race, PSA test result and place of residence. The independent variable was PSA values (normal or abnormal. Were used descriptive statistics of the variables through the frequencies and bivariate analysis by Fisher's Exact Test. Was reached that 53.5% of men who underwent PSA testing were younger than 60 years, where these, 1.2% had their PSA level abnormal or above 4.01 Ng-mL. Being over 70 years was statistically significant PSA changes. It is concluded that age is a triggering factor for benign and malignant prostatic abnormalities.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PsaA, the adhesive pilin subunit that forms the pH 6 antigen on the surface of Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pH 6 antigen Psa displayed on the surface of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague in humans, consists of polymers of a single protein subunit termed PsaA. Donor-strand complemented PsaA was purified and crystallized. Yersinia pestis has been responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history. Like all other bacterial infections, the pathogenesis of Y. pestis begins with the attachment of bacteria to the surface of host cells. At least five surface proteins from Y. pestis have been shown to interact with host cells. Psa, the pH 6 antigen, is one of them and is deployed on the surface of bacteria as thin flexible fibrils that are the result of the polymerization of a single PsaA pilin subunit. Here, the crystallization of recombinant donor-strand complemented PsaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 1.9 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.5 Å resolution from a bromide-derivatized crystal. These crystals displayed the symmetry of the orthorhombic space group P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 54.6, c = 102.1 Å. Initial phases were derived from single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments, resulting in an electron-density map that showed a single molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignment was aided by residues binding to bromide ions of the heavy-atom derivative

  5. New Hope for Stopping HIV - Testing and Medical Care Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-29

    This 60 second PSA is based on the December 2011 CDC Vital Signs report, "HIV Prevention through Care and Treatment" that shares new hope for preventing HIV and improving the health of people with HIV.  Created: 11/29/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/29/2011.

  6. Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Daoyuan Wang; Tiejun Yang; Yongqiang Zou; Xinqiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the correlation between the related variables of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and risk factors in patients with prostate carcinoma. Methods: The clinical records of 187 cases with prostate carcinoma, diagnosed by biopsy, were retrospectively analyzed to assess the correlation of PSA density (PSAD), free PSA (FPSA), and FPSA/total PSA (TPSA) with risk factors in prostate carcinoma. Results: The results from "Spearman rank correlation analysis" and "rank sum test"...

  7. Prostate-Specific Antigen fluctuation: what does it mean in diagnosis of prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Seok Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA fluctuation correlates with a prostate cancer and to assess whether PSA fluctuation could be used for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Our study included 229 patients who were performed a prostate biopsy (non-cancer group, 177; prostate cancer group, 52. Enrolled patients were provided twice PSA tests within 6 months. PSA fluctuation (%/month was defined as a change rate of PSA per a month. Independent t test was used to compare between two groups. Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to assess the availability as a differential diagnostic tool and the correlation. Simple linear regression was performed to analyze a correlation between PSA fluctuation and other factors such as age, PSA, PSA density, and prostate volume. Results There were significant differences in PSA, PSA density, percentage of free PSA, and PSA fluctuation between two groups. PSA fluctuation was significantly greater in non-cancer group than prostate cancer group (19.95±23.34%/month vs 9.63±8.57%/month, P=0.004. The most optimal cut-off value of PSA fluctuation was defined as 8.48%/month (sensitivity, 61.6%; specificity, 59.6%; AUC, 0.633; P=0.004. In a simple linear regression model, only PSA level was significantly correlated with PSA fluctuation. Conclusion Patients with wide PSA fluctuations, although baseline PSA levels are high, might have a low risk of diagnosis with prostate cancer. Thus, serial PSA measurements could be an option in patients with an elevated PSA level.

  8. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane; Brasso, Klaus; Friis, Søren; Tjønneland, Anne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-01-01

    associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical...... indication. Cox regression analysis was used to examine associations with mortality. Results. PSA testing without clinical indication was less likely among patients > 67 years (OR 0.7; 0.5-1.0). Men who were, PSA tested without clinical indication, were more likely to have vocational training (OR 1.8; 1...

  9. Lassen Veränderungen des Prostata-spezifischen Antigen- (PSA- Spiegels nach Prostatastanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das pathologische Ergebnis zu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmer BG

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Die diagnostische Biopsie der Prostata führt bekanntermaßen zum Anstieg des Serum-PSA-Spiegels. Diese prospektive Untersuchung sollte die Frage klären, ob die Änderungen des Serum-PSA-Spiegels nach Stanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das histologische Ergebnis zulassen und so als Entscheidungshilfe bei der Frage der Rebiopsie dienen können. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 79 konsekutive Patienten mit klinischem Verdacht auf das Vorliegen eines Prostatakarzinoms (PCA und einem Gesamt-PSA 50 ng/ml wurden in die Studie eingeschlossen. Ausschlußkriterien waren klinische Hinweise für eine Prostatitis und Prostatabiopsie innerhalb der letzten 3 Monate. Die Serum-PSA-Werte wurden mit einem ultrasensitiven Enzymimmunoassay bestimmt. Die Bestimmung des Gesamt-PSA und des freien PSA im Serum erfolgte unmittelbar vor und 60 Minuten nach der Biopsie. Die Spiegel des Gesamt-PSA und freien PSA, sowie die f/t-PSA-Ratio vor und nach Biopsie wurden in Korrelation zum histologischen Ergebnis gesetzt. Ergebnisse: 86 Biopsieserien wurden bei 79 Patienten durchgeführt. 38 Biopsieserien diagnostizierten ein PCA, 48 eine benigne Prostatahyperplasie (BPH. Die abschließende Histologie nach wiederholter Biopsie war PCA und BPH in je 43 Fällen. Insgesamt fand sich ein Anstieg des durchschnittlichen Gesamt-PSA von 18,39 ng/ml auf 107,8 ng/ml, des durchschnittlichen freien PSA von 3,43 ng/ml auf 33,7 ng/ml und der durchschnittlichen f/t PSA-Ratio von 18,1 % auf 52,0 %. Es fand sich keine Korrelation zwischen dem Anstieg dieser Parameter und der Anzahl der Biopsiezylinder (4–51. Bezüglich des histologischen Befundes ergaben sich statistisch signifikante Unterschiede für das Gesamt-PSA vor und die f/t PSA-Ratio vor und nach Stanzbiopsie. Schlußfolgerung: Die Analyse der PSA-Parameter nach Stanzbiopsie bietet keine zusätzliche Information über die konventionellen PSA-Parameter vor der Biopsie hinaus. Sie korrelieren vor allem nicht mit falsch

  10. Single-Antigen Serological Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lawrence R.; Jones, Cynthia C.; Sherwood, Anne L.; Garkavi, Inna V.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray; Rathe, Chris V.

    2009-01-01

    Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for such responses often use multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the use of multiple antigens increases costs and the risk of false-positive results. As an alternative, the SeraLyte-Mbv system detects responses to a single M. bovis antigen, MPB83, by using a chemiluminescent testin...

  11. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 13001 and EPS 9002 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  12. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jessica J., E-mail: park16@fas.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Loffredo, Marian; D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  13. Long-Term Follow-Up of HLA-A2+ Patients with High-Risk, Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer Vaccinated with the Prostate Specific Antigen Peptide Homologue (PSA146-154

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Perambakam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were immunized with a peptide homologue of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154, between July 2002 and September 2004 and monitored for clinical and immune responses. Fifty percent of the patients developed strong PSA146-154-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses, tetramer and/or IFN-γ responses within one year. Thirteen patients had stable or declining serum levels of PSA one year post-vaccination. A decreased risk of biochemical progression was observed in patients who developed augmented tetramer responses at six months compared to pre-vaccination levels (P=.02. Thirteen patients have died while 15 patients remain alive with a mean overall survival of 60 months (95% CI, 51 to 68 months per Kaplan-Meier analysis. A trend towards greater overall survival was detected in men with high-risk, hormone-sensitive CaP who developed specific T-cell immunity following vaccination with PSA146-154 peptide.

  14. PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF's viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs

  15. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit Alok; Srinivas C R; Balachandran C; Shenoi S D

    1995-01-01

    Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  16. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Alok

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  17. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed...

  18. Single-Antigen Serological Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for serological responses often use panels of multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the...

  19. Determination of the Normal Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Value in Iraqi Society and its Relation to Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out by radioimmunoassay and immuno radiographic analysis in the Iraqi Ministry of Health, within the research plan of Kurdistan institution for strategic study and scientific research. A total of 793 serum samples were collected in which 50 patient samples have biopsy with positive bacterial UTI. The other 743 samples were obtained from normal healthy volunteers all were over 45 years old. The samples were gathered randomly from three regions in Iraq namely, from north (Sulaymaniyah, Erbil and Dohuk), from the middle (Baghdad and Diyala) and from south (Basra, Missan and Najaf). The total PSA was measured and the results were subjected to statistical analysis based on statistical package social science (SPSS) method. The obtained data showed that the normal PSA values are function of the age of the donors. The results were grouped and clarified that PSA was less than 3.8 ng/ml for the age 45-55 years, while it was less than 4.8 ng/ml for the volunteers from 56-65 years old and the values lower than 5.9 ng/ml for group aged 66-75 years old. On the other hand, the obtained data illustrated that there were non-significant variations in PSA values as a function of the geographic regions. The PSA values for the 50 male positive bacterial UTI samples were within the same grouping previously stated for the normal healthy volunteers. Seven cases of the 743 samples showed abnormal high PSA values (i.e. greater than 9 ng/ml) which represent 0.93% of the healthy collected samples. It could be concluded that the PSA has non-significance relation to the bacterial UTI. In addition, the radioimmunoassay has a sensitivity of about 99.04% for the normal cases and specificity of 0.96% for prostate cancer.

  20. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  1. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  2. Factory test results on NOx recycle system using pressure swing adsorption method (PSA-method) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRR), a great deal of NOx is mainly used as oxidizing reagent of Pu. This NOx has been conventionally manufactured by reaction of sodium nitrite and nitric acid. Problem, however, was how to process the radioactive waste materials left after immunization of the non-radioactive sodium nitrite occurring in manufacturing and the residual NOx used in the reprocessing. This paper reports the factory test results on the recycle system for NOx from denitrating tower off-gas using PSA method (vacuum pressure swing adsorption method) which has been developed to reduce waste materials occurring in the manufacture of NOx and the processing of residual NOx in the off-gas. (author)

  3. A method for determining a prostate-specific antigen cure after radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A method that allows the determination of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cure after definitive management for prostate carcinoma with radiation therapy is presented and tested. Methods and Materials: The method involves a calculation of the patient's theoretical baseline PSA prior to the development of prostate cancer by using three serial rising PSA determinations obtained prior to the institution of therapy. The rate of rise of the PSA prior to therapy and the rate of decline of the PSA posttherapy are calculated, using an exponential model. Two criteria must be satisfied to define a PSA cure. First, the PSA nadir after treatment should be less than the calculated theoretical baseline PSA. Second, the rate of decline of PSA posttreatment should be greater than the rate of rise of the PSA prior to treatment. Results: Applying these two criteria to the patient data base (n 16) at a median follow-up of 19 months enabled the accurate prediction of 6 out of 6 (100%) of patients with documented PSA failure and 7 out of 10 (70%) of patients without PSA failure. Therefore, despite short follow-up, all six patients with PSA failure were predicted. Further follow-up is needed to ascertain if the seven patients predicted to be cured will remain PSA failure free and if the three patients currently without PSA failure in whom the model predicts failure, will subsequently fail. Conclusion: Therefore, using each patient's PSA history as the natural control may eliminate the error that is introduced with defining a PSA cure by using a single value for the PSA nadir at a specified time after radiation therapy

  4. External hazards in PSA program for VVER 440/213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic PSA study for the Dukovany NPP was completed in 1995. Since then a Living PSA program has come into force. All the PSA related activities are undertaken under the umbrella called Living PSA. They include support of risk management, data collection and information transfer, maintenance and improvement of PSA models. To support regulatory decision making the full scope PSA is under development. External hazards identified are: earthquake initiators, aircraft crushes and extreme rainfalls. Seismic PSA is not scheduled for near future, but team is being build up and a test example of seismic event impact is being modelled for trial evaluation

  5. Exosome targeting of tumor antigens expressed by cancer vaccines can improve antigen immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Ryan B; Mandl, Stefanie J; Nachtwey, James M; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Brinkmann, Kay; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain

    2011-08-01

    MVA-BN-PRO (BN ImmunoTherapeutics) is a candidate immunotherapy product for the treatment of prostate cancer. It encodes 2 tumor-associated antigens, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and is derived from the highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus stock known as MVA-BN. Past work has shown that the immunogenicity of antigens can be improved by targeting their localization to exosomes, which are small, 50- to 100-nm diameter vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosome targeting is achieved by fusing the antigen to the C1C2 domain of the lactadherin protein. To test whether exosome targeting would improve the immunogenicity of PSA and PAP, 2 additional versions of MVA-BN-PRO were produced, targeting either PSA (MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2) or PAP (MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2) to exosomes, while leaving the second transgene untargeted. Treatment of mice with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 led to a striking increase in the immune response against PAP. Anti-PAP antibody titers developed more rapidly and reached levels that were 10- to 100-fold higher than those for mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. Furthermore, treatment with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 increased the frequency of PAP-specific T cells 5-fold compared with mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. These improvements translated into a greater frequency of tumor rejection in a PAP-expressing solid tumor model. Likewise, treatment with MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2 increased the antigenicity of PSA compared with treatment with MVA-BN-PRO and resulted in a trend of improved antitumor efficacy in a PSA-expressing tumor model. These experiments confirm that targeting antigen localization to exosomes is a viable approach for improving the therapeutic potential of MVA-BN-PRO in humans. PMID:21670078

  6. Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  7. Putting PSA to work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has, during the last three years, been working intensively on PSA applications. The draft TECDOC prepared during these activities, ''PSA Applications'' is summarized in this paper. Actual events at nuclear facilities provide an important basis to compare PSAs with reality. PSA based operational event analysis therefore can be used to evaluate the importance of operational events from a risk perspective but also can contribute to validating and enhancing PSAs and to continuously check whether or not the PSA models are adequate, appropriate and complete. The work of the IAEA in this area is therefore summarized as well. In a companion paper, titled ''Towards a credible PSA fit for applications'', two specific aspects regarding the quality of the PSA to be used are discussed in detail, namely the Living PSA concept, which ensures that the PSA reflects actual design and operational features and Quality Assurance for PSA. (author)

  8. Qualification of calculation aids for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) are part of the evaluation of a nuclear power plants safety. The German PSA guide stipulates that the used software must enable a PSA according to the state of the art. This software must be qualified to assure that its features, mathematic methods and its performance enable a PSA like this. In this research work specifications and requirements are developed, which allow the testing of software. A procedure was developed to qualify PSA software according to the PSA guide and the experiences of users of PSA. Setting up a procedure, a tool for a systematic and uniform examination was crated. Additionally the options, mathematic fundamentals and performance of PSA-programs were analyzed. According to this all programs that were analyzed are capable to sovle their original task, that is the calculation of the safety of high available system based on high available components. Against that the requirements of modern PSA, e.g. to handle less available functions, HRA and fire analyses, based on the use of modern software and the implementation of new developments in the field of PSA are not supported adequately by all programs. (orig.)

  9. Fire PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire PSA methodology, which NUPEC has introduced from one of US IPEEE fire PSA methodologies, was applied to a Japanese typical 1,100 Mwe class four loop PWR to confirm the applicability. Through this application, some consideration is given on some key parameters, such as fire frequencies and severity factor, in the fire PSA methodology to develop the fire PSA models specific to Japanese plants. (author)

  10. Direct Testing of Blood Cultures for Detection of Streptococcal Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Wetkowski, Maryellen A.; Peterson, Ellena M.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    1982-01-01

    A direct, rapid, and simple method for the detection of streptococcal antigens of Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, and G from blood cultures was developed by using a coagglutination test. Fifty-five clinical specimens and 117 simulated blood cultures containing gram-positive cocci were tested. Out of 6,261 clinical blood cultures screened, 55 cultures from 53 patients were positive, with organisms resembling streptococci, by Gram stain. Of these cultures, 78% (43 of 55) were pure cultures of str...

  11. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based PSA decision aid, Prosdex. Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Jeff

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informed decision making is the theoretical basis in the UK for men's decisions about Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA testing for prostate cancer testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a web-based PSA decision-aid, Prosdex, on informed decision making in men. The objective is to assess the effect of Prosdex on six specific outcomes: (i knowledge of PSA and prostate cancer-related issues – the principal outcome of the study; (ii attitudes to testing; (iii decision conflict; (iv anxiety; (v intention to undergo PSA testing; (vi uptake of PSA testing. In addition, a mathematical simulation model of the effects of Prosdex will be developed. Methods A randomised controlled trial with four groups: two intervention groups, one viewing Prosdex and the other receiving a paper version of the site; two control groups, the second controlling for the potential Hawthorn effect of the questionnaire used with the first control group. Men between the ages of 50 and 75, who have not previously had a PSA test, will be recruited from General Practitioners (GPs in Wales, UK. The principal outcome, knowledge, and four other outcome measures – attitudes to testing, decision conflict, anxiety and intention to undergo testing – will be measured with an online questionnaire, used by men in three of the study groups. Six months later, PSA test uptake will be ascertained from GP records; the online questionnaire will then be repeated. These outcomes, and particularly PSA test uptake, will be used to develop a mathematical simulation model, specifically to consider the impact on health service resources. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN48473735.

  12. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  13. Validating the use of Hospital Episode Statistics data and comparison of costing methodologies for economic evaluation: an end-of-life case study from the Cluster randomised triAl of PSA testing for Prostate cancer (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Joanna C; Turner, Emma L; Hounsome, Luke; Walsh, Eleanor; Down, Liz; Verne, Julia; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Martin, Richard M; Noble, Sian M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of routine data for costing inpatient resource use in a large clinical trial and to investigate costing methodologies. Design Final-year inpatient cost profiles were derived using (1) data extracted from medical records mapped to the National Health Service (NHS) reference costs via service codes and (2) Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data using NHS reference costs. Trust finance departments were consulted to obtain costs for comparison purposes. Setting 7 UK secondary care centres. Population A subsample of 292 men identified as having died at least a year after being diagnosed with prostate cancer in Cluster randomised triAl of PSA testing for Prostate cancer (CAP), a long-running trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Results Both inpatient cost profiles showed a rise in costs in the months leading up to death, and were broadly similar. The difference in mean inpatient costs was £899, with HES data yielding ∼8% lower costs than medical record data (differences compatible with chance, p=0.3). Events were missing from both data sets. 11 men (3.8%) had events identified in HES that were all missing from medical record review, while 7 men (2.4%) had events identified in medical record review that were all missing from HES. The response from finance departments to requests for cost data was poor: only 3 of 7 departments returned adequate data sets within 6 months. Conclusions Using HES routine data coupled with NHS reference costs resulted in mean annual inpatient costs that were very similar to those derived via medical record review; therefore, routinely available data can be used as the primary method of costing resource use in large clinical trials. Neither HES nor medical record review represent gold standards of data collection. Requesting cost data from finance departments is impractical for large clinical trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN92187251

  14. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  15. Model engineering in a modular PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    developed at EDF R and D to test and evaluate the concepts around a modular PSA. Andromeda is based on a modular and extensible architecture that can be customized to specific needs of customers. Apart from research interest, it has recently gained industrial interest. Andromeda has potential to complete existing PSA tools by specific functionality and to enforce the international PSA community around common modeling standards and techniques. (author)

  16. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  17. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  18. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  19. Interlaboratory comparison of the toluidine red unheated serum test antigen preparation.

    OpenAIRE

    Parham, C E; Pettit, D E; Larsen, S A; Hambie, E A; Perryman, M W; McGrew, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    The toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) antigen, a macroscopic flocculation test antigen developed by Pettit et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:1141-1145, 1983) by modifying the color-coded antigen of Kasatiya and Lambert (Appl. Microbiol. 28:317-318, 1974), was compared with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) 18-mm circle card tests for sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. Two lots of TRUST antigen were prepared by two laboratories...

  20. Application of PSA methodology for optimization of repairs, maintenance and tests modes of the equipment of NPPs with RBMK types reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper is an example of the use of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) level 1, as a tool for risk monitoring at planning of repairs, maintenance and tests of technical systems equipment of Leningrad Power Plant Unit 1. PSA methodology allows us to determine the importance of Allowable Outage Time (AOT) of equipment and periodic checks intervals, to calculate limiting values of these parameters and, if necessary, to make its optimization. Regulations of NPPs operation defines AOT as follows: AOT is the time, when equipment or a technical system is out of service for repair, maintenance and tests. For determination of the importance of failures (here removing out of service) of system components or a system it is necessary to estimate Risk Increase Factor (RIF) for each basic event (i) in PSA method, level 1: RIF equals CDF(i)/CDF(ib), where CDF(i) is the Core Damage Frequency when the failure probability for given (i) basic event is equal to 1, CDF(ib) is the analogues real (basic-b) value for the given (i) basic event. Knowing the RIF value it is possible to determine importance of a component or a system, which is removing out of service, and to optimize items of Regulations, relating to AOT values. This methodology has been applied to the optimization of Allowable Outage Times for Leningrad power plant equipment, which is removed out of service for repair, maintenance and tests. It was showed that there are 2 dangerous modes of operation: the simultaneous removing for repair of two pumps (Accident Feed Water Pumps) 1APN-4 and 1APN-5, and the removing for repair of the ECCS tank

  1. Development of electric road vehicles in France. Political measures, large-scale tests, and strategy of PSA Peugeot Citroen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France offers particularly favourable conditions for the further development and the market introduction of electric vehicles: On account of the electricity production with almost no exhaust emission and due to the concentrated population structure stemming from the historical background in densely populated historical towns up to the innovational, electrochemical and electrotechnical industries and last but not least the automotive industry itself. The article is structured as follows: A) Political measures, large scale experiments in France; B) Strategy of PSA Peugeot Citroen; C) Activities by Peugeot in Germany. (orig.)

  2. Murine polyomavirus virus-like particles carrying full-length human PSA protect BALB/c mice from outgrowth of a PSA expressing tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilda Eriksson

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs consist of capsid proteins from viruses and have been shown to be usable as carriers of protein and peptide antigens for immune therapy. In this study, we have produced and assayed murine polyomavirus (MPyV VLPs carrying the entire human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA (PSA-MPyVLPs for their potential use for immune therapy in a mouse model system. BALB/c mice immunized with PSA-MPyVLPs were only marginally protected against outgrowth of a PSA-expressing tumor. To improve protection, PSA-MPyVLPs were co-injected with adjuvant CpG, either alone or loaded onto murine dendritic cells (DCs. Immunization with PSA-MPyVLPs loaded onto DCs in the presence of CpG was shown to efficiently protect mice from tumor outgrowth. In addition, cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization were examined. PSA-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells were demonstrated, but no PSA-specific IgG antibodies. Vaccination with DCs loaded with PSA-MPyVLPs induced an eight-fold lower titre of anti-VLP antibodies than vaccination with PSA-MPyVLPs alone. In conclusion, immunization of BALB/c mice with PSA-MPyVLPs, loaded onto DCs and co-injected with CpG, induces an efficient PSA-specific tumor protective immune response, including both CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells with a low induction of anti-VLP antibodies.

  3. Fire PSA for MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fire hazard has been identified as one of the major contributors to a plant's operational risk. As a result of several fire incidences at nuclear power plants, internal fire is included in level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This activity is termed as fire risk analysis or fire PSA. In this context, fire PSA studies were initiated for Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Fire PSA extends the consequence analysis of a fire event towards core damage, in case of nuclear power plants. The paper summarises and gives an overview of the fire PSA procedure performed for MAPS. It highlights the issues associated with the collection of data and information needed for fire modelling. An estimate of the contribution of fire to core damage frequency (CDF) has been obtained

  4. Genetic analysis of resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in a kiwifruit progeny test: an application of generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Nihal H; Gea, Luis; Lowe, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Linear Mixed models (LMMs) that incorporate genetic and spatial covariance structures have been used for many years to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values in animal and plant breeding. Although the theoretical aspects for extending LMM to generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs) have been around for some time, suitable software has been developed only within the last decade or so. The GLIMMIX procedure in SAS® is becoming popular for fitting GLMMs in various disciplines. Applications of GLMMs to genetic analysis have been limited, probably because of the complexity of the models used. This is particularly so for Proc GLIMMIX because, unlike ASReml software, it is not specifically tailored for analysis of breeding data and some pre-procedure coding is necessary. Binary data that fits the GLMM framework is commonly encountered in breeding experiments, such as when evaluating individuals for resistance by observing the presence or absence of disease. Bacterial canker (Psa) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a serious disease of kiwifruit in New Zealand and other kiwifruit-producing countries. Data from a progeny test trial was available to identify parents with high breeding values for resistance. We successfully applied the GLIMMIX procedure for this purpose. Heritability for resistance was moderate, and we identified two parents and their family as having high potential for Psa resistance breeding. There are several potential pitfalls when using GLMMs with binary data and these are briefly discussed. PMID:26034671

  5. Medications and surgical interventions for benign prostatic hyperplasia are potential confounders of prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Parth; Helfand, Brian T; McVary, Kevin T

    2010-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used marker for prostate cancer (CaP) screening and monitoring benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. However, lack of an established abnormal threshold and the presence of other benign processes confound the interpretation of PSA levels. Many factors besides inflammation, trauma, and instrumentation can influence PSA levels; specifically, BPH and its associated medical and surgical therapies frequently complicate the interpretation of this serum blood test. For example, the commonly used 5 alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) medications directly affect PSA levels by decreasing prostate volume. The amount of time and potentially even the 5ARI formulary a patient is administered has been implicated to directly impact the degree of reduction in PSA (a proxy for prostate volume). In addition, each of the currently available surgical procedures for BPH appears to remove varying amounts of prostatic adenoma. This directly confounds CaP screening because each procedure is associated with a relatively specific postoperative nadir PSA level, and PSA kinetics are not well described in the literature. Taken together, it is important for clinicians to comprehend that BPH and its associated medical and surgical interventions should directly influence their interpretation of PSA and PSA velocity when screening for CaP or following BPH progression. PMID:20467844

  6. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC UTILITY OF SERUM PSA IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑群; 强水云; 李妙羡; 纪宗正

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer women. Methods Using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system, we measured the concentrations of these markers in the sera of 85 women with breast cancer and in 30 healthy women.Results Free PSA levels were significantly higher in women with breast cancer than healthy women (P <0. 05 ).The percentage of free PSA predominant subjects was 37. 6% in breast cancer patients and 3. 3% in healthy women.In women with breast cancer,total PSA positivity was 23.5% and free PSA positivity was 27. 1%. When compared to negatives,total PSA positive patients had a higher percentage of lymph node involvement tamours ( P >0. 05).However, patients with predominant free PSA had a higher percentage of early stage than patients with predominant PSA-ACT. Conclusion This study indicate clinical significance of preoperative measurement of serum total and free PSA in diagnosis and prognosis of women with breast cancer. The expression of KLKs is correlated with carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

  7. Issues reporting PSA in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cancer Institute Prostate; Lung; Colon; Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) project is a multi-center trial developed to investigate the effectiveness of DRE and PSA testing in the early detection and outcome of patients with prostate cancer. Accordingly, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) has been launched and is a randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy versus expectant management for ALCaP. PSA: Initially PSA was thought to be of little value for diagnosis because 20% of men undergoing radical prostatectomy have 'normal' PSA and patients with apparently only symptomatic BPH have 'elevated' levels as follows: 4-10 ng/ml (Tandem-R) - 20%, >10 ng/ml -3%. Yet, PSA has looked attractive as a diagnostic tool in many studies; for example, when PSA was used in a screening approach as the first test which then drove further evaluation (Catalona, Brawer). It was shown that the positive predictive value for PSA's between 4 and 10 is approximately 20% and > 10 approximately 55%. The value of serial PSA's (velocity) is unknown but is under intense study: one major issue is determination of what represents a significant rise (details to be presented). Studies have also revealed that a DRE and PSA are important for optimal results. About 18% of clinically detectable cancers are only DRE positive while about 25 - 30% are only PSA positive. When both a DRE and PSA are used together, very few clinically apparent cancers are missed (3-5%). Recent ROC curves suggest that 4 ng/ml is reasonable. Recently, PSA values for men without apparent cancer were stratified by age, and taking the 2SD, age specific reference values were generated as follows: age 40-49 (0-2.5 ng/ml), 50-59 (0-3.5), 60-69 (0-4.5), 70-70 (0-6.5). Finally, there is the issue about different PSA assays regarding the compatabilities/reliability of the upper limit of normal and serial values. Much of the confusion is because there is no international PSA standard and

  8. Prostate-specific antigen (Pasa) bounce and other fluctuations: Which biochemical relapse definition is least prone to PSA false calls? An analysis of 2030 men treated for prostate cancer with external beam or brachytherapy with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the false call (FC) rate for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse according to nine different PSA relapse definitions after a PSA fluctuation (bounce) has occurred after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy, with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a prospective database of 2030 patients was conducted. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was scored according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), Vancouver, threshold + n, and nadir + n definitions for the complete data set and then compared against a truncated data set, with data subsequent to the height of the bounce deleted. The FC rate was calculated for each definition. Results: The bounce rate, with this very liberal definition of bounce, was 58% with EBRT and 84% with brachytherapy. The FC rate was lowest with nadir + 2 and + 3 definitions (2.2% and 1.6%, respectively) and greatest with low-threshold and ASTRO definitions (32% and 18%, respectively). The ASTRO definition was particularly susceptible to FC when androgen deprivation therapy was used with radiation (24%). Discussion: New definitions of biochemical non-evidence of disease that are more robust than the ASTRO definition have been identified. Those with the least FC rates are the nadir + 2 and nadir + 3 definitions, both of which are being considered to replace the ASTRO definition by the 2005 meeting of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-ASTRO consensus panel

  9. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The...

  10. Level 2 PSA applications. Focus on advanced containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of PSA Level 1 results for PSA application on system design, operation testing and maintenance is common practice, e.g. by living PSA and risk-informed decision making. New or modernized NPP include both core melt prevention and mitigating features which improve the performance of the plant to cope with severe accidents. PSA Level 1 is not well suited for PSA application on systems, structures and components designed to mitigate severe accident scenarios, as the impact on the core damage frequency (CDF) is usually negligible. Instead, the PSA applications on such systems need to be based on the impact on Level 2 PSA results. Most commonly the large early release frequency (LERF) is calculated as PSA Level 2 result. If PSA application on severe accident mitigation systems are based on LERF later and smaller releases might not be addressed correctly. In this presentation, the source term risk, which is calculated by multiplying the frequency of the release with the size of the release, is used as additional risk measure. Both the LERF and the source term risk are important measures and provide rationale for different types of systems. However, these measures can only be evaluated correctly if a best-estimate approach is used for Level 2 PSA. If possible conservatisms from Level 1 PSA are transferred to the Level 2 PSA, this may skew the result and misrepresent the impact of mitigating systems. This paper illustrates the possible uses of a Level 2 PSA results for PSA application and provides examples of systems in existing NPP for which the risk impact can only be evaluated based on Level 2 PSA results. Examples of such systems are: Passive hydrogen recombiners (PARs), Filtered containment venting, Containment isolation. Review of periodic testing strategy by risk informed periodic testing is an essential PSA application. The most important parameter is the test interval of components modeled in the Fault Tree modeling of the PSA. To be able to evaluate the

  11. Dosagem e correlação do antígeno prostático específico com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais do hamster sírio Prostate specific antigen-psa dosage and correlation with syrian hamster sexual addiction histologic alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar os níveis de PSA total no Hamster Sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, jovem e adulto e demonstrar possíveis correlações entre esses níveis com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais: próstata, vesículas seminais e testículos. MÉTODO: Foram examinados dez (n=10 Hamsters jovens, com idade inferior a sete semanas de vida e vinte (n=20 Hamsters com idade superior a um ano. Fez-se a dosagem do PSA e estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais em ambos os grupos e procurou-se a correlação entre o PSA encontrado e as alterações histológicas. RESULTADOS: A média de idade para os animais jovens, (grupo controle, foi de 46,7 dias (Desvio-Padrão-DP=1,16. Nos animais adultos, (grupo experimental, a média de idade não foi determinada, embora todos apresentassem idade acima de um ano no momento da morte. A média do peso dos animais jovens quando foram mortos foi de 57kg e dos animais adultos 126,5g. O PSA foi dosado no plasma de todos os animais adultos e em sete dos animais jovens. Em três animais do grupo jovem o PSA não foi detectado. A média do PSA nos animais jovens foi de 0,252ng/mL (nanogramo por mililitro e nos animais adultos de 0,325ng/mL. Os animais jovens não apresentaram alterações histológicas nos anexos sexuais examinados. Entre os Hamsters adultos, quatorze (70% animais apresentaram alguma alteração nos anexos sexuais: dez (50% apresentaram Hiperplasia Benigna da Próstata (HBP; um (5% apresentou HBP, prostatite e inflamação das vesículas seminais; um (5% inflamação supurativa das vesículas seminais; um (5% apresentou infarto testicular e prostatite; um (5% apresentou inflamação das vesículas seminais, sem HBP e prostatite. Não se detectou relação estatística entre os níveis de PSA e a ocorrência de HBP, embora os portadores da hiperplasia prostática exibissem médias de PSA bastante superiores às apresentadas pelos não portadores de hiperplasia. Não foram também determinadas

  12. Performance of PSA and of PSA density in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Pereira Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the prostate volume and PSA density on the performance of total PSA to diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. METHODS: We analyzed 217 patients (PSA 0-10ng/ml submitted to transrectal sextant prostate biopsy. Criteria for biopsy indication was PSA >2ng/ml and/or digital rectal exam suspicious of prostate cancer. RESULTS: Fifty five patients had prostate neoplasia (25.3% and in 8/55 (25.3% the serum PSA was under 4ng/ml. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were respectively 98.2% / 16.6% at a cut-off point of 2.5ng/ml and 85.4% / 38.8% at cut-off of 4ng/ml. The corresponding values for prostates >40ml or <40ml were: 96.2% / 8.1% and 100% / 27.2% at the cut-off point of 2.5ng/ml, and 92.5% / 20% and 78.5% / 62.3% at a cut-off level of 4ng/ml. For prostates <40ml a PSA cut-off point of 4ng/ml leads to a misdiagnosis in 21.4% of the malignant tumors. The median PSAD of benign prostates are different according to prostate volume (.40ml or <40ml. PSAD at cut-off of 0.08 increases the PSA specificity at both PSA cut-off points. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate volume affects the sensitivity and specificity of PSA and the median values of PSAD. PSAD of 0.08 increases the PSA specificity specially at a cut-off point of 2.5ng/ml in prostates smaller than 40ml.

  13. Temelin PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a brief overview of the performed PSA at Temelin NPP is given. The activities dealing with PSA level 2 update (2002-2003) are listed and the main results are discussed. Based on the obtained results the following conclusions have been made: containment failures 'moved' from 'early' to 'late' categories thanks to SAMG measures (penetration plugs, corium barriers); low frequency of overpressure failures; hydrogen recombiners important both for early and late containment failures; uncertainty of source terms due to insufficient and inconsistent analyses data; one early failure and two bypass scenarios found to be most important from frequency/radiological consequences viewpoint

  14. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial antigen in the diagnosis of human filariasis by skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyam M

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial antigen was investigated in skin test on: (1 Microfilaria carriers, (2 Amicrofilaraemic cases from endemic villages with and without intestinal helminths, (3 Cases having apparent symptoms and signs of filariasis. The anti-gen reacted with specificity in cases having apparent symptoms and signs of filariasis. In microfilaria carriers and amicrofilaraemic individuals from endemic areas no reaction was seen. The diag-nostic value o f W. bancrofti microflarial antigen in chronic cases has been discussed.

  15. Assessment of Atorvastatin Effectiveness on Serum PSA Level in Hypercholesterolemic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Khosropanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previous large retrospective studies demonstrated that treatment with Statins reduces both the incidence of prostate cancer by 50% and serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA level up to 40%. However the main problem in those studies was the absence of control groups of men with hypercholesterolemia without Statin treatment. We performed a small prospective controlled clinical trial to assess the influence of the treatment with Atorvastatin on serum PSA in men with hypercholesterolemia referred to our educational and treatment center from October 2007 to March 2008. In this study, among the newly diagnosed males with hypercholesterolemia (LDL > 130 mg/dl, 40 patients with LDL more than 190 mg/dl were selected as a case group and were treated with Atorvastatin (20 mg/day. Among the same population and in the same period, another 40 patients with LDL between 130 and 190 mg/dl were selected as first control group and were treated only with low fat diet. Another 40 patients with normal serum cholesterol and without any treatment were selected as second control group. The lipid profile and serum PSA level of patients of all groups were tested at the first and third months after the therapy. After completion of data, the mean serum lipids and PSA level were measured in both visits and compared with each other by paired t-test. Also the mean PSA change in two visits between three groups was compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. There was not any significant difference in mean baseline PSA between hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic patients (P=0.547. In case group, mean PSA and LDL was reduced by 14.1% (P=0.0001 and 30% (P=0.0001 respectively by second visit. In first control group, mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.337, whereas mean LDL in this group was reduced by 9.6% (P= 0.0001. Similarly in the second control group mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.309 by second visit. In addition, mean change of PSA in case group

  16. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  17. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M;

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  18. Mass-sensing BioCD Protein Array towards Clinical Application: Prostate Specific Antigen Detection in Patient Sera

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuefeng; Nolte, David D; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Mass-sensing biosensor arrays for protein detection require no fluorophores or enzyme labels. However, few mass biosensor protein arrays have demonstrated successful application in high background samples, such as serum. In this paper, we test the BioCD as a mass biosensor based on optical interferometry of antibodies covalently attached through Schiff-base reduction. We use the BioCD to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker of prostate cancer) in patient sera in a 96-well anti-PSA microarray. We have attained a 4 ng/ml detection limit in full serum and have measured PSA concentrations in three patient sera.

  19. Development of an MHC class I Ld-restricted PSA peptide-loaded tetramer for detection of PSA-specific CD8+ T cells in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, Caitlin D.; Graham, Jessica B.; Lubaroff, David M.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We set out to develop a prostate specific antigen (PSA) peptide-loaded tetramer for enumeration of PSA-specific CD8+ T cells in the Balb/c mouse model. Methods A candidate MHC class I PSA peptide (HPQKVTKFML188–197) was selected based on its ability to restimulate PSA-specific CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-γ in our assays. Next, H-2Ld-restricted peptide-loaded and fluorescently labeled tetramers were produced in conjunction with the NIH Tetramer Core Facility. This tetramer was then ...

  20. Evaluation of the effect of PSA inter-assay variability on nomograms for prostate cancer prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Siemßen, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of published nomograms for prostate cancer (PCa) risk prediction, in particular considering the prostate specific antigen (PSA) inter-assay variability. Patients and Methods: Total (tPSA) and free PSA were determined with five different assays in 780 biopsy-referred men. Together with age, prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) status these data were applied to five published nomograms for PCa detection. The criteria discrimina...

  1. Babesiosis PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/26/2012.

  2. Guideline level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several applications of radioactive materials calculations must be executed to determine the radiation risk for the population. A guideline for the risk calculation method of two main sources: nuclear power plants, and other intended and unintended activities with radioactive materials, is given. The standards, recommendations and regulations in this report concern mainly the analysis of the radiological (external) consequences of nuclear power plant accidents, classified as level-3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis). Level-3 PSA falls within the scales 5-7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The standards, etc., focus on the risks for groups of people and the so-called maximum individual risk. In chapter two the standards and regulations are formulated for each part of level-3 PSA: the source term spectrum, atmospheric distribution and deposition, exposure to radiation doses and calculation of radiation doses, dose-response relationships, measures to reduce the effect of radiation doses, design basis accidents, and finally uncertainty analysis. In chapter four, modelled descriptions are given of the standards and regulations, which could or should be used in a calculation program in case of level-3 PSA. In chapter three the practical execution of a probabilistic consequences analysis, the collection of input data and the presentation of the results are dealt with. 2 figs., 14 tabs., 64 refs

  3. Probabilistic safety analyses (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide shows how the probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) are used in the design, construction and operation of light water reactor plants in order for their part to ensure that the safety of the plant is good enough in all plant operational states

  4. Failure of a novel, rapid antigen and antibody combination test to detect antigen-positive HIV infection in African adults with early HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kilembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute HIV infection (prior to antibody seroconversion represents a high-risk window for HIV transmission. Development of a test to detect acute infection at the point-of-care is urgent. METHODS: Volunteers enrolled in a prospective study of HIV incidence in four African cities, Kigali in Rwanda and Ndola, Kitwe and Lusaka in Zambia, were tested regularly for HIV by rapid antibody test and p24 antigen ELISA. Five subgroups of samples were also tested by the Determine Ag/Ab Combo test 1 Antigen positive, antibody negative (acute infection; 2 Antigen positive, antibody positive; 3 Antigen negative, antibody positive; 4 Antigen negative, antibody negative; and 5 Antigen false positive, antibody negative (HIV uninfected. A sixth group included serial dilutions from a p24 antigen-positive control sample. Combo test results were reported as antigen positive, antibody positive, or both. RESULTS: Of 34 group 1 samples with VL between 5x105 and >1.5x107 copies/mL (median 3.5x106, 1 (2.9% was detected by the Combo antigen component, 7 (20.6% others were positive by the Combo antibody component. No group 2 samples were antigen positive by the Combo test (0/18. Sensitivity of the Combo antigen test was therefore 1.9% (1/52, 95% CI 0.0, 9.9. One false positive Combo antibody result (1/30, 3.3% was observed in group 4. No false-positive Combo antigen results were observed. The Combo antigen test was positive in group 6 at concentrations of 80 pg/mL, faintly positive at 40 and 20 pg/mL, and negative thereafter. The p24 ELISA antigen test remained positive at 5 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Although the antibody component of the Combo test detected antibodies to HIV earlier than the comparison antibody tests used, less than 2% of the cases of antigen-positive HIV infection were detected by the Combo antigen component. The development of a rapid point-of-care test to diagnose acute HIV infection remains an urgent goal.

  5. PSA in operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic approach to training is internationally accepted as the best method to achieve and maintain the qualification and competence of power plant personnel and to guarantee the quality of their training. Following the recommendations and guidelines of international organisations competent in the field, TECNATOM SA has developed projects based on the systematic approach to training for all Spanish nuclear power plants. One of the latest projects was the systematic approach to training developed for the operation personnel of ASCO Nuclear Power Plant. In this case, certain results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) which complement the systematic safety and reliability criteria of the systematic approach to training process have been incorporated in the traditional processes of work and task analysis and training plan design. This incorporation provides the training manager with additional criteria based not only on safety aspects obtained through the statistical treatment of considerations of skilled technical personnel (operators, operation chief supervisors, etc), but also on the independent criterion of the PSA. The inclusion of this approach basically affects all systematics in two of its stages: During the selection process of operating practices in SMR or SGI, the possible scenarios have been associated with all those situations where human actions which lead to an initiating event or human actions to mitigate an initiating event, may take place, as defined in the PSA. During the scenario development process, the instruments involved in the performance of human actions which originate or mitigate an event taking place have been identified. This pakes it possible to reconcile the scenario event sequence with the sequence considered in the PSA study, as the most likely to provoke a more serious accident. The incorporation of these PSA results contributes to the strengthening of safety aspects in training in an objective way, and confirms that

  6. Rapid diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infection with the Binax enzyme immunoassay urinary antigen test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazandjian, D; Chiew, R; Gilbert, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Binax legionella urinary antigen (LUA) enzyme immunoassay (Binax, Portland, Maine) was evaluated in 159 patients with suspected or proven legionellosis and 209 controls. A positive LUA test was found in 37% of patients with suspected legionellosis overall and in 83% of those with proven Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infection. The sensitivity of the LUA test was significantly greater than that of the direct fluorescent-antigen test (83 versus 42%; P < 0.0001) but not significantly di...

  7. Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen in Dog Saliva Using a Latex Agglutination Test

    OpenAIRE

    Kasempimolporn, S.; Saengseesom, W.; Lumlertdacha, B.; Sitprija, V.

    2000-01-01

    Dog bites are responsible for more than 90% of human rabies deaths in Asia. We developed a simple and inexpensive test based on latex agglutination (LA) for rabies virus antigen detection in dog saliva. Rabies virus antigen could be detected by agglutination on a glass slide using latex particles coated with gamma globulin. By evaluation of paired saliva-brain specimens from 238 dogs, the LA test using saliva was 99% specific and 95% sensitive compared to the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) o...

  8. Performance evaluation of four rapid antigen tests for the detection of Respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bo Kyeung; Choi, Sung Hyuk; Lee, Jong Han; Lee, JungHwa; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-10-01

    Rapid identification of Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is important in the management of infected patients. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are widely used for this purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of four RSV antigen tests including the BinaxNow RSV Card test, SD Bioline RSV test, BD Veritor RSV test, and Humasis RSV antigen test in comparison with real-time RT-PCR as the reference method. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 280 patients with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection and stored at -80°C. All swabs were tested for RSV using four rapid antigen tests and real time RT-PCR. The sensitivity of the BinaxNow RSV Card test, SD Bioline RSV test, BD Veritor RSV test, and Humasis RSV Antigen tests were 62.5%, 61.3%, 65.0%, and 67.5% for RSV A, and 61.3%, 65.0%, 61.3%, and 67.5% for RSV B compared to real time RT-PCR, respectively. The specificity of BD Veritor RSV test was 95.8% and those of the other three RDTs was 100%. Commercial RSV antigen detection assays are useful tools for the rapid diagnosis of RSV infection. However, confirmatory testing is always recommended. J. Med. Virol. 88:1720-1724, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990654

  9. PSA Response to Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is a Strong Independent Predictor of Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer in the Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Sean E., E-mail: semcguir@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cerne, Jasmina Z. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek L.; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Corn, Paul G.; Logothetis, Christopher J. [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs {>=}0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.

  10. PSA Response to Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is a Strong Independent Predictor of Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer in the Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs ≥0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level ≥0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level ≥0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.

  11. Long distance bicycle riding causes prostate-specific antigen to increase in men aged 50 years and over.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Mejak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA serum concentrations in healthy older men. METHODS: 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years, rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. RESULTS: Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1-12.9; p<0.001 or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. CONCLUSIONS: Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24-48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results.

  12. Long Distance Bicycle Riding Causes Prostate-Specific Antigen to Increase in Men Aged 50 Years and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejak, Sandra L.; Bayliss, Julianne; Hanks, Shayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) serum concentrations in healthy older men. Methods 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years), rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. Results Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1–12.9; p<0.001) or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml) increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges). Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. Conclusions Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24–48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results. PMID:23418500

  13. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokudome S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinkan Tokudome,1 Ryosuke Ando,2 Yoshiro Koda,3 1Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Nephro-urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 3Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Abstract: The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (~30%. There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1 adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2 improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3 fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1 examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers

  14. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  15. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  16. Rapid Diagnosis of Vivax Malaria by the SD Bioline Malaria Antigen Test When Thrombocytopenia Is Present▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sei Won; Jeon, Kyeongman; Jeon, Byung Ryul; Park, Inho

    2007-01-01

    An easy and reliable diagnostic method for malaria is highly desirable. We examined the recently introduced SD Bioline Malaria Antigen test, which detects Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase, with the additional aid of the presence or absence of thrombocytopenia to diagnose vivax malaria. We enrolled 732 patients with clinically suspected malaria in an area where vivax malaria is endemic. We performed microscopic examination of thin film, applied the SD Bioline Malaria Antigen test, and checked ...

  17. Early decrease of PSA, a prognosis factor independent from biochemical control in case of remedial radiotherapy after prostatectomy; Baisse precoce du PSA, un facteur pronostique independant de controle biochimique en cas de radiotherapie de rattrapage apres prostatectomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P.; Bakkour, M.; Chaurin, P.; Negretti, L.; Wibault, P.; Bossi, A. [Institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Crevoisier, R. de [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Rennes (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the analysis of the predictive value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) decrease during a remedial external radiotherapy performed to increase the PSA after a radical prostatectomy. During four years, 136 patients have been treated by external irradiation to obtain a PSA increase after prostatectomy. Different parameters are noticed: initial pathological stage, initial Gleason score, mean time between prostatectomy and external radiotherapy, values of PSA before and after prostatectomy and after radiotherapy. The evolution of PSA could be used for an early identification of patients presenting a pejorative prognosis. Short communication

  18. The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Chris H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH PSA guidelines. Methods Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values. Results Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346 of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346 follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346 used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%. In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service. Conclusion A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance.

  19. STD Awareness PSA - College 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  20. STD Awareness PSA - College 1 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  1. STD Awareness PSA - Male Announcer 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Target - Men who have sex with other men.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  2. PSA data development for Novovoronezh unit 5 level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the approach used in developing data for the level-1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of the Novovoronezh Unit 5 nuclear power plant (NVNPP-5), the first Russian VVER-1000 reactor. The NVNPP-5 PSA is being carried out within the framework of the joint Russian-Swiss project (i.e., SWISRUS). This paper describes briefly approaches and results of PSA data analysis done in respect to various PSA data required for the PSA model quantification including: Initiating event frequencies; Component reliability parameters; Component unavailabilities due to maintenance and common cause failures; Human error probabilities. Specifically, both generic and plant-specific data on initiating event frequencies and reliability parameters for system components (pumps, valves, diesel generators, etc.) were developed on the basis of available initial statistical data ('raw' data) with usage of the Bayesian updating methodology. Samples of final data are provided. The problems and insights dealt with processing the statistical data and parameters definition are identified in the paper. The insights obtained from Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and component Common Cause Failure (CCF) analysis, as well as the effect of various types of PSA data on PSA results are discussed. Also, plans and procedures for PSA data updating for Living PSA purposes are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  3. Early detection of prostate cancer in Syria using T.PSA and F.PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the current study is performing an initial prostate cancer screening test using PSA and F PSA tumour markers. A total of 3000 men in 40-75 years of age were participated in this study. Demographic and clinical data for subjects were collected by the programme staff. Total PSA and free PSA assays were determined using the ImunoTech total and free PSA assay kits, based on IRMA technique (kindly provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency). Criteria for participating in this study included : 1) men of age 50-75 (men of age as low as 40 were included in case of positive family history). 2) No previous history of prostate cancer. The following parameters were followed to refer the suspicious cases to a specialized hospital specific tests: 1)PSA>3 ng/ml . 2)High PSA value according to the participant age group. 3) Low F/TPSA ratio. In the hospital the following tests were performed:1) Complete clinical exam including DRE.2)TRUS in some cases.3) Biopsy for highly suspicious cases. 4)The low suspicious cases were retested in six months. Out of 338 cases referred to a specialized hospital, 264 cases were shown prostatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),while 36 cases proved to be prostatic cancer. However, the contact was lost in 36 cases because of changing the phone number or travelling outside the country . The detection rate of prostate cancer among all participating cases in this study was 1.2%, while this ratio was 10.7% among the referred cases. F/TPSA ratio has shown a good ability to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (author)

  4. Evaluation of urine pneumococcal antigen test performance among adults in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Lee M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Jagero, Geofrey; da Gloria Carvalho, Maria; Pimenta, Fabiana; Junghae, Muthoni; Breiman, Robert F; Whitney, Cynthia G; Feikin, Daniel R; Conklin, Laura M

    2016-08-01

    When used in an area of rural western Kenya, the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test had a sensitivity of 67% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 43-85%) among 21 adults ≥15 years old with acute respiratory illnesses and pneumococcal bacteremia and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 96-99%) among 660 adults ≥15 years old without fever or cough. The specificity of the test was not significantly affected by pneumococcal colonization, regardless of patients' HIV status, age, or sex. Use of the pneumococcal urine antigen test in clinical assessments of adults in Africa with acute respiratory illness is a viable option regardless of whether a patient is colonized by pneumococci, even among HIV-infected adults, although the moderate sensitivity of the urine antigen test indicates that the test is probably best used clinically as part of a panel with other tests that can detect pneumococci. PMID:27220607

  5. Extensive multiple test centre evaluation of the VecTest malaria antigen panel assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J R; Davé, K; Collins, K M; Hochberg, L; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Coleman, R E; Dunton, R F; Bangs, M J; Mbogo, C M; Cooper, R D; Schoeler, G B; Rubio-Palis, Y; Magris, M; Romer, L I; Padilla, N; Quakyi, I A; Bigoga, J; Leke, R G; Akinpelu, O; Evans, B; Walsey, M; Patterson, P; Wirtz, R A; Chan, A S T

    2002-09-01

    To determine which species and populations of Anopheles transmit malaria in any given situation, immunological assays for malaria sporozoite antigen can replace traditional microscopical examination of freshly dissected Anopheles. We developed a wicking assay for use with mosquitoes that identifies the presence or absence of specific peptide epitopes of circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum and two strains of Plasmodium vivax (variants 210 and 247). The resulting assay (VecTest Malaria) is a rapid, one-step procedure using a 'dipstick' test strip capable of detecting and distinguishing between P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in mosquitoes. The objective of the present study was to test the efficacy, sensitivity, stability and field-user acceptability of this wicking dipstick assay. In collaboration with 16 test centres world-wide, we evaluated more than 40 000 units of this assay, comparing it to the standard CS ELISA. The 'VecTest Malaria' was found to show 92% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity, with 97.8% accuracy overall. In accelerated storage tests, the dipsticks remained stable for > 15 weeks in dry conditions up to 45 degrees C and in humid conditions up to 37 degrees C. Evidently, this quick and easy dipstick test performs at an acceptable level of reliability and offers practical advantages for field workers needing to make rapid surveys of malaria vectors. PMID:12243234

  6. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A low-cost and rapid assay for f-PSA in serum was developed using MMP-based CLEIA. •f-PSA detection: 0.1–30 ng mL−1 concentration range; 0.1 ng mL−1 detection limit. •The proposed method showed high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability. •The strategy showed great potential in the fabrication of MMP-based f-PSA test kits. -- Abstract: We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2′-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1–30 ng mL−1 with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL−1. The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the “diagnostic gray zone” of serum f-PSA levels (4–10 ng mL−1). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL−1). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum

  7. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruping [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Cheng [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York 10027 (United States); Jiang, Quan [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Guohua, E-mail: liugh@nankai.edu.cn [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A low-cost and rapid assay for f-PSA in serum was developed using MMP-based CLEIA. •f-PSA detection: 0.1–30 ng mL{sup −1} concentration range; 0.1 ng mL{sup −1} detection limit. •The proposed method showed high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability. •The strategy showed great potential in the fabrication of MMP-based f-PSA test kits. -- Abstract: We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2′-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1–30 ng mL{sup −1} with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup −1}. The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the “diagnostic gray zone” of serum f-PSA levels (4–10 ng mL{sup −1}). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL{sup −1}). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum.

  8. Crude antigens of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica using ELISA test: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur S.N.S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasciolosis is a worldwide disease with major economic and public health consequences. Early detection of the infection is important for the prevention and control of the disease. ELISA allows for early detection of fasciolosis in man and animals. Fasciolosis is caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in man and domestic animals respectively. These two species have many similar morphological characteristics. In this study, the crude antigens of these two species are investigated by ELISA test. Methods: The excretory-secretory and somatic antigens of two species were prepared from adult flukes collected from the bile ducts of sheep and stored at -20oC. For the preparation of the antisera, the antigens were injected to laboratory-bred rabbits. Each rabbit received five injections at intervals of seven days, starting with 0.5 ml and ending with 2.5 ml. Ten days after the last injection, the rabbits were bled, and serum samples separated and stored at -20oC. The reaction between homologous and heterologous antigens and antisera was tested by ELISA and optical densities were recorded.Results: Excretory- secretory and somatic antigens of each species showed a strong positive reaction with the antisera of the other species. In a homologous combination of antigens and antisera, a stronger reaction was observed compared to the heterologous combination, therefore many antigenic materials of both species are the same.Conclusion: The differences of these crude antigenic materials of F. hepatica and F. gigantica are insufficient to prevent cross reaction of two species by ELISA. Further investigations are recommended for the identification, detection and purification of antigenic material of each species to improve the specificity of this assay.

  9. New cause for false-positive results with the Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappe, R; Schulze-Berge, A

    1993-01-01

    The Pastorex Aspergillus antigen test for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis is used in many clinical laboratories. A serum sample contaminated with Penicillium chrysogenum gave a strongly positive reaction (1:128) which was heat stable, was not eliminated by pronase treatment, and was not detected by a normal rabbit globulin control. This observation was shown to be due to cross-reactions of the monoclonal antibody EB-A2 used by...

  10. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  11. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokudome, Shinkan; Ando, Ryosuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (∼30%). There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1) adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2) improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3) fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1) examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers in biopsy specimens; 2) independent quantification of Gleason grading; 3) developing ethnicity-specific staging nomograms based on tumor stage, PSA value, and Gleason score; 4) delineation of the natural history; 5) revisiting the significance of the androgen/testosterone hypothesis; and 6) devoting special attention to individuals with a certain genetic predisposition. Finally

  12. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokudome, Shinkan; Ando, Ryosuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (∼30%). There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1) adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2) improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3) fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1) examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers in biopsy specimens; 2) independent quantification of Gleason grading; 3) developing ethnicity-specific staging nomograms based on tumor stage, PSA value, and Gleason score; 4) delineation of the natural history; 5) revisiting the significance of the androgen/testosterone hypothesis; and 6) devoting special attention to individuals with a certain genetic predisposition. Finally

  13. PSA Update Procedures, an Ultimate Need for Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities by their complex nature, change with time. These changes can be both physical (plant modification, etc.), operational (enhanced procedures, etc.) and organizational. In addition, there are also changes in our understanding of the plant, due to operational experience, data collection, technology enhancements, etc. Therefore, it is imperative that PSA model must be frequently up-dated or modified to reflect these changes. Over the last ten years. these has been a remarkable growth of the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The most rapidly growing area of the PSA Applications is their use to support operational decision-making. Many of these applications are characterized by the potential for not only improving the safety level but also for providing guidance on the optimal use of resources and reducing regulatory burden. To enable a wider use of the PSA model as a tool for safety activities it is essential to maintain the model in a controlled state. Moreover, to fulfill requirements for Living PSA, the PSA model has to be constantly updated and/or monitored to reflect the current plant configuration. It should be noted that the PSA model should not only represent the plant design but should also represent the operational and emergency procedures. To keep the PSA model up-to-date several issues should be clearly defined including: - Responsibility should be divided among the PSA group, - Procedures for implementing changes should be established, and - QA requirements/program should be established to assure documentation and reporting. (author)

  14. Nonprostatic sources of prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, E P; Yu, H

    1997-05-01

    The name prostate-specific antigen has been given to a protein that now is known not to be prostate-specific; however, prostatic tissue does produces extremely high levels of PSA and secrets it into the seminal plasma. Seminal plasma contains about 1 million micrograms/L of PSA and is the richest source of PSA reported. The biologic fluid with the second highest PSA concentration, however, is nipple aspirate fluid from the female breast (up to about 5000 micrograms/L), and the third is milk from lactating women (up to 300 micrograms/L). Male serum PSA is usually less than 4 micrograms/L. In nonprostatic tissues, PSA exists mainly in its free molecular form, but PSA-ACT complex is also present in most of the fluids that contain PSA, such as breast secretions and amniotic fluid. The gene expression and protein production of PSA in nonprostatic tissues are under the regulation of steroid hormones via their receptors. Androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestins up-regulate the PSA gene expression, resulting in an increase of protein production. Estrogen by itself seems to have no effect on PSA regulation, but it can impair PSA production induced by androgen. It remains unknown whether PSA is enzymatically active and what is the physiologic role of PSA in nonprostatic tissues. It is speculated that PSA may be involved in the regulation of growth factors. Measuring PSA in breast cancer cytosol, breast-nipple aspirate fluid, and female serum may have potential clinical utilities, including breast cancer prognosis, breast cancer risk assessment, and evaluation of androgen excess. Further studies are needed to identify the exact function and regulation of PSA in nonprostatic tissues and to explore the clinical application of this protein. PMID:9126224

  15. Early detection, PSA screening, and management of overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Tudor; Konijeti, Ramdev; Kibel, Adam S

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment rates have increased significantly since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Although it was initially thought that most prostate cancers would lead to death or significant morbidity, recent randomized trials have demonstrated that many patients with screening-detected cancer will not die of their disease. Modifications to PSA screening, screening guideline statements, and novel screening markers have been developed to minimize the risk and morbidity associated with overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Less aggressive management strategies such as active surveillance may lead to lower treatment rates in men who are unlikely to benefit while maintaining cure rates. PMID:24188254

  16. Dosagem e correlação do antígeno prostático específico com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais do hamster sírio Prostate specific antigen-psa dosage and correlation with syrian hamster sexual addiction histologic alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal; Alcino Lázaro da Silva; Luiz Mauro Andrade da Fonseca; Dilermando Fazito de Rezende

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar os níveis de PSA total no Hamster Sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, jovem e adulto e demonstrar possíveis correlações entre esses níveis com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais: próstata, vesículas seminais e testículos. MÉTODO: Foram examinados dez (n=10) Hamsters jovens, com idade inferior a sete semanas de vida e vinte (n=20) Hamsters com idade superior a um ano. Fez-se a dosagem do PSA e estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais em ambos os grupos e procurou-se a corr...

  17. Predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen in detecting bone metastasis in prostate cancer patients using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide bone scan (BS) used to be the investigation of choice for detecting osseous metastases in prostate cancer. Now, with the availability serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, clinicians do have a timely, cost-effective method to determine those patients who are highly unlikely to have osseous metastases. We determine the utility of PSA for predicting the presence of skeletal metastasis on BSs in prostate cancer patients. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 322 consecutive prostate cancers patients subjected to BS during the last 3 years was done. 52 cases were excluded due to following reasons: Serum PSA not available, hormonal or other therapy given prior to serum PSA measurement, and/or BS, and symptomatic for bone metastasis. In remaining 270 cases, PSA value and BS were evaluated. BS was performed with Tc99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) as per the standard protocol. BS was found to be positive in 153/270 (56%) and negative in 117 (46%) patients. Of the 153 positive cases, 108 (70%) had serum PSA > 100 ng/ml, 42 (28%) had PSA of 20-100 ng/ml and only 3 (2%) had PSA < 20 ng/ml. All the patients with PSA > 100 ng/ml had multiple skeletal metastasis. Of the 117 negative cases, 110 (94%) had a PSA < 20 ng/ml, 5 had between 20 and 100 ng/ml and only 2 (1.8%) had PSA > 100 ng/ml. Of the 113 patients with serum PSA < 20 ng/ml, 110 (97.4%) did not show any bony metastasis. 150/157 (95.5%) patients with PSA > 20 ng/ml had bone metastasis. Using this criterion, 110 (40.7%) scans would have been omitted. Serum PSA < 20 ng/ml have high predictive value in ruling out skeletal metastasis. Our data are in corroboration with results from previous studies that BS should be performed only if PSA > 20 ng/ml. Using this cut-off, unnecessary investigation can be avoided. Avoiding BS in this group of patients would translate into a significant cost-saving and reduction in their psychological and physical burden

  18. PSA bounces after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and external beam radiation: Impact on definitions of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounces after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and their impact on definitions of biochemical failure. Methods and Materials: Characteristics of bounce were calculated for all patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation at our institution between 1992 and 1998 (preexclusion analysis). Calculations were repeated for the subgroup that satisfied additional inclusion/exclusion criteria (postexclusion analysis). The percentage of bounces scoring as false positives according to the ASTRO definition of biochemical failure was compared with those for three alternative definitions (Vancouver, Nadir-plus-two, and Nadir-plus-three) using McNemar's tests. Results: Thirty-nine percent (preexclusion cohort) and 56% (postexclusion cohort) of patients demonstrated a PSA bounce. Twenty percent (preexclusion analysis) and 25% (postexclusion analysis) of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition scored the smallest percentage of bounces as failure, but the difference between this definition and the ASTRO definition reached statistical significance in neither preexclusion nor postexclusion analyses (p ≥ 0.070). Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant deprivation experienced a PSA bounce. A large percentage of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition is less vulnerable to this bias

  19. EVALUATION OF FREE-TO-TOTAL PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN RATIO IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ It's reported that free to total prostate specific antigen ration (f/tPSA) can provide more benefit than the single use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). We measured serum PSA and fPSA levels in 62 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 40 cases of PCa using radioimmunoassay, with patients' age range 59y~ 89y.

  20. Applications of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, which compiles information on a comprehensive set of PSA applications in the areas of NPP design, operation, and accident mitigation and management, is the culmination of an IAEA project on PSA Applications and Tools to Improve NPP Safety. In this regard, the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) held in Madrid in February 1998 allowed participants to review and provide very valuable comments for this report. Several important facts related to PSA and its applications were highlighted during this TCM: living PSAs are the basis for the risk informed approach to decision making; development and use of safety/risk monitors as tools for configuration management is spreading fast; the different uses of PSA to support NPP testing and maintenance planning and optimization are amongst the most widespread PSA applications; plant specific PSAs are being used to support the safety upgrading programmes of plants built to earlier standards; not all countries have a regulatory framework for the use of the probabilistic approach in decision making. Some countries are still far from 'risk-informed' regulation, and this means that there is still considerable work ahead, both for regulators and utilities, to clarify approaches, to establish a framework and to reach a common understanding in relation to the use of PSA in decision making. This report is based on the premise that the use of PSA can provide useful information for the decision maker. This report is intended to provide an overview of current PSA applications. Section 2 addresses the PSA application process, outlines the general requirements for PSA tools and provides a discussion on PSA aspects such as PSA level, scope and level of detail, which have to be considered when planning/performing PSA applications. Section 3 discusses the technical aspects of individual applications and is divided into three parts. Section 3.1 is dedicated to the design related PSA applications. The second part of Section 3 considers

  1. Lycopene can reduce prostate-specific antigen velocity in a phase Ⅱ clinical study in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin; Yang Yong; Wang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that lycopene has anti-prostate cancer effect.In vitro tests also confirmed that it can promote apoptosis of prostate cancer cells.We investigated the effect of whole-tomato supplement lycopene on the prostate-specific antigen velocity in selected prostate cancer patients.Methods Twenty selected prostate cancer patients were given whole-tomato supplement lycopene 10 mg per day for about 6 months.Blood samples of patients were collected weekly to measure serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values.PSA velocity slope,which reflects the change of PSA,and the degree of change were also calculated.By comparing the values of average PSA velocity slope (rise or fall of PSA) before and after the administration of lycopene,the effect of lycopene can be evaluated.Blood chemistry analysis was regular followed as safety control.Results Three patients in the research group withdrew within 3 weeks because of inability to conform.The rest 17 patients continued for an average period of 6 months.Two patients withdrew because of cancer progression (PSA rise) who later received active treatment.The average fall in PSA was equivalent to 2.56% over (i.e.an average slope/d of -0.000 28) the first 3 months.In the last 3 months,average fall in PSA was equivalent to 31.58% (i.e.an average slope/d of-0.003 51).The Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a statistically significant decrease of PSA velocity slope overall (P=0.000 9).Analysis of the PSA doubling time (pre-vs.post-treatment) showed a median increase over 3 months but this was not statistically significant (P=0.21).No toxic side effect was observed during the whole process.The results indicate that the average PSA change is "decline" in patients,and the degree of the decline is accelerated.Conclusion Administration of lycopene was able to reduce PSA velocity in this study group.

  2. Determining if pretreatment PSA doubling time predicts PSA trajectories after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: To determine if pretreatment PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) can predict post-radiation therapy (RT) PSA trajectories for localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-five prostate cancer patients treated with external beam RT without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified with an adequate number of PSA values. We utilized a linear mixed model (LMM) analysis to model longitudinal PSA data sets after definitive treatment. Post-treatment PSA trajectories were allowed to depend on the pre-RT PSA-DT, pre-RT PSA (iPSA), Gleason score (GS), and T-stage. Results: Pre-RT PSA-DT had a borderline impact on predicting the rate of PSA rise after nadir (p = 0.08). For a typical low risk patient (T1, GS ≤ 6, iPSA 10), the predicted PSA-DT post-nadir was 21% shorter for pre-RT PSA-DT 24 month (19 month vs. 24 month). Additional significant predictors of post-RT PSA rate of rise included GS (p < 0.0001), iPSA (p < 0.0001), and T-stage (p = 0.02). Conclusions: We observed a trend between rapidly rising pre-RT PSA and the post-RT post-nadir PSA rise. This effect appeared to be independent of iPSA, GS, or T-stage. The results presented suggest that pretreatment PSA-DT may help predict post-RT PSA trajectories

  3. PSA doubling time for prediction of [11C]choline PET/CT findings in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that the positive detection rate of [11C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) depends on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels. This study compared PSA levels and PSA doubling time (PSADT) to predict [11C]choline PET/CT findings. PSADT was retrospectively calculated in 170 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy who underwent [11C]choline PET/CT. PSADT was calculated as PSADT = ln2/m, where m is the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA values. At least three PSA measurements were used (median: 4; range: 3-16), separated by at least 3 months, each with a minimum increase of 0.20 ng/ml. PET/CT findings were validated using criteria based on histological analysis and clinical and imaging data. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of positive [11C]choline PET/CT and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. The median PSA was 1.25 ng/ml (range: 0.23-48.6 ng/ml), and the median PSADT was 7.0 months (range: 0.97-45.3 months). [11C]choline PET/CT was positive in 75 of 170 patients (44%). PET/CT findings were validated using histological criteria (11%) and clinical and imaging criteria (89%). The overall accuracy of [11C]choline PET/CT was 88%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that high PSA and short PSADT were significant (p 11C]choline PET/CT [PSA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.78; PSADT: OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21]. The percentage of patients with positive [11C]choline PET/CT was 27% for PSADT >6 months, 61% for PSADT between 3 and 6 months and 81% for PSADT 11C]choline uptake in the skeleton significantly increased (p 6 months to 52% for PSADT 11C]choline uptake in the prostatectomy bed were 0% for PSADT 6

  4. Activities toward PSA quality improvement in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSA of adequate quality is indispensable for expanding the field of risk-informed plant management. Activities to construct framework of improving PSA quality in Japan, such as arrangement of PSA standard, adopting parameters based on operational experience of Japanese NPPs, and implementation of PSA peer review, are in progress. (author)

  5. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of a New Rapid Test for Detecting Wuchereria bancrofti Antigen in Human Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C.; Fakoli, Lawrence; Fischer, Kerstin; Gankpala, Lincoln; Lammie, Patrick J; Majewski, Andrew C; Pelletreau, Sonia; Kimberly Y Won; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2013-01-01

    Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) guidelines call for using filarial antigen testing to identify endemic areas that require mass drug administration (MDA) and for post-MDA surveillance. We compared a new filarial antigen test (the Alere Filariasis Test Strip) with the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test that has been used by the GPELF for more than 10 years. Laboratory testing of 227 archived serum or plasma samples showed that the two tests had similar high rates o...

  6. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB)

  7. Corrected Version Specificity of the Latex Test for Cryptococcal Antigen: a Rapid, Simple Method for Eliminating Interference Factors†

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Leslie; Roberts, Glenn D.

    1983-01-01

    An enzymatic method involving a protease (pronase) for the elimination of interference factors in the latex test for cryptococcal antigen was developed and compared with dithiothreitol treatment. The two were equivalent in their ability to remove interference factors; however, the enzymatic method generally yielded higher titers. The method is simple, requires only 20 min, and makes the latex test for cryptococcal antigen specific.

  8. Result of salvage radiotherapy for post-operative PSA failure of prostate cancer. Evaluation of predictive factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-five patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure were treated with salvage radiotherapy. Post-operative and post-radiotherapy PSA failure was defined as the PSA elevation (nadir +0.2 ng/ml) or the initiation of hormone therapy. The median follow-up period after salvage radiotherapy was 32 months (range; 1-67 months). The 3-yrs biochemical free survival and overall survival rate was 66.7% and 100%. Result of salvage radiotherapy for post-operation PSA failure is good and only the dose was significant predictive factor (60 Gy vs > 64 Gy; 53.9% vs 86.2%). (author)

  9. DETERMINATION OF PSA REFERENCE LEVEL FOR COMMON PROSTATIC DISEASE PATIENTS IN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef, Mohamed; ALIOMER, MOHAMMED A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reference prostate specific antigen (PSA) range for different types prostatic disease patients in Sudanese men,A total of 50 patients, age ranged from 46-96 years with various types of prostatic disorders were enrolled into this study. The analyses included patients referred to RIA lab at RICK ,a biopsy was taken in those to exclude prostate cancer. The collected data included: PSA amount, diagnosis, habits, Age, residence and Races (tribe). The collected dat...

  10. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  11. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  12. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Michael A.; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A + B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse ...

  13. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens. PMID:16517916

  14. Predicting Gleason score using the initial serum total prostate-specific antigen in Black men with symptomatic prostate adenocarcinoma in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabugwu II

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna I Nnabugwu, Emeka I Udeh, Fredrick O Ugwumba, Francis O Ozoemena Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Enugu Campus, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Men of Black African descent are known to have the highest incidence of prostate cancer. The disease is also more aggressive in this group possibly due to biologically more aggressive tumor or late presentation. Currently, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA assay plays a significant role in making the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, the obtained value of serum PSA may not directly relate with the Gleason score (GS, a measure of tumor aggression in prostate cancer. This study explores the relationship between serum total PSA at presentation (iPSA and GS.Patients and methods: The iPSA of patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer was compared with the obtained GS of the prostate biopsy specimens. The age of the patients at presentation and the prostate volumes were also analyzed with respect to the iPSA and GS. The data were analyzed retrospectively using IBM SPSS Version 20. Pearson correlation was used for numeric variables, whereas Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical variables. Significance was set at P≤0.05.Results: There were 205 patients from January 2010 to November 2013 who satisfied the inclusion criteria. iPSA as well as age at presentation and prostate volume were not found to significantly correlate with the primary Gleason grade, the secondary Gleason grade, or the GS. However, the presence of distant metastasis was identified to significantly correlate positively with GS.Conclusion: GS may not be confidently predicted by the iPSA. Higher iPSA does not correlate with higher GS and vice versa. Keywords: PSA, patient age, prostate volume, prostate adenocarcinoma, Gleason score

  15. Prioritization of design changes based on PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective use of Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSA) in the day to day plant operation is subject of intensive discussions among plant operators and regulators. There are several possible applications in which the PSA can be used, among those also to use the PSA approach for the quantification of influence of different proposed design changes to nuclear safety - influence on public safety - health. NPP Krsko is one of those plants that successfully completed its PSA project, with Level 1 and Level 2 analyses and effective know-how transfer. It also faces a number of regulatory and internally generated requirements for different design changes, mainly due to the fact that the plant is committed to continuous augmentation of nuclear safety. It is considered that the available tools and knowledge should be used and therefore applicable methodology should be developed for effective prioritization of proposed design changes by performing cost-benefit analyses for all major modifications - focusing on their influence on nuclear safety. Based on the above a new method for prioritization of design changes is proposed. The method uses Level 1 results (in the sense of plant damage states and their frequencies) directly as an input for further processing - first decision step to decide whether the proposed modification has or has no influence on nuclear safety. In Level 2 analyses the combination of probabilistic and deterministic approach was adopted. In fact the results of the deterministic analyses of severe accidents are treated in probabilistic manner due to large uncertainty of results. Finally to be able to perform plant specific cost benefit analyses so called partial Level 3 was defined. The proposed methods was preliminary tested and it gave favorable results. (author)

  16. Comparative efficacy of antigen and antibody detection tests for human trichinellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera collected from patients with suspected or confirmed exposure to Trichinella spiralis were tested for circulating parasite antigens and antiparasite antibodies. Using an immunoradiometric assay, excretory--secretory antigens from muscle-stage larvae of T. spiralis were detected in the sera of 47% of 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 13% of 39 patients without clinical signs but suspected of exposure to infected meat. In comparison, antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent test in the circulation of 100% of the 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 46% of the 39 patients with suspected exposure. The presence of antibodies specific to excretory-secretory products of T. spiralis muscle larvae was confirmed in the majority of the samples tested by a monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition assay. These results indicate that antibody detection is a more sensitive diagnostic method for human trichinellosis, but that antigen detection might be a useful confirmatory test because it is a direct demonstration of parasite products in the circulation

  17. Performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccin formulation against tick using crossbreed bovines in stall test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Cattle tick control remains a serious problem for cattle farms in Brazil due to the limited success achieved with chemicals. In Brazil, the use of vaccines for tick control associated with the use of chemicals and pasture rotation may open possibilities for integrated control. However, it is important to know whether regional Boophilus microplus strains are sensitive to antibodies produced by the available antigens: antigen preparations Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS). The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccine formulation against tick using crossbred bovines in stall test antigen against a regional B. microplus strain. The experiment was carried out in central Brazil (20 degrees 27'S, 54 degrees 37'W). A trial was conducted in stall conditions on crossbred cattle under controlled infestation. Two groups of 16 animals each, homogeneous in weight and sex, were vaccinated with Gavac™ or TickGard(PLUS), two groups of eight animals as control. Challenge was performed on three alternate days, with 5,000 larvae each time, beginning 21 days after the second injection. The antibody response was measured by ELISA and vaccinated animals presented immune response considering IgG levels. The results showed 49.2% and 46.4% protection efficacy for Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS), respectively. PMID:16978472

  18. A Databank for PSA Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Regulatory (HSK) is developing a living PSA model of each Swiss nuclear power plant. This project includes a significant amount of work with data. A databank was developed to support data collection, processing and quality assurance. The databank consists of three modules. In the data collection module, plant-specific components (pumps, diesel generators, etc.) are described. This information is used to class the components into different statistical groups and to select appropriate generic data. The plant-specific component failures and demands are also documented in this module. In the reliability database, the results of the quantification are summarised. Finally, in the PSA event generator, the basic events, super-components and common cause failure (CCF) events are defined, checked for consistency and exported into the PSA code. The databank was successfully applied to the full-scope PSA for a Siemens KWU plant. The databank was particularly helpful for case studies and whenever updates needed to be performed quickly and consistently. Currently, the use of the databank is extended to other PSA studies. (authors)

  19. Stable erythrocyte diagnostic preparation for passive haemagglutination test with herpes simplex virus antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichevskaya, G I; Basova, N N

    1976-10-01

    A method for the preparation of stable suspensions of erythrocytes sensitized with herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen and for their use in the passive haemagglutination test (PHAT) was developed. Formolized sheep erythrocytes were treated with tannin and sensitized with HSV antigen prepared from infected chick embryo cell culture by ultrasonication and virus extraction with alkaline glycine buffer. Antibody titres determined in the PHAT were higher than titres of neutralizing antibody. The specificity of the results was checked by the passive haemagglutination-inhibition test (PHAIT). The sensitized erythrocytes retained their activity for 5 months (the observation period) and gave reproducible results. The availability of stable erythrocyte diagnostic preparations simplifies the detection of herpesvirus antibody and makes the method widely applicable. PMID:11670

  20. Detection of Chikungunya Virus Antigen by a Novel Rapid Immunochromatographic Test

    OpenAIRE

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E.; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates fro...

  1. Field Evaluation of an Antigen Detection Immunochromatographic Test for Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in India

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R. S.; V. P. Sharma; Srivastava, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    An immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria P. f.) based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen was evaluated in Gujarat state, India. Whole blood of 148 clinically suspected malaria patients was tested blind by microscopy and ICT simultaneously. Compared with the examination of Giemsa stained thick blood films, ICT test was 99% specific and 92% efficient. It was 100% sensitive for detection of >5000 parasites/μL blood, 90% sensitive (95% CI 72-109) for 1001-5000 parasites/μL...

  2. A novel IgE antibody targeting the prostate-specific antigen as a potential prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA), often found at high levels in the serum of PCa patients, has been used as a marker for PCa detection and as a target of immunotherapy. The murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody AR47.47, specific for human PSA, has been shown to enhance antigen presentation by human dendritic cells and induce both CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation when complexed with PSA. In this study, we explored the properties of a novel mouse/human chimeric anti-PSA IgE containing the variable regions of AR47.47 as a potential therapy for PCa. Our goal was to take advantage of the unique properties of IgE in order to trigger immune activation against PCa. Binding characteristics of the antibody were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro degranulation was determined by the release of β-hexosaminidase from effector cells. In vivo degranulation was monitored in human FcεRIα transgenic mice using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. These mice were also used for a vaccination study to determine the in vivo anti-cancer effects of this antibody. Significant differences in survival were determined using the Log Rank test. In vitro T-cell activation was studied using human dendritic cells and autologous T cells. The anti-PSA IgE, expressed in murine myeloma cells, is properly assembled and secreted, and binds the antigen and FcεRI. In addition, this antibody is capable of triggering effector cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo when artificially cross-linked, but not in the presence of the natural soluble antigen, suggesting that such an interaction will not trigger systemic anaphylaxis. Importantly, the anti-PSA IgE combined with PSA also triggers immune activation in vitro and in vivo and significantly prolongs the survival of human FcεRIα transgenic mice challenged with PSA-expressing tumors in a prophylactic vaccination setting. The anti-PSA IgE exhibits

  3. Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir and Time to Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir Following Maximal Androgen Blockade Independently Predict Prognosis in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seok Young; Cho, Dae Sung; Kim, Sun Il; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Kim, Se Joong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics following maximal androgen blockade (MAB) on disease progression and cancer-specific survival in patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Materials and Methods One hundred thirty-one patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer treated with MAB at our institution were included in this study. Patients' characteristics, PSA at MAB initiation, PSA nadir, time to PSA nadir (TTN), and P...

  4. Posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer-specific survival: An analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We evaluated whether posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) was predictive of prostate cancer mortality by testing the Prentice requirements for a surrogate endpoint. Methods and Materials: We analyzed posttreatment PSA measurements in a cohort of 1,514 men with localized prostate cancer (T2c-4 and PSA level Cox = 0.002), PSADT Cox Cox Cox Cox = 0.4). The significant posttreatment PSADTs were also significant predictors of CSS (pCox< 0.001). After adjusting for T stage, Gleason score and PSA, all of Prentice's requirements were not met, indicating that the effect of PSADT on CSS was not independent of the randomized treatment. Conclusions: Prostatic specific antigen doubling time is significantly associated with CSS, but did not meet all of Prentice's requirements for a surrogate endpoint of CSS. Thus, the risk of dying of prostate cancer is not fully explained by PSADT

  5. Determining Interactions in PSA models: Application to a Space PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Smith; E. Borgonovo

    2010-06-01

    This paper addresses use of an importance measure interaction study of a probabilistic risk analysis (PSA) performed for a hypothetical aerospace lunar mission. The PSA methods used in this study follow the general guidance provided in the NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment Procedures Guide for NASA Managers and Practitioners. For the PSA portion, we used phased-based event tree and fault tree logic structures are used to model a lunar mission, including multiple phases (from launch to return to the Earth surface) and multiple critical systems. Details of the analysis results are not provided in this paper – instead specific basic events are denoted by number (e.g., the first event is 1, the second is 2, and so on). However, in the model, we used approximately 150 fault trees and over 800 basic events. Following analysis and truncation of cut sets, we were left with about 400 basic events to evaluate. We used this model to explore interactions between different basic events and systems. These sensitivity studies provide high-level insights into features of the PSA for the hypothetical lunar mission.

  6. Jatobal virus antigenic characterization by ELISA and neutralization test using EIA as indicator, on tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu M. Figueiredo

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A virus antigenic characterization methodology using an indirect method of antibody detection ELISA with virus-infected cultured cells as antigen and a micro virus neutralisation test using EIA (NT-EIA as an aid to reading were used for antigenic characterization of Jatobal (BeAn 423380. Jatobal virus was characterized as a Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus genus, Simbu serogroup virus. ELISA using infected cultured cells as antigen is a sensitive and reliable method for identification of viruses and has many advantages over conventional antibody capture ELISA's and other tests: it eliminates solid phase coating with virus and laborious antigen preparation; it permits screening of large numbers of virus antisera faster and more easily than by CF, HAI, or plaque reduction NT. ELISA and NT using EIA as an aid to reading can be applicable to viruses which do not produce cytopathogenic effect. Both techniques are applicable to identification of viruses which grow in mosquito cells.A caracterização antigênica do vírus Jatobal (BeAn 423380 foi efetuada utilizando uma técnica de ELISA para deteccão de anticorpos que utiliza culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno e um micro teste de neutralização para vírus que utiliza o método imunoenzimático como auxiliar para a leitura dos resultados (NT-EIA. O vírus Jatobal foi caracterizado como um Bunyaviridae, gênero Bunyavirus, pertencente ao sorogrupo Simbu. A técnica de ELISA, utilizando culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno, trata-se de método sensível e confiável na identificação de agentes virais, possuindo muitas vantagens sobre ELISA convencionais e outros testes: elimina a preparação laboriosa de antígenos para o revestimento em fase sólida; permite que se teste de forma mais rápida e fácil que por CF, HAI e neutralização por redução de plaques um grande número de antisoros de vírus. ELISA e NT-EIA podem ser utilizados para a classificação de vírus que não produzem

  7. fPSA、tPSA、 PAP、fPSA/tPSA值联合99m Tc-MDP骨扫描在前列腺癌诊断中的价值%The value of combination serum tumor marker measurement fPSA,tPSA, PAP, the ratio of fPSA/tPSA with 99mTC-MDP bone scanning in the patients with prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婵; 冯雪凤; 刘万红

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of combination"mTc- MDP bone scanning with serum tumor marker free prostate specific antigen (fPSA ) , total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) , prostatic acid phosphatase ( PAP) , the ratio of fPSA/tPSA measurement in the patients with prostate cancer. Methods: 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scanning was performed in 175 patients with prostate cancer,the serum fPSA,tPSA and PAP were measured,and calculating the ratio of fPSA/tPSA. Results: In 175 patients with prostate cancer, the average value of fPSA,tPSA and PAP were significantly higher than the control group (P 50 ng·ml-1 ,it was 58. 97%. Conclusion; Combining fPSA,tPSA,PAP and fPSA/tPSA <0. 20 could increase the sensitivity of diagnosis prostate cancer. 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scanning is considerable screening method in diagnosis osseous metastasis in the patients with prostate cancer, when tPSA increasing, the positive ratio of bone scanning in the patients with prostate cancer is higher and higher.%目的:研究肿瘤标记物fPSA、tPSA、PAP、fPSA/tPSA值联合99mTc-MDP骨扫描在前列腺癌中的诊断价值.方法:对175例初诊前列腺癌患者行99mTc-MDP骨扫描,检测fPSA、tPSA和PAP,并计算出fPSA/tPSA值.结果:在175例前列腺癌患者中,fPSA、tPSA、PAP均高于正常人,fPSA/tPSA值低于正常人,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01);fPSA、tPSA、PAP和fPSA/tPSA<0.20诊断前列腺癌的灵敏度分别为57.71%、69.14%、38.29%和66.29%,fPSA、tPSA和fPSA/tPSA<0.20三项联合检测灵敏性可达87.50%.99mTc-MDP骨扫描阳性病例占36.57% (64/175),阴性病例占63.43%(111/175).骨扫描阳生病例组的fPSA、tPSA和PAP均高于骨扫描阴性病例组(P<0.01).当tPSA< 10 ng·ml-1时,骨扫描阳性病例数占29.87%,当tPSA> 50 ng·ml-1,骨扫描阳性病例数高达58.97%.结论:fPSA、tPSA、PAP和fPSA/tPSA<0.20联合检测可提高诊断前列腺癌的灵敏性.99mTc-MDP核素骨扫描可作为前列腺癌骨

  8. Experimental study of antigenicity test of Sweet Bee Venom in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jun Cho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to examine the antigenic potential of pure melittin (Sweet Bee Venom - SBV extracted from the bee venom by utilizing protein isolation method of gel filtration. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea, authorized a non-clinical studies institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Antigenic potential of SBV was examined by active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA in guinea pigs. SBV was subcutaneously administered at 0.07 and 0.28㎎/㎏and also as a suspension with adjuvant (Freund's complete adjuvant: FCA. Ovalbumin (OVA as a suspension with adjuvant was used to induce positive control response (5㎎/㎖- FCA. Results: 1. In the ASA test, experimental groups showed some symptoms of anaphylaxis like piloerection, hyperpnea and staggering gait. 2. In the PCA test, low dosage group did not show any antibody responses, whereas high dosage group showed positive responses. 3. In the weight measurement and clinical observation, experimental groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 4. In the autopsy of body, the abnormalities of lung were detected in the corpse. This means that the cause of death may induced anaphylactic shock. Conclusions: Above findings suggested that SBV had antigenic potential in guinea pig. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  9. Performance of the ELISA test for swine cysticercosis using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, P S; Vaz, A J; Germano, P M; Nakamura, P M

    2000-02-29

    Studies were conducted to evaluate antigens of Taenia solium (Tso) and Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) cysticerci in the ELISA test for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. The samples analyzed were cysticercosis positive and negative control sera and heterologous sera. Four antigens were assayed: vesicular fluid (VF) and crude (T) Tcra and scolex (S) and crude (T) Tso. All antigens showed good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best followed by T-Tcra. Sensitivity rates of ELISA were respectively, in 2nd and 3rd standard deviation cut-offs, 96.0 and 80.0% for the VF antigen and specificity of 97.5 and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was verified only for hidatidosis and ascaridiosis. Due to the high performance observed, the ELISA test using Tcra antigens should be recommended for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. PMID:10681029

  10. The role of PSA in safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation discusses the following issues: defence in depth principle (the role of the barriers, how does PSA represents the barriers?); the safety management and nuclear power plants; the probabilistic and deterministic approaches; the PSA applications and safety management

  11. Development of a PSA information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  12. Development of a PSA information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  13. [Development of a novel Francisella tularensis antigen stained with tetrazolium-blue for tularemia microagglutination test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2013-07-01

    The isolation of Francisella tularensis in cultures is the reference method for the laboratory diagnosis of tularemia. However, due to the limitations such as the low sensitivity and need for high safety level and equipped laboratories, serologic methods are frequently used as diagnostic tools. F.tularensis-specific antibodies may be demonstrated by several methods, however microagglutination test (MA) remains the most common method with its high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to develop a novel MA test antigen prepared from whole F.tularensis cells and stained with tetrazolium-blue for more clear and easier evaluation. F.tularensis NCTC 10857 strain was cultured on the cysteine heart agar supplemented with 9% sheep blood and bacterial cells were harvested by scraping, collected in physiological saline (PS) and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 minutes. For preparing stock antigen suspension cell concentration was adjusted to OD600=1.5, spectrophotometrically. Tetrazolium-blue solution (BTC [3,3'-(3,3'-Dimethoxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl) bis [2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium dichloride], T4375 Sigma-Aldrich) at the final concentration of 1% was added to cell suspension and incubated at 37°C for 5 hours for absorption. Then, the living cells were chemically inactivated by formaldehyde. Repeating centrifugations were performed to discard excess dye and formaline, then 0.4% formaline saline was added on the sediment. Optimum concentration of this novel antigen (BTC-Ag) for MA test was determined by plate titration method by using standard serum sample with a known MA titer (1/128). The performance of BTC-Ag in MA test was evaluated by using 100 patient sera positive for F.tularensis antibodies, and 100 tularemia negative patient sera (of them 50 were seropositive for brucellosis). All of the results were compared with standard MA test in which safranin-O stained antigen (SO-Ag) was used. There was 100% agreement between the two tests performed with

  14. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  15. Application of a stool antigen test to evaluate the burden of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspepsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rumpa; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Kaur, Navneet; Kumari, Ankita; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) is causally associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. Determination of the prevalence of HP infection in dyspepsia patients' in particular geographical area is imperative for the appropriate management of dyspepsia. HP antigen detection in stool is a noninvasive diagnostic test of HP infection. This prospective study was conducted to find out the prevalence of HP infection based on stool antigen testing in dyspeptic patients who had also undergone upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. This study highlights the high prevalence of HP infection in dyspeptic Indian patients, particularly males, and emphasizes the growing importance of the bacterium causing infection among children. We also found HP stool antigen testing to be superior to upper GI endoscopy for detecting HP infection. Hence, we recommend initial testing for HP stool antigen in dyspeptic patients before initiating treatment and before carrying out any invasive procedure such as endoscopy. PMID:26960639

  16. Field evaluation of latex agglutination test for detecting urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safi, S H; Abdel-Haleem, A; Hammad, A; El-Basha, I; Omer, A; Kareem, H G; Boelaert, M; Chance, M; Hommel, M

    2003-07-01

    A latex agglutination test to detect urinary antigens for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was studied. In 204 patients with suspected VL, KAtex had a sensitivity of 95.2% with good agreement with microscopy smears but poor agreement with 4 different serology tests. It was also positive in 2 confirmed VL cases co-infected with HIV. In all K4tex-positive confirmed cases actively followed up after treatment, the test became negative 1 month after completion of treatment. While IC4tex had a specificity of 100% in healthy endemic and non-endemic controls, the direct agglutination test (DAT) was positive in 14% of the KAtex-negative healthy endemic controls. KAtex is a simple addition to the diagnostics of VL particularly at field level and as a complementary test for the diagnosis of VL in smear-negative cases with positive DAT results. PMID:15748081

  17. The PSA: Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, M.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; Vazquez, J. L.; Arviset, C.; Osuna, P.; PSA development Team

    2012-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. Besides data from the GIOTTO spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations, the PSA contains data from the Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, SMART-1 and Huygens missions. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy interaction with the end-user to input and control the relevant search parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRCS and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, mostly located in Europe. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels

  18. PSA doubling time for prediction of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT findings in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Garcia Parra, Rita [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Picchio, Maria; Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Scattoni, Vincenzo; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Urology, Milan (Italy); Messa, Cristina [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); National Research Council, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Previous studies have shown that the positive detection rate of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) depends on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels. This study compared PSA levels and PSA doubling time (PSADT) to predict [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT findings. PSADT was retrospectively calculated in 170 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy who underwent [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. PSADT was calculated as PSADT = ln2/m, where m is the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA values. At least three PSA measurements were used (median: 4; range: 3-16), separated by at least 3 months, each with a minimum increase of 0.20 ng/ml. PET/CT findings were validated using criteria based on histological analysis and clinical and imaging data. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. The median PSA was 1.25 ng/ml (range: 0.23-48.6 ng/ml), and the median PSADT was 7.0 months (range: 0.97-45.3 months). [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was positive in 75 of 170 patients (44%). PET/CT findings were validated using histological criteria (11%) and clinical and imaging criteria (89%). The overall accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was 88%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that high PSA and short PSADT were significant (p < 0.05) predictors of positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT [PSA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.78; PSADT: OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21]. The percentage of patients with positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was 27% for PSADT >6 months, 61% for PSADT between 3 and 6 months and 81% for PSADT <3 months. The percentage of patients who displayed pathological [{sup 11}C

  19. PSA bounce after {sup 125}I-brachytherapy for prostate cancer as a favorable prognosticator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeler, Daniel S.; Schwab, Christoph; Schmid, Hans-Peter [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Urology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Thoeni, Armin F. [Lindenhofspital Berne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berne (Switzerland); Hochreiter, Werner [Hirslanden Klinik Aarau, Department of Urology, Aarau (Switzerland); Prikler, Ladislav [Klinik Uroviva Buelach, Department of Urology, Buelach (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Zug, Department of Urology, Zug (Switzerland); Stucki, Patrick [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Department of Urology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Schiefer, Johann; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Putora, Paul Martin [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    Permanent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) with iodine 125 is an established curative treatment for localized prostate cancer. After treatment, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics may show a transient rise (PSA bounce). Our aim was to investigate the association of PSA bounce with biochemical control. Patients treated with BT in Switzerland were registered in a prospective database. Only patients with a follow-up of at least 2 years were included in our analysis. Clinical follow-up and PSA measurements were assessed after 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter. If PSA increased, additional follow-up visits were scheduled. Cases of PSA bounce were defined as a rise of at least 0.2 ng/ml above the initial PSA nadir with a subsequent decline to or below the initial nadir without treatment. Biochemical failure was defined as a rise to nadir + 2 ng/ml. Between March 2001 and November 2010, 713 patients with prostate cancer undergoing BT with at least 2 years of follow-up were registered. Median follow-up time was 41 months. Biochemical failure occurred in 28 patients (3.9 %). PSA bounce occurred in 173 (24.3 %) patients; only three (1.7 %) patients with PSA bounce developed biochemical failure, in contrast to 25 (4.6 %) patients without previous bounce (p < 0.05). The median time to bounce was 12 months, the median time to biochemical failure was 30 months. The median bounce increase was 0.78 ng/ml. Twenty-eight patients with bounce (16.5 %) had a transient PSA rise of + 2 ng/ml above the nadir. In most cases, an early increase in PSA after BT indicates PSA bounce and is associated with a lower risk of biochemical failure. (orig.) [German] Die permanente Low-dose-rate-Brachytherapie (BT) mit {sup 125}I ist ein etabliertes kuratives Verfahren bei lokalisiertem Prostatakarzinom. Posttherapeutisch koennen die PSA-Konzentrationen einen voruebergehenden Anstieg zeigen (Bounce-Phaenomen). Untersucht werden sollte ein moeglicher Zusammenhang mit der

  20. State of living PSA and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1985 OECD-Principal Working Group (PWG 5) - Risk Assessment has initiated the Task Force 7 'Use of PSA in Nuclear Power Plant Management' to explore and report on the principles, characteristics, requirements and status of PSA oriented safety management. During this study, it became apparent that the utilisation of PSA techniques in nuclear plant safety management requires the development of supporting programmes to ensure that PSA models are being updated to reflect plant changes, and to direct their use towards the evaluation and determination of plant changes. These requirements also influence the software and hardware characteristics necessary to support the programme. This overall process is known as Living PSA. In this context OECD-PWG 5 has arranged international workshops on Living PSA application to support this development, to facilitate exchange of international experience and to summarise the state-of-the-art of L-PSA methodology. These activities were accompanied by following Task Groups of OECD-PWG 5 and the work results were published in state-of-the-art reports. According to the increasing development of Living PSA in the international field and its capacity to support plant safety management in a broad sense, OECD PWG 5 continues its work in setting up the Task Group 96-1 'State of Living PSA and Further Development' to clarify specific aspects of Living PSA. This report summarises the state of Living PSA in the international field based on the four Living PSA Workshops from 1988 to 1994 (Chapter 2) and the state of Reliability Data Collection based on the results of Task Group 12 'Reliability Data Collection and Analysis to Support PSA' and the two Data-Workshops from 1995 and 1998 (Chapter 3). The specific items of further development of Living PSA application as mentioned above are treated in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 gives a summary of the current state of Living PSA as well as outlook and recommendations of further development

  1. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docters, E.H.; Smolko, E.E. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Direccion de Radioisotopos y Radiaciones); Suarez, C.E. (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Castelar (Argentina))

    1990-01-01

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All these grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA). (author).

  2. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docters, E. H.; Smolko, E. E.; Suarez, C. E.

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All this grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA).

  3. Predictors of mortality after prostate-specific antigen failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We identified factors associated with the length of survival after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 81 of 206 men enrolled on a randomized trial evaluating external-beam radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen suppression therapy (AST) and who experienced PSA failure. Salvage AST was administered at a PSA level of ∼10 ng/mL as per protocol. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with length of survival after PSA failure. Results: A PSA DT (doubling time) 12, 6-12, or <6 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age and a PSA DT <6 months at the time of PSA failure are associated with a significantly shorter survival

  4. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population:the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wen Gao; Masaaki Kuwahara; Xue-Jian Zhao; Yu-Lin Li; Shan Wu; Yi-Shu Wang; Hai-Feng Zhang; Yu-Zhuo Pan; Ling Zhang; Hiroo Tateno; Ikuro Sato

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods: A total of 12 027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) test (oy Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was >4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Results: Of the 12 027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were >4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA <4.0 ng/mL] who had obstructive symptoms) undertook prostate biopsy. Of the 158 biopsies, 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma were found (25.9 %, 41/158). The moderately differentiated carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma accounted for 61% and 34%, respectively. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA and the Gleason scores in the 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.312, P < 0.01) was established. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA value of the 41 prostatic carcinoma and the positive counts of carcinoma in sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P < 0.01), indicating a significant linear relationship between serum tPSA and the size of tumor.Conclusion: This study was the first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  5. Towards a credible PSA fit for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is an effective tool to enhance plant safety, and to operate nuclear facilities in the most efficient manner. However, a PSA that is to be used as a day to day tool for decision making at NPPs has to reflect the actual design and operational features of the plant as accurate as possible and it must be of high quality. The first requirement can best be fulfilled with the Living PSA Concept, while the latter considerably depends on the Quality Assurance for the PSA project. The IAEA has made a considerable effort to support the development of technical capabilities for PSA in Member States and in writing technical oriented procedures for carrying out PSA. However, PSA reviews show that there are still some aspects, such as quality assurance, that need to be stressed further. With his background in mind, the IAEA has, during the last two years, been working on Living PSA and Quality Assurance for PSA. The draft TECDOCs prepared during these activities, ''Requirements for Living PSA'' and ''A framework for a Quality Assurance programme for PSA'' are summarized in this paper. (author)

  6. The accuracy of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test in diagnosing H-pylori in treated and untreated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NL; van Zwet, AA; Thijs, JC; de Jong, A; Pool, MO; Kleibeuker, JH

    2001-01-01

    Objective and design To evaluate the performance of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA test) in detecting H. pylori infection and monitoring the effect of treatment. This was done in two separate studies using either a biopsy or the C-13-urea breath test based 'gold standard' (in untre

  7. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  8. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of gastric infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the accuracy of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test (HpSA), compared with endoscopic histopathology for the diagnosis of gastric Helicobecter pylori infection. A total of 50 patients underwent endoscopy for gastric antral mucosal tissue biopsy for histopathology of H.pylori and advised for HpSA. Patient's information including age, gender, past history, presenting signs and symptoms, results of HpSA and histopathology were recorded. Sensitivity analysis was performed to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of HpSA. Among 50 patients, 48% males and 52% females (M: F 1: 1.08), a total of 27 (54%) were true positive while 20 (40%) were true negative. Two patients were false negative and only one was false positive. Sensitivity of HpSA was, therefore, 93.1%, specificity 95% and positive and negative predictive values were 96.42% and 90.9% respectively. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen was an accurate and reliable test for the diagnosis of gastric H. pylori infection. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the antigenicity of hydrolyzed cow's milk protein formulas using the mouse basophil activation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Takeshi; Nakazato, Yuki; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas are widely used for infants with cow's milk allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the mouse basophil activation test (BAT) in the evaluation of residual antigenicity in these formulas. Whole blood samples derived from β-lactoglobulin- or casein-immunized mice were incubated with one of the following formulas: conventional, partially hydrolyzed, or extensively hydrolyzed. Basophilic activation was analyzed by flow cytometry using an IgE-dependent activation marker CD200R1 and an IgG-dependent activation marker CD200R3. Systemic anaphylaxis was induced by i.v. injection of milk formula and results were compared. Conventional formula induced pronounced changes in CD200R1 and CD200R3 expression on basophils, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not elicit any changes in these markers. Similarly, challenge with conventional formula induced anaphylaxis, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not induce anaphylaxis. Although the partially hydrolyzed formula also induced basophilic activation and systemic anaphylaxis, the magnitude of these effects was smaller than that observed with the conventional formula. Compared to CD200R1, the observed trend in CD200R3 expression resembled the results obtained from systemic anaphylaxis test more closely. These findings show that mouse BAT, in particular using CD200R3, is highly useful for the evaluation of antigenicity of milk formulas. PMID:26626100

  10. The test of hepatitis C virus antigen by ELISA for clinical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a testing technique for early clinical diagnosis of HCV infection by detecting HCV antigen(HCAg) through testing serum samples by ELISA, HCV polyclonal antibodies were prepared from animals immunized by mutliepitope complex antigen of HCV expressed by E. coli. Using antibody sandwiched ELISA to detect the HCAg from serum samples, we analyzed the positive rate of HCAg and compared it with the findings of RT-PCR. The positive rate of HCAg was 53.7% from 95 serum samples of the HCAb positive cases; the positive rate of HCAg was 37.5% from 88 serum samples of serious hepatic damage cases, and 11.0% from 73 serum samples of high ALT but with negative HCAb. The results showed that HCAg was related with HCAb(r=0.5076,P<0.01). In 87.5% of the cases, both HCAg and HCV-RNA were positive as compared with RT-PCR. The ELISA method of HCVAg that we developed is a possible technique for early clinical diagnosis of HCV infection. (authors)

  11. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. |

  12. Infographic: Benefits and Harms of PSA Screening for Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more has been learned about the benefits and harms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, organizations have begun to recommend against routine screening. Screening is a personal decision that, according to most experts, a man should make in consultation with his doctor, after he has been informed in detail about the potential benefits and harms. |

  13. Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pereira Silva

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum IgG antibodies in Western blotting (WB using a Strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. In addition, the WB results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT results. Serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, and 40 healthy individuals. S. ratti was obtained from fecal culture of experimentally infected Rattus rattus. For IFAT, S. ratti larvae were used as antigen and S. ratti larval antigenic extracts were employed in WB and ELISA. Eleven S. ratti antigenic components were predominantly recognized by IgG antibodies in sera of patients with strongyloidiasis. There was a positive concordance for the three tests in 87.5% of the cases of strongyloidiasis. The negative concordance in the three tests was 94% and 97.5%, in patients with other intestinal parasitoses and healthy individuals, respectively. In cases of positive ELISA and negative IFAT results, diagnosis could be confirmed by WB. ELISA, IFAT, and WB using S. ratti antigens showed a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, WB using S. ratti larval extract was able to recognize 11 immunodominant antigenic components, showing to be a useful tool to define the diagnosis in cases of equivocal serology.

  14. Chlamydial antigens stabilized with formalin for use in the micro-immunofluorescence test.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H

    1980-01-01

    Formalinized antigen suspensions prepared by differential centrifugation from crude infected yolk sacs and stored at 4 degrees C were satisfactory antigens during at least 36 weeks when used in chlamydial micro-immunofluorescence procedures.

  15. Hiperplasia Prostática Benigna e PSA: o efeito dominó Benign prostatic hyperplasia and PSA: the domino effect Hiperplasia benigna de prostata y PSA: el efecto dominó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Agostinho Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Após a publicação de uma recomendação contra o rastreio câncer prostático pela U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, a comunidade médica não poderá desvincular-se das particularidades relacionadas com o antígeno prostático específico (PSA. O enfoque dado às guidelines da Hiperplasia Prostática surge pela possível partilha, a determinado ponto da sua abordagem, de um trilho que cursa também com a solicitação do PSA. Os resultados de dois grandes ensaios clínicos constituem o maior corpo da evidência actual e deles sobressai que o número de homens que evitaram a morte por câncer prostático após submetidos ao rastreio foi reduzido. Há evidência de que 100-200 em 1000 homens rastreados terão um falso-positivo, a maioria dos quais será biopsada, com possíveis danos psicológicos e orgânicos. O Médico de Família deverá relembrar que não é recomendado que se ofereça esta análise, sem que primeiro discuta, juntamente com o paciente, as questões inerentes ao PSA.

    After U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published a recommendation against prostate cancer screening, the medical community cannot extricate itself from all specific features associated with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA. The focus given to the guidelines of the Prostatic Hyperplasia happens for the possible sharing of a certain point of its approach with the prostatic cancer case-finding, that is the PSA test. The results of two large clinical trials represent the largest body of evidence and they say the number of men who avoided prostate cancer death after subjected to screening was reduced. There is evidence that 100-200 in 1000 screened men will have a false-positive, most of which will have a biopsy with possible psychological damage and organic. The GP should remember that it is not recommended to provide this test, without first discussing together with

  16. Status of the PSA use in the Czech regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of previous probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) activities initiated by regulatory body and preparation of the preliminary PSA study and final PSA study (released in January 1994) for the nuclear power plant Dukovany with WWER-440 type 213 reactor is described. A brief information about the NPP Temelin (with WWER-1000) PSA Study, shutdown and PSA risk monitor current activities for the NPP Dukovany, next PSA activities in 1994 and about planned PSA activities in future is attached. (author). 21 refs

  17. The effect of high level natural ionizing radiation on expression of PSA, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in blood serum of inhabitants of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since several high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) exist on our planet, considerable attention has been drawn to health issues that may develop as the result of visiting or living in such places. City of Ramsar in Iran is an HNLRA, and is a tourist attraction mainly due to its hot spas. However, the growing awareness over its natural radiation sources has prompted widespread scientific investigation at national level. In this study, using an ELISA method, the level of expression of three tumor markers known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcino antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in blood serum of 40 local men of Ramsar (subject group) was investigated and compared to 40 men from the city of Noshahr (control group). Noshahr was previously identified as a normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) that is some 85 km far from Ramsar. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers between the two groups (p < 0.001) with those of Ramsar being considerably higher. CEA level did not show any difference. Although some of the volunteers tested positive to the markers, they were in good health as confirmed by the physician. Moreover, the high number of positive markers in Noshahr was considerable. Therefore, future study is needed to further validate this result and to determine the level of positivity to tumor markers in both cities. -- Highlights: • Expression of three tumor markers was examined in 80 volunteers from Ramsar. • There was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers. • Some of the volunteers from the control city of Noshahr also tested positive. • Radiation might have caused an adaptive response in people of Ramsar. • Further study is necessary to re-confirm the positivity to tumor marker

  18. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test. PMID:27185543

  19. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  20. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets

  1. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  2. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) papillomaviruses: vaccine antigen candidates and screening test development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehtanz, Manuela; Bossart, Gregory D; Doescher, Bethany; Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc; Fair, Patricia A; Jenson, Alfred B; Ghim, Shin-Je

    2009-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) have been shown as being the etiologic agents of various benign and malignant tumours in many vertebrate species. In dolphins and porpoises, a high prevalence of orogenital tumours has recently been documented with at least four distinct novel species-specific PV types detected in such lesions. Therefore, we generated the immunological reagents to establish a serological screening test to determine the prevalence of PV infection in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins [(Tursiops truncatus (Tt)]. Using the baculovirus expression system, virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from the L1 proteins of two TtPV types, TtPV1 and TtPV2, were generated. Polyclonal antibodies against TtPV VLPs were produced in rabbits and their specificity for the VLPs was confirmed. Electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies revealed that the generated VLPs self-assembled into particles presenting conformational immunodominant epitopes. As such, these particles are potential antigen candidates for a TtPV vaccine. Subsequently, the VLPs served as antigens in initial ELISA tests using sera from six bottlenose dolphins to investigate PV antibody presence. Three of these sera were derived from dolphins with genital tumour history and showed positive PV ELISA reactivity, while the remaining sera from lesion-free dolphins were PV antibody-negative. The results suggest that the developed screening test may serve as a potential tool for determining PV prevalence and thus for observing transmission rates in dolphin populations as the significance of PV infection in cetaceans starts to unfold. PMID:18676105

  3. PSA, subjective probability and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSA is the natural way to making decisions in face of uncertainty relative to potentially dangerous plants; subjective probability, subjective utility and Bayes statistics are the ideal tools for carrying out a PSA. This paper reports that in order to support this statement the various stages of the PSA procedure are examined in detail and step by step the superiority of Bayes techniques with respect to sampling theory machinery is proven

  4. Development and perspectives of PSA in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade the GDA/PSA has carried out the pre-operational PSA task for the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. Since 1991 the work has been accomplished in the frames of the IAEA Technical Assistance Project CUB/9/008. The paper describes the stages of this study, (concluding with the Final Report of the pre-operational Level 1 PSA Rev. O), its assumptions, limitations and the main results and concluding remarks

  5. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  6. Status and use of PSA in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance and use of PSA:s in Sweden goes back about two decades. During all of this time, the field of PSA has been developing intensively, both internationally and within Sweden. The latest years have been characterised by an increased use of PSA models and results, and by major extensions of existing PSA models. The aim of this document is to describe PSA in Sweden with respect to development, scope and maturity, as well as to the contents of the analyses and the use of results. PSA activities will be described from the point of view of both the authorities and the utilities. The report gives an overview of the development within the area of PSA in Sweden both its history and current trends. The aim has been to include a reasonable amount of detail, both on the methods and results in PSA:s performed and on the numerous supporting research programs dealing with various aspects of PSA. 39 refs 39 refs

  7. The clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of serum PSA and PAP determinations in diagnosis of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The serum PSA and PAP levels of 98 prostate cancer patients, 45 prostate benign disease patients and 40 normal subjects were tested by IRMA. Results: The serum PSA and PAP levels of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those in prostate benign disease patients and normal controls (P < 0.01). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PSA for prostate cancer were 93.9% and 93.3% respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum PAP for prostate cancer were 71.4% and 91.1% respectively. Conclusion: The determination of serum PSA and PAP was of high clinical value for diagnosis of early prostate cancer. It could be used as an important reference parameter for the clinical staging, follow-up of treatment result and prediction of prognosis

  8. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  9. Detection of Brucella antigen in the aborted ovine fetal stomach contents using a modified ELISA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. M. Al-Nima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two flocks of sheep suffering from abortion in Mosul city, Iraq. The clinical findings in ewes were abortion during the 3-4 months of gestation period in the both flocks. The total percentage of abortion was 11.7 %, whereas stillbirth percentage was 4 %. Brucella spp. was isolated from four (33.3 % of the 12 samples (stomach contents of the aborted fetuses. All culture – positive samples had also positive with direct smears. By a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Brucella antigens were detected in the fetal stomach contents of 5 samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The test had a good negative predictive value but only a moderate positive predictive value. Therefore, the test would be useful for confirming the existence of suspect disease. Comparison of modified ELISA with bacterial isolation demonstrated a close agreement (Kappa value = 0.92. Of the 12 serum samples from aborted ewes, eight samples were positive with Rose Bengle test (66.7 %, more than 10 samples (83.3 % were detected by indirect ELISA test.

  10. EVA: An integrated information system for living PSA management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operating life of a nuclear power plant, many changes occur in components, systems, and operating procedures which continuously modify the configuration of the power plant. Performance of a PSA requires an updated model of plant configuration at a given time, and due to the dynamic nature of plant operation this model becomes quickly obsolete. This issue, together with the big amount of information involved, make of capital importance the use of a computer software tool in order to obtain an immediate revision of a PSA. In this context, UITESA has developed a PC software tool to be used on living PSA projects (EVA), which allows an easy query and update of PSA evaluation. EVA has been built as a relational data base core and several independent modules sharing this data base information. Main characteristics and functionality of this tool are discussed on this paper: Relational data base core, which includes information about systems, components, allocations, segments, basic events, fault trees, initiating events, sequences, tests and maintenance procedures on components, etc.; menu based interface to data base updating and queries; automatic quantification procedure; automatic data based updating as result of modifications on components test and maintenance procedures, failure rates, etc.; sensibility, importance and uncertainty analysis of quantified models; automatic document edition tool; automatic modular fault tree generation in basis of simplified system diagrams. (author)

  11. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. PMID:22841669

  12. Arraying prostate specific antigen PSA and Fab anti-PSA using light assisted molecular immobilization technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parracino, Antonietta; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Gennaro, Ane Kold Di;

    2010-01-01

    Continuous 295nm excitation of bovine apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-bLA) results in an increase of tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield and in a progressive red-shift in tryptophan fluorescence emission. Furthermore, 295nm excitation in apo-bLA leads to disulphide bridges breakage, leading to free thio...

  13. Diagnostic value of [-2]proPSA and PHI index (review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sidorenkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels resulted in an increasing number of performed prostate biopsies and the lower age-adjusted PSA threshold led to a larger number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. Today prostate cancer (PC is identified in only 35% of the patients with a total PSA level of 4–10 ng/ml and PSA-negative PC occurs in 20–25%. Obviously, PSA as an independent marker has exhausted its diagnostic potentialities. The new PC markers presented in the literature indubitably deserve close attention and further investigation. The most promising markers also include [-2]proPSA and PHI index. According to the latest evidence available in the literature now, [-2]proPSA and PHI index are the best predictors of PC during both primary and secondary prostate biopsy. Some publications show it possible to use the PHI index in planning both primary and secondary prostate biopsies, by constructing risk normograms, in combination with other individual patient examination parameters, including those with the other latest biomarkers of PC. The use of [-2]proPSA and PHI index in everyday practice can assist in increasing the specificity of PC diagnosis and reducing the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. The apparent importance of the diagnosis of PC at its early stages (including that using the PHI index made us investigate this topic. Despite a great number of printed papers dealing with this problem, their number continues to increase, but clear guides to make actions in this field are yet to be elaborated and a decision on each specific case is made individually.

  14. Stool antigen tests in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lea Veijola; Eveliina Myllyluoma; Riitta Korpela; Hilpi Rautelin

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate two enzyme immunoassay-based stool antigen tests, Premier Platinum HpSA and Amplified IDEIA HpStAR, and one rapid test, ImmunoCard STAT! HpSA, in the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and after eradication therapy.METHODS: Altogether 1 574 adult subjects were screened with a whole-blood H pylori antibody test and positive results were confirmed with locally validated serology and 13C-urea breath test. All 185 subjects,confirmed to be H pylori positive, and 97 H pylorinegative individuals, randomly selected from the screened study population and with negative results in serology and UBT, were enrolled. After eradication therapy the results of 182 subjects were assessed.RESULTS: At baseline, the sensitivity of HpSA and HpStAR was 91.9% and 96.2%, respectively, and specificity was 95.9% for both tests. ImmunoCard had sensitivity of 93.0% but specificity of only 88.7%. After eradication therapy, HpSA and HpStAR had sernsitivity of 81.3% and 100%, and specificity of 97.0% and 97.6%,respectively. ImmunoCard had sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 97.0%. HpSA, HpStAR, and ImmunoCard had PPV 77%, 80%, and 75%, and NPV 98%, 100%,and 99%, respectively.CONCLUSION: In primary diagnosis, the EIA-based tests performed well. After eradication therapy, negative results were highly accurate for all the three tests.HpStAR had the best overall performance.

  15. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  16. Impact of pathological tumor stage for salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate-specific antigen < 1.0 ng/ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate prognostic factors in salvage radiotherapy (RT) for patients with pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 1.0 ng/ml. Between January 2000 and December 2009, 102 patients underwent salvage RT for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Re-failure of PSA after salvage RT was defined as a serum PSA value of 0.2 ng/ml or more above the postradiotherapy nadir followed by another higher value, a continued rise in serum PSA despite salvage RT, or initiation of systemic therapy after completion of salvage RT. Biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The median follow-up period was 44 months (range, 11-103 months). Forty-three patients experienced PSA re-failure after salvage RT. The 4-year bRFS was 50.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 39.4-62.5%). In the log-rank test, pT3-4 (p < 0.001) and preoperative PSA (p = 0.037) were selected as significant factors. In multivariate analysis, only pT3-4 was a prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 3.512 [95% CI: 1.535-8.037], p = 0.001). The 4-year bRFS rates for pT1-2 and pT3-4 were 79.2% (95% CI: 66.0-92.3%) and 31.7% (95% CI: 17.0-46.4%), respectively. In patients who have received salvage RT after RP with PSA < 1.0 ng/ml, pT stage and preoperative PSA were prognostic factors of bRFS. In particular, pT3-4 had a high risk for biochemical recurrence after salvage RT

  17. Production of Recombinant Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B Subunits, In Order to Using Of Them in Serodiagnostic Tests of Hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pazoki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatidosis is one of the most important helminthiasis, and is a public health problem in many regions of the world. Methods: With the aim of production of recombinant subunits of antigen B, two different sequences of Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B, acquired from Gene Bank and amplified with specific primers via RT-PCR reaction. The amplified fragments (HI, HII cloned into pTZ57R T.vector, and then subcloned into pGEMEX-1 expression vector. Resaults: The SDS-PAGE performed after induction of cloned genes, and production of about 35 K.Da recombinant fusion proteins were confirmed for either two cloned genes. The immunogenicity of the recombinant fusion proteins were tested using double diffusion and immunoblotting. Both recombinant fusion proteins derived from lysate of transformed bacteria, were reactive for antibodies in serum of cystic hydatid patient. Conclusion: The produced recombinant antigen B subunits can be use in seroldiagnostic tests of hydatidosis, after purification.

  18. A comparative study of antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients and soil of ornamental plants in the immunodiffusion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib, F; Folkens, U; Tompak, B; Abel, T; Thiel, D

    1978-11-01

    The strikingly frequent and constant presence of Aspergillus fimigatus in the soil of potted ornamental plants kept in private houses and hospitals has been the reason for studying the antigens of the strains found from the diagnostic and epidemiological angles. Culture-filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus strains isolated from the soil of 4 different ornamental plants, epiphyllum (Epiphyllum truncatum), orange tree (Citrus sinensis), Alpine rose (Azalea indica) and Christmas flower (Euphorbia pulcherrima), were compared, in the immunodiffusion test, with antigens of A. fumigatus strains from aspergillosis patients prepared in an identical way. When tested against 8 different sera from different aspergillosis patients there was a good coincidence of results. Control sera from patients suffering from diseases other than aspergillosis, no false-positive reactions could be observed. The findings are discussed in respect of diagnosis and epidemiology. PMID:83753

  19. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens. In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  20. PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation discusses the PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events, including the following: historical background, procedures for event evaluation using PSA, use of PSA for event rating, current activities

  1. On-line maintenance PSA support at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 Krsko NPP initiated the on-line maintenance (OLM) practice. On-line maintenance constitutes of corrective activities, preventive activities, surveillance activities, tests and inspections, as well as calibrations and modifications, taking place during the normal power operations. The on-line maintenance is a multidisciplinary process consisting of activity specification, planning, and preparation and performing of the OLM activity of interest. The primary role of the PSA group is to assess from the risk perspective, using the plant-specific NEK PSA model, system unavailability and the impact to the plant operational risk. The intent is to support planning of the on-line maintenance activities from the risk perspective. The risk evaluation of the OLM activities is based on the probability of core damage evaluation for the defined discrete plant configuration states, determined by the OLM activities. Within this application, the optimized, plant-specific PSA model is used on Risk Spectrum platform. To perform the risk assessment of the on-line maintenance activities, first the systems to be affected are defined based on the planned OLM activities. The next important step is the assessment of the planned work schedule. To define the final schedule, the co-ordination and optimizing the planned OLM activities needs activation of all participating departments, supported also from PSA group. The P3 (i.e. Primavera) planning tool system windows are defined for different systems and groups of systems, and the activities are sorted in particular weeks according to these windows. (author)

  2. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Kimberly Y Won; Lammie, Patrick J; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded ...

  3. Studies into laboratory animals for clearance rate of 32P-labelled Brucellae, using antigen elimination test after biotechnological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were performed for the purpose of assessment of the immune status of mice, with regard to literature data and taking into consideration the large-scale use of veterinary pharmaceuticals for biotechnological control of reproduction. The antigen elimination test with Brucellae was applied to ICR mice but no influence on the immune status of 6 consecutive generations could be demonstrated. (author)

  4. [Modified Gedelisa test (electrophoresis in gradient of polyacrylamide gel combined with Elisa test). Applications to Toxoplasma gondii exo-antigens (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgeorges, P T; Ambroise-Thomas, P; Falanga, P; Renversez, J C

    1980-01-01

    The authors describe a modified Gedelisa test made up an electrophorese in gradient polyacrylamide gel plus an Elisa test. The gel gradient, after electrophoretic migration is cut longitudinaly. One half is stained with Coomassie blue and the second half is cut in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice is placed in a well of a microtitration polystirene plate, filled up with carbonate buffer pH 9,6 and then scrached. Proteins diffuse out of the gel and coated on the polystirene. The antigenicity of the coated proteins is revealed by Elisa test. This technique was applied to the study of Toxoplasma gondii exo-antigens obtained from medium of in vitro culture on Vero cells. This antigen contains four fractions, three of them are stained with Coomassie blue, their molecular weights are 160 000, 830 000 and more than one million daltons. PMID:7212392

  5. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Babych YeM; Yelyseyeva IV; Zhdamarova LA; Belozersky VI; Bobireva IV

    2013-01-01

    It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg), control ones are fed to saline. In a week ...

  6. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  7. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  8. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC method namely direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT. A total number of 119 brain samples were achieved from Bukittinggi Veterinary Laboratory, West Sumatra. Standardisation and validation of the method were compared to Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT as a golden standard for rabies diagnosis. Results show that dRIT was a very good method, it can be performed within two hours without the need of fluorescent microscope. The samples were tested using FAT and from 119 samples tested, 80 (67.23% samples were positive for rabies and 39 (32.77% samples were negative for rabies whereas using dRIT showed that 78 (65.54% samples were positive for rabies and 41 (34.45% samples were negative for rabies. The dRIT results were validated by comparing them with FAT results as a golden standard for rabies. The relative sensitivity of dRIT to FAT was 97.5% and the relative specificity to FAT was 100% (with Kappa value of 0.976, stated as excellent. The achievement showed that dRIT is very potential diagnostic tool and is highly recommended to be used widely as a rapid diagnosis tool for rabies.

  9. Antibodies to the enterobacterial common antigen: standardization of the passive hemagglutination test and levels in normal human sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Malkamäki, M

    1981-01-01

    The passive hemagglutination test for antibodies against the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) of Kunin was standardized for diagnostic purposes. Human erythrocytes were coated with a soluble ECA+ preparation from Salmonella typhimurium or, as specificity controls, with a similar ECA- preparation from congenic ECA-negative bacteria with saline, and the hemagglutination assay was performed on microtiter plates. The specificity of the test was ascertained further by inhibition assays with pu...

  10. Improvement of Level-1 PSA computer code package -A study for nuclear safety improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year is the second year of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on 'The Improvement of Level-1 PSA Computer Codes' is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the under-developed fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and external events, (2) Computer code package development for Level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in the area of PSA methodology development, foreign PSA reports on shutdown and external events have been reviewed and various PSA methodologies have been compared. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP and CCF analysis code COCOA are converted from KOS to Windows. Human reliability database has been also established in this year. In the area of new technology applications, fuzzy set theory and entropy theory are used to estimate component life and to develop a new measure of uncertainty importance. Finally, in the field of application study of PSA technique to reactor regulation, a strategic study to develop a dynamic risk management tool PEPSI and the determination of inspection and test priority of motor operated valves based on risk importance worths have been studied. (Author)

  11. Immunoasssay Chromatographic Antigen Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Pharyngitis in Children: A Cross/ Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Noorbakhsh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharyngeal specimens of 34.5% of cases by rapid strip test. We detected group A Streptococcus in 17.2% of pharyngeal culture. There was no agreement between two methods ( PV < 0.1. The negative pharyngeal culture results are probably due to antibiotic usage in 43.2 % of patients. Positive rapid test results in pharyngeal swab was age dependent ( P < 0.05. There was good correlation between observing the "petechia in pharynx of patients" and positive rapid test in pharyngeal swab (P < 0.004. Throat culture results were relatated to previous antibiotic usage ( P < 0.03.Conclusion: The rapid test in pharyngeal swab is helpful for rapid diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. Diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis based on soley clinical findings is misleading in the majority of cases. Petechia observed in pharynx of the cases was highly predictive of streptococcal pharyngitis.

  12. Clinical value of Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for detecting H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hui Li; Hong Guo; Peng-Bin Zhang; Xiao-Yan Zhao; Si-Ping Da

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reliability of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for detecting H pylori infection.METHODS: Stool specimens were collected from 53 patients who received upper endoscopy examination due to gastrointestinal symptoms. ImmunoCard STAT HpSA wasused to detect H pylori stool antigens. H pyloriinfection wasdetected based on three different tests: the urease test, Warthin-Starry staining and culture. H pylori status wasdefined as positive when both the urease test and histology or culture alone was positive.RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values and the total accuracy of ImmunoCard STAT HpSA for the diagnosis of H pylorinfection were 92.6% (25/27), 88.5% (23/26), 89.3% (25/28), 92%(23/25) and 90.6% (48/53), respectively.CONCLUSION: The stool antigen test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, is a simple noninvasive and accurate test for the diagnosis of H pyloriinfection.

  13. Correlation Between MRS and Serum PSA in the Diagnosis of Local Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafuri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multifocality, multicentricity and extension beyond the prostate capsule are all characteristics of prostatic adenocarcinoma that may escape diagnosis by conventional CT scanning or MRI. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in prostatic carcinoma and its compatibility with prostatic specific antigen (PSA as the conventional method.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 139 patients with previous radical prostatectomy referring to Radiology department of Hazrate-e-Rasul Hospital during the first half of 2011 for the evaluation of local recurrence. Traditionally, local recurrence is defined as serum PSA concentration >0.2 ng/dl. We used 1.5-tesla Siemens Avanto MRI unit with endorectal coil and measured creatine, choline and citrate levels before calculating choline-creatine/citrate ratio. Correlation between MRS findings with PSA concentration was evaluated in regards to the multiple levels of the previously mentioned ratio.Results: Local recurrence was found in 107 (77% patients based on PSA levels. The mean values for serum PSA levels and creatine-choline/citrate ratio were significantly different in patients with and without local recurrence. Creatine-choline/citrate ratios greater than 50, 100 and 150 (as different cut-off points of recurrence were respectively seen in 104, 102 and 97 patients and agreement ratio between MRS and PSA in these levels were 94.1%, 94.4% and 85.1%, respectively. Correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.481.Conclusion: MRS is a valuable tool for evaluating recurrence inpatients with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy and it is in good agreement with serum PSA levels.

  14. Isotope and Patient Age Predict for PSA Spikes After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in low-risk patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 164 prostate cancer patients who were part of a prospective randomized trial comparing 103Pd and 125I for low-risk disease. Of the 164 patients, 61 (37.2%) received short-course androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. On average, 11.1 post-treatment PSA measurements were obtained per patient. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined as a PSA level of ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. A PSA spike was defined as an increase of ≥0.2 ng/mL, followed by a durable decline to prespike levels. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors for a PSA spike. Results: Of the 164 patients, 44 (26.9%) developed a PSA spike. Of the 46 hormone-naive 125I patients and 57 hormone-naive 103Pd patients, 21 (45.7%) and 8 (14.0%) developed a PSA spike. In the hormone-naive patients, the mean time between implantation and the spike was 22.6 months and 18.7 months for 125I and 103Pd, respectively. In patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, the incidence of spikes was comparable between isotopes (125I 28.1% and 103Pd 20.7%). The incidence of spikes was substantially different in patients 125I and/or <65 years of age. Differences in isotope-related spikes are most pronounced in hormone-naive patients

  15. Evaluation of Diagnos Malaria Stix test (antigen detection assay) for diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haris M; Shujatullah, Fatima; Shahid, M; Raza, Adil; Malik, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Malaria is one of the most common parasitic infection in India. The diagnosis largely depends on peripheral blood smear examination. Newer diagnostic methods like various antigen detection assays are now in use for prompt diagnosis and treatment. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of Diagnos Malaria Stix (antigen detection) assay in diagnosis of malaria. This involves detection of PfHRP-2 antigen and P.V. specific pLDH antigen. 162 patients with signs and symptoms of malaria included in the study. Leishman stained blood smear examination was done for all patients. Commercially available Diagnos Malaria Stix assay was used. Diagnos Malaria Stix showed sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values of 100% each while Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Leishman stained blood smear examination were 45.45%, 100%, 100% and 92% respectively. PMID:22471175

  16. Comparative evaluation of recombinant LigB protein and heat-killed antigen-based latex agglutination test with microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingam, Mohandoss; Thirumalesh, Sushma Rahim Assadi; Kalleshamurthy, Triveni; Niharika, Nakkala; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Shome, Rajeswari; Sengupta, Pinaki Prasad; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein (LigB) (rLigB) antigen and compare its diagnostic efficacy with LAT using conventional heat-killed leptospiral antigen and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in diagnosing bovine leptospirosis. The PCR-amplified 1053-bp ligB gene sequences from Leptospira borgpetersenii Hardjo serovar were cloned in pET 32 (a) vector at EcoRI and NotI sites and expressed in BL21 E. coli cells as fusion protein with thioredoxin (-57 kDa) and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. Out of 390 serum samples [cattle (n = 214), buffaloes (n = 176)] subjected to MAT, 115 samples showed reciprocal titre≥100 up to 1600 against one or more serovars. For recombinant LigB protein/antigen-based LAT, agglutination was observed in the positive sample, while no agglutination was observed in the negative sample. Similarly, heat-killed leptospiral antigen was prepared from and used in LAT for comparison with MAT. A two-sided contingency table was used for analysis of LAT using both the antigens separately against MAT for 390 serum samples. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of recombinant LigB LAT were found to be 75.65, 91.27, 78.38 and 89.96 %, respectively, and that of heat-killed antigen-based LAT were 72.17, 89.82, 74.77 and 88.53 %, respectively, in comparison with MAT. This developed test will be an alternative/complementary to the existing battery of diagnostic assays/tests for specific detection of pathogenic Leptospira infection in bovine population. PMID:26065562

  17. PSA as a tool for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question on ''How safe is safe enough'' is being responded presently by deterministic criteria. Probabilistic criteria in support to more rational and less emotional decisions in regulatory and licensing issues, rationalization of resource allocation and research prioritization, among others, have a potential which is only marginally being explored. This paper discussed PSA limitations and proposes three areas for the use of PSA in decision making, namely: preventing accidents, mitigating accidents, and defining regulatory requirements. Current activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in these areas are mentioned. PSA studies depict clearly the uncertainties and this is viewed as a positive aspect, which is unique to the use of probabilistic methods. (orig.)

  18. STANDARDIZATION OF PROCEDURES OF Plasmodium falciparum ANTIGEN PREPARATION FOR SEROLOGIC TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra L.M. AVILA; Tania R. TOZETTO-MENDOZA; ARRUK Viviana G.; Ferreira, Antonio Walter

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to standardize the technical variables for preparation and storage of Plasmodium falciparum and of antigen components extracted with the amphoteric detergent Zwittergent. P. falciparum obtained from in vitro culture was stored at different temperatures and for different periods of time. For each variable, antigen components of the parasite were extracted in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors and submitted or not to later dialysis. Products wer...

  19. Analysis of speckled fluorescent antinuclear antibody test antisera using electrofocused nuclear antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Okarma, T B; Krueger, J A; Holman, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to different components of the extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) have been thought to be serological markers for clinical subsets of rheumatic diseases. However, incomplete characterization and standardization of antigenic components such as ribonucleoprotein (RNP), Sm, and SS-B (Ha), and the multiplicity of autoantibodies produced by different patients have confounded correlations between autoantibody specificity and disease subsets. This study describes the preparative separation...

  20. Risk evaluations of aging: Procedures guide for an age-dependent PSA with emphasis on prioritization and sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the previous work which has been performed in the project, a procedures guide is being developed for carrying out an age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for evaluating the core damage frequency with aging effects explicitly treated. A PSA is basically a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The emphasis of the guide is on prioritization and sensitivity studies. Focus is also on active components although consideration of aging effects in passive components is also treated. The guide is intended to become a NUREG/CR and is the first of three volumes which are being developed. The following topics with demonstrations and applications are described in the presentation: (1) the age-dependent PSA versus the standard PSA; (2) component reliability models used in an age-dependent PSA; (3) approaches for transforming a PSA into an age-dependent PSA; (4) application of an age-dependent PSA; (5) using a PSA to evaluate the risk effects from aging passive components; (6) evaluation of the risk importance of passive components; (7) prioritizations of aging contributors; (8) evaluations of test and maintenance effectiveness; and (9) sensitivity studies and uncertainty analyses of aging effects

  1. Rapid antigen group A streptococcus test to diagnose pharyngitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharyngitis management guidelines include estimates of the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcus tests (RAST using a non-systematic approach. OBJECTIVE: To examine the sensitivity and specificity, and sources of variability, of RAST for diagnosing group A streptococcal (GAS pharyngitis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus, SciELO, CINAHL, guidelines, 2000-2012. STUDY SELECTION: Culture as reference standard, all languages. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Study characteristics, quality. MAIN OUTCOME(S AND MEASURE(S: Sensitivity, specificity. RESULTS: We included 59 studies encompassing 55,766 patients. Forty three studies (18,464 patients fulfilled the higher quality definition (at least 50 patients, prospective data collection, and no significant biases and 16 (35,634 patients did not. For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in children (10,325 patients, heterogeneity was high for sensitivity (inconsistency [I(2] 88% and specificity (I(2 86%. For enzyme immunoassay in children (342 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 79-92% and the pooled specificity was 92% (95% CI, 88-95%. For the higher quality immunochromatographic methods in the adult population (1,216 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 91% (95% CI, 87 to 94% and the pooled specificity was 93% (95% CI, 92 to 95%; however, heterogeneity was modest for sensitivity (I(2 61% and specificity (I(2 72%. For enzyme immunoassay in the adult population (333 patients, the pooled sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 81-91% and the pooled specificity was 97% (95% CI, 96 to 99%; however, heterogeneity was high for sensitivity and specificity (both, I(2 88%. CONCLUSIONS: RAST immunochromatographic methods appear to be very sensitive and highly specific to diagnose group A streptococcal pharyngitis among adults but not in children. We could not identify sources of variability among higher quality studies. The

  2. A cluster-randomised, parallel group, controlled intervention study of genetic prostate cancer risk assessment and use of PSA tests in general practice--the ProCaRis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Vedsted, Peter; Edwards, Adrian;

    2013-01-01

    PSA-testen er det bedste og mest anvendte værktøj til at opspore prostatacancer. Testen er dog behæftet med fejlkilder, som kan føre til overflødig udredning, diagnosticering og behandling. Ved udredning tages biopsier med risiko for behandlingskrævende infektion. Behandlingen for prostatacancer ...

  3. Overview of level 2 PSA and Overview of level 3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the PSA framework and an overview of PSA level 2 and 3. The PSA level 2 covers the extension of the PSA level 1, confinement event tree analysis, source term analysis and supporting tasks: structural analysis, equipment and survivability analysis. The Plant Damage States (PDS) are the starting point for the level 2 analysis. Example PDS parameters - containment status; RCS status secondary status; safety injection, containment spray and an example radiological source term table are given. The structural analysis shows that for WWER 440/213 the critical locations appear to be: bubbler tower corners, SG room wall/floor junction, hatches, mechanical and electric penetrations. For WWER 1000 critical locations are similar to PWR - liner tear near airlocks. The PSA level 3 processes are presented and examples for the results (early fatalities, latent cancer fatalities) are shown. The use of PSA in the emergency planning and the effectiveness of the emergency response actions are discussed

  4. Insights from level 1 PSA for Novovoronezh NPP (Unit 5) and PSA-based modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the SWISRUS Project, a level-1 PSA study for Unit 5 of Novovoronezh NPP for internal initiating events has been performed. A number of insights on plant vulnerabilities have been identified. The active participation of plant specialists in the project resulted in a positive plant response, leading to implementation, or planned implementation, of a number of modifications at the plant, based on the PSA results. The effectiveness of the measures taken by the plant, or that are planned to be implemented, are being assessed by the PSA methodology. The plant model is supposed to serve as a basis for a living PSA model for further use by the plant and the regulatory body. The plant senior managers aim to have a living PSA model of the plant as a supporting tool for PSA-based plant safety management and estimation of effectiveness of safety-related improvements to be implemented for Unit 5 of Novovoronezh NPP. (author)

  5. Comparison of phenol- and heat-killed antigens in the indirect immunofluorescence test for serodiagnosis of Legionella pneumophila group 1 infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastoris, M C; Ciarrocchi, S; Di Capua, A; Temperanza, A M

    1984-01-01

    An antigen prepared with agar-grown Legionella pneumophila group 1 killed by 0.5% phenol and suspended in 0.5% yolk sac was examined for use in the indirect immunofluorescence test for legionellosis and compared with a heat-killed antigen. The serological results of the two antigens for single and paired sera agreed well. Morphological and staining characteristics were better for phenol-treated organisms. Electron microscopy observation showed an apparently well-preserved cell surface. The ba...

  6. Relationship between PSA kinetics and [18F]fluorocholine PET/CT detection rates of recurrence in patients with prostate cancer after total prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to identify prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold levels, as well as PSA velocity, progression rate and doubling time in relation to the detectability and localization of recurrent lesions with [18F]fluorocholine (FC) PET/CT in patients after radical prostatectomy. The study group comprised 82 consecutive patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy. PSA levels measured at the time of imaging were correlated with the FC PET/CT detection rates in the entire group with PSA velocity (in 48 patients), with PSA doubling time (in 47 patients) and with PSA progression (in 29 patients). FC PET/CT detected recurrent lesions in 51 of the 82 patients (62%). The median PSA value was significantly higher in PET-positive than in PET-negative patients (4.3 ng/ml vs. 1.0 ng/ml; p < 0.01). The optimal PSA threshold from ROC analysis for the detection of recurrent prostate cancer lesions was 1.74 ng/ml (AUC 0.818, 82% sensitivity, 74% specificity). Significant differences between PET-positive and PET-negative patients were found for median PSA velocity (6.4 vs. 1.1 ng/ml per year; p < 0.01) and PSA progression (5.0 vs. 0.3 ng/ml per year, p < 0.01) with corresponding optimal thresholds of 1.27 ng/ml per year and 1.28 ng/ml per year, respectively. The PSA doubling time suggested a threshold of 3.2 months, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.071). In a study cohort of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy there emerged clear PSA thresholds for the presence of FC PET/CT-detectable lesions. (orig.)

  7. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pfister, David; Heidenreich, Axel [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Urology, Aachen (Germany); Vogg, Andreas; Drude, Natascha I.; Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Voeoe, Stefan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    To examine the relationship between the extent of disease determined by [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT and the important clinical measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and Gleason score. We retrospectively studied the first 155 patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) referred to our university hospital for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 44 %, 79 % and 89 % of patients with PSA levels of ≤1, 1 - 2 and ≥2 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with high PSA levels showed higher rates of local prostate tumours (p < 0.001), and extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.037) and bone metastases (p = 0.013). A shorter PSAdt was significantly associated with pelvic lymph node (p = 0.026), extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.001), bone (p < 0.001) and visceral (p = 0.041) metastases. A high Gleason score was associated with more frequent pelvic lymph node metastases (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, both PSA and PSAdt were independent determinants of scan positivity and of extrapelvic lymph node metastases. PSAdt was the only independent marker of bone metastases (p = 0.001). Of 20 patients with a PSAdt <6 months and a PSA ≥2 ng/ml, 19 (95 %) had a positive scan and 12 (60 %) had M1a disease. Of 14 patients with PSA <1 ng/ml and PSAdt >6 months, only 5 (36 %) had a positive scan and 1 (7 %) had M1a disease. [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT will identify PCA lesions even in patients with very low PSA levels. Higher PSA levels and shorter PSAdt are independently associated with scan positivity and extrapelvic metastases, and can be used for patient selection for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. (orig.)

  8. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [68Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the relationship between the extent of disease determined by [68Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT and the important clinical measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and Gleason score. We retrospectively studied the first 155 patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) referred to our university hospital for [68Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 44 %, 79 % and 89 % of patients with PSA levels of ≤1, 1 - 2 and ≥2 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with high PSA levels showed higher rates of local prostate tumours (p < 0.001), and extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.037) and bone metastases (p = 0.013). A shorter PSAdt was significantly associated with pelvic lymph node (p = 0.026), extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.001), bone (p < 0.001) and visceral (p = 0.041) metastases. A high Gleason score was associated with more frequent pelvic lymph node metastases (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, both PSA and PSAdt were independent determinants of scan positivity and of extrapelvic lymph node metastases. PSAdt was the only independent marker of bone metastases (p = 0.001). Of 20 patients with a PSAdt <6 months and a PSA ≥2 ng/ml, 19 (95 %) had a positive scan and 12 (60 %) had M1a disease. Of 14 patients with PSA <1 ng/ml and PSAdt >6 months, only 5 (36 %) had a positive scan and 1 (7 %) had M1a disease. [68Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT will identify PCA lesions even in patients with very low PSA levels. Higher PSA levels and shorter PSAdt are independently associated with scan positivity and extrapelvic metastases, and can be used for patient selection for [68Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. (orig.)

  9. A design-phase PSA of anuclear-powered hydrogen plant

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Flores, Alain

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is being developed for a steam-methane reforming hydrogenproduction plant linked to a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR). This work is based on the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's (JAERI) High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) prototype in Japan. The objective of this paper is to show how the PSA can be used for improving the design of the coupled plants. A simplified HAZOP study was performed to identify initiating ev...

  10. Development of a immunochromatographic test with avidin-biotin for the detection of antibodies against antigen e of hepatitis B in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disappearance of antigen e of hepatitis B in the presence of the plasmatic antibodies against antigen e may indicate a satisfactory therapeutic response in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The immuno-chromatographic test carried out in the diagnosis of diseases use different antibody combinations and may employ the avidin or streptavidin-biotin technology to develop a rapid immuno-chromatographic test for the detection of antibodies anti-antigen e in the plasma. They were detected in the laboratory by means of two fast immuno-chromatographic tests when using in one of them the avidin-biotin technology. These tests are carried out with a one-step competitive inhibition format and amplified or not with avidin-biotin. Monoclonal antibodies against antigen e obtained by cellular hybridization were used. Forty-six plasmatic samples classified as positive and negative to the anti-antigen antibodies were evaluated with a reference immunochromatographic test Advanced QualityTM. The possible expiry time of the biological reagents forming part of these tests were studied with accelerated thermal-stability experiments. The possible interference in the plasma of some of the biochemical compounds used in these trials was analyzed. Four murine monoclonal antibodies anti-antigen e were obtained and only one of them was used in these immunochromatographic tests with an anti-antigen polyclonal antibody conjugated with gold. Both tests and their stable biological reagents discriminated the positive and negative samples to the antibodies anti-antigen e, as well as the commercial test. There was no interference in the biochemical compounds studied in these tests. Both immuno-chromatographic tests made in the laboratory are useful to detect antibodies anti-antigen e in the plasma. The avidin-biotin increased the analytical sensitivity of this type of fast immuno-chromatographic test without altering its performance features. (Author)

  11. A preliminary investigation of PSA validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has been prepared to support the initial phase of the Atomic Energy Control Board's program to review and evaluate Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies conducted by nuclear generating station designers and licensees. The document provides (1) a review of current and prospective applications of PSA technology in the Canadian nuclear power industry; (2) an assessment of existing practices and techniques for the review or risk and hazard identification studies in the international nuclear power sector and other technological sectors; and (3) proposed analytical framework in which to develop systematic techniques for the scrutiny and evaluation of a PSA model. These frameworks are based on consideration of the mathematical structure of a PSA model and are intended to facilitate the development of methods to evaluate a model relative to intended end-uses. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Proceedings of the 10th Korea-Japan joint workshop on PSA. For Asian PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tenth Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) was held in the Jeju island of Korea, on May 18-20, 2009 organized by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for presentation and discussions on experiences and technical achievements related to PSA, risk-informed and performance-based approach, and other relevant issues in both countries. Since the first Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on PSA started in 1992, the workshops have provided an important and timely opportunity for exchange and discussion of the relevant information to all PSA practitioners and users of risk information in the industry, research, academia and regulatory arena. This was the tenth anniversary of the Joint Workshop with the main theme of 'For Asian PSA Network' and participants included those from China, Taiwan and the United States of America besides Korea and Japan. Two keynote speeches were presented by the former chairmen of this workshop, Prof. Chang-Sun Kang of Seoul National University and Prof. emeritus Shunsuke Kondo of Tokyo University. We had two special lectures, 70 papers presented by experts at 10 technical sessions related PSA, the special session on the status of PSA in Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan and panel discussion on their cooperation in PSA. This report provides the summary of each session, and all the presentation materials presented in the 10th Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on PSA. (author)

  13. IAEA work with guides for PSA quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA has a project on development of a TECDOC 'PSA Quality for Various Applications'. The project develops the guidance document in stages with intermediate meetings with exchange of ideas, thoughts and experience. Draft versions are being produced successively. The objective with the project is to use attributes to describe the quality of different elements of a PSA (Analysis of initiating events, accident progression, system, data, human reliability, etc) making the PSA suitable for application in various risk informed activities. Two of the meetings in this project took place in February 2004 and in July 2004. The February meeting discussed different aspects of PSA quality in relation to applications and a draft of the TECDOC was reviewed. The meeting made recommendations for preparation of a final document and set priorities for further work in the area. The July meeting elaborated the document further in a small working group and a new draft version was prepared. A final version is expected to be published during 2005. The project has come to the conclusion that it is a limited number of PSA element attributes that are specific for a certain application. Most of the attributes concern plant specificity, realism and level of detail in a general manner, how plant specific is the model, how realistic and how detailed? Many attributes have the characteristic that they are good to have, but not necessarily needed to do the job. This last statement is valid both for a baseline PSA and a PSA application. The IAEA project has identified a limited number of attributes that are necessary to describe characteristics needed for specific applications. The PSA scope needed for a specific application is not covered by the project/document, even though it is obvious that different applications will need different scope or approaches to handle scope limitations. The guidance on performing a PSA available today is old. It is a need to review these guides and update with regard

  14. Development of an Immunochromatographic Test for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Based on Detection of a Circulating Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-hua Gao

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. Early case detection followed by adequate treatment is essential to the control of VL. However, the available diagnostic tests are either invasive and require considerable expertise (parasitological demonstration of the parasite in tissue smears or unable to distinguish between past and active infection (serological methods. Therefore, we aimed to develop a lateral flow assay in the form of an immunochromatographic test (ICT device based on the detection of a circulating Leishmania antigen using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs.mAbs were produced by fusion of murine myeloma cells with splenocytes isolated from a mouse immunized with L. donovani soluble crude antigen. Out of 12 cloned hybridoma cell lines, two secreted mAbs recognizing the same leishmanial protein. These mAbs were used to produce an ICT as a sandwich assay for the detection of circulating antigen in serum and blood samples. The ICT was evaluated with 213 serum samples from VL patients living in VL endemic areas in China, and with 156 serum samples from patients with other diseases as well as 78 serum samples from healthy donors. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency of the new ICT was 95.8%, 98.7% and 97.3%, respectively. Compared with a commercially available antibody detecting ICT, our antigen-based ICT performed slightly better.The newly developed ICT is an easy to use and more accurate diagnostic tool which fulfils the performance and operational characteristics required for VL case detection under field and laboratory conditions. As our ICT detects a circulating antigen, it will also be useful in monitoring treatment success and diagnosing VL in immunocompromised patients.

  15. Suppressive effects of antigens on the activity of specific activated lymphocytes: A test to define the specificity of activated lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; PAN Sheng-jun; CAI Zhen-jie; GUAN De-lin; LIU Xiao-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective:With the regular mixed lymphocytes culture (MLC) to detect the allograft rejection, the reactivity of the activated lymphocytes (primed lymphocytes) of a recipient shows sometimes increase and sometimes decrease against the antigens from the donor, which is inconsistent with the clinical results. In order to establish a convenient method for testing the specificity of the activated lymphocytes in vitro, so as to know the rejection occurred or not by testing the existence of the specific activated lymphocytes against donor's HLA antigens in the recipient's peripheral blood. Methods: Anti-IL-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-2 N-mAb) and immunosuppressors were introduced in this test system in the presence of specific stimulators and activated lymphocytes. Results: When the activated lymphocytes were chosen from the one-way MLC 4 d to undergo re-stimulation by specific stimulators, the activity of activated lymphocytes in the treatment group was suppressed significantly compared with that in the control group. The result of this test method is consistent with the biopsy in the clinical diagnosis of rejection.Conclusion :It suggests that the activated lymphocytes can be inactivated by specific antigens in certain conditions. This can be a useful tool to define the specificity of the activated lymphocytes.

  16. Fault tree analysis strategy for Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most concerned issues in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants is how to make the procedure be quick and convenient, e.g. with the so-called Living PSA technique. A new programming strategy, i.e., the independent module ordering technique, has been presented to analyzed rapidly fault trees deriving from complicated nuclear power systems, which is also useful for real time analysis of reliability model modification of the fault trees

  17. An antibody to de-N-acetyl sialic acid containing-polysialic acid identifies an intracellular antigen and induces apoptosis in human cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Steirer

    Full Text Available Polysialic acid (PSA, an α2,8-linked homopolymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, is developmentally regulated and its expression is thought to be restricted to a few tissues in adults. Recently, we showed that two human pathogens expressed a derivative of PSA containing de-N-acetyl sialic acid residues (NeuPSA. Here we show that an epitope identified by the anti-NeuPSA monoclonal antibody, SEAM 3 (SEAM 3-reactive antigen or S3RA, is expressed in human melanomas, and also intracellularly in a human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28, a human T cell leukemia cell line (Jurkat, and two neuroblastoma cell lines (CHP-134 and SH-SY5Y. SEAM 3 binding induced apoptosis in the four cell lines tested. The unusual intracellular distribution of S3RA was similar to that described for the PSA polysialyltransferases, STX and PST, which are also expressed in the four cell lines used here. Interestingly, suppression of PST mRNA expression by transfection of SK-MEL-28 cells with PST-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA resulted in decreased SEAM 3 binding. The results suggest further studies of the utility of antibodies such as SEAM 3 as therapeutic agents for certain malignancies.

  18. Development of seismic PSA methodology at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing a methodology for seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants, aiming at providing a set of procedures, computer codes and data suitable for performing seismic PSA in Japan. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of JAERI's methodology and to obtain better understanding on the controlling factors of the results of seismic PSAs, a seismic PSA for a BWR is in progress. In the course of this PSA, various improvements were made on the methodology. In the area of the hazard analysis, the application of the current method to the model plant site is being carried out. In the area of response analysis, the response factor method was modified to consider the non-linear response effect of the building. As for the capacity evaluation of components, since capacity data for PSA in Japan are very scarce, capacities of selected components used in Japan were evaluated. In the systems analysis, the improvement of the SECOM2 code was made to perform importance analysis and sensitivity analysis for the effect of correlation of responses and correlation of capacities. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seismic PSA research at JAERI with emphasis on the evaluation of component capacity and the methodology improvement of systems reliability analysis. (author)

  19. Penile Metastases of Recurrent Prostatic Adenocarcinoma without PSA Level Increase: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Pierro; Savino Cilla; Cinzia Digesù; Morganti, Alessio G

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of penile metastases from recurrent prostatic adenocarcinoma that was the first sign of a widespread metastatic disease in the absence of any increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. In April 2011, an 80-year-old man presented to our Radiotherapy Unit with multiple palpable hard nodules in the penis, dysuria, and moderate perineal pain, 7 years after he had received radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Nodules in the penis had appeared in February 2011. The ultrasound ...

  20. Lectin immuno tests: quantitation and titration of antigens and antibodies using lectin-antibody conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated the possibility of using lectin-antibody conjugates as general reagents in immunological procedures requiring a labeled antigen or antibody. Using these conjugates, labeling is achieved through saccharide binding sites of lectins which operate as acceptors for glycoconjugate marker substances added secondarily. Marker substances used in this work were enzymes, radioactively labeled glycoconjugates and erythrocytes, but other markers can also be used. Using the first two markers, antigens and antibodies were determined with accuracy and sensitivity equal to those of conventional enzyme or radioimmunoassays. Using erythrocytes as a marker, a simple erythro-adsorption procedure, possibly followed by hemolysis, has been developed which allowed the titration of antigens and antibodies to be carried out with a sensitivity at least equal to enzyme or radioimmunoassays. (Auth.)

  1. Prognostic Significance of PSA, Gleason Score, Bone Metastases in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer Under Palliative Androgen Deprivation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of each of the following in the development and progression of hormonal refractory disease in patients with metastatic prostate cancer under hormonal palliative treatment: The initial serum level prostate specific antigen (PSA), the Gleason score (GS), the presence of bone metastases with or without visceral metastases, and the PSA decline. Patients and Methods: During the time period from January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 92 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) were under palliative androgen deprivation therapy. The age range was 52 to 85 years with a mean age of 66.2±7.9 years. MPC was diagnosed histologically after transrectal ultrasonography guided biopsy. The Gleason score assessment was determined by low power microscopic examination. Metastases were confirmed by positive bone scintigraphy with 925 MBq 99mTc-MDP using a tomographic gamma camera, computerized axial tomography or magnetic resonance imagining. Measurements of PSA levels were conducted by the radioimmunoassay method. The influences of the following prognostic factors were evaluated: The initial serum level of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the Gleason score (GS), the presence of bone metastases with or without visceral metastases, and the PSA decline, on the time to disease progression. Results: The time to progression was significantly delayed in patients with initial PSA level £50 ng/ml (median: 32 months), Gleason Score £7 (median: 33 months), bone metastases only (median: 30 months) and PSA level normalization within 6 months (median: 30 months) compared to that of patients with initial PSA level >50 ng/ml (median: 24 months), Gleason Score >7 (median: 24 months), bone, distant lymph nodes and/or visceral metastases (median: 24 months), PSA level decline (median: 18 months) (p-values were 0.002, 6 sites bone metastases (median: 28 months) (p=0

  2. Comparative testing of six antigen-based malaria vaccine candidates directed toward merozoite-stage Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, David E; Cavanagh, David R; Remarque, Edmond J;

    2008-01-01

    Immunogenicity testing of Plasmodium falciparum antigens being considered as malaria vaccine candidates was undertaken in rabbits. The antigens compared were recombinant baculovirus MSP-1(19) and five Pichia pastoris candidates, including two versions of MSP-1(19), AMA-1 (domains I and II), AMA-1...

  3. Dynamics of polymorphism in a malaria vaccine antigen at a vaccine-testing site in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Takala

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria vaccines based on the 19-kDa region of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1(19 derived from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum are being tested in clinical trials in Africa. Knowledge of the distribution and natural dynamics of vaccine antigen polymorphisms in populations in which malaria vaccines will be tested will guide vaccine design and permit distinction between natural fluctuations in genetic diversity and vaccine-induced selection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using pyrosequencing, six single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the nucleotide sequence encoding MSP-1(19 were genotyped from 1,363 malaria infections experienced by 100 children who participated in a prospective cohort study in Mali from 1999 to 2001. The frequencies of 14 MSP-1(19 haplotypes were compared over the course of the malaria transmission season for all three years, in three age groups, and in consecutive infections within individuals. While the frequency of individual MSP-1(19 haplotypes fluctuated, haplotypes corresponding to FVO and FUP strains of P. falciparum (MSP-1(19 haplotypes QKSNGL and EKSNGL, respectively were most prevalent during three consecutive years and in all age groups with overall prevalences of 46% (95% confidence interval [CI] 44%-49% and 36% (95% CI 34%-39%, respectively. The 3D7 haplotype had a lower overall prevalence of 16% (95% CI 14%-18%. Multiplicity of infection based on MSP-1(19 was higher at the beginning of the transmission season and in the oldest individuals (aged > or =11 y. Three MSP-1(19 haplotypes had a reduced frequency in symptomatic infections compared to asymptomatic infections. Analyses of the dynamics of MSP-1(19 polymorphisms in consecutive infections implicate three polymorphisms (at positions 1691, 1700, and 1701 as being particularly important in determining allele specificity of anti-MSP-1(19 immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Parasites with MSP-1(19 haplotypes different from that of the leading vaccine strain were

  4. Prostataspecifikt antigen, sure fosfataser og rektaleksploration i diagnostik af cancer prostatae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B R; Knorr, U B; Brasso, K;

    1997-01-01

    Eleven hundred and seven patients referred for urological evaluation including measurement of serumprostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement are reviewed. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 105 patients. PSA was found to be superior to prostatic acid phosphatase in the discrimination between pros...

  5. STANDARDIZATION OF PROCEDURES OF Plasmodium falciparum ANTIGEN PREPARATION FOR SEROLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVILA Sandra L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to standardize the technical variables for preparation and storage of Plasmodium falciparum and of antigen components extracted with the amphoteric detergent Zwittergent. P. falciparum obtained from in vitro culture was stored at different temperatures and for different periods of time. For each variable, antigen components of the parasite were extracted in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors and submitted or not to later dialysis. Products were stored for 15, 30 and 60 days at different temperatures and immunological activity of each extract was determined by SDS-PAGE and ELISA using positive or negative standard sera for the presence of IgG directed to blood stage antigens of P. falciparum. Antigen extracts obtained from parasites stored at -20oC up to 10 days or at -70oC for 2 months presented the best results, showing well-defined bands on SDS-PAGE and Western blots and presenting absorbance values in ELISA that permitted safe differentiation between positive and negative sera.

  6. Purification of PSA from human semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 1. Human seminal plasma collected from many volunteers are pooled and passed through a column of phenyl sepharose equilibrated with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate. Elution is carried out with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate initially, to remove the bulk non-adsorbing proteins. Gradient elution of the absorbed proteins with 0.01 M Tris-HCl, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.0 buffer gives a sharp peak containing PSA. At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 2. The absorbed protein peak containing PSA is then lyophilised, redissolved in Tris-HCl buffer and chromatographed in a Superdex-75 or Sephadex-75 column. The absorbed proteins elute out as multiple peaks and PSA is eluted as a sharp peak.At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 3. Step 2 is repeated for better purity. 4. The PSA peak is lyophilised, dissolved in Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and further purified on an ion exchange column (either anion or cation exchange columns such as DEAE Sephadex or CM-Sephadex or Mono Q). Gradient elution using Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer with 0.25 M NaCl resulted in a sharp pure PSA peak (homogenous, sharp single band on SDS-PAGE). This procedure is based on that reported by Wang et al., Oncology, 39,1,1982

  7. Development of kits for serum PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid phase two-site immunoradiometric assays were developed for total PSA and free PSA in human serum using the matched pairs of monoclonal antibodies for PSA, supplied by University of Alberta, Canada. In the case of total PSA, the capture MAb was immobilised on both magnetic particles as well as polypropylene tubes. The IRMAs developed using these were very similar and comparable in their performances. The optimised assays involved two-step incubations (0.5x0.5 h for magnetic particles and 2x2 h for coated tube) at ambient temperature, had the working range of 0 to 200 ng/mL PSA and sensitivity of 0.38 ng/mL (magnetic particles method) and 0.05 ng/mL (coated tubes method). The assay exhibited good inter and intra assay precision, recovery and accuracy. The patient sample values analysed by the in-house kits and CIS bio international kit show good correlation with correlation coefficient of r=0.9693 and CIS kit value = 0.80 x OAEP kit value + 0.8034 (n=83) for magnetic particle based method and r=0.9853, CIS kit value = 1.10 x OAEP kit value - 0.4795 (n=63) for coated tubes method. In the case of free-PSA, the assay was optimised using polypropylene tubes as the solid phase. The assay involved a single step overnight incubation at ambient temperature and exhibited good sensitivity (0.06 ng/mL), and precision (8.24-12.04% for inter assay and 4.41-7.73% for intraassay% C.V.). The developed f-PSA assay shows promising results, but needs further clinical assessment. (author)

  8. Perspectives of Living PSA in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant Krsko has completed the Level 1/Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) for internal initiating events and is in the process of completing the same for the external initiators. The analysis completed up to now has provided a valuable insight into a plant risk profile. In NPP Krsko there is a plan to use the PSA model as a permanent tool for the risk based applications and incorporate it into a decision making process. In order to achieve this there is a need to permanently maintain the PSA model in a manner that it reflects both the plan configuration/design at a time point and the operational experience up to the time point. All the activities aimed toward keeping the PSA model up-to-dated in this sense are usually referred to as a Living PSA (LPSA) program. NPP Krsko is in the process of defining and proceduralizing a LPSA program that would be plant specific and based on known world practices. Further, in order to be suitable for risk based applications the PSA model must be flexible in a sense that modifications to the base case model may be done easily and requantifications performed quickly as to evaluate various conditions imposed by real or hypothetical situations. NPP Krsko PSA model has been based on licensing type software. The requirements specified above dictate the transfer of the overall model to an application oriented software of newer generation with larger capabilities. The transfer becomes a part of a mentioned ongoing effort aimed at establishing LPSA model and concept. The paper present this effort and the perspectives of LPSA concept and risk based applications in NPP Krsko. (author)

  9. Evaluation of prostate cancer prevalence in Iranian male population with increased PSA level, a one center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Iranian male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) that underwent prostate biopsy. From March 2006 to April 2009, a total of 346 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA), demographic data, incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatitis were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL). Of the 346 biopsied cases, 193 cases (56%) had PCa, 80 cases (23%) had BPH, and 73 cases (21%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P < 0.01). The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. Incidence of PCa for group A and group B cases were 115 cases (51%), and 78 cases (65%), respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.40). TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team is highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. It seems that a PSA cutoff value of 4 ng/mL may be applied to the Iranian population. Although the chance of PCa is high in the PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL, the combination of some data, like age and prostate volume, can decrease the rate of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We recommend prostate biopsy when PSA and/or DRE is elevated in symptomatic patients with obstructive and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as dysuria, frequency, or nocturia. Due to the very high incidence of PCa in the patients with PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, TRUS-guided biopsy is indicated, whatever the findings on DRE and

  10. A method for using expert judgement in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses an expert judgement methodology development for applications at all levels of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The main applications are expected to be at PSA-levels 1 and 2. The method consists of several phases, including the selection and training of the experts, elicitation of experts' judgements, probabilistic modeling and combination of experts' judgements and documentation of the judgement process. The expert training and elicitation process is rather similar to that applied in the NUREG-1150 study. The combination of experts judgements is based on a Bayesian framework utilizing hierarchic models. The posterior distributions of the variables under analysis can be interpreted as a Bayesian counterpart of the combined or aggregated (consensus) distributions, and they are determined by applying Markov chain Monte-Carlo methods. The properties of the method are illustrated by some simple examples. The method is tested in a case study belonging to the benchmark exercise on the use of expert judgement in level 2 PSA, organized as a concerted action of European Commission Fourth Framework Programme on Nuclear Fission Safety. (14 refs.)

  11. Summary report of seismic PSA of BWR model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a seismic PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) methodology developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for evaluating risks of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the results from an application of the methodology to a BWR plant in Japan, which is termed Model Plant'. The seismic PSA procedures developed at JAERI are to evaluate core damage frequency (CDF) and have the following four steps: (1) evaluation of seismic hazard, (2) evaluation of realistic response, (3) evaluation of component capacities and failure probabilities, and (4) evaluation of conditional probability of system failure and CDF. Although these procedures are based on the methodologies established and used in the United States, they include several unique features: (1) seismic hazard analysis is performed with use of available knowledge and database on seismological conditions in Japan; (2) response evaluation is performed with a response factor method which is cost effective and associated uncertainties can be reduced with use of modern methods of design calculations; (3) capacity evaluation is performed with use of test results available in Japan in combination with design information and generic capacity data in the U.S.A.; (4) systems reliability analysis, performed with use of the computer code SECOM-2 developed at JAERI, includes identification of dominant accident sequences, importance analysis of components and systems as well as the CDF evaluation with consideration of the effect of correlation of failures by a newly developed method based on the Monte Carlo method. The effect of correlation has been recognized as an important issue in seismic PSAs. The procedures was used to perform a seismic PSA of a 1100 MWe BWR plant. Results are shown as well as the insights derived and future research needs identified in this seismic PSA. (J.P.N.)

  12. EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES FOR ANTIBODY DETERMINATION AND TESTING OF ANTIGEN-BINDING LYMPHOCYTES IN DIAGNOSTICS OF BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Karalnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of different methods applied for the diagnostics of brucellosis. Huddlson and Wright reactions, RoseBengal test, ELISA-based test system (IgG determination, and a test for antigen-binding lymphocytes (ABL were used. There was shown that the specificity of tests was identical for either reactions based on detection of antibodies with commercial immune reagents and ELISA IgG. The sensitivity of ABL test is, however, superior to all the reactions based on antibody determination. The ABL test has advantages when compared with antibody detection techniques. This method permits early monitoring of brucellosis treatment/its efficiency since early terms, as well as differentiation between positive and false positive results of antibody determination in pregnant womеn.

  13. Imprinted gold 2D nanoarray for highly sensitive and convenient PSA detection via plasmon excited quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong Yan; Wong, Ten It; Sadovoy, Anton; Wu, Lin; Bai, Ping; Deng, Jie; Guo, Shifeng; Wang, Yi; Knoll, Wolfgang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    We designed and fabricated two new nanostructured biosensing chips, with which the sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as low as 100 pg ml(-1) can be achieved, by measuring the plasmon enhanced fluorescence through a conventional dark field microscope. The gold nanostructure arrays, one with gold nanopillars of 140 nm, the other with gold nanoholes of 140 nm, were fabricated via nanoimprinting onto glass substrate, as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generators to enhance the fluorescent emission of fluorophore, e.g. quantum dot (QD). A sandwich bioassay of capture anti-PSA antibody (cAb)/PSA/detection anti-PSA (dAb) labeled by QD-655 was established on the nanostructures, and the perfect LSPR excitation distance (10-15 nm) between the nanostructure and QD-655 was simulated and controlled by a cleft cAb fragment and streptavidin modified QD. QD was chosen in this study due to its photo stability, broad Stokes shift, and long lifetime. As far as we know, this is the first time that QD is applied for PSA detection on the uniform nanostructured sensing chips based on the LSPR enhanced fluorescence. Due to the miniaturized nanoarray sensing chip (1.8 mm × 1.8 mm), the convenience and specificity for the detection of PSA via the sandwich assay, and the high optical detection sensitivity, the platform has great potential for the development of a portable point-of-care (POC) system for outpatient diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PMID:25360665

  14. A methodology for PSA model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports Phase 2 of work undertaken by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in support of the Atomic Energy Control Board's Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) review. A methodology is presented for the systematic review and evaluation of a PSA model. These methods are intended to support consideration of the following question: To within the scope and depth of modeling resolution of a PSA study, is the resultant model a complete and accurate representation of the subject plant? This question was identified as a key PSA validation issue in SAIC's Phase 1 project. The validation methods are based on a model transformation process devised to enhance the transparency of the modeling assumptions. Through conversion to a 'success-oriented' framework, a closer correspondence to plant design and operational specifications is achieved. This can both enhance the scrutability of the model by plant personnel, and provide an alternative perspective on the model that may assist in the identification of deficiencies. The model transformation process is defined and applied to fault trees documented in the Darlington Probabilistic Safety Evaluation. A tentative real-time process is outlined for implementation and documentation of a PSA review based on the proposed methods. (author). 11 refs., 9 tabs., 30 refs

  15. The Serum Level of Prostate Specific Antigen in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level are increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 40 patients with PCOS, and 50 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study.The subjects were compared by means of serum PSA T SHBG DHEA-S levels. The correlations between PSA and T SHBG DHEA-S were evaluated.Serum PSA levels were found to be significantly higher in PCOS (PSA: 15.64±3.36 pg/mL, in PCOS; PSA: 3.56±0.44pg/mL, in control; P<0.01). Positive correlations between PSA and T (r=0.467, P<0.01) and between PSA and DHEA-S (r=, 0.205 P<0.05) were found. A negative correlation between PSA and SHBG was apparent (r=-0.260, P<0.05). Females with PCOS tended to have higher PSA than females without PCOS (P<0.01). PSA appears to be a promising marker of androgen excess in females suffering from PCOS. (authors)

  16. Analysis of results related to the percent free prostate specific antigen among men without prostate diseases in Xi'an area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhang; Ziming Wang; Tie Chong; Lihua Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To measure the percent of free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) among men without prostate diseases in Xi'an area, and to study the relationship of percent fPSA with age and pathological grade, clinical stage of prostate cancer (PCa) with percent fPSA, and to analyze the difference between the data in China and theoverseas data to determine appropriate reference range for Chinese male. Methods: A total of 713 participants were enrolled into the study, with PSA, fPSA in serum measured and the percent fPSA calculated. Out of 713 cases, 679 without prostate diseases were divided into 5 groups by age, and then the relationships of PSA, fPSA and percent fPSA with age were studied, respectively. The relationship of pathological grade and clinical stage with percent fPSA of the 34 participants with PCa was also studied. With the help of the related data of men without prostate disease, the appropriate reference range for Chinese male was established. Results: The increases in PSA or fPSA were correlated with age, while there was no significant correlation between age and percent fPSA. The percent fPSA was also correlated with pathological grade and clinical stage of PCa. The percent fPSA of men without prostate disease in Xi'an area was significantly lower than that in the related overseas data. The reference range of percent fPSA for Chinese male was≥15%. Conclusion: Percent fPSA might be more useful than PSA in the detection of prostate cancer. As the percent fPSA is decreased, the pathological grade is decreased, and the clinical stage is increased, the malignant degree is increased. The reference range of≥15% is more appropriate for Chinese male.

  17. Detection of IgG Anti-Leishmania Antigen by Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedral-Sampaio, Geraldo; Alves, Jessé S; Schriefer, Albert; Magalhães, Andréa; Meyer, Roberto; Glesby, Marshall J; Carvalho, Edgar M; Carvalho, Lucas P

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals. Here our goal was to develop a new serological technique using polystyrene microspheres sensitized with soluble Leishmania antigens as a tool for the detection of IgG in serum from CL patients by flow cytometry. To validate the assay we carried out a comparative test (ELISA) commonly used as a diagnostic test for parasitic diseases. To determine cross-reactivity we used serum from patients with Chagas disease, caused by a trypanosome that has several proteins with high homology to those of the Leishmania genus. We observed that the flow cytometry technique was more sensitive than the ELISA, but, less specific. Our results show that the flow cytometry serologic test can be used to confirm CL cases in L. braziliensis transmission areas, however, presence of Chagas disease has to be ruled out in these individuals. PMID:27622535

  18. Demonstration and characterization of tumor-associated antigenic components from cell membranes of a UV-induced mouse sarcoma using the macrophage-electrophoretic-mobility (MEM) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of tumor-associated antigenic material from the ascites sarcoma cells was carried out by extraction with 3 M KCl and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The antigenic activity was assayed in the MEM test. Extraction of whole tumor cells with 3 M KCl results in preparations with low antigenic activity which on SDS-PAGE show a very heterogeneous composition of more than 2o protein bands. In comparing the antigenic activity of different subcellular fractions obtained by differential centrifugation of the homogenate, the antigenic activity could be attributed to the cell membrane fraction. With this cell membrane fraction, three extraction media - 3 M KCl, 2% Triton X-100, and 5% sodium cholate - were tested for their ability to extract selectively the antigenic membrane proteins. The Triton X-100 treatment sobubilized the greatest amount of membrane protein. Both Triton X-100 and sodium cholate, however, produced very heterogeneous protein extracts. In contrast, 3 M KCl extracted selectively three membrane components: a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and two low-molecular weight carbohydrate-free proteins. Removal of the KCl in the presence of Triton X-100 precipitates the carbohydrate-free proteins, while the glycoprotein remains in solution. Testing the components of the KCl extracts in the MEM test after isolation by preparative SDS-PAGE revealed antigenic activity only with the glycoprotein component. (author)

  19. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti R; Rahmadani I; Fitria Y

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC) method ...

  20. Analytical and clinical performances of immunoradiometric assay of total and free PSA developed locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific assay was developed for total and free PSA (PSAt, PSAf). Both assay use a two site IRMA with polyclonal anti PSA antibodies coated on tubes. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained after rabbit's immunisation using an under skin injection of pure PSA in multiple site. For quantification, two monoclonal antibodies were selected, the first highly specific to free PSA and the second recognising both free and bound PSA. A correlation study was performed comparatively with two commercial kits from CIS Bio and Immunotech. For that purpose, 464 serums samples ranging from 0.5 ng/ml to 3399 ng/ml were used to characterise the analytical performance of the new test. The analytical detection limit of the new test was equal to 0.05 ng/ml for the total PSA and 0.02ng/ml for the free PSA. The within run and between-day coefficients of variation were to 20 ng/ml. For BPH, no significant difference was found between the three test for the ratio PSAf/PSAt using a cut off of 14% (all were>to 14%). For the 120 patients with PC, all PSAt were > to 2 ng/ml. However the mean value of PSAt was higher for the commercial kits (14.74 ng/ml against 12.48ng/ml for the new test) but all ratio of PSAf/PSAt for the 120 newly diagnosed cancer were <14%. In conclusion, our immunoradiometric assay developed locally has a good analytical performance and its outputs are well correlated to clinical findings in prostate disease. Furthermore, a cut off of 14% for the ratio PSAf/PSAt appears to be the most accurate tools to depict a prostate cancer

  1. Enhanced performance of an innovative dengue IgG/IgM rapid diagnostic test using an anti-dengue EDI monoclonal antibody and dengue virus antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Jihoo Lee; Young-Eun Kim; Hak-Yong Kim; Mangalam Sinniah; Chom-Kyu Chong; Hyun-Ok Song

    2015-01-01

    High levels of anti-dengue IgM or IgG can be detected using numerous rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, the sensitivity and specificity of these tests are reduced by changes in envelope glycoprotein antigenicity that inevitably occur in limited expression systems. A novel RDT was designed to enhance diagnostic sensitivity. Dengue viruses cultured in animal cells were used as antigens to retain the native viral coat protein. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were then developed, for the first ...

  2. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children. PMID:12843086

  3. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children.

  4. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  5. Cost Savings Associated with Testing of Antibodies, Antigens, and Nucleic Acids for Diagnosis of Acute HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Karris, Maile Y.; Anderson, Christy M.; Sheldon R. Morris; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to identify all persons infected with HIV in the United States are driven by the hope that early diagnosis will lower risk behaviors and decrease HIV transmission. Identification of HIV-infected people earlier in the course of their infection with HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assays (4th-generation HIV assays) should help achieve this goal. We compared HIV RNA nucleic acid test (NAT) results to the results of a 4th-generation Ag/Ab assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo [HIV Com...

  6. Rapid plasma reagin card test: evaluation of a hand-rotation procedure and stability of the RPR antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyck, E; Bogaerts, J.; Piot, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reported are the results of a comparative study of two procedures for the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for syphilis serology: in one approach a mechanical rotator was used and in the other, hand rotation was employed. Both procedures were performed on 327 sera. The agreement between both was 98.8%. Three sera that exhibited minimal reactivity (titre = 1) in the mechanical-rotation RPR were nonreactive in the hand-rotation RPR. RPR antigen was stored for 3 months at room temperature (mean, 2...

  7. Detection and monitoring of human bocavirus 1 infection by a new rapid antigen test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.L. Bruning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically relevant diagnosis of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1 is challenging, as the virus is frequently detected in asymptomatic patients, and cofindings with other respiratory viruses are common. The clinical value of current diagnostic methods, such as PCR, is therefore low, and alternative diagnostic strategies are needed. We describe for the first time the use of an antigen detection assay for the rapid identification of HBoV1 in a paediatric patient with respiratory tract infection symptoms. We estimate the duration of active HBoV1 infection to be 6 days.

  8. Comparison between the 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As noninvasive tests for Helicobacter pylori infection, the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen test have been widely used. In children, however, there are few studies reporting which test shows superior performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the 13C-UBT and stool antigen test for their accuracy in diagnosing. H. pylori infection in children. A total of 123 Japanese children, ages 2 to 17 years (mean, 12 years) who underwent gastric biopsies for H. pylori infection were studied. The diagnoses included gastritis (n=55), gastric ulcer (n=5), duodenal ulcer (n=20), iron-deficiency anemia (n=7), and other conditions (n=36). The cutoff value of the 13C-UBT was defined to be 3.5 per mille. The stool antigen test was performed using the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Premier Platinum HpSA). In 16 patients who received eradication therapy, the 13C-UBT and HpSA were repeated 2 months after treatment. Based on biopsy tests, 60 children were infected with H. pylori and 63 children were not. For the 13C-UBT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.1%-99.0%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.5%-100%), and 96.4% (95% CI, 93.6%-99.9%), respectively. For the HpSA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 983.% (95% CI, 90.8%-100%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2%-100%), and 98.3% (95% CI, 96.0%-100%), respectively. There were no significant differences between the performance of these two tests. In the assessment of H. pylori eradication, the results of 13C-UBT and HpSA agreed with those of biopsy tests. The 13C-UBT and the HpSA are equally accurate for the diagnosis of active H. pylori infection in Japanese children. (author)

  9. Regulatory requirements on PSA level 2: Review, aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general requirements concerning utility obligations, probabilistic safety criteria (CDF should not exceed 1.0E-4/reactor year and LERF should not exceed 1.0E-5/reactor year), documentation and results, living PSA requirements and major steps in level 2 PSA are presented. PSA developments in Slovakia, collection and assembly of information, plant damage states, containment performance and failure modes, severe accident progression analyses, containment failure modes and source terms as a part of performed level 2 PSA are discussed. The PSA applications in design and operation evaluation, support to plant upgrade and modifications are also described. At the end, the following conclusion is made: more extensive PSA application needs to foster the exchange of experience and communication between PSA specialists, non-PSA engineers, designers, and the regulatory body staff responsible for safety assessment, inspection and enforcement

  10. Summary review of PSA topics in connection with Romanian regulatory body activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation includes the Romanian regulatory body guide; PSA level 1 requirements; PSA level 1 project status; PSA level 2 support activities; Scenario for PSA activities; external and internal cooperation

  11. Comparison of invasive methods and two different stool antigen tests for diagnosis of H pylori infection in patients with gastric bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebru Demiray; (O)zlem Yilmaz; Cihat (S)arki(s); Müjde Soytürk; (I)lkay (S)im(s)ek

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare two different H pylori stool antigen tests as noninvasive diagnostic methods.METHODS: The study population consisted of 22 upper gastrointestinal system bleeding patients. Urea breath test (UBT), rapid urease test (RUT) and histopathological examination were applied to all patients. Stool specimens from these patients were examined by rapid STRIP!HpSA and one step simple H pylori antigen cassette test for the detection of H pylori antigens.RESULTS: For these 22 patients, 15 (68.2%) were diagnosed as positive and seven (31.8%) were diagnosed negative for H pylori infection by the gold standard methods. Whereas 10 (45.5%) were positive and 12 (54.5%) were diagnosed negative by the rapid STRIP!HpSA test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 60%, 86%, 90% and 50%, respectively. When compared to the gold standard methods, these differences were not significant.However, six patients (27.3%) were positive, and 16(72.7%) were negative by the simple H pylori stool antigen cassette test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 33%, 86%, 83% and 38%, respectively. Compared to the gold standard methods, the simple H pylori stool antigen cassette test results were significantly different (P = 0.012).CONCLUSION: Rapid STRIP!HpSA test could be used as a routine diagnostic tool in the microbiology laboratory for assessing clinical significance and eradication control of H pylori in upper gastrointestinal system bleeding patients.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães; Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.; Crabtree, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n...

  13. Power Plant with CO2 Capture based on PSA Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Stene, Henrik Sørskår; Moen, Ole Marius

    2014-01-01

    Two coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture by Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) havebeen modeled and simulated. The two power plants considered were IntegratedGasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and conventional Pulverized Coal Combustion (PCC). Amathematical model of the PSA process for each of the power plants was developed and thegoal was to evaluate the feasibility of PSA as a technology for decarbonisation. Theperformance with CO2 capture by PSA was compared to a reference plant without C...

  14. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 30 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  15. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 60 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  16. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF FOUR RECOMBINANT TREPONEMA PALLIDUM ANTIGEN-BASED RAPID TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-na Wang; Lei Yang; He-yi Zheng

    2007-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of 4 recombinant Treponema pallidum antigenbased rapid tests in the diagnosis of syphilis.Methods A total of 970 outpatients were selected from the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Venous blood was collected and serum was extracted. T. pallidum antibodies in whole blood, anticoagulant whole blood, and serum were detected using 4 recombinant T. pallidum antigen-based rapid tests.T. pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) was considered as the gold standard for the detection of T. pallidum specific antibodies in serum. The sensitivities and specificities of four methods were analyzed.Results The sensitivities and specificities of Abbott Determine Syphilis TP test, SD-BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test,VISITECT-SYPHILIS test, and Syphicheck-WB test for serum specimens were 100% and 98.9%, 95.7% and 98.0%, 94.6% and 98.2%, 68.1% and 98.9%; for whole blood were 74.1% and 99.5%, 87.9% and 99.4%,73.2% and 99.7%, 64.7% and 99.7%. The observed sensitivities of the 4 rapid diagnosis tests were not significantly different with TPHA ( P>0.05 ).Conclusions The 4 rapid tests show good performance and characteristics in the diagnosis of syphilis. Furthermore, they are more sensitive for serum specimens than whole blood.

  17. PSA procedure guide for MOX fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a procedure guide developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency for PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) of MOX fuel Fabrication Facilities. The procedure guide consists of two parts. The first part describes the procedure of PSA. The second part shows the practical examples of PSA of a typical facility with information applicable to the practical assessment. (author)

  18. Performance indicators at Embalse NPP: PSA and safety system indicators based on PSA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several indicators have been implemented at Embalse NPP. The objective was selecting some representative parameters to evaluate the performance of both the plant and the personnel activities, important for safety. A first set of indicators was defined in accordance with plant technical staff criteria. A complementary set of them was addressed later based on WANO guidance. This report presents the set of indicators used at Embalse NPP, centering the description to related to safety systems performance indicators (SSPI). Some considerations are done about the calculation methods, the need for aligning and updating their values following Embalse Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) development, and some pros and cons of using the PSA model for getting systems indicators. Owing to the fact that PSA ownership by utilities is also a subject of the meeting, some characteristics of the organization of the PSA Project are described at the beginning of the report. At Embalse NPP a Level 1 PSA has been developed under the responsibility of its own plant and with an important contribution from the IAEA. PSA was developed at the site, conducting this to a study strongly interactive with the station staff. (author)

  19. MiR-614 Inhibited Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Proliferation via Targeting PSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang LV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a group of non-coding small RNA molecules, which play important roles in the development of tumor. The mechanisms of various kinds of miRNAs in lung cancer still need to be further elucidated. This study investigated the function of miR-614 on lung cancer cell invasion and proliferation. Methods Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-614 in lung cancer cell PGCL3 and PGLH7. Transwell assay was used to test the role of miR-614 on regulating invasion and migration of cells. CCK8 assay and BrdU incorporation assay was used to assess the role of miR-614 on cell proliferation. Bioinformatics software predicted the potential target genes of miR-614 and dual luciferase reporter gene was used to analyze the binding between miR-614 and 3’UTR of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA. Western blot detected the PSA protein levels. Results The expression of miR-614 in PGCL3 cells with high metastasis potential was significantly lower than that in PGLH7 cells with low metastasis potential. Furthermore, altered expression of miR-614 by transfection of pre-miR-614 mimics and inhibitor significantly affected the ability of invasion and proliferation of lung cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that PSA was one of the potential target genes of miR-614. Altered expression of miR-614 markedly down-regulated the PSA protein levels of lung cancer cells. In addition, dual luciferase reporter gene assay indicated that miR-614 regulated PSA expression by binding to the 3’UTR of PSA mRNA. Conclusion MiR-614 inhibited cell invasion and proliferationa targeting PSA in lung cancer cells, PGCL3.

  20. Quantitative mathematical modeling of PSA dynamics of prostate cancer patients treated with intermittent androgen suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito Hirata; Koichiro Akakura; Celestia S.Higano; Nicholas Bruchovsky; Kazuyuki Aihara

    2012-01-01

    If a mathematical model is to be used in the diagnosis,treatment,or prognosis of a disease,it must describe the inherent quantitative dynamics of the state.An ideal candidate disease is prostate cancer owing to the fact that it is characterized by an excellent biomarker,prostate-specific antigen (PSA),and also by a predictable response to treatment in the form of androgen suppression therapy.Despite a high initial response rate,the cancer will often relapse to a state of androgen independence which no longer responds to manipulations of the hormonal environment.In this paper,we present relevant background information and a quantitative mathematical model that potentially can be used in the optimal management of patients to cope with biochemical relapse as indicated by a rising PSA.

  1. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives. PMID:17617848

  3. Optimizing patient selection for dose escalation techniques using the prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy gleason score, and clinical T-stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Ideal candidates for 3D dose escalation conformal radiation or external beam + implant therapy are identified on the basis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 American Joint Commission Cancer (AJCC) clinical T-stage. Methods and Materials: The pathologic findings of 1742 men with clinical stage T1c,2 prostate cancer managed with a radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 1998 were subjected to a logistic regression multivariable analysis. The endpoints examined included pathologic organ-confined (OC), specimen-confined (SC), and margin (M) or seminal vesicle (SV) positive disease. SC disease was defined as extracapsular extension (ECE) with a negative surgical margin. The clinical factors tested included PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 AJCC clinical T-stage. PSA failure-free (bNED) survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: Significant negative predictors of pathologic OC-disease or positive predictors of M+ or SV+ disease included a PSA > 10 ng/ml (p + or SV+ disease respectively. Conclusions: Patients most likely to derive a survival benefit from the improved local control possible using dose escalation techniques were those who had both a low risk of having occult micrometastatic disease (+ or SV+) and a reasonable likelihood of remaining disease-free after RP (>50% 5-year bNED). These patients included those having T1c, 2a, PSA > 10-15 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤6 or T1c, 2a, 2b, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤ 7 prostate cancer

  4. Expression System Based on an MTIIa Promoter to Produce hPSA in Mammalian Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anderson K; Parreira, Ricardo C; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2016-01-01

    Because of the limitations of standard culture techniques, the development of new recombinant protein expression systems with biotechnological potential is a key challenge. Ideally, such systems should be able to effectively and accurately synthesize a protein of interest with intrinsic metabolic capacity. Here, we describe such a system that was designed based on a plasmid vector containing promoter elements derived from the metallothionein MTIIa promoter, as well as processing and purification elements. This promoter can be induced by heavy metals in a culture medium to induce the synthesis of human prostate-specific antigen (hPSA), which has been modified to insert elements for purification, proteolysis, and secretion. We optimized hPSA production in this system by comparing the effects and contributions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, and CuSO4 in HEK293FT, HeLa, BHK-21, and CHO-K1 cells. We also compared the effectiveness of three different transfection agents: multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Lipofectamine 2000, and X-tremeGENE HP Reagent. hPSA production was confirmed via the detection of enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence, and cell viability was determined. The expression of hPSA was compared with that of the native protein produced by LNCaP cells, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. X-tremeGENE reagent, the BHK-21 cell line, and CuSO4 showed the highest hPSA production rates. Furthermore, BHK-21 cells were more resistant to the oxidative stress caused by 100 μM CuSO4. These results suggest that the proposed optimized inducible expression system can effectively produce recombinant proteins with desired characteristics for a wide range of applications in molecular biology. PMID:27582737

  5. Is extended biopsy protocol justified in all patients with PSA ≥ 20 ng/mL?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Deng; Jian Chu; Bo Yang; Feng Liu; Weifeng Wang; Jidong Hao; Jiansheng Wan; Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was necessary to increase the number of cores at initial prostate biopsy with patients of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 20 ng/mL and to explore an appropriate individual-ized transrectal ultrasonograhpy (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in men suspicious of prostate cancer.Methods:A total of 115 patients with PSA ≥ 20 ng/mL and suspicious of prostate cancer were prospectively randomized to perform TRUS-guided biopsy. Patients were randomized to a “6 + X” cores or a “10 + X” cores protocol. The primary end point was cancer detection rate. Secondary end points were cancer characteristics, rate of complications and the level of pain experienced by patients during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy.Results:Preoperative variables were similar in both groups. The overal prostate cancer detection rate was 73.9%. The “10 + X” cores strategy increased cancer detection rate only 9.7% in patients with PSA ≥ 20 ng/mL but < 50 ng/mL, while there was no diference between the two strategies for cancer detection in patients with PSA ≥ 50.1 ng/mL. The number of extended biopsy cores and pain score of extended biopsy in prostate cancer patients increased significantly (P < 0.001).Conclusion:Our findings suggest that there is no significant advantage in using extended biopsy protocol in al patients with PSA ≥ 20 ng/mL.

  6. Association of early PSA failure time with increased distant metastasis and decreased survival in prostate brachytherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We investigated whether earlier PSA failure following prostate brachytherapy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases (DM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), and overall mortality. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 2818 patients who underwent brachytherapy ± external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) ± androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). With median follow-up of 5.52 years, 264 patients experienced PSA failure at a median time of 3.25 years. Patients were stratified to early vs. late PSA failures at cutoffs of 1.5 years, 3 years, or 5 years, and tested in univariate/multivariate analyses for freedom from DM, cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Among patients with PSA failures, 69 (26%) patients experienced DM, 47 (18%) PCSM, and 56 (21%) deaths from other causes. Patients with rapid PSA failures demonstrated increased rates of DM, PCSM, and overall mortality, despite higher total BED and longer ADT. In multivariate analysis with a PSA failure interval <3 years, the hazard ratio (HR) for DM was 3.92 (95% CI: 2.34–6.55; p = 0.000); HR for PCSM was 2.79 (95% CI: 1.45–5.38; p = 0.002); and HR for overall mortality was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.50–3.48; p = 0.000). Conclusion: Early PSA failure following radiation is a poor prognostic factor, as it is associated with increased DM, PCSM, and overall mortality

  7. Serodiagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections in an endemic area of Burkina Faso: performance of several immunological tests with different parasite antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens. PMID:15652331

  8. PSA as a tool of RBMK upgrading efficiency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors being channel-type graphite moderated reactors required updating of ''PSA standard methodology''. RBMK PSA concept was developed when performing Ignalina NPP study which resulted in a full scope level 1 PSA. Findings of the study on the plant weaknesses allowed to compose a list of proposals which lead to core damage risk reduction from 2E-4 to 6E-5 1/year. For the Leningrad NPP a simplified method of PSA was used in order to evaluate existing safety improvement measures. Each measure was weighted in terms of risk to rank them according to their importance. However, the results should be specified by the full scope PSA

  9. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  10. Bioimpedance and chronoamperometry as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu DS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Darci Schiavon de AbreuDepartment of Urology, Hospital Unimed de Limeira, Sao Paulo, BrazilBackground: Bioimpedance is an electrical property of living tissue that has been shown to be a safe technique when used in a number of biomedical applications. The aim of this research was to assess the utility of bioimpedance measurement as a rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive adjunct to digital rectal examination and PSA in differentiating tumor from normal prostatic tissue.Methods: Three hundred men were examined for signs and symptoms of prostate disorders. 147 patients with a digital rectal examination indicating a positive result underwent a prostate-specific antigen (PSA test. A biopsy was advised for 103 of the men, of whom 50 completed the study. Before undergoing biopsy, an examination with the EIS (electro interstitial scan system using bioimpedance and chronoamperometry was performed. In reference to the biopsy results (negative or positive, a statistical analysis of the EIS data and PSA was conducted using receiver operating characteristic curves to determine the specificity and sensitivity of each test.Results: The PSA test had a sensitivity of 73.9% and specificity of 51.9% using a cutoff value >4 and a sensitivity of 52.2% and specificity of 81.5% using a cutoff value ≥5.7 and P = 0.03. The delta of the electrical conductivity (DE of the left foot-right foot pathway had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 85.2%, with a cutoff value ≤-5 and P = 0.0001. Algorithms comprising the delta of electrical conductivity and PSA showed a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 59.3%, with a cutoff value ≤-10.52 and P = 0.0003.Conclusion: The EIS system had a very good specificity of 85.2%. However, the sensitivity of 62.5% would be a problem. Using a PSA reference >4.1 ng/mL, the adjunctive use of bioimpedance and chronoamperometry provided by EIS technology could raise the sensitivity from 73.9% to 91.5% and the specificity from 51

  11. Development of Integrated PSA Database and Application Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high quality of PSA is essential for the risk informed regulation and applications. The main elements of PSA are the model, methodology, reliability data, and tools. The purpose of the project is to develop the reliability database for the Korean nuclear power plants and PSA analysis and management system. The reliability database system has been developed and the reliability data has been collected for 4 types of reliability data such as the reactor trip, the piping, the component and the common cause failure. The database provides the reliability data for PSAs and risk informed applications. The FTREX software is the fastest PSA quantification engine in the world. The license agreement between KAERI and EPRI is made to sell FTREX to the members of EPRI. The advanced PSA management system AIMS- PSA has been developed. The PSA model is stored in the database and solved by clicking one button. All the information necessary for the KSNP Level-1 and 2 PSA is stored in the PSA information database. It provides the PSA users a useful mean to review and analyze the PSA

  12. A Joint Report on PSA for New and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to new and advanced nuclear reactors. As far as advanced reactors are concerned, the objectives were to characterize the ability of current PSA technology to address key questions regarding the development, acceptance and licensing of advanced reactor designs, to characterize the potential value of advanced PSA methods and tools for application to advanced reactors, and to develop recommendations for any needed developments regarding PSA for these reactors. As far as the design and commissioning of new nuclear power plants is concerned, the objectives were to identify and characterize current practices regarding the role of PSA, to identify key technical issues regarding PSA, lessons learned and issues requiring further work; to develop recommendations regarding the use of PSA, and to identify future international cooperative work on the identified issues. In order to reach these objectives, questionnaires had been sent to participating countries and organisations

  13. Development of PSA projects for Mochovce NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Mochovce NPP safety measurements project realisation, a list of totally 87 safety measures grouped according their purposes to reach recent international requirements on nuclear safety and reliability was elaborated. In this paper an overview of the Mochovce NPP safety measures is given and it is stressed on the measures related to the PSA (AA-08 - Shutdown and Low Power PSA (SPSA) and AA-10 - Full Power PSA Level 1). The scope of PSA level 1 and SPSA projects developed for Unit 1 are described and the main results are discussed. The Core Damage Frequency (CDF) calculation, contribution of the IEs to the shutdown CDF (total CDF=3.83E-06/year) and to the full power CDF (total CDF=1.66E-04/year) are shown. The developed PSA models can be adopted in the future for the following purposes: living PSA; real time risk monitoring; technical specifications and STIs optimization; level 2 PSA

  14. Luminescence energy transfer detection of PSA in red region based on Mn2+-enhanced NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Shaozhen; Gao, Ni; Feng, Dexiang; Wang, Lun; Chen, Hongqi

    2015-10-15

    A new turn-on luminescence energy transfer (LET) system has been designed for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA, a cancer marker) that utilizes Mn(2+)-enhanced long wavelength luminescence NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanorods as the donor and gold nanorods as the acceptor. The Mn(2+)-doped NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion luminescence nanorods with an emission peak located in the red region were synthesized. The presence of Mn(2+) markedly increased the luminescence intensity over that of the NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanomaterials (excited by a 980 nm continuous wavelength laser). The surfaces of Mn(2+)-doped NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanorods were modified with poly(acrylic acid). Antibodies against prostate specific antigen were bound to the surface of the carboxyl-functionalized upconversion nanorods, which acted as the energy donor in this LET system. Gold nanorods with an absorption band at ~666 nm were synthesized by the seed growth method, acted as the energy acceptor. The emission band of the upconversion nanorods overlapped well with the absorption band of the gold nanorods. The luminescence was quenched because of the electrostatic interactions that shortened the distance between the donor (negatively charged) and the accepter (positively charged).When the PSA antigen was added into the system, the energy acceptor and the energy donors were separated because the binding affinity between PSA and anti-PSA was greater than the electrostatic interactions, and thereby the luminescence was recovered. The linear range of detecting PSA was from 0.1172 to 18.75 ng/mL (R=0.995), with a limit of detection for PSA as low as 0.1129 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the sensing of PSA in human serum samples. PMID:25996781

  15. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  16. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Young [Traditional Food Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives, Fisheries Economic Institute, Seoul 138-827 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong-Hyun, E-mail: dhahn@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: > Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. > Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  17. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: → Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. → Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  18. Experience from the comparison of two PSA-studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) made for nearly identical reactors units (Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3) have been compared. Two different analysis teams made the PSAs, and the analyses became quite different. The goal of the study is to identify, clarify and explain differences between PSA-studies. The purpose is to understand limitations and uncertainties in PSA, to explain reasons for differences between PSA-studies, and to give recommendations for comparison of PSA-studies and for improving the PSA-methodology. The reviews have been made by reading PSA-documentation, using the computer model and interviewing persons involved in the projects. The method and findings have been discussed within the project group. Both the PSA-project and various parts in the PSA-model have been reviewed. A major finding was that the two projects had different purpose and thus had different resources, scope and even methods in their study. The study shows that comparison of PSA results from different plants is normally not meaningful. It takes a very deep knowledge of the PSA studies to make a comparison of the results and usually one has to ensure that the compared studies have the same scope and are based on the same analysis methods. Harmonisation of the PSA-methodology is recommended in the presentation of results, presentation of methods, scope main limitation and assumption, and definitions for end states, initiating events and common cause failures. This would facilitate the comparison of the studies. Methods for validation of PSA for different application areas should be developed. The developed PSA review standards can be applied for a general validation of a study. The most important way to evaluate the real feasibility of PSA can take place only with practical applications. The PSA-documentation and models can be developed to facilitate the communication between PSA-experts and users. In any application consultation with the PSA-expert is however needed. Many

  19. Prostate-specific antigen bounce following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA bounce after brachytherapy has been well-documented. This phenomenon has also been identified in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. While the parameters that predict PSA bounce have been extensively studied in prostate brachytherapy patients, this study is the first to analyze the clinical and pathologic predictors of PSA bounce in prostate SBRT patients. Materials and Methods: Our institution has maintained a prospective database of patients undergoing SBRT for prostate cancer since 2006. Our study population includes patients between May 2006 and November 2011 who have at least 18 months of follow-up. All patients were treated using the CyberKnife treatment system. The prescription dose was 3500-3625cGy in 5 fractions.Results: 120 patients were included in our study. Median PSA follow-up was 24 months (range 18-78 months. 34 (28% patients had a PSA bounce. The median time to PSA bounce was 9 months, and the median bounce size was 0.50ng/mL. On univariate analysis, only younger age (p = .011 was shown to be associated with an increased incidence of PSA bounce. Other patient factors, including race, prostate size, prior treatment by hormones, and family history of prostate cancer, did not predict PSA bounces. None of the tumor characteristics studied, including Gleason score, pre-treatment PSA, T-stage, or risk classification by NCCN guidelines, was associated with increased incidence of PSA bounces. Younger age was the only statistically significant predictor of PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (OR = 0.937, p = 0.009.Conclusion: PSA bounce, which has been reported after prostate brachytherapy, is also seen in a significant percentage of patients after CyberKnife SBRT. Close observation rather than biopsy can be considered for these patients. Younger age was the only factor that predicted PSA bounce.

  20. PSA Bounce and Biochemical Failure After Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Study of 820 Patients With a Minimum of 3 Years of Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine clinical or dosimetric factors associated with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce, as well as an association between a PSA bounce and biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), in patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A variety of clinical and treatment factors were examined in 820 patients who had a minimum of 3 years of PSA follow-up with T1-T2cN0M0 prostate cancer. Four different PSA threshold values were used for defining a PSA bounce: a PSA rise of ≥0.2, ≥0.4, ≥0.6, and ≥0.8 ng/mL. Results: A PSA bounce of ≥0.2, ≥0.4, ≥0.6, and ≥0.8 ng/mL was noted in 247 patients (30.1%), 161 (19.6%), 105 (12.8%), and 78 (9.5%), respectively. The median time to the first PSA rise was 17.4, 16.25, 16.23, and 15.71 months, respectively, vs. 34.35 months for a biochemical failure (p < 0.0001). A PSA rise of ≥0.2 ng/mL was the only definition for which there was a significant difference in bRFS between bounce and non-bounce patients. The 5-year bRFS rate of patients having a PSA bounce of ≥0.2 was 97.7% vs. 91% for those who did not have a PSA bounce (p = 0.0011). On univariate analysis for biochemical failure, age, risk group, and PSAs per year had a statistically significant correlation with PSA bounce of ≥0.2 ng/mL. On multivariate analysis, age and PSAs per year remained statistically significant (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0456, respectively). Conclusions: A bounce definition of a rise ≥0.2 ng/mL is a reliable definition among several other definitions. The time to first PSA rise is the most valuable factor for distinguishing between a bounce and biochemical failure.

  1. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1) in an immunoglobulin G avidity test for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietkiewicz, H; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E; Kur, J;

    2007-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of an acute and recent Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and the newborn child is important before treatment. This study describes a new Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test based on a combination of recombinant GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1 antigens and shows that this test is use...

  2. Prospective evaluation of a whole-blood test using Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 for diagnosis of active tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase B; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Nielsen, Lars Nørregaard; Kok-Jensen, Axel; Andersen, Peter; Weldingh, Karin

    2005-01-01

    A new immunodiagnostic test based on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens CFP-10/ESAT-6(QFT-RD1) has been launched as an aid in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate this test for the diagnosis of active TB. Eighty-two patients...

  3. Diagnostische Wertigkeit von PSA und DVT

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Carolina Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Die radiologische Diagnostik, die auf einem abgestuftem Untersuchungsschema beruht, ist heute fester Bestandteil in der Zahnärztlichen Chirurgie. Die zur Basisuntersuchung gehörende Panorama-Schichtaufnahme liefert grundlegende Informationen durch Darstellung der Organ- und Funktionseinheit und stellt somit die radiologische Grundlage für viele diagnostische Fragen dar. Durch gewissenhafte Beurteilung stellt die PSA somit ein im Hinblick auf die Therapieentscheidung wichtiges, sondern auch in...

  4. Definition of initiating events for PSA uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiating events (IEs) have been shown to be of great importance in the evaluation of core damage frequency (CDF) in PSAs. Inclusion of additional IEs for obtaining completeness or the updating of the frequency of IEs when new data become available have been found to greatly influence PSA CDF results. In spite of their importance, many different approaches are commonly used in the treatment of IEs in PSA. Therefore, some guidance on increasing uniformity and standardization is appropriate. Furthermore, the wide variety of IE data and the approaches used in published PSAs can be compared and presented for the benefit of PSA specialists. The IAEA, within the framework of its programme to develop guidelines for conducting PSAs, is producing a number of reports that provide such guidance. One of the important tasks that the reports encourage, as part of the PSA Level 1 study, is the selection, grouping and frequency evaluation of IEs. (The IAEA report on IEs will be published in 1992). The paper summarizes the results of a review of the definition of IEs in PSAs in the USA and Europe for LWRs. It provides a short historical background by considering various approaches that have been used in previous PSAs. It follows the IE data development over the last 15 years. It then provides a review of selection approaches in some recent PSAs. A discussion of completeness of the IE list is given and a table exemplifying several lists of IE groupings is included. The relative importance of some of the IE groups used in two PSAs is shown for BWRs and PWRs. The review also covers the treatment of IE frequencies. Various methodologies are listed and examples are given. Sources of data for the evaluation of IE frequencies are outlined. The paper emphasizes approaches that allow for the use of actual operating experience accumulated during plant specific studies and from LERs. It suggests that these approaches be used whenever sufficient plant specific data exist. (author). 24 refs, 4

  5. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  6. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  7. Stop C. difficile Infections PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This 60 second PSA is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  8. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  9. Application of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) approach to structuring accident mitigation systems of a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety evaluation technology of PWRs has already been improved substantially because of large-scale safety verification tests and improvement of accuracy in analyses. However, for structuring accident mitigation systems (AMS), the selection of appropriate systems from various AMS candidates mainly depends on engineering judgements by design engineers. So systematic designing process should be established. Reliability of each AMS forms the basis for reliability of safety plant design as a whole. Therefore, explicitly understanding characteristics of each AMS's reliability is very important for safety design. Based on these facts as a background, the limitation of improving reliability by strengthening redundancy of AMS mainly consisting of active components was clarified by applying PSA. At the same time, reliability and other characteristics of AMS mainly consisting of passive components were also clarified with PSA. Through these studies, it is proved that the application of PSA for structuring AMS is effective. (author)

  10. Study of possibility using LANL PSA-methodology for accident probability RBMK researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor facility probabilistic safety analysis methodologies are considered which are used at U.S. LANL and RF NIKIET. The methodologies are compared in order to reveal their similarity and differences, determine possibilities of using the LANL technique for RBMK type reactor safety analysis. It is found that at the PSA-1 level the methodologies practically do not differ. At LANL the PHA, HAZOP hazards analysis methods are used for more complete specification of the accounted initial event list which can be also useful at performance of PSA for RBMK. Exchange of information regarding the methodology of detection of dependent faults and consideration of human factor impact on reactor safety is reasonable. It is accepted as useful to make a comparative study result analysis for test problems or PSA fragments using various computer programs employed at NIKIET and LANL

  11. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy and external-beam radiation for localized high-risk prostate cancer: The importance of PSA nadir before radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose To examine the impact of various patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on outcome in patients treated with neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NAHT) and external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for clinically localized, high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma (initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level >20, Gleason score 8-10 or Stage ≥ T3). Methods and Materials A retrospective chart review was conducted on 407 patients treated between 1991 and 2001 with NAHT and EBRT for high-risk prostate cancer. The effect of tumor (PSA level, Gleason score, and T stage) and treatment (NAHT duration, total-hormone duration, preradiation PSA) characteristics on rates of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), prostate cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were examined. Results Median follow-up time was 78 months (range: 5-140 months). Actuarial bDFS at 5 years was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46% to 57%) for the entire group. On multivariate analysis, initial PSA level (p = 0.004), Gleason score (p = 0.005), and preradiation PSA level (p < 0.001) were predictive of bDFS, whereas age, T stage, duration of NAHT, and duration of total hormone therapy were not predictive of outcomes. Gleason score and preradiation PSA level were also predictive of prostate cancer-specific survival rates. Conclusion Improved bDFS in patients with high-risk prostate cancer was associated with lower initial PSA level, lower Gleason score, and lower preradiation PSA level. The duration of NAHT did not have an impact on outcomes, but the preradiation PSA was an important predictor of bDFS in high-risk patients

  12. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg among visitors of Shashemene General Hospital voluntary counseling and testing center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is significant health problem, as it can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatic carcinoma. Due to shared routes of transmission, HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection is common and is an emerging concern in the clinical management of patients because of increased mortality, accelerated hepatic disease progression, and the frequent hepatotoxicity caused by anti-retroviral therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and its risk factors, among individuals visiting Shashemene General Hospital VCT center. Findings Institution based cross-sectional study was performed from November 3, 2008 to December 29, 2008 and 384 voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients were investigated. Data on socio demographic and HBV risk factors was collected using structured questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and HIV by commercially available rapid test kits. The prevalence of HBsAg in this study group was 5.7%. Fourteen percent of HIV positive subjects (8/57 and 4.3% (14/327 of HIV negative subjects were positive for HBsAg. Significantly high prevalence of HBsAg was observed among individuals who had history of invasive procedures, like tooth extraction, abortion and ear piercing; history of hospital admission, history of unsafe inject and HIV positives. Conclusions Although HBsAg prevalence is much higher among subjects who are HIV positive (14.0% versus 4.3%, the prevalence of HBsAg in HIV negative subjects is high enough to warrant a recommendation to screen all clients at VCT centers irrespective of HIV status.

  13. Clinical characteristics of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 infection in children and the performance of rapid antigen test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jae Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : In autumn 2009, the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus spread throughout South Korea. The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics of children infected by the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, and to compare the rapid antigen and realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. Methods : We conducted a retrospective review of patients ?#241;8 years of age who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital in Seoul with respiratory symptoms, including fever, between September 2009 and January 2010. A real-time PCR test was used to definitively diagnose 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection. Medical records of confirmed cases were reviewed for sex, age, and the time of infection. The decision to perform rapid antigen testing was not influenced by clinical conditions, but by individual factors such as economic conditions. Its sensitivity and specificity were evaluated compared to real-time PCR test results. Results : In total, 934 patients tested positive for H1N1 by real-time PCR. The highest number of patients (48.9% was diagnosed in November. Most patients (48.2% were aged between 6 and 10 years. Compared with the H1N1 real-time PCR test results, the rapid antigen test showed 22% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Seventy-eight patients were hospitalized for H1N1 influenza A virus infection, and fever was the most common symptom (97.4%. Conclusion : For diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus infection, the rapid antigen test was inferior to the real-time PCR test in both sensitivity and specificity. This outcome suggests that the rapid antigen test is inappropriate for screening.

  14. Empiric antibiotics therapy for mildly elevated prostate specific antigen: Helpful to avoid unnecessary biopsies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fandella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of mildly elevated (4.0-10.0 ng/ml prostate specific antigen (PSA is uncertain. Immediate prostate biopsy, antibiotic treatment, or monitoring PSA level for 1-3 months is still in controversy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed the effect of empiric antibiotics on an increased PSA in a mono-institutional study. We analysed the data of 100 patients with a PSA of 4-10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination undergoing their first prostate biopsy. Patients were divided in two different cohorts. One cohort was submitted to antibiotic therapy (Levoxacin 500 mg daily for 20 days and both cohort had a re-dosing of PSA before the prostate biopsy. Results: Average age of the whole group of patients was 66.48 ± 8.32 years and their average initial PSA level was 6.67 ± 1.57 ng/mL. In the treated group (N = 49 29 patients had a decreasing PSA value from mean baseline PSA value of 6.6 ± 1.54 ng/ml to the re-dosed mean PSA level of 5.4 ± 1,61 ng/ml (p = 0.7; 20 patients didn’t experience a decrease PSA value, with a mean PSA level of 6.9 ± 1.68 ng/ml. In the control group (N = 51, 30 patients had a decrease of PSA level from mean baseline PSA level of 6.5 ± 1,59 ng/ml to a re-dosed PSA level of 5.5 ± 1.57 ng/ml; 21 patients didn’t experience a decrease of PSA value, with a mean PSA level of 6.7 ± 1.71 ng/ml. Multivariate analysis of age, PSA changes, antibiotics therapy and biopsy results (presence or absence of cancer revealed no significant difference between the two cohorts. Sepsis after biopsy occurred in 3 patient in the antibiotics group (6% and in one of the control group (2%. Conclusions: The study, even with some limitations, does not seem to show an advantage due to the administration of antibacterial therapy to reduce PSA values before prostate biopsy and subsequently to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies.

  15. Detection of leishmanial antigen in the urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis by a latex agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Shrinkhla; Pai, Kalpana; Chance, Michael; Hommel, Marcel

    2005-08-01

    Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is usually done by demonstration of parasites in tissue smears. However, obtaining these smears may be risky, painful, and difficult. Antibody-based diagnostics are limited by their inability to predict active disease. In this study, a new latex agglutination test (KAtex), which detects parasite antigen in freshly voided and boiled urine, was evaluated in patients with VL before the start (n = 382) and at the end of treatment (n = 273); 185 healthy controls from leishmaniasis-endemic region were also studied. The KAtex result was positive in 87% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.3-90.3). However, at the end of treatment only 3% (95% CI = 1.6-6.2) patients were positive. The specificity of the test was 99% and 2 of 185 healthy controls tested positive. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.994 and 0.788, respectively. KAtex is a promising test, and in a simplified and improved format it could be applied meaningfully in the diagnosis of VL. PMID:16103587

  16. Enhanced immunogenicity of pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA in mice via fusion to recombinant human B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mambula Salamatu S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands that mediates its action through three known receptors. BLyS has been shown to enhance the production of antibodies against heterologous antigens when present at elevated concentrations, supporting an immunostimulatory role for BLyS in vivo. Methods We constructed a fusion protein consisting of human BLyS and Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A (PsaA and used this molecule to immunize mice. The immunostimulatory attributes mediated by BLyS in vivo were evaluated by characterizing immune responses directed against PsaA. Results The PsaA-BLyS fusion protein was able to act as a co-stimulant for murine spleen cell proliferation induced with F(ab'2 fragments of anti-IgM in vitro in a fashion similar to recombinant BLyS, and immunization of mice with the PsaA-BLyS fusion protein resulted in dramatically elevated serum antibodies specific for PsaA. Mice immunized with PsaA admixed with recombinant BLyS exhibited only modest elevations in PsaA-specific responses following two immunizations, while mice immunized twice with PsaA alone exhibited undetectable PsaA-specific serum antibody responses. Sera obtained from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited high titers of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3, but no IgA, while mice immunized with PsaA admixed with BLyS exhibited only elevated titers of IgG1 following two immunizations. Splenocytes from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited elevated levels of secretion of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, and a very modest but consistent elevation of IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation with PsaA. In contrast, mice immunized with either PsaA admixed with BLyS or PsaA alone exhibited modestly elevated to absent PsaA-specific recall responses for the same cytokines. Mice deficient for one of the three receptors for BLyS designated Transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand [CAML] interactor (TACI exhibited

  17. Psa study of ETRR-2 Gadolinium injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    one of the main safety feature of ETRR-2, egypt test and reactor 3 2 (new reactor), is the use of a redundant and diverse shutdown systems, called second shutdown system SSS. This system operates through injection of a high absorbing material, gadolinium Gd solution, into four rectangular chambers surrounding the reactor core. In view of the fact that the core is super-moderated, the injected neutron poison between the core and the reflector will cause an immediate reactor shutdown. The SSS triggers due to: manual, seismic, fails of actuation of the first shutdown system FSS, or high power neutron flux signal. Because of safety importance of this new system design, the present probabilistic safety assessment PDA study is initiated. The study carried ou in view of the system acceptable unavailability together with the effects of failure probabilities of relevant parameters and basic events. The effect of system design modifications (remove of high power signal and addition of nitrogen filtering line) on reactor safety and system unavailability is analyzed. A new proposed PSA model which take into consideration all possible failure modes of the system components is developed. The results show that the modification done on the system improves its unavailability while increases the minimal cut sets. The proposed model unavailability is greater (bad) than the designer model (That contains many hypothesis). human error contribution on system unavailability is reflected on failure type of gadolinium concentration. The IAEA psa pack IV code is utilized for calculation purposes

  18. The application of the PSA important measures in risk-informed administrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance measures analyses of PSA are main approaches during the risk-informed administrations. This paper reviews kinds of importance measures, mainly researches the meaning of the FV and RAW importance measures, and introduces the applications of importance measures in the in-service testing and categorization of SSCs, finally, discusses the limitations of the importance measures analyses. (authors)

  19. Operational accuracy and comparative persistent antigenicity of HRP2 rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a hyperendemic region of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odong George W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite-based diagnosis of malaria by microscopy requires laboratory skills that are generally unavailable at peripheral health facilities. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs require less expertise, but accuracy under operational conditions has not been fully evaluated in Uganda. There are also concerns about RDTs that use the antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 to detect Plasmodium falciparum, because this antigen can persist after effective treatment, giving false positive test results in the absence of infection. An assessment of the accuracy of Malaria Pf™ immuno-chromatographic test (ICT and description of persistent antigenicity of HRP2 RDTs was undertaken in a hyperendemic area of Uganda. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, a total of 357 febrile patients of all ages were tested using ICT, and compared to microscopy as the gold standard reference. Two independent RDT readings were used to assess accuracy and inter-observer reliability. With a longitudinal design to describe persistent antigenicity of ICT and Paracheck, 224 children aged 6–59 months were followed up at 7-day intervals until the HRP2 antigens where undetectable by the RDTs. Results Of the 357 patients tested during the cross-sectional component, 40% (139 had positive blood smears for asexual forms of P. falciparum. ICT had an overall sensitivity of 98%, a specificity of 72%, a negative predictive value (NPV of 98% and a positive predictive value (PPV of 69%. ICT showed a high inter-observer reliability under operational conditions, with 95% of readings having assigned the same results (kappa statistics 0.921, p In children followed up after successful antimalaria treatment, the mean duration of persistent antigenicity was 32 days, and this duration varied significantly depending on pre-treatment parasitaemia. In patients with parasite density >50,000/μl, the mean duration of persistent antigenicity was 37 days compared to 26 days for parasitaemia

  20. Identification of a Novel Proteoform of Prostate Specific Antigen (SNP-L132I) in Clinical Samples by Multiple Reaction Monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Végvári, Ákos; Sjödin, Karin; Rezeli, Melinda; Malm, Johan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Marko-Varga, György

    2013-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a well-established tumor marker that is frequently employed as model biomarker in the development and evaluation of emerging quantitative proteomics techniques, partially as a result of wide access to commercialized immunoassays serving as “gold standards.” We designed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay to detect PSA proteoforms in clinical samples (n = 72), utilizing the specificity and sensitivity of the method. We report, for the first time, a PSA...

  1. 10-year biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) control of prostate cancer with 125I brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report 10-year biochemical (prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) outcomes for patients treated with 125I brachytherapy as monotherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and twenty-five consecutively treated patients, with clinical Stage T1-T2b prostate cancer were treated with 125I brachytherapy as monotherapy, and followed with PSA determinations. Kaplan-Meier estimates of PSA progression-free survival (PFS), on the basis of a two consecutive elevations of PSA, were calculated. Aggregate PSA response by time interval was assessed. Comparisons were made to an earlier-treated cohort. Results: The overall PSA PFS rate achieved at 10 years was 87% for low-risk patients (PSA125I achieves a high rate (87%) of biochemical and clinical control in patients with low-risk disease at 10 years. The decline of PSA following brachytherapy with low-dose-rate isotopes can be protracted. Absolute PSA and PFS curves merge, and are comparable at 10 years

  2. Penile Metastases of Recurrent Prostatic Adenocarcinoma without PSA Level Increase: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pierro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of penile metastases from recurrent prostatic adenocarcinoma that was the first sign of a widespread metastatic disease in the absence of any increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA level. In April 2011, an 80-year-old man presented to our Radiotherapy Unit with multiple palpable hard nodules in the penis, dysuria, and moderate perineal pain, 7 years after he had received radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Nodules in the penis had appeared in February 2011. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR imaging suggested the diagnosis of multiple penile metastases. A total body computed tomography scan revealed a systemic spread of the disease, with multiple metastases in the liver, bones, and lungs. PSA level was 0.126 ng/ml. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the liver lesion was undertaken, and the histopathologic examination revealed the prostatic origin of the metastases, so androgen deprivation therapy was started. The diagnosis of metastases should be considered in a patient with prior history of prostate malignancies presenting with solid nodules in the penis, even if the PSA level is low.

  3. Bedside diagnosis of imported malaria using the Binax Now malaria antigen detection test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Lothar; Bruun, Brita; Baek, Leif;

    2006-01-01

    Malaria may be misdiagnosed in non-endemic countries when the necessary experience for rapid expert microscopy is lacking. Rapid diagnostic tests may improve the diagnosis and may play a role as a bedside diagnostic tool. In a multicentre study we recruited patients suspected of malaria over a...... period of 14 months. The Binax Now Malaria rapid test was used at the bedside and in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The training of clinical staff was monitored and their experience with the use of the test was recorded. 542 patients were included, 80 of whom had malaria diagnosed by microscopy...... be useful for the diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria when used by routine laboratory staff, but could lead to misdiagnoses when used at the bedside. Microscopy is still essential in order to identify the few missed diagnoses, to determine the degree of parasitaemia, and to ensure species diagnosis...

  4. Evaluation of prostate cancer prevalence in Iranian male population with increased PSA level, a one center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi MK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Kazem Moslemi1, Fariborz Lotfi2, Seyed Ali Tahvildar31Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran; 2School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 3Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Qom Branch, Qom, IranPurpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa in Iranian male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE that underwent prostate biopsy.Materials and methods: From March 2006 to April 2009, a total of 346 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA, demographic data, incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, and prostatitis were assessed.Results: The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL. Of the 346 biopsied cases, 193 cases (56% had PCa, 80 cases (23% had BPH, and 73 cases (21% had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P < 0.01. The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. Incidence of PCa for group A and group B cases were 115 cases (51%, and 78 cases (65%, respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.40.Conclusion: TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team is highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. It seems that a PSA cutoff value of 4 ng/mL may be applied to the Iranian population. Although the chance of PCa is high in the PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL, the combination of some data, like age and prostate volume, can

  5. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and...

  6. Brug af undersøgelse for prostataspecifikt antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukai, Thomas; Bro, Flemming; Pedersen, Knud Venborg;

    2010-01-01

    Introduktion: Cancer prostatae (CP) er den hyppigste kræftform blandt danske mænd, og incidensen er stigende. CP er ofte asymptomatisk, hvilket vanskeliggør klinisk diagnosticering. I udredningen for CP kan man benytte en prøve for prostataspecifikt antigen (PSA)-niveau. Dansk Urologisk Selskab har...

  7. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  8. Genetic and Antigenic Analysis of Adenovirus Type 3 Strains Showing Intermediate Behavior in Standard Seroneutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia TB Moraes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available During an epidemiological survey of acute respiratory infection in Rio de Janeiro, among 208 adenovirus isolates, we found two strains that we were not able, by a standard neutralization procedure, to distinguish between type 3 or 7. However, DNA restriction pattern for the two strains with different enzymes were analyzed and showed a typical Ad3h profile. Using a cross-neutralization test in which both Ad3p and Ad7p antisera were used in different concentration against 100 TCID50 of each adenovirus standard and both isolates, we were able to confirm that the two isolates belong to serotype 3. An hemagglutination inhibition test also corroborated the identification of both strains as adenovirus type 3. Comparing Ad3h and Ad3p genome, we observed 16 different restriction enzyme sites, three of which were located in genomic regions encoding polypeptides involved in neutralization sites

  9. The open PSA initiative for next generation probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The open PSA initiative round table discussion session is to bring the PSA community up-to-date on our meetings, workshops, and working groups during the last year. We will have members of the initiative speak on their point of view of the initiative, what they have gained, and where we as a group want to go during the next year. The main idea is to use appropriate modules of different computer codes for a specific purpose which requires a common platform and a common PSA format. In this short paper we introduce our main project for this year: the open PSA model exchange format. (orig.)

  10. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen in nasal washings by Abbott TestPack enzyme immunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Wren, C G; Bate, B J; Masters, H B; Lauer, B A

    1990-01-01

    We compared the new Abbott TestPack (TP) respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with cell culture and two commercial RSV EIAs (from Abbott Diagnostics and Kallestad Laboratories) by using split samples of fresh nasal washings from children with suspected RSV disease. Two tubes of HEp-2 cells were inoculated and observed for cytopathic effect for 14 days, and isolates were confirmed by immunofluorescence. The TP EIA was performed by following the manufacturer's instructions...

  11. Kinetics of serum prostate-specific antigen after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To determine the kinetics of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer and to evaluate whether such kinetics provide prognostic information. Materials and methods: Eight hundred forty-one men with serial PSA determinations who underwent external beam radiation without androgen ablation were analyzed to determine postradiation PSA kinetic parameters (half-life and doubling time) and to correlate these parameters with disease outcome. Non-linear regression techniques were used to determine half-lives and doubling times. Results: The postradiation serum PSA data fitted well to first order kinetic models. The median PSA half-life was 1.6 months (range 0.5-9.2 months). There was no correlation between half-life and T-stage or Gleason grade. A significant but quantitatively weak correlation was present between the pretreatment PSA level and half-life; lower pretreatment levels were associated with longer half-lives. Half-life did not correlate with disease outcome whether the endpoint was local recurrence, distant metastasis or rising PSA. In 263 men with a rising postradiation PSA profile the median PSA doubling time was 12.2 months (range 0.8-80.2 months). Faster doubling times were significantly associated with higher T-stage, higher Gleason grade and higher pretreatment PSA levels. Thus, patients with initially adverse disease developed faster rising PSA values after treatment than patients with less adverse disease. The most striking correlation was between rapid doubling time and the likelihood of metastatic relapse. Patients who developed metastases had a median PSA doubling time of 4.2 months compared to a median doubling time of 11.7 months in patients who developed local recurrence. Overall, patients with a PSA doubling time of less than 8 months had a 7-year actuarial metastatic rate of 54%, while patients with a PSA doubling time exceeding 8 months had only a 7% metastatic rate

  12. Clinical score and rapid antigen detection test to guide antibiotic use for sore throats: randomised controlled trial of PRISM (primary care streptococcal management)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Little; Hobbs, F D R; Moore, M.; Mant, D; Williamson, I.; McNulty, C; Cheng, Y.E.; Leydon, G; McManus, R; Kelly, J; Barnett, J; Glasziou, P.; Mullee, M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of clinical scores that predict streptococcal infection or rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests compared with delayed antibiotic prescribing. DESIGN: Open adaptive pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care in United Kingdom. PATIENTS: Patients aged ?3 with acute sore throat. INTERVENTION: An internet programme randomised patients to targeted antibiotic use according to: delayed antibiotics (the compara...

  13. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Penney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED. Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18–24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3% (p=0.791 (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = −11% to +21% but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%. Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity.

  14. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Carla; Porter, Robert; O'Brien, Mary; Daley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18-24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3%) (p = 0.791) (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = -11% to +21%) but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%). Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity. PMID:27579047

  15. COMPARISION OF DIAGNOSTIC EFFICACY OF NS1 ANTIGEN B ASED IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC TEST WITH IMMUNO-SORBENT ASSA Y AND ITS ROLE IN DETECTION OF EARLY DENGUE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinain Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an acute viral infection with potential f atal complications. Rapid and easy diagnosis of dengue can help in patient triage and care- management. The detection of dengue virus NS1 antig en by rapid lateral flow tests offers a faster method to a presumptive diagnosis in the periphe ral centers of developing countries like India where the laboratory has no great technologic al backup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 351 sera from patients suspected of having dengue virus infection were tested for dengue NS1 antigen and dengue IgM and IgG antibodie s by both ELISA and immunochromatographic test (ICT. RESULTS: From the 351 samples tested, 249 (70.94% of the sera were found to be positive for DENV infectio n based on the IgM antibody or IgG antibody or NS1 antigen. Of the 249 samples 105 (42.16% were positive for only IgM or only IgG or both antibodies by ELISA and 101 (40.56% by ICT. Based on dengue NS1 antigen along with IgM and / or IgG tests, 144 (57.8% were positive for dengue infections by ELISA and 139 (55.8% by ICT. Among these 144 samples, only dengue NS1 antige n was detected in 67 (26.90% by ELISA and 65 (26.10% by ICT. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of NS1 in the diagnosis of dengue increa ses the detection rate significantly. The sensitivity o f ICT for both antigen and antibody detection are almost equal to ELISA. Thus, the potential use o f the NS1 antigen along with antibody tests in an ICT could increase the diagnostic efficiency for early diagnosis of dengue infection.

  16. Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,9±4,2 months (median 26,4±2,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,05±6,23 (median 29,60±2,26) and 22,09±2,98(median 22,80±3,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival

  17. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  18. Impedance-Based Miniaturized Biosensor for Ultrasensitive and Fast Prostate-Specific Antigen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Chornokur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the successful fabrication of an impedance-based miniaturized biosensor and its application for ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA detection in standard and real human plasma solution, spiked with different PSA concentrations. The sensor was fabricated using photolithographic techniques, while monoclonal antibodies specific to human PSA were used as primary capture antibodies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was employed as a detection technique. The sensor exhibited a detection limit of 1 pg/ml for PSA with minimal nonspecific binding (NSB. This detection limit is an order of magnitude lower than commercial PSA ELISA assays available on the market. The sensor can be easily modified into an array for the detection of other biomolecules of interest, enabling accurate, ultrasensitive, and inexpensive point-of-care sensing technologies.

  19. Role of digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen in detecting carcinoma prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the ability of digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostrate specific antigen (PSA) in detecting carcinoma prostrate. Results: Digital rectal examination has shown sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 73.22%. The sensitivity of PSA was 87% and specificity was 70.8%. The positive predictive value for DRE and PSA was 57.5% and 78.04% respectively. Negative predictive value was 73.22% and 85.22% respectively. P value was statistically significant <0.037. In the second part of study a baseline serum PSA level in age-matched 200 patients without history of prostatism was estimated. Conclusion: It was concluded that PSA represent an important adjunct to DRE for detection of prostate carcinoma. (author)

  20. Performance test of PSA-type O{sub 2} separator for efficient O{sub 2} supply to room ventilation system combined with CO{sub 2} adsorption module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Bo; Jang, Jung Hee; Choi, Changsik [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Jin [School of Chemical Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    High purity O{sub 2} concentrated by the PSA-type O{sub 2} separator was applied to a room ventilation system combined with CO{sub 2} adsorption module to remove the indoor CO{sub 2} for the indoor air quality. And then the room was occupied by several persons to breathe for the O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} generation. As a result, the indoor air quality was improved by the ventilation system combined with the O{sub 2} supply and the CO{sub 2} adsorption module. It was due to the fact that the CO{sub 2} concentration was not steeply increased, but also even decreased and then the increasing rate of the O{sub 2} concentration with the O{sub 2} supply was simultaneously increased by the CO{sub 2} removal despite the CO{sub 2} generation and O{sub 2} consumption with the four persons' breathing. As a representative result, in the case of supplying the high purity O{sub 2} of 30 L/min under using the CO{sub 2} adsorption module, the best performance with the highest increasing rate of O{sub 2} concentration and the lowest increasing rate of CO{sub 2} concentration was obtained among the various cases, and then the increasing rates of CO{sub 2} radiation and O{sub 2} concentration were -2.3 ppm/min and 33.3%/min, respectively.

  1. Prostate cancer in patients from rural and suburban areas – PSA value, Gleason score and presence of metastases in bone scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szot

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Prostate cancer is the second most common neoplasm among men both worldwide and in Poland. In prostate cancer, bone metastasis is related to a poorer prognosis. A diagnosis of metastatic bone disease is important in prostate cancer patients prior to therapy. Prostate specific antigen (PSA serum value is used both as a screening tool and for staging of prostate cancer. aim. To evaluate whether there is a link between symptoms presented by patients, pain in particular, and the presence, number and location of bone metastases as assessed by bone scan scintigraphy in concordance with PSA values and Gleason scores. [b]material[/b]. A group of 186 patients (aged: 68.38±6.16 diagnosed with prostate cancer, from rural and suburban areas of Małopolska province, that was directed for bone scan scintigraphy to the Nuclear Medicine Dept, John Paul II Hospital in Kraków. [b]methods[/b]. Analysis of all laboratory findings (including PSA value and a biopsy were performed. Then, bone scan scintigraphy was done with the use of methylene disphosphonate (MDP labeled with Tc-99m. [b]results[/b]. In patients with a Gleason value ≤7 and a PSA value ≤20 ng/ml, the cutoff value for a negative bone scan with a confidence interval of 0.95 was established at a PSA value below 10 ng/ml (p<0.01. Correlations were established between PSA value and presence of metastases in bone scan (r=0.45, p=0.05, the number of metastases (r=0.66, p<0.01, and their presence in particular body regions. [b]conclusions[/b]. The correlation between PSA value and both presence and number of metastases confirms the usefulness of bone scan scintigraphy in prostate cancer staging. The cutoff value for negative bone scan with a 95% confidence interval was established at PSA = 10 ng/ml.

  2. The source of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen in clinically localized prostate cancer--T, N, or M?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important marker for prostate cancer and has been shown to be secreted from the primary tumor and from metastases. However, the relative contribution of the primary and micrometastatic disease to the serum level of PSA in patients with clinically localized disease has not been delineated. This study addresses the source of pretreatment serum PSA in patients with clinically localized disease. Methods and Materials: The fall in serum PSA level following radical prostatectomy (280 patients; 105 T1, 165 T2, 10 T3) or definitive radiotherapy (427 patients; 122 T1, 147 T2, 158 T3/T4) was analyzed with the assumption that any fall in PSA following local treatment reflects the fraction of PSA produced in the prostate and its primary tumor. Results: Serum PSA level became undetectable in 277 of the 280 (99%) patients within 6 months of radical prostatectomy. The three patients who did not achieve undetectable levels had postsurgical values ≤ 0.9 ng/ml. Following definitive radiotherapy, nadir serum PSA values were between ≤ 0.3 and 20.3 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 1.9 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively. Nadir PSA was undetectable in 52 patients (12%). Four patients' PSA did not fall, but rose from the start, and each developed metastatic disease within 9 months, and in each metastases appeared to contribute to pretreatment serum PSA. In the remaining patients, the maximal factor by which PSA fell to its nadir was higher the higher the pretreatment PSA level. We present arguments that this is most consistent with the hypothesis that virtually all detectable pretreatment serum PSA derives from the primary tumor. Confirmatory evidence that little of the pretreatment serum PSA came from metastases was obtained by extrapolating the rising PSA profile in 97 patients back to pretreatment time. Back-extrapolated PSA contributed a mean of 7% and a median of 5% to the pretreatment serum value. Because such back-extrapolated values

  3. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash P Patra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10 of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8 used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases.

  4. Reassessment of the Role of Rapid Antigen Detection Tests in Diagnosis of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzano, Vincent; Berger, Anne; Benito, Yvonne; Freydiere, Anne-Marie; Tristan, Anne; Boisset, Sandrine; Carricajo, Anne; Poyart, Claire; Vandenesch, François; Descours, Ghislaine

    2016-04-01

    Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) for group A streptococci (GAS) are widely used for diagnosing acute pharyngitis, which has led to a considerable reduction in antibiotic prescriptions over the past decade. Beyond this intended use, their reassessment on invasive samples may be relevant in the management of life-threatening GAS infections. To this end, we evaluated the performances of three RADTs, culture, GAS PCR, and 16S rRNA gene PCR assays, and compared them with a composite gold standard (GAS-PCR assay and/or culture) for the diagnosis of severe GAS infection. A total of 192 specimens from deep-tissue (mostly normally sterile) sites enriched for 75 GAS-positive samples were enrolled in the study. The three evaluated RADTs showed sensitivities ranging from 88.0% to 94.7% versus 98.7% for GAS PCR, 84% for 16S rRNA gene PCR, and 77.3% for culture. The sensitivities of the ImmunoCardSTAT! Strep A test (Meridian Bioscience) and the NADAL Strep A strip (Nal Von Minden) were similar to that of GAS PCR (P= 0.25 and 0.03, respectively) and higher than that of culture (P= 0.001 and 0.006, respectively), whereas the SD Bioline Strep A test strip (Standard Diagnostics) showed a performance similar to that of culture (P= 0.02). The three RADTs detected 10 distinctemmtypes, including a predominance ofemm1 (33.3%),emm89 (10.6%), andemm12 (7.6%). No false-positive results were observed, leading to a specificity of 100% for all the evaluated RADTs. The GAS RADTs turned out to be sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use tools that may aid in the management of invasive GAS infections in 24/7 point-of-care laboratories by enabling early diagnosis and focused therapy. PMID:26818671

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of PCR Alone and Compared to Urinary Antigen Testing for Detection of Legionella spp.: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Tomer; Bieber, Amir; Green, Hefziba; Steinmetz, Tali; Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical

    2016-02-01

    The diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease (LD) is based on the isolation of Legionella spp., a 4-fold rise in antibodies, a positive urinary antigen (UA), or direct immunofluorescence tests. PCR is not accepted as a diagnostic tool for LD. This systematic review assesses the diagnostic accuracy of PCR in various clinical samples with a direct comparison versus UA. We included prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies. Studies were included if they used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention consensus definition criteria of LD or a similar one, assessed only patients with clinical pneumonia, and reported data for all true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative results. Two reviewers abstracted data independently. Risk of bias was assessed using Quadas-2. Summary sensitivity and specificity values were estimated using a bivariate model and reported with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Thirty-eight studies were included. A total of 653 patients had confirmed LD, and 3,593 patients had pneumonia due to other pathogens. The methodological quality of the studies as assessed by the Quadas-2 tool was poor to fair. The summary sensitivity and specificity values for diagnosis of LD in respiratory samples were 97.4% (95% CI, 91.1% to 99.2%) and 98.6% (95% CI, 97.4% to 99.3%), respectively. These results were mainly unchanged by any covariates tested and subgroup analysis. The diagnostic performance of PCR in respiratory samples was much better than that of UA. Compared to UA, PCR in respiratory samples (especially in sputum samples or swabs) revealed a significant advantage in sensitivity and an additional diagnosis of 18% to 30% of LD cases. The diagnostic performance of PCR in respiratory samples was excellent and preferable to that of the UA. Results were independent on the covariate tested. PCR in respiratory samples should be regarded as a valid tool for the diagnosis of LD. PMID:26659202

  6. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Scott R.; Michelle Meyer; Semple, Matthew G.; Cameron P Simmons; Shamala Devi Sekaran; Huang, Johnny X.; Catriona McElnea; Chang-Yi Huang; Andrea Valks; Paul R. Young; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early...

  7. The Diagnostic Sensitivity of Dengue Rapid Test Assays Is Significantly Enhanced by Using a Combined Antigen and Antibody Testing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Scott R.; Meyer, Michelle; Semple, Matthew G.; Cameron P. Simmons; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Johnny X. Huang; McElnea, Catriona; Huang, Chang-Yi; Valks, Andrea; Young, Paul R.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1–9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. Aims To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early R...

  8. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces after high-dose-rate (HDR) monotherapy and determine relationships between certain clinical factors and PSA bounce. Methods and Materials: Longitudinal PSA data and various clinical parameters were examined in 157 consecutive patients treated with HDR monotherapy between 1996 and 2005. We used the following definition for PSA bounce: rise in PSA ≥threshold, after which it returns to the prior level or lower. Prostate-specific antigen failure was defined per the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/mL). Results: A PSA bounce was noted in 67 patients (43%). The number of bounces per patient was 1 in 45 cases (67%), 2 in 19 (28%), 3 in 2 (3%), 4 in 0, and 5 in 1 (1%). The median time to maximum PSA bounce was 1.3 years, its median magnitude was 0.7, and its median duration was 0.75 years. Three patients (2%) were noted to have PSA failure. None of the 3 patients who experienced biochemical failure exhibited PSA bounce. In the fully adjusted model for predicting each bounce, patients aged <55 years had a statistically significant higher likelihood of experiencing a bounce (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.38-3.57, P=.001). There was also a statistically significant higher probability of experiencing a bounce for every unit decrease in Gleason score (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.04, P=.045). Conclusions: A PSA bounce occurs in a significant percentage of patients treated with HDR monotherapy, with magnitudes varying from <1 in 28% of cases to ≥1 in 15%. The median duration of bounce is <1 year. More bounces were identified in patients with lower Gleason score and age <55 years. Further investigation using a model to correlate magnitude and frequency of bounces with clinical variables are under way

  9. Utility of Combination of Diagnostic Tests in Early Detection of Prostate Tumors in West Algerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Berroukche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In West of Algeria, incidence of prostate cancer (PCa is growing and epidemiological data on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are contradictory. The prostate specific antigen (PSA joins other tests, as digital rectal examination (DRE and ultrasound, for better management of patient. This study aimed to assess the association of previously tests with PSA-assay in diagnosis of PCa and BPH, in West Algeria. A retrospective study was performed on two groups of 234 BPH and 56 PCa diagnosed between 2010–2012 at the urology department of the hospital in Saida. Patients underwent various diagnostic tests; DRE, ultrasound, PSA and pathological examination. BPH is more common than PCa and the most dominant age group was from 70 to 79 years. DRE was positive in 67 % of BPH and 63.3 % PCa. Ultrasound examination revealed that the prostatic structure was heterogeneous in 25.5 % of BPH and 92 % PCa. Total PSA (TPSA was higher than the cut-off value of 4 ng / ml in 37% of BPH and 75 % PCa. Histological forms of Prostatic adenomyofibroma and prostatic adenocarcinoma were the most represented. This study shows that the combination of different tests is more efficient than using a test alone for a definitive diagnosis of PCa or BPH.

  10. Comparison of a Recombinant-antigen Enzyme Immunoassay with Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Test for Serological Confirmation of Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Islay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA, BioSCREEN TM anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38, secondary (n = 10, early latent (n = 28 and congenital syphilis (n = 2, patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8, infectious mononucleosis (n = 7, hepatitis (n = 9, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13, leprosy (n = 11, tuberculosis (n = 9, HIV/Aids ( n= 12, systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4, rheumatic fever (n = 3, old-persons (n = 9, pregnant women (n = 29 and blood donors (n = 164. The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  11. Joint enhancement strategy applied in ECL biosensor based on closed bipolar electrodes for the detection of PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Wei; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Wu, Mei-Sheng; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was developed on the basis of a closed bipolar electrode (BPE) apparatus for the analysis of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Bipolar modifications bring up two different stages of enhancement on the same electrode. Anodic enhancement was conducted by modifying gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to catalyze the anodic ECL reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide. Cathodic introduction of thionine tagged PSA antibody led to a further pertinently enhancement synchronized with the PSA amount variation, because the existence of thionine greatly increased the rate of electron gains on cathode, leading to the corresponding acceleration of anodic ECL reaction. The more thionine modified target molecules were introduced, the faster luminol was oxidized, the higher faraday current approached, and sensitive quantification was realized in correlation with the responsive ECL intensity differences. The quantification resulted in a good determination range between 0.1pg/mL and 0.1µg/mL. This strategy mainly took advantage of the special structure of closed BPE to realize a simultaneous amplification on both ends of BPE. Moreover, the platform had a potential of providing a multi-functional strategy for the realization of other bio-detections by simply substituting the PSA sandwich structure with other bio-structures. PMID:27154662

  12. Prostate-specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ian M; Ankerst, Donna P.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout Canada, the United States and much of Europe, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer has proliferated over the past 2 decades, leading to dramatic increases in detection rates of prostate cancer. Although it has unquestionably led to increased detection of cancer and a migration to lower-stage and -volume tumours, it is still unknown whether PSA screening significantly reduces mortality from prostate cancer. Often thought to be dichotomous (i.e., either norma...

  13. PSA - A utility perspective from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an outline of the three stages of PSA used for the Sizewell B PWR. These stages cover the use of PSA during design, licensing and (in future) operation of Sizewell B. The paper discusses each of these stages in some detail, highlighting the differences in approach and lessons learnt at each stage. (author)

  14. Level 2 PSA methodology and severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the work was to review current Level 2-PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) methodologies and practices and to investigate how Level 2-PSA can support severe accident management programmes, i.e. the development, implementation, training and optimisation of accident management strategies and measures. For the most part, the presented material reflects the state in 1996. Current Level 2 PSA results and methodologies are reviewed and evaluated with respect to plant type specific and generic insights. Approaches and practices for using PSA results in the regulatory context and for supporting severe accident management programmes by input from level 2 PSAs are examined. The work is based on information contained in: PSA procedure guides, PSA review guides and regulatory guides for the use of PSA results in risk informed decision making; plant specific PSAs and PSA related literature exemplifying specific procedures, methods, analytical models, relevant input data and important results, use of computer codes and results of code calculations. The PSAs are evaluated with respect to results and insights. In the conclusion section, the present state of risk informed decision making, in particular in the level 2 domain, is described and substantiated by relevant examples

  15. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n = 908) infants. [13C]UBT and stool test results concurred with each other in 1,255 (94.86%) cases (kappa coefficient = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 0.92). In the H. pylori-positive group, delta-over-baseline (DOB) and optical density (OD) values were positively correlated (r = 0.62; P < 0.001). The positivity of the tests was higher (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 6.01; 95% CI = 4.50 to 8.04) in Peru (546/878; 62.2%) than in Brazil (81/377; 21.5%) and increased with increasing age in Brazil (P = 0.02), whereas in Peru it decreased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The disagreement between the test results was associated with birth in Brazil and female gender but not with age and diarrhea. Our results suggest that both [13C]UBT and the stool monoclonal test are reliable for diagnosing H. pylori infection in very young children, which will facilitate robust epidemiological studies in infants and toddlers. PMID:24006009

  16. Electrochemical immunosensor for prostate-specific antigen using self-assembled oligophenylethynylenethiol monolayer containing dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical immunosensor for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was fabricated with a self-assembled 4-(2-(4-(acetylthio)phenyl)ethynyl)benzoic acid (APBA) as a bioreceptor. In order to enhance the electrochemical activity of PSA detection, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer was linked on the APBA self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The formation and electrical properties of the SAMs were investigated by surface plasmon resonance and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The surface morphology of PSA sandwich complex onto the APBA SAM was studied by atomic force microscopy.

  17. Label-free electrochemical aptasensing of the human prostate-specific antigen using gold nanospears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, A; Sattarahmady, N; Heli, H

    2016-08-15

    Gold nanospears were electrodeposited with the assistance of arginine as a soft template and precise selection of experimental parameters. The nanospears were then employed as a transducer to immobilize an aptamer of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and fabrication of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor. The aptasensor was employed for the detection of PSA with a linear concentration range of 0.125-200ngmL(-1) and a limit of detection of 50pgmL(-1). The aptasensor was successfully applied to detect PSA in blood serum samples of healthy and patient persons. PMID:27260456

  18. A new Combi test for simultaneous detection of antibodies to viral capsid, early and EBNA antigens of Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobec, M

    1993-06-01

    In order to facilitate the differentiation between a recent (acute) and a past Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, the Combi test was developed. This test is an anticomplement immunofluorescence test (ACIF) requiring only a single serum dilution to be tested on a single cellular spot. The cell line used expresses viral capsid antigen (VCA) and early antigen (EA) in about 5 to 10 percent of the cells as well as EBV nuclear antigens (EBNA) in more than 90 percent of cells. A satisfactory agreement between the Combi test and other tests for antibodies to EBV was obtained (IgG and IgM antibodies to VCA by IFA and EIA and antibodies to EBNA by ACIF including tests for heterophile and complement-fixing antibodies). When the standard serological tests gave negative results, the Combi test was also negative (absence of any fluorescence in the cells). Serologically confirmed recent (acute) infections lead to specific fluorescence in only 5 to 10 percent of the cells, while past infections result in fluorescence in 90 percent or more of the cells. For the diagnosis of a reactivated EBV infection or of EBV-associated malignancies, other tests should be employed. The test is based on the measurement of the activation and specific distribution of the C3 component of complement; the antibody class differentiation is therefore not necessary. The presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and the IgG competition phenomenon do not influence the results of the Combi test. An introduction of the Combi test will enable a simplified, less expensive and more reliable serodiagnosis of EBV infections. PMID:8394757

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit Using the Polysaccharide as a Genus-Specific Diagnostic Antigen for Leptospirosis in Korea, Bulgaria, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung Han; Christova, Iva; Jacob, Paulina; Vanasco, Norma B; Kang, Yeon-Mi; Woo, Ye-Ju; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Min-Kee; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that is caused by many serovars which are more than 200 in the world, is an emerging worldwide disease. Accurate and rapid diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are a critical step to diagnose the disease. There are some commercial kits available for diagnosis of leptospirosis, but the obscurity of a species- or genus-specific antigen of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans causes the reduced sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the polysaccharide derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was prepared, and the antigenicity was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit using the polysaccharide as a diagnostic antigen was evaluated in Korea, Bulgaria and Argentina. The sensitivity was 93.9%, 100%, and 81.0% and the specificity was 97.9%, 100%, and 95.4% in Korea (which is a rare region occurring with 2 serovars mostly), Bulgaria (epidemic region with 3 serovars chiefly) and Argentina (endemic region with 19 serovars mainly) respectively. These results indicate that this RDT is applicable for global diagnosis of leptospirosis. This rapid and effective diagnosis will be helpful for diagnosis and manage of leptospirosis to use and the polysaccharide of Leptospira may be called as genus specific antigen for diagnosis. PMID:26839470

  20. Study on nuclear power plant aircraft accidents impacts PSA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) can be divided to internal events PSA and external events PSA. Because of the nature of aircraft accidents impacts, extreme in destroy degree and low frequency, analysts usually treat aircraft impacts as a special external event. There is not any mature method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA. The paper titled Accident For Aircraft Crash Into Analysis Hazardous Facilities is published by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE guide could be the main base for this paper, referring to the demand for aircraft impact in NUREG-0800, seeking to develop a particular method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA in China. The method and content in this paper can be applied in similar work and may provide some advices for the future work. (authors)

  1. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  2. PSA based vital area identification for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of vital areas in a facility involves assessing the facility and the locations, whose sabotage can result in undesirable (radiological) consequences. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique can find the component failures leading to core damage (a surrogate for radiological consequence) in a systematic manner, which can be extended to identification of vital areas. This paper describes the procedure for the generation of location sets (set of locations whose sabotage can lead to possible core damage) and protection sets (set of locations that must be protected to prevent possible core damage). In addition, measures such as vulnerability and protectability have been introduced, which can be used to rank location sets and protection sets. (author)

  3. Advanced prostatic carcinomas with low serum levels of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Snežana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA represent a significant diagnostic and monitoring parameter of prostatic carcinoma (PC. The aim of the study was to establish correlation of serum PSA level in addition to grade, histological type, and clinical stage of PC in patients with normal or intermediary PSA serum level. In 37 untreated PC patients with preoperative serum PSA levels ranging between 0.1 and 9.6 ng/ml, paraffin-embedded tissue and serum samples were immunohistological studied and immunoassay for PSA was done. The most representative was poorly differentiated PC with D stage In serum samples from PC patients 27 (73.7% normal (≤ 4.0 ng/ml, and 10 (27.3% intermediate (4.1-10 ng/ml PSA levels were found Immunohistochemistry, in 36 PC (97.3% had demonstrated the expression of PSA. Our study results had shown low serum PSA levels in some patients with advanced poorly differentiated PC.

  4. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  5. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be used as a marker for medullary thyroid cancer and cancers of the rectum, lung , ... ulcerative colitis , rectal polyps , emphysema , and benign breast disease. ^ Back to top Proudly sponsored by ... Learn more ...

  6. Relationship of spermatoscopy, prostatic acid phosphatase activity and prostate-specific antigen (p30) assays with further DNA typing in forensic samples from rape cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Montoya, Lydia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Hugo; Pérez, Miguel Antonio; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2011-03-20

    In the forensic laboratory the biological analyses for rape investigation commonly include vaginal swabs as sample material combined to biochemical tests including sperm cytology (SC) and detection of acid phosphatase activity (AP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, p30) for the conclusive identification of semen components. Most reports comparing these tests relied on analysis of semen samples or donor swabs taken under controlled conditions; however their individual or combined efficacy under real live sampling conditions in different laboratories is largely unknown. We carried out SC, APA and PSA analyses in vaginal swabs collected from casework rapes submitted to Mexican Forensic Laboratories at Texcoco and Toluca. On the basis of positive and negative results from each assay and sample, data were classified into eight categories (I-VIII) and compared with those obtained in the two only similar studies reported in Toronto, Canada and Hong Kong, China. SC and APA assays had the higher overall positivity in Toluca and Texcoco samples respectively and otherwise PSA had a lower but very similar positivity between these two laboratories. When compared to the previous studies some similarities were found, namely similar frequencies (at a ratio of approximately 1 out of 3) of samples being positive or negative by all techniques (Categories I and VI respectively) and a comparable overall positivity of APA and SC but higher than that of PSA. Indeed the combined results of using SC, APA and PSA tests was considered as conclusive for semen detection from approximately 1 out of 3 cases (Category I) to approximately 1 out of 2 cases in a scenario where at least SC is positive, strongly presumptive in 2 out of 3 cases (with at least one test positive) and the remainder 1 out of 3 cases (Category VI) suggested absence of semen. By determining Y-STR polymorphisms (12-loci) in additional samples obtained at Toluca laboratory, complete DNA profiles were determined from all

  7. Effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on physiological function and PSA doubling time in prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Winding, Kamilla; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pedersen, Bente K; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Physical activity after prostate cancer diagnosis has been shown to reduce the risk of disease progression. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on body composition, biomarkers levels, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time as...... a surrogate end-point for progressing disease. METHODS: Out-clinic patients with either biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy or patients managed on active surveillance were randomized to either 24 months (3 times/week) of home-based endurance training or usual care. Aerobic fitness......, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and biomarkers were measured at 0, 6, and 24 months of intervention. PSA doubling time (PSADT) was calculated based on monthly PSA measurements. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and 19 patients completed the study. PSADT increased in the training group...

  8. A case report of monitoring PSA level changes in two prostate cancer patients treated with Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom along with western anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to find out how Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP and Sweet Bee Venom(SBV treatments are effective on prostate cancer patients by monitoring Prostate specific antigen(PSA values. Methods: We treated two prostate cancer patients with MGP and SBV from October 2008 to April 2011. One patient had localized prostate cancer, the other was in the terminal stage of prostate cancer with lung and bone metastasis and both had been receiving western anticancer therapy. We had monitored the changes of PSA value. Results: In case 1, MGP and SBV treatments seemed to be helpful in preventing the recurrence of localized prostate cancer. In case 2, PSA value was decreased by MGP treatment. Conclusions: It is conceivable that MGP and SBV are effective treatments for patients with prostate cancer.

  9. Identification and quantifications of pre-accident human errors in the PSA of KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, W. D.; Yang, J. E

    2005-03-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ASME PRA Standard, evaluated the PSA model of the KSNP and identified the items to be improved to enhance its quality. The evaluation results of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the PSA model of the KSNP showed that 10 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ASME PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors for the KSNP PSA model as the target of grading its quality above ASME PRA Standard Category I+. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipments of the systems modeled in the KSNP PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system (RPS/ESFAS). After reviewing 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipments, we identified 64 pre-accident human errors related to the test and maintenance tasks and identified 33 independent and 12 common pre-accident human errors related to the calibration tasks, and modeled them into the related systems. We documented information of all the input and bases for the qualitative screening analysis and the detailed quantification for all the potential pre-accident human errors. It was identified that the dominant contributors of the new pre-accident human errors to the CDF of the KSNP PSA model was those for the calibration tasks. The self-assessment results for the new HRA results using the ASME PRA Standard show that almost items of its supporting requirements for pre-accident human errors were graded above its Category I+. It is expected that the HRA results presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the pre-accident human errors in the ASME PRA Standard. In the future, it is

  10. Applicability of PSA Issues for Risk Assessment during Optimisation of In-Service Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    quality of maintenance, and shift of tests of the equipment in duplicating channels. Therefore, to assess reliability of system depending on change of the inspection program it is necessary to apply additional simulation models using a probabilistic factor - unavailability factor. Only such data can form the basis for optimisation of the program of maintenance within the individual system. Deciding the tasks covering groups of systems there is a task of the mutual coordination of programs of their inspection. To decide this task PSA issues can be used for an estimation of the significance of systems for the general safety of NPP. (author)

  11. A framework for a quality assurance programme for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews organized by the IAEA of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of nuclear facilities have, in the past years, shown significant progress in the technical methods and data used for these studies. The IAEA has made a considerable effort to support the development of technical capabilities for PSA in Member States and in writing technical procedures for carrying out PSAs. However, the reviews have also shown significant deficiencies in quality assurance (QA) for PSAs, ranging from no QA at all to inappropriate, inefficient or unbalanced QA. As a PSA represents a very complex model which describes the risk associated with a nuclear facility, an appropriate and efficient QA programme is crucial to obtain a quality PSA. Historically, in the first integral PSAs, many of the PSA elements were handled by independent groups. These elements were finally integrated and put together in the overall model. Many of the interfaces between the elements or tasks were handled as appropriate by exchanging information in oral or written form. Since WASH-1400, the first integral PSA, the process of constructing the PSA model has been further developed. PSA elements previously considered separately can now be handled together with the capable software developed in recent years. Software has made interface control and data transfer easier to perform, but also permits the development of more detailed and complex models. Previously, QA for PSA projects was organized in an ad hoc manner and was sometimes very limited. In recent years, increasingly comprehensive QA programmes have been developed and implemented for PSA projects. Today, a comprehensive, effective and performance-oriented QA is considered to be essential for a reliable and credible PSA. This report describes the framework for developing an adequate QA programme for PSA studies. The framework is based on and is in accordance with the related QA guidelines of the IAEA for safety in nuclear power plants and other nuclear

  12. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider the current state of the art in PSA to be sufficiently well developed for results to be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process-referred to as risk informed regulation. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for the regulatory authority to have a high degree of confidence in the PSA. However, at the 1994 IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997, the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce, in cooperation, guidance on Regulatory Review of PSA. This led to the publication of IAEA-TECDOC-1135 on the Regulatory Review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1, which gives advice for the review of Level 1 PSA for initiating events occurring at power plants. This TECDOC extends the coverage to address the regulatory review of Level 2 PSA.These publications are intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable level of quality so that it can be used as the

  13. Specificity of the rapid rK39 antigen-based immunochromatographic test Kalazar Detect(r in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Javier Leon Molinet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of a rapid immunochromatographic test that was developed to detect antibodies against the rK39 antigen for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. This evaluation was performed using sera from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of active cutaneous leishmaniasis. The sera from 272 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL who resided in an area endemic for Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil were obtained before the initiation of antileishmanial treatment. Kalazar Detect(r(InBios, Seattle, WA recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic strips were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. The test results were evaluated independently by two examiners in sequential order. The positive controls for the test included five serum samples from five patients with parasitologically confirmed diagnosis of VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Brazil. Overall, 100% of the samples obtained from patients with CL were negative, confirming the absence of a serological cross-reaction for individuals with cutaneous disease when these patients were evaluated using the rapid test. The lack of a cross-reaction in patients who were infected by parasites of the same genus highlights the specificity of the rK39 antigen for the diagnosis of VL in areas with the sympatric circulation of L. braziliensis and L. infantum.

  14. The role of external events PSA in the Finnish regulatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSA has been used in Finland to support regulatory decision making since the late 1980's. Seismic events, harsh weather and other off-site external events were included in the PSA models of the operating units in 1990's and several updates and extensions have been carried out since then. For new units a preliminary full scope PSA is required at the design phase and it shall be refined during construction. The Finnish environmental conditions are, in general, moderate with no recorded destructive earthquakes and no experiences from extensive destruction by other natural events. However, even moderate external events may result in significant risks, if they are not properly considered in the design. For example, the northern climate poses some challenges to the design of nuclear power plants. According to the current view, the original design basis of the operating units for seismic and other external events was not in all respects adequate. External events PSA has had an important role in evaluating the safety of the units and in making decisions on safety improvements. For new units external events have been considered extensively starting from the early design phase. External events PSAs were also used in the national and EU 'stress tests' after the Fukushima accident. According to the Finnish experience, external events PSA is a useful tool in the safety management and regulatory control on nuclear power plants. It has been used to identify and prioritize possible safety improvements and to evaluate the adequacy of the design basis. It has also been used in support of licensing of new units and periodic safety reviews of operating units. (authors)

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence imaging (TRFI) for direct immunofluorescence of PSA and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in prostatic tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjartell, A; Siivola, P; Hulkko, S; Pettersson, K; Rundt, K; Lilja, H; Lövgren, T

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a direct immunofluorescence technique utilising chelates of the lanthanide ions europium and terbium conjugated to monoclonal IgGs (Mabs) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) for the detection and quantification on the same tissue section. Strong signals without disturbance from tissue autofluorescence were demonstrated in paraffin sections of ten benign and six malignant prostate tissue specimens. The signal intensity increased linearly with the amount of labelled Mab until epitope saturation began. The highest concentrations of bound IgG in tissue sections were 27.3 fmol/pixel for ACT and 7.2 for PSA. Time-resolved fluorescence imaging (TRFI) offers an attractive method for histochemical studies based on specific and quantitative detection of fluorescent lanthanide chelates. PMID:12496823

  16. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1 reviews the literature about the immunological aspects of taeniid cestode infections and the existing vaccines against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. One of the most promising vaccines is TSOL18, a protein that has been identified in the oncosphere of Taenia solium and expressed as a recombinant molecule in E. coli. Repeated experimental trials have shown that this vaccine is able to protect up to 100% of the immunised pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Antibodies raised by the vaccine are capable of killing the parasite in in vitro cultures and it is believed that antibody and complement mediated killing of invading parasites is the major protective immune mechanism induced by vaccination with TSOL18. The identification of the villages with a high risk of T. solium infection, which could subsequently be used in the vaccine trial, is reported in chapter 2. A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the far north region of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig farming system and to identify potential risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs were free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas had no latrine facility. Seventy six percent of the interviewed pig owners affirmed that the members of the household used open field defecation. ELISA for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests indicated that the true sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the

  17. Polysialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM) is an adverse prognosis factor in glioblastoma, and regulates olig2 expression in glioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and frequent brain tumor, albeit without cure. Although patient survival is limited to one year on average, significant variability in outcome is observed. The assessment of biomarkers is needed to gain better knowledge of this type of tumor, help prognosis, design and evaluate therapies. The neurodevelopmental polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) protein is overexpressed in various cancers. Here, we studied its expression in GBM and evaluated its prognosis value for overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). We set up a specific and sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for PSA-NCAM quantification, which correlated well with PSA-NCAM semi quantitative analysis by immunohistochemistry, and thus provides an accurate quantitative measurement of PSA-NCAM content for the 56 GBM biopsies analyzed. For statistics, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the consistency between the immunohistochemistry and ELISA data. Patients' survival was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and curves were compared using the log-rank test. On multivariate analysis, the effect of potential risk factors on the DFS and OS were evaluated using the cox regression proportional hazard models. The threshold for statistical significance was p = 0.05. We showed that PSA-NCAM was expressed by approximately two thirds of the GBM at variable levels. On univariate analysis, PSA-NCAM content was an adverse prognosis factor for both OS (p = 0.04) and DFS (p = 0.0017). On multivariate analysis, PSA-NCAM expression was an independent negative predictor of OS (p = 0.046) and DFS (p = 0.007). Furthermore, in glioma cell lines, PSA-NCAM level expression was correlated to the one of olig2, a transcription factor required for gliomagenesis. PSA-NCAM represents a valuable biomarker for the prognosis of GBM patients

  18. Development of radioimmunometric assay for the determination of free and total prostate-specific antigen in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we describe sensitive and reliable immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) for the determination of free (f-PSA) and total (complexed as well as free, t-PSA) prostate-specific antigen in human serum. The assays employ matched pairs of anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies (MAb66 and MAb30 or MAb10). The polystyrene tubes are coated with MAb66 (capture antibody) and the detection antibody MAb30 or MAb10 was labeled with 125I. The minimum detectable dose of f-PSA was less than 0.03 ng/mL, and the assay could determine free PSA concentrations of up to 26 ng/mL; in the case of t-PSA, the minimum detectable dose was less than 0.04 ng/mL while the assay could determine total PSA concentrations of up to 112 ng/mL without dilution of the sample. The intra- and inter-assay variations (%CV) for f-PSA were less than 3% and 15% respectively and for t-PSA less than 2% and 9%, respectively. The results obtained using 44 serum samples correlated well with those obtained by commercially available IRMA kits. (author)

  19. PSA modeling of long-term accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the traditional Level 1 PSA, the long term of the accident sequences is usually taken into account in a simplified manner. For example, some of the mitigations which are needed at long term are taken into account in the PSA, but the analysis and the associated failures probabilities quantification are estimated based on generic assessments. In the context of the extension of PSA scope to include the external hazards, in France, both operator (EDF) and IRSN work for the improvement of methods to better take into account in the PSA the long term of accident sequences induced by initiators which affect the whole site containing several nuclear installations (reactors, fuel pools, ...). This is an essential prerequisite for the development of external hazards PSA. It has to be noted that in the French PSA, even before Fukushima, this type of accident sequences was already taken into account, many insight being used, as complementary information, to enhance the safety level of the plants. The recent French and international operating experience is an opportunity for tuning the actual PSA methods for long term accident sequences modeling. The paper presents the main results of the ongoing efforts in this area. (author)

  20. Development of a novel IGRA assay to test T cell responsiveness to HBV antigens in whole blood of chronic Hepatitis B patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dammermann, Werner; Bentzien, Frank; Stiel, Eva-Maria; Kühne, Claudia; Ullrich, Sebastian; zur Wiesch, Julian Schulze; Lüth, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) have been developed to support easy and fast diagnosis of diseases like tuberculosis, and CMV in transplant patients. IGRAs focus on cellular immunity especially memory T cells and thus also allow rapid screening prior to complex flow cytometric testing. Here, we describe a novel, sensitive whole blood based cytokine release assay capable of assessing T cell responsiveness to HBV antigens in Hepatitis B patients and assessing hepatitis B vacci...

  1. Detection of anti-dsDNA by IgG ELISA test using two different sources of antigens: calf thymus versus E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anti-dsDNA antibodies frequently found in the sera Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, particularly in active disease stage. Nowadays exploit different eukaryotic and prokaryotic dsDNA as antigen source and different reagents as binder. The aim of this study to compared two dsDNA different sources and tow different kinds of reagents for binder in ELISA test. "nMethods: In this study bacterial genomic DNA from E.coli (ATCC 25922 and genomic DNA from calf thymus extracted with high purity and were used as antigens for IgG anti-dsDNA detection by ELISA. To coat dsDNA in microtiter wells, tow different kinds of reagents including methylated -BSA and poly-l-lysine (for pre-coating are used. Sera from systemic lupus erythematosus patients and from normal blood donors are used to assess sensitivity and specificity of our ELISA test in compared with IF test and commercial kits. "nResults: Our results displayed pre-coating of microtiter plates with methylated -BSA reduce nonspecific binding reaction and the relative sensitivity and specificity of ELISA increased when calf thymus DNA is employed as antigenic source in compared with IF test and commercial kits 80%, 88% and 100%, 98% respectively, but when E.coli DNA is used 73%, 69% and 85%, 79%, respectively. "nConclusion: The genomic DNA from calf thymus is a potentially useful source of antigen for detection of anti-dsDNA by ELISA. Also the use of methylatted- BSA could have an effective role in reducing of nonspecific binding reactions.

  2. Evaluation of new monoclonal antibody-based latex agglutination test for detection of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiska, D L; Orkiszewski, D R; Howell, D; Gilligan, P H

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of CRYPTO-LEX (Trinity Laboratories, Inc., Raleigh, N. C.), a new mouse immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody latex agglutination reagent which reacts with the capsular polysaccharide of the four serogroups of Cryptococcus neoformans. This test was compared with CALAS (Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio) for the ability to detect cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 580 clinical specimens (327 serum and 253 CSF samples), prima...

  3. Utility of a stool antigen test to detect the incidence of helicobacter pylori infection and familial and community enviromental risk factors for this infection in pediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sabbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: helicobacter pylori (hp infection is mainly acquired during childhood; it is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer and it has been classified as a group A carcinogen by World health organization. the exact mode of transmission is as yet, not known. Aim of our study has been to identify risk factors associated with helicobacter pylori infection in a preschool and school population and to confirm if hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening in epidemiological studies. Methods: We interviewed, with questionnaire, 400 children (203 male; age range 3-10 years; mean age 6 years of 3 different schools and stool samples were collected of all children too. 35 of 400 (8% children underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of a suspect of upper gastrointestinal disease. Results: stool were collected from 400 school children and 35 of them shown positivity of hp antigen test. A questionnaire about presence of nausea, vomit, recurrent abdominal pain, family size, parent’s occupations and education, use of antibiotics, country of birth of child and parents, personal hygiene, breast feeding, presence of the animals was completed. 35 children with positive hp stool antigen test and a suspicious of upper gastrointestinal disease (recurrent abdominal pain, diurnal or nocturnal abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, iron deficiency underwent to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (egdS that demonstrated antral gastritis and positive histology and urease rapid test. Conclusions: the results of this study suggest that risk factors for hp infection are low socioeconomics factors, hygiene and living conditions and that hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening test.

  4. A novel Technique (Elnasharty's Method) evaluating RIA analyses of PSA (total and free) and IGF-1 with respect to Roc and Hertz's OI performance in order to avoid the unnecessary radiation exposure to cancer prostate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biophysical and statistical evaluation of prostate specific antigen PSA (total and free) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels for normal, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer subjects were performed. Also, introducing a new technique (Elnasharty's method) enables researchers to reach a new level of certainty in diagnosis, follow up stages of any specified disease and to differentiate various diseases. Comparison was carried out between PSA estimated by RIA and that of ELISA methods. Data proved that RIA is more superior to that of ELISA. The ability of all the former tests to differentiate among different groups of subjects by the use of ROC and OI was evaluated. The capability of ROC and OI to express a proper physical meaning was evaluated. The study revealed the ability to differentiate different groups to a certain extent and others beyond doubt. A new approach for ROC curve when the area under the curve is less than 0.5 had been presented. A more accurate value for OI that expresses the real percentage of overlap between different diseases could be achieved by Elnasharty's OI. Reaching a new level of diagnosis evaluation that gave us the highest sensitivity gain in detecting patients and specificity gain, that approaches infinity. Excluding non-patient subjects by Elnasharty's method is confirmed by bayes' theorem (Mc Neil et al., 1975)

  5. An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), the 2-year biopsy outcome and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with an inversely planned high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 153 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 with external beam pelvic radiation followed by an HDR Ir-192 prostate boost. These patients were given a boost of 18 to 20 Gy using inverse-planning with simulated annealing (IPSA).We reviewed and analyzed all prostate-specific antigen levels and control biopsies. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months (18-95 months). When categorized by risk of progression, 74.5% of patients presented an intermediate risk and 14.4% a high one. Prostate biopsies at 2 years posttreatment were negative in 86 of 94 patients (91.5%), whereas two biopsies were inconclusive. Biochemical control at 60 months was at 96% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Phoenix consensus definitions. A PSA bounce (PSA values of 2 ng/mL or more above nadir) was observed in 15 patients of 123 (9.8%). The median time to bounce was 15.2 months (interquartile range, 11.0-17.7) and the median bounce duration 18.7 months (interquartile range, 12.1-29). The estimate of overall survival at 60 months was 97.1% (95% CI, 91.6-103%). Conclusions: Considering that inverse planned HDR brachytherapy prostate boosts led to an excellent biochemical response, with a 2-year negative biopsy rate, we recommend a conservative approach in face of a PSA bounce even though it was observed in 10% of patients

  6. Combination of signal intensity measurements of lesions in the peripheral zone of prostate with MRI and serum PSA level for differentiating benign disease from prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to predict the benign or malignant nature of a prostatic lesion by defining a threshold value of signal intensity ratio and a limiting value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with elevated PSA level. Twenty-six patients with elevated PSA level and no hypoechogenic lesions at endosonography underwent MR imaging using an endorectal body phased-array coil at 1.5 T (Siemens Magnetom Symphony). A T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) pulse sequence was applied in a transverse orientation. Two radiologists evaluated the images. In the presence of a pathological finding they defined regions of interest (ROI) in the suspicious pathological area of the peripheral zone and in muscle for reference. The quotient of the two ROIs was calculated and then correlated with the actual PSA level. Diagnosis was confirmed by prostate biopsy. Ten of 12 patients with quotients smaller than 4 showed cancer at histology. Nine of 12 men with cancer proven by biopsy had PSA levels higher than 10 ng/ml. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between the quotients of cancer and quotients of chronic prostatitis, fibrosis, or glandular atrophy. The accuracy of tumor differentiation of the method was 77 %. Measurement of signal intensity quotients in the peripheral zone of the prostate in combination with knowledge of defined limits of PSA levels the technique could be helpful in detecting additional cancer areas for prostate biopsy. False-negative tumor results of standard sextant biopsy can be reduced. In men with high PSA values the method has a role in differentiating between patients who require prostate biopsy and those of clinical observation. (orig.)

  7. Detection of Local, Regional, and Distant Recurrence in Patients With PSA Relapse After External-Beam Radiotherapy Using 11C-Choline Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level cannot distinguish between local-regional recurrences and the presence of distant metastases after treatment with curative intent for prostate cancer. With the advent of salvage treatment such as cryotherapy, it has become important to localize the site of recurrence (local or distant). In this study, the potential of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) to identify site of recurrence was investigated in patients with rising PSA after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy patients with histologically proven prostate cancer treated with EBRT and showing biochemical recurrence as defined by American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus statement and 10 patients without recurrence underwent a PET scan using 400 MBq 11C-choline intravenously. Biopsy-proven histology from the site of suspicion, findings with other imaging modalities, clinical follow-up and/or response to adjuvant therapy were used as comparative references. Results: None of the 10 patients without biochemical recurrence had a positive PET scan. Fifty-seven of 70 patients with biochemical recurrence (median PSA 9.1 ng/mL; mean PSA 12.3 ng/mL) showed an abnormal uptake pattern (sensitivity 81%). The site of recurrence was only local in 41 of 57 patients (mean PSA 11.1 ng/mL at scan), locoregionally and/or distant in 16 of 57 patients (mean PSA 17.7 ng/mL). Overall the positive predictive value and negative predictive value for 11C-choline PET scan were 1.0 and 0.44 respectively. Accuracy was 84%. Conclusions: 11C-choline PET scan is a sensitive technique to identify the site of recurrence in patients with PSA relapse after EBRT for prostate cancer.

  8. Detection of recurrent prostate cancer with 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT in relation to PSA level at the time of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluorine-18 fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for the detection of recurrent prostate cancer in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. FCH PET/CT was performed in 50 patients with rising PSA levels at follow-up of primary treatment of prostate cancer (radical prostatectomy in 28, radiation therapy in 13, and brachytherapy in 9). PET detection rates were determined at various PSA thresholds and examined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Findings consistent with recurrent prostate cancer were noted on FCH PET/CT in 31/50 (62%) patients, with positive findings in 17/18 (94%), and 11/13 (85%), 2/7 (29%), and 1/12 (8%) patients with PSA >4, >2-4, >0.5-2, and ≤0.5 ng/mL, respectively. These findings were indicative of local/regional recurrence in 23 cases and systemic recurrence in 8 cases, with only a single route of recurrence (id est (i.e.), either hematogenous, lymphatic, or intraprostatic) in 84% of PET scans with positive findings. Abnormal tumor activity was detected in 88% of patients with a PSA level of 1.1 ng/mL or higher, and in only 6% of patients with a PSA level below this threshold value. FCH PET/CT may serve to identify the route of tumor progression in patients with recurrent prostate cancer; however, the likelihood of tumor detection may be related to the PSA level at the time of imaging. (author)

  9. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) level 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from the deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider that the current state of the art in PSA (especially Level 1 PSA) is sufficiently well developed that it can be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process - referred to as 'risk informed regulation'. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for regulatory authorities to have a high degree of confidence in PSA. However, at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process in 1994 and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' Meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997 the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce in co-operation a technical document on the regulatory review of PSA. This publication is intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable standard so that it can be used as the basis for taking risk informed decisions within a regulatory decision making process. The document gives guidance on how to set about reviewing a PSA and on the technical issues that need to be addressed. This publication gives guidance for the review of Level 1 PSA for

  10. Quality assurance in the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant preoperational PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality Assurance (QA) is nowadays an important requirement for the competence of any production or service, making possible to get the desired quality at the lowest cost In the case of PSA, which are multidisciplinary, very detailed and complex analysis, with many interfaces between analyst tasks, QA plays an important role as a tool for the analytical process management, and it is recognized as one of the PSA issues which require additional development In this paper the QA system developed for the Juragua NPP preoperational PSA, its antecedents and the experiences of its application are described

  11. Level-1, -2 and -3 PSA for AHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first phase Level-1 PSA has been carried out to identifying Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs) which may lead to Severe Core Damage (SCD) of the AHWR. In the second phase, a Level-2 PSA examines two enveloping severe reactor accidents through a combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches, in order to determine the release of radio nuclides from containment, including the physical processes that are involved in the loss of structural integrity of the reactor core. In the third phase, a Level-3 PSA analyses the transport of radio nuclides through the environment and assesses the public health risk for the two scenarios considered. (author)

  12. Development of Tsunami PSA method for Korean NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. The application of this method was applied to a nuclear power plant, Ulchin 56 NPP, which is located in the east coast of Korean peninsula. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real nuclear power plant in Korea

  13. Use of probabilistic safety assessment for operational safety. PSA '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around 250 participants, representing 32 IAEA Member States and 4 international organizations, reviewed recent developments and discussed directions for future efforts in the area of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and particularly on its use for operational safety. During the symposium 61 papers and 27 posters were presented covering a wide spectrum of activities in areas such as: experience with ''living'' PSAs, PSA applications in decision making, the use of PSA for evaluating operating experience for operator training and for accident management, and probabilistic safety criteria. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. AP1000 PSA model and its model format conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model of the third generation nuclear power technology (AP1000) is built with CAFTA code, while the RiskSpectrum code is used in our institute. Based on the analysis of the data files of the two codes, the conversion code CAFTA2RS is developed to extract information from the PSA model built with CAFTA, modify the data format that incompatible with RiskSpectrum, convert the gate type, such as AANB, EQU and so on, to the gate type acceptable with RS, and finally convert the PSA model from the format of CAFTA code to the format of RiskSpectrum code automatically. (authors)

  15. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  16. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  17. Changes in concentrations of zinc and PSA EPS of patients withⅢA prostatitis and the clinical significance%Ⅲa 型前列腺炎患者 EPS 中锌离子、PSA 浓度变化及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 莫林键; 汪小明; 张迅; 李广裕; 黄珊; 蒋捷; 覃春宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes in concentrations of zinc and prostate-specific antigen ( PSA) in the expressed prostatic secretion ( EPS) of patients with ⅢA prostatitis and to investigate the clinical significance .Methods Seventy-one patients with ⅢA prostatitis ( observation group ) and 44 healthy controls ( control group ) were recruited in our study.The concentrations of zinc and PSA in EPS were determined by colorimetric analysis and enzyme -linked immunosor-bent assay (ELISA), respectively.The wet mount was examined promptly with a high-power microscope for WBC in EPS . The pH value of EPS was acquired by pH test strips .Pearson linear correlation analysis was used to determine the correla-tions between zinc concentration , PSA concentration and CPSI scores .The relationships between zinc concentration and pH value, amount of WBC were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis as well as the relationships between PSA con -centration and pH value , amount of WBC .Results The zinc concentrations of the observation group and control group were respectively (155.93 ±68.65) μg/mL and (206.54 ±65.18) μg/mL, and the PSA concentrations were respectively (2.27 ±2.03) ×105 ng/mL and (3.78 ±2.84) ×105ng/mL (all P0.05).Meanwhile, there were negative correlations between PSA concentra-tion and NIH-CPSI scores including pain scores , quality of life scores and total scores ( r =-0.255, -0.217 and-0.250, respectively;all P0.05).The pH value was negatively correlated with concentrations of zinc and PSA (r=-0.429 and -0.333, respec-tively;all P0.05).Conclusions The concentrations of zinc and PSA in EPS decreased significantly in patients with ⅢA prostatitis.The detections of concentra-tions of zinc and PSA contributed to the diagnosis and disease evaluation of ⅢA prostatitis.%目的 观察ⅢA型前列腺炎患者前列腺液(EPS)中锌离子、前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)浓度变化,并探讨其临床意义. 方法 招募ⅢA型前列腺炎患者71

  18. Minimally Informative Prior Distributions for PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana L. Kelly; Robert W. Youngblood; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-06-01

    A salient feature of Bayesian inference is its ability to incorporate information from a variety of sources into the inference model, via the prior distribution (hereafter simply “the prior”). However, over-reliance on old information can lead to priors that dominate new data. Some analysts seek to avoid this by trying to work with a minimally informative prior distribution. Another reason for choosing a minimally informative prior is to avoid the often-voiced criticism of subjectivity in the choice of prior. Minimally informative priors fall into two broad classes: 1) so-called noninformative priors, which attempt to be completely objective, in that the posterior distribution is determined as completely as possible by the observed data, the most well known example in this class being the Jeffreys prior, and 2) priors that are diffuse over the region where the likelihood function is nonnegligible, but that incorporate some information about the parameters being estimated, such as a mean value. In this paper, we compare four approaches in the second class, with respect to their practical implications for Bayesian inference in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The most commonly used such prior, the so-called constrained noninformative prior, is a special case of the maximum entropy prior. This is formulated as a conjugate distribution for the most commonly encountered aleatory models in PSA, and is correspondingly mathematically convenient; however, it has a relatively light tail and this can cause the posterior mean to be overly influenced by the prior in updates with sparse data. A more informative prior that is capable, in principle, of dealing more effectively with sparse data is a mixture of conjugate priors. A particular diffuse nonconjugate prior, the logistic-normal, is shown to behave similarly for some purposes. Finally, we review the so-called robust prior. Rather than relying on the mathematical abstraction of entropy, as does the constrained

  19. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone and Prostate Specific Antigen Levels in Sprague-Dawley Female Rats Bearing Mammary Tumours Induced by Dimethylbenz (A) Anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast Cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in the world and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in females of both developed and developing countries. The present work aimed to study the diagnostic value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for breast cancer and the importance of treatment by blue green algae Spirulina platensis supplementation on PSA and testosterone levels. Two different analytical techniques based on micro particle enzyme immunoassay (MPIA) and enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ILFA) for quantitative determination of total PSA (free PSA and PSA complexed to alpha-1-antichymptrypsin) were studied in the diagnosis of breast cancer before and after Spirulina platensis supplementation. Female rats secret PSA from female prostate gland, serum testosterone and PSA concentrations were not detected in control and rats supplemented by Spirulina platensis groups. Serum testosterone and PSA concentration were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in rats bearing mammary tumours than rats bearing mammary tumours supplemented with Spirulina platensis. These results suggest that the clinical applicability of total PSA for breast cancer diagnosis and the biological mechanism behind its increase should be further investigated. Finally, the physiological mechanism behind the total PSA increase in breast cancer and its ramifications with respect to tumour progression should be further investigated.

  20. An introductory course of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for LWR. (2) Application of PSA technology to plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology has been well developed and in several countries risk information derived by the probabilistic assessment has been used for making nuclear safety assurance activities reasonable and efficient. In Japan risk informed approach has been positively studied and then an introductory course of the PSA technology as its basis was prepared in serial form. This is the second issue shown application examples of the PSA technology in Japan and USA. Application examples of risk informed approach in order industries are also reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  1. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  2. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: ≤1 ng/ml, 1 to ≤2 ng/ml, 2 to ≤4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups ≤1, 1 to ≤2, 2 to ≤4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA ≤2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt ≤6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve ≤2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of 18F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, 18F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt ≤6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not 18F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  3. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: {<=}1 ng/ml, 1 to {<=}2 ng/ml, 2 to {<=}4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups {<=}1, 1 to {<=}2, 2 to {<=}4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA {<=}2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt {<=}6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve {<=}2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of {sup 18}F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt {<=}6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not {sup 18}F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  4. An indirect haemagglutination test for demonstration of gonococcal antibodies using gonococcal pili as antigen. II. Serological investigation of patients attending a dermato-venereological outpatients clinic in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, K; Lind, I; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1980-01-01

    indirect haemagglutination test using gonococcal pili as antigens (IHA). The diagnosis of current gonococcal infection in 28 per cent of the patients was based on positive culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae from one or more of the following sites: urethra, rectum and fauces in all patients, and/or cervix in...... female patients. The specificity, sensitivity and predictive values of positive and negative test results were calculated for the various groups of patients on the assumption that all positive results, both in patients without gonorrhoea but with a previous gonococcal infection and in patients without...

  5. Prostate-specific antigen and hormone receptor expression in male and female breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate carcinoma is among the most common solid tumors to secondarily involve the male breast. Prostate specific antigen (PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP are expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissue, and immunohistochemical staining for these markers is often used to confirm the prostatic origin of metastatic carcinoma. PSA expression has been reported in male and female breast carcinoma and in gynecomastia, raising concerns about the utility of PSA for differentiating prostate carcinoma metastasis to the male breast from primary breast carcinoma. This study examined the frequency of PSA, PSAP, and hormone receptor expression in male breast carcinoma (MBC, female breast carcinoma (FBC, and gynecomastia. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PSAP, AR, ER, and PR was performed on tissue microarrays representing six cases of gynecomastia, thirty MBC, and fifty-six FBC. Results PSA was positive in two of fifty-six FBC (3.7%, focally positive in one of thirty MBC (3.3%, and negative in the five examined cases of gynecomastia. PSAP expression was absent in MBC, FBC, and gynecomastia. Hormone receptor expression was similar in males and females (AR 74.1% in MBC vs. 67.9% in FBC, p = 0.62; ER 85.2% vs. 68.5%, p = 0.18; and PR 51.9% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.82. Conclusions PSA and PSAP are useful markers to distinguish primary breast carcinoma from prostate carcinoma metastatic to the male breast. Although PSA expression appeared to correlate with hormone receptor expression, the incidence of PSA expression in our population was too low to draw significant conclusions about an association between PSA expression and hormone receptor status in breast lesions.

  6. Review of APR+ Level 2 PSA. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, John R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mubayi, Vinod [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pratt, W. Trevor [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Do Sam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Goo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-17

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in reviewing the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the APR+ Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) prepared by the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) and KEPCO Engineering & Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO-E&C). The work described in this report involves a review of the APR+ Level 2 PSA submittal [Ref. 1]. The PSA and, therefore, the review is limited to consideration of accidents initiated by internal events. As part of the review process, the review team also developed three sets of Requests for Additional Information (RAIs). These RAIs were provided to KHNP and KEPCO-E&C for their evaluation and response. This final detailed report documents the review findings for each technical element of the PSA and includes consideration of all of the RAIs made by the reviewers as well as the associated responses. This final report was preceded by an interim report [Ref. 2] that focused on identifying important issues regarding the PSA. In addition, a final meeting on the project was held at BNL on November 21-22, 2011, where BNL and KINS reviewers discussed their preliminary review findings with KHNP and KEPCO-E&C staffs. Additional information obtained during this final meeting was also used to inform the review findings of this final report. The review focused not only on the robustness of the APR+ design to withstand severe accidents, but also on the capability and acceptability of the Level 2 PSA in terms of level of detail and completeness. The Korean nuclear regulatory authorities will decide whether the PSA is acceptable and the BNL review team is providing its comments for KINS consideration. Section 2.0 provides the basis for the BNL review. Section 3.0 presents the review of each technical element of the PSA. Conclusions and a summary are presented in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 contains the references.

  7. Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NB Power Nuclear has developed a PSA that incorporates a high degree of operational information and site-specific data to evaluate risk metrics based on the way the plant is actually operated and maintained. Unique characteristics of the PSA prepared for Point Lepreau Generating Station was presented. The high degree of model depth or resolution has enabled quick turn-around time in response to operational queries and the ability to quickly evaluate the impact of any system design modification. (author)

  8. Application of PSA in modifying plant technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Combustion Engineering Owners Group (CEOG) has undertaken an initiative to use Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), in conjunction with other considerations, to obtain relief from unnecessarily restrictive aspects of plant technical specifications. This paper provides a summary of the integrated use of PSA along with deterministic and practical operational considerations in justifying AOT extensions for inoperability of one Safety Injection Tank (SIT), a single Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) subtrain and one Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG)

  9. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  10. Evaluation of an accident risk of advanced pwr type reactors. Methods and results of a comprehensive probabilistic safety analysis (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant operators in Germany, and especially the opeator of GKN 2, support the GRS by providing information updates of the probabilistic methods of safety assessment. The report presents the investigations and results of probabilistic safety analyses for PWR power plants according to the current state of the art. The PSA uses methods that can be utilized by a wide range of experienced users and which have been tested by a 12-year continuous PSA for a nuclear power plant with an advanced PWR reactor. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  12. Clostridium difficile Testing Algorithms Using Glutamate Dehydrogenase Antigen and C. difficile Toxin Enzyme Immunoassays with C. difficile Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing Increase Diagnostic Yield in a Tertiary Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Kaede V.; McGowan, Karin L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the rapid C. diff Quik Chek Complete's glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxin A/B (CDT) tests in two algorithmic approaches for a tertiary pediatric population: algorithm 1 entailed initial testing with GDH/CDT followed by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and algorithm 2 entailed GDH/CDT followed by cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) for adjudication of discrepant GDH-positive/CDT-negative results. A true positive (TP) was defined a...

  13. Antigenic variants of rabies virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, TJ; Koprowski, H

    1980-01-01

    Antigenic variants of CVS-11 strain of rabies virus were selected after treatment of virus populations with monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoprotein antigen of the virus. These variants resisted neutralization by the hybridoma antibody used for their selection. Two independently mutating antigenic sites could be distinguished when five variants were tested with nine hybridoma antibodies. The frequency of single epitope variants in a cloned rabies virus seed was approximately 1:...

  14. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  15. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  16. Efficacy of gamma irradiation on H5N1 for the preparation of hemagglutination Inhibition test antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the efficiencies of gamma irradiation at the dose of 10-60 kGy on highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1 (Thai isolate) revealed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 20 kGy could reduce the infectivity of Hanna but gamma irradiation at 30-60 kGy could inactivate H5N1 virus completely. All doses of gamma irradiation used in this experiment had no effect on antigenicity of hemagglutinin protein. Thus, gamma irradiation at the dose of 30- 60 kGy could be use safely for the antigen preparation to detect the antibody against H5N1 virus.

  17. The novel prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3 biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bourdoumis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PCA3 is a prostate specific, nonprotein coding RNA that is significantly over expressed in prostate cancer, without any correlation to prostatic volume and/or other prostatic diseases (e.g. prostatitis. It can now easily be measured in urine with a novel transcription-mediated amplification based test. Quantification of PCA3 mRNA levels can predict the outcome of prostatic biopsies with a higher specificity rate in comparison to PSA. Several studies have demonstrated that PCA3 can be used as a prognostic marker of prostate cancer, especially in conjunction with other predictive markers. Novel PCA3-based nomograms have already been introduced into clinical practice. PCA3 test may be of valuable help in several PSA quandary situations such as negative prostatic biopsies, concomitant prostatic diseases, and active surveillance. Results from relevant clinical studies, comparative with PSA, are warranted in order to confirm the perspective of PCA3 to substitute PSA.

  18. A phase I trial of DNA vaccination with a plasmid expressing prostate-specific antigen in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, M; Roos, A-K; Lundqvist, A; Palmborg, A; Miller, A M; Ozenci, V; Bergman, B; Egevad, L; Hellström, M; Kiessling, R; Masucci, G; Wersäll, P; Nilsson, S; Pisa, P

    2004-08-16

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease secreted at low levels by normal luminal epithelial cells of the prostate and in significantly higher levels by prostate cancer cells. Therefore, PSA is a potential target for various immunotherapeutical approaches against prostate cancer. DNA vaccination has been investigated as immunotherapy for infectious diseases in patients and for specific treatment of cancer in certain animal models. In animal studies, we have demonstrated that vaccination with plasmid vector pVAX/PSA results in PSA-specific cellular response and protection against tumour challenge. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate the safety, feasibility and biological efficacy of pVAX/PSA vaccine in the clinic. A phase I trial of pVAX/PSA, together with cytokine granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (Molgramostim) and IL-2 (Aldesleukin) as vaccine adjuvants, was carried out in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. To evaluate the biologically active dose, the vaccine was administered during five cycles in doses of 100, 300 and 900 microg, with three patients in each cohort. Eight patients were evaluable. A PSA-specific cellular immune response, measured by IFN-gamma production against recombinant PSA protein, and a rise in anti-PSA IgG were detected in two of three patients after vaccination in the highest dose cohort. A decrease in the slope of PSA was observed in the two patients exhibiting IFN-gamma production to PSA. No adverse effects (WHO grade >2) were observed in any dose cohort. We demonstrate that DNA vaccination with a PSA-coding plasmid vector, given with GM-CSF and IL-2 to patients with prostate cancer, is safe and in doses of 900 microg the vaccine can induce cellular and humoral immune responses against PSA protein. PMID:15280930

  19. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3, 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4, and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P=0.008 and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.

  20. Electrochemical immunoassay for the prostate specific antigen using ceria mesoporous nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for the prostate specific antigen (PSA). An immunoelectrode was fabricated by coating a glassy carbon electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride), CeO2 and PSA antibody (in this order) using the layer-by-layer method. The immunosensor is then placed in a sample solution containing PSA and o-phenylenediamine (OPD). It is found that the CeO2 nanoparticles facilitate the electrochemical oxidation of OPD, and this produces a signal for electrochemical detection of PSA that depends on the concentration of PSA. There is a linear relationship between the decrease in current and the concentration of PSA in the 0.01 to 1,000 pg mL−1 concentration range, and the detection limit is 4 fg mL−1. The assay was successfully applied to the detection of PSA in serum samples. This new differential pulse voltammetric immunoassay is sensitive and acceptably precise, and the fabrication of the electrode is well reproducible. (author)

  1. Highlights of the PSA analyses performed for the RRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 2000, ANSTO signed a contract with the Argentinian company INVAP S.E. for the design, construction and commissioning of a replacement research reactor (RRR). INVAP contracted CEDIAC to prepare the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the RRR in support of the ANSTO application for the construction licence. The PSA is complementary to the Safety Analysis, in the sense that it asks questions such as 'What if the Postulated Initiating Events were to occur and more than one piece of equipment were to fail? What if several things were to go wrong?' The PSA attempts to determine all the possible combinations of how the plant could respond to an initiating event, group all the possible outcomes, obtain conservative estimates of the frequency, and bounding estimates of the consequences (i.e., doses to the worst exposed individual of the public). The frequency and consequence constitute the risk, and when evaluated for all possible events can be compared against the safety objectives set out in the regulatory principles. Besides the basic objective of the PSA, which is the quantitative evaluation of the risks associated with the RRR, and its comparison to the regulatory objectives, the PSA studies have been performed in parallel with the basic engineering phase of the project. Therefore, preliminary results from 'the risk point of view' were used as input to the design process, thus permitting improvements to be made to the design, and resulting in an effective reduction of the residual risk. To perform the PSA studies several methodological developments were made, in order to obtain a representative list of internal and external initiating events, to treat component and human-related failures, to consider common-cause failures, and to consider some specific aspects of the design (i.e., fail-safe components, passive systems, and lack of need for support systems). The PSA studies were performed to obtain not only quantitative estimations of the risk, but also

  2. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen are the same protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Waheed; Md Imtaiyaz Hassan; Robert L Van Etten; Faizan Ahmad

    2008-06-01

    Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were each isolated from human seminal fluid and compared. Both are glycoproteins of 32–34 kDa with protease activities. Based on some physicochemical, enzymatic and immunological properties, it is concluded that these proteins are in fact identical. The protein exhibits properties similar to kallikrein-like serine protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin and thiol acid protease. Tests of the activity of the enzyme against some potential natural and synthetic substrates showed that bovine serum albumin was more readily hydrolysed than casein. The results of this study should be useful in purifying and assaying this protein. Based on published studies and the present results, the broad proteolytic specificity of human seminal proteinase suggests a role for this protein in several physiological functions.

  3. Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA): an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) organised a Specialists' Meeting on Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (SPSA) of Nuclear Facilities which took place on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea on 6-8 November 2006. The main objectives of the meeting were to review recent advances in SPSA methodology, to discuss practical applications, to review the current state of the art, and to identify methodology issues on which further research would be beneficial. One specific objective was to compare the situation today with the situation in 1999, date of the previous SPSA workshop, and to develop a set of findings and recommendations that would update the previous ones. Ample time was allotted to discussing the current situation and developments in SPSA, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and seismic margin assessment (SMA). About 75 specialists from 15 countries participated, providing a large amount of technical material and information that form the basis for this article. Participants concluded that there are some areas in which follow-up work would be highly desirable on an international level. One of them would be a comparison of seismic hazard studies from countries with high, medium and low seismicity. The PSHA results should be compared to all available observations, especially for return periods where records are available, in order to improve the confidence in the results. Any PSHA activity would benefit from review by all stakeholders: plant owners, regulators, PSA managers, systems analysts and fragility analysts, since bias in the seismic hazard values may have significant effect on cost, risk and licensing effort. Moreover, because of the rapid progress in using SPSA, it may be necessary to revisit the ten-years old NEA/CSNI state-of-the-art report on SPSA. Collecting information from conventional industrial sites after large earthquakes may be a good way to increase current knowledge about operator and emergency

  4. Development of level 2 PSA technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Ahn, Kwang Il; Park, Jae Wu; Jin, Young Ho

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project is the development of the computer code system for level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants. The scope of the project can be divided into three areas. The first area is to develop the computer code (CONPAS) which can quantify the accident progression event trees. CONPAS beta version has been developed this year and it is comprised of four modules : (1) EDITOR for generating the event tree logic diagrams and (2) COMPUTER for event tree quantification and for additional use of the calculated results. (3) TEXT EDITOR and (4) CODE PLOTTER. Comparing with the existing computer code, the present code provides a flexible code reusability and user interface, convenient edition of logic diagram, data operation, and systematic quantification of the results. The methodology development of containment structural analysis is the second area. The specific tasks included the collection and analysis of the containment failure modes for the various containment types, and the methodology establishment for the containment structure analysis. Over twenty large dry PWR containments, the database for containment failure mode and pressure has been constructed and the simplified fragility model has been proposed to calculate the containment failure probability. They will be used as an important input not only in the containment analysis but also in the source term analysis. For the last, source term analyzing methodology and its applied computer code that is named as `KORSOR` are developed. KORSOR which used parametric model approach combined modules which consist of accident sequence input module via user`s logic rule, random sample generating module, parametric database module, and source term uncertainty quantification module. The characteristics of parametric data which use din the source term analyzing model is analyzed and the constructing idea and example for the parametric database is suggested. (author). 67 refs., 66 tabs

  5. Tuberculin Skin Testing Compared with T-Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific and Nonspecific Antigens for Detection of Latent Infection in Persons with Recent Tuberculosis Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Sandra M.; Engelhard, Anrik C. F.; Groot, Gertjan; de Boer, Kirsten; Andersen, Peter; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; van Dissel, Jaap T.

    2001-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used for the identification of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) but lacks specificity in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated individuals, who constitute an increasing proportion of TB patients and their contacts from regions where TB is endemic. In previous studies, T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10, M. tuberculosis-specific antigens that are absent from BCG, were sensitive and specific for detection of active TB. We studied 44 close contacts of a patient with smear-positive pulmonary TB and compared the standard screening procedure for LTBI by TST or chest radiographs with T-cell responses to M. tuberculosis-specific and nonspecific antigens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with ESAT-6, CFP-10, TB10.4 (each as recombinant antigen and as a mixture of overlapping synthetic peptides), M. tuberculosis sonicate, purified protein derivative (PPD), and short-term culture filtrate, using gamma interferon production as the response measure. LTBI screening was by TST in 36 participants and by chest radiographs in 8 persons. Nineteen contacts were categorized as TST negative, 12 were categorized as TST positive, and 5 had indeterminate TST results. Recombinant antigens and peptide mixtures gave similar results. Responses to TB10.4 were neither sensitive nor specific for LTBI. T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were less sensitive for detection of LTBI than those to PPD (67 versus 100%) but considerably more specific (100 versus 72%). The specificity of the TST or in vitro responses to PPD will be even less when the proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons among TB contacts evaluated for LTBI increases. PMID:11687445

  6. Prostate-specific antigen-positive extramammary Paget's disease--association with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Hager, Henrik; Steiniche, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepidermal adenocarcinoma that primarily affects the anogenital region. Cases of EMPD reacting with PSA (prostate-specific antigen) have previously been associated with underlying prostate cancer. However, a recent case of EMPD in our department has...... led us to question the value of PSA as an indicator of underlying prostate cancer. Clinical and pathological data were obtained for 16 cases of EMPD. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from the primary skin lesions were investigated using PSA and other immunohistochemical markers. 5 of...... the 16 cases of EMPD stained positive for PSA (2 women and 3 men). However, no reactivity was seen for the prostatic marker P501S. Three of the five patients had been diagnosed with internal malignant disease-two with prostate cancer, stage 1. Immunohistochemical investigations of the tumour specimens...

  7. Assay-specific artificial neural networks for five different PSA assays and populations with PSA 2-10 ng/ml in 4,480 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carsten; Xu, Chuanliang; Cammann, Henning; Graefen, Markus; Haese, Alexander; Huland, Hartwig; Semjonow, Axel; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Remzi, Mesut; Djavan, Bob; Wildhagen, Mark F; Blijenberg, Bert G; Finne, Patrik; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Jung, Klaus; Meyer, Hellmuth-Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Use of percent free PSA (%fPSA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) can eliminate unnecessary prostate biopsies. In a total of 4,480 patients from five centers with PSA concentrations in the range of 2-10 ng/ml an IMMULITE PSA-based ANN (iANN) was compared with other PSA assay-adapted ANNs (nANNs) to investigate the impact of different PSA assays. ANN data were generated with PSA, fPSA (assays from Abbott, Beckman, DPC, Roche or Wallac), age, prostate volume, and DRE status. In 15 different ROC analyses, the area under the curve (AUC) in the PSA ranges 2-4, 2-10, and 4-10 ng/ml for the nANN was always significantly larger than the AUC for %fPSA or PSA. The nANN and logistic regression models mostly also performed better than the iANN. Therefore, for each patient population, PSA assay-specific ANNs should be used to optimize the ANN outcome in order to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. PMID:17333205

  8. Seismic PSA of nuclear power plants a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (Seismic PSA) analysis is an external event PSA analysis. The objective of seismic PSA for the plants is to examine the existence of plant vulnerabilities against postulated earthquakes by numerically assessing the plant safety and to take appropriate measures to enhance the plant safety. Seismic PSA analysis integrates the seismic hazard analysis, seismic response analysis, seismic fragility analysis and system reliability/ accident sequence analysis. In general, the plant consists of normally operating and emergency standby systems and components. The failure during an earthquake (induced directly by excessive inertial stresses or indirectly following the failure of some other item) of an operating component will lead to a change in the state of the plant. In that case, various scenarios can follow depending on the initiating event and the status of other sub-systems. The analysis represents these possible chronological sequences by an event tree. The event trees and the associated fault trees model the sub-systems down to the level of individual components. The procedure has been applied for a typical Indian nuclear power plant. From the internal event PSA level I analysis significant contribution to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found due to the Fire Water System. Hence, this system was selected to establish the procedure of seismic PSA. In this report the different elements that go into seismic PSA analysis have been discussed. Hazard curves have been developed for the site. Fragility curve for the seismically induced failure of Class IV power has been developed. The fragility curve for fire-water piping system has been generated. Event tree for Class IV power supply has been developed and the dominating accident sequences were identified. CDF has been estimated from these dominating accident sequences by convoluting hazard curves of initiating event and fragility curves of the safety systems. (author)

  9. Use of PSA to prioritize NPP walk down activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: an international team of experts, organized by the Institute of Risk Research of the Academic Senate of the University of Vienna, conducted a walk down assessment of the Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in May 1998. The Mochovce NPP is a VVER-440/213 station which has been in final construction and implementation of a safety improvement program since 1996. In preparation for the walk down, available plant design information was organized into a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) format in order to assist in prioritizing walk down activities. The PSA was also used to understand the likely impact on core damage frequency (CDF) resulting from implementation of the safety improvement program. The PSA employed event trees from the Dukovany PSA, modified to represent the system designs at Mochovce, to assess internal hazards. External hazards were assessed based on an evaluation performed in 1995, with consideration given to upgrades planned to be implemented up to 1998. Failure events were identified directly based on the Dukovany PSA and other sources, and quantified using data from the Dukovany PSA, other non-Mochovce PSAs, and generic data. The PSA was used to identify a suite of dominant accident sequences from internal and external causes. The impact of safety improvements on these sequences was then assessed. The 'pre-fix' and 'post-fix' cases were compared to identify the change in risk due to implementation of the safety improvement program. Following the walk down, the 'post-fix' case was updated based on insights gained from the walk down. This revised case was used to aid in understanding the risk significance of issues identified during the walk down. (author)

  10. Quantitative Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging of Androgen Receptor and Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostate Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, Agnieszka; Lippolis, Giuseppe; Helczynski, Leszek; Anand, Aseem; Peltola, Mari; Pettersson, Kim; Lilja, Hans; Bjartell, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are expressed in the prostate and are involved in prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to develop reliable protocols for reproducible quantification of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate tissue using time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) imaging techniques. AR and PSA were detected with TRF in tissue microarrays from 91 PCa patients. p63/ alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) staining on consecutive sections was used to categorize tissue areas as benign or cancerous. Automated image analysis was used to quantify staining intensity. AR intensity was significantly higher in AMACR+ and lower in AMACR- cancer areas as compared with benign epithelium. The PSA intensity was significantly lower in cancer areas, particularly in AMACR- glands. The AR/PSA ratio varied significantly in the AMACR+ tumor cells as compared with benign glands. There was a trend of more rapid disease progression in patients with higher AR/PSA ratios in the AMACR- areas. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing reproducible protocols for TRF imaging and automated image analysis to study the expression of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate. It also highlighted the differences in AR and PSA protein expression within AMACR- and AMACR+ cancer regions. PMID:27026295

  11. Design Information from the PSA for Digital Safety-Critical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many safety-critical applications such as nuclear field application usually adopt a similar design strategy for digital safety-critical systems. Their differences from the normal design for the non-safety-critical applications could be summarized as: multiple-redundancy, highly reliable components, strengthened monitoring mechanism, verified software, and automated test procedure. These items are focusing on maintaining the capability to perform the given safety function when it is requested. For the past several decades, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques are used in the nuclear industry to assess the relative effects of contributing events on plant risk and system reliability. They provide a unifying means of assessing physical faults, recovery processes, contributing effects, human actions, and other events that have a high degree of uncertainty. The applications of PSA provide not only the analysis results of already installed system but also the useful information for the system under design. The information could be derived from the PSA experience of the various safety-critical systems. Thanks to the design flexibility, the digital system is one of the most suitable candidates for risk-informed design (RID). In this article, we will describe the feedbacks for system design and try to develop a procedure for RID. Even though the procedure is not sophisticated enough now, it could be the start point of the further investigation for developing more complete and practical methodology

  12. Detection antigen virus den on monocyts by streptavidin biotin test as early diagnostic for dengue fever hemorrhagic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y NINING SRI WURYANINGSIH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Clinically it may manifest as asymtomastic,undifferentiated fever,dengue ever,dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases. The mechanism underlying the disease with severe complication is not clear yet,however it has been previosus reported that primary and secondary infections of dengue virus play an important role in the patogenesis of this diseases. Early diagnosis of dengue virus infection has a great contribution for appropriate management of the disease, especialy for the prognosis of the patient. Laboratory investigations for such cases will be methods on serological investigation as well as virus isolation and identification.of dengue virus infection could be made by detection of specific virus ,viral antigen,genomic sequence and or detection of antibodies. These methods are sensitive and precise for detecting dengue virus infection,but there need special equipment,costly and detection of IgM and IgG often positive or negative false the dengue virus in the blood stream There for, this study was performed in order to develop a method to detect dengue virus antigen on the monocytes using Streptavidin biotin technique. The result of Streptavidin biotin study demonstrated that 32 sera from patient suspected with DHF 78,1% were positive DHF,and 21,9% were negative DHF. These results are consistent with the result from WHO criteria as standard .The Chi Square analysis showed that the presentage of sensitivity and specificity of Streptavidin biotin methode were 88% and 87,7% respectively. In conclusions, immunocytochemistry method using streptavidin biotin technique could be used as a method to detect antigen dengue virus on monocytes in the serum patient suspected with DHF. This technique has high sensitivity and specivicity and consistent with the clinical WHO criteria for DHF.

  13. State-of-the-art report on the current status of methodologies for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has never been an earthquake sufficiently damaging to any operating U.S. nuclear power station to cause safety concerns. In the past decade, there have been two very destructive earthquakes that were near enough to nuclear power stations to have caused at least temporary world-wide concern: the large Armenian earthquake of November, 1988, and the large Japanese earthquake near Kobe in January, 1995. However, in each case, these earthquakes produced only minor ground motion at the operating nuclear stations located close enough to merit some examination: in each case, inspections revealed essentially no damage, because the actual ground motions at the nuclear-plant sites were in both cases quite small and well within the design basis. Nor has there ever been any other earthquake known to have damaged a nuclear power station. Therefore, the published historical record is not adequate for the analysis discussed here. The frequency of potential earthquake-initiated core-damage accidents at a given nuclear-power station can only be known from calculations, using a combination of real-earthquake data, test data, models of various phenomena, and systems analysis. Despite the lack of actual earthquake experience at nuclear-power stations, almost every full-scope probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) that has examined earthquake-initiated accidents at nuclear power stations has found that this category represents one of the important initiator groups. Occasionally, one of the earthquake-initiated sequences is among the few largest contributors to calculated core-damage frequency and/or off-site risk. Of course, it is important to keep in mind that PSAs calculate a residual risk, which is judged to be acceptable by the regulatory authorities, and that the seismic contribution to this residual risk is what is being discussed here. Usually the potential accident sequences identified in the PSAs are very plant-specific in character, such that the specific vulnerability is

  14. The treatment of nonpalpable PSA-detected adenocarcinoma of the prostate with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We reviewed our institution's experience treating patients with nonpalpable PSA-detected prostate cancer with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) to determine prognostic factors that predict for biochemical-free survival (bNED) control and present the bNED control rates. Methods and Materials: Between May 1, 1990 and November 30, 1994, 160 patients with nonpalpable PSA-detected prostate cancer received 3DCRT at Fox Chase Cancer Center (median total dose 73 Gy; range: 67-78 Gy). bNED failure was defined as three consecutive increases in posttreatment PSA after achieving a nadir. bNED failure was recorded as the time midway between the nadir and the first consecutive rising PSA. Five-year actuarial rates of bNED control were calculated for pretreatment PSA (0-9.9 vs. 10-19.9 vs. ≥ 20 ng/ml), Gleason score (2-6 vs. 7-10), treatment field size (prostate vs. small pelvis), age (73 Gy) using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared using the Log rank test. The Cox model was used to multivariately establish independent predictors based on significant univariate factors. Median follow-up was 39 months (range: 2-84 months). Results: The 5-year actuarial rate of bNED control was 86% for the entire group of patients. The Cox Proportional Hazards model demonstrated that pretreatment PSA was an independent predictor of bNED control. Treatment field size was marginally predictive. There was no difference in bNED control when patients were stratified by the number of lobes positive for disease. Statistically different rates of bNED control were seen when the patients with nonpalpable disease were univariately compared to T2b and T2c patients. Three patients experienced Grade 3-4 genitourinary (GU) toxicity and 3 patients experienced Grade 3-4 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with nonpalpable PSA-detected prostate cancer can be effectively treated with 3DCRT with minimal morbidity and high rates of bNED control at 5 years. Pretreatment

  15. Forensic Implication of Prostate Specific Antigen in Male Urine and Urine Stain%尿液斑前列腺特异抗原的法医学检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学博; 莫耀南; 李守玮; 吕宙; 万立华; 王清山

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the forensic implication of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in male urine and urine stain. Methods Healthy adult male urine was detected and the concentration of PSA was determined by using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Urine stains in different textile were made in 10 out of the samples,and the concentration of PSA was tested to obtain the extraction efficiency. Results Healthy male urine had a high concentration of PSAC227. 13 + 361. 25 )ng/Ml,but the individual difference was considerable. The extraction efficiency in different textile displayed a marked difference(P0. 05). Conclusion Healthy adult male urine has a high concentration of PSA,and the extraction efficiency is related with the textile,solution and extraction time.%目的 探讨男性尿液斑前列腺特异抗原(PSA)检测在法医学实践中的应用.方法 收集42例健康成年男性尿液,以化学发光法定量检测PSA水平,取其中10例已知PSA浓度的尿液样本在不同织物上制作的尿斑,检测PSA水平计算提取率.结果 健康成年男性尿液中含有较高水平的PSA,平均浓度为(227.13±361.25)ng/mL,尿液PSA个体间的差异较大;不同织物材料和提取溶液间PSA的提取率存在明显差异(P<0.01);延长提取时间对纯棉材料PSA的提取率有明显影响(P<0.01),对涤棉和涤纶材料提取率的影响不明显(P>0.05).结论 成年男性尿液内含有高浓度的PSA,尿液斑PSA的提取率与织物材料、提取溶液及提取时间有关.

  16. PSA-NCAM in the posterodorsal medial amygdala is necessary for the pubertal emergence of attraction to female odors in male hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Martin O; Cooke, Bradley M

    2015-09-01

    During puberty, attention turns away from same-sex socialization to focus on the opposite sex. How the brain mediates this change in perception and motivation is unknown. Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) virtually disappears from most of the central nervous system after embryogenesis, but it remains elevated in discrete regions of the adult brain. One such brain area is the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD). The MePD has been implicated in male sexual attraction, measured here as the preference to investigate female odors. We hypothesize that PSA-NCAM gates hormone-dependent plasticity necessary for the emergence of males' attraction to females. To evaluate this idea, we first measured PSA-NCAM levels across puberty in several brain regions, and identified when female odor preference normally emerges in male Syrian hamsters. We found that MePD PSA-NCAM staining peaks shortly before the surge of pubertal androgen and the emergence of preference. To test the necessity of PSA-NCAM for female odor preference, we infused endo-neuraminidase-N into the MePD to deplete it of PSAs before female odor preference normally appears. This blocked female odor preference, which suggests that PSA-NCAM facilitates behaviorally relevant, hormone-driven plasticity. PMID:26335887

  17. IRSN analysis of post-Fukushima «hardened safety core»: use of PSA insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, after the Fukushima accident, the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) required the performance of 'stress tests', on line with the ENSREG requirements. The conclusions of the stress tests led in particular, for each nuclear installation, to the definition of a 'hardened safety core': a limited group of systems/organisation/human means able to provide essential safety functions even during circumstances far beyond the design. Although the definition and design of the 'hardened safety core' are based on deterministic principles, the insights from PSA are a precious tool for a complementary analysis. The use of Level 1 and level 2 PSA is primarily based on the use of existing studies, for example the conditional probabilities of core melt and of releases due to a total loss of electrical power and/or of ultimate heat sink, especially taking into account long-lasting sequences which were already investigated in French PSAs before Fukushima. The sequences relating to the loss of the Spent Fuel Pool cooling were also included in the PSA. Moreover extensions of the PSAs are considered for particular events relating to external hazards, internal hazard (such as fire) and to multi-unit sites. The paper gives some particular examples of applications useful for the 'hardened safety core' assessment using PSA insights as a complementary tool to the deterministic analysis, and a view on on-going and future developments. (author)

  18. Aberrant sialylation of a prostate-specific antigen: Electrochemical label-free glycoprofiling in prostate cancer serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihikova, Dominika; Kasak, Peter; Kubanikova, Petra; Sokol, Roman; Tkac, Jan

    2016-08-31

    Electrochemical detection method allowing to detect prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostate cancer (PCa), with PSA glycoprofiling was applied in an analysis of PCa serum samples for the first time. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a label-free method with immobilized anti-PSA was applied for PSA detection and lectins to glycoprofile captured PSA on the same surface. A proper choice of blocking agent providing high selectivity of biosensor detection with the immobilized anti-PSA antibody was done. The biosensor could detect PSA down to 100 ag/mL with a linear concentration working range from 100 ag/mL up to 1 μg/mL, i.e. 10 orders of concentration magnitude and the sensitivity of (5.5 ± 0.2)%/decade. The results showed that a commercial carbo-free blocking solution was the best one, reducing non-specific binding 55-fold when compared to the immunosensor surface without any blocking agent applied, while allowing to detect PSA. The biosensor response obtained after addition of lectin (i.e. proportional to the amount of a particular glycan on PSA) divided by the biosensor response obtained after incubation with a sample (i.e. proportional to the PSA level in the sample) was applied to distinguish serum samples of PCa patients from those of healthy individuals. The results showed that Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) recognizing α-2,3-terminal sialic acid can be applied to distinguish between these two sets of samples since the MAA/PSA response obtained from the analysis of the PCa samples was significantly higher (5.3-fold) compared to the MAA/PSA response obtained by the analysis of samples from healthy individuals. Thus, combined analysis of serological PSA levels together with PSA glycoprofiling of aberrant glycosylation of PSA (i.e. increase in the level of α-2,3-terminal sialic acid) has a potential to improve detection of PCa. PMID:27506346

  19. Ni2+-Dependent and PsaR-Mediated Regulation of the Virulence Genes pcpA, psaBCA, and prtA in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Manzoor

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the transcriptional regulator PsaR regulates the expression of the PsaR regulon consisting of genes encoding choline binding protein (PcpA, the extracellular serine protease (PrtA, and the Mn2+-uptake system (PsaBCA, in the presence of manganese (Mn2+, zinc (Zn2+, and cobalt (Co2+. In this study, we explore the Ni2+-dependent regulation of the PsaR regulon. We have demonstrated by qRT-PCR analysis, metal accumulation assays, β-galactosidase assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that an elevated concentration of Ni2+ leads to strong induction of the PsaR regulon. Our ICP-MS data show that the Ni2+-dependent expression of the PsaR regulon is directly linked to high, cell-associated, concentration of Ni2+, which reduces the cell-associated concentration of Mn2+. In vitro studies with the purified PsaR protein showed that Ni2+ diminishes the Mn2+-dependent interaction of PsaR to the promoter regions of its target genes, confirming an opposite effect of Mn2+ and Ni2+ in the regulation of the PsaR regulon. Additionally, the Ni2+-dependent role of PsaR in the regulation of the PsaR regulon was studied by transcriptome analysis.

  20. Detection of prostate specific antigen in serum at the femto-gram per milliliter level using the intrinsic amplification of a field-effect enzymatic immuno-sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been achieved by applying the field-effect enzymatic detection (FEED) technique to the sandwich immuno-sensing technique. The voltage-controlled intrinsic amplification provided by FEED enabled the detection of PSA contained in serum on the femto-gram/mL level. Two electrochemical approaches used to obtain the amperometric detection signal resulted in similar detection limits and sensitivities. The lowest PSA detection limit achieved was 27 fg mL−1. The high selectivity of the detection system was reflected in the fact that PSA detection was successful on the fg mL−1 level, where biological substances other than PSA had a 1-million-fold higher concentration. Electron transfer through the immunological sandwich nanostructure has been observed in the detection of biomarkers. However, our results showed that electron transfer through the nanostructure could be controlled using an external voltage, leading to an ultralow detection limit for PSA

  1. Experience in PSA fault tree modularization at the ASCO NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a basic tool in decision-making for the optimization of back fittings, procedures and maintenance practices. ASCO NPP PSA was developed with a high level of detail in the models. This required considerable computer resources (long running time) to carry out the quantification. The quantification time had therefore to be flexible to allow continuous evaluation of the impact on the estimation and reduction of risk in the plant, and also to facilitate post-PSA applications. The most suitable way of achieving this flexibility was by compacting and reducing the detailed fault trees of the project by means of a modularization process. The purpose of the paper is to present the practical experience acquired with modularization carried out in the UTE UNITEC-INYPSA-EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS framework and the method applied, the support computer programs devised and their degree of effectiveness. (Author)

  2. Simulation and optimization of an industrial PSA unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barg C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA units have been used as a low cost alternative to the usual gas separation processes. Its largest commercial application is for hydrogen purification systems. Several studies have been made about the simulation of pressure swing adsorption units, but there are only few reports on the optimization of such processes. The objective of this study is to simulate and optimize an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. This unit consists of six beds, each of them have three layers of different kinds of adsorbents. The main impurities are methane, carbon monoxide and sulfidric gas. The product stream has 99.99% purity in hydrogen, and the recovery is around 90%. A mathematical model for a commercial PSA unit is developed. The cycle time and the pressure swing steps are optimized. All the features concerning with complex commercial processes are considered.

  3. Prostate-Specific Antigen at 4 to 5 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Is a Strong Predictor of Disease-Free Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James, E-mail: JMorris@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lapointe, Vincent [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Spadinger, Ingrid [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prognostic utility of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at 45 to 60 months (48mPSA) after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB); (2) the predictors of 48mPSA; and (3) the prognostic utility of directional trends between PSA levels at 24, 36, and 48 months after LDR-PB. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2008, 2223 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received LDR-PB monotherapy. A cohort of 1434 of these patients was identified with a documented 48mPSA and no evidence of disease relapse prior to the 48mPSA. In addition, a subset of this cohort (n=585) was identified with ≥72 months of follow-up and documented PSA values at both 24 and 36 months after implantation. Results: Median follow-up time was 76 months. Eight-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 100% vs 73.4% for patients with 48mPSA ≤0.2 vs those with >0.2 ng/mL; 99.1% versus 53.8% for a 48mPSA threshold of ≤0.4 versus >0.4 ng/mL, respectively; and 97.3% versus 0% for a threshold of ≤1.0 versus >1.0 ng/mL, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the only factor predictive of DFS was 48mPSA (P<.0001). On subset analysis (n=585), 29 patients had a PSA rise (defined as >0.2 ng/mL) between 24 and 36 months, 24 patients had a rise between 36 and 48 months, and 11 patients had rises over both intervals. Failure rates in these patients were 52%, 79%, and 100%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, initial PSA, androgen deprivation therapy, and dose to 90% of the prostate significantly correlated with 48mPSA but together accounted for only ∼5% of its total variance. Conclusions: The 48mPSA after LDR-PB is highly predictive of long-term DFS. Patients with 48mPSA ≤0.4 ng/mL had a <1% risk of disease relapse at 8 years, whereas all patients with 48mPSA >1.0 ng/mL relapsed. Consecutive PSA rises of >0.2 ng/mL from 24 to 36 months and from 36 to 48 months were also highly predictive of subsequent failure.

  4. Requirements and capabilities of PSA for safety management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has prepared a draft document providing guidance to the Member States on the various application areas for PSAs for the intended applications. Requirements for applying a PSA in each of the specific application areas have been defined. This includes definition of the objectives of the application, PSA modeling and data requirements, calculational capabilities, and the requirements for presentation of results. This document provides an example for one of the 17 areas, namely ''Evaluation of Surveillance and Maintenance Activities.''

  5. Determining the quality of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) complements the traditional deterministic analysis and is widely recognized as a comprehensive, structured approach to identifying accident scenarios and deriving numerical estimates of risks dealing with NPP operation and associated plant vulnerabilities. Increasingly, during the last years, PSA has been broadly applied to support numerous applications and risk-informed decisions on various operational and regulatory matters. The expanded use of PSA in the risk-informed decision making process requires that PSA possess certain features to ensure its technical consistency and quality. This publication is aimed to further promote the use and application of PSA techniques in Member States. The publication provides a comprehensive list of PSA applications and describes what technical features (termed 'attributes') of a PSA should be satisfied to reliably support the PSA applications of interest. A consideration has been also given to the basic set of attributes characterizing a 'base case PSA' that is performed with the purpose of assessing the overall plant safety. This publication can support PSA practitioners in appropriate planning of a PSA project taking into account possible uses of the PSA in the future. The publication can be also used by reviewers as an aid in assessing the quality of PSAs and judging the adequacy of a PSA for particular applications. In addition, it is also foreseen to use the publication to support the independent peer reviews conducted by the IAEA in the framework of the International Probabilistic Safety Assessment Review Team (IPSART) safety service

  6. Comparison of tests for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (Og4C3-ELISA and AD12-ICT and ultrasound in diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis in individuals with microfilariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Rocha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances were made in the diagnosis of filariasis in the 1990s with the emergence of three new alternative tools: ultrasound and tests to detect circulating antigen using two monoclonal antibodies, Og4C3 and AD12-ICT-card. This study aimed to identify which of these methods is the most sensitive for diagnosis of infection. A total of 256 individuals, all male and carrying microfilariae (1-15,679 MF/mL, diagnosed by nocturnal venous blood samples, were tested by all three techniques. The tests for circulating filarial antigen concurred 100% and correctly identified 246/256 (96.69% of the positive individuals, while ultrasound detected only 186/256 (73.44%. Of the circulating antigen tests, ICT-card was the most convenient method for identification of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. It was easy to perform, practical and quick.

  7. A portable chemiluminescence imaging immunoassay for simultaneous detection of different isoforms of prostate specific antigen in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anran; Zhao, Fang; Zhao, Yuewu; Shangguan, Li; Liu, Songqin

    2016-07-15

    A multianalyte chemiluminescence (CL) imaging immunoassay strategy for sensitive detection of different isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA) was developed. The microtiter plates were fabricated by simultaneously immobilizing of free-PSA (f-PSA) and total-PSA (t-PSA) capture antibody on nitrocellulose (NC) membrane. Each of the array were spotted in replicates of six spots within a spacing of 2mm. 16 or 48 detection wells were integrated on a single NC membrane and each well could be used as a microreactor and microanalysis chamber. Under a sandwiched immunoassay, the CL signals on each sensing site were collected by a charge-coupled device (CCD), presenting an array-based chemiluminescence imaging. Soybean peroxidase (SBP) was used to label f-PSA or t-PSA monoclonal antibody. With the amplification effects of two enhancers, 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl) propane-1-sulfonate (SPTZ) and 4-morpholinopyridine (MORP), the CL intensity could significantly enhanced, which improved the sensing sensitivity and detection limit. Under the optimal conditions, the linear response to the analyte concentration ranged from 0.01-36.7ng/mL and 0.02-125ng/mL for f-PSA and t-PSA, respectively. The results for the detection of forty serum samples from prostate cancer patients and cancer-free patients showed good agreement with the clinical data, suggesting that the proposed assay had acceptable accuracy. The proposed CL imaging immunoassay possess high throughput and acceptable reproducibility, stability and accuracy, which made it great potential to available to distinguish different isoforms of PSA in serum samples. PMID:26922048

  8. Level 2 PSA for the WWER 440/213 Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of PSA for the Dukovany NPP unit 1 is given. Main characteristics of the used methodology for PSA level 2, containment failure modes, PSA 1 and PSA 2 interface are discussed. Large event tree (APET) method, Hydrogen model, results for release classes and containment failure (case with PTS and without PTS) and these for plant damage state vectors are presented. Based on the obtained from PSA level 2 results the following conclusions have been made: 1) The limited scope PSA 2 proved to be a very good tool especially when comparing risk importance of individual phenomena, presently critical; 2) Before the next revision of limited scope PSA 2 for power states, some problems have to be solved, for example: better containment strength curve; better scenarios - MELCOR 1.8.5 analyses including SAMG; decreasing conservatism of natural leak from the intact containment; improved knowledge of steam explosions including cavity strength; 3) Next PSA 2 revision can not before 2005

  9. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, S; Medina, C;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the case of coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatic disease progression is often accelerated, with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests used routinely to...... detect HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Blood samples from HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau were stored after testing for HBsAg and anti-HCV with rapid tests. Samples were subsequently re-tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV in Denmark....... RESULTS: Two rapid tests were used in Guinea-Bissau: HBsAg Strip Ref 2034 (VEDA.LAB, Alençon, France; sensitivity 62.3%; specificity 99.2%) and HEPA-SCAN (Bhat Bio-Tech, Bangalore, India; sensitivity 57.1%; specificity 99.7%). In the two tests the ability to obtain the correct outcome depended on the...

  10. Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yu, Dong Han; Kim, Seung Hwan

    1997-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated through wind tunnel experiment. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. Because there are some discrepancies between the results from Gaussian plume model and those from field test, the effect of terrain on the atmospheric dispersion was investigated by using CTDMPLUS code. Through this study we find that the model which can treat terrain effect is essential in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and the CTDMPLUS model can be used as a useful tool. And it is suggested that modification of a model and experimental study should be made through the continuous effort. The health effect assessment near the Yonggwang site by using IPE (Individual plant examination) results and its site data was performed. The health effect assessment is an important part of consequence analysis of a nuclear power plant site. The MACCS was used in the assessment. Based on the calculation of CCDF for each risk measure, it is shown that CCDF has a slow slope and thus wide probability distribution in cases of early fatality, early injury, total early fatality risk, and total weighted early fatality risk. And in cases of cancer fatality and population dose within 48km and 80km, the CCDF curve have a steep slope and thus narrow probability distribution. The establishment of methodologies for necessary models for consequence analysis resulting form a server accident in the nuclear power plant was made and a program for consequence analysis was developed. The models include atmospheric transport and diffusion, calculation of exposure doses for various pathways, and assessment of health effects and associated risks. Finally, the economic impact resulting form an accident in a nuclear power plant was investigated. In this study, estimation models for each cost terms that considered in economic

  11. Investigation of contactless detection using a giant magnetoresistance sensor for detecting prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuecheng; Zhi, Shaotao; Lei, Chong; Zhou, Yong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a contactless detection method for detecting prostate specific antigen with a giant magnetoresistance sensor. In contactless detection case, the prostate specific antigen sample preparation was separated from the sensor that prevented the sensor from being immersed in chemical solvents, and made the sensor implementing in immediately reuse without wash. Experimental results showed that applied an external magnetic field in a range of 50 Oe to 90 Oe, Dynabeads with a concentration as low as 0.1 μg/mL can be detected by this system and could give an approximate quantitation to the logarithmic of Dynabeads concentration. Sandwich immunoassay was employed for preparing PSA samples. The PSA capture was implemented on a gold film modified with a self-assembled monolayer and using biotinylated secondary antibody against PSA and streptavidinylated Dynabeads. With DC magnetic field in the range of 50 to 90 Oe, PSA can be detected with a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. Samples spiked with different concentrations of PSA can be distinguished clearly. Due to the contactless detection method, the detection system exhibited advantages such as convenient manipulation, reusable, inexpensive, small weight. So, this detection method was a promising candidate in biomarker detection, especially in point of care detection. PMID:27379844

  12. Study on the status of breast and prostate cancers in Gazira State using (CA-15-3 and PSA) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in Algezira State in two environmentally and economically different areas. The people in these areas were divided into two groups in the study: group (A) people who live alongside the Blue Nile bank. Group people who live away how the Blue Nile, I e in midland between the Blue Nile and White Nile which is called (AI-Bajour). The aim of the study was to recognize the normal rate of breast cancer markers(Carbohydrate Antigen 15-3), which is one of the most common cancers, and the prostate cancer (Prostate Cancer Markers), as compared with the global normal rate, in order to early detect and treat these types of cancers. The study was conducted on 336 men and 304 women, who are different in ages, work and social status. The researcher used an experimental, descriptive and analytical method, and the SPSS program for analysis. The study showed that the results of normal rate as compared with previous studies are typical to the breast cancer markers (carbohydrate antigen 15-3, ranging between (0-40) ngm/ml, where as the normal rate of the prostate cancer markers (PSA) ranges between (0-4) ngm/ml, and according to the previous African and American studies. The studies also showed that the results are different according to the group are different according to the group involved. There is an increase in normal rates of group (A) in the PSA markers. From 177 men, 49 had rated of (4-10) ng/ml, 6 had very high rates (10-20)ng/ml and extremely high rates of 2 samples (>20)ng/ml. It was noticed that the abnormal increase rate is directly proportional to the age development. The study showed high results of breast cancer markers (Carbohydrate antigen 15-3), as compared with the global normal rate (0-40)ng/ml, 6 had very high rates (60-100)ng/ml and extremely high rates (>100)ng/ml. Two women of uterus cancer died. Again the abnormal increase in the rates is directly proportional to age development. The study showed that the results of group (B) is

  13. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 2 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.  Created: 8/19/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  14. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 1 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.  Created: 8/19/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  15. Lessons learned in applying PSA methods to technical specification optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some results of PSA application in the evaluation of Technical Specification. Two plant-specific studies are addressed in relation to Seabrook NPP and South Texas Project plants. Technical approach to TS evaluation is highlighted. Some insights and lessons learned are presented. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  17. Use of living PSA in regulatory decision making in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virolainen, R. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-09-01

    Consideration of severe accidents beyond the traditional design basis, including full core melt accidents, has become an important ingredient of regulatory process in Finland. Increasingly, decisions are being based, at least in part, on results of plant-specific Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSA) studies. Plant-specific level-1 and level 2 PSA studies, including internal initiators, fires, flooding and harsh weather conditions are required by STUK. These studies are used in a living fashion both at the utilities and a STUK. PSA has got an important role in the safety management at Loviisa and Olkiluoto (OL) plants and in the regulatory process of STUK. While PSA is recognised as an effective tool and review method for many different regulatory and safety management purposes, we have to acknowledge its limitations, which are often related to the level of modelling or methods, not yet mature enough for some specific applications. Hence, in context of the aforementioned activities, STUK has to use both deterministic and probabilistic reviews in parallel while controlling and regulating the issues. (au)

  18. Google glass based immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Integration of optical imagers and sensors into recently emerging wearable computational devices allows for simpler and more intuitive methods of integrating biomedical imaging and medical diagnostics tasks into existing infrastructures. Here we demonstrate the ability of one such device, the Google Glass, to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) using a voice-commandable hands-free software-only interface, as an alternative to larger and more bulky desktop or handheld units. Using the built-in camera of Glass to image one or more RDTs (labeled with Quick Response (QR) codes), our Glass software application uploads the captured image and related information (e.g., user name, GPS, etc.) to our servers for remote analysis and storage. After digital analysis of the RDT images, the results are transmitted back to the originating Glass device, and made available through a website in geospatial and tabular representations. We tested this system on qualitative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) RDTs. For qualitative HIV tests, we demonstrate successful detection and labeling (i.e., yes/no decisions) for up to 6-fold dilution of HIV samples. For quantitative measurements, we activated and imaged PSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL and generated calibration curves relating the RDT line intensity values to PSA concentration. By providing automated digitization of both qualitative and quantitative test results, this wearable colorimetric diagnostic test reader platform on Google Glass can reduce operator errors caused by poor training, provide real-time spatiotemporal mapping of test results, and assist with remote monitoring of various biomedical conditions.

  19. Prevalence and diagnosis of Giardia infection in dogs and cats using a fecal antigen test and fecal smear

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Merle E.; Leonard, Nancy J.; Strout, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    The SNAP fecal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Giardia test was used to determine the prevalence of Giardia in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs. The test was positive in 241 (13.0%) dogs and 16 (4.1%) cats. Giardia cysts were detected in only 61 of the 241 dogs and 4 of the 16 cats that were test positive.

  20. Significance of common cause failures in level-l PSA and techniques for reducing its impact on core damage frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure of multiple components due to a common cause represents one of the most important issues in evaluation of system reliability or unavailability. The frequency of such events has relatively low expectancy, when compared to random failures, which affect individual components. However, in many cases the consequence is a direct loss of safety system or mitigative safety function. For this reason, the modeling of a common cause failure (CCF) and its presentation in fault tree structure is of the uttermost importance in probabilistic safety analyses (PSA). Amongst the different techniques available to reduce the impact of common cause failures, the most important operations related technique, is that of staggered testing. In the TAPP 3,4 Level-1 PSA it was found that the contribution of Common Cause Failures to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was significant. The Common Cause Failures were modeled using the Alpha Factor Model. This model is capable of evaluating the impact of staggered testing of components of the redundant standby systems. The NUREG/CR-5801 prescribes a different calculation methodology to evaluate the staggered testing on the Common Cause Failure component group. The proprietary software used for the Level-1 PSA, had a built-in non-staggered testing Alpha factor model. Hence, the factors were modified to introduce the effect of the staggered testing. There was a significant reduction in the CDF due to the introduction of staggered testing. (author)