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Sample records for antigen psa test

  1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antigen level New England Journal of Medicine 2004;350(22):2239-2246. [PubMed Abstract] Barry ... antigen testing for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344(18):1373-1377. [PubMed Abstract] Pinsky ...

  2. Association of sociodemographic factors and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorday, William; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; de Koning, Lawrence; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    There are conflicting recommendations regarding the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening test. Integral to this debate is an understanding of who is currently being tested. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed account of PSA testing practices in a major Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) and to identify variables that may affect access to the PSA test. PSA test counts were retrieved from Calgary Laboratory Services' Laboratory Information System from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. A total of 75,914 individual PSA tests were included in our analysis. The frequency of PSA testing was plotted onto a dissemination area map of Calgary using ArcGIS software. Associations with sociodemographic variables were tested using Poisson regression. The median PSA value was 0.93 μg/L and the median age at collection was 58 years. Forty-three percent of men aged 60-69 received a PSA test. Visible minority status 'Black' (P=0.0002) and Métis status (P=0.0075) were associated with lower PSA testing frequencies, while median household income (P=PSA testing frequencies. There are areas in Calgary which are significantly over or under tested relative to the mean. The amount of PSA testing in men PSA testing guidelines. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lifestyle factors and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in UK Biobank: Implications for epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Thomas J; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Allen, Naomi E

    2016-12-01

    The central role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the diagnosis of prostate cancer leads to the possibility that observational studies that report associations between risk factors and prostate cancer could be affected by detection bias. This study aims to investigate whether reported risk factors for prostate cancer are associated with PSA testing in a large middle-aged population-based cohort in the UK. The cross-sectional association between a wide range of sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietary and health characteristics with PSA testing was examined in 212,039 men aged 40-69 years in UK Biobank. A total of 62,022 (29%) men reported they had ever had a PSA test. A wide range of factors was associated with a higher likelihood of PSA testing including age, height, education level, family history of prostate cancer, black ethnic origin, not being in paid/self-employment, living with a wife or partner, having had a vasectomy, being diagnosed with cancer or hypertension and having a high dietary intake of cereal, cooked and salad/raw vegetables, fresh fruit and tea. Conversely, socioeconomic deprivation, Asian ethnic origin, current smoking, low alcohol intake, high body-mass index, high coffee consumption and being diagnosed with diabetes, heart disease or stroke were associated with a lower likelihood of PSA testing. A variety of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related characteristics are associated with PSA testing, suggesting that observed associations of some of these traits with risk for prostate cancer in epidemiological studies may be, at least partially, due to detection bias. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Supporting informed decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing on the web: an online randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Joseph-Williams, N.; Edwards, A.; Newcombe, R.G.; Wright, P.; Kinnersley, P.; Griffiths, J.; Jones, M.; Williams, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Elwyn, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Men considering the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test for prostate cancer, an increasingly common male cancer, are encouraged to make informed decisions, as the test is limited in its accuracy and the natural history of the condition is poorly understood. The Web-based PSA decision

  5. Factors influencing primary care physicians' decision to order prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test for men without prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat Roshanai, Afsaneh; Nordin, Karin; Berglund, Gunilla

    2013-11-01

    Despite extensive ongoing clinical trials investigating appropriateness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-screening, the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer remains controversial due to the lack of clear evidence for effectiveness of population-based PSA-screening. Notwithstanding, the need to identify the determinants behind PSA-testing decisions, the number of studies that have examined factors affecting the physicians' decision as to whether PSA-testing should be ordered are few. The aim of the current study was to investigate how physician- and patient-related factors influence Swedish primary care physicians' decision to order a PSA test for men harboring no symptoms of prostate cancer within different age groups. A total of 305 physicians filled out the study questionnaire containing items about physicians' attitudes towards PSA-testing and the probability of screening men within different age groups. The majority of physicians reported positive attitude towards PSA-testing. However, the likelihood of offering PSA-testing to young men was low, but increased with age. Physicians' opinion about PSA-test as a sufficient screening tool was the only variable affecting physicians' decision of ordering PSA-test regardless of patient age. The level of the patients' worry, and patients request were the most influential factors in age groups between 40 and 70 years old. Patients' physical symptoms were an indicator in age groups above 60 years. The decision to screen for prostate cancer using the PSA-test is influenced by several factors and not only those having direct clinical indication for prostate disease. This may lead to unnecessary treatment of some patients.

  6. The impact of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPTSTF) recommendations against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on PSA testing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Homayoun; van den Bergh, Roderick; Moon, Daniel; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Costello, Anthony; Murphy, Declan

    2017-01-01

    To assess the impact of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPTSTF) recommendations on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, prostate biopsy, and prostatectomy in Australian men based on the available Medicare data. Events were identified using Medicare item numbers for PSA testing (66655, 66659), prostate biopsy (37219), prostatectomy (37210), and prostatectomy with lymph node dissection (37211). The occurrences of each procedure was queried per 100 000 capita for consecutive financial years over the period 2000-2015. For each item number, reports were also generated for all Australian States. For PSA testing the data was stratified into three age groups of 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years. For assessing the rate of prostatectomy the capita rate values for two item numbers of prostatectomy (37210) and prostatectomy with lymph node dissection (37211) were combined. Steady declines in per capita incidences of all five item numbers assessed were seen for the three consecutive financial years (2013-2015) since the publication of the USPTSTF recommendation statement. These declines were seen across all Australian States. When examining the rate of PSA testing for the three age brackets 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, similar trends were identified. Since the introduction of the USPTSTF recommendation statement there has been a steady nationwide decline in per capita incidences of PSA testing, prostate biopsy, and prostatectomy based on the Australian Medicare data. Whether these declines are in the right direction toward reduction in over-diagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant prostate cancer or stage migration toward more locally advanced disease due to lost opportunity in diagnosing and treating early clinically significant prostate cancer will remain to be seen. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test before prostate biopsy: a 20% decrease in PSA values is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and particularly of high-grade cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Cosimo; Lombardo, Riccardo; Nacchia, Antonio; Tema, Giorgia; Tubaro, Andrea

    2018-03-13

    To analyse the impact of repeating a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level assessment on prostate biopsy decision in a cohort of men undergoing prostate biopsy. From 2015 onwards, we consecutively enrolled, at a single institution in Italy, men undergoing 12-core transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate needle biopsy. Indication for prostate biopsy was a PSA level of ≥4 ng/mL. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were collected. The PSA level was tested at enrolment (PSA 1 ) and 4 weeks later on the day before biopsy (PSA 2 ). Variations in PSA level were defined as: stable PSA 2 within a 10% variation, stable PSA 2 within a 20% variation, PSA 2 decreased by ≥10%, PSA 2 decreased by ≥20%, PSA 2 increased by ≥10%, PSA 2 increased by ≥20%, and PSA 2 PSA within 20% variation had a higher risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.80, P PSA2 decreased by ≥20% had a lower risk of prostate cancer (OR 0.37, P PSA2 increased by ≥10% had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR 1.93, P PSA returned to normal values (PSA levels significantly reduced the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Further multicentre studies should validate our present results. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing by Dutch general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Hirdes, Willem H; Steffens, Martijn G; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M; Nijman, Rien M; Blanker, Marco H

    2013-07-01

    To determine the impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) publication in 2009 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level testing by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in men aged ≥40 years. Retrospective study with a Dutch insurance company database (containing PSA test claims) and a large district hospital-laboratory database (containing PSA-test results). The difference in primary PSA-testing rate as well as follow-up testing before and after the ERSPC was tested using the chi-square test with statistical significance at P PSA tests 4 months after ERSPC publication, especially for men aged ≥60 years. Primary testing as well as follow-up testing decreased, both for PSA levels of PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL. Follow-up testing after a PSA level result of >10 ng/mL moderately increased (P = 0.171). Referral to a urologist after a PSA level result of >4 ng/mL decreased slightly after the ERSPC publication (P = 0.044). After the ERSPC publication primary PSA testing as well as follow-up testing decreased. Follow-up testing seemed not to be adequate after an abnormal PSA result. The reasons for this remain unclear. © 2013 BJU International.

  9. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men in UK general practice: a 10-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Grace J; Harrison, Sean; Turner, Emma L; Walsh, Eleanor I; Oliver, Steven E; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Evans, Simon; Lane, J Athene; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Martin, Richard M; Metcalfe, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that around 6% of men undergo prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing each year in UK general practice (GP). This longitudinal study aims to determine the cumulative testing pattern of men over a 10-year period and whether this testing can be considered equivalent to screening for prostate cancer (PCa). Patient-level data on PSA tests, biopsies and PCa diagnoses were obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for the years 2002 to 2011. The cumulative risks of PSA testing and of being diagnosed with PCa were estimated for the 10-year study period. Associations of a man's age, region and index of multiple deprivation with the cumulative risk of PSA testing and PCa diagnosis were investigated. Rates of biopsy and diagnosis, following a high test result, were compared with those from the programme of PSA testing in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. The 10-year risk of exposure to at least one PSA test in men aged 45 to 69 years in UK GP was 39.2% (95% CI 39.0 to 39.4%). The age-specific risks ranged from 25.2% for men aged 45-49 years to 53.0% for men aged 65-69 years (p for trend PSA level ≥3, a test in UK GP was less likely to result in a biopsy (6%) and/or diagnosis of PCa (15%) compared with ProtecT study participants (85% and 34%, respectively). A high proportion of men aged 45-69 years undergo PSA tests in UK GP: 39% over a 10-year period. A high proportion of these tests appear to be for the investigation of lower urinary tract symptoms and not screening for PCa. ISRCTN20141297,NCT02044172. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is prevalent and increasing in Stockholm County, Sweden, Despite no recommendations for PSA screening: results from a population-based study, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Aly, Markus; Clements, Mark S; Weibull, Caroline E; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has increased in several countries. There is incomplete knowledge of PSA testing patterns. Determine the prevalence of PSA testing and explore patterns of PSA retesting in Stockholm County, Sweden. A population-based study was performed. Through registry linkages, we collected population information, data on PSA tests, pathology reports, and clinical information. The study population comprised males living in Stockholm County in 2011 (n=1034129), of which 229 872 had a PSA test during the period 2003-2011. We determined limited-duration-point prevalence of PSA testing and performed survival analysis on PSA retesting for men aged 40-89 yr. The number of PSA tests increased from 54239 in 2003 to 124613 in 2011. During the 9-yr study period, 46%, 68%, and 77% of men without a prior prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and aged 50-59 yr, 60-69 yr, and 70-79 yr, respectively, had a PSA test. During 2010 and 2011, 25%, 40%, and 46% of men aged 50-59 yr, 60-69 yr, and 70-79 yr, respectively, had a PSA test. The prevalence of PSA testing increased from 2003 to 2011. The probability of retesting was PSA and age dependent, with a 26-mo cumulative incidence of 0.337 (95% confidence interval, 0.333-0.341) if the first PSA value was PSA data prior to 2003 were not available and (2) that the study cohort was restricted to men who were alive in 2011. Although screening for PCa is not recommended in Sweden, PSA testing in Stockholm County was high across ages ranging from 40 to 89 yr and increased during the period 2003-2011. The probability of PSA retesting was high, regardless of the original PSA level. These results contrast with current clinical recommendations and raise calls for a change, either through structured PCa testing or more detailed guidelines on PSA testing. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Cancer screening tests — including the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to look for signs of prostate cancer — ... to the person undergoing the testing. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by both cancerous (malignant) ...

  12. Antigenic determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and development of assays specific for different forms of PSA.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, O.; Peter, A.; Andersson, I.; Nilsson, K.; Grundstr?m, B.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by immunization with purified free PSA, i.e. not in complex with any protease inhibitor (F-PSA) and PSA in complex with alpha1-anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT). Epitope mapping of PSA using the established monoclonal antibody revealed a complex pattern of independent and partly overlapping antigenic domains in the PSA molecule. Four independent antigenic domains and at least three partly overlapping domains were exposed both...

  13. Impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Hirdes, Willem H.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Nijman, Rien M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To determine the impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) publication in 2009 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level testing by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in men aged 40 years. Materials and Methods Retrospective study with a Dutch insurance

  14. PSA Test: What's It for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA levels. Obesity can also lower PSA levels. Misleading results. The test doesn't always provide an ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  15. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  16. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves. PMID:26911983

  17. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of PSA and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Castro, Boris Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The prostate cancer in Cuba is a problem of health (2672 diagnosed cases and 2769 deaths in 2007). Various diagnostic methods have been implemented for the detection and management of this disease, emphasizing among them (PSA) prostate-specific antigen serological determination. At this work was generated and characterized a panel of 11 antibodies (AcMs) monoclonal IgG1 detected with high affinity described major epitopes of the PSA, both in solution and attached to the test plate. From the panel obtained AcMs was the standardization of an essay type ELISA for the detection of serum total PSA (associated and free) equimolar, based on antibody monoclonal CB-PSA.4 in the coating and the CB-PSA.9 coupled with biotin as liner, with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Similarly, standardized system for detection in serum free PSA, based on the AcMs CB-PSA.4 (coating) and CB-PSA.2 coupled with biotin (liner), with a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, with the purpose of using PSA as standard in trials type ELISA, developed a simple method of inmunopurificación based on the AcM, CB-PSA.2, which was obtained the PSA with a purity exceeding 90%. Immunoassay Centre on the basis of the AcMs panel and the results of this study, developed and recorded two diagnostic systems for the detection of PSA in human serum. (author)

  18. Informed decision making and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer: a randomised controlled trial exploring the impact of a brief patient decision aid on men's knowledge, attitudes and intention to be tested.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, E.; Hewitson, P.; Brett, J.; Bukach, C.; Evans, R.; Edwards, A.; Elwyn, G.; Cargill, A.; Austoker, J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a brief patient decision aid (pDA) on men's knowledge, attitudes and intention to have a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. To explore the important predictors of intention to be tested in men who received the brief pDA. METHODS: A brief pDA designed to

  19. Personalized prostate cancer screening: improving PSA tests with genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John S

    2010-12-15

    The use of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer is controversial because of its modest predictive value and the potential overdiagnosis and over-treatment of the disease. A research article in this issue of Science Translational Medicine describes single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near six genes that are independently associated with serum PSA concentrations and that help to explain interindividual PSA variation. Three of these SNPs are also associated with prostate biopsy outcomes. These findings are an important step toward incorporating genetic markers into PSA screening, with the ultimate goal of devising personalized PSA tests for use in the clinic.

  20. Human prostate specific antigen (hPSA) purification and establishment of hPSA radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiquiang Zhong; Li Chen; Renzhi Wang

    1996-01-01

    Human prostate specific antigen (hPSA) RIA was developed with hPSA and anti-PSA prepared in our laboratory. Its standard curve was linear with a sensitivity of 0.5 μ g/L. Serum PSA levels of 130 normal males ranged from O to 3.5 μ g/L (1.15 ± 0.93 μ g/L), which are consistent with the results of other conventinal RIA. The rcovery, intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation conform to the demands of RIA, and the results of 41 samples obtained by both the PSA RA and PSA RIA of DPC were well correlated (γ = 0.990). PSA level of 23 patients with prostatic carcinoma was 10 - 400 μ g/L. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  1. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  2. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  3. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  4. Re-examining Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density: Defining the Optimal PSA Range and Patients for Using PSA Density to Predict Prostate Cancer Using Extended Template Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Joshua S; Barboza, Marcelo Panizzutti; Prakash, Nachiketh S; Venkatramani, Vivek; Sinha, Varsha R; Pavan, Nicola; Nahar, Bruno; Kanabur, Pratik; Ahdoot, Michael; Dong, Yan; Satyanarayana, Ramgopal; Parekh, Dipen J; Punnen, Sanoj

    2017-07-01

    To compare the predictive accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density vs PSA across different PSA ranges and by prior biopsy status in a prospective cohort undergoing prostate biopsy. Men from a prospective trial underwent an extended template biopsy to evaluate for prostate cancer at 26 sites throughout the United States. The area under the receiver operating curve assessed the predictive accuracy of PSA density vs PSA across 3 PSA ranges (10 ng/mL). We also investigated the effect of varying the PSA density cutoffs on the detection of cancer and assessed the performance of PSA density vs PSA in men with or without a prior negative biopsy. Among 1290 patients, 585 (45%) and 284 (22%) men had prostate cancer and significant prostate cancer, respectively. PSA density performed better than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer within a PSA of 4-10 ng/mL (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.70 vs 0.53, P PSA >10 mg/mL (AUC: 0.84 vs 0.65, P PSA density was significantly more predictive than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer in men without (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.67, P PSA increases, PSA density becomes a better marker for predicting prostate cancer compared with PSA alone. Additionally, PSA density performed better than PSA in men with a prior negative biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV Testing PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the December 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 15 percent of people who have HIV don't know they have it. Learn about the importance of testing, early diagnosis, and treatment.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  6. Androgen ablation augments human HLA2.1-restricted T cell responses to PSA self-antigen in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredouani, Mohamed S; Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie S; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Escara-Wilke, June; Leander, Karen R; Defeo-Jones, Deborah; Hwang, Clara; Sanda, Martin G

    2010-06-15

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in targeting human prostate tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) for prostate cancer immunotherapy as an alternative to other therapeutic modalities. However, immunologic tolerance to TAA poses a significant obstacle to effective, TAA-targeted immunotherapy. We sought to investigate whether androgen deprivation would result in circumventing immune tolerance to prostate TAA by impacting CD8 cell responses. To this end, we generated a transgenic mouse that expresses the human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) specifically in the prostate, and crossed it to the HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse to evaluate how androgen deprivation affects human HLA A2.1-resticted T cell responses following immunization of PSA-expressing mice by vaccinia-PSA (PROSTVAC). Our PSA transgenic mouse showed restricted expression of PSA in the prostate and detectable circulating PSA levels. Additionally, PSA expression was androgen-dependent with reduced PSA expression in the prostate within 1 week of castration, and undetectable PSA by day 42 after castration as evaluated by ELISA. Castration of the PSA/A2.1 hybrid mouse prior to immunization with a PSA-expressing recombinant vaccinia virus resulted in a significant augmentation of PSA-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes. This humanized hybrid mouse model provides a well-defined system to gain additional insight into the mechanisms of immune tolerance to PSA and to test novel strategies aiming at circumventing immune tolerance to PSA and other TAA for targeted prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Prognostic Significance of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To investigate the prognostic significance of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) rate of change in patients with advanced prostate cancer . Patients and Methods: A total of forty-nine male patients aged between 42 and 84 years with advanced prostate cancer receiving therapy of maximum androgen bloackade were ...

  8. From prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to precursor PSA (proPSA) isoforms: a review of the emerging role of proPSAs in the detection and management of early prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Satoshi; Blanchet, Jean-Sebastien; McLoughlin, John

    2013-10-01

    Despite the popularity of PSA blood testing for prostate cancer, there are a number of important limitations of this popular serum marker including the limited ability to accurately distinguish patients with and without prostate cancer and those who harbour an aggressive form of the disease. This is especially true when the total PSA is PSA (proPSAs), with a special emphasis on [-2]proPSA in the detecion and management of early prostate cancer. The clinical utility of Prostate Health Index (phi) is also discussed. Despite the overall success of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, its use as a serum marker for prostate cancer has been limited due to the lack of specificity, especially in men presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of PSA testing has also resulted in an increase in the number of patients being diagnosed with low-grade, potentially clinically insignificant prostate cancer. There is therefore an urgent need for new markers that can accurately detect as well as differentiate patients with aggressive vs unaggressive prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the emerging role of precursor forms of PSA (proPSAs) and the Prostate Health Index (phi) measurement in the detection and management of early stage prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed® to identify key studies. Studies to date suggest that [-2]proPSA, a truncated form of proPSA is the most cancer-specific form of all, being preferentially expressed in cancerous prostatic epithelium and being significantly elevated in serum of men with prostate cancer. There is evidence to suggest that %[-2]proPSA measurement ([-2]proPSA/free PSA [fPSA] × 100) improves the specificity of both tPSA and fPSA in detecting prostate cancer. phi incorporating [-2]proPSA, fPSA and tPSA measurements has also yielded promising results and appears superior to tPSA and fPSA in predicting those patients with prostate cancer. Increased phi levels also seem to preferentially detect patients

  9. Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentration, PSA Mass, and Obesity: A Mathematical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2018-02-17

    To provide a mathematical background for understanding the phenomenon of analyte hemodilution using a kinetic analysis. The first assumption for this analysis is that change in concentration of any analyte, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is due to the flux of the analyte from an organ into the blood minus its flux from the blood. What results is a relatively simple differential equation that emphasizes the importance of plasma volume, organ mass, and two rate constants. The analyses demonstrate how serum PSA can be affected by plasma volume as well as body mass and how hemodilution due to obesity can be at least partly corrected for by expressing PSA in units of total mass or total mass density. At a time when obesity is prevalent, expressing analytes in units of total mass may make them relate more closely to disease status and prognosis.

  10. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Mattsson

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3 exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  11. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Johanna M; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  12. Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) towards Protein Substrates and Effect of Peptides Stimulating PSA Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA. PMID:25237904

  13. Altered glycosylation pattern allows the distinction between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from normal and tumor origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracaula, Rosa; Tabarés, Glòria; Royle, Louise; Harvey, David J; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; de Llorens, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein secreted by prostate epithelial cells. PSA is currently used as a marker of prostate carcinoma because high levels of PSA are indicative of a tumor situation. However, PSA tests still suffer from a lack of specificity to distinguish between benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. To determine whether PSA glycosylation could provide a means of differentiating between PSA from normal and tumor origins, N-glycan characterization of PSA from seminal fluid and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP cell line) by sequencing analysis and mass spectrometry was carried out. Glycans from normal PSA (that correspond to low and high pI PSA fractions) were sialylated biantennary complex structures, half of them being disialylated in the low pI PSA fraction and mostly monosialylated in the high pI PSA. PSA from LNCaP cells was purified to homogeneity, and its glycan analysis showed a significantly different pattern, especially in the outer ends of the biantennary complex structures. In contrast to normal PSA glycans, which were sialylated, LNCaP PSA oligosaccharides were all neutral and contained a higher fucose content. In 10-15% of the structures fucose was linked alpha1-2 to galactose, forming the H2 epitope absent in normal PSA. GalNAc was increased in LNCaP glycans to 65%, whereas in normal PSA it was only present in 25% of the structures. These carbohydrate differences allow a distinction to be made between PSA from normal and tumor origins and suggest a valuable biochemical tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes.

  14. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Bounce After Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy Is an Independent Predictor of PSA Recurrence, Metastasis, and Survival in Prostate Adenocarcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesser, Paul B; Pei, Xin; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Kollmeier, Marisa; McBride, Sean M; Zelefsky, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival between PSA bounce (PSA-B) and non-bounce patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT). During 1990-2010, 1898 prostate adenocarcinoma patients were treated with DE-EBRT to ≥75 Gy with ≥5 years follow-up. Patients receiving neoadjuvant/concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (n=1035) or with fewer than 4 PSA values obtained 6 months or more after post-EBRT completion (n=87) were excluded. The evaluable 776 patients were treated (median, 81.0 Gy). Prostate-specific antigen bounce was defined as a ≥0.2-ng/mL increase above the interval PSA nadir, followed by a decrease to nadir or below. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as post-radiation therapy PSA nadir + 2 ng/mL. Median follow-up was 9.2 years (interquartile range, 6.9-11.3 years). One hundred twenty-three patients (15.9%) experienced PSA-B after DE-EBRT at a median of 24.6 months (interquartile range, 16.1-38.5 months). On multivariate analysis, younger age (P=.001), lower Gleason score (P=.0003), and higher radiation therapy dose (P=.0002) independently predicted PSA-B. Prostate-specific antigen bounce was independently associated with decreased risk for PSA relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.85; P=.008), distant metastatic disease (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.94; P=.04), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.96; P=.04) on multivariate Cox analysis. Because all 50 prostate cancer-specific deaths in patients without PSA-B were in the non-bounce cohort, competing-risks analysis was not applicable. A nonparametric competing-risks test demonstrated that patients with PSA-B had superior cancer-specific survival compared with patients without PSA-B (P=.004). Patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma who experience posttreatment PSA-B have

  15. [Use of prostatic specific antigen in primary care (PSA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, J; Gironés-Montagud, A; Sánchez-Cano, E; Doménech-Pérez, C; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2017-04-01

    In the literature it is shown that the use of PSA is occasionally wrong, by requesting this marker in very young or very old men, and repeated measurements in short periods of time. The main objective of this study was to describe the use of PSA in daily practice by primary care physicians in our area, dealing with aspects such as the importance of patient age, the value in the screening for prostate cancer, or the subjective beliefs about its usefulness. A secondary objective was the comparison of use, and beliefs among doctors who claim to know PSA well, and those who do not. A descriptive and comparative study was conducted using questionnaires that were handed to primary care doctors in all health centres in our area. A descriptive analysis was performed and response rates among doctors who thought they had enough information about PSA, and those who did not, were compared using the Chi-squared test. A total of 103 questionnaires were received from the physicians, with 83.5% claiming to have sufficient knowledge about the PSA. The professionals in this latter group request PSA at an earlier age (P=.029), with a higher frequency (P=.011) and have more doubts about its usefulness (P=.009) than those with less knowledge. Almost half (49.5%) said they request less than 50 determinations per year, and 33% between 50 and 100. More than half (53.4%) of doctors would not request the first PSA on a patient until their 50s, and up to 49% request it up to 80 years. The true value of PSA has been established many times by 64.1% of requesters, and 29.1% believe it is unhelpful in the diagnosis of cancer. In our study, 64% of primary care physicians have considered the true value of the PSA several times, and 29% believe it to be of little use in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition, some data suggest it has limited use due to the fact that 50% made less than 50 PSA requests per years, and 28% of the professionals would never request it on a male without urinary

  16. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after 125I seed implantation (permanent Brachytherapy) for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Shin; Katayama, Norihisa; Manabe, Daisuke

    2007-01-01

    Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) bounce (over 0.1 ng/ml) was observed in 25.7% of patients (18 of 70) within 30 month after brachytherapy in our series. Several reports demonstrated that PSA bounce was observed in 30-50% of patients, observed within 2 years after brachytherapy and continued following 1 year. PSA bounce should be considered when assessing a patient with a rising PSA level before PSA nadir was achieved 4-5 years after brachytherapy. (author)

  17. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) in diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome - a new insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Ewa; Radowicki, Stanislaw; Suchta, Katarzyna

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder and cause of androgen excess in women. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) could be a new marker of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration PSA (total PSA - TPSA and free PSA - fPSA) in 165 patients with PCOS and 40 healthy female controls, the relationship between PSA (TPSA and fPSA) and hormonal parameters and to determine the performance of PSA in diagnosis of PCOS. Total PSA was higher in PCOS group versus controls. The fPSA was below the lower detection levels among all patients. The median value of FAI was 4.31 in PCOS patients versus 1.79 in controls, p PSA serum levels in diagnostic of PCOS.

  18. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  19. Analytical performance of a new one-step quantitative prostate-specific antigen assay, the FREND™ PSA Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Il; Lee, Seungok; Kim, Yonggoo; Shin, Dong-Yeok; Lee, Changseop; Han, Sunmi; Chung, Chanil; Chang, Jun Keun; Seo, In Bum

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of a new one-step rapid quantitative sandwich immunoassay for total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), the FREND™ PSA Plus (FREND PSA) (NanoEnTek Inc., Seoul, Korea). The imprecision, linearity, hook effect, detection limit (LoD), and interference were evaluated and trueness verification and matrix validation were performed. For method comparison, 79 patient specimens were analyzed with FREND PSA and two comparative tPSA assays (Architect® total PSA and cobas® total PSA assay). Total CVs of the imprecision for low (0.208 ng/mL), medium (4.051 ng/mL), and high PSA levels (5.469 ng/mL) were 15.9%, 6.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. Linearity was observed from 1.01 to 19.15 ng/mL and the hook phenomenon was absent up to 171.48 ng/mL. The LoD was 0.094 ng/mL. The regression equations between FREND (y) and Architect or cobas were as follows: y=0.0133+1.054x (r=0.973), y=-0.2144+1.066x (r=0.977), respectively. Differences between FREND PSA and the comparative methods at a medical decision level of 4.0 ng/mL were less than the optimum specification bias (9.3%). The percentage biases from the trueness verification and interference test were less than the desirable specifications for bias (18.7%). The plasma tPSA level measured with lithium heparin or K2EDTA was comparable to that in the serum. The FREND PSA provided reliable analytical performance and test results in comparison to two widely used tPSA assays. It is a simple and rapid test for tPSA and can be applied in point-of-care testing.

  20. [Current role of protatic specific antigen (PSA) and its by-products in the diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placer, José; Planas, Jacques; Celma, Ana; Morote, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Incorporation of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) to clinical practice was a revolution in the diagnosis and modified the epidemiology of prostate cancer (PCa). Although it lacks of many characteristics of an ideal tumor marker, it is the marker most used for diagnosis and follow up of any kind of cancer. It represents the best clinical tool we have available today for screening and staging of PCa. On the contrary, its greatest limitation is the lack of tumor specificity. The use of PSA by-products and molecular isoforms tries to solve, at least partially, its limitations. Indeed, the use of FreePSA ratio (%fPSA) ad PSA density (PSAD) increase significantly the specificity of the diagnostic test and, the use of derivatives that evaluate time kinetics of PSA (PSA velocity (PSAV) and PSA doubling time (PSADT) represents a very useful tool for prognosis estimation during treatment and follow up of the disease. The greatest advance over the last years comes from the analysis of the predecessor isoform (-2) pPSA and the phi Index. Both markers have demonstrated to improve the sensitivity and specificity results obtained to date, resulting in a decrease of unnecessary biopsies. Probably, with the ongoing development of new markers for PCa , the role of PSA on disease diagnosis and staging would be modified in a few years.

  1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)–Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, A

    2015-01-01

    Background The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test has become widely used in Canada to test for prostate cancer (PC), the most common cancer among Canadian men. Data suggest that population-based PSA screening may not improve overall survival. Objectives This analysis aimed to review existing economic evaluations of population-based PSA screening, determine current spending on opportunistic PSA screening in Ontario, and estimate the cost of introducing a population-based PSA screening program in the province. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify economic evaluations of population-based PSA screening strategies published from 1998 to 2013. Studies were assessed for their methodological quality and applicability to the Ontario setting. An original cost analysis was also performed, using data from Ontario administrative sources and from the published literature. One-year costs were estimated for 4 strategies: no screening, current (opportunistic) screening of men aged 40 years and older, current (opportunistic) screening of men aged 50 to 74 years, and population-based screening of men aged 50 to 74 years. The analysis was conducted from the payer perspective. Results The literature review demonstrated that, overall, population-based PSA screening is costly and cost-ineffective but may be cost-effective in specific populations. Only 1 Canadian study, published 15 years ago, was identified. Approximately $119.2 million is being spent annually on PSA screening of men aged 40 years and older in Ontario, including close to $22 million to screen men younger than 50 and older than 74 years of age (i.e., outside the target age range for a population-based program). A population-based screening program in Ontario would cost approximately $149.4 million in the first year. Limitations Estimates were based on the synthesis of data from a variety of sources, requiring several assumptions and causing uncertainty in the results. For example, where

  2. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)-Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, A

    2015-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test has become widely used in Canada to test for prostate cancer (PC), the most common cancer among Canadian men. Data suggest that population-based PSA screening may not improve overall survival. This analysis aimed to review existing economic evaluations of population-based PSA screening, determine current spending on opportunistic PSA screening in Ontario, and estimate the cost of introducing a population-based PSA screening program in the province. A systematic literature search was performed to identify economic evaluations of population-based PSA screening strategies published from 1998 to 2013. Studies were assessed for their methodological quality and applicability to the Ontario setting. An original cost analysis was also performed, using data from Ontario administrative sources and from the published literature. One-year costs were estimated for 4 strategies: no screening, current (opportunistic) screening of men aged 40 years and older, current (opportunistic) screening of men aged 50 to 74 years, and population-based screening of men aged 50 to 74 years. The analysis was conducted from the payer perspective. The literature review demonstrated that, overall, population-based PSA screening is costly and cost-ineffective but may be cost-effective in specific populations. Only 1 Canadian study, published 15 years ago, was identified. Approximately $119.2 million is being spent annually on PSA screening of men aged 40 years and older in Ontario, including close to $22 million to screen men younger than 50 and older than 74 years of age (i.e., outside the target age range for a population-based program). A population-based screening program in Ontario would cost approximately $149.4 million in the first year. Estimates were based on the synthesis of data from a variety of sources, requiring several assumptions and causing uncertainty in the results. For example, where Ontario-specific data were unavailable, data from

  3. Predictors of repeated PSA testing among black and white men from the Maryland Cancer Survey, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Sorkin, John D; Dwyer, Diane; Groves, Carmela; Steinberger, Eileen K

    2011-09-01

    Blacks have the highest incidence of and death from prostate cancer in the United States. Screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may decrease mortality. Repeated testing allows for the calculation of PSA velocity (change of PSA over time), which may be a more clinically useful test for prostate cancer than a single PSA measurement. The objective of this study was to examine whether blacks were as likely as whites to report having had repeated PSA testing. The Maryland Cancer Survey 2006 was a population-based, random-digit-dialed statewide survey on cancer screening and risk behaviors of adults aged 40 years or older. We analyzed self-reported information on repeated PSA testing (2 PSA tests in the preceding 3 years) for 1,721 black and white men. We used logistic regression to estimate the effect of race and age on repeated PSA testing, adjusting for other covariates. Sixty-five percent of men reported ever having had a PSA test; 41% had repeated PSA testing in the past 3 years. Blacks aged 40 to 49 were more likely to report having repeated PSA testing than whites in this age group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.5). Blacks aged 60 to 69 were less likely to report repeated PSA testing than whites (AOR, 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.8). No difference was seen by race among men aged 50 to 59 and men aged 70 or older. Repeated PSA testing was associated with living in an urban area and with having higher education, health insurance, a family history of prostate cancer, and having discussed cancer screening with a doctor. Self-reported repeated PSA testing differed by age and race, being higher among blacks aged 40 to 49 and lower among blacks aged 60 to 69, compared with whites in their respective age groups.

  4. Characteristics Studies of 125I- and total PSA antibody's Binding with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in Human Uterus Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mudaffar, S.; Al-Salihi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Two groups of uterus tumors (benign and malignant) postmenopausal patients were used to investigate the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Preliminary experiments were performed to follow the binding of '1 25 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA in uterus tissues homogenates of the two groups with their corresponding antigen and found to be (8.8,7.1%) for benign and malignant tumors, respectively. An Immuno Radio Metric Assay (IRMA) procedure was developed for measuring PSA in benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates. The optimum conditions of the binding of 125 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA were as follows: PSA concentration (150,200 μg protein),tracer antibody concentration (125,250 μg protein), p H (7.6,7.2), temp (15,25?C) and time (1.5 hrs) for postmenopausal benign and malignant uterus tumors tissue homogenates, respectively. The use of different concentrations of Na + and Mg 2+ ions were shown to cause an increase in the binding at concentration of (125,75 mΜ) of Na 1+ ions (75,225 mΜ) of Mg 2+ ions for benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates, respectively, while the use of different concentrations of urea and polyethylene glycol (PEG) Caused a decrease in the binding with the increase in the concentration of each of urea and PEG in the both cases

  5. Discrepancies between guidelines and clinical practice regarding prostate-specific antigen testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamoen, E.H.; Reukers, D.F.; Numans, M.E.; Barentsz, J.O.; Witjes, J.; Rovers, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background.: Most guidelines recommend a judicious use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, whereas in daily practice, an increase of the incidence of PSA testing has been shown. Accurate up-to-date PSA test incidence rates are, however, lacking. Objective.: To investigate the PSA test

  6. Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Amanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Discussion Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM or shared decision making (SDM approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA

  7. Vaginal Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Is a Useful Biomarker of Semen Exposure Among HIV-Infected Ugandan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf-King, Sarah E; Muyindike, Winnie; Hobbs, Marcia M; Kusasira, Adrine; Fatch, Robin; Emenyonu, Nneka; Johnson, Mallory O; Hahn, Judith A

    2017-07-01

    The practical feasibility of using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker of semen exposure was examined among HIV-infected Ugandan women. Vaginal fluids were obtained with self-collected swabs and a qualitative rapid test (ABAcard ® p30) was used to detect PSA. Trained laboratory technicians processed samples on-site and positive PSA tests were compared to self-reported unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) in the last 48 h. A total of 77 women submitted 126 samples for PSA testing at up to three study visits. Of these samples, 31 % (n = 39/126) were PSA positive, and 64 % (n = 25/39) of the positive PSA samples were accompanied by self-report of no UVS at the study visit the PSA was collected. There were no reported difficulties with specimen collection, storage, or processing. These findings provide preliminary data on high levels of misreported UVS among HIV-infected Ugandan women using practically feasible methods for PSA collection and processing.

  8. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  9. Age-Specific Cutoff Value for the Application of Percent Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Chinese Men with Serum PSA Levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Huang, Yiran; Cai, Xiaobing; Xie, Liping; He, Dalin; Zhou, Liqun; Xu, Chuanliang; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Ma, Lulin; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Changjun; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhongquan; Fu, Qiang; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Junhua; Ye, Zhangqun; Ye, Dingwei; Xu, Danfeng; Hou, Jianquan; Xu, Kexin; Yuan, Jianlin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chunxiao; Pan, Tiejun; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-01-01

    The influence of age on the performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in East Asians is controversial. We tested the diagnostic performance of %fPSA in a multi-center biopsy cohort in China and identified the proper age-specific cutoff values to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Consecutive patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml or 10.1-20.0 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided or transperineal prostate biopsy were enrolled from 22 Chinese medical centers from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2013. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA and %fPSA was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Age-specific cutoff values were calculated using ROC curve analysis. The median %fPSA was much lower in younger patients compared with older patients with a PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml or 10.1-20.0 ng/ml. The AUC of %fPSA was higher than PSA only in older patients. In patients aged 50 to 59 years, %fPSA failed to improve the diagnosis compared with PSA in these two PSA ranges. Age-specific cutoff values were 24%, 27% and 32% for patients aged 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years, respectively, to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml to detect 90% of all PCa. The effectiveness of %fPSA is correlated with age in the Chinese population. Age-specific cutoff values would help avoid unnecessary biopsies in the Chinese population.

  10. Age-Specific Cutoff Value for the Application of Percent Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Chinese Men with Serum PSA Levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; He, Dalin; Zhou, Liqun; Xu, Chuanliang; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Ma, Lulin; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Changjun; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhongquan; Fu, Qiang; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Junhua; Ye, Zhangqun; Ye, Dingwei; Xu, Danfeng; Hou, Jianquan; Xu, Kexin; Yuan, Jianlin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chunxiao; Pan, Tiejun; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The influence of age on the performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in East Asians is controversial. We tested the diagnostic performance of %fPSA in a multi-center biopsy cohort in China and identified the proper age-specific cutoff values to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Methods Consecutive patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided or transperineal prostate biopsy were enrolled from 22 Chinese medical centers from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2013. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA and %fPSA was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Age-specific cutoff values were calculated using ROC curve analysis. Results The median %fPSA was much lower in younger patients compared with older patients with a PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml. The AUC of %fPSA was higher than PSA only in older patients. In patients aged 50 to 59 years, %fPSA failed to improve the diagnosis compared with PSA in these two PSA ranges. Age-specific cutoff values were 24%, 27% and 32% for patients aged 60–69, 70–79 and ≥80 years, respectively, to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml to detect 90% of all PCa. Conclusions The effectiveness of %fPSA is correlated with age in the Chinese population. Age-specific cutoff values would help avoid unnecessary biopsies in the Chinese population. PMID:26091007

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in the diagnostic algorithm of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Akre, Olof; Aly, Markus; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone leads to un-necessary biopsying and overdiagnosis. PSA density is easily accessible, but early evidence on its use for biopsy decisions was conflicting and use of PSA density is not commonly recommended in guidelines. We analyzed biopsy outcomes in 5291 men in the population-based STHLM3 study with PSA ≥ 3 ng/ml and ultrasound-guided prostate volume measurements by using percentages and regression models. PSA density was calculated as total PSA (ng/ml) divided by prostate volume (ml). Main endpoint was clinically significant cancer (csPCa) defined as Gleason Score ≥ 7. The median PSA-density was 0.10 ng/ml 2 (IQR 0.075-0.14). PSA-density was associated with the risk of finding csPCa both with and without adjusting for the additional clinical information age, family history, previous biopsies, total PSA and free/total PSA (OR 1.06; 95% CI:1.05-1.07 and OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08). Discrimination for csPCa was better when PSA density was added to a model with additional clinical information (AUC 0.75 vs. 0.73, P PSA-density. Omitting prostate biopsy for men with PSA-density ≤0.07 ng/ml 2 would save 19.7% of biopsy procedures, while missing 6.9% of csPCa. PSA-density cutoffs of 0.10 ng/ml 2 and 0.15 ng/ml 2 resulted in detection of 77% (729/947) and 49% (461/947) of Gleason Score ≥7 tumors. PSA-density might inform biopsy decisions, and spare some men from the morbidity associated with a prostate biopsy and diagnosis of low-grade prostate cancer.

  12. PSA testing for men at average risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K Armstrong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common – arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities – including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council – have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations. But disagreement continues. The contention is partly over what the new evidence means. It is also a result of different valuing and prioritisation of outcomes that are hard to compare: prostate cancer deaths prevented (a small and disputed number; prevention of metastatic disease (somewhat more common; and side-effects of treatment such as incontinence, impotence and bowel trouble (more common again. A sizeable proportion of men diagnosed through PSA testing (somewhere between 20% and 50% would never have had prostate cancer symptoms sufficient to prompt investigation; many of these men are older, with competing comorbidities. It is a complex picture. Below are four viewpoints from expert participants in the evolving debate, commissioned for this cancer screening themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice. We asked the authors to respond to the challenge of PSA testing of asymptomatic, normal-risk men. They raise important considerations: uncertainty, harms, the trustworthiness and interpretation of the evidence, cost (e.g. of using multiparametric

  13. A national multicenter phase 2 study of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pox virus vaccine with sequential androgen ablation therapy in patients with PSA progression: ECOG 9802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Robert S; Chen, Yu-Hui; Bubley, Glenn J; Stein, Mark N; Hahn, Noah M; Carducci, Michael A; Lattime, Edmund C; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Philip M; Butterfield, Lisa H; Wilding, George

    2015-09-01

    E9802 was a phase 2 multi-institution study conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of vaccinia and fowlpox prostate-specific antigen (PSA) vaccine (step 1) followed by combination with androgen ablation therapy (step 2) in patients with PSA progression without visible metastasis. To test the hypothesis that vaccine therapy in this early disease setting will be safe and have a biochemical effect that would support future studies of immunotherapy in patients with minimal disease burden. Patients who had PSA progression following local therapy were treated with PROSTVAC-V (vaccinia)/TRICOM on cycle 1 followed by PROSTVAC-F (fowlpox)/TRICOM for subsequent cycles in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (step 1). Androgen ablation was added on progression (step 2). Step 1 primary end points included progression at 6 mo and characterization of change in PSA velocity pretreatment to post-treatment. Step 2 end points included PSA response with combined vaccine and androgen ablation. In step 1, 25 of 40 eligible patients (63%) were progression free at 6 mo after registration (90% confidence interval [CI], 48-75). The median pretreatment PSA velocity was 0.13 log(PSA)/mo, in contrast to median postregistration velocity of 0.09 log(PSA)/mo (p=0.02), which is an increase in median PSA doubling time from 5.3 mo to 7.7 mo. No grade ≥4 treatment-related toxicity was observed. In the 27 patients eligible and treated for step 2, 20 patients achieved a complete response (CR) at 7 mo (CR rate: 74%; 90% CI, 57-87). Although supportive of larger studies in the cooperative group setting, this study is limited by the small number of patients and the absence of a control group as in a phase 3 study. A viral PSA vaccine can be administered safely in the multi-institutional cooperative group setting to patients with minimal disease volume alone and combined with androgen ablation, supporting the feasibility of future phase 3 studies in this

  14. Mass spectrometry measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) peptides derived from immune-extracted PSA provide a potential strategy for harmonizing immunoassay differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Eric W; Bondar, Olga P; Goodmanson, Marcia K; Trushin, Sergey A; Singh, Ravinder J; Anderson, N Leigh; Klee, George G

    2014-04-01

    Harmonization of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) immunoassays is important for good patient care. The specificity of the antibodies used to detect circulating PSA could cause differences in the PSA measurements. We used mass spectrometry (MS) to quantitate the concentration of five peptides cleaved from trypsin digestion of PSA and compared these measurements with six automated immunoassays. Linear regression and a mixed-effects model were used to analyze the results. PSA measurements from the immunoassays and the five MS peptide assays were highly correlated (R(2) > 0.99), but the recovery of the World Health Organization standard and the regression slopes differed across assays. The same relative patterns of immunoassay differences were seen in comparing their results with each of the five MS peptide measurements from different parts of the circulating PSA molecules. Mass spectrometry quantitation of peptides derived from trypsin digestion of immune-extracted PSA could be used to harmonize PSA immunoassays.

  15. [Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) use in a national health department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, Jorge; Carratalá-Calvo, Arturo; Valls-González, Lorena; Sales-Maicas, María Ángeles; Martínez-Jabaloyas, José María

    2015-10-01

    PSA is a frequently used marker in the daily clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. We analysed the use of PSA in our health department in patients with and without prostate cancer diagnosis. The registry of all PSA petitions in our health department during 2011 and 2012 was used. Demographic data were used to establish each year's population and the data corresponding to the prevalence of prostate cancer patients, performing a descriptive study. Thus, the use of PSA in patients with or without prostate cancer was studied. 25.700 PSA petitions are issued annually in our department over a total of 67.000 males older than 45. This entails a cost of 332.815 Euros annually. Within the group of patients with no prostate cancer diagnosis, it was noticed that the percentage of individuals with at least one annual PSA petition per decade of age is of 23% in males in their fifties, 40% in their sixties, 46% in their seventies, and 36% in their eighties or successive decades. Furthermore, in these cancer-free patients, around 3.800 annual petitions fall on individuals over 75 and with PSA under 4 ng/ml, from which 20% are repeated petitions over the same individual in the same year. Over 1100 males under 45 have an annual PSA. Regarding the average PSA value for decade of age in cancer-free patients, it is of 0.89 +/- 0.4 ng/ml in the forties decade, 1.26 +/- 1.07 ng/ml in the fifties, 1.67 +/- 1.38 ng/ml in the sixties, 1.96 +/- 1.78 ng/ml in the seventies, and 2.24 +/- 2.16 ng/ml in the eighties. We ascertained, also, that for every 144 PSA petitions one prostate cancer case is diagnosed. Regarding the use of this marker in cancer patients, 1.800 petitions are destined to patients follow up annually, and over 200 fall on the newly diagnosed cases. Even though annually less than 50% of males get PSA petitions in any decade of age, its use is sometimes incorrect, including repeated petitions in a short period of time or in individuals of

  16. Rural-Urban Differences in Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and Its Outcomes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertová, Zuzana; Hodgson, Fraser; Scott-Jones, Joseph; Brown, Charis; Lawrenson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To examine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening patterns and outcomes in rural and urban men in New Zealand. Men aged 40+ years were identified from 18 rural and 13 urban general practices across the Midland Cancer Network region. Computerized practice records were cross-referenced with community laboratory data to ascertain the number and level of PSA tests undertaken in 2010 and 3 years prior. For men with an elevated PSA result in 2010, practice records were searched for information on specialist visits, and they were cross-referenced with histology reports regarding biopsy and prostate cancer diagnosis. The study population included 34,960 men aged 40+ years, of whom 48% were enrolled in rural practices. Men in rural practices were 43% less likely to be screened with a PSA test in 2010, but they were 53% more likely to have an elevated PSA result. The prostate cancer detection rate from all screened men was 6 per 1,000 for rural men compared with 3 per 1,000 for urban men. Rural men were more likely diagnosed with Gleason score 9 tumors and metastatic disease. Significant differences were found in PSA screening patterns between rural and urban general practices. Due to lower screening rates, rural men were more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer when screened and also seemed to be diagnosed with more advanced disease compared with urban men. Despite ongoing discussions about the benefits and harms of PSA screening, PSA testing as such seems to be under-utilized in New Zealand rural practices. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  17. The percentage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index improve the diagnostic accuracy for clinically relevant prostate cancer at initial and repeat biopsy compared with total PSA and percentage free PSA in men aged ≤65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegemann, Martin; Stephan, Carsten; Cammann, Henning; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Houlgatte, Alain; Jung, Klaus; Blanchet, Jean-Sebastien; Semjonow, Axel

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively test the diagnostic accuracy of the percentage of prostate specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (%p2PSA) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and to determine their role for discrimination between significant and insignificant prostate cancer at initial and repeat prostate biopsy in men aged ≤65 years. The diagnostic performance of %p2PSA and PHI were evaluated in a multicentre study. In all, 769 men aged ≤65 years scheduled for initial or repeat prostate biopsy were recruited in four sites based on a total PSA (t-PSA) level of 1.6-8.0 ng/mL World Health Organization (WHO) calibrated (2-10 ng/mL Hybritech-calibrated). Serum samples were measured for the concentration of t-PSA, free PSA (f-PSA) and p2PSA with Beckman Coulter immunoassays on Access-2 or DxI800 instruments. PHI was calculated as (p2PSA/f-PSA × √t-PSA). Uni- and multivariable logistic regression models and an artificial neural network (ANN) were complemented by decision curve analysis (DCA). In univariate analysis %p2PSA and PHI were the best predictors of prostate cancer detection in all patients (area under the curve [AUC] 0.72 and 0.73, respectively), at initial (AUC 0.67 and 0.69) and repeat biopsy (AUC 0.74 and 0.74). t-PSA and %f-PSA performed less accurately for all patients (AUC 0.54 and 0.62). For detection of significant prostate cancer (based on Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance [PRIAS] criteria) the %p2PSA and PHI equally demonstrated best performance (AUC 0.70 and 0.73) compared with t-PSA and %f-PSA (AUC 0.54 and 0.59). In multivariate analysis PHI we added to a base model of age, prostate volume, digital rectal examination, t-PSA and %f-PSA. PHI was strongest in predicting prostate cancer in all patients, at initial and repeat biopsy and for significant prostate cancer (AUC 0.73, 0.68, 0.78 and 0.72, respectively). In DCA for all patients the ANN showed the broadest threshold probability and best net benefit. PHI as single parameter

  18. Reduction in uptake of PSA tests following decision aids: systematic review of current aids and their evaluations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Edwards, A.; Brett, J.; Bradburn, M.; Watson, E.; Austoker, J.; Elwyn, G.

    2005-01-01

    A man's decision to have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test should be an informed one. We undertook a systematic review to identify and appraise PSA decision aids and evaluations. We searched 15 electronic databases and hand-searched key journals. We also contacted key authors and organisations.

  19. Prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA); a relevant approach for the small population of the Cayman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Shravana Kumar; Blacke, Camille; Patil, Pallavi; Amblihalli, Vibha P; Nicholson, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into subgroups by baseline PSA levels as follows: 100 ng/mL and were correlated to the age and presence of cancer. Benign lesions had lower PSA levels compared to cancer which generally had higher values. Only three cases that had less than 4 ng/mg were turned out to be malignant. When PSA value was more than 100 ng/mL, all the cases were malignant. Between PSA values of 4-100 ng/mL, the probability of cancer diagnosis was 56.71% (76 cancers out of 134 in this range). Limitation of PSA testing has the risk of over diagnosis and the resultant negative biopsies owing to poor specificity. Whereas the cutoff limit for cancer diagnosis still remains 4 ng/mL from our study, most of the patients can be assured of benign lesion below this level and thus morbidity associated with the biopsy can be prevented. When the PSA value is greater than 100 ng, biopsy procedure was mandatory as there were 100% cancers above this level. On the background of vast literature linking PSA to prostate cancer and its difficulty in implementing in clinical practice, we studied literature of this conflicting and complex topic and tried to bring relevant protocols to the small population of Cayman Islands for the screening of prostate cancer. In this study, a total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the

  20. Clinical performance of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivatives, %p2PSA and the prostate health index (PHI), in men with a family history of prostate cancer: results from a multicentre European study, the PROMEtheuS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Haese, Alexander; Abrate, Alberto; de la Taille, Alexandre; Redorta, Joan Palou; McNicholas, Thomas; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Lista, Giuliana; Larcher, Alessandro; Bini, Vittorio; Cestari, Andrea; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Graefen, Markus; Bosset, Olivier; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Breda, Alberto; de la Torre, Pablo; Fowler, Linda; Roux, Jacques; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2013-08-01

    To test the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of serum prostate-specific antigen isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA and the prostate health index (PHI), in men with a family history of prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing prostate biopsy for suspected PCa. To evaluate the potential reduction in unnecessary biopsies and the characteristics of potentially missed cases of PCa that would result from using serum p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI. The analysis consisted of a nested case-control study from the PRO-PSA Multicentric European Study, the PROMEtheuS project. All patients had a first-degree relative (father, brother, son) with PCa. Multivariable logistic regression models were complemented by predictive accuracy analysis and decision-curve analysis. Of the 1026 patients included in the PROMEtheuS cohort, 158 (15.4%) had a first-degree relative with PCa. p2PSA, %p2PSA and PHI values were significantly higher (P < 0.001), and free/total PSA (%fPSA) values significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the 71 patients with PCa (44.9%) than in patients without PCa. Univariable accuracy analysis showed %p2PSA (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.733) and PHI (AUC: 0.733) to be the most accurate predictors of PCa at biopsy, significantly outperforming total PSA ([tPSA] AUC: 0.549), free PSA ([fPSA] AUC: 0.489) and %fPSA (AUC: 0.600) (P ≤ 0.001). For %p2PSA a threshold of 1.66 was found to have the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (70.4 and 70.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.4-80.7 and 59.4-79.5 respectively). A PHI threshold of 40 was found to have the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (64.8 and 71.3%, respectively; 95% CI 52.5-75.8 and 60.6-80.5). At 90% sensitivity, the thresholds for %p2PSA and PHI were 1.20 and 25.5, with a specificity of 37.9 and 25.5%, respectively. At a %p2PSA threshold of 1.20, a total of 39 (24.8%) biopsies could have been avoided, but two cancers with a Gleason score (GS) of 7 would have been missed

  1. Exponential rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) during anti-androgen withdrawal predicts PSA flare after docetaxel chemotherapy in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Seok; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between rising patterns of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) before chemotherapy and PSA flare during the early phase of chemotherapy in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This study included 55 patients with CRPC who received chemotherapy and in whom pre-treatment or post-treatment PSA levels could be serially obtained. The baseline parameters included age, performance, Gleason score, PSA level, and disease extent. PSA doubling time was calculated using the different intervals: the conventional interval from the second hormone manipulation following the nadir until anti-androgen withdrawal (PSADT1), the interval from the initial rise after anti-androgen withdrawal to the start of chemotherapy (PSADT2), and the interval from the nadir until the start of chemotherapy (PSADT3). The PSA growth patterns were analyzed using the ratio of PSADT2 to PSADT1. There were two growth patterns of PSA doubling time: 22 patients (40.0%) had a steady pattern with a more prolonged PSADT2 than PSADT1, while 33 (60.0%) had an accelerating pattern with a shorter PSADT2 than PSADT1. During three cycles of chemotherapy, PSA flare occurred in 11 patients (20.0%); of these patients, 3 were among 33 (9.1%) patients with an accelerating PSA growth pattern and 8 were among 22 patients (36.4%) with a steady PSA growth pattern (p=0.019). Multivariate analysis showed that only PSA growth pattern was an independent predictor of PSA flare (p=0.034). An exponential rise in PSA during anti-androgen withdrawal is a significant predictor for PSA flare during chemotherapy in CRPC patients.

  2. A novel classification of prostate specific antigen (PSA) biosensors based on transducing elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Ahmad, Zubair; Shakoor, R A; Mohamed, A M A; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2017-06-01

    During the last few decades, there has been a tremendous rise in the number of research studies dedicated towards the development of diagnostic tools based on bio-sensing technology for the early detection of various diseases like cardiovascular diseases (CVD), many types of cancer, diabetes mellitus (DM) and many infectious diseases. Many breakthroughs have been developed in the areas of improving specificity, selectivity and repeatability of the biosensor devices. Innovations in the interdisciplinary areas like biotechnology, genetics, organic electronics and nanotechnology also had a great positive impact on the growth of bio-sensing technology. As a product of these improvements, fast and consistent sensing policies have been productively created for precise and ultrasensitive biomarker-based disease diagnostics. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely considered as an important biomarker used for diagnosing prostate cancer. There have been many publications based on various biosensors used for PSA detection, but a limited review was available for the classification of these biosensors used for the detection of PSA. This review highlights the various biosensors used for PSA detection and proposes a novel classification for PSA biosensors based on the transducer type used. We also highlight the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each technique used for PSA biosensing which will make this article a complete reference tool for the future researches in PSA biosensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. GPs views and understanding of PSA testing, screening and early detection; survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J; Melia, J; Kirby, M; Graffy, J; Moss, S

    2016-05-01

    There is currently no national prostate cancer screening programme in the UK. However, patients 50 years and older are entitled to a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, if informed on the advantages and disadvantages of testing and their risk of cancer. The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) provides this guidance. The aim of this study was to access GPs' views and understanding of PSA testing, prostate cancer screening and early detection. A total of 708 questionnaires were returned by GPs across two English regions in 2013 and the GP questionnaire responses were quantitatively analysed. In the 699 completed questionnaires, the majority of GPs were well informed about PSA testing, screening and early detection. Only 32% used guidelines for referral, 14% knew all age-specific PSA referral levels, 71% that Black men have a higher prostate cancer risk than White men (22% correctly answered threefold increase) and 82% that family history is a risk factor. A further 78% thought electronic prompts during consultation would encourage PCRMP guideline usage and 75% had never been offered a PSA test and prostate cancer educational course, of which 73% would like to attend a course. Only 23% were aware of the latest PSA screening evidence and 94% would like an update. Participating GPs seem to be well informed but need more information and tools to help follow recommended guidance. In particular, increased awareness of PCRMP guidelines especially by automated methods, further educational courses and evidence updates would be beneficial. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Factors prompting PSA-testing of asymptomatic men in a country with no guidelines: a national survey of general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Ireland is estimated to have one of the highest prostate cancer incidences in Europe and has no national guidelines for prostate cancer screening. GPs have a pivotal role in influencing PSA testing, therefore, our aim was to describe GP testing practices and to identify factors influencing these. METHODS: A postal survey, including questions on clinical practice and experience, knowledge and demographics was distributed to all GPs (n = 3,683). The main outcomes were (i) PSA testing asymptomatic men and (ii) "inappropriate" PSA testing, defined as testing asymptomatic men aged < 50 or > 75 years. Factors associated with these outcomes were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,625 GPs responded (response rate corrected for eligibility = 53%). Most respondents (79%) would PSA test asymptomatic men. Of these, 34% and 51% would test asymptomatic men < 50 and > 75 years, respectively. In multivariate analyses, GPs were more likely to test asymptomatic men if they were >or= 50 years, in practice >or= 10 years, female or less knowledgeable about PSA efficacy. Male GPs who would have a PSA test themselves were > 8-times more likely to PSA test asymptomatic men than GPs who would not have a test. GPs who had an asymptomatic patient diagnosed with prostate cancer following PSA testing, were > 3-times more likely to test asymptomatic men. Practice-related factors positively associated with testing included: running \\'well man\\' clinics, performing occupational health checks and performing other tests routinely with PSA. Factors positively associated with \\'inappropriate\\' testing included; being male and willing to have a PSA test, having worked\\/trained in the UK and supporting annual PSA testing. 91% of respondents supported the development of national PSA testing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that widespread PSA testing

  5. Incorporating Known Genetic Variants Does Not Improve the Accuracy of PSA Testing to Identify High Risk Prostate Cancer on Biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gilbert

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing is a widely accepted screening method for prostate cancer, but with low specificity at thresholds giving good sensitivity. Previous research identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs principally associated with circulating PSA levels rather than with prostate cancer risk (TERT rs2736098, FGFR2 rs10788160, TBX3 rs11067228, KLK3 rs17632542. Removing the genetic contribution to PSA levels may improve the ability of the remaining biologically-determined variation in PSA to discriminate between high and low risk of progression within men with identified prostate cancer. We investigate whether incorporating information on the PSA-SNPs improves the discrimination achieved by a single PSA threshold in men with raised PSA levels.Men with PSA between 3-10 ng/mL and histologically-confirmed prostate cancer were categorised as high or low risk of progression (Low risk: Gleason score≤6 and stage T1-T2a; High risk: Gleason score 7-10 or stage T2C. We used the combined genetic effect of the four PSA-SNPs to calculate a genetically corrected PSA risk score. We calculated the Area under the Curve (AUC to determine how well genetically corrected PSA risk scores distinguished men at high risk of progression from low risk men.The analysis includes 868 men with prostate cancer (Low risk: 684 (78.8%; High risk: 184 (21.2%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves indicate that including the 4 PSA-SNPs does not improve the performance of measured PSA as a screening tool for high/low risk prostate cancer (measured PSA level AUC = 59.5% (95% CI: 54.7,64.2 vs additionally including information from the 4 PSA-SNPs AUC = 59.8% (95% CI: 55.2,64.5 (p-value = 0.40.We demonstrate that genetically correcting PSA for the combined genetic effect of four PSA-SNPs, did not improve discrimination between high and low risk prostate cancer in men with raised PSA levels (3-10 ng/mL. Replication and gaining more accurate

  6. Incorporating Known Genetic Variants Does Not Improve the Accuracy of PSA Testing to Identify High Risk Prostate Cancer on Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca; Martin, Richard M.; Evans, David M.; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Kemp, John P.; Lane, J. Athene; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Metcalfe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is a widely accepted screening method for prostate cancer, but with low specificity at thresholds giving good sensitivity. Previous research identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) principally associated with circulating PSA levels rather than with prostate cancer risk (TERT rs2736098, FGFR2 rs10788160, TBX3 rs11067228, KLK3 rs17632542). Removing the genetic contribution to PSA levels may improve the ability of the remaining biologically-determined variation in PSA to discriminate between high and low risk of progression within men with identified prostate cancer. We investigate whether incorporating information on the PSA-SNPs improves the discrimination achieved by a single PSA threshold in men with raised PSA levels. Materials and Methods Men with PSA between 3-10ng/mL and histologically-confirmed prostate cancer were categorised as high or low risk of progression (Low risk: Gleason score≤6 and stage T1-T2a; High risk: Gleason score 7–10 or stage T2C). We used the combined genetic effect of the four PSA-SNPs to calculate a genetically corrected PSA risk score. We calculated the Area under the Curve (AUC) to determine how well genetically corrected PSA risk scores distinguished men at high risk of progression from low risk men. Results The analysis includes 868 men with prostate cancer (Low risk: 684 (78.8%); High risk: 184 (21.2%)). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicate that including the 4 PSA-SNPs does not improve the performance of measured PSA as a screening tool for high/low risk prostate cancer (measured PSA level AU C = 59.5% (95% CI: 54.7,64.2) vs additionally including information from the 4 PSA-SNPs AUC = 59.8% (95% CI: 55.2,64.5) (p-value = 0.40)). Conclusion We demonstrate that genetically correcting PSA for the combined genetic effect of four PSA-SNPs, did not improve discrimination between high and low risk prostate cancer in men with raised PSA levels (3-10ng

  7. Serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wheeler, Sarah; Mathew, Anu; Stengelin, Martin; Nikolenko, Galina; Glezer, Eli N; Brown, Marshall D; Zheng, Yingye; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wu, Hsiao-Li; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may constitute a new biomarker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 45 women with PCOS and 40 controls. Serum from these women was analyzed for androgenic steroids and for complexed PSA (cPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) with a novel fifth- generation assay with a sensitivity of ~10 fg/mL for cPSA and 140 fg/mL for fPSA. cPSA and fPSA levels were about three times higher in PCOS compared to controls. However, in PCOS, cPSA and fPSA did not differ according to waist-to-hip ratio, Ferriman-Gallwey score, or degree of hyperandrogenemia or oligo-ovulation. In PCOS and control women, serum cPSA and fPSA levels were highly correlated with each other, and with free and total testosterone levels, but not with other hormones. Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and race, cPSA was significantly associated with PCOS, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86, 22.0). The OR of PCOS for fPSA was 7.04 (95% CI: 1.65, 40.4). A multivariate model that included age, BMI, race and cPSA yielded an area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.89. Serum cPSA and fPSA are novel biomarkers for hyperandrogenism in PCOS and may have value for disease diagnosis.

  8. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a possible biomarker in non-prostatic cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ibave, Diana Cristina; Burciaga-Flores, Carlos Horacio; Elizondo-Riojas, Miguel-Ángel

    2018-03-23

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease produced by epithelial prostatic cells and its main function is to liquefy seminal coagulum. Currently, PSA is a biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and it was the first cancer biomarker approved by the FDA. The quantity and serum isoforms of male PSA, allows distinguishing between carcinoma and benign inflammatory disease of the prostate. Initially, it was thought that PSA was produced only by the prostate, and thus, a protein that was expressed exclusively in men. However, several authors report that PSA is a protein that is expressed by multiple non-prostatic tissues not only in men but also in women. Some authors also report that in women, the expression of this protein is highly related to breast and colon cancer and therefore can act as a possible biomarker for early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of these cancers in women. In this review, we will focus on the characteristics of the PSA at a molecular level, its current clinical implications, the expression of this protein in non-prostatic tissues, and its relationship with cancer, especially in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of allelic variability in prostate specific antigen (PSA) & androgen receptor (AR) genes to serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sushant V; Maitra, Anurupa; Roy, Nobhojit; Chavan, Padma R

    2014-03-01

    Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR) genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer. Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG) repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques. A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (PPSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (PPSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (PPSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short) was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels. The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression.

  10. PSA-operations synergism for the advanced test reactor shutdown operations PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for shutdown operations, cask handling, and canal draining is a successful example of the importance of good PSA-operations synergism for achieving a realistic and accepted assessment of the risks and for achieving desired risk reduction and safety improvement in a best and cost-effective manner. The implementation of the agreed-upon upgrades and improvements resulted in the reductions of the estimated mean frequency for core or canal irradiated fuel uncovery events, a total reduction in risk by a factor of nearly 1000 to a very low and acceptable risk level for potentially severe events

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) and Prostate Volume: Better Predictor of Prostate Cancer for Bosnian and Herzegovina Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coric, Jozo; Mujic, Jasminka; Kucukalic, Elma; Ler, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The serum prostate specific antigen for the early detection and screening for prostate cancer are very common used among physicians as the best screening tool for prostate cancer. The result of prostate specific antigen levels discriminates whether or not a prostate biopsy should be performed. The lack of specificity is a limitation of PSA as tumor marker, increased PSA concentrations are found not only in patients with prostate cancer but also in patients with benign prostatic disease. The object of this study was to improve the specificity and sensitivity of prostatic cancer detection. We evaluated total PSA levels, free PSA levels and the prostate volume in asymptomatic patients which came for routine check without medical history of prostate cancer. We received medical record of 90 patients between 50-60 years. Total and free PSA in serum was measured with the analyzer Architeckt i2000 SR. Prostate volume was determined by transrectal ultrasound. The ratio of total and free PSA levels to prostate volume was significantly (p PSA in serum. Early studies have demonstrated the advantage of measuring prostate volume with PSA total and free levels in serum as a useful tool for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Data from this study on 90 patients with total PSA in the range from 0,22-7,0 ng/ml confirmed the well known correlation. All three parameters total PSA, free PSA and prostate volume showed significant correlation and a useful tool in prediction of prostate cancer for Bosnia and Herzegovina men.

  12. Phage display aided improvement of a unique prostate-specific antigen (PSA) antibody unreactive with Lys(145)-Lys(146) internally cleaved forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liton, Md Ferdhos Khan; Peltola, Mari T; Vehniäinen, Markus; Kuusela, Erica; Pettersson, Tiina; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Pettersson, Kim; Brockmann, Eeva-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used marker of prostate cancer. A panel of four kallikrein immunoassays has been reported to improve the prediction of prostate biopsy outcome (cancer vs benign) in men with elevated PSA in the circulation. Assay of one of the kallikrein forms, intact free PSA (fPSA-I), is based on a unique monoclonal antibody (4D4), which is specific for PSA without the internal cleavage at Lys(145)-Lys(146). Due to high dissociation rate the 4D4 antibody is less than optimal for achieving a highly sensitive robust assay. In this study, we cloned the 4D4 Mab into a recombinant fragment (Fab) format and constructed three mutant libraries with the aim to increase its binding affinity. The libraries contained targeted mutations either in the CDR-H1, CDR-H2 or CDR-L3 region. PSA-I specific antibodies were enriched from the libraries by phage display technology. We identified fourteen unique clones with 1-5 mutated amino acids showing reduced dissociation of the PSA conjugate compared to the wt-4D4 Fab. Five of these mutant antibodies had 2-6 times higher binding affinity compared to the wt-4D4 Fab yet retaining the original specificity for PSA-I. The analytical sensitivity of fPSA-I assay with mutant L3-2 Fab was 0.12 μg/L compared to 4.46 μg/L with the original wt-4D4 Fab. In the method comparison study, the developed assay showed an excellent correlation to the existing fPSA-I assay. The high affinity and specificity of these mutant antibodies have potential to provide sensitive and robust detection of intact and nicked PSA from patient samples in different test formats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration is positively associated with rate of disease reclassification on subsequent active surveillance prostate biopsy in men with low PSA density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbehr, Martin H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Peskoe, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Landis, Patricia; Partin, Alan W; Carter, H Ballentine

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at active surveillance (AS) entry and disease reclassification on subsequent AS biopsy ('biopsy reclassification') in men with low PSA density (PSAD). To investigate whether a clinically meaningful PSA threshold for AS eligibility/ineligibility for men with low PSAD can be identified based on risk of subsequent biopsy reclassification. We included men enrolled in the Johns Hopkins AS Study (JHAS) who had a PSAD of PSA concentration at the time of entry into AS. We generated predicted IRs using Poisson regression to adjust for age and prostate volume, mean percentage free PSA (ratio of free to total PSA) and maximum percentage biopsy core involvement with cancer. The unadjusted IRs (per 100 person years) of biopsy reclassification across serum PSA concentration at entry into JHAS showed, in general, an increase; however, the pattern was not linear with higher IRs in the group ≥ 4 to PSA concentration in men with low PSAD, whereby no obvious clinically meaningful threshold could be identified. This information could be incorporated into decision-making for AS. However, longer follow-up times are needed to warrant final conclusions. © 2013 BJU International.

  14. Clinical outcomes and nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) according to initial PSA levels in primary androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ueno, Satoru; Izumi, Kouji; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Mizokami, Atsushi; Hinotsu, Shiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical outcomes of metastatic prostate cancer patients and the relationship between nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and different types of primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). This study utilized data from the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer registry, which is a large, multicenter, population-based database. A total of 2982 patients treated with PADT were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated using combined androgen blockade (CAB) and non-CAB therapies. The relationships between nadir PSA levels and PADT type according to initial serum PSA levels were also investigated. Among the 2982 enrolled patients, 2101 (70.5 %) were treated with CAB. Although CAB-treated patients had worse clinical characteristics, their probability of PFS and OS was higher compared with those treated with a non-CAB therapy. These results were due to a survival benefit with CAB in patients with an initial PSA level of 500-1000 ng/mL. Nadir PSA levels were significantly lower in CAB patients than in non-CAB patients with comparable initial serum PSA levels. A small survival benefit for CAB in metastatic prostate cancer was demonstrated in a Japanese large-scale prospective cohort study. The clinical significance of nadir PSA levels following PADT was evident, but the predictive impact of PSA nadir on OS was different between CAB and non-CAB therapy.

  15. Percent free prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer diagnosis in Chinese men with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL: Results from the Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Cai, Xiaobing; Huang, Yiran; Zhou, Liqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Ren, Shancheng; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Danfeng; Xu, Kexin; Ye, Zhangqun; Liu, Chunxiao; Ye, Dingwei; Lu, Li; Fu, Qiang; Hou, Jianquan; Yuan, Jianlin; He, Dalin; Zhou, Tie; Wang, Fubo; He, Biming; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-04-01

    To test the diagnostic performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in predicting any prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) in a retrospective multi-center biopsy cohort with a PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL in China. Consecutive patients with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were enrolled at 16 Chinese medical centers from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2013. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed using three types of electro-chemiluminescence immunoassays recalibrated to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA, %fPSA, and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). A total of 2310 consecutive men with PSA levels between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL were included, and the detection rate of PCa was 25.1%. The AUC of %fPSA and %fPSA + PSA in predicting any PCa was superior to PSA alone in men aged ≥60 years (0.623 vs. 0.534, p  PSA undergoing initial prostate biopsy, adding %fPSA to PSA can moderately improve the diagnostic accuracy for any PCa and HGPCa compared with PSA alone in patients ≥60 but not in patients aged 40-59 years.

  16. Measurements of free and total PSA, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS), and CYFRA 21-1 in prostate cancer patients under intermittent androgen suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyer, G; Dürer, A; Theyer, U; Haberl, I; Ulsperger, E; Baumgartner, G; Hamilton, G

    1999-10-01

    The present study evaluated monthly measurements of free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and the tumor proliferation markers tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) in patients with advanced prostate cancer receiving intermittent androgen suppression therapy (IAS). Thirty-four men received alternating cycles of 8 month androgen suppression and treatment cessation (mean duration, 10.3 months) until PSA increased to >20 microg/l. Measurements of testosterone, percentage of free PSA, TPS, and CYFRA 21-1 were performed using ELISA and RIA assays. Periods of androgen suppression resulted in reversible reductions of testosterone (from 6 +/- 0.8 to IAS cycle. TPS showed a decrease of 50% after 3 months, and CYFRA 21-1 a 25% decrease after 7 months of androgen suppression treatment. During treatment cessation, TPS exceeded the normal cutoff value of 90 U/l late in tumor regrowth (9-11 months), whereas CYFRA 21-1 remained below the normal cutoff value of 3.3 ng/ml. PSA is the best and most sensitive marker of prostate cancer regression and regrowth during IAS cycles of the markers tested in this study. Free PSA constitutes approximately 15% of total PSA (range, 5-32%), and its percentage showed no significant change during IAS cycles. The TPS and CYFRA 21-1 proliferation marker changes in IAS seem to be related mainly to effects on normal androgen-dependent tissues. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Does obesity affect the accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for predicting prostate cancer among men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong J; Jeong, Seong J; Lee, Byung K; Jeong, Chang W; Byun, Seok-Soo; Hong, Sung K; Lee, Sang E

    2013-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and what does the study add?: As most urologist known, obesity significantly lowers serum PSA levels. So there is some concern about delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer in obese men. In the present study, we found that the accuracy level of PSA for detecting prostate cancer was not significantly different between different obesity levels. A well-designed study adjusting for several factors, e.g. diet, exercise, medication and comorbidity, which may possibly compensate for the associated effects on PSA levels, is needed for confirmation of the present findings. To investigate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) accuracy in detecting prostate cancer according to body mass index (BMI) in Asian men with a PSA level of PSA levels were PSA accuracy for detecting prostate cancer in each BMI group was assessed based on the receiver operating characteristics-derived area under the curve. The mean age and median PSA level were inversely associated with BMI; the median PSA level in each BMI category was 7.84, 7.75, 7.33 and 5.79 ng/mL, respectively (P PSA accuracy for predicting prostate cancer in all patients was estimated to be 0.607, and PSA accuracies in each BMI category were 0.638, 0.572, 0.613 and 0.544, respectively; there was no significant difference among the groups in terms of PSA accuracy. The accuracy of PSA in predicting prostate cancer did not change regardless of BMI category in Asian men. However, as patients with higher BMIs had lower PSA levels than those with lower BMIs, it can therefore be suggested that the PSA threshold should be lower in obese men to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign conditions in the real clinical situation. © 2013 BJU International.

  18. Investigating the prostate specific antigen, body mass index and age relationship: is an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model clinically useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sean; Tilling, Kate; Turner, Emma L; Lane, J Athene; Simpkin, Andrew; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Martin, Richard M

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies indicate a possible inverse relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and body mass index (BMI), and a positive relationship between PSA and age. We investigated the associations between age, BMI, PSA, and screen-detected prostate cancer to determine whether an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model would be clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer. Cross-sectional analysis nested within the UK ProtecT trial of treatments for localized cancer. Of 18,238 men aged 50-69 years, 9,457 men without screen-detected prostate cancer (controls) and 1,836 men with prostate cancer (cases) met inclusion criteria: no history of prostate cancer or diabetes; PSA PSA, age, and BMI in all men, controlling for prostate cancer status. In the 11,293 included men, the median PSA was 1.2 ng/ml (IQR: 0.7-2.6); mean age 61.7 years (SD 4.9); and mean BMI 26.8 kg/m 2 (SD 3.7). There were a 5.1% decrease in PSA per 5 kg/m 2 increase in BMI (95% CI 3.4-6.8) and a 13.6% increase in PSA per 5-year increase in age (95% CI 12.0-15.1). Interaction tests showed no evidence for different associations between age, BMI, and PSA in men above and below 3.0 ng/ml (all p for interaction >0.2). The age-BMI-adjusted PSA model performed as well as an age-adjusted model based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines at detecting prostate cancer. Age and BMI were associated with small changes in PSA. An age-BMI-adjusted PSA model is no more clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer than current NICE guidelines. Future studies looking at the effect of different variables on PSA, independent of their effect on prostate cancer, may improve the discrimination of PSA for prostate cancer.

  19. Clinical impact of prostate specific antigen (PSA) inter-assay variability on management of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vedang; Rishi, Anupam; Gupta, Sanjeev; Kannan, Sadhana; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Tongaonkar, Hemant; Bakshi, Ganesh; Prabhash, Kumar; Bhanushali, Paresh; Shinde, Bhoopal; Inamdar, Nitin; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the inter-assay variability of six commercially available prostate specific antigen (PSA) assays, its clinical impact in prostate cancer (PCa) and comparison of automated versus manual assays. Sera from 495 patients (425 with PCa and 70 men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), were measured with six different assays [three automated assays (a-PSA) and three manual ELISA based assay (m-PSA)]. Variability, agreement and bias were measured and compared among assays using Bland Altman plots and Passing and Bablok regression analysis. The possible impact of inter-assay variability on important clinical scenarios was also studied. All the assays were well correlated (r: 0.88-0.98); however there was significant disagreement and bias between the systems, which were more pronounced among the a-PSA assays. The Bland Altman plot showed that the variability was high between the m-PSA assays and the standard Abbott system with mean difference of 3.8-5.8ng/ml. In contrast, the a-PSA had better agreement with mean difference of 0.8-2.3ng/ml. Beckman Coulter showed the best agreement to the institutional reference (slope-1.097; 95% CI: 1.06-1.14; p<0.05, and intercept-0.20; 95% CI-0.38-0.58; p<0.05, Passing Bablok). It led to significant variability in PCa risk stratification and failure to detect biochemical failure in more than 50% cases. The discrepancies between the assays lead to significant clinical misinterpretation with risk group migration and detection of biochemical failure post radiotherapy. There are significant discordances between automated and ELISA based assays. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The end of the road for prostate specific antigen testing? | Nna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many candidate biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer have been investigated, but prostate‑specific antigen (PSA) testing remains the frontline test for both mass screening and individual clinical testing. Although the PSA test is cost‑effective, analytically reliable, and flexibly high throughput, it has a very weak ...

  1. Extraction, purification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and establishment of radioimmunoassay system as a diagnostic tool for prostate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakr El-Bayoumy, Ahmed Sami; Hessien Keshta, Akaber Tarek; Sallam, Khaled Mohamed; Ebeid, Nahed Hassan; Elsheikh, Hatem Mohamed; Bayoumy, Bsheer El-Sayed

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an easy and effective method for extraction and purification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from human seminal fluid with high quantity (14 mg) and high purity (98%). The obtained PSA was injected into rabbits for production of anti-PSA polyclonal antibody (titer 1/1000), labeled with radioactive iodine-125 for preparation of radioactive PSA tracer (purity 98 ± 1.8% and specific activity 64 ± 1.9 µCi/µg), and used in preparation of PSA standards. All prepared components can be used in PSA immunoassays specially radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit preparation as a diagnostic tool for prostatic diseases.

  2. 3D label-free prostate specific antigen (PSA) immunosensor based on graphene-gold composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Sun Kyung; Chang, Hankwon; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-01-15

    Highly sensitive and label-free detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical immunosensor capable of sensitive and label-free detection of PSA is reported. This unique immunosensor is equipped with a highly conductive graphene (GR)-based gold (Au) composite modified electrode. The GR-based Au composite is prepared using aerosol spray pyrolysis and the morphology of the composite is the shape of a crumpled GR ball decorated with Au nanoparticles. Unlike the previous research, this novel 3D immunosensor functions very well over a broad linear range of 0-10 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.59 ng/mL; furthermore, it exhibits a significantly increased electron transfer and high sensitivity toward PSA. The highest rate of current change with respect to the PSA concentration is 5 μA/(ng/mL). Satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility, and stability of the 3D immunosensor are also exhibited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prostate Cancer Detection and Prognosis: From Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) to Exosomal Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Xavier; Foj, Laura

    2016-10-26

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used biomarker in the management of early prostate cancer (PCa), in spite of the problems related to false positive results and overdiagnosis. New biomarkers have been proposed in recent years with the aim of increasing specificity and distinguishing aggressive from non-aggressive PCa. The emerging role of the prostate health index and the 4Kscore is reviewed in this article. Both are blood-based tests related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, which provide the risk of suffering PCa and avoiding negative biopsies. Furthermore, the use of urine has emerged as a non-invasive way to identify new biomarkers in recent years, including the PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene. Available results about the PCA3 score showed its usefulness to decide the repetition of biopsy in patients with a previous negative result, although its relationship with the aggressiveness of the tumor is controversial. More recently, aberrant microRNA expression in PCa has been reported by different authors. Preliminary results suggest the utility of circulating and urinary microRNAs in the detection and prognosis of PCa. Although several of these new biomarkers have been recommended by different guidelines, large prospective and comparative studies are necessary to establish their value in PCa detection and prognosis.

  4. A "PSA pyramid" for men with initial prostate-specific antigen ≤3 ng/ml: a plea for individualized prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Marco; Beatrice, Josef; Huber, Andreas; Grobholz, Rainer; Manka, Lukas; Chun, Felix K; Recker, Franz; Kwiatkowski, Maciej

    2015-10-01

    In daily routine business, various prostate-specific antigen (PSA) retest strategies are being promoted. To investigate rescreening intervals according to baseline PSA PSA of PSA groups, aggressive PCa was detected in 25 patients (1.0%), 80 patients (5.8%), and 34 patients (6.0%), respectively. During 4 yr, these numbers were 0.0%, 0.29%, and 1.8%, whereas during 8 yr, the numbers were 0.2%, 1.4%, and 2.5%, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, the only independent risk factor for aggressive PCa was baseline PSA (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.82-9.61; pPSA was the only predictor regarding aggressive PCa. According to the low rate of potentially missed PCa in these groups, rescreening intervals can be safely adapted to baseline PSA values corresponding to a "PSA pyramid": 6-8 yr if baseline PSA is PSA is 1-1.99 ng/ml, and yearly if baseline PSA is 2-2.99 ng/ml. We observed men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value ≤3 ng/ml during 12 yr and found that men can be retested according to their initial PSA value ("PSA pyramid"): PSA PSA 1-2 (center), retest interval every 4 yr; and PSA 2-3 (top), retest yearly after risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Androgen deprivation decreases prostate specific antigen in the absence of tumor: implications for interpretation of PSA results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenisch, Judith M; Mayr, Florian B; Spiel, Alexander O; Radicioni, Milko; Jilma, Bernd; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used as an outcome measure for relapsed disease in prostate cancer. Nonetheless, there are considerable concerns about its indiscriminate use as a surrogate endpoint for cell growth or survival. We hypothesized that treatment with a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog would decrease PSA levels even in the absence of malignant disease. We determined testosterone and PSA levels in 30 healthy volunteers after a single intramuscular injection of a LHRH depot formulation. Testosterone and PSA levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and electrochemi-luminescence immunoassay, respectively. After an initial flare-up during the first 3 days testosterone decreased reaching castration levels in 18 of the 30 young men (60%). After the nadir on day 28, testosterone levels increased to normal again. Changes in PSA paralleled those of testosterone. Castration reduced PSA levels by 29% (95% CI 19%-39%) compared to baseline (pPSA levels by testosterone deprivation. Conferring these findings to tumor patients, decreases in PSA after treatment with LHRH analogs might not only reflect disease regression but also a direct testosterone mediated effect on PSA. Thus, PSA levels should be cautiously interpreted when patients receive hormonal therapy.

  6. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Tang, Jie; Fei, Xiang; Li, Qiu-Yang

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less. A total of 343 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less were biopsied. All patients were divided into four groups according to the PSA levels: 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml. The reliability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and PSAD were estimated. Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The detection rate was 16.28%、17.17%, 21.82%, 25.00% in subjects with PSA levels of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml, respectively. The f/t PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer and PSA levels of 2.1 to 4.0 ng/ml (PPSA ratio less than 15% with /without abnormal DRE/TRUS findings.

  7. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: jrodrigues@fmd.up.pt [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  8. Evaluation of free-to-total prostate specific antigen (F/T PSA), prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) and (F/T)/PSAD sensitivity on reduction of unnecessary prostate biopsies for patients with PSA in gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovic, Borivoj; Dzamic, Zoran; Pejcic, Tomislav; Kajmakovic, Boris; Nikolic, Dejan; Cirovic, Dragana; Knezevic, Tatjana; Dzamic, Dragana; Hadzi-Djokic, Jovan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of ratio between free-to-total prostate specific antigen (F/T PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD)-(F/T)/PSAD on reduction of unnecessary prostate biopsies in grey zone (prostate specific antigen (psa) value 4.0-10.0 ng/ml). The study included 108 patients. For all patients serum total PSA (T PSA), free PSA (F PSA), F/T PSA and PSAD were analyzed. The group was divided due to the prostate volume into: entire group (regardless the prostate VOL-Group 1) and group with prostate VOLPSA and (F/T)/PSAD showed significantly lower values in patients with CaP versus those with BPH, while PSAD had significantly higher values. For the cutoff values of 1.12 for (F/T)/PSAD, we found sensitivity to be 67% and specificity 60%, and the (AUC) 0.701. For patients with VOL<40, statistical significance remained with AUC of 0.732 (p=0.003), cutoff was 0.82, and with sensitivity 77% and specificity 68%. Most significant prostate carcinoma predictors were PSAD and (F/T)/PSAD, where we proposed that patients with (F/T)/PSAD values below 1.49 ± 0.94 and PSAD values above 0.17±0.06 should be included for biopsy.

  9. Raising cut-off value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for biopsy in symptomatic men in India to reduce unnecessary biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Shalini; Mittal, R D; Kapoor, R; Mandhani, Anil

    2014-06-01

    The characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for trans-rectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are not well defined. This study was carried out to analyse the threshold of PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India. From January 2000 to June 2011, consecutive patients who had digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA testing done for LUTS were included in this study. PSA was done with ELISA technique. Patients with acute or chronic prostatitis, prostatic abscess, history of surgery on prostate within the previous three months and patients on 5α-reductase inhibitors or on urethral catheter were excluded. Of the 4702 patients evaluated, 70.9 per cent had PSA of less than 4 ng/ml and 29.1 per cent had PSA of more than 4 ng/ml. Of these, 875 men with a mean age of 65.72±7.4 (range 50-75 yr) had trans rectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided biopsy. Twenty five men had biopsy at PSA level of 20 ng/ml. Positive predictive value of PSA in ranges of 4.1-10, 10.1-20, >20 ng/ml was 15.2, 24 and 62.6 per cent, respectively with negative DRE. PSA cut-off to do biopsy was derived by ROC curve as 5.82 ng/ml for all the men. When the subjects were further stratified on the basis of DRE findings, a cut-off of 5.4 ng/ml was derived in men with normal DRE. A cut-off for biopsy in symptomatic men with negative DRE could safely be raised to 5.4 ng/ml, which could avoid subjecting 10 per cent of men to undergo unnecessary biopsy.

  10. Extreme-Risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) >40 ng/ml: Prognostic Significance of the Preradiation PSA Nadir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Abraham S.; Mydin, Aminudin; Jones, Stuart O.; Christie, Jennifer; Lim, Jan T.W.; Truong, Pauline T.; Ludgate, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on survival outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for clinically localized, extreme-risk prostate adenocarcinoma with a presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >40 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 64 patients treated at a single institution between 1991 and 2000 with ADT and RT for prostate cancer with a presenting PSA level of >40 ng/ml. The effects of patient age, tumor (presenting PSA level, Gleason score, and T stage), and treatment (total ADT duration and pre-RT PSA level) characteristics on rates of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 6.45 years (range, 0.09–15.19 years). Actuarial bDFS, PCSS, and OS rates at 5 years were 39%, 87%, and 78%, respectively, and 17%, 64%, and 45%, respectively, at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, the pre-RT PSA level (≤0.1 versus >0.1 ng/ml) was the single most significant prognostic factor for bDFS (p = 0.033) and OS (p = 0.018) rates, whereas age, T stage, Gleason score, and ADT duration (≤6 versus >6 months) were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusion: In prostate cancer patients with high presenting PSA levels, >40 ng/ml, treated with combined modality, neoadjuvant ADT, and RT, the pre-RT PSA nadir, rather than ADT duration, was significantly associated with improved survival. This observation supports the use of neoadjuvant ADT to drive PSA levels to below 0.1 ng/ml before initiation of RT, to optimize outcomes for patients with extreme-risk disease.

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)-Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Evidence-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men and their second or third leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for PC has been in common practice for more than 20 years. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the effectiveness of PSA-based population screening programs for PC to inform policy decisions in a publicly funded health care system. A systematic review of bibliographic databases was performed for systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials (RCT) of PSA-based population screening programs for PC. A broad search strategy was employed to identify studies reporting on key outcomes of PC mortality and all-cause mortality. The search identified 5 systematic reviews and 6 RCTs. None of the systematic reviews found a statistically significant reduction in relative risk (RR) of PC mortality or overall mortality with PSA-based screening. PC mortality reductions were found to vary by country, by screening program, and by age of men at study entry. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer found a statistically significant reduction in RR in PC mortality at 11-year follow-up (0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.92), although the absolute risk reduction was small (1.0/10,000 person-years). However, the primary treatment for PCs differed significantly between countries and between trial arms. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) found a statistically non-significant increase in RR for PC mortality with 13-year follow-up (1.09; 95% CI, 0.87-1.36). The degree of opportunistic screening in the control arm of the PLCO trial, however, was high. None of the RCTs found a reduction in all-cause mortality and all found a statistically significant increase in the detection of mainly low-risk, organ-confined PCs in the screening arm. There was no evidence of a PC mortality reduction in the American PLCO trial, which

  12. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)–Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men and their second or third leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for PC has been in common practice for more than 20 years. Objectives A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the effectiveness of PSA-based population screening programs for PC to inform policy decisions in a publicly funded health care system. Data Sources A systematic review of bibliographic databases was performed for systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials (RCT) of PSA-based population screening programs for PC. Review Methods A broad search strategy was employed to identify studies reporting on key outcomes of PC mortality and all-cause mortality. Results The search identified 5 systematic reviews and 6 RCTs. None of the systematic reviews found a statistically significant reduction in relative risk (RR) of PC mortality or overall mortality with PSA-based screening. PC mortality reductions were found to vary by country, by screening program, and by age of men at study entry. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer found a statistically significant reduction in RR in PC mortality at 11-year follow-up (0.79; 95% CI, 0.67–0.92), although the absolute risk reduction was small (1.0/10,000 person-years). However, the primary treatment for PCs differed significantly between countries and between trial arms. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) found a statistically non-significant increase in RR for PC mortality with 13-year follow-up (1.09; 95% CI, 0.87–1.36). The degree of opportunistic screening in the control arm of the PLCO trial, however, was high. None of the RCTs found a reduction in all-cause mortality and all found a statistically significant increase in the detection of mainly low-risk, organ-confined PCs in the screening arm. Conclusions There was no

  13. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in hypogonadal men during 6 years of transdermal testosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Jean-Pierre; Gardette, Jean; Rollet, Jacques; Legros, Jean-Jacques

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Hypogonadism affects an estimated 2-4 million men in the USA, but only 5% receive treatment. Testosterone replacement therapy reduces the effects of testosterone deficiency on sexual function, mood and energy in hypogonadal patients. Long-term hypogonadism management requires testosterone treatment to restore serum concentrations of testosterone and its active metabolites, within physiological ranges; a testosterone preparation that achieves physiological plasma concentrations without supra-physiological escape is a preferred option. A previous 1-year study European clinical study showed the efficacy and safety of a transdermal testosterone patch (Testopatch(®) ). The present study shows the long-term (6-year) safety and efficacy of Testopatch in patients with primary or secondary hypogonadism. We show that, over the long-term, Testopatch was associated with no relevant changes in PSA concentration and PSA velocity, or any significant prostate risks (there were no cases of prostate cancer). To assess the change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in patients with primary or secondary hypogonadism, receiving transdermal testosterone. This was an interventional, 6-year study, conducted in Urology and Endocrinology centres in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain. Participants were primary (48%) or secondary (52%) hypogonadal patients who received two 60 cm(2) testosterone patches (Testopatch(®) ), delivering 4.8 mg of testosterone per day, applied every 2 days. During treatment, total testosterone (TT), dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol and, PSA concentrations were measured in a centralised laboratory every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months thereafter. In all, 200 patients [mean (sd) age 41.0 (12.5) years, body weight 82.5 (13.7) kg, height 177.2 (9.3) cm, body mass index 26.2 (3.4) kg/m(2) ] were treated with transdermal testosterone patches. In all, 161 patients

  14. Suitability of quality control materials for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement: inter-method variability of common tumor marker control materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Zivjena; Dnistrian, Ann; Nilsson, Olle; Lilja, Hans G; Plebani, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Quality control materials with minimal inter-assay differences and clinically relevant proportions of different molecular forms of the analyte are needed to optimize intra- and inter-laboratory accuracy and precision. We assessed if clinically relevant total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels were present in seven commercially available Multi Constituent Tumor Marker Controls (MC-TMC). Further, we determined the concentration of free PSA (fPSA) and calculated the percentage of free PSA (%fPSA) in all materials. Finally, we determined variability of TMC materials across several commonly used PSA platforms. All MC-TMC materials contained at least one concentration of tPSA in normal and pathologic range. Control materials varied in the amount of fPSA and %fPSA, with most controls consisting of fPSA only and only one MC-TMC containing medically relevant levels of around 35% fPSA. Only a minority of MC-TMC materials showed minimal variability across four PSA methods while the majority of PSA controls showed wide inter-method differences. Use of many commercially available controls for PSA could lead to biased PSA measurements because they contain medically irrelevant proportions of fPSA and show significant variation among different PSA assay platforms.

  15. Take Charge. Take the Test. "You Know" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  16. Outcomes of men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level as their sole preoperative intermediate- or high-risk feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Farzana A; Sundi, Debasish; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Ball, Mark W; Humphreys, Elizabeth B; Han, Misop; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W; Carter, H Ballentine; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Schaeffer, Edward M; Ross, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the post-prostatectomy and long-term outcomes of men presenting with an elevated pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (>10 ng/mL), but otherwise low-risk features (biopsy Gleason score ≤6 and clinical stage ≤T2a). PSA-incongruent intermediate-risk (PII) cases were defined as those patients with preoperative PSA >10 and ≤20 ng/mL but otherwise low-risk features, and PSA-incongruent high-risk (PIH) cases were defined as men with PSA >20 ng/mL but otherwise low-risk features. Our institutional radical prostatectomy database (1992-2012) was queried and the results were stratified into D'Amico low-, intermediate- and high risk, PSA-incongruent intermediate-risk and PSA-incongruent high-risk cases. Prostate cancer (PCa) features and outcomes were evaluated using appropriate comparative tests. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, race and year of surgery. Of the total cohort of 17 608 men, 1132 (6.4%) had PII-risk disease and 183 (1.0%) had PIH-risk disease. Compared with the low-risk group, the odds of upgrading at radical prostatectomy (RP) were 2.20 (95% CI 1.93-2.52; P PSA density (PSAD): men in the PII group who had a PSAD PSA >20 ng/mL or men with PSA >10 and ≤20 ng/mL with a PSAD ≥0.15 ng/mL/g, but otherwise low-risk PCa, are at greater risk of adverse pathological and oncological outcomes and may be inappropriate candidates for active surveillance. These men are at greater risk of having anterior tumours that are undersampled at biopsy, so if treatment is deferred, ancillary testing such as anterior zone sampling or magnetic resonance imaging should be strongly encouraged. Men with elevated PSA levels >10 and ≤20 ng/mL but low PSAD have outcomes similar to those in the low-risk group, and consideration of surveillance is appropriate in these cases. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  17. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pPSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  18. Enzymatic activity of free-prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) is not required for some of its physiological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C; Nair, Bindukumar B; Chakravarthi, Srikant; Zhou, Rita; Godoy, Alejandro; Mohler, James L; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Schwartz, Stanley A; Smith, Gary J

    2011-11-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a well known biomarker for early diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Furthermore, PSA has been documented to have anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) involved in regulation of these processes, in particular the role of the serine-protease enzymatic activity of PSA. Enzymatic activity of PSA isolated directly from seminal plasma was inhibited specifically (>95%) by incubation with zinc2+ . Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were utilized to compare/contrast the physiological effects of enzymatically active versus inactive PSA. Equimolar concentrations of enzymatically active PSA and PSA enzymatically inactivated by incubation with Zn2+ had similar physiological effects on HUVEC, including inhibiting the gene expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, like VEGF and bFGF, and up-regulation of expression of the anti-angiogenic growth factor IFN-γ; suppression of mRNA expression for markers of blood vessel development, like FAK, FLT, KDR, TWIST-1; P-38; inhibition of endothelial tube formation in the in vitro Matrigel Tube Formation Assay; and inhibition of endothelial cell invasion and migration properties. Our data provides compelling evidence that the transcriptional regulatory and the anti-angiogenic activities of human PSA are independent of the innate enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Enzymatic Activity of Free-Prostate-Specific Antigen (f-PSA) Is Not Required for Some of its Physiological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Chakravarthi, Srikant; Zhou, Rita; Godoy, Alejandro; Mohler, James L.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Smith, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a well known biomarker for early diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Furthermore, PSA has been documented to have anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) involved in regulation of these processes, in particular the role of the serine-protease enzymatic activity of PSA. METHODS Enzymatic activity of PSA isolated directly from seminal plasma was inhibited specifically (>95%) by incubation with zinc2+. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were utilized to compare/contrast the physiological effects of enzymatically active versus inactive PSA. RESULTS Equimolar concentrations of enzymatically active PSA and PSA enzymatically inactivated by incubation with Zn2+ had similar physiological effects on HUVEC, including inhibiting the gene expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, like VEGF and bFGF, and up-regulation of expression of the anti-angiogenic growth factor IFN-γ; suppression of mRNA expression for markers of blood vessel development, like FAK, FLT, KDR, TWIST-1; P-38; inhibition of endothelial tube formation in the in vitro Matrigel Tube Formation Assay; and inhibition of endothelial cell invasion and migration properties. DISCUSSION Our data provides compelling evidence that the transcriptional regulatory and the anti-angiogenic activities of human PSA are independent of the innate enzymatic activity PMID:21446007

  20. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA) Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES) antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA), from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA) or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA), combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates. PMID:27223609

  1. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA) Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES) antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA), from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA) or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA), combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  2. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Petitdidier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA, from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA, combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  3. The Importance of Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Nadir and Early Identification of PSA Relapse after 10 Years of Prostate Iodine 125 Seed Brachytherapy in Edinburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, D B; Kerr, G; Law, A B; Brush, J P; Keanie, J; Malik, J; Keough, W; Ronaldson, T; Lee, J; Kehoe, T

    2015-09-01

    To analyse our 5 and 10 year prostate brachytherapy outcome data and to assess the impact of PSA nadir on relapse free survival and whether an alternative definition of PSA relapse could detect men destined to fail by the Phoenix definition at an earlier time point. 474 men were treated over a 10 year period between 20012 and 2011 and divided into 2 five year cohorts for the purpose of the analysis. The risk of relapse is strongly predicted by post treat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir. After 3 years post-treatment, PSA nadir plus 0.4 ng/ml identified men at risk of relapse 17 months earlier than the Phoenix definition. The Phoenix definition of nadir plus 2.0 ng/ml does not allow the early identification of men destined to relapse. The initiation of salavage therapy at the earliest opportunity could potentially affect subsequent survival and an outline randomised controlled trial proposal is presented. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum fucosylated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) improves the differentiation of aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing Kay; Chen, Li; Ao, Ming-Hui; Chiu, Joyce Hanching; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, it is still challenging to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers (Pca) by non-invasive approaches. Our recent studies showed that overexpression of alpha (1-6) fucosyltransferase played an important role in Pca cells. In this study, we have investigated levels of glycoproteins and their fucosylated glycoforms in sera of Pca patients, as well as the potential utility of fucosylated glycoproteins in the identification of aggressive Pca. Serum samples from histomorphology-proven Pca cases were included. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and their fucosylated glycoforms were captured by Aleuria Aurantia Lectin (AAL), followed by the multiplex magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The level of fucosylated glycoproteins was correlated with patients' Gleason score of the tumor. Among three fucosylated glycoproteins, the fucosylated PSA was significantly increased and correlated with the tumor Gleason score (pPSA showed a marked increase in aggressive tumors in comparison to non-aggressive tumors. ROC analysis also showed an improved predictive power of fucosylated PSA in the identification of aggressive Pca. Our data demonstrated that fucosylated PSA has a better predictive power to differentiate aggressive tumors from non-aggressive tumors, than that of native PSA and two other glycoproteins. The fucosylated PSA has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker.

  5. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  6. Recombinant forms of Leishmania amazonensis excreted/secreted promastigote surface antigen (PSA) induce protective immune responses in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES) antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA), fr...

  7. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune...... to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with previous L. major infection had varying proliferative responses to PSA-2 derived from L. donovani promastigotes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by PSA-2 from L. major produced high amounts of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor...

  8. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels.

  9. Value of free/total prostate-specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratios for prostate cancer detection in patients with total serum prostate-specific antigen between 4 and 10 ng/mL: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Huang, Ya-Liang; Song, Hong-Jun; Wang, You-Juan

    2018-03-01

    Prostate carcinoma is a common disease that occurs in men over 50 years old. Many studies have explored the effect of free/total prostate-specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratio in monitoring prostate cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify the accuracy of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who have PSA levels of 4 to 10 ng/mL. Databases searched included PubMed and OVID databases, from inception to March 2017, after a systematical review, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer were pooled. We used summary receiver operating characteristic curves to summarize overall test performance. Fifteen case-control studies from 14 articles were identified. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer ranged from 0.5 to 0.94 (pooled sensitivity 0.70, 95% CI: 0.67-0.72), whereas its specificity ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 (pooled specificity 0.55, 95% CI: 0.57-0.60). The positive likelihood ratio was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.56-2.20), negative likelihood ratio was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.34-0.53), and diagnostic odds ratio was 4.81 (9.53% CI: 3.33-6.94). The f/t PSA ratio determination has a low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of prostate cancer; it would not be useful for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by itself. The results of f/t PSA ratio measurements should refer to the clinical manifestations and the results of conventional tests such as biopsies.

  10. Population-based analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in younger men (<55 years) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Weranja K B; Kim, Simon P; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Sengupta, Shomik; Hounsome, Luke; Barber, Jim; Jones, Richard; Davis, Paul; Bolton, Damien; Persad, Raj

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the trends in opportunistic PSA screening in Australia, focusing on younger men (PSA test and TRUS-guided biopsy between 2001 and 2008 in Australia were analysed using data from the Australian Cancer registry (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) and Medicare databases. The Victorian cancer registry was used to obtain Gleason scores. Age-standardized and age-specific rates were calculated, along with the incidence of PCa, and correlated with Gleason scores. A total 5 174 031 PSA tests detected 128 167 PCas in the period 2001-2008. During this period, PSA testing increased by 146% (a mean of 4629 tests per 100 000 men annually), with 80 and 59% increases in the rates of TRUS-guided biopsy and incidence of PCa, respectively. The highest increases in PSA screening occurred in men 7 tumours in patients aged PSA testing, especially in men PSA screening was associated with high rates of negative TRUS-biopsy and the detection of low/intermediate grade PCa among younger patients. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  11. Towards One-Step Quantitation of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Microfluidic Devices: Feasibility of Optical Detection with Nanoparticle Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana I; Wichers, Jan H; van Amerongen, Aart; Reis, Nuno M

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker detection would be beneficial to cancer diagnostics, improving early detection and therefore increasing chances of survival. Nanoparticle-based detection is routinely used in one-step nitrocellulose-based lateral flow (LF) immunoassays; however, it is well established within the scientific diagnostic community that LF technology lacks sensitivity for measuring biomarkers, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA). A trend in point-of-care (POC) protein biomarker quantitation is the miniaturization of immunoassays in microfluidic devices. This work aimed at testing the feasibility of carbon and gold nanoparticles as immunoassay labels for PSA detection with cost-effective optical detection in a novel microfluidic POC platform called microcapillary film (MCF), consisting of a parallel array of fluoropolymer microcapillaries with 200-μm internal diameter. With neutravidin-coated carbon, nanoparticles were able to quantify an immobilized biotinylated monoclonal antibody (coating solution from 10 to 40 μg/ml) and PSA was successfully quantified in a sandwich assay using silver-enhanced gold nanoparticles and a flatbed scanner; yet, the dynamic range was limited to 10-100 ng/ml. Although direct optical detection of PSA without enzymatic amplification or fluorophores is possible and technically appealing for the simplified fluidics and signal scanning setups involved, ultimately, the binding of a thin layer of nanoparticles onto the wall of transparent microcapillaries is not sufficient to cause a significant drop on the optical colorimetric signal. Future studies will explore the use of fluorescence nanoparticles.

  12. Impact of Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Screening Trials and Revised PSA Screening Guidelines on Rates of Prostate Biopsy and Postbiopsy Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Boris; Van Houten, Holly K; Herrin, Jeph; Moreira, Daniel M; Kim, Simon P; Shah, Nilay D; Karnes, R Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and postbiopsy complications represent important risks of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Although landmark randomized trials and updated guidelines have challenged routine PSA screening, it is unclear whether these publications have affected rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications. To evaluate whether publication of the 2008 and 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations, the 2009 European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, or the 2013 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines was associated with changes in rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications, and to identify predictors of postbiopsy complications. This quasiexperimental study used administrative claims of 5279315 commercially insured US men aged ≥40 yr from 2005 to 2014, of whom 104584 underwent biopsy. Publications on PSA screening. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate the association of publications with rates of biopsy and 30-d complications. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of complications. From 2005 to 2014, biopsy rates fell 33% from 64.1 to 42.8 per 100000 person-months, with immediate reductions following the 2008 USPSTF recommendations (-10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.1 to -3.0; pantigen screening; however, the relative morbidity of biopsy continues to increase. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K; Ismail, A; Mustafa, M D; Kordofani, A Y; Bendtzen, K; Kharazmi, A; Theander, T G

    1998-03-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with previous L. major infection had varying proliferative responses to PSA-2 derived from L. donovani promastigotes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by PSA-2 from L. major produced high amounts of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-beta, and little interleukin-4, thereby showing a Th1 cytokine pattern. Parallel cultures showed clear Th1 and Th2 response patterns to purified protein derivative of tuberculin or tetanus toxoid, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that PSA-2 induced blastogenesis in the CD3 positive population and that these cells were the major source of interferon-gamma. The results show that Th1-like cells recognising PSA-2 are expanded during infection by L. major and that they maintain their Th1-like cytokine profile upon reactivation in vitro. Since immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis is mediated by antigen-specific Th1-like cells, PSA-2 might be considered a vaccine candidate for human leishmaniasis.

  14. Prostate specific antigen testing policy worldwide varies greatly and seems not to be in accordance with guidelines : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Löwik, Sabine; Hirdes, Willem H.; Nijman, Rien M.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing is widely used, but guidelines on follow-up are unclear. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine follow-up policy after PSA testing by general practitioners (GPs) and non-urologic hospitalists, the use of a cut-off

  15. In-vitro radioimmunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the screening and management of prostate cancer in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; El Ahmadiyeh, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Immunoassays for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are used to detect early-stage prostate cancer, monitor disease progress, and evaluate therapeutic response. At least two forms of PSA, free PSA (F-PSA) and PSA complexed to alpha-1 anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT) are detected by commercial PSA assays. The fraction of F-PSA is shown to be smaller in patients with untreated prostate cancer than in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, combined measurements of both total and free PSA are used for a better discrimination between BPH and prostate cancer. Detection of PSA for screening of prostate cancer has been a subject of debate for many years. The reason of this debate is mainly because screening for prostate cancer is not cost-effective, as was shown by studies undertaken in Europe and United States. In Lebanon, no previous programs of screening for prostate cancer were done and so the incidence of this cancer is not known. Recently, the cancer registry in Lebanon found that lung and prostate are the highest cancers in the Lebanese men. The Lebanese association of urologists noted that 80% of men suffering from prostate cancer consult their urologists when the cancer is spread outside the prostate capsule. There is a socio-economic barrier behind this delay. We decided to undertake this study for the screening of prostate cancer in Lebanon, taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts and the experience of other countries. Volunteer men aged 45 and above, who were not visitors of a urology clinic, were selected randomly. A blood sample was withdrawn from each man, then a rectal examination was done and a questionnaire was filled. The blood serum separated was assayed for total PSA first and where abnormal or borderline, was assayed for free PSA. The percentage of free to total PSA was calculated. Men having borderline or abnormal results did undergo more investigations for the definitive diagnosis of their samples. IRMA

  16. [Retrospective evaluation of PSA density for selection of biopsy candidates with prostate specific antigen in the gray zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochigi, T; Kawamura, S; Numahata, K; Tokuyama, S; Kuwahara, M; Horaguchi, T; Satou, S

    2001-09-01

    We examined the usefulness of prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) for selection of biopsy candidate with prostate specific antigen levels between 4.1 and 10.0 ng./ml. in prostate cancer screening retrospectively. The screening was conducted on male candidates in Natori city, aged 55 years or older, for 6 years from 1994 through 1999. We could analyze serum PSA levels and PSA density in 118 men with PSA levels between 4.1 and 10.0 ng./ml. All of 118 men underwent ultrasound guided systematic prostate biopsy regardless of findings of digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Prostate volume was estimated by transrectal ultrasound measurements using the prolate ellipse formula (pi/6 x length x width x height). PSAD was calculated by dividing serum PSA level by prostate volume. Serum PSA levels were determined by Tandem-R assay. In 118 men, twenty-five men had prostate cancer. There was no significant difference in mean PSA between those with prostate cancer and those without prostate cancer, but the difference was significant in the mean PSA density (mean 0.26 and 0.16, respectively, p PSA and PSAD demonstrated superior benefit for PSAD in 118 men. A sensitivity, a specificity, a positive predictive value and a negative predictive value of PSAD cut-off of 0.15 were 88%, 52.7%, 33.3% and 94.2%. PSAD cut-off of 0.18 showed the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity, which gave a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 72%, a positive predictive value of 43.5% and a negative predictive value of 93.1%. PSAD cut-off of 0.15 would seem to be preferable to cut-off of 0.18 because of less cancer missing. Although further studies are needed to determine optimal cut-off value to be used in clinical practice, PASD seems to be useful for the selection of biopsy candidates with PSA levels of 4.1 to 10.0 ng./ml. in the prostate cancer screening.

  17. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune......-beta, and little interleukin-4, thereby showing a Th1 cytokine pattern. Parallel cultures showed clear Th1 and Th2 response patterns to purified protein derivative of tuberculin or tetanus toxoid, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that PSA-2 induced blastogenesis in the CD3 positive population...... and that these cells were the major source of interferon-gamma. The results show that Th1-like cells recognising PSA-2 are expanded during infection by L. major and that they maintain their Th1-like cytokine profile upon reactivation in vitro. Since immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis is mediated by antigen...

  18. Formulation of the bivalent prostate cancer vaccine with surgifoam elicits antigen-specific effector T cells in PSA-transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Dev

    2017-10-13

    We previously developed and characterized an adenoviral-based prostate cancer vaccine for simultaneous targeting of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). We also demonstrated that immunization of mice with the bivalent vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) inhibited the growth of established prostate tumors. However, there are multiple challenges hindering the success of immunological therapies in the clinic. One of the prime concerns has been to overcome the immunological tolerance and maintenance of long-term effector T cells. In this study, we further characterized the use of the bivalent vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) in a transgenic mouse model expressing human PSA in the mouse prostate. We demonstrated the expression of PSA analyzed at the mRNA level (by RT-PCR) and protein level (by immunohistochemistry) in the prostate lobes harvested from the PSA-transgenic (PSA-Tg) mice. We established that the administration of the bivalent vaccine in surgifoam to the PSA-Tg mice induces strong PSA-specific effector CD8 + T cells as measured by IFN-γ secretion and in vitro cytotoxic T-cell assay. Furthermore, the use of surgifoam with Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA vaccine allows multiple boosting vaccinations with a significant increase in antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. These observations suggest that the formulation of the bivalent prostate cancer vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) with surgifoam bypasses the neutralizing antibody response, thus allowing multiple boosting. This formulation is also helpful for inducing an antigen-specific immune response in the presence of self-antigen, and maintains long-term effector CD8 + T cells. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Klaasen, Veronique M; Smit, Liesbeth A; Giltay, Erik J; de Goede, Janette; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Kromhout, Daan; Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0·12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

  20. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background. Social differences in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality might be related to testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Although routine PSA screening is not recommended in Denmark, testing without clinical indication increased during the past decade. We evaluated...... associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...

  1. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  2. Prostate-specific antigen density: a better index of obesity-related PSA decrease in ostensibly healthy Korean men with a PSA <3.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Heon; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Song, Yun Seob; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) has a more significant correlation with obesity than prostate-specific antigen (PSA). From October 2007 to March 2012, a total of 2402 Korean men over 40 years old who visited our clinic for prostate examination were enrolled in this study. All men underwent anthropometric measurements, digital rectal examination, serum PSA determination, and transrectal ultrasound examination. Body mass index (BMI) was grouped according to the Asia-Pacific criteria of obesity into the following categories: underweight or normal: less than 23; overweight: 23 to 24.9; obese: 25 kg/m(2) or greater. A partial correlation and linear trend model among PSA, PSAD, and BMI were conducted, after adjusting for age. Finally, data from 2294 men in total were collected. Mean age was 52.3 years and mean PSA was 1.07 ng/mL. Partial correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between BMI and both PSA and PSAD (P = .0017 and PSA and PSAD (P = .0162 and PSA showed a significant linear trend only in the group with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). PSAD demonstrated a more significant negative correlation with obesity than PSA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A viral vaccine encoding PSA induces antigen spreading to a common set of self proteins in prostate cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslinger, Nancy J.; Ng, Alvin; Tsang, Kwong-Yok; Ferrara, Theresa; Schlom, Jeff; Gulley, James L.; Nelson, Brad H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported a randomized phase II clinical trial combining a poxvirus-based vaccine encoding PSA with radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Here we investigate whether vaccination against PSA induced immune responses to additional tumor-associated antigens and how this influenced clinical outcome. Experimental Design Pre- and post-treatment serum samples from patients treated with vaccine + external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) versus EBRT alone were evaluated by Western blot and serological screening of a prostate cancer cDNA expression library (SEREX) to assess the development of treatment-associated autoantibody responses. Results Western blotting revealed treatment-associated autoantibody responses in 15/33 (45.5%) patients treated with vaccine + EBRT versus 1/8 (12.5%) treated with EBRT alone. SEREX screening identified 18 antigens, which were assembled on an antigen array with 16 previously identified antigens. Antigen array screening revealed that seven of 33 patients (21.2%) treated with vaccine + EBRT demonstrated a vaccine-associated autoantibody response to four ubiquitously expressed self antigens: DIRC2, NDUFS1, MRFAP1 and MATN2. These responses were not seen in patients treated with EBRT alone, or other control groups. Patients with autoantibody responses to this panel of antigens had a trend towards decreased biochemical-free survival. Conclusions Vaccine + EBRT induced antigen spreading in a large proportion of patients. A subset of patients developed autoantibodies to a panel of four self antigens and showed a trend toward inferior outcomes. Thus, cancer vaccines directed against tumor-specific antigens can trigger autoantibody responses to self proteins, which may influence the efficacy of vaccination. PMID:20562209

  4. Proposal for the development of IRMA kits for prostate specific antigen, PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The following are the major objectives of this research proposal: (1) To establish a protocol for biotinylation of monoclonal antibody, mabs or polyclonal antibody against the antigen, PSA. This shall include the purifying procedure using size exclusion chromatography on HPLC for use in binding assays to determine its binding capacity with PSA. (2) To establish an immunoassay protocol for IRMAs, using the technique of immobilizing the capture mabs on solid phase (surfaces of polystyrene) and the radioiodine labeled streptavidin-biotinylated bridge system. This will include optimization of the assay design and a Quality Control Assessment with the inclusion of standards derived from the Agency and subsequent work to determine its sensitivity (Minimum Detection Limit) and working range (the phenomenon of Hooke's Effect). An in-house quality control would also be useful to determine the assay's suitability for screening the tumour marker from patient samples obtained from neighboring hospitals (such as the Science University of Malaysia Hospital and the National University Hospital) and private clinical pathology laboratory (such as the Pantai Medical Centre) which compare concurrently the results with existing commercial immunoassay kits (RIA/IRMA). These work and that described earlier in (1) shall be done entirely at MINT. (3) To perform an external coordinated external Quality Control Assurance Programme with other research institutes (such as the Department of Immunology, Medical faculty, Science University of Malaysia and government hospitals) in Malaysia on several batches of the IRMA kits (produced at MINT and proven to be suitable for screening PSA in human serum from in-house Quality Control data, as mentioned earlier in (2)). This coordinated work shall include analyzing and documenting all values obtained from a group of patient's sample in clinical conditions such as batch to batch variation, inter and intra-assay variations and mean values for negative

  5. A Comparison of the Prognostic Value of Early PSA Test-Based Variables Following External Beam Radiotherapy, With or Without Preceding Androgen Deprivation: Analysis of Data From the TROG 96.01 Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, David S.; Denham, James W.; Joseph, David; Matthews, John; Atkinson, Chris; Spry, Nigel A.; Duchesne, Gillian; Ebert, Martin; Steigler, Allison; Delahunt, Brett; D'Este, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to compare the prognostic value of early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test-based variables for the 802 eligible patients treated in the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Patients in this trial had T2b, T2c, T3, and T4 N0 prostate cancer and were randomized to 0, 3, or 6 months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NADT) prior to and during radiation treatment at 66 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The early PSA test-based variables evaluated were the pretreatment initial PSA (iPSA) value, PSA values at 2 and 4 months into NADT, the PSA nadir (nPSA) value after radiation in all patients, and PSA response signatures in men receiving radiation. Comparisons of endpoints were made using Cox models of local progression-free survival, distant failure-free survival, biochemical failure-free survival, and prostate cancer-specific survival. Results: The nPSA value was a powerful predictor of all endpoints regardless of whether NADT was given before radiation. PSA response signatures also predicted all endpoints in men treated by radiation alone. iPSA and PSA results at 2 and 4 months into NADT predicted biochemical failure-free survival but not any of the clinical endpoints. nPSA values correlated with those of iPSA, Gleason grade, and T stage and were significantly higher in men receiving radiation alone than in those receiving NADT. Conclusions: The postradiation nPSA value is the strongest prognostic indicator of all early PSA-based variables. However, its use as a surrogate endpoint needs to take into account its dependence on pretreatment variables and treatment method.

  6. Influence of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume, and PSA density on prostate cancer detection with contrast-enhanced sonography using contrast-tuned imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao Wei; Li, Hong Li; Du, Jing; Xia, Jian Guo; Guo, Yi Fen; Xin, Mei; Li, Feng Hua

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume, and PSA density on prostate cancer detection with contrast-enhanced sonography using contrast-tuned imaging technology compared with baseline imaging (combination of grayscale and power Doppler imaging). In all, 161 patients were evaluated with grayscale, power Doppler, and contrast-tuned imaging. Biopsy was performed at 10 sites in each patient. When an abnormality was shown on any of these examinations, the biopsy was directed toward the abnormality. Cancer detection between contrast-tuned imaging and baseline imaging was compared for different subgroups according to PSA level (4-10, 10-20, and >20 ng/mL), prostate volume (65 mL), and PSA density (0.50). In total, 413 sites were malignant in 78 patients. By biopsy site, the accuracy was greater for contrast-tuned imaging than for baseline imaging in all PSA level, prostate volume, and PSA density subgroups except 0.30 to 0.50 (all P PSA levels between 4 and 20 ng/mL, prostate volumes between 35 and 65 mL, and PSA densities between 0.15 and 0.50 than baseline imaging (all P PSA level subgroups except 10 to 20 ng/mL, all prostate volume subgroups except 35 to 50 mL, and all PSA density subgroups except 0.30 to 0.50 (all P PSA levels, prostate volumes, and PSA densities.

  7. Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a randomised, prospective, controlled multi-institutional trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggener, Scott E; Large, Michael C; Gerber, Glenn S; Pettus, Joseph; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Smith, Norm D; Kundu, Shilajit; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Zorn, Kevin; Raman, Jay D

    2013-11-01

    To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Men of any age with a PSA level of >2.5 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination undergoing their first prostate biopsy were recruited from five medical centres. Patients with previous biopsy, prostate cancer, urinary tract infection (UTI) or prostatitis within the prior year, antibiotic use within 1 month, 5α-reductase inhibitor use, allergy to fluoroquinolones or clinical suspicion of UTI were excluded. Men were randomised to 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin or no antibiotic. A PSA measurement was obtained 21-45 days after randomisation immediately before prostate biopsy. The primary endpoint was the change in PSA level between baseline and immediately before biopsy. Complete data were available for 77 men with a mean (interquartile range) age of 60.6 (53-66) years. In the control group of men not receiving antibiotic (39 men), the mean baseline and pre-biopsy PSA levels were 6.5 and 6.9 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.8). In men receiving ciprofloxacin (38 men), the mean baseline PSA level was 7.6 ng/mL and after 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin was 8.5 ng/mL (P = 0.7). Compared with controls not receiving antibiotic, use of ciprofloxacin was not associated with a statistically significant change in PSA level (P = 0.33). Prostate cancer was detected in 36 (47%) men, 23 (59%) in the control group and 13 (34%) in the antibiotic group (P = 0.04). Detection rates were not significantly associated with the change in PSA level between baseline and biopsy. The primary limitation of the study is early stoppage due to an interim futility analysis and poor accrual. Despite not meeting the target accrual goal, empiric use of antibiotics for asymptomatic men with an elevated PSA level does not appear to be of clinical benefit. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  8. Shared decision making in prostate-specific antigen testing with men older than 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Berkowitz, Zahava; Richards, Thomas B; Richardson, Lisa C

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how shared decision making (SDM) is being carried out between older men and their health care providers. Our study aimed to describe the use of SDM key elements and assess their associations with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing among older men. We conducted descriptive and logistic regression modeling analyses using the 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Age-specific prevalence of PSA testing was similar in 2005 and 2010. In 2010, 44.1% of men aged ≥70 years had PSA testing. Only 27.2% (95% confidence interval, 22.2-32.9) of them reported having discussions about both advantages and disadvantages of testing. Multiple regression analyses showed that PSA-based screening was positively associated with discussions of advantages only (P < .001) and with discussions of both advantages and disadvantages (P < .001) compared with no discussion. Discussion of scientific uncertainties was not associated with PSA testing. Efforts are needed to increase physicians' awareness of and adherence to PSA-based screening recommendations. Given that discussions of both advantages and disadvantages increased the uptake of PSA testing and discussion of scientific uncertainties has no effect, additional research about the nature, context, and extent of SDM and about patients' knowledge, values, and preferences regarding PSA-based screening is warranted.

  9. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    ículas seminais e testículos. Observou-se nos Hamsters adultos (n=20, setenta por cento de alterações nos anexos sexuais a saber: um caso (5% de processo supurativo das vesículas seminais, um caso (5% de processo inflamatório isolado das vesículas seminais, um caso (5% de Processo inflamatório das vesículas seminais, HBP e prostatite concomitante e um caso (5% de infarto testicular e prostatite. Onze animais (55%, dos Hamsters adultos, apresentaram HBP (Hiperplasia Benigna da Próstata. Conclusão: A técnica cirúrgica descrita mostrou-se eficiente para a obtenção dos orgãos e estruturas do aparelho geniturinário, estudo histológico desses orgãos e dosagem do PSA no Hamster Sírio, Mesocricetus auratus.Purpose: To explain the available technique in collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and the genitourinary system extracting from Syrian Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, and correspond PSA findings to anexed sexual histologic changes. Methods: Thirty (n=30 Hamsters were used in the experiment: ten (n=10 animals were on the average age of 47,5 days on the decease mourent, being qualified as young and twenty ( n=20 animals over the age of one year were qualified as adults. After being under chetamina cloridate and diazepam anesthesia, on the superior abdomen level, c. 1,5mL to 2,0mL of blood were collected for total PSA dosing though ELISA method, with human antigen. They died after blood extracting. After verifying the animal death, laparatomy was carried out, extracting in complete monoblock the genitourinary system for a histologic study of sexual anexes. A PSA correlation was set with the found histologic changes. Results: An excellent anesthesian plan was obtained after shooting chetamina cloridate and diazepam intraperitoneum on the animals, that made possible to collect blood through the cava vein trans-derm via to the superior abdomen for the PSA dosing. The animal died after blood collecting. Laparatomy was carried out with the complete

  10. Diagnostic value of microRNAs in prostate cancer patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between 2, and 10 ng/mL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayır, Serin; Muşlu, Necati; Erden, Sema; Bozlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prostate specific antigen (PSA), used for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), is one of the best tumour markers known so far. However, in situations when PSA is between 2–10 ng/mL, which is named as grey zone, PSA falls short of distinguishing benign prostate diseases from PCa. On the other hand, it was demonstrated in many previous studies that microRNA (miRNA) could be a marker for cancer. Therefore, in this study, it was aimed to enhance the diagnostic power of PSA, especially with grey zone patients, by the use of miRNA. Material and Methods Ninety-four patients included in the study were divided into three groups as “control group” (n=44, PSA=2–10 ng/mL and benign), “PCa 1 group” (n=37, PSA=2–10 ng/mL), and “PCa 2 group” (n=13, PSA >10 ng/mL), according to their pathological results and PSA levels. Free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (T-PSA) levels were measured with chemiluminometric sandwich immunoassay method. Expressions of miRNAs were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The most appropriate specificity, sensitivity and prediction values were found by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of total PSA, free/total PSA (f/T PSA) ratio, and miRNAs, and the diagnostic powers were compared with each other. Results Diagnostic powers of the f/T PSA ratio and miRNA were compared in PCa 1 and the control groups to determine the marker with higher area under the curve (AUC). It was shown that the diagnostic power of the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was higher than that obtained when they were used separately. Conclusion As a result, while making the the discrimination between benign and malignant prostate in patients with grey zone, it was determined that the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was more valuable than T-PSA or f/T PSA alone. It was thought that diagnostic role of miRNAs in the early diagnosis of the different stages of PCa needed to

  11. Diagnostic value of microRNAs in prostate cancer patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between 2, and 10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayır, Serin; Muşlu, Necati; Erden, Sema; Bozlu, Murat

    2016-12-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA), used for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), is one of the best tumour markers known so far. However, in situations when PSA is between 2-10 ng/mL, which is named as grey zone, PSA falls short of distinguishing benign prostate diseases from PCa. On the other hand, it was demonstrated in many previous studies that microRNA (miRNA) could be a marker for cancer. Therefore, in this study, it was aimed to enhance the diagnostic power of PSA, especially with grey zone patients, by the use of miRNA. Ninety-four patients included in the study were divided into three groups as "control group" (n=44, PSA=2-10 ng/mL and benign), "PCa 1 group" (n=37, PSA=2-10 ng/mL), and "PCa 2 group" (n=13, PSA >10 ng/mL), according to their pathological results and PSA levels. Free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (T-PSA) levels were measured with chemiluminometric sandwich immunoassay method. Expressions of miRNAs were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The most appropriate specificity, sensitivity and prediction values were found by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of total PSA, free/total PSA (f/T PSA) ratio, and miRNAs, and the diagnostic powers were compared with each other. Diagnostic powers of the f/T PSA ratio and miRNA were compared in PCa 1 and the control groups to determine the marker with higher area under the curve (AUC). It was shown that the diagnostic power of the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was higher than that obtained when they were used separately. As a result, while making the the discrimination between benign and malignant prostate in patients with grey zone, it was determined that the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was more valuable than T-PSA or f/T PSA alone. It was thought that diagnostic role of miRNAs in the early diagnosis of the different stages of PCa needed to be examined in further studies with larger groups.

  12. SERIAL PERCENT-FREE PSA IN COMBINATION WITH PSA FOR POPULATION-BASED EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Gelfond, Jonathan; Goros, Martin; Herrera, Jesus; Strobl, Andreas; Thompson, Ian M.; Hernandez, Javier; Leach, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize the diagnostic properties of serial percent-free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in relation to PSA in a multi-ethnic, multi-racial cohort of healthy men. MATERIALS AND METHODS 6,982 percent-free PSA and PSA measures were obtained from participants in a 12 year+ Texas screening study comprising 1625 men who never underwent biopsy, 497 who underwent one or more biopsies negative for prostate cancer, and 61 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Area underneath the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC) for percent-free PSA, and the proportion of patients with fluctuating values across multiple visits were determined according to two thresholds (under 15% versus 25%) were evaluated. The proportion of cancer cases where percent-free PSA indicated a positive test before PSA > 4 ng/mL did and the number of negative biopsies that would have been spared by percent-free PSA testing negative were computed. RESULTS Percent-free PSA fluctuated around its threshold of PSA tested positive earlier than PSA in 71.4% (34.2%) of cancer cases, and among men with multiple negative biopsies and a PSA > 4 ng/mL, percent-free PSA would have tested negative in 31.6% (65.8%) instances. CONCLUSIONS Percent-free PSA should accompany PSA testing in order to potentially spare unnecessary biopsies or detect cancer earlier. When near the threshold, both tests should be repeated due to commonly observed fluctuation. PMID:26979652

  13. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezki, Jay P; Reddy, Chandana A; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A

    2006-02-01

    To analyze prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients treated with prostate brachytherapy (PI) with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up. The records of 162 patients treated with PI for localized prostate cancer with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up were reviewed. A variety of pretreatment and posttreatment variables were examined. Patients were coded as having a PSA bounce if their PSA achieved a nadir, elevated at least 0.2 ng/mL greater than that nadir, and decreased to, or below, the initial nadir. Two definitions of biochemical failure (bF) or biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) were used: the classic American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition of three consecutive rises (bF3) and the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition (bFn+2). Associations between a PSA bounce and the various pre- and posttreatment factors were assessed with logistic regression analysis, and the association between a PSA bounce and bF was examined with the log-rank test. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for differences in the PSA doubling time (PSADT) and the time to a PSA rise between the PSA bounce patients and the bF patients. PSADT was calculated from the nadir to the time of the first PSA rise, because this point is known first in the clinical setting. The 5-year overall bRFS rate was 87% for the bF3 definition and 96% for the bFn+2 definition. A PSA bounce was experienced by 75 patients (46.3%). Patients who experienced a PSA bounce were less likely to have a bF, regardless of the bRFS definition used (bF3: p=0.0015; bFn+2: p=0.0040). Among the pre- and posttreatment factors, only younger age predicted for a PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (p=0.0018). The use of androgen deprivation had no effect on PSA bounce. No difference was found in the PSADT between patients who had a PSA bounce and those with bF. The median PSADT for those with a PSA bounce was 8.3 months vs. 10.3 months using the bF3 definition and 8.8 months using

  14. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients treated with prostate brachytherapy (PI) with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up. Methods and Materials: The records of 162 patients treated with PI for localized prostate cancer with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up were reviewed. A variety of pretreatment and posttreatment variables were examined. Patients were coded as having a PSA bounce if their PSA achieved a nadir, elevated at least 0.2 ng/mL greater than that nadir, and decreased to, or below, the initial nadir. Two definitions of biochemical failure (bF) or biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) were used: the classic American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition of three consecutive rises (bF3) and the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition (bFn+2). Associations between a PSA bounce and the various pre- and posttreatment factors were assessed with logistic regression analysis, and the association between a PSA bounce and bF was examined with the log-rank test. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for differences in the PSA doubling time (PSADT) and the time to a PSA rise between the PSA bounce patients and the bF patients. PSADT was calculated from the nadir to the time of the first PSA rise, because this point is known first in the clinical setting. Results: The 5-year overall bRFS rate was 87% for the bF3 definition and 96% for the bFn+2 definition. A PSA bounce was experienced by 75 patients (46.3%). Patients who experienced a PSA bounce were less likely to have a bF, regardless of the bRFS definition used (bF3: p = 0.0015; bFn+2: p = 0.0040). Among the pre- and posttreatment factors, only younger age predicted for a PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0018). The use of androgen deprivation had no effect on PSA bounce. No difference was found in the PSADT between patients who had a PSA bounce and those with bF. The median PSADT for those with a PSA bounce was 8.3 months vs. 10.3 months

  15. Good performance of rapid prostate-specific antigen test for detection of semen exposure in women: implications for qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Alam, Anadil; Rahman, Motiur; Menezes, Prema; Chipato, Tsungai; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2009-08-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valid biomarker of semen exposure in women and has been used to assess reliability of self-reported sexual behavior as well as serve as a proxy measure for condom efficacy. Quantitative PSA tests are expensive and require specialized equipment. A simple, rapid, and inexpensive test for PSA would facilitate semen biomarker evaluation in a variety of research settings. This study evaluated the performance of a rapid PSA test compared with a quantitative assay to identify semen in vaginal swab specimens. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women participating in 2 separate research studies in Bangladesh and Zimbabwe. PSA in vaginal secretions was detected using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories) assay and the ABAcard p30 (Abacus Diagnostics) rapid immunochromatographic strip test. The ABAcard test was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 98%-100%) and 96% specific (95% CI, 93%-97%) compared with the quantitative test in detecting >1.0 ng PSA/mL vaginal swab eluate. Rapid PSA results were semiquantitative and correlated well with PSA concentrations (kappa = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.90). Rapid PSA detection requires no instrumentation and can be performed easily and economically. Having rapid PSA results available immediately following interview provides opportunities to explore discrepancies between the objective marker of recent semen exposure and self-reported behaviors.

  16. The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Antonio B; Caruso, Beatrice; Terrin, Alessandro; De Luyk, Nicolò; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Corsi, Paolo; Inverardi, Davide; De Marchi, Davide; Baldassarre, Roberto; Cerruto, Mariangela; Ghimenton, Claudio; Brunelli, Matteo; Zecchini Antoniolli, Stefano; Petrozziello, Aldo; Artibani, Walter

    2016-03-31

    To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ≥ 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA

  17. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  18. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  19. Seven-month prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is prognostic in patients with prostate cancer initially diagnosed with distant metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Carsten; Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Norum, Jan

    2018-03-05

    Recent research suggests that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 0.2 ng/dl at 7 months is prognostic for better survival with androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer regardless of chemotherapy with docetaxel. These results were derived from a group of clinical trial participants. Therefore, we performed a confirmatory analysis in patients treated outside of trials. Furthermore, we limited inclusion to those who presented with metastases at the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer (synchronous metastases). A retrospective analysis of a comprehensive regional database was performed. The oncology care in this region (Nordland County, Northern Norway) was provided by one center. Patients who were diagnosed between January 01, 2004 and December 31, 2016 were included. Of 101 patients, 90 were alive at 7 months and had their PSA value measured. Their median age was 68.5 years. Only six patients (7%) achieved PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/dl at 7 months. The median value was 4.05 ng/dl. Median overall survival was shortest in patients with PSA > 4.0 ng/dl (22 months). For patients with PSA between 0.3 and 4.0 ng/dl, median survival was 54 months (p = 0.0001). No further increase was seen in the small group with lower PSA. Statistical significance was also found for a cutoff of ≤ 1.0 ng/dl (55 vs. 32 months). PSA at 7 months predicts overall survival. Given that only 7% of patients achieved PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/dl, confirmation of this particular cutoff requires additional studies in other populations.

  20. Should baseline PSA testing be performed in men aged 40 to detect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We aimed to evaluate the presenting features and treatment outcome of prostate cancer in men aged <50 years, in a region where prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening is not readily available and most men present with symptoms. Methods. We analysed the data of 1 571 men with prostatic adenocarcinoma ...

  1. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2006-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  2. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2007-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  3. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Mediation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James

    2004-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  4. Comparative evaluation of PSA-Density, percent free PSA and total PSA

    OpenAIRE

    Ströbel, Greta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the prostate specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) (the quotient of PSA and prostate volume) compared with the percent free PSA (%fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in different total PSA (tPSA) ranges from 2 ng/mL to 20 ng/mL. Possible cut-off levels depending on the tPSA should be established. METHODS In total, 1809 men with no pretreatment of the prostate were enrolled between 1996 and 2004. Total and free PSA were measured with t...

  5. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  6. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  7. The PSA-2 glycoprotein complex of Leishmania major is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked promastigote surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P J; Spithill, T W; Handman, E

    1989-12-15

    Polyclonal rabbit antiserum to the Triton X-114 phase material of Leishmania major, which comprises the surface and internal integral membrane proteins of the parasite, was used to screen a lambda gt11 genomic expression library. A recombinant clone producing a Mr 123,000 beta-galactosidase fusion protein was isolated. Antibodies affinity-purified on this fusion protein recognized a complex of three surface-oriented proteins of promastigotes of L. major of Mr 94,000, 90,000, and 80,000 that we have termed the promastigote surface Ag 2 (PSA-2) complex. The DNA sequence of the insert in this clone predicted the 3' end of an open reading frame encoding a hydrophobic C-terminus. The inferred C-terminal sequence was suggestive of a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol membrane anchoring mechanism. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C treatment of the native PSA-2 proteins caused a shift in their electrophoretic mobility with an apparent reduction in the molecular weight of the PSA-2 complex. After phospholipase C treatment these proteins also displayed the cryptic cross-reacting determinant recognized by antibodies to the Trypanosoma brucei variant surface Ag. Moreover, PSA-2, which previously partitioned in the detergent phase after Triton X-114 phase separation, became water-soluble after phospholipase C treatment. Immunoprecipitation of the PSA-2 proteins with sera directed to lectin-binding proteins indicated that these polypeptides may be differentially glycosylated. Finally, these PSA-2 proteins were recognized by sera from some patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  8. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, S.; Paulica, P.; Querze', R.; Viglietta, G.; Trenta, A.

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed

  9. Importance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a predictive factor for concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and RADICAL prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nelson Gianni de; Soares, Daniel de Freitas Gomes; Rhoden, Ernani Luis

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby highlighting the importance of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level as a predictive factor of concordance. We retrospectively analyzed 253 radical prostatectomy cases performed between 2006 and 2011. The patients were divided into 4 groups for the data analysis and dichotomized according to the preoperative PSA, PSA level was 9.3±4.9 ng/mL. The overall concordance between the Gleason scores was 52%. Patients presented preoperative PSA levels PSA levels PSA levels ≥10 ng/dL (61% x 23%, p=0.023), which resulted in 77% upgrading after surgery in those patients with PSA levels ≥10 ng/dl. The Gleason scores of needle prostate biopsies and those of the surgical specimens were concordant in approximately half of the global sample. The preoperative PSA level was a strong predictor of discrepancy and might improve the identification of those patients who tended to be upgraded after surgery, particularly in patients with Gleason scores of 3 + 3 in the prostate biopsy and preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/mL.

  10. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Bota, Maria; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Zaridze, David G; Perrin, Paul; Fitzpatrick, John; Burnett, Arthur L; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Literature searches were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer, and placebo-controlled randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) that reported data on PSA and/or prostate cancer cases were retained. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. Twenty estimates were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary relative risk (SRR) of prostate cancer for an increase of 5 nmol/L of testosterone of 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96, 1.02) without heterogeneity (I² = 0%). Based on 26 trials, the overall difference in PSA levels after onset of use of TRT was 0.10 ng/mL (-0.28, 0.48). Results were similar when conducting heterogeneity analyses by mode of administration, region, age at baseline, baseline testosterone, trial duration, type of patients and type of TRT. The SRR of prostate cancer as an adverse effect from 11 TRT trials was 0.87 (95% CI 0.30; 2.50). Results were consistent across studies. Prostate cancer appears to be unrelated to endogenous testosterone levels. TRT for symptomatic hypogonadism does not appear to increase PSA levels nor the risk of prostate cancer development. The current data are reassuring, although some caution is essential until multiple studies with longer follow-up are available. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and follow-up investigations in Māori and non-Māori men in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertová, Zuzana; Scott, Nina; Brown, Charis; Hodgson, Fraser; Stewart, Alistair; Holmes, Michael; Lawrenson, Ross

    2014-08-26

    Māori men in New Zealand have higher mortality from prostate cancer, despite having lower incidence rates. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of screening for prostate cancer in primary care and follow-up investigations after an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) result in Māori and non-Māori men in order to help explain the observed differences in incidence and mortality. Men aged 40+ years were identified from 31 general practices across the Midland Cancer Network region. Computerised practice records were cross-referenced with laboratory data to determine the number and value of PSA tests undertaken between January 2007 and December 2010. Screening rates were calculated for the year 2010 by age, ethnicity, and practice. For men with an elevated PSA result information on specialist referrals and biopsy was extracted from practice records. Practice characteristics were assessed with respect to screening rates for Māori and non-Māori men. The final study population included 34,960 men aged 40+ years; 14% were Māori. Māori men were less likely to be screened in 2010 compared with non-Māori men (Mantel Haenszel (M-H) age-adjusted risk ratio (RR), 0.52 [95% CI, 0.48, 0.56]). When screened, Māori men were more than twice as likely to have an elevated PSA result compared with non-Māori men (M-H age-adjusted RR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.42, 3.31]). There were no significant differences between Māori and non-Māori men in the rate of follow-up investigations and cancer detection. Māori provider practices showed equal screening rates for Māori and non-Māori men, but they were also the practices with the lowest overall screening rates. Māori men were half as likely to be screened compared to non-Māori men. This probably explains the lower reported incidence of prostate cancer for Māori men. Practice characteristics had a major influence on screening rates. Large variation in screening behaviour among practices and differences in follow

  12. False positives observed on the Seratec® PSA SemiQuant Cassette Test with condom lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Sara E

    2012-11-01

    In the course of the validation of a new component of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) SemiQuant Cassette Test marketed by Seratec(®) , a false-positive reaction was observed when testing samples collected from the surface of unused, lubricated condoms. A variety of personal lubricants and condoms were tested to determine the frequency of the false positive, as well as its potential source. Samples were extracted in both water and the manufacturer-provided buffer, and the test was performed according to the manufacturer's suggested protocol. The false positive was observed intermittently, but occurred consistently with samples containing nonoxynol-9, a strong detergent utilized as a spermicide. The reaction may be attributable to the combination of latex and nonoxynol-9. Because of the unreliability of the test to confirm the presence of PSA in samples collected from condoms, the PSA cassette is an unsuitable method for confirming the presence of seminal fluid in condoms. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  13. Evaluation of the radiotherapy and/or therapeutical associations in prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Isabel Cristina Rossiter de Araujo; FUNED - Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de

    2002-01-01

    Novel statistics show that prostate cancer is the third mortality neoplasia type in man and reaches the first level after 75 years old. The disease appears without signal at initial stages of the prostate cancer, period at which it will be easily treated. The development of the prostate carcinoma in patients depends on the tumor histological degree, stage of the disease at the diagnostic time, tumoral mass, patient age and patient general health. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the tumor marker used to premature disease detection, stagement and patient monitoring after treatment. Distinct therapies or in association have been established, together with a premature diagnosis, to increase the patient survival, achieving the best health quality and disease heal. The applied gland dose and its profile are distinct between brachytherapy and teletherapy.The present paper describes several therapies applied to control the prostate tumors, standing radioactive implants (I 125 ) and conventional radiotherapy. The goal of this paper is to show the different PSA levels resulting after radiation therapy, look upon tumor biology aspects, isodose profiles and serum PSA levels. (author)

  14. Detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in human saliva using an ultra-sensitive nanocomposite of graphene nanoplatelets with diblock-co-polymers and Au electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Dighe, K; Wang, Z; Srivastava, I; Daza, E; Schwartz-Dual, A S; Ghannam, J; Misra, S K; Pan, D

    2018-02-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and there are numerous data available for its invasive detection in the serum and whole blood. In this work, an electrochemical sensing method was devised to detect traces of PSA in human saliva using a hybrid nanocomposite of graphene nanoplatelets with diblock co-polymers and Au electrodes (GRP-PS 67 -b-PAA 27 -Au). The pure graphitic composition on filter paper provides significantly high electrical and thermal conductivity while PS 67 -b-PAA 27 makes an amphiphilic bridge between GRP units. The sensor utilizes the binding of an anti-PSA antibody with an antigen-PSA to act as a resistor in a circuit providing an impedance change that in turn allows for the detection and quantification of PSA in saliva samples. A miniaturized electrical impedance analyzer was interfaced with a sensor chip and the data were recorded in real-time using a Bluetooth-enabled module. This fully integrated and optimized sensing device exhibited a wide PSA range of detection from 0.1 pg mL -1 to 100 ng mL -1 (R 2 = 0.963) with a lower limit of detection of 40 fg mL -1 . The performance of the biosensor chip was validated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique with a regression coefficient as high as 0.940. The advantages of the newly developed saliva-PSA electrical biosensor over previously reported serum-PSA electrochemical biosensors include a faster response time (3-5 min) to achieve a stable electrical signal for PSA detection, high selectivity, improved sensitivity, no additional requirement of a redox electrolyte for electron exchange and excellent shelf life. The presented sensor is aimed for clinical commercialization to detect PSA in human saliva.

  15. Variation in general practice prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate cancer outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Brugen af prostata-specifikt antigen (PSA) er mangedoblet i dansk almen praksis siden introduktionen i 1990’erne. Dansk Urologisk Selskab anbefaler brug af testen ved relevante symptomer og arvelig disposition, men ikke til screening. Alligevel varierer brugen af PSA-tests i almen praksis. Dette...... registerstudie undersøger variationen i brugen af PSA-tests blandt praktiserende læger i Region Midtjylland i perioden 2004-2009. Studiet ser også nærmere på, hvilke konsekvenser variationen har for mændene i de forskellige praksispopulationer. Almen praksis blev inddelt i fire grupper efter deres brug af PSA......-tests. Den mest testende fjerdedel af praksis brugte teksten 3,6 gange oftere end den mindst testende praksisgruppe. I den mest testende gruppe fik 76 % flere personer en biopsi af prostata og 37 % flere mænd blev diagnosticeret med prostatacancer sammenlignet med den mindst testende gruppe. Risikoen...

  16. Influence of a patient decision aid on decisional conflict related to PSA testing: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Volk, Robert J; Scholl, Lawrence E; Kamin, Stephanie L; Holden, E Wayne; Stroud, Leonardo A

    2008-11-01

    To examine the impact of a decision aid (DA) designed to promote informed decision making for screening with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and to test a theoretical model of factors influencing decisional conflict. Structural equation modeling examined pathways between DA exposure, knowledge, schema, prostate cancer risk perceptions, decisional anxiety, and decisional conflict. Sample participants included 200 men from the general population (exclusive of African Americans) and 200 African American men. Half of the men in each subsample were randomly assigned to receive the DA. Decisional conflict regarding prostate cancer screening. The DA influences level of decisional conflict by increasing patient knowledge. This effect of knowledge on decisional conflict is indirect, however, through an association with greater perceived risk and lower decisional anxiety. Also, positive PSA schema was associated with lower decisional anxiety and decisional conflict. It is important that exposure to the DA had no impact on PSA schema. Schemas about testing must be considered in developing messages about the risks and benefits of testing. If schemas are counter to message content, mechanisms for modifying schemas must be incorporated into interventions.

  17. Enhanced detection sensitivity of prostate-specific antigen via PSA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based on localized surface plasmon resonance: GNP-coated anti-PSA/LSPR as a novel approach for the identification of prostate anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, M H; Amani, H; Pourfatollah, A A; Avan, A; Ferns, G A; Pazoki-Toroudi, H

    2016-10-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to screen for prostate disease, although it has several limitations in its application as an organ-specific or cancer-specific marker. Furthermore, a highly specific/sensitive and/or label-free identification of PSA still remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate anomalies. We aimed to develop a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated anti-PSA antibody-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a novel approach to detect prostatic disease. A total of 25 nm colloidal gold particles were prepared followed by conjugation with anti-PSA pAb (GNPs-PSA pAb). LSPR was used to monitor the absorption changes of the aggregation of the particles. The size, shape and stability of the GNP-anti-PSA were evaluated by dynamic light scattering transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zetasizer. The GNPs-conjugated PSA-pAb was successfully synthesized and subsequently characterized using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and TEM to determine the size distribution, crystallinity and stability of the particles (for example, stability of GNP: 443 mV). To increase the stability of the particles, we pegylated GNPs using an N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N*-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxylsuccinimide (NHS) linker (for example, stability of GNP after pegylation: 272 mV). We found a significant increase in the absorbance and intensity of the particles with extinction peak at 545/2 nm, which was shifted by ~1 nm after conjugation. To illustrate the potential of the GNPs-PSA pAb to bind specifically to PSA, LSPR was used. We found that the extinction peak shifted 3 nm for a solution of 100 nM unlabeled antigen. In summary, we have established a novel approach for improving the efficacy/sensitivity of PSA in the assessment of prostate disease, supporting further investigation on the diagnostic value of GNP-conjugated anti-PSA/LSPR for the detection of prostate cancer.

  18. PSA Isoforms' Velocities for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2015-06-01

    Free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) and its molecular isoforms are suggested for enhancement of PSA testing in prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study we evaluated whether PSA isoforms' velocities might serve as a tool to improve early PCa diagnosis. Our study population included 381 men who had undergone at least one ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy whose pathologic examination yielded PCa or showed no evidence of prostatic malignancy. Serial PSA, fPSA, and proPSA measurements were performed on serum samples covering 7 years prior to biopsy using Beckmann Coulter Access immunoassays. Afterwards, velocities of PSA (PSAV), fPSA% (fPSA%V), proPSA% (proPSA%V) and the ratio proPSA/PSA/V were calculated and their ability to discriminate cancer from benign disease was evaluated. Among 381 men included in the study, 202 (53%) were diagnosed with PCa and underwent radical prostatectomy at our Department. PSAV, fPSA%V, proPSA%V as well as proPSA/PSA/V were able to differentiate significantly between PCa and non-cancerous prostate. The highest discriminatory power between cancer and benign disease has been observed two and one year prior to diagnosis with all measured parameters. Among all measured parameters, fPSA%V showed the best cancer specificity of 45.3% with 90% of sensitivity. In summary, our results highlight the value of PSA isoforms' velocity for early detection of PCa. Especially fPSA%V should be used in the clinical setting to increase cancer detection specificity. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic value of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based detection of prostate cancer in men without prior biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Vourganti, Srinivas; Turkbey, Baris; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Stamatakis, Lambros; Truong, Hong; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Hoang, Anthony N; Nix, Jeffrey W; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Simon, Richard M; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2015-03-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of analysing biparametric (T2- and diffusion-weighted) magnetic resonance imaging (B-MRI) for prostate cancer detection compared with standard digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening. Review of patients who were enrolled in a trial to undergo multiparametric-prostate (MP)-MRI and MR/ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy at our institution identified 143 men who underwent MP-MRI in addition to standard DRE and PSA-based prostate cancer screening before any prostate biopsy. Patient demographics, DRE staging, PSA level, PSA density (PSAD), and B-MRI findings were assessed for association with prostate cancer detection on biopsy. Men with detected prostate cancer tended to be older, with a higher PSA level, higher PSAD, and more screen-positive lesions (SPL) on B-MRI. B-MRI performed well for the detection of prostate cancer with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 (compared with 0.66 and 0.74 for PSA level and PSAD, respectively). We derived combined PSA and MRI-based formulas for detection of prostate cancer with optimised thresholds. (i) for PSA and B-MRI: PSA level + 6 x (the number of SPL) > 14 and (ii) for PSAD and B-MRI: 14 × (PSAD) + (the number of SPL) >4.25. AUC for equations 1 and 2 were 0.83 and 0.87 and overall accuracy of prostate cancer detection was 79% in both models. The number of lesions positive on B-MRI outperforms PSA alone in detection of prostate cancer. Furthermore, this imaging criteria coupled as an adjunct with PSA level and PSAD, provides even more accuracy in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carsten; Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of (~)50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective.

  1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of ~50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective. PMID:27683457

  2. The Hidden Burden of Outpatient Repeat PSA Testing in a Prospective Cohort

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, E

    2017-05-01

    PSA testing is widespread throughout Europe for diagnostic purposes and follow up. We performed a prospective outpatient cohort study of 250 men (2013-2015) in two hospital sites. Included were those men being followed up by urology with PSA blood testing. First appointments and those men in whom non-PSA tests were ordered by urology were excluded. The median age was 67.2yrs (46-88). Eighty-one point two percent of samples had a combination of 21 different serology tests at an added cost of >€18,000. Abnormal serology resulted in 53 referrals. Twenty-six-six percentof correspondence referenced abnormal serology other than PSA. Follow up of non-PSA test results poses a challenge in an outpatient setting with failure to appropriately follow-up on abnormal results, increased costs, and medico-legal implications. There is currently no Irish legislature in place to safeguard hospital physicians. This study quantifies the levels of expenditure, resources and risk associated with ambulant PSA testing.

  3. Nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and time to PSA nadir following primary androgen deprivation therapy as independent prognostic factors in a Japanese large-scale prospective cohort study (J-CaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ueno, Satoru; Izumi, Kouji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Hinotsu, Shiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and time to PSA nadir (TTN) are independent prognostic factors equivalent to the pretreatment factors in the data of the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer registry, which is a large, multicenter, population-based database of patients undergoing primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). A total of 10,958 patients treated with PADT were enrolled into the present study. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate the associations of PSA nadir level and TTN with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for the pretreatment factors adopted in the Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (J-CAPRA) score. Of the 10,958 patients, 3,451 (31.5%) had lymph node and/or distant metastases. The median PSA level was 27.0 ng/ml before treatment, and the nadir PSA level in 6,983 patients (63.7%) reached below 0.2 ng/ml. Disease progression occurred in 4,736 cases, and 2,163 patients died during a mean follow-up period of 3.86 years. Nadir PSA level and TTN were independent prognostic factors, similar to the pretreatment factors adopted in the J-CAPRA score. The probabilities of PFS and OS showed significant differences among the groups categorized by the combination of nadir PSA level and TTN in all J-CAPRA risk stratifications. The present study demonstrated that nadir PSA level and TTN are strong predictors in patients undergoing PADT in a large-scale prospective cohort study.

  4. Independent association between time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir and PSA progression-free survival in patients with docetaxel-naïve, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving abiraterone acetate, but not enzalutamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideaki; Hara, Takuto; Tamura, Keita; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro; Fujisawa, Masato

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prognostic effect of time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (TTPN) after treatment with abiraterone acetate (AA) and enzalutamide (Enz) in patients with docetaxel-naïve, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study included a total of 297 consecutive patients with mCRPC, of whom 125 and 172 received AA and Enz, respectively, without previous treatment with docetaxel and subsequently achieved any degree of PSA reduction after the administration of either agent. The mean values of TTPN in the AA and Enz groups were 19 and 14 weeks, respectively. Despite the lack of significant differences in several parameters according to the mean TTPN in the Enz group, patients with TTPN>19 weeks were characterized by longer duration of androgen deprivation therapy, better performance status, lower incidence of bone metastasis, lower value of nadir PSA, and higher incidence of PSA response than those with TTPN ≤19 weeks in the AA group. The PSA progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with TTPN >19 weeks was significantly superior when compared with TTPN ≤19 weeks in the AA group; however, there was no significant effect of the mean TTPN on the PSA-PFS in the Enz group. Furthermore, TTPN was identified as one of the independent predictors of PSA-PFS in the AA group but not in Enz group. A longer time to reach a PSA nadir after treatment with AA, but not Enz, appeared to be associated with favorable disease control in patients with docetaxel-naïve mCRPC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer.After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P PSA levels were significant higher for patients that received testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117-0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48-2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls.Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal.

  6. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei; Stumm, Lareissa; Zhang, Jiajia; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R

    2015-10-01

    Although men presenting with clinically localized prostate cancer (PrCA) often are treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy with curative intent, about 25-40% develop biochemically recurrent PrCA within 5 years of treatment, which has no known cure. Studies suggest that carotenoid and tocopherol intake may be associated with PrCA risk and progression. We examined plasma carotenoid and tocopherol levels in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with PSA-defined biochemical recurrence of PrCA. Data analyzed were from a 6-month diet, physical activity and stress-reduction intervention trial conducted in South Carolina among biochemically recurrent PrCA patients (n=39). Plasma carotenoids and tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was used to estimate least-square means comparing PSA levels of men with high versus low carotenoid/tocopherol levels, adjusting for covariates. After adjusting for baseline PSA level, plasma cis-lutein/zeaxanthin level at 3 months was related inversely to PSA level at 3 months (P=0.0008), while α-tocopherol (P=0.01), β-cryptoxanthin (P=0.01), and all-trans-lycopene (P=0.004) levels at 3 months were related inversely to PSA levels at 6-months. Percent increase in α-tocopherol and trans-β-carotene levels from baseline to month 3 were associated with lower PSA levels at 3 and 6 months. Percent increase in β-cryptoxanthin, cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and all-trans-lycopene were associated with lower PSA levels at 6 months only. Certain plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were related inversely to PSA levels at various timepoints, suggesting that greater intake of foods containing these micronutrients might be beneficial to men with PSA-defined PrCA recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. utility of prostate specific antigen (psa) in the indigenous african man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer in MTRH. The secondary outcome measures were the correlates associated with elevated PSA. Results: Patients ranged in age from 50 to 96 years with a mean ± standard deviation of 65.4 ± 10.2 years. Clinical diagnosis of Acute Prostatitis, BPH and Prostate Cancer was made in 1.8, 63.9 and 34.3% of the study ...

  8. Recent Patterns in Shared Decision Making for Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Gansler, Ted; Smith, Robert; Sauer, Ann Goding; Wender, Richard; Brawley, Otis W; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies report infrequent use of shared decision making for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. It is unknown whether this pattern has changed recently considering increased emphasis on shared decision making in prostate cancer screening recommendations. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine recent changes in shared decision making. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study among men aged 50 years and older in the United States using 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data (n = 9,598). Changes in receipt of shared decision making were expressed as adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified on PSA testing (recent [in the past year] or no testing). Elements of shared decision making assessed included the patient being informed about the advantages only, advantages and disadvantages, and full shared decision making (advantages, disadvantages, and uncertainties). Among men with recent PSA testing, 58.5% and 62.6% reported having received ≥1 element of shared decision making in 2010 and 2015, respectively ( P = .054, aPR = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11). Between 2010 and 2015, being told only about the advantages of PSA testing significantly declined (aPR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.96) and full shared decision making prevalence significantly increased (aPR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.28-1.79) in recently tested men. Among men without prior PSA testing, 10% reported ≥1 element of shared decision making, which did not change with time. Between 2010 and 2015, there was no increase in shared decision making among men with recent PSA testing though there was a shift away from only being told about the advantages of PSA testing towards full shared decision making. Many men receiving PSA testing did not receive shared decision making. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. Effects of increasing the PSA cutoff to perform additional biomarker tests before prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2017-10-03

    Multi-step testing might enhance performance of the prostate cancer diagnostic pipeline. Using PSA >1 ng/ml for first-line risk stratification and the Stockholm 3 Model (S3M) blood-test >10% risk of Gleason Score > 7 prostate cancer to inform biopsy decisions has been suggested. We aimed to determine the effects of changing the PSA cutoff to perform reflex testing with S3M and the subsequent S3M cutoff to recommend prostate biopsy while maintaining the sensitivity to detect Gleason Score ≥ 7 prostate cancer. We used data from the prospective, population-based, paired, diagnostic Stockholm 3 (STHLM3) study with participants invited by date of birth from the Swedish Population Register during 2012-2014. All participants underwent testing with PSA and S3M (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms, and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]). Of 47,688 men in the STHLM3 main study, we used data from 3133 men with S3M >10% and prostate biopsy data. Logistic regression models were used to calculate prostate cancer detection rates and proportion saved biopsies. 44.2%, 62.5% and 67.9% of the participants had PSA PSA cut-off for additional work-up from 1 ng/ml to 1.5 ng/ml would thus save 18.3% of the performed tests, 4.9% of the biopsies and 1.3% (10/765) of Gleason Grade ≥ 7 cancers would be un-detected. By lowering the S3M cutoff to recommend biopsy, sensitivity to high-grade prostate cancer can be restored, to the cost of increasing the number of performed biopsies modestly. The sensitivity to detect prostate cancer can be maintained when using different PSA cutoffs to perform additional testing. Biomarker cut-offs have implications on number of tests and prostate biopsies performed. A PSA cutoff of 1.5 ng/ml to perform additional testing such as the S3M test might be considered. ISRCTN84445406 .

  10. Time to prostate specific antigen (PSA) nadir may predict rapid relapse in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) receiving docetaxel chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Betsan M; Smith, Christian; Evans, Jessica; Button, Michael R; Kumar, Satish; Palaniappan, Nachi; Staffurth, John; Tanguay, Jacob S; Lester, Jason F

    2013-12-01

    Docetaxel has been shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). There is no clear consensus regarding the optimum duration of chemotherapy. If patients at greater risk of rapid disease relapse could be identified when on chemotherapy, appropriate follow-up strategies could be put into place. The aim of our study was to find prostate specific antigen (PSA) characteristics that predict a shorter disease response to docetaxel chemotherapy. Data from 41 consecutive mCRPC patients treated with three-weekly docetaxel chemotherapy at a single centre between February 2010 and February 2012 were retrospectively analysed. All patients had ≥50% reduction in their PSA with chemotherapy. The relationship between time to PSA nadir (TTN) and PSA halving time with time to PSA progression and overall chemotherapy response duration was analysed. TTN was a strong predictor of the duration of chemotherapy response and time to PSA progression. When TTN was ≥16 weeks, the mean duration of response to chemotherapy was 37.5 weeks compared to 19.9 weeks when TTN PSA progression was 12.8 weeks if TTN was ≥16 weeks and 8.2 weeks TTN was <16 weeks (95% CI 0.63-8.60; p = 0.024). We observed that a TTN from the initiation of chemotherapy of <16 weeks for patients with mCRPC is an independent predictor of shorter duration of response and shorter progression-free survival.

  11. Identification and characterization of new Leishmania promastigote surface antigens, LaPSA-38S and LiPSA-50S, as major immunodominant excreted/secreted components of L. amazonensis and L. infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel; Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Veyrier, Renaud; Cibrelus, Prisca; Cavaleyra, Mireille; Maquaire, Sarah; Moreaux, Jérôme; Lemesre, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that sera from dogs vaccinated with excreted/secreted antigens (ESA) of Leishmania infantum promastigotes (LiESAp) mainly recognized an immunodominant antigen of 54 kDa. An anti-LiESAp-specific IgG2 humoral response was observed and associated to Th1-type response in vaccinated dogs. This response was highly correlated with a long-lasting and strong LiESAp-vaccine protection toward L. infantum experimental infection. In addition, it was also shown that dogs from the vaccinated group developed a selective IgG2 response against an immunodominant antigen of 45 kDa of Leishmania amazonensis ESA promastigotes (LaESAp). In order to identify and characterize these immunodominant antigens, a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb F5) was produced by immunization against LaESAp. It was found to recognize the major antigenic targets of both LaESAp and LiESAp. Analysis with mAb F5 of L. amazonensis amastigote and promastigote cDNA expression libraries enabled the identification of clones encoding proteins with significant structural homology to the promastigote surface antigens named PSA-2/gp-46. Among them, one clone presented a full-length cDNA and encoded a novel L. amazonensis protein of 38.6 kDa calculated molecular mass (LaPSA-38S) sharing an amino acid sequence consistent with that of the PSA polymorphic family and a N-terminal signal peptide, characteristic of a secreted protein. We then screened a L. infantum promastigote DNA cosmid library using a cDNA probe derived from the LaPSA-38S gene and identified a full-length clone of a novel excreted/secreted protein of L. infantum with a calculated molecular mass of 49.2 kDa and named LiPSA-50S. The fact that a significant immunological reactivity was observed against PSA, suggests that these newly identified proteins could have an important immunoregulatory influence on the immune response. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that (i) these proteins were naturally excreted/secreted by viable

  12. The roles of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives in predicting prostate cancer in patients with PSA less than 20.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P; Zhao, J; Sun, G; Chen, N; Zhang, X; Gui, H; Yang, Y; Liu, J; Shu, K; Wang, Z; Zeng, H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nomograms for predicting prostate cancer and its zonal location using prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives. A total of 928 consecutive patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 20.0 ng/mL, who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal 12-core prostate biopsy at West China Hospital between 2011 and 2014, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly split into training cohort (70%, n = 650) and validation cohort (30%, n = 278). Predicting models and the associated nomograms were built using the training cohort, while the validations of the models were conducted using the validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed. Then, new nomograms were generated based on multivariate regression coefficients. The discrimination power and calibration of these nomograms were validated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the calibration curve. The potential clinical effects of these models were also tested using decision curve analysis. In total, 285 (30.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Among them, 131 (14.1%) and 269 (29.0%) had transition zone prostate cancer and peripheral zone prostate cancer. Each of zone-adjusted derivatives-based nomogram had an AUC more than 0.75. All nomograms had higher calibration and much better net benefit than the scenarios in predicting patients with or without different zones prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives have important roles in detecting prostate cancer and its zonal location for patients with PSA 2.5-20.0 ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nomogram using these parameters to predict outcomes of 12-core prostate biopsy. These instruments can help clinicians to increase the accuracy of prostate cancer screening and to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy. © 2017

  13. Genome-wide association study identified novel genetic variant on SLC45A3 gene associated with serum levels prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielin; Tao, Sha; Gao, Yong; Peng, Tao; Tan, Aihua; Zhang, Haiying; Yang, Xiaobo; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Feng, Junjie; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lin, Xiaoling; Wu, Yongming; Zhang, Ju; Li, Zhixian; Li, Li; Mo, Linjian; Liang, Zhengjia; Shi, Deyi; Huang, Zhang; Huang, Xianghua; Liu, Ming; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Shijun; Lilly Zheng, S; Xu, Jianfeng; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used cancer biomarker for prostate cancer, and is often included as part of routine physical examinations in China. Serum levels of PSA may be influenced by genetic factors as well as other factors. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a European population successfully identified six genetic loci that were significantly associated with PSA level. In this study, we aimed to identify common genetic variants that are associated with serum level of PSA in a Chinese population. We also evaluated the effects of those variants by creating personalized PSA cutoff values. A two-stage GWAS of PSA level was performed among men age 20-69 years and self-reported cancer-free participants that underwent routine physical examinations at several hospitals in Guangxi Province, China. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with PSA levels in the first stage of sample (N = 1,999) were confirmed in the second stage of sample (N = 1,496). Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the independent contribution of confirmed SNPs and known covariates, such as age, to the level of PSA. SNPs in three regions were significantly associated with levels of PSA in this two-stage GWAS, and had combined P values between 4.62 × 10(-17) and 6.45 × 10(-37). The three regions are located on 1q32.1 at SLC45A3, 10q11.23 at MSMB, and 19q13.33 at KLK3. The region 1q32.1 at SLC45A3 was identified as a novel locus. Genetic variants contributed significantly more to the variance of PSA level than known covariates such as age. Personalized cutoff values of serum PSA, calculated based on the inheritance of these associated SNPs, differ considerably among individuals. Identification of these genetic markers provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms of PSA. Taking individual variation into account, these genetic variants may improve the performance of PSA to predict prostate cancer.

  14. Towards One-Step Quantitation of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Microfluidic Devices: Feasibility of Optical Detection with Nanoparticle Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, Ana I.; Wichers, J.H.; Amerongen, van A.; Reis, Nuno M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker detection would be beneficial to cancer diagnostics, improving early detection and therefore increasing chances of survival. Nanoparticle-based detection is routinely used in one-step nitrocellulose-based lateral flow (LF)

  15. Meanings of prostate-specific antigen testing as narrated by men with localized prostate cancer after primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedestig, Oliver; Sandman, Per-Olof; Widmark, Anders; Rasmussen, Birgit H

    2008-01-01

    To illuminate the meanings of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing as narrated by men with localized prostate cancer (LPC) after primary treatment. Fifteen men were interviewed in their homes. The narrative interview text was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Life after treatment for LPC means feeling unsafe because of being affected by a life-threatening and unpredictable disease, characterized by a lack of early signs of progression. In this situation, PSA testing is ascribed as providing a sense of control to enable one to achieve a feeling of safety. Thus one meaning of PSA testing is receiving a message about the status of the body; another is a tense waiting related to fear of the results. A low, stable PSA value is interpreted as a sense of being safe based on confidence in the PSA tests and a sense of having control over the LPC via regular PSA testing. A rising value of the PSA blood test is understood as an indication of progression of the disease, but confidence in PSA testing also means that when the PSA value rises there is a sense of catching the cancer in good time. The comprehensive understanding of the meaning of PSA testing can be understood in terms of a lifeline to cling to when wondering whether the cancer is still in progress in the body or whether the treatment has been curative. This lifeline creates a feeling of security in a post-treatment life situation which is experienced as being unsafe.

  16. Free prostate-specific antigen improves prostate cancer detection in a high-risk population of men with a normal total PSA and digitalrectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzo, Robert G; Pinover, Wayne H; Horwitz, Eric M; Parlanti, Alicia; Mazzoni, Susan; Raysor, Susan; Mirchandani, Ila; Greenberg, Richard E; Pollack, Alan; Hanks, Gerald E; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2003-04-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding optimal prostate cancer screening parameters for high-risk populations. The purpose of this study is to report the use of percent free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as an indication for biopsy in men at increased risk for developing prostate cancer who have a normal digital rectal examination (DRE) and total PSA level between 2 and 4 ng/mL. African-American men and men with at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer are eligible for enrollment into the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) at our institution. Between October 1996 and April 2002, 310 asymptomatic high-risk men with no history of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) were screened in the PRAP with DRE and total PSA. Percent free PSA was obtained in men with a total PSA between 2 and 10 ng/mL. Men with a normal DRE and total PSA between 2 and 4 ng/mL were advised to undergo transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsies of the prostate if the percent free PSA was less than 27%. Other indications for biopsy included an abnormal DRE or a total PSA greater than 4 ng/mL. The primary endpoint evaluated was prostate cancer detection in high-risk men with a benign prostate examination, a normal total PSA between 2 and 4 ng/mL, and percent free PSA less than 27%. Of the 310 men, 174 (56%) were African American and 202 (65%) had at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer. Sixty-two of the 310 men were referred for prostate biopsy, and 40 of 62 had biopsy performed. Twenty-one of 40 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer for a cancer detection rate of 53% in all men undergoing biopsy and an overall cancer detection rate of 6.8% in this high-risk population. Thirty-seven high-risk men (median age 54 years) with a total PSA level between 2 and 4 ng/mL (median 2.7 ng/mL) and a normal DRE were found to have a percent free PSA level of less than 27% (median 16%, range 8% to 25%). Twenty

  17. Association of GPs' risk attitudes, level of empathy, and burnout status with PSA testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette F; Carlsen, Anders H; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel undersøger, om variationen i raten af PSA-tests mellem alment praktiserende læger kan forklares af psykologiske faktorer som f.eks. lægens risikovillighed. Resultaterne viser, at lægens risikovillighed influerer på raten af PSA-tests. Forfatterne finder blandt andet, at patienter, s...

  18. National STD Awareness Month and GYT: Get Yourself Tested PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-03

    April is National STD Awareness Month. In this PSA, native communities, especially adolescents and young adults, are encouraged to get educated, tested, and treated by visiting gytnow.org.  Created: 3/3/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 3/3/2011.

  19. Novel rolling circle amplification and DNA origami-based DNA belt-involved signal amplification assay for highly sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Hu, Chongya; Wang, Ping; Liu, Rui; Zuo, Xiaolei; Liu, Xunwei; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; He, Dannong; Sun, Gang

    2014-11-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is one of the most important biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. Although many efforts have been made to achieve significant progress for the detection of PSA, challenges including relative low sensitivity, complicated operation, sophisticated instruments, and high cost remain unsolved. Here, we have developed a strategy combining rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based DNA belts and magnetic bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the highly sensitive and specific detection of PSA. At first, a 96-base circular DNA template was designed and prepared for the following RCA. Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) products from RCA were used as scaffold strand for DNA origami, which was hybridized with three staple strands of DNA. The resulting DNA belts were conjugated with multiple enzymes for signal amplification and then employed to magnetic bead based ELISA for PSA detection. Through our strategy, as low as 50 aM of PSA can be detected with excellent specificity.

  20. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are considering having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal examination (DRE). Sexually Transmitted ... for cancer of the colon, serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer, mammography for breast cancer, and ...

  1. Prostate specific antigen testing policy worldwide varies greatly and seems not to be in accordance with guidelines: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Meer Saskia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate specific antigen (PSA testing is widely used, but guidelines on follow-up are unclear. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine follow-up policy after PSA testing by general practitioners (GPs and non-urologic hospitalists, the use of a cut-off value for this policy, the reasons for repeating a PSA test after an initial normal result, the existence of a general cut-off value below which a PSA result is considered normal, and the time frame for repeating a test. Data sources. MEDLINE, Embase, PsychInfo and the Cochrane library from January 1950 until May 2011. Study eligibility criteria. Studies describing follow-up policy by GPs or non-urologic hospitalists after a primary PSA test, excluding urologists and patients with prostate cancer. Studies written in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian or Spanish were included. Excluded were studies describing follow-up policy by urologists and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. The quality of each study was structurally assessed. Results Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were of high quality. Follow-up differed greatly both after a normal and an abnormal PSA test result. Only one study described the reasons for not performing follow-up after an abnormal PSA result. Conclusions Based on the available literature, we cannot adequately assess physicians’ follow-up policy after a primary PSA test. Follow-up after a normal or raised PSA test by GPs and non-urologic hospitalists seems to a large extent not in accordance with the guidelines.

  2. Take Charge. Take the Test. "Look Out For Yourself" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  3. Importance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA as a predictive factor for concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and RADICAL prostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gianni de Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby highlighting the importance of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA level as a predictive factor of concordance. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 253 radical prostatectomy cases performed between 2006 and 2011. The patients were divided into 4 groups for the data analysis and dichotomized according to the preoperative PSA, <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL. A p-score <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The average patient age was 63.3±7.8 years. The median PSA level was 9.3±4.9 ng/mL. The overall concordance between the Gleason scores was 52%. Patients presented preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/mL in 153 of 235 cases (65% and ≥10 ng/mL in 82 of 235 cases (35%. The Gleason scores were identical in 86 of 153 cases (56% in the <10 ng/mL group and 36 of 82 (44% cases in the ≥10 ng/mL group (p = 0.017. The biopsy underestimated the Gleason score in 45 (30% patients in the <10 ng/mL group and 38 (46% patients in the ≥10 ng/mL (p = 0.243. Specifically, the patients with Gleason 3 + 3 scores according to the biopsies demonstrated global concordance in 56 of 110 cases (51%. In this group, the patients with preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/dL had higher concordance than those with preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/dL (61% x 23%, p = 0.023, which resulted in 77% upgrading after surgery in those patients with PSA levels ≥10 ng/dl. CONCLUSION: The Gleason scores of needle prostate biopsies and those of the surgical specimens were concordant in approximately half of the global sample. The preoperative PSA level was a strong predictor of discrepancy and might improve the identification of those patients who tended to be upgraded after surgery, particularly in patients with Gleason scores of 3 + 3 in the prostate biopsy and preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/mL.

  4. Evaluation of the radiotherapy and/or therapeutical associations in prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen (PSA); Avaliacao da radioterapia e/ou associacoes terapeuticas em cancer de prostata atraves do antigeno prostatico especifico (PSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Isabel Cristina Rossiter de Araujo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]|[FUNED - Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Imunoquimica; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [FUNED - Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Imunoquimica

    2002-07-01

    Novel statistics show that prostate cancer is the third mortality neoplasia type in man and reaches the first level after 75 years old. The disease appears without signal at initial stages of the prostate cancer, period at which it will be easily treated. The development of the prostate carcinoma in patients depends on the tumor histological degree, stage of the disease at the diagnostic time, tumoral mass, patient age and patient general health. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the tumor marker used to premature disease detection, stagement and patient monitoring after treatment. Distinct therapies or in association have been established, together with a premature diagnosis, to increase the patient survival, achieving the best health quality and disease heal. The applied gland dose and its profile are distinct between brachytherapy and teletherapy.The present paper describes several therapies applied to control the prostate tumors, standing radioactive implants (I{sup 125} ) and conventional radiotherapy. The goal of this paper is to show the different PSA levels resulting after radiation therapy, look upon tumor biology aspects, isodose profiles and serum PSA levels. (author)

  5. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderitu, Paul; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Ashworth, Mark; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally; Dudek, Alexandra; Chowdhury, Simon

    2016-07-12

    To investigate the association between factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence including prostate cancer risk factors (age, ethnicity, obesity) and non-risk factors (social deprivation and comorbidity). A cross-sectional database of 136 inner London general practices from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2014. Men aged ≥40 years without prostate cancer were included (n=150 481). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use. PSA testing prevalence was 8.2% (2013-2014), and the mean age was 54 years (SD 11). PSA testing was positively associated with age (OR 70-74 years compared to 40-44 years: 7.34 (95% CI 6.82 to 7.90)), ethnicity (black) (OR compared to white: 1.78 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.85)), increasing BMI and cardiovascular comorbidity. Testing was negatively associated with Chinese ethnicity and with increasing social deprivation. PSA testing among black patients was higher compared to that among white patients, which differs from lower testing rates seen in previous studies. PSA testing was positively associated with prostate cancer risk factors and non-risk factors. Association with non-risk factors may increase the risk of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Men presenting with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values of over 100 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Mann; Rajcic, Branimir; Foreman, Darren; Moretti, Kim; O'Callaghan, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with prostate cancer presenting with a PSA level PSA level extracted from the South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (SA-PCCOC) database. Men included were diagnosed between January 1998 and August 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to diagnostic PSA level: 500 ng/mL. Outcomes measured include overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Clinical stage, Gleason score and the presence of bony metastasis was evaluated to determine if they were prognostic factors in patients with PSA over 100 at diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression were used to model overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality outcomes respectively. Of this cohort, 241 patients (4.2%) had a diagnostic PSA level >100 ng/mL. Patients with PSA >100 ng/mL have a significant reduction in five (29.1% vs 62.5% vs 87%) and ten-year (18.2% vs 36.7% vs 70.7%) overall survival when compared to men with diagnostic PSA 20-100 and PSA level at diagnosis. Overall survival was associated with PSA level, Gleason score and age. There was a linear increase in risk (overall survival) as PSA increased until 200 and no association thereafter. Models of overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality incorporating a risk stratification developed by Izumi et al. predicted overall survival but not prostate cancer-specific mortality. The use of this stratification did not improve model accuracy. Only a small number of men (4.2%) with prostate cancer present with PSA >100 ng/mL at diagnosis. Overall survival at five and ten years was significantly poorer in patients with PSA >100 ng/mL. In this cohort of men presenting with PSA >100 at diagnosis, PSA level was not associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality. Gleason score and metastases are significant prognostic factors in this group of men. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016

  7. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) has been more frequently applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and exceptional multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. Low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed good correlation in several independent clinical serum sample sets. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring candidate biomarkers in human blood, without the need to develop affinity reagents. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers, including the free and bound forms of PSA, can be performed in a single multiplexed analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS. PMID:22846433

  8. Have You Been Tested for Colorectal Cancer? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the November 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer screening saves lives, but only if you get tested. If you’re between 50 and 75, talk with your doctor about which test is best for you. If you have inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, ask your doctor if you should start screening before age 50.  Created: 11/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/5/2013.

  9. Quality PSA for PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carska, K.; Rybar, J.

    2012-03-01

    The safety guideline defines with more precision Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic requirements of the quality of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for PSA application. Term of quality of PSA is explained in detail. Procedure for determining the quality of PSA is provided. The categorization of PSA study according the quality of PSA is suggested. A comprehensive list of PSA applications for nuclear facilities is provided. What technical features of a PSA should be satisfied to support the PSA applications of interest is stated. (authors)

  10. The Use and Results of Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in General Practice in the Former Aarhus County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukai, Thomas; Bro, Flemming; Pedersen, Knud Venborg

    Background: Prostate Cancer (PC) is the most common type of cancer among Danish men, and the incidence is increasing. PC is often asymptomatic, making it difficult to establish a clinical diagnosis. The general practitioner can use prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing as a tool for diagnosing PC....... Objective: Our objective was to study the use and results of PSA testing in general practice in the former Aarhus County during the period 1995-2006. Methods: We extracted data from the laboratory database, LABKA, and The National Patient Registry (NPR) during the period 1995 - 2006. From LABKA, 86....... The number of incident tests requested by a medical specialist decreased from 2001. The proportion of incident tests requested by general practice and with results below 4 mmol/L increased by almost 300 % during this period. Conclusion: General practice requests more and more PSA tests. This can be explained...

  11. HIV Testing – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-30

    This 60 second PSA is based on the December, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that last year, 82.9 million adults between 18 and 64 reported having been tested for HIV, yet 55 percent of adults – and 28.3 percent of adults with a risk factor for HIV – haven't been tested.  Created: 11/30/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/30/2010.

  12. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... it eradicated the infection. Preparation Unlike most other lab tests, a stool sample is often collected by ...

  13. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeron Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50. Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1, and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9. In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007. In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p Conclusion High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF.

  14. Two-stage classifiers that minimize PCA3 and the PSA proteolytic activity testing in the prediction of prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Daniel R; Linehan, Jenifer A; Wilson, Timothy G; Kawachi, Mark H; Wittig, Kristina; Lamparska, Katarzya; Amparo, Camille; Mejia, Rosa; Lai, Fang; Georganopoulou, Dimitra; Smith, Steven S

    2017-12-01

    Early biochemical recurrence after prostate cancer surgery is associated with higher risk of aggressive disease and cancer specific death. Many new tests are being developed that will predict the presence of indicators of aggressive disease like early biochemical recurrence. Since recurrence occurs in less than 10% of patients treated for prostate cancer, validation of such tests will require expensive testing on large patient groups. Moreover, clinical application of the validated test requires that each new patient be tested. In this report we introduce a two-stage classifier system that minimizes the number of patients that must be tested in both the validation and clinical application of any new test for recurrence. Expressed prostatic secretion specimens were prospectively collected from 450 patients prior to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Patients were followed for 2.5 years for evidence of biochemical recurrence. Standard clinical parameters, the levels proteolytic activity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and the levels of PCA3 RNA, PSA RNA and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion RNA were determined in each prospective patient specimen for subsequent correlation with biochemical recurrence. While levels of PCA3 and PSA proteolytic activity (PPA) in prostatic secretions provided an effective pre-surgical predictor of early biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, application of the two-stage classifier shows that only 60% of the patients need these tests. Two-stage classifiers can provide a parsimonious approach to both the validation and clinical application of biomarker-based tests. Adoption of the two-stage neutral zone classifier can reduce unnecessary testing in prostate cancer treatment.

  15. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  16. Time from first detectable PSA following radical prostatectomy to biochemical recurrence: A competing risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boo, Leonora; Pintilie, Melania; Yip, Paul; Baniel, Jack; Fleshner, Neil; Margel, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we estimated the time from first detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following radical prostatectomy (RP) to commonly used definitions of biochemical recurrence (BCR). We also identified the predictors of time to BCR. Methods: We identified subjects who underwent a RP and had an undetectable PSA after surgery followed by at least 1 detectable PSA between 2000 and 2011. The primary outcome was time to BCR (PSA ≥0.2 and successive PSA ≥0.2) and prediction of the rate of PSA rise. Outcomes were calculated using a competing risk analysis, with univariable and multivariable Fine and Grey models. We employed a mixed effect model to test clinical predictors that are associated with the rate of PSA rise. Results: The cohort included 376 patients. The median follow-up from surgery was 60.5 months (interquartile range [IQR] 40.8–91.5) and from detectable PSA was 18 months (IQR 11–32). Only 45.74% (n = 172) had PSA values ≥0.2 ng/mL, while 15.16% (n = 57) reached the PSA level of ≥0.4 ng/mL and rising. On multivariable analysis, the values of the first detectable PSA and pathologic Gleason grade 8 or higher were consistently independent predictors of time to BCR. In the mixed effect model rate, the PSA rise was associated with time from surgery to first detectable PSA, Gleason score, and prostate volume. The main limitation of this study is the large proportion of patients that received treatment without reaching BCR. It is plausible that shorter estimated median times would occur at a centre that does not use salvage therapy at such an early state. Conclusion: The time from first detectable PSA to BCR may be lengthy. Our analyses of the predictors of the rate of PSA rise can help determine a personalized approach for patients with a detectable PSA after surgery. PMID:25624961

  17. Purification of nonlipopolysaccharide antigen from Brucella abortus during preparation of antigen used for indirect hemolysis test.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, E M; Houle, J J

    1986-01-01

    The indirect hemolysis test (IHLT) for the diagnosis of brucellosis uses a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen obtained by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction of Brucella abortus. We showed that a non-LPS antigen can be obtained as a by-product of the IHLT antigen preparation. The antigen was purified to homogeneity by a combination of gel-filtration chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. The substance contained 8% protein and about 65% carbohydrate. The molecular weight of the primary unit w...

  18. Detection of prostatic carcinoma: the role of TRUS, TRUS guided biopsy, digital rectal examination, PSA and PSA density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, S; Cakar, B; Conkbayir, I; Hekimoglu, B

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various diagnostic tests including transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), TRUS guided biopsy, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) in detecting prostatic carcinomas. One hundred and thirty-four men underwent TRUS guided random, or directed and random sonographic biopsies of the prostate. The mean age was 64.67 (range, 31- 88) years. Indications for biopsy were abnormal findings suggesting prostatic carcinoma on DRE or increased levels of PSA, defined as 4.0 ng/ml or greater in a monoclonal antibody assay. PSAD was calculated by dividing the serum PSA in ng/ml to the volume of the entire prostate in cm3. The biopsy results were grouped as benign, malign and, prostatitis. The patients were also divided into three groups according to their PSA values. Of the 134 patients evaluated, 31 (23.1%) had prostate adenocarcinoma, 89 (66.4%) had benign prostatic tissue, hyperplasia or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 14 (10.4%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and PSAD of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the noncancer group. In the group of patients with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/ml, abnormal TRUS or DRE increased cancer detection rate, where neither PSA nor PSAD was capable of discriminating the patients with and without cancer. PSAD did not prove to be superior to the other diagnostic tests in this study. We recommend biopsy when either TRUS or DRE is abnormal in patients with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/ml. In the patients with PSA levels greater than 10 ng/ml, biopsy is indicated whatever the findings on TRUS or DRE are, since cancer detection rate is high.

  19. Glycoproteomics: Identifying the Glycosylation of Prostate Specific Antigen at Normal and High Isoelectric Points by LC–MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ehwang; Mayampurath, Anoop; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) i...

  20. Combination of prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density predicts biopsy outcome in prostate biopsy naïve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washino, Satoshi; Okochi, Tomohisa; Saito, Kimitoshi; Konishi, Tsuzumi; Hirai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    To assess the value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system, for prostate multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer, and classical parameters, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and PSA density, for predicting biopsy outcome in biopsy naïve patients who have suspected prostate cancer. Patients who underwent mpMRI at our hospital, and who had their first prostate biopsy between July 2010 and April 2014, were analysed retrospectively. The prostate biopsies were taken transperineally under transrectal ultrasonography guidance. In all, 14 cores were biopsied as a systematic biopsy in all patients. Two cognitive fusion-targeted biopsy cores were added for each lesion in patients who had suspicious or equivocal lesions on mpMRI. The PI-RADS scoring system version 2.0 (PI-RADS v2) was used to describe the MRI findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. In all, 288 patients were analysed. The median patient age, PSA level, prostate volume and PSA density were 69 years, 7.5 ng/mL, 28.7 mL, and 0.26 ng/mL/mL, respectively. The biopsy results were benign, clinically insignificant, and clinically significant prostate cancer in 129 (45%), 18 (6%) and 141 (49%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were independent predictors for prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. When PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were combined, a PI-RADS v2 score of ≥4 and PSA density ≥0.15 ng/mL/mL, or PI-RADS v2 score of 3 and PSA density of ≥0.30 ng/mL/mL, was associated with the highest clinically significant prostate cancer detection rates (76-97%) on the first biopsy. Of the patients in this group with negative biopsy results, 22% were subsequently diagnosed as prostate cancer. In contrast, a PI

  1. An endoglycosidase-assisted LC-MS/MS-based strategy for the analysis of site-specific core-fucosylation of low-concentrated glycoproteins in human serum using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robert; Leinenbach, Andreas; Karl, Johann; Swiatek-de Lange, Magdalena; Kobold, Uwe; Vogeser, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Recently, site-specific fucosylation of glycoproteins has attracted attention as it can be associated with several types of cancers including prostate cancer. However, individual glycoproteins, which might serve as potential cancer markers, often are very low-concentrated in complex serum matrices and distinct glycan structures are hard to detect by immunoassays. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based strategy for the simultaneous analysis of core-fucosylated and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum in the low ng/ml concentration range. Sample preparation comprised an immunoaffinity capture step to enrich total PSA from human serum using anti-PSA antibody coated magnetic beads followed by consecutive two-step on-bead partial deglycosylation with endoglycosidase F3 and tryptic digestion prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The method was shown to be linear from 0.5 to 60 ng/ml total PSA concentrations and allows the simultaneous quantification of core-fucosylated PSA down to 1 ng/ml and total PSA lower than 0.5 ng/ml. The imprecision of the method over two days ranged from 9.7-23.2% for core-fucosylated PSA and 10.3-18.3% for total PSA depending on the PSA level. The feasibility of the method in native sera was shown using three human specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first MS-based method for quantification of core-fucosylated PSA in the low ng/ml concentration range in human serum. This method could be used in large patient cohorts as core-fucosylated PSA may be a diagnostic biomarker for the differentiation of prostate cancer and other prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Furthermore, the described strategy could be used to monitor potential changes in site-specific core-fucosylation of other low-concentrated glycoproteins, which could serve as more specific markers ("marker refinement") in cancer research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), but not prostate-specific antigen (PSA), rapidly complexes with protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) released from prostate carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, M S; Zhu, Z; Marker, K; Liu, R S; Carpenter, P M; Rittenhouse, H; Mikolajczyk, S D

    2001-11-01

    Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a secreted, trypsin-like protease that shares 80% amino acid sequence identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has been shown to be a serum marker for prostate cancer and may also play a role in cancer progression and metastasis. We have previously identified a novel complex between human kallikrein 2 (hK2) and protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) in prostate cancer tissue. PI-6 is an intracellular serine protease inhibitor with both antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin activity. In the current study we have shown that PI-6 forms a rapid in vitro complex with hK2 but does not complex with PSA. Recombinant mammalian cells expressing both hK2 and PI-6 showed hK2-PI-6 complex in the spent media only after cell death and lysis. Similarly, LNCaP cells expressing endogenous hK2 and PI-6 showed extracellular hK2-PI-6 complex formation concurrently with cell death. Immunostaining of prostate cancer tissues with PI-6 monoclonal antibodies showed a marked preferential staining pattern in cancerous epithelial cells compared with noncancerous tissue. These results indicate that the hK2-PI-6 complex may be a naturally occurring marker of tissue damage and necrosis associated with neoplasia. Both hK2 and PI-6 were shed into the lumen of prostate cancer glands as granular material that appeared to be cellular necrotic debris. The differential staining pattern of PI6 in tissues suggests a complex regulation of PI-6 expression that may play a role in other aspects of neoplastic progression. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The clinical study of serum PSA and fPSA assayed by CLIA in diagnosing prostate disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiang; Qian Xiaoyu; Ji Hong; Yang Su; Ding Ying; Zhu Ruisen; Chen Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) and fPSA(free prostate specific antigen) in differentiating prostate disease. CLIA was used to quantitatively assay PSA, fPSA and fPSA/PSA in 30 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of prostate cancer patients and 76 cases of BPH patients. The result showed that if liminal value of PSA was set at 4 ng/mL, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 50.6% respectively. Meanwhile, if liminal value of fPSA/PSA set at 16% was added, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 85.3% respectively. It was concluded that the combining assay of PSA and fPSA could increase the diagnostic specificity of prostate cancer in a certain degree

  4. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of PSA and prostate-specific membrane antigen mRNA to detect circulating tumor cells improves recurrence-free survival nomogram prediction after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, David R; Rouprêt, Morgan; Drouin, Sarah J; Comperat, Eva; Ricci, Sylvie; Lacave, Roger; Sèbe, Philippe; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Cussenot, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis is a potential new biomarker in prostate cancer. We hypothesize that quantitative detection of CTCs in patients pre- and post-radical prostatectomy (RP) using quantitative TaqMan® fluorogenic RT-PCR will improve the accuracy of the Kattan nomogram to predict the probability of recurrence-free survival (RFS) post-RP. Ninty-two patients who underwent RP between 2004 and 2009 had venous blood samples taken pre- (Day - 1) and post-operatively (Day + 7). We performed quantitative Taqman® RT-PCR to detect circulating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) mRNA. We calculated both the logarithmic ratio of Day + 7/Day - 1 for PSA (PSAr) and PSMA (PSMAr) expression (log(Day+7/Day-1) ) and the Kattan nomogram predicted probability of disease recurrence for each patient. We then analyzed how the AUC-ROC analysis for the Kattan nomogram prediction alone (K) compared to the addition of the PSAr and PSMAr in predicting 5-year RFS. The mean age (years), PSA (ng/ml), and follow-up (mo) was 65.1, 9.13, and 72, respectively. The AUCs for K, PSAr + K, and PSMAr + K were 0.752 (95%CI 0.620-0.860), 0.830 (95%CI 0.740-0.911), and 0.837 (95%CI 0.613-0.923), respectively (P = 0.03). The Kattan 5-year PSA RFS was 75%. The actual 5-year PSA RFS survival rate was 77%. Data from modern quantitative RT-PCR to detect circulating prostate-derived PSA and PSM mRNA pre- and post-RP improves the accuracy of the Kattan nomogram to predict biochemical recurrence. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PsaA, the adhesive pilin subunit that forms the pH 6 antigen on the surface of Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Sadhukhan, Annapurna; Nair, Manoj K. M.; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Xia, Di

    2012-01-01

    The pH 6 antigen Psa displayed on the surface of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague in humans, consists of polymers of a single protein subunit termed PsaA. Donor-strand complemented PsaA was purified and crystallized. Yersinia pestis has been responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history. Like all other bacterial infections, the pathogenesis of Y. pestis begins with the attachment of bacteria to the surface of host cells. At least five surface proteins from Y. pestis have been shown to interact with host cells. Psa, the pH 6 antigen, is one of them and is deployed on the surface of bacteria as thin flexible fibrils that are the result of the polymerization of a single PsaA pilin subunit. Here, the crystallization of recombinant donor-strand complemented PsaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 1.9 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.5 Å resolution from a bromide-derivatized crystal. These crystals displayed the symmetry of the orthorhombic space group P222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 26.3, b = 54.6, c = 102.1 Å. Initial phases were derived from single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments, resulting in an electron-density map that showed a single molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignment was aided by residues binding to bromide ions of the heavy-atom derivative

  6. FATORES DEMOGRÁFICOS ASSOCIADOS À REALIZAÇÃO DO ANTÍGENO PROSTÁTICO ESPECÍFICO (PSA EM MUNICÍPIO SUL BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA is considered the most important marker to detect, monitor and internship prostate cancer. This study aimed to characterize the men who were examined for measurement of PSA in 2009 in a basic health unit of Maringá-PR. Were collected information about age, race, PSA test result and place of residence. The independent variable was PSA values (normal or abnormal. Were used descriptive statistics of the variables through the frequencies and bivariate analysis by Fisher's Exact Test. Was reached that 53.5% of men who underwent PSA testing were younger than 60 years, where these, 1.2% had their PSA level abnormal or above 4.01 Ng-mL. Being over 70 years was statistically significant PSA changes. It is concluded that age is a triggering factor for benign and malignant prostatic abnormalities.

  7. The value of screening tests in the detection of prostate cancer. Part II: Retrospective analysis of free/total prostate-specific analysis ratio, age-specific reference ranges, and PSA density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Bangma (Chris); R. Kranse (Ries); B.G. Blijenberg (Bert); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The ratio between free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum (F/T ratio) was shown to improve the specificity of total serum PSA for the detection of prostate carcinoma in selected populations. In this study, the value of the F/T ratio for screening of prostate

  8. [Rates of total and free PSA prescriptions in France (2012-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Leboucher, Claire; Peyre-Lanquar, Gabrielle; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gabach, Pierre; Rébillard, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    In 2010, the French Haute Autorité de santé (National Health Authority) confirmed the limited value of prostate cancer (PCa) screening by total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay. This study was designed to determine the modalities of ordering total PSA or free PSA assays (in the absence of PCa) according to various parameters and the corresponding sums reimbursed. Men aged 40 years and older covered by the national health insurance general scheme (73% of the French population) between 2012 and 2014 were selected. Data were derived from the Système national d'information inter-régimes de l'assurance maladie (Sniiram) (National health insurance information system) database. In 2014, 27% of the 11.6 million men 40 years and older underwent at least one total PSA assay and 5.6% underwent at least one free PSA assay, with marked variations according to the presence or absence of treated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (53% and 15% vs 24% and 5%) and from one administrative department to another. The peak total PSA assay rate was observed between the ages of 65 and 74 years: 64% of men with LUTS, 46% without LUTS. Between 2012 and 2014, men in whom at least one PSA assay had been performed underwent a mean of 1.8 total PSA assays and 1.7 free PSA assays, with means of 2.3 and 2, respectively, in the presence of LUTS. General practice specialists ordered 91% of the PSA tests reimbursed in 2014 (92% for total PSA and 87% for free PSA) and urologists ordered 4% of reimbursed tests. The total sum reimbursed was €28.5 million, comprising €8.7 million for free PSA. An average of 10 laboratory tests was performed at the same time as the PSA assay in the absence of treated LUTS. Total PSA and free PSA assays are performed in a large number of men, although the value of these tests as first-line test before biopsy remains controversial. These PSA assays are associated with many other laboratory tests looking for possible abnormalities, especially in younger

  9. New Hope for Stopping HIV - Testing and Medical Care Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-29

    This 60 second PSA is based on the December 2011 CDC Vital Signs report, "HIV Prevention through Care and Treatment" that shares new hope for preventing HIV and improving the health of people with HIV.  Created: 11/29/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/29/2011.

  10. Lassen Veränderungen des Prostata-spezifischen Antigen- (PSA- Spiegels nach Prostatastanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das pathologische Ergebnis zu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmer BG

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Die diagnostische Biopsie der Prostata führt bekanntermaßen zum Anstieg des Serum-PSA-Spiegels. Diese prospektive Untersuchung sollte die Frage klären, ob die Änderungen des Serum-PSA-Spiegels nach Stanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das histologische Ergebnis zulassen und so als Entscheidungshilfe bei der Frage der Rebiopsie dienen können. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 79 konsekutive Patienten mit klinischem Verdacht auf das Vorliegen eines Prostatakarzinoms (PCA und einem Gesamt-PSA 50 ng/ml wurden in die Studie eingeschlossen. Ausschlußkriterien waren klinische Hinweise für eine Prostatitis und Prostatabiopsie innerhalb der letzten 3 Monate. Die Serum-PSA-Werte wurden mit einem ultrasensitiven Enzymimmunoassay bestimmt. Die Bestimmung des Gesamt-PSA und des freien PSA im Serum erfolgte unmittelbar vor und 60 Minuten nach der Biopsie. Die Spiegel des Gesamt-PSA und freien PSA, sowie die f/t-PSA-Ratio vor und nach Biopsie wurden in Korrelation zum histologischen Ergebnis gesetzt. Ergebnisse: 86 Biopsieserien wurden bei 79 Patienten durchgeführt. 38 Biopsieserien diagnostizierten ein PCA, 48 eine benigne Prostatahyperplasie (BPH. Die abschließende Histologie nach wiederholter Biopsie war PCA und BPH in je 43 Fällen. Insgesamt fand sich ein Anstieg des durchschnittlichen Gesamt-PSA von 18,39 ng/ml auf 107,8 ng/ml, des durchschnittlichen freien PSA von 3,43 ng/ml auf 33,7 ng/ml und der durchschnittlichen f/t PSA-Ratio von 18,1 % auf 52,0 %. Es fand sich keine Korrelation zwischen dem Anstieg dieser Parameter und der Anzahl der Biopsiezylinder (4–51. Bezüglich des histologischen Befundes ergaben sich statistisch signifikante Unterschiede für das Gesamt-PSA vor und die f/t PSA-Ratio vor und nach Stanzbiopsie. Schlußfolgerung: Die Analyse der PSA-Parameter nach Stanzbiopsie bietet keine zusätzliche Information über die konventionellen PSA-Parameter vor der Biopsie hinaus. Sie korrelieren vor allem nicht mit falsch

  11. SERUM PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN LEVELS IN MEN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the. PSA test at the conventional cut-off value of 4 ng/ml. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Nairobi Hospital Laboratory, Nairobi. Data Source: Results of serum Prostate specific Antigen (PSA), estimation and prostate.

  12. The diagnostic value of PSA, cPSA and bone scintigraphy for early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhongguang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of prostate specific antigen (PSA), complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA) and bone scintigraphic imaging in diagnosis of early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer. Methods: 152 patients (74 with prostate cancer, 78 with benign prostate disease) and 90 controls were examined for the serum concentrations of PSA and cPSA. At the same time, the 74 patients with PCa were examined with bone scintigraphy. The cPSA/PSA ratio was calculated. Results: Serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio of patients with prostate cancer were significantly higher than those in benign prostate patients and controls. In addition, the serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio in prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastasis were remarkably higher than those in patients without skeletal metastasis, and the differences were significant (P 20 μg/L, cPSA>10 μg/L, cPSA/PSA>0.80, there is a high probability that skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer would be present and bone scintigraphy should be performed. (authors)

  13. Doctors' perspectives on PSA testing illuminate established differences in prostate cancer screening rates between Australia and the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Kristen; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Entwistle, Vikki A

    2016-12-05

    To examine how general practitioners (GPs) in the UK and GPs in Australia explain their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing practices and to illuminate how these explanations are similar and how they are different. A grounded theory study. Primary care practices in Australia and the UK. 69 GPs in Australia (n=40) and the UK (n=29). We included GPs of varying ages, sex, clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. GPs' accounts revealed fundamental differences in whether and how prostate cancer screening occurred in their practice and in the broader context within which they operate. The history of prostate screening policy, organisational structures and funding models appeared to drive more prostate screening in Australia and less in the UK. In Australia, screening processes and decisions were mostly at the discretion of individual clinicians, and varied considerably, whereas the accounts of UK GPs clearly reflected a consistent, organisationally embedded approach based on local evidence-based recommendations to discourage screening. The GP accounts suggested that healthcare systems, including historical and current organisational and funding structures and rules, collectively contribute to how and why clinicians use the PSA test and play a significant role in creating the mindlines that GPs employ in their clinic. Australia's recently released consensus guidelines may support more streamlined and consistent care. However, if GP mindlines and thus routine practice in Australia are to shift, to ultimately reduce unnecessary or harmful prostate screening, it is likely that other important drivers at all levels of the screening process will need to be addressed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Doctors' perspectives on PSA testing illuminate established differences in prostate cancer screening rates between Australia and the UK: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Kristen; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Entwistle, Vikki A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine how general practitioners (GPs) in the UK and GPs in Australia explain their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing practices and to illuminate how these explanations are similar and how they are different. Design A grounded theory study. Setting Primary care practices in Australia and the UK. Participants 69 GPs in Australia (n=40) and the UK (n=29). We included GPs of varying ages, sex, clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. Results GPs' accounts revealed fundamental differences in whether and how prostate cancer screening occurred in their practice and in the broader context within which they operate. The history of prostate screening policy, organisational structures and funding models appeared to drive more prostate screening in Australia and less in the UK. In Australia, screening processes and decisions were mostly at the discretion of individual clinicians, and varied considerably, whereas the accounts of UK GPs clearly reflected a consistent, organisationally embedded approach based on local evidence-based recommendations to discourage screening. Conclusions The GP accounts suggested that healthcare systems, including historical and current organisational and funding structures and rules, collectively contribute to how and why clinicians use the PSA test and play a significant role in creating the mindlines that GPs employ in their clinic. Australia's recently released consensus guidelines may support more streamlined and consistent care. However, if GP mindlines and thus routine practice in Australia are to shift, to ultimately reduce unnecessary or harmful prostate screening, it is likely that other important drivers at all levels of the screening process will need to be addressed. PMID:27920082

  15. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jessica J.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Loffredo, Marian; D’Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  16. Rapid and quantitative detection of prostate specific antigen with a quantum dot nanobeads-based immunochromatography test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Li, Wenbin; Yang, Qiuhua; Gong, Xiaoqun; Guo, Weisheng; Dong, Chunhong; Liu, Junqing; Xuan, Lixue; Chang, Jin

    2014-05-14

    Convenient and fast testing using an immunochromatography test strip (ICTS) enables rapid yes/no decisions regarding a disease to be made. However, the fundamental limitations of an ICTS, such as a lack of quantitative and sensitive analysis, severely hampers its application in reliable medical testing for the early detection of cancer. Herein, we overcame these limitations by integrating an ICTS with quantum dot nanobeads (QD nanobeads), which were fabricated by encapsulating QDs within modified poly(tert-butyl acrylate-co-ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) and served as a robust signal-generating reagent for the ICTS. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the performance of the QD nanobeads-based ICTS platform. Under optimized conditions, the concentration of PSA could be determined within 15 min with high sensitivity and specificity using only 40 μL of sample. The detection limit was enhanced by ∼12-fold compared with that of an ICTS that used QDs encapsulated by commercial 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (QDs@MUA) as the signal-generating reagent. At the same time, the possible clinical utility of this approach was demonstrated by measurements recorded from PSA-positive patient specimens. Our data suggest that the QD nanobeads-based ICTS platform is not only rapid and low-cost but also highly sensitive and specific for use in quantitative point-of-care diagnostics; thus, it holds promise for becoming a part of routine medical testing for the early cancer of detection.

  17. Use of low free to total PSA ratio in prostate cancer screening: detection rates, clinical and pathological findings in Brazilian men with serum PSA levels <4.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Eliney Ferreira; Carvalhal, Gustavo F; dos Reis, Rodolfo Borges; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Vieira, Renê A C; Reis, Leonardo O; Nogueira, Lucas; Machado, Roberto Dias; Freitas, Celso H; Magnabosco, Wesley J; Mauad, Edmundo C; Carvalho, André Lopes

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? In spite of its low specificity, PSA is the most widely used screening test for prostate cancer (PCa), and is considered the main cause of the stage migration recently observed. The ratio of free to total PSA (%fPSA) has been shown to increase PSA accuracy in cancer detection; however, few screening studies have systematically evaluated its role in cancer detection rates in men with PSA levels indications in men with low PSA levels. • To evaluate the role of the free to total prostate-specific antigen ratio (%fPSA) in identifying prostate cancer (PCa) in men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and a normal digital rectal examination (DRE). • A prospective PCa screening study was conducted, which included 17571 men aged ≥ 45 years, across six Brazilian states, where men were recalled for further evaluation in the case of either a suspicious DRE and/or PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL, or PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and %fPSA ≤ 15. • We evaluated the impact of a %fPSA ≤ 15 on cancer detection rates and the clinical and pathological stage of tumours in men with a normal DRE and PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL. • When suspicious DRE and/or PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL were considered as criteria to prompt further evaluation, the cancer detection rate was 3.1%. When %fPSA ≤ 15 in men with total PSA levels of 2.5-3.9 ng/mL were considered as criteria, the PCa detection rate increased to 3.7%. Considering %fPSA ≤ 15 in men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and normal DRE, the positive predictive value of biopsy was 31.1%. • Clinical stage was more favourable among men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL, normal DRE, and %fPSA ≤ 15 compared with men with normal DRE and PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL (P= 0.02). • Among those who underwent radical prostatectomy, pathological stage and the proportion of insignificant tumours were similar between men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL, normal DRE findings and %fPSA ≤ 15, and men with PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL. • The use

  18. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for High Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Huang-Tiel, Hui-Juan; Golka, Klaus; Selinski, Silvia; Geis, Berit Christine; Koswig, Stephan; Bathe, Katrin; Hallmann, Steffen; Gerullis, Holger

    2016-11-10

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index), Gleason score, D'Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA value after one/three/five year(s) follow-up (FU), time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis ( p = 0.009), PSA on date of first HDR-BT ( p = 0.033), and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year ( p = 0.025) have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  19. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  20. Study of Serum Total PSA and Free PSA as an Oncological Marker in Breast Tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahir, Elteza Tahjiba; Devi, Runi; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhushan

    2017-03-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers. To study the molecular forms of PSA-total and free PSA in benign and malignant tumours and to analyse their association with the tumour burden. The present study was conducted in collaboration with Gauhati Medical College and Hospital and Dr B Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam, India. Women in the age group of 18-65 years with recently diagnosed tumour (benign/malignant) in the breast were included in the study. Women taking Oral Contraceptive Pill (OCP), hormone replacement therapy, with past/present history of gynaecological/other malignancy and chronic endocrine disease like diabetes, thyroid disorders were excluded. The case group comprised of 50 female subjects with newly diagnosed Benign Breast Disease (BBD) and 50 subjects with BC, while 50 age matched healthy females without any signs and symptoms of breast discomfort were included in the control group. Laboratory tests done were Serum Total PSA (TPSA), Free PSA (FPSA), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS), serum urea, serum creatinine and fasting lipid profile. TPSA and FPSA was measured again in both the test groups after 10-14 days of surgery/therapy. A fall in postoperative value of total and free PSA in BC case group was noticed. In Grade I tumours the mean value of total PSA (1.813 ng/ml) and free PSA (1.149 ng/ml) were higher than those with Grade III tumours (TPSA-1.07 ng/ml and FPSA-1.002 ng/ml). Mean value of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBG), total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in BC case group was higher than the

  1. Anti-Tumor Effect of the Alphavirus-based Virus-like Particle Vector Expressing Prostate-Specific Antigen in a HLA-DR Transgenic Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabov, V.; Tretyakova, I.; Alexander, R. B.; Pushko, P.; Klyushnenkova, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if an alphavirus-based vaccine encoding human Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) could generate an effective anti-tumor immune response in a stringent mouse model of prostate cancer. DR2bxPSA F1 male mice expressing human PSA and HLA-DRB1*1501 transgenes were vaccinated with virus-like particle vector encoding PSA (VLPV-PSA) followed by the challenge with Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate cells engineered to express PSA (TRAMP-PSA). PSA-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were measured before and after tumor challenge. PSA and CD8 reactivity in the tumors was detected by immunohistochemistry. Tumor growth was compared in vaccinated and control groups. We found that VLPV-PSA could infect mouse dendritic cells in vitro and induce a robust PSA-specific immune response in vivo. A substantial proportion of splenic CD8+ T cells (19.6±7.4%) produced IFNγ in response to the immunodominant peptide PSA65–73. In the blood of vaccinated mice, 18.4±4.1% of CD8+ T cells were PSA-specific as determined by the staining with H-2Db/PSA65–73 dextramers. VLPV-PSA vaccination also strongly stimulated production of IgG2a/b anti-PSA antibodies. Tumors in vaccinated mice showed low levels of PSA expression and significant CD8 T cell infiltration. Tumor growth in VLPV-PSA vaccinated mice was significantly delayed at early time points (p=0.002, Gehan-Breslow test). Our data suggest that TC-83-based VLPV-PSA vaccine can efficiently overcome immune tolerance to PSA, mediate rapid clearance of PSA-expressing tumor cells and delay tumor growth. The VLPV-PSA vaccine will undergo further testing for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. PMID:26319744

  2. Prostate cancer volume adds significantly to prostate-specific antigen in the prediction of early biochemical failure after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Propert, Kathleen J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A new clinical pretreatment quantity that closely approximates the true prostate cancer volume is defined. Methods and Materials: The cancer-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, prostate cancer volume (V Ca ), and the volume fraction of the gland involved with carcinoma (V Ca fx) were calculated for 227 prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy. 1. PSA density PSA/ultrasound prostate gland volume 2. Cancer-specific PSA = PSA - [PSA from benign epithelial tissue] 3. V Ca = Cancer-specific PSA/[PSA in serum per cm 3 of cancer] 4. V Ca fx = V Ca /ultrasound prostate gland volume A Cox multiple regression analysis was used to test whether any of these-clinical pretreatment parameters added significantly to PSA in predicting early postradiation PSA failure. Results: The prostate cancer volume (p = 0.039) and the volume fraction of the gland involved by carcinoma (p = 0.035) significantly added to the PSA in predicting postradiation PSA failure. Conversely, the PSA density and the cancer-specific PSA did not add significantly (p > 0.05) to PSA in predicting postradiation PSA failure. The 20-month actuarial PSA failure-free rates for patients with calculated tumor volumes of ≤0.5 cm 3 , 0.5-4.0 cm 3 , and >4.0 cm 3 were 92, 80, and 47%, respectively (p = 0.00004). Conclusion: The volume of prostate cancer (V Ca ) and the resulting volume fraction of cancer both added significantly to PSA in their ability to predict for early postradiation PSA failure. These new parameters may be used to select patients in prospective randomized trials that examine the efficacy of combining radiation and androgen ablative therapy in patients with clinically localized disease, who are at high risk for early postradiation PSA failure

  3. The preparation of Dermatophilus congolensis antigen and its testing by means of immunodiffusion test and electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Djaenudin Gholib; Subiyanto

    1998-01-01

    The filtrate antigen ofDermatophilus congolensis was prepared based on the Makinde method, whereas the whole cell antigen was based on the Bida and Kelley method. Filtrate antigen of Dermatophilus congolensis has been tested with positive serum from experimental animals, guinea pigs and sheep by means of immurrodiffitsion test and electrophoresis . Positive serum was produced by inoculation of whole cell antigen of D. congolensis to the animals . The results showed that the immunodiffusion te...

  4. Anticancer activities of emetine prodrugs that are proteolytically activated by the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and evaluation of in vivo toxicity of emetine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboye, Emmanuel S; Rosen, Marc D; Bakare, Oladapo; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2017-12-15

    Emetine is a small molecule protein synthesis inhibitor that is toxic to all cell types and therefore suitable for complete killing of all types of heterogeneous cancer cells within a tumor. It becomes significantly inactive (non-toxic) when derivatized at its N-2' secondary amine. This provides a strategy for targeting emetine to cancerous tumor without killing normal cells. In this report, PSA activatable peptide prodrugs of emetine were synthesized. To overcome steric hindrances and enhance protease specific cleavage, a 2-stage prodrug activation process was needed to release emetine in cancer cells. In this 2-stage process, emetine prodrug intermediates are coupled to PSA peptide substrate (Ac-His-Ser-Ser-Lys-Leu-Gln) to obtain the full prodrug. Both prodrug intermediates 10 (Ala-Pro-PABC-Emetine) and 14 (Ser-Leu-PABC-Emetine) were evaluated for kinetics of hydrolysis to emetine and potency [Where PABC = p-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl]. While both intermediates quantitatively liberate emetine when incubated under appropriate conditions, upon coupling of PSA substrate to give the full prodrugs, only prodrug 16, the prodrug obtained from 14 was hydrolyzable by PSA. Cytotoxicity studies in PSA producing LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 confirm the activation of the prodrug by PSA with an IC 50 of 75 nM and 59 nM respectively. The cytotoxicity of 16 is significantly reduced in cell lines that do not produce PSA. Further, in vivo toxicity studies are done on these prodrugs and other derivatives of emetine. The results show the significance of conformational modulation in obtaining safe emetine prodrugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer: analysis of the placebo arm of the SPCG-6 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, F B; Brasso, K; Berg, K D; Gerds, T A; Johansson, J-E; Angelsen, A; Tammela, T L J; Iversen, P

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of three PSA determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. Two hundred and sixty-three patients were included of which 116, 76 and 71 had a PSA at consent ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml, respectively. Median follow-up was 13.6 years. For patients with PSA at consent between 10.1 and 25 ng/ml, the 13-year risks of PCa mortality were associated with PSA kinetics: PSAdt ≤3 years: 62.0% versus PSAdt >3 years: 16.3% (Gray's test: P PSA kinetics were significantly associated with changes of 13-year risks of PCa mortality in patients with PSA at consent ≤10 or >25 ng/ml. We found that magnitude changes in 13-year risks of PCa mortality that can be indicated by PSA kinetics depend on PSA level in patients with localised PCa who were managed observationally. Our results question PSA kinetics as surrogate marker for PCa mortality in patients with low and high PSA values. NCT00672282. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  7. [Identification of low-molecular weight prostate-specific antigen(PSA) and lactoferrin in the prostatic secretion of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke-xin; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2006-12-18

    To investigate the expression of low-molecular-weight PSA(lw-PSA) and lactoferrin in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) from both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal prostate. Forty human EPS samples obtained from 20 BPH patients and 20 normal males were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was performed to confirm the nature of the secreted proteins in EPS. One uniquely expressed protein in BPH was detected and mass spectrometry determined its nature as lw-PSA (molecular weight 10x10(3), pI 8.5-9.3). More importantly, Western blotting analysis also revealed that lw-PSA detected in BPH-EPS, but was undetectable in BPH-free EPS. In addition, up-regulation of Lactoferrin (molecular weight 35x10(3), pI 7-7.5) in BPH-EPS, as compared with BPH-free EPS, was also observed. More interestingly, lactoferrin was absent in prostate cancer tissues. Our results indicate lw-PSA may be produced specifically by BPH epithelium and it has a potential to be used as a specific biological marker for the diagnosis of BPH. In addition, benign prostatic epithelium can produce more lactoferrin while prostate cancer tissues go without its lactoferrin secretion.

  8. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  9. Har lægers risikovillighed og symptomer på udbrændthed betydning for brugen af PSA-tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Denne artikel er baseret på undersøgelsen "Association of GP's risk attitudes, level of empathy, and burnout status with PSA testing in primary care, som er publiceret i British Journal of General Practice, December 2015; 65(44): 845-851......Denne artikel er baseret på undersøgelsen "Association of GP's risk attitudes, level of empathy, and burnout status with PSA testing in primary care, som er publiceret i British Journal of General Practice, December 2015; 65(44): 845-851...

  10. Proposal for a standardized PSA doubling-time calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponholzer, Anton; Popper, Nikolaus; Breitenecker, Felix; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Albrecht, Walter; Loidl, Wolfgang; Madersbacher, Stephan; Schramek, Paul; Semjonow, Axel; Rauchenwald, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling-time (PSA-DT) is an important indicator of progression and survival in men with prostate cancer. Three major limitations regarding PSA-DT determination may lead to inconsistent results: the variety of mathematical methods currently applied, the non-standardized handling of input variables and the potential lack of accuracy due to PSA variability. The aim of this project was to develop a reproducible PSA-DT determination tool which simultaneously provides a PSA-DT error estimation. An internet-based PSA-DT calculation tool via nonlinear optimization implementing the least squares error method using the most recent three PSA values was developed. PSA-DT calculation error is estimated via randomly disturbed measurement data streams (n=65) based on a variable (5-25%) PSA variability. According to a simulation in five men, PSA-DT was calculated to be between 1.7 and 15 month (mean: 6.3 month) and determined with another standard tool between 1.3 and 14.5 month (mean: 4.2 month). We present a defined, open and reproducible PSA-DT calculation and PSA-DT error estimation tool based on a standardized PSA data input. This tool is not better compared to other methods but is scientifically standardized and freely accessible via the following internet address: http://adam.drahtwarenhandlung.at/webapp/mg2008/chapter_prostata4/example_psa.

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass and Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass for Predicting the Prostate Volume of Korean Men With Biopsy-Proven Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Tae Yong; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Moon, Du Geon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It has been reported that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) correlates with prostate volume. Recently, some studies have reported that PSA mass (PSA adjusted for plasma volume) is more accurate than PSA at predicting prostate volume. In this study, we analyzed the accuracy of PSA and the related parameters of PSA mass, free PSA (fPSA), and fPSA mass in predicting prostate volume. Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 658 patients who underwent prostate biopsy from 2006 t...

  12. The influence of PSA autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients: a prospective clinical study-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kosei; Heilbrun, Lance K; Smith, Daryn; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham; Heath, Elisabeth

    2017-03-14

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against PSA-based screening for prostate cancer due to potential possibilities of false-results. Since no alternative test is available to replace it, we have initiated a trial with the purpose of establishing whether Galectin-3 (Gal-3) serum level and/or the patients' immune response to PSA and Gal-3 antigens could complement the PSA test as diagnostic tools for prostate cancer patients. A blind, prospective, single institution, pilot study was conducted. A total of 95 men were recruited and classified into 5 different groups: healthy controls (Group1), newly diagnosed patients (Group2), no recurrence after local therapy (Group3), rising PSA after local therapy (Group4), and metastatic patients (Group5). The primary endpoints were the levels of serum PSA, PSA autoantibodies (AAPSA), Gal-3, and Gal-3 autoantibodies (AAGal-3). Data were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation (rho) and least squares linear regression modeling. The expression levels of PSA, AAPSA, Gal-3, and AAGal-3 were determined in both healthy controls and prostate cancer patients. Negative correlations were observed between PSA and AAPSA levels among all 95 men combined (rho = -0.321, P = 0.0021; fitted slope -0.288, P = 0.0048), and in metastatic patients (rho = -0.472, P = 0.0413; fitted slope -1.145, P = 0.0061). We suggest an association between PSA and AAPSA, whereby the AAPSA may alter PSA levels. It provides a novel outlook for prostate cancer diagnosis, and should serve as a basis for an all-inclusive diagnostic trial centering on patients with metastasis.

  13. Elevated prostate specific antigen and reduced 10-year survival among a cohort of Danish men consecutively referred from primary care to an urological department during 2005-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Thore; Nielsen, Torben Kjær; Hansen, Steen Ingemann

    2017-01-01

    It remains unclear whether total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) or complex PSA (cPSA) has the best diagnostic performance. Additionally, the utility of percentage free PSA (%fPSA) is still debated. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic performances of tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA among patients...

  14. Factory test results on NOx recycle system using pressure swing adsorption method (PSA-method) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masami; Nakamura, Kou; Shimizu, Yoshinao; Kubota, Masaru; Takeishi, Masayuki; Kumura, Seiji

    2005-01-01

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRR), a great deal of NOx is mainly used as oxidizing reagent of Pu. This NOx has been conventionally manufactured by reaction of sodium nitrite and nitric acid. Problem, however, was how to process the radioactive waste materials left after immunization of the non-radioactive sodium nitrite occurring in manufacturing and the residual NOx used in the reprocessing. This paper reports the factory test results on the recycle system for NOx from denitrating tower off-gas using PSA method (vacuum pressure swing adsorption method) which has been developed to reduce waste materials occurring in the manufacture of NOx and the processing of residual NOx in the off-gas. (author)

  15. Validation of association of genetic variants at 10q with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men at high risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Li; Hughes, Lucinda; Chen, David Y T; Gross, Laura; Ruth, Karen; Giri, Veda N

    2014-05-01

    To validate six previously identified markers among men at increased risk of prostate cancer (African-American men and those with a family history of prostate cancer) enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), a prostate cancer screening study. Eligibility criteria for PRAP include age 35-69 years with a family history of prostate cancer, African-American ethnicity regardless of family history, and known BRCA gene mutations. The genome-wide association study markers assessed included rs2736098 (5p15.33), rs10993994 (10q11), rs10788160 (10q26), rs11067228 (12q24), rs4430796 (17q12) and rs17632542 (19q13.33). Genotyping methods included either the Taqman(®) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) or pyrosequencing. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between individual markers and log-transformed baseline PSA levels, while adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 707 participants (37% Caucasian, 63% African-American) with clinical and genotype data were included in the analysis. Rs10788160 (10q26) was strongly associated with PSA levels among Caucasian participants in the high-risk group (P PSA level with each A-allele carried. Furthermore, rs10993994 (10q11) was found to be associated with PSA level (P = 0.03) in Caucasian men in the high-risk group, with a 15% increase in PSA level with each T-allele carried. A PSA adjustment model based on allele carrier status at rs10788160 and rs10993994 was proposed, specific to high-risk Caucasian men. Genetic variation at 10q may be particularly important in personalizing the interpretation of PSA level for Caucasian men in the high-risk group. Such information may have clinical relevance in shared decision-making and individualized prostate cancer screening strategies for Caucasian men in the high-risk group, although further study is warranted. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  16. A method for determining a prostate-specific antigen cure after radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Whittington, Richard; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Schultz, Delray

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A method that allows the determination of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cure after definitive management for prostate carcinoma with radiation therapy is presented and tested. Methods and Materials: The method involves a calculation of the patient's theoretical baseline PSA prior to the development of prostate cancer by using three serial rising PSA determinations obtained prior to the institution of therapy. The rate of rise of the PSA prior to therapy and the rate of decline of the PSA posttherapy are calculated, using an exponential model. Two criteria must be satisfied to define a PSA cure. First, the PSA nadir after treatment should be less than the calculated theoretical baseline PSA. Second, the rate of decline of PSA posttreatment should be greater than the rate of rise of the PSA prior to treatment. Results: Applying these two criteria to the patient data base (n 16) at a median follow-up of 19 months enabled the accurate prediction of 6 out of 6 (100%) of patients with documented PSA failure and 7 out of 10 (70%) of patients without PSA failure. Therefore, despite short follow-up, all six patients with PSA failure were predicted. Further follow-up is needed to ascertain if the seven patients predicted to be cured will remain PSA failure free and if the three patients currently without PSA failure in whom the model predicts failure, will subsequently fail. Conclusion: Therefore, using each patient's PSA history as the natural control may eliminate the error that is introduced with defining a PSA cure by using a single value for the PSA nadir at a specified time after radiation therapy

  17. PSA-PSMA profiles and their impact on sera PSA levels and angiogenic activity in hyperplasia and human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemaa, A; Bouraoui, Y; Sallami, S; Banasr, A; Nouira, Y; Oueslati, R

    2014-06-01

    The relevance of prostate specific antigen (PSA)-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) profiles in pathologic prostate (hyperplasia and cancer) has not been fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PSA-PSMA profiles on sera PSA levels and angiogenic activity in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC). The study has been carried out in 6 normal prostate (NP), 29 BPH and 33 PC with dominant Gleason grade>8. Immunohistochemical analysis has been performed. Monoclonal antibodies 3E6 and ER-PR8 have been used to assess PSMA and PSA expression respectively. The evaluation of angiogenesis has been made by CD34 immune marker. Serum levels of PSA have been assayed by Immulite autoanalyser. The study of each protein separately among sera PSA levels showed that PSMA expression and angiogenic activity have the highest intensity in PC patients with serum PSA levels>20 ng/mL. Nevertheless, the lowest tissue PSA expression was found in PC patients with this latter sera PSA group. The most relevant results showed that in PC patients (PSA+, PSMA+) and (PSA-, PSMA+) profile were found to be inversely related to sera PSA levels. In PC patients, a high immunoexpression of (PSA+, PSMA+) profile has detected in the sera PSA group>20 ng/mL; whereas a high immunoexpression of (PSA-, PSMA+) profile was detected in the sera PSA group between 0 and 4 ng/mL. The highest angiogenic activity was found in PC patients with (PSA+, PSMA+) profile. Our findings clearly have supported the feasibility of PSA-PSMA profiles to improve in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in prostate cancer patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Identification and characterization of new Leishmania promastigote surface antigens, LaPSA-38S and LiPSA-50S, as major immunodominant excreted/secreted components of L. amazonensis and L. infantum

    OpenAIRE

    Bras Goncalves, Rachel; Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Veyrier, Renaud; Cibrelus, P.; Cavaleyra, Mireille; Maquaire, S.; Moreaux, J.; Lemesre, Jean-Loup

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that sera from dogs vaccinated with excreted/secreted antigens (ESA) of Leishmania infantum promastigotes (LiESAp) mainly recognized an immunodominant antigen of 54 kDa. An anti-LiESAp-specific IgG2 humoral response was observed and associated to Th1-type response in vaccinated dogs. This response was highly correlated with a long-lasting and strong LiES-Ap-vaccine protection toward L. infantum experimental infection. In addition, it was also shown that dogs fr...

  19. The State of Prescreening Discussions About Prostate-specific Antigen Testing Following Implementation of the 2012 United States Preventive Services Task Force Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turini, George A; Gjelsvik, Annie; Renzulli, Joseph F

    2017-06-01

    To determine if the quality of prescreening discussions has changed following release of the United States Preventive Services Task Force statement against prostate cancer screening. This cross-sectional study used the 2012 and 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Respondents were categorized based on the year in which they responded to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Quality of prescreening discussion was operationalized as having discussed only advantages, only disadvantages, both advantages and disadvantages, or neither. Race/ethnicity, education level, income, insurance status, and having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level actually drawn after prescreening counseling served as confounders in our multivariate analysis. Among 217,053 men in the analytic sample, 37% were told about only advantages of PSA screening compared to 30% of men who were advised about both advantages and disadvantages. Men who were told about neither advantages nor disadvantages were more likely to be Hispanic, not graduate high school, have low income, and not have insurance. Controlling for covariates, men in 2014 were significantly more likely to have undergone PSA testing without having discussed either advantages or disadvantages than men in 2012. Comprehensive prescreening discussions about advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing are critical to informed decision making about prostate cancer screening. Disparities not only exist with regard to the quality of prescreening discussions that patients receive from their providers prior to PSA testing across categories of race/ethnicity, education, income, and insurance status, but these disparities became more substantial between 2012 and 2014. Further investigation is warranted to elicit more specific reasons behind these variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed....... Aims. Based on the increase in the amount of PSA conducted, we aimed to analyse how GPs in Denmark use the PSA test. Methods. A self-administrated questionnaire concerning symptomatic and asymptomatic patient cases was developed based on the national and international guidelines and the extensive...... literature review, and an in-depth interview conducted with a GP was performed. Results. None of the GPs would do a PSA measurement for an asymptomatic 76-year-old man. For asymptomatic 55- and 42-year-old men, respectively, 21.9% and 18.6% of GPs would measure PSA. Patient request and concern could...

  1. Validation of laboratory-scale recycling test method of paper PSA label products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Richard Oldack

    2008-01-01

    Starting with test methods and a specification developed by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Postage Stamp Program, a laboratory-scale test method and a specification were developed and validated for pressure-sensitive adhesive labels, By comparing results from this new test method and pilot-scale tests, which have been...

  2. Prostate-specific antigen and long-term prediction of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, David D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2012-01-01

    It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population.......It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population....

  3. Elevated Serum PSA is Associated With Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection and Increased Circulating Cytokine Levels in Men From Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jill D; Karamchandani, Jaideep M; Bonachea, Luis A; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Jenkins, Frank J

    2017-05-01

    Serum-prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for many years as a biomarker for prostate cancer. This usage is under scrutiny due to the fact that elevated PSA levels can be caused by other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and infections of or injury to the prostate. As a result, the identification of specific pathogens capable of increasing serum levels of PSA is important. A potential candidate responsible for elevated PSA is human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We have reported previously that HHV-8 is capable of infecting and establishing a latent infection in the prostate. In this current study we test the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with elevated PSA levels. Circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated PSA and controls are also compared. HHV-8 serostatus was determined among men with elevated serum PSA (≥4 ng/ml; n = 168, no prostate cancer on biopsy) and age-matched controls (PSA PSA and 85 controls). Men with an elevated serum PSA were significantly more likely to be HHV-8 seropositive (42.9%) than the age-matched cancer-free men (22.2%; OR 2.51; 95%CI 1.48-4.29, P = 00001). Comparison of circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated serum PSA and controls indicated that elevated serum PSA is associated with a pro-inflammatory response with a mixed Th1/Th2 response while HHV-8 infection was associated with significantly higher levels of IL12p70, IL-10, and IL-13 indicating a Th2 immune response. We found a significant association between HHV-8 infection and increased levels of serum PSA. In an age of patient-centered medicine, men with an elevated serum PSA should be considered for HHV-8 serology testing to determine if HHV-8 is responsible for the elevated PSA. Prostate 77: 617-624, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Putting PSA to work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, R.; Gomez-Cobo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA has, during the last three years, been working intensively on PSA applications. The draft TECDOC prepared during these activities, ''PSA Applications'' is summarized in this paper. Actual events at nuclear facilities provide an important basis to compare PSAs with reality. PSA based operational event analysis therefore can be used to evaluate the importance of operational events from a risk perspective but also can contribute to validating and enhancing PSAs and to continuously check whether or not the PSA models are adequate, appropriate and complete. The work of the IAEA in this area is therefore summarized as well. In a companion paper, titled ''Towards a credible PSA fit for applications'', two specific aspects regarding the quality of the PSA to be used are discussed in detail, namely the Living PSA concept, which ensures that the PSA reflects actual design and operational features and Quality Assurance for PSA. (author)

  5. Can PSA Reflex Algorithm be a valid alternative to other PSA-based prostate cancer screening strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, G; Troiano, G; Rosadini, D; Nante, N

    2017-01-01

    The available laboratory tests for the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer, are represented by the total PSA, the free PSA, and the free/total PSA ratio. In Italy most of doctors tend to request both total and free PSA for their patients even in cases where the total PSA doesn't justify the further request of free PSA, with a consequent growth of the costs for the National Health System. The aim of our study was to predict the saving in Euro (due to reagents) and reduction in free PSA tests, applying the "PSA Reflex" algorithm. We calculated the number of total PSA and free PSA exams performed in 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto and, simulating the application of the "PSA Reflex" algorithm in the same year, we calculated the decrease in the number of free PSA requests and we tried to predict the Euro savings in reagents, obtained from this reduction. In 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto 25,955 total PSA tests have been performed: 3,631 (14%) resulted greater than 10 ng / ml; 7,686 (29.6%) between 2 and 10 ng / ml; 14,638 (56.4%) lower than 2 ng / ml. The performed free PSA tests were 16904. Simulating the use of "PSA Reflex" algorithm, the free PSA tests would be performed only in cases with total PSA values between 2 and 10 ng / mL with a saving of 54.5% of free PSA exams and of 8,971 euros, only for reagents. Our study showed that the "PSA Reflex" algorithm is a valid alternative leading to a reduction of the costs. The estimated intralaboratory savings, due to the reagents, seem to be modest, however, they are followed by the additional savings due to the other diagnostic processes for prostate cancers.

  6. Improving PSA quality of KSNP PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the RIR (Risk-informed Regulation), PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) plays a major role because it provides overall risk insights for the regulatory body and utility. Therefore, the scope, the level of details and the technical adequacy of PSA, i.e. the quality of PSA is to be ensured for the successful RIR. To improve the quality of Korean PSA, we evaluate the quality of the KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) internal full-power PSA model based on the 'ASME PRA Standard' and the 'NEI PRA Peer Review Process Guidance.' As a working group, PSA experts of the regulatory body and industry also participated in the evaluation process. It is finally judged that the overall quality of the KSNP PSA is between the ASME Standard Capability Category I and II. We also derive some items to be improved for upgrading the quality of the PSA up to the ASME Standard Capability Category II. In this paper, we show the result of quality evaluation, and the activities to improve the quality of the KSNP PSA model

  7. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  8. Qualification of calculation aids for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, K.; Hennigs, W.; Kirstein, B.M.; Reinhardt, C.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) are part of the evaluation of a nuclear power plants safety. The German PSA guide stipulates that the used software must enable a PSA according to the state of the art. This software must be qualified to assure that its features, mathematic methods and its performance enable a PSA like this. In this research work specifications and requirements are developed, which allow the testing of software. A procedure was developed to qualify PSA software according to the PSA guide and the experiences of users of PSA. Setting up a procedure, a tool for a systematic and uniform examination was crated. Additionally the options, mathematic fundamentals and performance of PSA-programs were analyzed. According to this all programs that were analyzed are capable to sovle their original task, that is the calculation of the safety of high available system based on high available components. Against that the requirements of modern PSA, e.g. to handle less available functions, HRA and fire analyses, based on the use of modern software and the implementation of new developments in the field of PSA are not supported adequately by all programs. (orig.) [de

  9. Differential percentage of serum prostate-specific antigen subforms suggests a new way to improve prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrats, Ariadna; Comet, Josep; Tabarés, Glòria; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, R Núria; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the tumor marker currently used for prostate cancer (PCa) screening and diagnosis. However, its use is controversial as serum PSA levels are also increased in other non-malignant prostatic diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PSA sialic acid content is altered in tumor situation and modifies PSA's isoelectric point (pI). Our goal has been to evaluate serum PSA subforms from PCa and BPH patients by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and to investigate whether they could be used to improve PCa diagnosis. PSA from 20 PCa and 20 BPH patients' sera was subjected to a four-step method to obtain serum PSA 2-DE subforms from free PSA (fPSA) plus PSA released from the complex with alpha-1-antichymotrypsin. Relative percentages of PSA spots were quantified and subjected to statistical analysis. Five PSA subforms (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) of different pI were obtained. Relative percentages of F3 (%F3) and F4 (%F4) were different between PCa and BPH groups. %F3 decreased in cancers and this decrease correlated with the cancer stage, while F4 behaved oppositely. These observations were also found when only focusing on the patients within the low total PSA (tPSA) range 2-20 ng/ml. %F3 showed a tendency of higher sensitivity and specificity than the currently used tPSA and %fPSA tests. Therefore, %F3 measurement should be investigated in a larger cohort of patients to study whether it could be introduced to improve PCa diagnosis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen screening in the United States vs in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer-Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); R. Boer (Rob); S.J. Otto (Suzie); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDissemination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the United States coincided with an increasing incidence of prostate cancer, a shift to earlier stage disease at diagnosis, and decreasing prostate cancer mortality. We compared PSA screening performance with respect to prostate

  11. Can the Free/Total PSA Ratio Predict the Gleason Score Before Prostate Biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Cavit; Gazel, Eymen; Keleş, İbrahim; Doluoğlu, Ömer; Yığman, Metin

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between high Gleason score and free/total (f/t) prostate specific antigen (PSA) in patients newly diagnosed with prostate carcinoma. The study included 272 prostate biopsy patients whose total PSA value ranged from 4-10 ng/ml. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the f/t PSA ratio: Group 1 ≤ 15% and Group 2 > 15%. Furthermore, the groups were also compared to each other in terms of mild (≤ 6), moderate (= 7), and high (≥ 8) Gleason score. Group 1 consisted of 135 (49.6%) patients and Group 2 consisted of 137 (50.4%) patients. While 27 (20%) patients had a high Gleason score in Group 1, only 10 (7.3%) patients had a high Gleason score in Group 2 (p = 0.008). Using Spearman's correlation test, we found that the f/t PSA ratios were observed to decrease significantly in all patients with increased Gleason scores (p = 0.002, r = -0.185). According to our study, there is a relationship between higher Gleason score and decreased f/t PSA ratio. Therefore, f/t PSA can be an indicator for predicting the Gleason score.

  12. Failure cause and failure rate evaluation on pumps of BWR plants in PSA. Hypothesis testing for typical or plant specific failure rate of pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    In support of domestic nuclear industry effort to gather and analyze failure data of components concerning nuclear power plants, Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA) are published for useful information to help PSA. This report focuses on NUCIA pertaining to pumps in domestic nuclear power plants, and provides the reliable estimation on failure rate of pumps resulting from failure cause analysis and hypothesis testing of classified and plant specific failure rate of pumps for improving quality in PSA. The classified and plant specific failure rate of pumps are estimated by analyzing individual domestic nuclear power plant's data of 26 Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) concerning functionally structurally classified pump failures reported from beginning of commercial operation to March 31, 2007. (author)

  13. The preparation of Dermatophilus congolensis antigen and its testing by means of immunodiffusion test and electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaenudin Gholib

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The filtrate antigen ofDermatophilus congolensis was prepared based on the Makinde method, whereas the whole cell antigen was based on the Bida and Kelley method. Filtrate antigen of Dermatophilus congolensis has been tested with positive serum from experimental animals, guinea pigs and sheep by means of immurrodiffitsion test and electrophoresis . Positive serum was produced by inoculation of whole cell antigen of D. congolensis to the animals . The results showed that the immunodiffusion test resulted in one and two precipitation lines with positive serum of sheep and guinea pigs respectively. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE presented about 8 bands with molecular weight in the range from above 30 kD to more than 94 kD. The bands were then transferred into nitrocellulose membrane and gave positive reaction with positive serum from sheep.

  14. Association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene is a member of the human kallikrein gene family and is known that to be tightly regulated by androgens in the male prostate The presence of PSA is strongly associated with presence of steroid hormone receptors. The aim of this research was to show differential expression and ...

  15. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  16. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Porous Silicon Antibody Microarrays for Quantitative Analysis: Measurement of Free and Total PSA in Clinical Plasma Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Axel; Malm, Johan; Marko-Varga, György; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The antibody microarrays have become widespread, but their use for quantitative analyses in clinical samples has not yet been established. We investigated an immunoassay based on nanoporous silicon antibody microarrays for quantification of total prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in 80 clinical plasma samples, and provide quantitative data from a duplex microarray assay that simultaneously quantifies free and total PSA in plasma. To further develop the assay the porous silicon chips was placed into a standard 96-well microtiter plate for higher throughput analysis. The samples analyzed by this quantitative microarray were 80 plasma samples obtained from men undergoing clinical PSA testing (dynamic range: 0.14-44ng/ml, LOD: 0.14ng/ml). The second dataset, measuring free PSA (dynamic range: 0.40-74.9ng/ml, LOD: 0.47ng/ml) and total PSA (dynamic range: 0.87-295ng/ml, LOD: 0.76ng/ml), was also obtained from the clinical routine. The reference for the quantification was a commercially available assay, the ProStatus PSA Free/Total DELFIA. In an analysis of 80 plasma samples the microarray platform performs well across the range of total PSA levels. This assay might have the potential to substitute for the large-scale microtiter plate format in diagnostic applications. The duplex assay paves the way for a future quantitative multiplex assay, which analyses several prostate cancer biomarkers simultaneously. PMID:22921878

  18. Alterations in expressed prostate secretion-urine PSA N-glycosylation discriminate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gaozhen; Dong, Zhenyang; Sun, Chenxia; Wen, Fuping; Wang, Haifeng; Guo, Huaizu; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Xu, Chuanliang; Yang, Chenghua; Sun, Yinghao

    2017-09-29

    The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is widely used for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, its limited sensitivity has led to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of PCa. Glycosylation alteration is a common phenomenon in cancer development. Different PSA glycan subforms have been proposed as diagnostic markers to better differentiate PCa from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we purified PSA from expressed prostate secretions (EPS)-urine samples from 32 BPH and 30 PCa patients and provided detailed PSA glycan profiles in Chinese population. We found that most of the PSA glycans from EPS-urine were complex type biantennary glycans. We observed two major patterns in PSA glycan profiles. Overall there was no distinct separation of PSA glycan profiles between BPH and PCa patients. However, we detected a significant increase of glycan FA2 and FM5A2G2S1 in PCa when compared with BPH patients. Furthermore, we observed that the composition of FA2 glycan increased significantly in advanced PCa with Gleason score ≥8, which potentially could be translated to clinic as a marker for aggressive PCa.

  19. Increase in percent free prostate-specific antigen in men with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Laila; Savage, Caroline; Cronin, Angel M.; Hugosson, Jonas; Lilja, Hans; Christensson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Background. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) occurs in different molecular forms in serum: free PSA (fPSA) and complexed PSA (cPSA), the sum of which corresponds to total PSA (tPSA). In addition to tPSA, percent fPSA is widely used in the detection of prostate cancer. Free PSA, ∼28 kDa, is eliminated by glomerular filtration. Previous data showed that men with end-stage renal dysfunction requiring chronic dialysis have increased percent fPSA. In this study, we evaluated whether moderate-to-sev...

  20. The cutoff level of free/total prostate specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratios in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a validation study on a Turkish patient population in different age categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Bulent; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Bozdogan, Gurdal; Ozkanli, Seyma; Onem, Kadir; Mungan, Görkem; Bektas, Sibel; Tokgoz, Husnu; Akduman, Bulent; Mungan, Aydin

    2014-11-01

    We investigated an optimal cutoff level of free/total PSA ratios (f/t PSA) in predicting prostate cancer in different age groups, focusing on the avoidance of unnecessary prostate biopsies. A total of 4955 men were enrolled into the study. Serum tPSA, fPSA, and f/t PSA ratios were determined for the study population. All males who had suspicious digital rectal examination and tPSA > 4 ng/mL underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for each group were generated by plotting the sensitivity versus 1-specificity for the f/t PSA ratio. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were obtained using various f/t PSA ratio cutoffs for different age groups. There were 657 patients with a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. According to sensitivity and specificity f/t% PSA cutoff points were determined to be 10%, 15%, 15%, and 10% in 50-59 years, 60-69 years, >70 years, and all ages categories, respectively, in patients with initial PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. f/t PSA ratio had an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.81 (95% confidence level: 0.80-0.82) for all age groups in detecting prostate cancer. f/t PSA ratio has an AUC value of 0.669 (0.632-0.705) in detecting prostate cancer among patients with a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. Ten percent of f/t PSA ratio had the highest specificity with PLR and 30% f/t PSA ratio had the highest sensitivity with lower NLR in the all-age categories. The current study shows that the use of f/t PSA ratio in patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL should enhance the specificity of PSA screening and decrease the number of unnecessary biopsies. The age-related changes warrant further investigation in a large, multicentric, and multinational population to improve the clinical use of f/t PSA cutoffs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  2. Model engineering in a modular PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlhuber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    developed at EDF R and D to test and evaluate the concepts around a modular PSA. Andromeda is based on a modular and extensible architecture that can be customized to specific needs of customers. Apart from research interest, it has recently gained industrial interest. Andromeda has potential to complete existing PSA tools by specific functionality and to enforce the international PSA community around common modeling standards and techniques. (author)

  3. Increased PSA expression on prostate cancer exosomes in in vitro condition and in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; Angelini, Daniela F; Iessi, Elisabetta; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Borsellino, Giovanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Pierella, Federico; Marzio, Vittorio; Sciarra, Alessandro; Battistini, Luca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing benign lesions, often leading to invasive and unnecessary surgical procedures. Microenvironmental acidity increases exosome release by cancer cells. In this study we evaluated whether acidity, a critical phenotype of malignancy, could influence exosome release and increase the PSA expression in nanovesicles released by PCa cells. To this aim, we exploited Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), an immunocapture-based ELISA, and nanoscale flow-cytometry. The results show that microenvironmental acidity induces an increased release of nanovesicles expressing both PSA and the exosome marker CD81. In order to verify whether the changes induced by the local selective pressure of extracellular acidity may correspond to a clinical pathway we used the same approach to evaluate the levels of PSA-expressing exosomes in the plasma of PCa patients and controls, including subjects with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The results show that only PCa patients have high levels of nanovesicles expressing both CD81 and PSA. This study shows that tumor acidity exerts a selective pressure leading to the release of extracellular vesicles that express both PSA and exosome markers. A comparable scenario was shown in the plasma of prostate cancer patients as compared to both BPH and healthy controls. These results suggest that microenvironmental acidity may represent a key factor which determines qualitatively and quantitatively the release of extracellular vesicles by malignant tumors, including prostate cancer. This condition leads to the spill-over of nanovesicles into the peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients, where the levels of tumor biomarkers expressed by

  4. Prostate cancer volume adds significantly to prostate specific antigen in the prediction of early biochemical failure after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, A.V.; Propert, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose A new clinical pre-treatment quantity that closely approximates the true prostate cancer volume is defined. Materials and Methods The cancer specific prostate specific antigen, PSA density, prostate cancer volume (V Ca ) and the volume fraction of the gland involved with carcinoma (V Ca fx) were calculated for 227 prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy. A Cox regression multivariate analysis was employed to test if any of these clinical pre-treatment parameters added significantly to PSA in predicting early post-radiation PSA failure. Cancer specific PSA = PSA - [PSA from benign epithelial tissue] V Ca = Cancer specific/[PSA in serum per cm 3 of cancer] V Ca fx = V Ca /ultrasound prostate gland volume Results The prostate cancer volume (p = .039) and the volume fraction of the gland involved by carcinoma (p = .035) significantly added to the PSA in predicting post-radiation PSA failure on multivariate analysis. Conversely, the PSA density and the cancer specific PSA did not add significantly (p > .05) to PSA in predicting post-radiation PSA failure. Conclusion The volume of cancer (V Ca ) and the resulting volume fraction of cancer both added significantly to PSA in their ability to predict for early post-radiation PSA failure. These new parameters may be used to optimize the selection of patients in prospective randomized trials that examine the efficacy of combining radiation and androgen ablative therapy in patients with clinically localized disease but who are at high risk for early post-radiation PSA failure

  5. Heterobivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    rectal examination (DRE) have advanced significantly for the early diagnosis of patients with PCa, the controversy on the efficacy of PSA testing for...Cancer Society (www.cancer.org). Even if current prostate cancer screening methods with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test and digital ...respectively, indicating that 13 is more hydrophilic than 12. ESI-MS showed [M+H]2+ and [M+H]+ ion peaks of 12 and 13 in the positive modes as shown in

  6. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  7. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  8. Elevation of PSA after prostate radiotherapy: Rebound or biochemical recurrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Kanoui, A.; Chiche, R.; Lamallem, H.; Beley, S.; Thibault, F.; Sebe, P.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy are now considered to be curative techniques has led to major review of the modalities of follow-up after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The problem concerns both the diagnosis of recurrence, rapidly announced by elevation of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), usually at a subclinical stage, and the validity of criteria of biochemical recurrence to allow comparison of various study. Physicians involved in follow-up should be aware of the potential of bounce in PSA follow-up after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. The PSA bounce phenomenon was defined by a rise of PSA values (+ 0.1 -0.8 ng/ml) with a subsequent fall. Biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy (with or without hormonotherapy) was defined by Phoenix criteria by a rise of 2 ng/ml above an initial PSA nadir. This definition was more correlated to PSA bounce phenomenon. (authors)

  9. Extended use of Prostate Health Index and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen in Chinese men with prostate specific antigen 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ka-Fung Chiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the extended use of Prostate Health Index (PHI and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (%p2PSA in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination (DRE. Materials and Methods: All consecutive Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE who agreed for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided 10-core prostate biopsy were recruited. Blood samples were taken immediately before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. The performances of total PSA (tPSA, %free-to-total PSA (%fPSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were compared using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic, and decision curve analyses (DCA. Results: From 2008 to 2015, 312 consecutive Chinese men were included. Among them, 53 out of 312 (17.0% men were diagnosed to have prostate cancer on biopsy. The proportions of men with positive biopsies were 6.7% in PHI55 (chi-square test, p55 (chi-square test, p<0.001. By utilizing the PHI cutoff of 35 to men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE, 57.1% (178 of 312 biopsies could be avoided. Conclusions: Both PHI and %p2PSA performed well in predicting prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. The use of PHI and %p2PSA should be extended to Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE.

  10. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure... necessary. The test plate should be rocked from side to side a few times to mix the antigen and blood...

  11. Probability of an Abnormal Screening PSA Result Based on Age, Race, and PSA Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espaldon, Roxanne; Kirby, Katharine A.; Fung, Kathy Z.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Powell, Adam A.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Walter, Louise C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the distribution of screening PSA values in older men and how different PSA thresholds affect the proportion of white, black, and Latino men who would have an abnormal screening result across advancing age groups. Methods We used linked national VA and Medicare data to determine the value of the first screening PSA test (ng/mL) of 327,284 men age 65+ who underwent PSA screening in the VA healthcare system in 2003. We calculated the proportion of men with an abnormal PSA result based on age, race, and common PSA thresholds. Results Among men age 65+, 8.4% had a PSA >4.0ng/mL. The percentage of men with a PSA >4.0ng/mL increased with age and was highest in black men (13.8%) versus white (8.0%) or Latino men (10.0%) (PPSA >4.0ng/mL ranged from 5.1% of Latino men age 65–69 to 27.4% of black men age 85+. Raising the PSA threshold from >4.0ng/mL to >10.0ng/mL, reclassified the greatest percentage of black men age 85+ (18.3% absolute change) and the lowest percentage of Latino men age 65–69 (4.8% absolute change) as being under the biopsy threshold (PPSA threshold together affect the pre-test probability of an abnormal screening PSA result. Based on screening PSA distributions, stopping screening among men whose PSA 10ng/ml has the greatest effect on reducing the number of older black men who will face biopsy decisions after screening. PMID:24439009

  12. Murine Polyomavirus Virus-Like Particles Carrying Full-Length Human PSA Protect BALB/c Mice from Outgrowth of a PSA Expressing Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mathilda; Andreasson, Kalle; Weidmann, Joachim; Lundberg, Kajsa; Tegerstedt, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) consist of capsid proteins from viruses and have been shown to be usable as carriers of protein and peptide antigens for immune therapy. In this study, we have produced and assayed murine polyomavirus (MPyV) VLPs carrying the entire human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) (PSA-MPyVLPs) for their potential use for immune therapy in a mouse model system. BALB/c mice immunized with PSA-MPyVLPs were only marginally protected against outgrowth of a PSA-expressing tumor. To improve protection, PSA-MPyVLPs were co-injected with adjuvant CpG, either alone or loaded onto murine dendritic cells (DCs). Immunization with PSA-MPyVLPs loaded onto DCs in the presence of CpG was shown to efficiently protect mice from tumor outgrowth. In addition, cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization were examined. PSA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells were demonstrated, but no PSA-specific IgG antibodies. Vaccination with DCs loaded with PSA-MPyVLPs induced an eight-fold lower titre of anti-VLP antibodies than vaccination with PSA-MPyVLPs alone. In conclusion, immunization of BALB/c mice with PSA-MPyVLPs, loaded onto DCs and co-injected with CpG, induces an efficient PSA-specific tumor protective immune response, including both CD4+ and CD8+ cells with a low induction of anti-VLP antibodies. PMID:21858228

  13. Real-time prostate-specific antigen detection with prostate-specific antigen imprinted capacitive biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertürk, Gizem [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Hedström, Martin [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); CapSenze HB, Medicon Village, SE-223 63 Lund (Sweden); Tümer, M. Aşkın [Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Mattiasson, Bo, E-mail: Bo.Mattiasson@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); CapSenze HB, Medicon Village, SE-223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-03

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer, the third most common cancer in men. Ultrasensitive detection of PSA is crucial to screen the prostate cancer in an early stage and to detect the recurrence of the disease after treatment. In this report, microcontact-PSA imprinted (PSA-MIP) capacitive biosensor chip was developed for real-time, highly sensitive and selective detection of PSA. PSA-MIP electrodes were prepared in the presence of methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker via UV polymerization. Immobilized Anti-PSA antibodies on electrodes (Anti-PSA) for capacitance measurements were also prepared to compare the detection performances of both methods. The electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and real-time PSA detection was performed with standard PSA solutions in the concentration range of 10 fg mL{sup −1}–100 ng mL{sup −1}. The detection limits were found as 8.0 × 10{sup −5} ng mL{sup −1} (16 × 10{sup −17} M) and 6.0 × 10{sup −4} ng mL{sup −1} (12 × 10{sup −16} M) for PSA-MIP and Anti-PSA electrodes, respectively. Selectivity studies were performed against HSA and IgG and selectivity coefficients were calculated. PSA detection was also carried out from diluted human serum samples and finally, reproducibility of the electrodes was tested. The results are promising and show that when the sensitivity of the capacitive system is combined with the selectivity and reproducibility of the microcontact-imprinting procedure, the resulting system might be used successfully for real-time detection of various analytes even in very low concentrations. - Highlights: • Microcontact imprinting method was used for preparing the sensor chip for capacitive biosensing. • High sensitivity was obtained. • Good selectivity was

  14. Real-time prostate-specific antigen detection with prostate-specific antigen imprinted capacitive biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertürk, Gizem; Hedström, Martin; Tümer, M. Aşkın; Denizli, Adil; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer, the third most common cancer in men. Ultrasensitive detection of PSA is crucial to screen the prostate cancer in an early stage and to detect the recurrence of the disease after treatment. In this report, microcontact-PSA imprinted (PSA-MIP) capacitive biosensor chip was developed for real-time, highly sensitive and selective detection of PSA. PSA-MIP electrodes were prepared in the presence of methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker via UV polymerization. Immobilized Anti-PSA antibodies on electrodes (Anti-PSA) for capacitance measurements were also prepared to compare the detection performances of both methods. The electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and real-time PSA detection was performed with standard PSA solutions in the concentration range of 10 fg mL −1 –100 ng mL −1 . The detection limits were found as 8.0 × 10 −5  ng mL −1 (16 × 10 −17  M) and 6.0 × 10 −4  ng mL −1 (12 × 10 −16  M) for PSA-MIP and Anti-PSA electrodes, respectively. Selectivity studies were performed against HSA and IgG and selectivity coefficients were calculated. PSA detection was also carried out from diluted human serum samples and finally, reproducibility of the electrodes was tested. The results are promising and show that when the sensitivity of the capacitive system is combined with the selectivity and reproducibility of the microcontact-imprinting procedure, the resulting system might be used successfully for real-time detection of various analytes even in very low concentrations. - Highlights: • Microcontact imprinting method was used for preparing the sensor chip for capacitive biosensing. • High sensitivity was obtained. • Good selectivity was demonstrated. • Stability of the

  15. The relationship between serum PSA, six sex hormones and the benign or malignant prostate diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yancun

    2008-01-01

    In order to study clinical significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free prostate specific antigen (PSA), f/tPSA and six sex hormones in prostate diseases, the serum levels of PSA, fPSA, f/tPSA, T, P, E 2 , PRL, LH and FSH in 72 cases of hyperplasia of prostate patients and 40 patients with prostate cancer were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum levels of T, E 2 , PRL, LH, FSH in the BPH Group were significantly lower than those of in Pca group, the serum level of P in Pca group were significantly lower than those in BPH group; the levels of fPSA and f/tPSA ratio in BPH Group were significantly higher than those in Pca group. The results suggest that benign and malignant prostate disease (BPH and Pca) was related with the hormone imbalance. The serum total PSA and fPSA can be regarded as important indicators in the diagnosis of BPH and Pea. The combined determination of PSA, fPSA and f/tPSA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of Pca. (authors)

  16. Developing new age-specific prostate-specific antigen thresholds for testing for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca; Tilling, Kate; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene; Davis, Michael; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Metcalfe, Chris

    2018-03-01

    To examine whether age-related reference ranges for "normal" prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (determined in men without prostate cancer) can be used to identify men at high risk of having prostate cancer. Subjects were men aged 50-69 years with PSA age-related PSA change were used to calculate an age-specific PSA threshold. We compared the ability of our age-specific PSA threshold to discriminate between high- and no/low-risk prostate cancer with that of two existing thresholds: (i) threshold of PSA = 3 ng/ml for all ages; (ii) National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines dependent on age-group thresholds (age 50-59: PSA = 3 ng/mL; age 60-70: PSA = 4 ng/mL; age ≥ 70: PSA = 5 ng/mL). We included 823 men with high-risk prostate cancer and 80,721 men with no/low-risk prostate cancer. A threshold of PSA = 3 ng/ml for all ages identified more high-risk prostate cancers, recommending biopsy in 9.8% of men, of which 10.3% (n = 823) had high-risk prostate cancer. Using the NICE guidelines as the threshold for biopsy, 6.9% men were recommended for biopsy, of which 11.9% (n = 668) had high-risk prostate cancer. Using the new age-specific threshold for biopsy, 2.3% men were recommended for biopsy, of which 15.2% (n = 290) had high-risk prostate cancer. The age-specific threshold identified fewer high-risk prostate cancers, but fewer men received unnecessary biopsy. There is no benefit to using reference ranges for "normal" PSA that change with age nor the age-specific thresholds suggested by the NICE guidelines. While the age-varying thresholds are more discriminatory, too many high-risk cancers are missed.

  17. Development of IRMA reagent and methodology for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, R.

    1997-01-01

    The PSA test is a solid phase two-site immunoassay. Rabbit anti PSA is coated or bound on surface of solid phase and monoclonal anti PSA labeled with 1-125. The PSA molecules present in the standard solution or serum are 'Sandwiched' between the two antibodies. After formation of coated antibody-antigen-labeled antibody complex, the unbound labeled antibody will removed by washing. The complex is measured by gamma counter. The concentration of analyte is proportional to the counts of test sample. In order to develop kits for IRMA PSA, it should be prepared three essential reagents Antibody coated solid phase, labeled antibody, standards and finally optimizing them to obtain an standard curve fit to measure specimen PSA in desired range of concentration. The type of solid phase and procedure(s) to coat or bind to antibody, is still main debatable subject in development and setting up RIA/IRMA kits. In our experiments, polystyrene beads, because of their easy to coat with antibody as well as easy to use, can be considered as a desired solid phase. Most antibodies are passively adsorbed to a plastic surface (e.g. Polystyrene, Propylene, and Polyvinyl chloride) from a diluted buffer. The antibody coated plastic surface, then acts as solid phase reagent. Poor efficiency and time required to reach equilibrium and also lack of reproducibility especially batch-to-batch variation between materials, are disadvantages in this simple coating procedure. Improvements can be made by coating second antibody on surface of beads, and reaction between second and primary antibodies. There is also possible to enhance more coating efficiency of beads by using Staphylococcus ureus-Protein A. Protein A is a major component of staphylococcus aureus cell wall which has an affinity for FC segment of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of some species, including human; rabbit; and mice. This property of Staphylococcal Protein A has made it a very useful tool in the purification of classes and subclasses

  18. Equivalent biochemical failure-free survival after external beam radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy in patients with a pretreatment prostate specific antigen of > 4-20 ng/ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Whittington, Richard; Kaplan, Irving; Beard, Clair; Jiroutek, Michael; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Wein, Alan; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Biochemical failure-free survival stratified by the pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy Gleason score (bGl) is determined for prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A Cox regression multivariable analysis evaluating the variables of PSA, bGl, and clinical stage was used to evaluate the end point of time to PSA failure in 867 and 757 consecutive prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy, respectively. PSA failure-free survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons were made using the log rank test. Results: The pretreatment PSA, bGl, and clinical stage (T3,4 vs. T1,T2) were found to be independent predictors of time to post-treatment PSA failure for both surgically and radiation managed patients using Cox regression multivariable analysis. Patients with a pretreatment PSA of > 4 ng/ml and ≤ 20 ng/ml could be classified into risk groups for time to post-therapy PSA failure: low = PSA > 4-10 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 4; intermediate = PSA > 4-10 and bGl 5-7; or PSA > 10-20 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 7; high = PSA > 4-20 ng/ml and bGl ≥ 8. Two-year PSA failure-free survival for surgically managed and radiation-managed patients, respectively, were 98% vs. 92% (p = 0.45), 77% vs. 81% (p = 0.86), and 51% vs. 53% (p = 0.48) for patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for post-therapy PSA failure. Conclusions: There was no statistical difference in the 2-year PSA failure-free survival for potentially curable patients managed definitively with surgery or radiation therapy when a retrospective comparison stratifying for the pretreatment PSA and bGl was performed

  19. PSA levels of 4.0 - 10 ng/ml and negative digital rectal examination: antibiotic therapy versus immediate prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Shtricker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of mildly elevated (4.0-10.0 ng/ml prostate specific antigen (PSA is uncertain. Immediate prostate biopsy, antibiotic treatment, or short term monitoring PSA level for 1-3 months is still in controversy. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a large community practice (2003 - 2007 who had PSA levels between 4.0-10 ng/mL without any further evidence of infection. Data was gathered regarding patient's age, whether standard antibiotic therapy (10-14 days of ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin had been administered before the second PSA measurement, results of a second PSA test performed at 1- to 2-month intervals, whether a prostate biopsy was performed and its result. Results: One-hundred and thirty-five men met the study inclusion criteria with 65 (48.1% having received antibiotics (group 1; the PSA levels decreased in 39 (60% of which, sixteen underwent a biopsy which demonstrated prostate cancer in 4 (25%. Twenty-six (40% patients of group 1 exhibited no decrease in PSA levels; seventeen of them underwent a biopsy that demonstrated cancer in 2 (12%. The other 70 (51.9% patients were not treated with antibiotics (group 2; the PSA levels decreased in 42 (60% of which, thirteen underwent a biopsy which demonstrated prostate cancer in 4 (31%. In the other 28 (40% patients of group 2 there was no demonstrated decrease in PSA, nineteen of these subjects underwent a biopsy that demonstrated cancer in 8 (42%. Conclusions: There appears to be no advantage for administration of antibacterial therapy with initial PSA levels between 4-10 ng/mL without overt evidence of inflammation.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, J.A.; Allen, M.A.; Keane, T.; Duffy, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM R ) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable. (author)

  1. Serum PSA levels in the Indian population: Is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Karan, Shailesh Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important tumour, marker which is widely used to trigger trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. However, the PSA levels vary with race and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to have an Indian reference range. All adult male patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to assessment of serum total PSA, digital rectal examination and trans-abdominal ultrasound. If any one or more of these were found abnormal, then a TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy was done. Patients who were detected to have prostatic cancer were excluded from the final analysis. The data so obtained was grouped among the following three age groups: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years, and the age-specific PSA values, prostatic volume and PSA density were found. A total of 1772 patients were analysed. The mean serum total PSA was 1.76 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 2.566 ng/ml. Group-wise age distribution of the mean serum total PSA was 1.22, 1.97 and 2.08 ng/ml in 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years age groups. The mean total PSA and the age-specific PSA range tend to be lower in the Indians than the Western population.

  2. Determination of the association of urine prostate specific antigen levels with anthropometric variables in children aged 5-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Efthimiou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Calculation of PSA is possible in human fluids even if it presents in very low concentrations with the help of hypersensitive immunodiagnostic methods. The periurethral glands represent one of the potential sources of urine prostate specific antigen (uPSA in both sexes but the purpose of studying PSA levels in children is still unclear in the literature. In this pilot study we studied uPSA in a small cohort of normal, pre and post pubertal children, in relation to standard anthropometric variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 58 children 5-14 years old (42 boys/16 girls. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI and the respective stature-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age percentiles of the sample were determined. uPSA levels were measured using a third generation immunodiagnostic method (DPC Immulite® that has a lower limit of detection of 3 ng/L. When levels of PSA were above the upper limit of detection, uPSA levels were assessed using the ROCHE technique. RESULTS: uPSA levels tend to be higher in male than female children (p = 0.091, linear regression analysis. uPSA was measurable only in 3/16 girls (18.75%. Measurable uPSA was found in 18/42 boys (42.8%. The range of urine PSA in boys was 0-161000 ng/L (mean 10561.9 ± 31830.48 ng/L. Statistical analysis with linear regression showed correlation with height and age in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hypersensitive assays allows calculation of uPSA in childhood. The values of this variable are measurable in both sexes and related with gender. In boys, uPSA was correlated with age and height but not with other variables tested. Further studies are required to clarify this field.

  3. Evaluation of total PSA assay on vitros ECi and correlation with Kryptor-PSA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinat, B; Wacquet, M; Toubert, M E; Rain, J D; Schlageter, M H

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of multiparametric immuno-analysers for PSA assays are available. As different immuno-assays may vary in their analytical quality and their accuracy for the follow-up of patients, expertise is necessary for each new assay. The PSA assay on the Vitros-ECi analyser has been evaluated and compared with the PSA assay from the Kryptor analyser. Variation coefficients were 0.91 to 1.98% for within-run assays, and 4.2% to 5.4% for interassay (PSA levels = 0.8 microgram/L to 33.6 micrograms/L). Dilution tests showed 93 to 136% recovery until 70 micrograms/L PSA. Functional sensitivity was estimated at 0.03 microgram/L. Equimolarity of the test was confirmed. Correlation of PSA levels measured with Vitros-ECi and Kryptor analysers displayed a correlation coefficient r2 of 0.9716. The half-lives and doubling times of PSA were similar using both methods. Vitros-ECi PSA assay meets the major criteria for the management of prostate cancer patients.

  4. Direct testing of blood cultures for detection of streptococcal antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetkowski, M A; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

    1982-07-01

    A direct, rapid, and simple method for the detection of streptococcal antigens of Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, and G from blood cultures was developed by using a coagglutination test. Fifty-five clinical specimens and 117 simulated blood cultures containing gram-positive cocci were tested. Out of 6,261 clinical blood cultures screened, 55 cultures from 53 patients were positive, with organisms resembling streptococci, by Gram stain. Of these cultures, 78% (43 of 55) were pure cultures of streptococci, and 22% (12 of 55) were mixed with at least one other organism. Of the 43 pure cultures only, correct reactions were obtained (grouping correctly or giving no cross-reactions, or both) with 86% (37 of 43) of the isolates, 12% (5 of 43) exhibited cross-reactions, and 2% (1 of 43) gave false-negative reactions. All of the cross-reacting isolates were Streptococcus pneumoniae, which reacted with the group C reagent, and the false-negative reaction occurred with a Streptococcus bovis isolate. However, by using a direct modified bile solubility test, the correct identification of the S. pneumoniae isolates was obtained. Therefore, by using the modified bile solubility test in conjunction with the direct grouping method, 98% (42 of 43) of the isolates in pure culture could be identified accurately and rapidly after the detection of a positive Gram stain. Correct grouping reactions were obtained with 83% (10 of 12) of the mixed blood cultures, and false-negative results occurred with 17% (2 of 12) of them. Both cultures contained an enterococcus and a gram-negative rod. Of the 117 simulated blood cultures, there was only one incorrect grouping reaction; this occurred with an S. bovis isolate that cross-reacted with the group C reagent. The direct grouping reaction was positive when blood cultures contained a minimum of 1 x 10(8) to 8 x 10(8) colony-forming units per ml. In general, this procedure provided information on the identification of the organism 24 h earlier than

  5. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Class II (special controls). Tumor markers must comply with the following special controls: (1) A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen...

  6. Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, Ingvild; Lilleby, Wolfgang; Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Hulander, Erik; Klein, Willibrord; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Axcrona, Karol; Bolstad, Nils; Bjøro, Trine; Laake, Petter; Taskén, Kristin A; Svindland, Aud; Eri, Lars Magne; Brennhovd, Bjørn; Carlsen, Monica H; Fosså, Sophie D; Smeland, Sigbjørn S; Karlsen, Anette S; Blomhoff, Rune

    2017-06-01

    The effect of lycopene-containing foods in prostate cancer development remains undetermined. We tested whether a lycopene-rich tomato intervention could reduce the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer patients. Prior to their curative treatment, 79 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a nutritional intervention with either 1) tomato products containing 30 mg lycopene per day; 2) tomato products plus selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, soy isoflavones, grape/pomegranate juice, and green/black tea (tomato-plus); or 3) control diet for 3 weeks. The main analysis, which included patients in all risk categories, did not reveal differences in changes of PSA-values between the intervention and control groups. Post-hoc, exploratory analyses within intermediate risk (n = 41) patients based on tumor classification and Gleason score post-surgery, revealed that median PSA decreased significantly in the tomato group as compared to controls (-2.9% and +6.5% respectively, p = 0.016). In separate post-hoc analyses, we observed that median PSA-values decreased by 1% in patients with the highest increases in plasma lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid, compared to an 8.5% increase in the patients with the lowest increase in lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid (p = 0.003). Also, PSA decreased in patients with the highest increase in lycopene alone (p = 0.009). Three week nutritional interventions with tomato-products alone or in combination with selenium and n-3 fatty acids lower PSA in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Our observation suggests that the effect may depend on both aggressiveness of the disease and the blood levels of lycopene, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Rising prostate-specific antigen values during neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy: The importance of monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niblock, Paddy; Pickles, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (N-ADT) before external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From prospectively collected data, we identified 182 patients who received between 3 and 12 months of N-ADT before definitive external beam radiotherapy and who had at least three PSA readings during the neoadjuvant period. One hundred fifty patients had PSA values that continued to fall (Non-Rise group), but 32 had a PSA value that started to rise (Rise group). The two groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Pearson chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were performed for time to treatment failure, cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up was 62.5 months for the Non-Rise group and 53 months for the Rise group. Patients who sustained a PSA rise during the N-ADT period had a shorter time to PSA relapse (p = 0.013), poorer CSS (p = 0.027), and poorer OS (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis confirms the significance of a PSA rise during the N-ADT period for CSS (p = 0.035) and OS (p = 0.038). Conclusions:: A subset of patients treated with N-ADT develop a rising PSA profile that likely represents early androgen resistance. They have significantly worse outcome

  8. The long-term effect on PSA values of incidental prostatic irradiation in patients with pelvic malignancies other than prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, Anthony L.; Zehr, Elizabeth M.; Shipley, William U.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of external beam radiation therapy on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) production by the benign prostate. Methods and Materials: We studied a cohort of 24 men receiving treatment for cancer of the bladder or rectum. The radiation fields in all cases encompassed the prostate gland, and none of the patients were known to have prostate cancer. All patients had 2 or more PSA estimations obtained in the years following their radiation treatment. A second group of 46 patients who had undergone radical external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer and who were clinically disease free 8-22 years later were also observed, with a median of 5.8 years of PSA observations. Results: Only 3 of the 24 patients in the first group showed a significant rise of > 0.2 ng/ml in their serum PSA levels, with a median of 3.3 years follow-up from the first PSA test. Seven of 24 showed progressive declines, and 14 of 24 showed steady levels. The median PSA for this group was ≤ 0.5 ng/ml. Only 6 of the 46 in the second group showed a PSA rise of > 0.2 ng/ml. Thirty-four had stable values, and 6 had further declines. Again, the median PSA for the entire group was ≤ 0.5 ng/ml. Conclusion: Recovery of prostatic secretory function is an uncommon event after external beam radiation. The concern that this might significantly confound new definitions of biochemical failure after radical radiation for prostate cancer that are based on progressively rising PSA values thus appears to be unfounded

  9. Clinical diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bashan; Zhang Zigang; Lai Fudi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum total prostatic specific antigen (tPSA), complex prostatic specific antigen (cPSA) and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders. Methods: Serum tPSA, cPSA (with CLIA) and IGF-I (with IRMA) levels were determined in 41 patients with prostatic carcinoma, 60 patients with benign prosta- tic hypertrophy (BPH) and 55 controls. Results: The serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with BPH and controls (P<0.01). Taking the cut-off values of 4ng/ml, 3.6ng/ml and 150 for tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I respectively, the combined determination of these three items would yield a sensitivity of 88.6%, specificity of 84.9%, positive predicative value of 83% and negative predicative value of 90.0% for diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Conclusion: Combined determination of tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I would yield better sensitive and accurate diagnostic rate in patients with prostatic cancer, especially in those with laboratory values within the 'grey zone'. (authors)

  10. Time to PSA rise differentiates the PSA bounce after HDR and LDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Wojciech; Skowronek, Janusz

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce (PB) after high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) or low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) brachytherapy alone in prostate cancer patients. Ninety-four patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2cN0), age ranged 50-81 years, were treated with brachytherapy alone between 2008 and 2010. Patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, Gleason score ≤ 7. The LDR-BT total dose was 144-145 Gy, in HDR-BT - 3 fractions of 10.5 or 15 Gy. The initial PSA level (iPSA) was assessed before treatment, then PSA was rated every 3 months over the first 2 years, and every 6 months during the next 3 years. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Mean iPSA was 7.8 ng/ml. In 58 cases, PSA decreased gradually without PB or biochemical failure (BF). In 24% of patients, PB was observed. In 23 cases (24%), PB was observed using 0.2 ng/ml definition; in 10 cases (11%), BF was diagnosed using nadir + 2 ng/ml definition. The HDR-BT and LDR-BT techniques were not associated with higher level of PB (26 vs. 22%, p = 0.497). Time to the first PSA rise finished with PB was significantly shorter after HDR-BT then after LDR-BT (median, 10.5 vs. 18.0 months) during follow-up. Predictors for PB were observed only after HDR-BT. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and higher Gleason score decreased the risk of PB (HR = 0.11, p = 0.03; HR = 0.51, p = 0.01). The higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB (HR 3.46, p = 0.02; HR 1.04, p = 0.04). There was no predictors for PB after LDR-BT. HDR-BT and LDR-BT for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer had similar PB rate. The PB occurred earlier after HDR-BT than after LDR-BT. ADT and higher Gleason score decreased, and higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB after HDR-BT.

  11. Validation of immune complex dissociation methods for use with heartworm antigen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Beall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen testing is routinely used to diagnose canine Dirofilaria immitis infections. Immune complex dissociation (ICD methods, which were employed in the original heartworm antigen tests to release antigen that was bound by endogenous canine antibodies, were discontinued with improvements in assay reagents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different ICD methods for detection of heartworm antigen by microtiter plate ELISA and assess the performance in samples from pet dogs. Methods The original PetChek® Heartworm Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. utilized pepsin at an acidic pH for ICD prior to antigen testing. Performance and characteristics of the pepsin ICD method were compared with those for heat treatment (with and without EDTA and acid treatment. Results All four methods released complexed antigen in serum samples when tested using microtiter plate ELISA. Heat treatment required ≥600 μL of serum or plasma, whereas pepsin and acid methods needed only a 50-μL sample. Samples from 1115 dogs submitted to IDEXX Laboratories between 2014 and 2016 for investigation of discrepant heartworm results were evaluated with and without pepsin ICD using the PetChek Heartworm Test. Samples from 10% (n = 112 of the dogs were antigen positive with the ICD protocol only while 90% of the results remained unchanged. In a prospective study, antigen levels with and without ICD were evaluated for 12 dogs receiving pre-adulticide heartworm treatment with a macrocyclic lactone and doxycycline for 28 days. Serial samples revealed that three dogs had a reduction in detectable heartworm antigen within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In these cases, heartworm antigen levels could be recovered with ICD. Conclusions Heartworm antigen testing with ICD can be a valuable diagnostic tool for patients with discrepant results that have had intermittent use of a preventive, or have been treated with a macrocyclic lactone and doxycycline

  12. Relation between laboratory test results and histological hepatitis activity in individuals positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Borg, F.; ten Kate, F. J.; Cuypers, H. T.; Leentvaar-Kuijpers, A.; Oosting, J.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; Honkoop, P.; Rasch, M. C.; de Man, R. A.; van Hattum, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Reesink, H. W.; Jones, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) commonly coexist, and laboratory tests are often requested to assess histological hepatitis activity. An optimum panel of tests has not been found and the usefulness of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA

  13. Evaluation of rapid one-step prostate specific antigen test against an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    step immunochromatographic PSA assay against an established ELISA method. Design: A ... Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity negative and positive predictive values of PSA RDT were 95.9%, 94.95%, 97.87%, 90.2% and 98.95% respectively.

  14. Co-introduction of a steroid with docetaxel chemotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer affects PSA flare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Yokomizo, Akira; Takeuchi, Ario; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Shiga, Ken-Ichiro; Koga, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Akito; Naito, Seiji; Eto, Masatoshi

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the potential relationship of steroid usage with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) flare as well as the prognostic impact of PSA flare, which is known to occur in 10-20% of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer during docetaxel chemotherapy. This study included 71 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated by docetaxel chemotherapy with co-introduction of a steroid. PSA flare was defined as a transient PSA increase followed by a PSA decrease. PSA flare was recognized in 7.0-23.9% of patients according to the definition used. Intriguingly, men with steroid intake before the initiation of docetaxel chemotherapy experienced significantly fewer PSA flares. The progression-free survival rate in men with PSA flare was equivalent to that of PSA responders, but significantly better than men with PSA failure. Our results suggest that de novo steroid co-introduction with docetaxel chemotherapy induces the PSA flare phenomenon. This novel finding may account for the mechanism of PSA flare as well as being valuable for distinguishing PSA elevation attributable to PSA flare from that attributable to PSA failure. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  16. Prostate health index (PHI) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) predictive models for prostate cancer in the Chinese population and the role of digital rectal examination-estimated prostate volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Peter K F; Roobol, Monique J; Teoh, Jeremy Y; Lee, Wai-Man; Yip, Siu-Ying; Hou, See-Ming; Bangma, Chris H; Ng, Chi-Fai

    2016-10-01

    To investigate PSA- and PHI (prostate health index)-based models for prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) and the feasibility of using DRE-estimated prostate volume (DRE-PV) in the models. This study included 569 Chinese men with PSA 4-10 ng/mL and non-suspicious DRE with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) 10-core prostate biopsies performed between April 2008 and July 2015. DRE-PV was estimated using 3 pre-defined classes: 25, 40, or 60 ml. The performance of PSA-based and PHI-based predictive models including age, DRE-PV, and TRUS prostate volume (TRUS-PV) was analyzed using logistic regression and area under the receiver operating curves (AUC), in both the whole cohort and the screening age group of 55-75. PCa and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was diagnosed in 10.9 % (62/569) and 2.8 % (16/569) men, respectively. The performance of DRE-PV-based models was similar to TRUS-PV-based models. In the age group 55-75, the AUCs for PCa of PSA alone, PSA with DRE-PV and age, PHI alone, PHI with DRE-PV and age, and PHI with TRUS-PV and age were 0.54, 0.71, 0.76, 0.78, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding AUCs for HGPCa were higher (0.60, 0.70, 0.85, 0.83, and 0.83). At 10 and 20 % risk threshold for PCa, 38.4 and 55.4 % biopsies could be avoided in the PHI-based model, respectively. PHI had better performance over PSA-based models and could reduce unnecessary biopsies. A DRE-assessed PV can replace TRUS-assessed PV in multivariate prediction models to facilitate clinical use.

  17. Assessment of Atorvastatin Effectiveness on Serum PSA Level in Hypercholesterolemic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Khosropanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previous large retrospective studies demonstrated that treatment with Statins reduces both the incidence of prostate cancer by 50% and serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA level up to 40%. However the main problem in those studies was the absence of control groups of men with hypercholesterolemia without Statin treatment. We performed a small prospective controlled clinical trial to assess the influence of the treatment with Atorvastatin on serum PSA in men with hypercholesterolemia referred to our educational and treatment center from October 2007 to March 2008. In this study, among the newly diagnosed males with hypercholesterolemia (LDL > 130 mg/dl, 40 patients with LDL more than 190 mg/dl were selected as a case group and were treated with Atorvastatin (20 mg/day. Among the same population and in the same period, another 40 patients with LDL between 130 and 190 mg/dl were selected as first control group and were treated only with low fat diet. Another 40 patients with normal serum cholesterol and without any treatment were selected as second control group. The lipid profile and serum PSA level of patients of all groups were tested at the first and third months after the therapy. After completion of data, the mean serum lipids and PSA level were measured in both visits and compared with each other by paired t-test. Also the mean PSA change in two visits between three groups was compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. There was not any significant difference in mean baseline PSA between hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic patients (P=0.547. In case group, mean PSA and LDL was reduced by 14.1% (P=0.0001 and 30% (P=0.0001 respectively by second visit. In first control group, mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.337, whereas mean LDL in this group was reduced by 9.6% (P= 0.0001. Similarly in the second control group mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.309 by second visit. In addition, mean change of PSA in case group

  18. A cluster-randomised, parallel group, controlled intervention study of genetic prostate cancer risk assessment and use of PSA tests in general practice--the ProCaRis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Vedsted, Peter; Edwards, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    PSA-testen er det bedste og mest anvendte værktøj til at opspore prostatacancer. Testen er dog behæftet med fejlkilder, som kan føre til overflødig udredning, diagnosticering og behandling. Ved udredning tages biopsier med risiko for behandlingskrævende infektion. Behandlingen for prostatacancer...... fører ofte til vandladningsproblemer og impotens, og den har ikke vist sig specielt effektiv i behandling af den aggressive prostatacancer. Risikoen for overdiagnostik og overbehandling betyder, at PSA-testen ikke anvendes til generel screening for prostatakræft. Alligevel får mange patienter taget en...... PSA-test - ofte flere gange - måske fordi de ser sig selv som værende i særlig risiko. I ProCaRis-studiet får udvalgte praksis i Region Midtjylland mulighed for at tilbyde en genetisk risikovurdering for prostatakræft til patienter, som skal have en PSA-test. Den genetiske risikovurdering kan afgøre...

  19. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  20. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokudome S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinkan Tokudome,1 Ryosuke Ando,2 Yoshiro Koda,3 1Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Nephro-urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 3Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Abstract: The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (~30%. There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1 adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2 improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3 fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1 examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers

  1. Misclassifying the indications for prostate-specific antigen testing may bias case-control studies of the efficacy of prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard M; Adams-Cameron, Meg L; Murata, Glen H

    2004-10-01

    In the absence of data from randomized controlled trials, prostate cancer (CaP) screening recommendations may be based on observational studies that contrast exposure to screening between cases and controls. We evaluated the potential bias from mis-classifying indications for PSA testing in observational studies of CaP screening. We randomly selected men undergoing PSA testing and obtained data on PSA results and prostate biopsies. Data were linked with a tumor registry to identify incident and prevalent cases of CaP. We abstracted medical records for 45 incident cases with CaP and 118 controls without, recording information on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), constitutional symptoms, and digital rectal examination findings. PSA testing was classified as definitely, likely, or possibly screening, or not screening based on clinical history. Changing the definitions for PSA screening to variably exclude men with LUTS and enlarged prostates differentially lowered the frequency of screening. With more restrictive screening definitions, the odds ratio for screening decreased from 0.47 to 0.07. Accurately classifying PSA testing status is difficult because LUTS are common among men targeted for CaP screening. Failing to correctly classify PSA tests may bias study results.

  2. Guideline level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofsen, P.M.; Van der Steen, J.

    1993-09-01

    For several applications of radioactive materials calculations must be executed to determine the radiation risk for the population. A guideline for the risk calculation method of two main sources: nuclear power plants, and other intended and unintended activities with radioactive materials, is given. The standards, recommendations and regulations in this report concern mainly the analysis of the radiological (external) consequences of nuclear power plant accidents, classified as level-3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis). Level-3 PSA falls within the scales 5-7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The standards, etc., focus on the risks for groups of people and the so-called maximum individual risk. In chapter two the standards and regulations are formulated for each part of level-3 PSA: the source term spectrum, atmospheric distribution and deposition, exposure to radiation doses and calculation of radiation doses, dose-response relationships, measures to reduce the effect of radiation doses, design basis accidents, and finally uncertainty analysis. In chapter four, modelled descriptions are given of the standards and regulations, which could or should be used in a calculation program in case of level-3 PSA. In chapter three the practical execution of a probabilistic consequences analysis, the collection of input data and the presentation of the results are dealt with. 2 figs., 14 tabs., 64 refs

  3. Probabilistic safety analyses (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide shows how the probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) are used in the design, construction and operation of light water reactor plants in order for their part to ensure that the safety of the plant is good enough in all plant operational states

  4. Babesiosis PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/26/2012.

  5. Introduction to PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to show how the PSA can be used to determine the risk impact of the various deterministic processes for plant design or operational changes, and the evaluation of off normal events that occurred at the plant. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Identification of issues; Tasks/element identification; Modelling changes; Data changes. 6 figs

  6. Detection of antigens of allergic diseases in children by radioallergosorbent test (RAST), 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Junko

    1977-01-01

    Detection of antigens mainly by RAST, measurement of immunoglobulin, and investigation of clinical history were performed on children with intractable bronchial asthma. The results were compared with those in cases of mild or moderate degree, and they were discussed. The obtained results were as follows: 1) Cases, of which the occurrence age of disease was under 2 years old, hold a majority in intractable cases, and the ratio was twice that of the control group. 2) A result of skin test was generally lower positive rate in the intractable group as compared to the control group. However, a result of prick test for buckwheat antigen in the intractable group showed higher positive rate than that in the control group. The intractable group tended to be separated into two extreme groups, one which showed positive to most of inhaled antigens in skin test, and another which showed negative to all antigens. 3) As a result of RAST, 13% of the intractable group showed positive to egg white out of food antigens, and it was three times the ratio of positive in the control group. One case showed strong positive to rice. 4) Two thirds of cases which showed positive in RAST for food antigens showed negative in prick test. 5) Total IgE in the serum of the intractable group was clearly lower in values than that of the control group. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Crude antigens of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica using ELISA test: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur S.N.S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasciolosis is a worldwide disease with major economic and public health consequences. Early detection of the infection is important for the prevention and control of the disease. ELISA allows for early detection of fasciolosis in man and animals. Fasciolosis is caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in man and domestic animals respectively. These two species have many similar morphological characteristics. In this study, the crude antigens of these two species are investigated by ELISA test. Methods: The excretory-secretory and somatic antigens of two species were prepared from adult flukes collected from the bile ducts of sheep and stored at -20oC. For the preparation of the antisera, the antigens were injected to laboratory-bred rabbits. Each rabbit received five injections at intervals of seven days, starting with 0.5 ml and ending with 2.5 ml. Ten days after the last injection, the rabbits were bled, and serum samples separated and stored at -20oC. The reaction between homologous and heterologous antigens and antisera was tested by ELISA and optical densities were recorded.Results: Excretory- secretory and somatic antigens of each species showed a strong positive reaction with the antisera of the other species. In a homologous combination of antigens and antisera, a stronger reaction was observed compared to the heterologous combination, therefore many antigenic materials of both species are the same.Conclusion: The differences of these crude antigenic materials of F. hepatica and F. gigantica are insufficient to prevent cross reaction of two species by ELISA. Further investigations are recommended for the identification, detection and purification of antigenic material of each species to improve the specificity of this assay.

  8. PSA in operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nos, V.; Faig, J.; Plesa, P.; Delgado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The systematic approach to training is internationally accepted as the best method to achieve and maintain the qualification and competence of power plant personnel and to guarantee the quality of their training. Following the recommendations and guidelines of international organisations competent in the field, TECNATOM SA has developed projects based on the systematic approach to training for all Spanish nuclear power plants. One of the latest projects was the systematic approach to training developed for the operation personnel of ASCO Nuclear Power Plant. In this case, certain results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) which complement the systematic safety and reliability criteria of the systematic approach to training process have been incorporated in the traditional processes of work and task analysis and training plan design. This incorporation provides the training manager with additional criteria based not only on safety aspects obtained through the statistical treatment of considerations of skilled technical personnel (operators, operation chief supervisors, etc), but also on the independent criterion of the PSA. The inclusion of this approach basically affects all systematics in two of its stages: During the selection process of operating practices in SMR or SGI, the possible scenarios have been associated with all those situations where human actions which lead to an initiating event or human actions to mitigate an initiating event, may take place, as defined in the PSA. During the scenario development process, the instruments involved in the performance of human actions which originate or mitigate an event taking place have been identified. This pakes it possible to reconcile the scenario event sequence with the sequence considered in the PSA study, as the most likely to provoke a more serious accident. The incorporation of these PSA results contributes to the strengthening of safety aspects in training in an objective way, and confirms that

  9. PSA in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, M.A.; Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Although the concept of acceptable risk has always been the foundation of the nuclear industry design, the use of formal PSA (or PRA-probabilistic risk assessment) in the U.S. nuclear power industry has followed an unusual path in arriving at its current level of notability. Prior to 1975, probabilistic evaluations were limited to a few specific applications such as the evaluation of man-made (i.e., airplane crashes) and natural (i.e., earthquakes) hazards. In 1975, the industry was introduced to comprehensive PSA by the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). However, the study languished in relative obscurity until the accident at Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) in 1979. This event significantly altered the industry's view of severe accidents in the U.S. and worldwide. Investigative committees of TMI-2 recommended that PSA techniques be more widely used to augment the traditional deterministic methods of determining nuclear plant safety. This initiated an unprecedented effort by nuclear regulators and licensees worldwide to significantly improve the state of knowledge of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. In the U.S., use of PSA began to increase as evidenced by its application in the anticipated transient without scram and station blackout rulemakings, generic issue prioritization and resolution, risk-based inspection guidelines, backfit policy, and technical specification improvements. However, broad application of probabilistic techniques to the industry as a whole was initiated in 1986 with the publication of Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plant; Policy Statement. This put PSA front and center in the U.S. regulatory arena by open-quotes establish[ing] goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation.close quotes Both qualitative safety goals and quantitative objectives were articulated in this policy statement

  10. Effect of topical vaginal products on the detection of prostate-specific antigen, a biomarker of semen exposure, using ABAcards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Margaret C; Kourtis, Athena P; Black, Carolyn M; Mauck, Christine K; Brown, Teresa M; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Melendez, Johan H; Gallo, Maria F; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker of recent semen exposure. There is currently only limited information on whether topical vaginal products affect PSA assays. We investigated this question using various dilutions of several vaginal products (lubricants and spermicides) and the Abacus ABAcard for PSA detection. Pooled semen controls and various dilutions of nonoxynol-9 (N9), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Replens, Gynol 2, K-Y jelly, Astroglide, Surgilube, combined with pooled semen dilutions, were tested for PSA using the Abacus ABAcard. N9 (2% with saline) and CMC did not appear to affect the results of testing with the ABAcard, but not all semen dilutions were tested. The other products (including Replens and Gynol, which is 2% N9 with propylene glycol, K-Y, Astroglide and Surgilube) at some of the dilutions tested either affected or gave invalid results with PSA testing using the ABAcard. Both Gynol 2 and K-Y at 1:10 dilution gave false-positive results. Some vaginal products affect PSA results obtained by using the semiquantitative ABAcard. In vivo confirmation is necessary to further optimize PSA detection when topical vaginal products are present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Helena P; Davis, Chris R; Tate, Sophie; Persad, Raj; Holmes, Chris H; Whittington, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH) PSA guidelines. Methods Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values. Results Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents) are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346) of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346) follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346) used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%). In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service. Conclusion A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance. PMID:19021912

  12. The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Chris H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH PSA guidelines. Methods Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values. Results Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346 of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346 follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346 used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%. In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service. Conclusion A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance.

  13. Prediction of PSA bounce after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Kunimitsu; Nakashima, Jun; Sugawara, Akitomo

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to calculate the frequency and features of the development of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after prostate brachytherapy alone, to correlate the bounce with clinical and dosimetric factors and to identify factors that predict PSA bounce. PSA bounce was evaluated in 86 patients with T1-T2 prostate cancer who underwent radioactive seed implantation using iodine-125 (I-125) without hormonal therapy or external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from September 2004 to December 2007. A PSA bounce was defined as a rise of at least 0.4 ng/ml greater than a previous PSA level with a subsequent decline equal to, or less than, the initial nadir. Calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, the incidence of PSA bounce at a 2-year follow-up was 26%. Median time to the PSA bounce was 15 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, dose received by 90% of the prostate gland (D90), volume of gland receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100), and V150 were significantly associated with the PSA bounce, while pretreatment PSA level, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate volume, clinical T stage, and V200 were not. In multivariate analysis, age 67 years or less and D90 more than 180 Gy were identified as independent factors for predicting the PSA bounce (P<0.05). PSA bounce is not a rare phenomenon after prostate brachytherapy. It is more common in younger patients and patients receiving higher doses of radiation. (author)

  14. NPP Krsko Living PSA Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.

    2000-01-01

    NPP Krsko developed PSA model of internal and external initiators within the frame of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) project. Within this project PSA model was used to examine the existing plant design features. In order to continue with use of this PSA model upon the completion of IPE in various risk-informed applications in support of plant operation and evaluations of design changes, an appropriate living PSA concept needed to be defined. The Living PSA concept is in NPP Krsko considered as being a set of activities pursued in order to update existing PSA model in a manner that it appropriately represents the plant design, operation practice and history. Only a PSA model which is being updated in this manner can serve as a platform for plant-specific risk informed applications. The NPP Krsko living PSA concept is based on the following major ponts. First, the baseline PSA model is defined, which is to be maintained and updated and which is to be reference point for any risk-informed application. Second, issues having a potential for impact on baseline PSA model are identified and procedure and responsibilities for their permanent monitoring and evaluation are established. Third, manner is defined in which consequential changes to baseline PSA model are implemented and controlled, together with associated responsibilities. Finally, the process is defined by which the existing version of baseline PSA model is superseded by a new one. Each time a new version of baseline PSA model is released, it would be re-quantified and the results evaluated and interpreted. By documenting these re-quantifications and evaluations of results in a sequence, the track is being kept of changes in long-term averaged risk perspective, represented by long-term averaged frequencies of core damage and pre-defined release categories. These major topics of NPP Krsko living PSA concept are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  15. Early decrease of PSA, a prognosis factor independent from biochemical control in case of remedial radiotherapy after prostatectomy; Baisse precoce du PSA, un facteur pronostique independant de controle biochimique en cas de radiotherapie de rattrapage apres prostatectomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P.; Bakkour, M.; Chaurin, P.; Negretti, L.; Wibault, P.; Bossi, A. [Institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Crevoisier, R. de [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Rennes (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the analysis of the predictive value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) decrease during a remedial external radiotherapy performed to increase the PSA after a radical prostatectomy. During four years, 136 patients have been treated by external irradiation to obtain a PSA increase after prostatectomy. Different parameters are noticed: initial pathological stage, initial Gleason score, mean time between prostatectomy and external radiotherapy, values of PSA before and after prostatectomy and after radiotherapy. The evolution of PSA could be used for an early identification of patients presenting a pejorative prognosis. Short communication

  16. Age-specific serum prostate specific antigen ranges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the ...

  17. Detection of serum prostate specific antigen in lactating, pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most valuable tumor marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate carcinoma, it is widely accepted that PSA is not prostate specific. Objectives: The aim of this study is to address the possibility of using the PSA as marker for the sex assignment in different ...

  18. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adult by Serological Test and Stool Antigen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis that is related to duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and possibly gastric adenocarcinoma. Noninvasive diagnostic tests consist of the urea breath test, serology, and stool antigen testing. Serodiagnosis of H.pylori infection is inaccurate for children. In order to investigate the immune response to H.pylori in children and adult, we compared anti-H pylori IgG and IgA antibodies with H. pylori antigen (HpSA in the stool. Methods: Serum and stool samples were obtained from 218 children and adult patients with clinical symptom in the range of 4 to 77 years old. Paired results of H. pylori serology (IgG and IgA and HpSA were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay methods. Results: There were 218 paired serology and HpSA results for 39 children (≤17 years and 179 adult (≥18 years. The positivity rate of HpSA (45.8% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than those for H. pylori IgG (54.6% and IgA (28.9%. Moreover in child patients specificity for serological test IgG and IgA were higher than adult. Conclusion: In this study, HpSA was sensitive and specific as a clinical and epidemiological tool to evaluate H. pylori infection. IgG correlated better with HpSA than IgA, and also IgG was much more specific in children than adults confirm the fact that adults are more possible to have been exposed to H. pylori in the past. Using HpSA as the gold standard, we found that the performances of IgG and IgA serology tests differ significantly by age because immature immune response or tolerance to H. pylori is present in childhood and serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection is less useful. Hence, we recommend that laboratories reevaluate reference serologic titers based on age and further clinical correlation is needed to establish the optimal ranges.

  19. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ruping; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao; Liu, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A low-cost and rapid assay for f-PSA in serum was developed using MMP-based CLEIA. •f-PSA detection: 0.1–30 ng mL −1 concentration range; 0.1 ng mL −1 detection limit. •The proposed method showed high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability. •The strategy showed great potential in the fabrication of MMP-based f-PSA test kits. -- Abstract: We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2′-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1–30 ng mL −1 with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL −1 . The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the “diagnostic gray zone” of serum f-PSA levels (4–10 ng mL −1 ). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL −1 ). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum

  20. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruping [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Cheng [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York 10027 (United States); Jiang, Quan [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Guohua, E-mail: liugh@nankai.edu.cn [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A low-cost and rapid assay for f-PSA in serum was developed using MMP-based CLEIA. •f-PSA detection: 0.1–30 ng mL{sup −1} concentration range; 0.1 ng mL{sup −1} detection limit. •The proposed method showed high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability. •The strategy showed great potential in the fabrication of MMP-based f-PSA test kits. -- Abstract: We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2′-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1–30 ng mL{sup −1} with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup −1}. The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the “diagnostic gray zone” of serum f-PSA levels (4–10 ng mL{sup −1}). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL{sup −1}). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum.

  1. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  2. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  3. Early decrease of PSA, a prognosis factor independent from biochemical control in case of remedial radiotherapy after prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, P.; Bakkour, M.; Chaurin, P.; Negretti, L.; Wibault, P.; Bossi, A.; Crevoisier, R. de

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the analysis of the predictive value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) decrease during a remedial external radiotherapy performed to increase the PSA after a radical prostatectomy. During four years, 136 patients have been treated by external irradiation to obtain a PSA increase after prostatectomy. Different parameters are noticed: initial pathological stage, initial Gleason score, mean time between prostatectomy and external radiotherapy, values of PSA before and after prostatectomy and after radiotherapy. The evolution of PSA could be used for an early identification of patients presenting a pejorative prognosis. Short communication

  4. Evaluation of PSA-age volume score in predicting prostate cancer in Chinese populationArticle Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Guang-Liang; Yu, Yang; Tong, Shi-Jun; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Mao, Shan-Hua; Na, Rong; Ding, Qiang

    2018-02-06

    This study was performed to evaluate prostate-specific antigen-age volume (PSA-AV) scores in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) in a Chinese biopsy population. A total of 2355 men who underwent initial prostate biopsy from January 2006 to November 2015 in Huashan Hospital were recruited in the current study. The PSA-AV scores were calculated and assessed together with PSA and PSA density (PSAD) retrospectively. Among 2133 patients included in the analysis, 947 (44.4%) were diagnosed with PCa. The mean age, PSA, and positive rates of digital rectal examination result and transrectal ultrasound result were statistically higher in men diagnosed with PCa (all P PSA-AV were 0.864 and 0.851, respectively, in predicting PCa in the entire population, both performed better than PSA (AUC = 0.805; P PSA-AV was more obvious in subgroup with PSA ranging from 2.0 ng ml-1 to 20.0 ng ml-1. A PSA-AV score of 400 had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.7% and 40.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the PSA-AV score performed equally with PSAD and was better than PSA in predicting PCa. This indicated that PSA-AV score could be a useful tool for predicting PCa in Chinese population.

  5. PSA bounce phenomenon after External Beam Radiation Therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, K.; Makarewicz, R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction to clinical practice of PSA antigen altered the therapeutic approach to treatment of prostate cancer. The PSA antigen was defined as sensitive marker for monitoring of prostate cancer. At treated with radiotherapy patients (EBRT) value of PSA nadir after treatment is the significant determinant of results of treatment statistically. Three consecutive PSA rise above the post-treatment nadir have been defined as biochemical failure by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus panel. However a single rise in post-EBRT PSA level continues to be a source of considerable anxiety due to the intriguing uncertainty of relationship between PSA bouncing and disease relapse. The clinical practice show that growth of level PSA after radiotherapy was possible and does not it join with progression of disease. Phenomenon this was named as PSA-bounce. Various definitions of PSA bounce have been used in the literature. The authors in presented work represent the current state of knowledge on this phenomenon after use radical External Beam Radiation Therapy. (authors)

  6. What is living PSA. [Probalistic safety analysis at Nuclear Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, R.I.; Moir, G.R. (Nuclear Electric plc. (United Kingdom))

    1993-12-01

    The paper describes the pioneering work into living probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) within Nuclear Electric plc as part of its strategic development programme. This programme is targeted to provide risk management tools to assist in optimizing the testing and maintenance arrangements for the essential safety systems within the company's nuclear power plants. Three broad categories of living PSA development are described with their advantages. The first is a Stage 1 living PSA which is an off-line PSA which can be upgraded on a regular basis. Then a Stage 2 living PSA which is an on-line time-independent PSA, in which standby component failure probabilities are modelled at the end of their inspection period, and is updated by the plant operator as and when changes in plant configuration (i.e. opening/closing sectioning valves) or plant availability occur. Finally a Stage 3 living PSA which is an on-line dynamic PSA, in which all standby components are modelled with respect to their last inspection time, and is updated by the plant operator as and when changes in plant configuration and plant availability occur and when testing takes place. (author).

  7. STD Awareness PSA - Male Announcer 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Target - Men who have sex with other men.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  8. STD Awareness PSA - College 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  9. STD Awareness PSA - College 1 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  10. Early detection of prostate cancer in Syria using T.PSA and F.PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adel, M.; Abu Daher, D.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the current study is performing an initial prostate cancer screening test using PSA and F PSA tumour markers. A total of 3000 men in 40-75 years of age were participated in this study. Demographic and clinical data for subjects were collected by the programme staff. Total PSA and free PSA assays were determined using the ImunoTech total and free PSA assay kits, based on IRMA technique (kindly provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency). Criteria for participating in this study included : 1) men of age 50-75 (men of age as low as 40 were included in case of positive family history). 2) No previous history of prostate cancer. The following parameters were followed to refer the suspicious cases to a specialized hospital specific tests: 1)PSA>3 ng/ml . 2)High PSA value according to the participant age group. 3) Low F/TPSA ratio. In the hospital the following tests were performed:1) Complete clinical exam including DRE.2)TRUS in some cases.3) Biopsy for highly suspicious cases. 4)The low suspicious cases were retested in six months. Out of 338 cases referred to a specialized hospital, 264 cases were shown prostatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),while 36 cases proved to be prostatic cancer. However, the contact was lost in 36 cases because of changing the phone number or travelling outside the country . The detection rate of prostate cancer among all participating cases in this study was 1.2%, while this ratio was 10.7% among the referred cases. F/TPSA ratio has shown a good ability to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (author)

  11. Predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen in detecting bone metastasis in prostate cancer patients using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Mandal, Arup K

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scan (BS) used to be the investigation of choice for detecting osseous metastases in prostate cancer. Now, with the availability serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, clinicians do have a timely, cost-effective method to determine those patients who are highly unlikely to have osseous metastases. We determine the utility of PSA for predicting the presence of skeletal metastasis on BSs in prostate cancer patients. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 322 consecutive prostate cancers patients subjected to BS during the last 3 years was done. 52 cases were excluded due to following reasons: Serum PSA not available, hormonal or other therapy given prior to serum PSA measurement, and/or BS, and symptomatic for bone metastasis. In remaining 270 cases, PSA value and BS were evaluated. BS was performed with Tc99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) as per the standard protocol. BS was found to be positive in 153/270 (56%) and negative in 117 (46%) patients. Of the 153 positive cases, 108 (70%) had serum PSA > 100 ng/ml, 42 (28%) had PSA of 20-100 ng/ml and only 3 (2%) had PSA < 20 ng/ml. All the patients with PSA > 100 ng/ml had multiple skeletal metastasis. Of the 117 negative cases, 110 (94%) had a PSA < 20 ng/ml, 5 had between 20 and 100 ng/ml and only 2 (1.8%) had PSA > 100 ng/ml. Of the 113 patients with serum PSA < 20 ng/ml, 110 (97.4%) did not show any bony metastasis. 150/157 (95.5%) patients with PSA > 20 ng/ml had bone metastasis. Using this criterion, 110 (40.7%) scans would have been omitted. Serum PSA < 20 ng/ml have high predictive value in ruling out skeletal metastasis. Our data are in corroboration with results from previous studies that BS should be performed only if PSA > 20 ng/ml. Using this cut-off, unnecessary investigation can be avoided. Avoiding BS in this group of patients would translate into a significant cost-saving and reduction in their psychological and physical burden

  12. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Brasso, Klaus; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients...... with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of three PSA...... determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-three patients...

  13. Radiotherapy for men with PSA failure following radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Masaki; Noma, Hideya; Yamaguchi, Akito

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of salvage external beam radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate bed for men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure following radical prostatectomy. Fourteen patients underwent RT for PSA failure following radical prostatectomy between 1999 and 2000. Median follow-up was 24 months. Median PSA level before RT was 0.51 ng/ml. Radiation dose was 60 Gy or 61.4 Gy. The 3-year actuarial biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) rate was 40%. The biochemical effectiveness of RT was better in cases with a PSA level of less than 1 ng/ml compared to that in cases with a level higher than 1 ng/ml. The PSA level before RT and surgical margin involvement were identified as prognostic factors for bDFS. No patients experienced grade 3 toxicity. RT for PSA failure following radical prostatectomy seems to be very effective and was only slightly toxic during a limited follow-up period. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Antigens for Development of a Serological Test for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biéler, Sylvain; Waltenberger, Harald; Barrett, Michael P; McCulloch, Richard; Mottram, Jeremy C; Carrington, Mark; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; McKerrow, James; Phillips, Margaret A; Michels, Paul A; Büscher, Philippe; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Bishop, Richard; Robinson, Derrick R; Bangs, James; Ferguson, Michael; Nerima, Barbara; Albertini, Audrey; Michel, Gerd; Radwandska, Magdalena; Ndung'u, Joseph Mathu

    2016-01-01

    Control and elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) can be accelerated through the use of diagnostic tests that are more accurate and easier to deploy. The goal of this work was to evaluate the immuno-reactivity of antigens and identify candidates to be considered for development of a simple serological test for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense infections, ideally both. The reactivity of 35 antigens was independently evaluated by slot blot and ELISA against sera from both T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense infected patients and controls. The antigens that were most reactive by both tests to T. b. gambiense sera were the membrane proteins VSG LiTat 1.3, VSG LiTat 1.5 and ISG64. Reactivity to T. b. rhodesiense sera was highest with VSG LiTat 1.3, VSG LiTat 1.5 and SRA, although much lower than with T. b. gambiense samples. The reactivity of all possible combinations of antigens was also calculated. When the slot blot results of 2 antigens were paired, a VSG LiTat 1.3- ISG75 combination performed best on T. b. gambiense sera, while a VSG LiTat 1.3-VSG LiTat 1.5 combination was the most reactive using ELISA. A combination of SRA and either VSG LiTat 1.3 or VSG LiTat 1.5 had the highest reactivity on T. b. rhodesiense sera according to slot blot, while in ELISA, pairing SRA with either GM6 or VSG LiTat 1.3 yielded the best results. This study identified antigens that were highly reactive to T. b. gambiense sera, which could be considered for developing a serological test for gambiense HAT, either individually or in combination. Antigens with potential for inclusion in a test for T. b. rhodesiense HAT were also identified, but because their reactivity was comparatively lower, a search for additional antigens would be required before developing a test for this form of the disease.

  15. THE ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC CELL IN VITRO TESTS FOR POST-VACCINATION ANTIPLAGUE IMMUNITY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kulichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of post-vaccination anti-plague immunity evaluation was researched using antigen-stimulated cells tests in vitro and cytometry analysis. The object of study — the blood samples of 17 people immunised by the live plague vaccine (Yersinia pestis EV epicutaneously. Blood taking was carried out before vaccination and after immunisation on 7 and on 21 days, in 3 and in 6 months. Intensity antigen reactivity of lymphocytes was detected by cell tests in vitro, analysing markers of early (CD45+CD3+CD25+ and late (CD45+CD3+HLA-DR+ lymphocyte activation using flow cytometry. The complex of water-soluble Y. pestis antigens and allergen — pestin PP was tested as antigen. The high stimulating potential was defined of the water-soluble antigens Y. pestis complex. It is shown that coefficient of stimulation of relative level T- lymphocytes which express receptors for IL-2 was positive for all observation times after immunisation. The coefficient of stimulation had maximum values at 21 days (56.37% and at 3 (47.41% months. In identifying HLADR-positive lymphocytes before vaccination, the negative coefficient of stimulation was indicated on 7 and 21 days and the positive coefficient of stimulation was indicated at 3 and at 6 months. Analysis of intensity expression of early and late lymphocyte activation markers dynamics showed the possibility and prospect of application of cellular in vitro tests for the laboratory evaluation of specific reactivity of cellular immunity in both the early (7 days and late (6 months periods after vaccination. The results can be the basis for developing a new algorithm for assessment of immunological effectiveness of vaccination people against plague. It is the algorithm based on the identification of lymphocyte activation markers by antigen stimulation in conditions in vitro.

  16. Early diagnostic role of PSA combined miR-155 detection in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T; Wang, X-X; Fu, H; Tang, Y-C; Meng, B-Q; Chen, C-H

    2018-03-01

    As a kind of malignant tumor in the male genitourinary system, prostate cancer exhibits significantly increased occurrence. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression can be seen in the prostate cancer, prostatitis, and other diseases, therefore, lack of diagnostic specificity. The miR-155 expression is abnormally increased in the tumors. Therefore, this study aims to explore the clinical significance of PSA combined miR-155 detection in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 86 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. PSA and miR-155 gene expression in tumor tissue were detected by using Real-time PCR. The serum levels of PSA were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation of PSA and miR-155 expression with age, body mass index (BMI), tumor volume, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and other clinicopathological features were analyzed, respectively. Serum PSA expression and PSA gene in tumor tissue were significantly higher compared to that in adjacent tissues (pPSA gene and protein increased significantly with the clinical stage of TNM and decreased following the increase of grade (pPSA and miR-155 expressions were positively correlated with TNM stage, tumor volume, and LNM, and negatively correlated with grade (pPSA and miR-155 were closely related to the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Combined detection is helpful for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  17. Analysis of urinary PSA glycosylation is not indicative of high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabés, Sílvia; Llop, Esther; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, Rosa N; Perry, Antoinette S; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    The levels of core fucosylation and α2,3-linked sialic acid in serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), using the lectins Pholiota squarrosa lectin (PhoSL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), can discriminate between Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and indolent prostate cancer (PCa) from aggressive PCa. In the present work we evaluated whether these glycosylation determinants could also be altered in urinary PSA obtained after digital rectal examination (DRE) and could also be useful for diagnosis determinations. For this purpose, α2,6-sialic acid and α1,6-fucose levels of urinary PSA from 53 patients, 18 biopsy-negative and 35 PCa patients of different aggressiveness degree, were analyzed by sandwich ELLA (Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay) using PhoSL and SNA. Changes in the levels of specific glycosylation determinants, that in serum PSA samples were indicative of PCa aggressiveness, were not found in PSA from DRE urine samples. Although urine is a simpler matrix for analyzing PSA glycosylation compared to serum, an immunopurification step was necessary to specifically detect the glycans on the PSA molecule. Those specific glycosylation determinants on urinary PSA were however not useful to improve PCa diagnosis. This could be probably due to the low proportion of PSA from the tumor in urine samples, which precludes the identification of aberrantly glycosylated PSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum prostate-specific antigen as a predictor of prostate volume in the community: the Krimpen study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, A.M.; Groeneveld, F.P.; Bosch, J.L.H.R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is considered a proxy for prostate volume (PV). This study investigates which range of PSA values has the best utility in the determination of PV (4. Low PSA ranges (0-2 and 2.1-4.0) discriminate better for a PV of 30 cc (eg, in men with a PSA range

  19. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  20. Predictor of response to salvage radiotherapy in patients with PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. The usefulness of PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Kousaku; Azuma, Koji; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2005-01-01

    We assessed predictors of response to salvage radiotherapy (sRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after radical prostatectomy. A total of 21 patients receiving sRT for PSA recurrence without systemic progression after radical prostatectomy had medical records available for retrospective review. We defined sRT as external beam radiotherapy for patients with a continuous increase in PSA level≥0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy. Response was defined as achievement of a PSA nadir of ≤0.1 ng/ml. Various pre-treatment parameters were evaluated retrospectively. The median follow-up period after sRT was 38 months. Of the 21 patients, 15 were good responders (71%). The only predictive factor was PSA doubling time (PSADT). Age and PSA level at diagnosis, Gleason score and surgical margin status were not significant predictors of response. The median PSADT in responders was 6.2 months versus 1.9 months in non-responders (P=0.019). The patients with a PSADT of ≥5 months were all responders. PSADT appears to be a good predictor of response to sRT. sRT was especially effective when PSADT was ≥5 months. (author)

  1. PSA in application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thadani, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on Probabilistic Safety Assessment methodologies which are finding wide application within the nuclear power industry. Plant specific studies have been useful in identifying design vulnerabilities, providing a basis for prioritization of plant modifications and in an operations management role. PSA applications in regulatory activities have also proven very beneficial to the US NRC in assessing significance of operating plant events/issues, consideration of potential design improvements, standard plant licensing and conducting regulatory and cost-benefit analyses on proposed generic issue resolution. The benefits from such studies are concluded to be well worth their cost

  2. Diagnosis of prostate cancer: comparison of serum prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K H; Chang, P L; Wang, T M; Hsieh, M L

    1997-03-01

    While prostate specific antigen (PSA) is useful as a tumor marker for monitoring patients with prostate cancer after definitive therapy, limitations have been noted when it is used for early detection of prostate cancer. We reviewed the charts of 121 patients who had undergone prostate needle biopsies, documented digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum PSA determination before biopsy from January 1993 to October 1994. Indications for biopsy included abnormal DRE. PSA level greater than 4.0 ng/ml or abnormal lesions on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Seventeen patients (14%) had stage A carcinoma with normal DRE and PSA levels from 0.1 to 34.9 ng/ml (mean 9.0 ng/ml). Four patients (3%) had stage B carcinoma with an average PSA level of 32.3 ng/ml and less than one lobe indurated on DRE. Six patients (5%) had stage C carcinoma and had an average PSA level of 48.5 ng/ml and less than one lobe indurated on DRE. Ninety-four (78%) patients had stage D carcinoma with an average PSA level of 120 ng/ml and more than one lobe indurated on DRE. While hypoechoic sectors were more than twice as likely as isoechoic sectors of the prostate to contain malignancy on biopsy, nearly 20% of cancers were found in isoechoic sectors. Serum PSA is the most accurate of the three diagnostic tests evaluated. The addition of DRE or TRUS improves the detection rate of prostate cancer over PSA alone.

  3. Cryptococcal Antigen Test Revisited: Significance for Cryptococcal Meningitis Therapy Monitoring in a Tertiary Chinese Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhou; Zhou, Yingjie; Yin, Youkuan; Pan, Xiaozhang; Weng, Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    For a total of 29 non-human immunodeficiency virus 1 cryptococcal meningitis cases, titer changes in the latex agglutination test before and after therapy were reviewed along with clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and therapy regimens. The cryptococcal antigen titer decreased for every case after therapy and was correlated to fungal clearance as defined by fungus smear and/or culture. However, cryptococcal antigen can remain at low titers for long periods of time after therapy, even when fungus smears and/or cultures become negative. PMID:15956440

  4. PSA Update Procedures, an Ultimate Need for Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear facilities by their complex nature, change with time. These changes can be both physical (plant modification, etc.), operational (enhanced procedures, etc.) and organizational. In addition, there are also changes in our understanding of the plant, due to operational experience, data collection, technology enhancements, etc. Therefore, it is imperative that PSA model must be frequently up-dated or modified to reflect these changes. Over the last ten years. these has been a remarkable growth of the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The most rapidly growing area of the PSA Applications is their use to support operational decision-making. Many of these applications are characterized by the potential for not only improving the safety level but also for providing guidance on the optimal use of resources and reducing regulatory burden. To enable a wider use of the PSA model as a tool for safety activities it is essential to maintain the model in a controlled state. Moreover, to fulfill requirements for L iving PSA , the PSA model has to be constantly updated and/or monitored to reflect the current plant configuration. It should be noted that the PSA model should not only represent the plant design but should also represent the operational and emergency procedures. To keep the PSA model up-to-date several issues should be clearly defined including: - Responsibility should be divided among the PSA group, - Procedures for implementing changes should be established, and - QA requirements/program should be established to assure documentation and reporting. (author)

  5. Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test: a reliable non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, O. J.; Bosman, D. K.; van't Hoff, B. W.; Taminiau, J. A.; ten Kate, F. J.; van der Ende, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSA) test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in an academic medical centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 106 consecutive children who underwent gastroscopy were

  6. PSA bounces after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and external beam radiation: Impact on definitions of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, Anthony L.; Christodouleas, John P.; Shipley, William U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounces after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and their impact on definitions of biochemical failure. Methods and Materials: Characteristics of bounce were calculated for all patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation at our institution between 1992 and 1998 (preexclusion analysis). Calculations were repeated for the subgroup that satisfied additional inclusion/exclusion criteria (postexclusion analysis). The percentage of bounces scoring as false positives according to the ASTRO definition of biochemical failure was compared with those for three alternative definitions (Vancouver, Nadir-plus-two, and Nadir-plus-three) using McNemar's tests. Results: Thirty-nine percent (preexclusion cohort) and 56% (postexclusion cohort) of patients demonstrated a PSA bounce. Twenty percent (preexclusion analysis) and 25% (postexclusion analysis) of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition scored the smallest percentage of bounces as failure, but the difference between this definition and the ASTRO definition reached statistical significance in neither preexclusion nor postexclusion analyses (p ≥ 0.070). Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant deprivation experienced a PSA bounce. A large percentage of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition is less vulnerable to this bias

  7. PSA kinetics following primary focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) in organ-confined prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Michael; Islam, Shahidul; Mbah, Alfred K; Halpern, Daniel M; Werneburg, Glenn T; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Chen, Connie; Habibian, David J; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Corcoran, Anthony T; Katz, Aaron E

    2018-02-01

    We aim to evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) trends in post-primary focal cryotherapy (PFC) patients. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of PFC patients from 2010 to 2015. Patients with at least one post-PFC PSA were included in the study. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was determined using the Phoenix criteria. PSA bounce was also assessed. We analyzed rates of change of PSA over time of post-PFC between BCR and no BCR groups. PSA-derived variables were analyzed as potential predictors of BCR. A total of 104 PFC patients were included in our analysis. Median (range) age and follow-up time were 66 (48-82) years and 19 (6.3-38.6) months, respectively. Four (3.8%) patients experienced PSA bounce. The median percent drop in first post-PFC PSA of 80.0% was not associated with BCR (p = 0.256) and may indicate elimination of the index lesion. The rate of increase of PSA in BCR patients was significantly higher compared to patients who did not recur (median PSA velocity (PSAV): 0.15 vs 0.04 ng/ml/month, p = 0.001). Similar to PSAV (HR 9.570, 95% CI 3.725-24.592, p PSA nadir ≥ 2 ng/ml [HR (hazard ratio) 1.251, 95% CI 1.100-1.422, p = 0.001] was independently associated with BCR. A significant drop in post-PFC PSA may indicate elimination of the index lesion. Patients who are likely to recur biochemically have a significantly higher PSAV compared to those who do not recur. Nadir PSA of less than 2 ng/ml may be considered the new normal PSA in focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) follow-up.

  8. Effect of a Low-Intensity PSA-Based Screening Intervention on Prostate Cancer Mortality: The CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M; Donovan, Jenny L; Turner, Emma L; Metcalfe, Chris; Young, Grace J; Walsh, Eleanor I; Lane, J Athene; Noble, Sian; Oliver, Steven E; Evans, Simon; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Holding, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Brindle, Peter; Williams, Naomi J; Hill, Elizabeth M; Ng, Siaw Yein; Toole, Jessica; Tazewell, Marta K; Hughes, Laura J; Davies, Charlotte F; Thorn, Joanna C; Down, Elizabeth; Davey Smith, George; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C

    2018-03-06

    Prostate cancer screening remains controversial because potential mortality or quality-of-life benefits may be outweighed by harms from overdetection and overtreatment. To evaluate the effect of a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening intervention and standardized diagnostic pathway on prostate cancer-specific mortality. The Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer (CAP) included 419 582 men aged 50 to 69 years and was conducted at 573 primary care practices across the United Kingdom. Randomization and recruitment of the practices occurred between 2001 and 2009; patient follow-up ended on March 31, 2016. An invitation to attend a PSA testing clinic and receive a single PSA test vs standard (unscreened) practice. Primary outcome: prostate cancer-specific mortality at a median follow-up of 10 years. Prespecified secondary outcomes: diagnostic cancer stage and Gleason grade (range, 2-10; higher scores indicate a poorer prognosis) of prostate cancers identified, all-cause mortality, and an instrumental variable analysis estimating the causal effect of attending the PSA screening clinic. Among 415 357 randomized men (mean [SD] age, 59.0 [5.6] years), 189 386 in the intervention group and 219 439 in the control group were included in the analysis (n = 408 825; 98%). In the intervention group, 75 707 (40%) attended the PSA testing clinic and 67 313 (36%) underwent PSA testing. Of 64 436 with a valid PSA test result, 6857 (11%) had a PSA level between 3 ng/mL and 19.9 ng/mL, of whom 5850 (85%) had a prostate biopsy. After a median follow-up of 10 years, 549 (0.30 per 1000 person-years) died of prostate cancer in the intervention group vs 647 (0.31 per 1000 person-years) in the control group (rate difference, -0.013 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -0.047 to 0.022]; rate ratio [RR], 0.96 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.08]; P = .50). The number diagnosed with prostate cancer was higher in the intervention group (n = 8054; 4

  9. [Association between obesity-related plasma hemodilution and the concentration of prostate specific antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fanglong; Yin, Xiaotao; Li, Dewei; Yin, Zhaoyang; Qi, Siyong; Shi, Huaiyin; Gao, Jiangping; Zhang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effect of obesity on prostate specific antigen (PSA) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and develop a PSA-related parameter that can eliminate the effect of obesity. We reviewed the clinical data of 706 patients with BPH. Two PSA-related parameters, namely PSA mass (total circulating PSA protein) and PSA mass ratio (total circulation PSA protein per prostate volume), were calculated for all the patients and the association of BMI with PSA, PSA mass, and PSA mass ratio was assessed. A higher BMI was significantly associated with a greater plasma volume and prostate volume (Pplasma volume than of BMI PSA (0.569 vs 0.027). PSA was positively associated with the prostate volume and negatively with BMI and plasma volume (Pplasma volume (P>0.05). PSA mass ratio was not associated with prostate volume (P>0.05) but negatively associated with BMI and plasma volume. Plasma volume and prostate volume, PSA, and PSA mass ratio (P0.05), differed significantly among normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients. A higher BMI is associated with a greater plasma volume in BPH patients. In obese patients with BPH, a lower PSA concentration may result from hemodilution caused by a greater plasma volume, and PSA mass can eliminate the effect of obesity on PSA.

  10. Development of PSA workstation KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) workstation KIRAP from 1992. This report describes the recent development activities of PSA workstation KIRAP. The first is to develop and improve the methodologies for PSA quantification, that are the incorporation of fault tree modularization technique, the improvement of cut set generation method, the development of rule-based recovery, the development of methodology to solve a fault tree which has the logical loops and to handle a fault tree which has several initiators. These methodologies are incorporated in the PSA quantification software KIRAP-CUT. The second is to convert PSA modeling softwares for Windows, which have been used on the DOS environment since 1987. The developed softwares are the fault tree editor KWTREE, the event tree editor CONPAS, and Data manager KWDBMAN for event data and common cause failure (CCF) data. With the development of PSA workstation, it makes PSA modeling and PSA quantification and automation easier and faster. (author). 8 refs

  11. Short term outcomes of prostate biopsy in men tested for cancer by prostate specific antigen: prospective evaluation within ProtecT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Derek J; Lane, J Athene; Metcalfe, Chris; Donovan, Jenny L; Doble, Andy; Goodwin, Louise; Davis, Michael; Catto, James W F; Avery, Kerry; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C

    2012-01-09

    To measure the effect of the adverse events within 35 days of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy from the perspective of asymptomatic men having prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing; to assess early attitude to re-biopsy; to estimate healthcare resource use associated with adverse events due to biopsy; and to develop a classification scheme for reporting adverse events after prostate biopsy. Prospective cohort study (Prostate Biopsy Effects: ProBE) nested within Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. Participants Between 1999 and 2008, 227,000 community dwelling men aged 50-69 years were identified at 352 practices and invited to counselling about PSA testing. 111,148 attended a nurse led clinic in the community, and 10,297 with PSA concentrations of 3-20 ng/mL were offered biopsy within ProtecT. Between February 2006 and May 2008, 1147/1753 (65%) eligible men (mean age 62.1 years, mean PSA 5.4 ng/mL) having 10 core transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy under antibiotic cover in the context of ProtecT were recruited to the ProBE study. Purpose designed questionnaire administered at biopsy and 7 and 35 days after the procedure to measure frequency and effect of symptoms related to pain, infection, and bleeding; patients' attitude to repeat biopsy assessed immediately after biopsy and 7 days later; participants' healthcare resource use within 35 days of biopsy evaluated by questionnaire, telephone follow-up, and medical note review; each man's adverse event profile graded according to symptoms and healthcare use. Pain was reported by 429/984 (43.6%), fever by 172/985 (17.5%), haematuria by 642/976 (65.8%), haematochezia by 356/967 (36.8%), and haemoejaculate by 605/653 (92.6%) men during the 35 days after biopsy. Fewer men rated these symptoms as a major/moderate problem-71/977 (7.3%) for pain, 54/981 (5.5%) for fever, 59/958 (6.2%) for haematuria, 24/951 (2.5%) for haematochezia, and 172/646 (26.6%) for haemoejaculate. Immediately after

  12. Detection of prostate cancer with complexed PSA and complexed/total PSA ratio - is there any advantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Strittmatter F; Stieber P; Nagel D; Füllhase C; Walther S; Stief CG; Waidelich R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the performance of total PSA (tPSA), the free/total PSA ratio (f/tPSA), complexed PSA (cPSA) and the complexed/total PSA ratio (c/tPSA) in prostate cancer detection. Methods Frozen sera of 442 patients have been analysed for tPSA, free PSA (fPSA) and cPSA. 131 patients had prostate cancer and 311 patients benign prostatic hyperplasia. Results Differences in the distribution of the biomarkers were seen as follows: tPSA, cPSA and c/tPSA were significantly higher i...

  13. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positivity Predictors of the Pneumococcal Urinary Antigen Test in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos, Luis; Zalacain, Rafael; Menéndez, Rosario; Reyes, Soledad; Capelastegui, Alberto; Cillóniz, Catia; Rajas, Olga; Borderías, Luis; Martín-Villasclaras, Juan J; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Gabarrús, Albert; Musher, Daniel M; Torres, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    Detection of the C-polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine by an immune-chromatographic test is increasingly used to evaluate patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this test in the largest series of cases to date and used logistic regression models to determine predictors of positivity in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of 4,374 patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. The urinary antigen test was done in 3,874 cases. Pneumococcal infection was diagnosed in 916 cases (21%); 653 (71%) of these cases were diagnosed exclusively by the urinary antigen test. Sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 99.7%, respectively. Predictors of urinary antigen positivity were female sex; heart rate≥125 bpm, systolic blood pressureantibiotic treatment; pleuritic chest pain; chills; pleural effusion; and blood urea nitrogen≥30 mg/dl. With at least six of all these predictors present, the probability of positivity was 52%. With only one factor present, the probability was only 12%. The urinary antigen test is a method with good sensitivity and excellent specificity in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia, and its use greatly increased the recognition of community-acquired pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae. With a specificity of 99.7%, this test could be used to direct simplified antibiotic therapy, thereby avoiding excess costs and risk for bacterial resistance that result from broad-spectrum antibiotics. We also identified predictors of positivity that could increase suspicion for pneumococcal infection or avoid the unnecessary use of this test.

  14. Clinical significance of changes in ratio of F PSA/PSA and PSA concentration in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Ming; Chen Xiuzhen

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of changes in F PSA/PSA ratio and the annual changing rate of PSA concentration in prostatic cancer patients with PSA between 4 to 10 μg/L, we determined the PSA and F PSA by ELISA in different periods of time. The receptive operator character(ROC) curve was used to evaluate the prediction value of F PSA/PSA ratio and annual change of PSA concentration. The results showed that the F PSA/PSA ratio and the annual changing rate of the PSA concentration were significantly different between prostatic cancer (PC) and non-PC individuals(P 0.05), but the annual changing rate of the PSA concentration was(PC 0. 001). Our conclusion is that the F PSA/PSA ratio and the annual changing rate of PSA concentration are help ful to the diagnosis in patients with the PSA value between 4 to 10 μg/L. (authors)

  15. A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

  16. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens.

  17. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  18. Applications of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This report, which compiles information on a comprehensive set of PSA applications in the areas of NPP design, operation, and accident mitigation and management, is the culmination of an IAEA project on PSA Applications and Tools to Improve NPP Safety. In this regard, the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) held in Madrid in February 1998 allowed participants to review and provide very valuable comments for this report. Several important facts related to PSA and its applications were highlighted during this TCM: living PSAs are the basis for the risk informed approach to decision making; development and use of safety/risk monitors as tools for configuration management is spreading fast; the different uses of PSA to support NPP testing and maintenance planning and optimization are amongst the most widespread PSA applications; plant specific PSAs are being used to support the safety upgrading programmes of plants built to earlier standards; not all countries have a regulatory framework for the use of the probabilistic approach in decision making. Some countries are still far from 'risk-informed' regulation, and this means that there is still considerable work ahead, both for regulators and utilities, to clarify approaches, to establish a framework and to reach a common understanding in relation to the use of PSA in decision making. This report is based on the premise that the use of PSA can provide useful information for the decision maker. This report is intended to provide an overview of current PSA applications. Section 2 addresses the PSA application process, outlines the general requirements for PSA tools and provides a discussion on PSA aspects such as PSA level, scope and level of detail, which have to be considered when planning/performing PSA applications. Section 3 discusses the technical aspects of individual applications and is divided into three parts. Section 3.1 is dedicated to the design related PSA applications. The second part of Section 3 considers

  19. Glycoproteomics: identifying the glycosylation of prostate specific antigen at normal and high isoelectric points by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ehwang; Mayampurath, Anoop; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia

    2014-12-05

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) is needed. PSA has a single glycosylation site at Asn69, with glycans constituting approximately 8% of the protein by weight. Here, we report the comprehensive identification and quantitation of N-glycans from two PSA isoforms using LC-MS/MS. There were 56 N-glycans associated with PSA, whereas 57 N-glycans were observed in the case of the PSA-high isoelectric point (pI) isoform (PSAH). Three sulfated/phosphorylated glycopeptides were detected, the identification of which was supported by tandem MS data. One of these sulfated/phosphorylated N-glycans, HexNAc5Hex4dHex1s/p1 was identified in both PSA and PSAH at relative intensities of 0.52 and 0.28%, respectively. Quantitatively, the variations were monitored between these two isoforms. Because we were one of the laboratories participating in the 2012 ABRF Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) study, those results were compared to that presented in this study. Our qualitative and quantitative results summarized here were comparable to those that were summarized in the interlaboratory study.

  20. Glycoproteomics: Identifying the Glycosylation of Prostate Specific Antigen at Normal and High Isoelectric Points by LC–MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) is needed. PSA has a single glycosylation site at Asn69, with glycans constituting approximately 8% of the protein by weight. Here, we report the comprehensive identification and quantitation of N-glycans from two PSA isoforms using LC–MS/MS. There were 56 N-glycans associated with PSA, whereas 57 N-glycans were observed in the case of the PSA-high isoelectric point (pI) isoform (PSAH). Three sulfated/phosphorylated glycopeptides were detected, the identification of which was supported by tandem MS data. One of these sulfated/phosphorylated N-glycans, HexNAc5Hex4dHex1s/p1 was identified in both PSA and PSAH at relative intensities of 0.52 and 0.28%, respectively. Quantitatively, the variations were monitored between these two isoforms. Because we were one of the laboratories participating in the 2012 ABRF Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) study, those results were compared to that presented in this study. Our qualitative and quantitative results summarized here were comparable to those that were summarized in the interlaboratory study. PMID:25327667

  1. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African-Americans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogen, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ... as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA...

  2. Self-assembled particulate PsaA as vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majela González-Miro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens. The PsaA was translationally fused to a polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB synthase which mediated production of PsaA displayed on PHB inclusions in recombinant Escherichia coli. This suggested that the PsaA fusion to the PHB synthase did not interfere with PHB synthase activity and its ability to mediate formation of nano-sized inclusions composed of a PHB core surrounded by the PHB synthase fused to PsaA. Isolated PHB beads showed a negative surface charge. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that the PsaA fusion to the PHB synthase reduced the size of PHB beads from about 500 nm to 100 nm. The integrity and antigenicity of the fusion protein attached to isolated PHB beads was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, tryptic peptide fingerprinting analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and immunoblotting using a monoclonal anti-PsaA antibody. Mice immunized with PsaA displaying PHB beads produced high and specific IgG levels dominated by IgG1 isotype. While IgG1 titer were similar between soluble and insoluble PsaA, the IgG2 titers were strongly increased upon vaccination with insoluble PsaA i.e. PsaA displayed on PHB beads. Particulate PsaA-PHB beads elicited IgG antibodies recognizing PsaA in whole cell lysates of seven different serotypes of S. pneumoniae. This study suggested that PHB beads are suitable carriers for PsaA in order to induce a significant

  3. PSA bounce phenomenon after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masashi; Lederer, J.L.; Fukagai, Takashi; Yoshida, Hideki; Shimada, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    We described the temporarily increase phenomenon in prostate-specific antigen level (PSA bounce) after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) for localized prostate cancer. From December 1998 to May 2003, 500 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with TIPPB using iodine-125 or palladium-103. We examined 200 patients who have more than 2-year PSA follow-up. Median follow-up length was 1,069 days (range, 712-1,411 days). No patient received neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy. PSA determinations were performed every 3 months for the first 2 years after procedure, and every 6 months hereafter. PSA bounce was defined as an increase of 0.1 ng/ml or greater above the preceding PSA level after implant followed by a subsequent decrease below that level. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus panel criteria 1996 were used to define biochemical failure. PSA bounce was observed in 40% (80/200) of the cases receiving TIPPB. The median time to PSA bounce was 13 months from the day of implant. The median magnitude of the PSA bounce was 0.3 ng/ml from the pre-bounce level. Twelve cases demonstrated biochemical failure according to the ASTRO consensus guidelines of three consecutive rises in PSA. Ten of these subsequently showed a drop in PSA, consistent with biologic control of their disease. Two cases remain classified as apparent biochemical failures. A transient rise in the PSA following TIPPB, the so-called ''bounce'' is a common occurrence. The apparent PSA control of ten of twelve cases failing by the ASTRO criteria raises some concern. Further observation will be necessary to determine ways to discriminate these from true disease progression. (author)

  4. Surface glycoprotein PSA (GP46) expression during short- and long-term culture of Leishmania chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetham, Jeffrey K; Donelson, John E; Dahlin, Rebecca R

    2003-10-01

    The mRNAs encoding promastigote surface antigen (PSA) of Leishmania chagasi have previously been shown to increase about 30-fold as in vitro cultured parasites progress from logarithmic to stationary phase, growth phases that are, respectively associated with parasites having low and high infectivity to mammals. Experiments reported here establish by western blot analysis that PSA proteins of 44 and 66 kDa also increase about 30-fold as parasite cultures reach stationary phase. Serial passage of parasite cultures resulted in a progressive reduction in PSA protein and RNA abundance to levels less than 3% that of cultures newly-initiated with parasites derived from a parasitized rodent. Loss of PSA mRNA abundance in serially passaged cells was not due to reduced PSA gene transcription rates, as determined by nuclear run-on assays. Neither was the loss associated with a marked decrease in PSA mRNA stability. Analysis of PSA RNA stability in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription elongation, failed to detect a difference in fully processed cytosolic PSA mRNA stability regardless of the number of times a culture was passaged or the growth phase of the culture. Based on the lack of detectable difference in (cytosolic) mature PSA mRNA stability during promastigote development, the data indirectly suggest that the regulated expression of PSA in cells from low-passage cultures and the loss of PSA expression in high-passage cultures may be mediated by nuclear events that occur after transcription of the PSA genes and before arrival of the mature mRNAs in the cytoplasm.

  5. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the PSA genes from Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, A; Boceta, C; Bonay, P; Requena, J M; Alonso, C

    1998-01-15

    We describe the molecular cloning of the PSA genes from the Leishmania infantum parasite, which show high sequence similarity with the L. major PSA-2 and L. amazonensis GP46/M2 genes. The PSA genes in L. infantum are arrayed in tandem with a repetition unit of 6 kb. A single-size class of PSA mRNA of 4 kb was detected. The characterised L. infantum PSA genes code for a protein lacking the glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition signal described in other Leishmania species due to the presence of a stop codon located upstream from the DNA sequence coding for the signal. The data obtained after immunoprecipitation of PSA indicate that the protein is present as a water-soluble form, but that also a membrane-anchored form can be detected. The amino acid sequence derived from the isolated PSA gene shows that 60% of the deduced protein is formed by 13 leucine-rich repeats, each one of which is 24 amino acids long. The analysis of the consensus sequence of the repeats revealed that the L. infantum PSA as well as the described L. major PSA-2 and L. amazonensis GP46/M2 proteins may be classified as new members of the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein superfamily. The number of leucine-rich motifs, however, varies considerably between the PSA protein from L. infantum and from the other Leishmania species. The PSA protein is a major antigen determinant during L. infantum infections since 87% of the sera from naturally infected dogs recognise the recombinant PSA purified from Escherichia coli.

  6. Methodology - PSA Regulatory handbook. Comparisons to a modern PSA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Urban; Jung, Gunnar; Flodin, Yngve

    2003-03-01

    The regulatory handbook is applicable to all types of initiating events and all operating conditions. It should be noted that it does not make the traditional subdivision of PSA into internal and external events, level 1 and level 2 PSA, or power operation and shut-down. The reason for this is that this has given the regulatory handbook a more logical structure, and that this approach underlines the integrated character of PSA when it comes to creating the plan risk profile. The regulatory handbook has been structured following the requirements on a PSA for a nuclear power plant, as this is the most demanding application. However, it is applicable also to the analysis of other nuclear installations. The purpose of the comparative review presented in this report has been to, as part of a quality review establish the PSA Handbook, compare (parts of) the handbook and its criteria with a recent PSA analysis, and to identify major discrepancies. Considerable weight has also been allocated to a review of the plant model (Risk Spectrum event trees and fault trees). The results presented in the report are not based on a complete review of the PSA in question (or of the complete PSA Handbook). Following discussions between the SKI and SwedPower, and based on the experience of the SwedPower reviewers, the following issues were chosen to be the main parts of the project: 1) General comparison according to content and transparency - Levels of ambition in PSA Handbook, PSA method description and actual PSA report. 2) Detailed comparison of: Selected component failure data - Assumptions regarding room events - CCI frequencies, realism, identification, categorisation - Taking credit for non-safety classified systems - Event tree modelling - Presentation of results 3) Fault tree model, specifically - Time frame for crediting of battery capacity - Modelling of regulators - Modelling of dependencies for room events - general quality, like how the paper documentation and the logic

  7. Identification of sVSG117 as an immunodiagnostic antigen and evaluation of a dual-antigen lateral flow test for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lauren; Fleming, Jennifer; Sastry, Lalitha; Mehlert, Angela; Wall, Steven J; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2014-07-01

    The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies mainly on the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT). There is no immunodiagnostic for HAT caused by T. b. rhodesiense. Our principle aim was to develop a prototype lateral flow test that might be an improvement on CATT. Pools of infection and control sera were screened against four different soluble form variant surface glycoproteins (sVSGs) by ELISA and one, sVSG117, showed particularly strong immunoreactivity to pooled infection sera. Using individual sera, sVSG117 was shown to be able to discriminate between T. b. gambiense infection and control sera by both ELISA and lateral flow test. The sVSG117 antigen was subsequently used with a previously described recombinant diagnostic antigen, rISG65, to create a dual-antigen lateral flow test prototype. The latter was used blind in a virtual field trial of 431 randomized infection and control sera from the WHO HAT Specimen Biobank. In the virtual field trial, using two positive antigen bands as the criterion for infection, the sVSG117 and rISG65 dual-antigen lateral flow test prototype showed a sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI: 93.3 to 99.2) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI: 76.4 to 88.9) for the detection of T. b. gambiense infections. The device was not as good for detecting T. b. rhodesiense infections using two positive antigen bands as the criterion for infection, with a sensitivity of 58.9% (95% CI: 44.9 to 71.9) and specificity of 97.3% (95% CI: 90.7 to 99.7). However, using one or both positive antigen band(s) as the criterion for T. b. rhodesiense infection improved the sensitivity to 83.9% (95% CI: 71.7 to 92.4) with a specificity of 85.3% (95% CI: 75.3 to 92.4). These results encourage further development of the dual-antigen device for clinical use.

  8. Identification of sVSG117 as an immunodiagnostic antigen and evaluation of a dual-antigen lateral flow test for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Sullivan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies mainly on the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT. There is no immunodiagnostic for HAT caused by T. b. rhodesiense. Our principle aim was to develop a prototype lateral flow test that might be an improvement on CATT.Pools of infection and control sera were screened against four different soluble form variant surface glycoproteins (sVSGs by ELISA and one, sVSG117, showed particularly strong immunoreactivity to pooled infection sera. Using individual sera, sVSG117 was shown to be able to discriminate between T. b. gambiense infection and control sera by both ELISA and lateral flow test. The sVSG117 antigen was subsequently used with a previously described recombinant diagnostic antigen, rISG65, to create a dual-antigen lateral flow test prototype. The latter was used blind in a virtual field trial of 431 randomized infection and control sera from the WHO HAT Specimen Biobank.In the virtual field trial, using two positive antigen bands as the criterion for infection, the sVSG117 and rISG65 dual-antigen lateral flow test prototype showed a sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI: 93.3 to 99.2 and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI: 76.4 to 88.9 for the detection of T. b. gambiense infections. The device was not as good for detecting T. b. rhodesiense infections using two positive antigen bands as the criterion for infection, with a sensitivity of 58.9% (95% CI: 44.9 to 71.9 and specificity of 97.3% (95% CI: 90.7 to 99.7. However, using one or both positive antigen band(s as the criterion for T. b. rhodesiense infection improved the sensitivity to 83.9% (95% CI: 71.7 to 92.4 with a specificity of 85.3% (95% CI: 75.3 to 92.4. These results encourage further development of the dual-antigen device for clinical use.

  9. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  10. A nanoparticle label/immunochromatographic electrochemical biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-06-15

    We present a nanoparticle (NP) label/immunochromatographic electrochemical biosensor (IEB) for rapid and sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. This IEB integrates the immunochromatographic strip with the electrochemical detector for transducing quantitative signals. The NP label, made of CdSe@ZnS, serves as a signal-amplifier vehicle. A sandwich immunoreaction was performed on the immunochromatographic strip. The captured NP labels in the test zone were determined by highly sensitive stripping voltammetric measurement of the dissolved metallic component (cadmium) with a disposable-screen-printed electrode, which is embedded underneath the membrane of the test zone. Experimental parameters (e.g., immunoreaction time, the amount of anti-PSA-NP conjugations applied) and electrochemical detection conditions (e.g., preconcentration potential and time) were optimized using this biosensor for PSA detection. The analytical performance of this biosensor was evaluated with serum PSA samples according to the “figure-of-merits” (e.g., dynamic range, reproducibility, and detection limit). The results were validated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and show high consistency. It is found that this biosensor is very sensitive with the detection limit of 0.02 ng/mL PSA and is quite reproducible. This method is rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive than other diagnosis tools for PSA; therefore, this IEB coupled with a portable electrochemical analyzer shows great promise for simple, sensitive, quantitative point-of-care testing of disease-related protein biomarkers.

  11. Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with fluctuating prostate-specific antigen levels on the repeat prostate biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Jung Keun; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Byung Ki; Lee, Sangchul; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the risk of prostate cancer was different according to the pattern of fluctuation in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients undergoing repeat transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx). Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 492 patients underwent repeat TRUS-Bx. The patients were stratified into 3 groups based on the PSA fluctuation pattern: group 1 (continuous elevation of PSA, n=169), group 2 (PSA fluctuation with PSA velocity [PSAV...

  12. A one-step immune-chromatographic Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for children was quick, consistent, reliable and specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalach, Nicolas; Gosset, Pierre; Dehecq, Eric; Decoster, Anne; Georgel, Anne-France; Spyckerelle, Claire; Papadopoulos, Stephanos; Dupont, Christophe; Raymond, Josette

    2017-12-01

    This French study assessed a quick, noninvasive, immuno-chromatographic, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) stool antigen test for detecting infections in children. We enrolled 158 children, with a median age of 8.5 years (range eight months to 17 years), with digestive symptoms suggesting upper gastrointestinal tract disease. Upper digestive endoscopy was performed with gastric biopsy specimens for histology, a rapid urease test, culture test and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The H. pylori stool antigen test was performed twice for each child and the results were compared to the reference method. The reference methods showed that 23 (14.6%) of the 158 children tested were H. pylori positive. The H. pylori stool antigen test showed 91.3% sensitivity, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 86.9-95.6 and 97% specificity (95% CI 94.3-99.6), 30.84 positive likelihood ratio and 0.09 negative likelihood ratio. The test accuracy was 96.2% (95% CI 93.2-99.1). The two blinded independent observers produced identical H. pylori stool antigen test results and the Kappa coefficient for the H. pylori stool antigen test was one. The H. pylori stool antigen test was found to be a consistent, reliable, quick and specific test for detecting the H. pylori infection in children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Utility of antigen testing for the diagnosis of ocular histoplasmosis in four cats: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn M; Strom, Ann R; Gilmour, Margi A; LaDouceur, Elise; Reilly, Christopher M; Byrne, Barbara A; Affolter, Verena K; Sykes, Jane E; Maggs, David J

    2017-10-01

    Case series summary This case series describes the clinical utility of antigen testing for the diagnosis of feline ocular histoplasmosis. Four cats with suspected (n = 2) or confirmed (n = 2) ocular histoplasmosis are described: three from Oklahoma and one from California. In one case, serial urine antigen tests, as well as a serum antigen test for Histoplasma capsulatum, were negative; however, light microscopy identified microorganisms consistent with H capsulatum in ocular tissues at necropsy. In a further two cats with recurrent ocular histoplasmosis following long-term systemic antifungal therapy, Histoplasma species urine antigen concentrations were negative, but both cats improved clinically following systemic antifungal therapy and remained in apparent clinical remission after treatment cessation (9-16 months). The final cat displayed profound bilateral endophthalmitis; however, Histoplasma species antigen testing of vitreous humor and subretinal fluid from the left eye was negative. Intralesional organisms were detected on histopathology of both eyes, and H capsulatum was subsequently isolated and sequenced from tissue of one eye. Relevance and novel information These cases highlight the potential difficulty in definitively diagnosing ocular histoplasmosis in cats when conducting antigen testing of serum, urine and even ocular fluids. Although antigen testing has previously proven useful in the diagnosis of disseminated feline histoplasmosis, it may not be adequate in cats with only ocular signs.

  14. The effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-age volume score of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The PSA-age volume (PSA-AV) score was calculated by multiplying the age and prostate volume and then dividing the total by the prebiopsy PSA level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-AV score of International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and nocturia in ...

  15. Development of a PSA information database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    The need to develop the PSA information database for performing a PSA has been growing rapidly. For example, performing a PSA requires a lot of data to analyze, to evaluate the risk, to trace the process of results and to verify the results. PSA information database is a system that stores all PSA related information into the database and file system with cross links to jump to the physical documents whenever they are needed. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing a PSA information database system, AIMS (Advanced Information Management System for PSA). The objective is to integrate and computerize all the distributed information of a PSA into a system and to enhance the accessibility to PSA information for all PSA related activities. This paper describes how we implemented such a database centered application in the view of two areas, database design and data (document) service

  16. Vaginal swab specimen processing methods influence performance of rapid semen detection tests: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Detection of semen biomarkers in vaginal fluid can be used to assess women's recent exposure to semen. Quantitative tests for detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) perform well, but are expensive and require specialized equipment. We assessed two rapid immunochromatographic strip tests for identification of semen in vaginal swabs. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women. Vaginal secretions were eluted into saline, and PSA was measured using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) assay. Specimens were also tested using the ABAcard p30 test (Abacus Diagnostics, West Hills, CA, USA) for detection of PSA and RSID-Semen test (Independent Forensics, Hillside, IL, USA) for detection of semenogelin (Sg). Vaginal swab extraction using saline was compatible with direct assessment of vaginal swab eluates using ABAcard for PSA detection, but not for Sg detection using RSID. The rapid PSA test detected 91% of specimens containing semen compared to 74% by the rapid Sg test. Investigators are urged to optimize vaginal swab specimen preparation methods for performance of RSID or other tests to detect semen components other than PSA. Previously described methods for PSA testing are not uniformly applicable to other tests. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A study for the development of PSA integrated databse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Han, S. H.; Min, K. R.

    2002-01-01

    KAERI is constructing the PSA integrated database for UCN 3, 4 nuclear power plant. PSA integrated DB includes PSA model database and PSA information database. PSA model DB consists of PSA models and data which are used for PSA quantification. PSA information DB consists of the other PSA related information such as PSA reports, supporting documents, calculating sheets, etc. This paper defines the PSA integrated database and describes the data collection, classification, schema design and overall development procedure for database construction. Recently, we have developed the PSA model database schema and we are trying to design the PSA model DB browser

  18. Variability of assay methods for total and free PSA after WHO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foj, L; Filella, X; Alcover, J; Augé, J M; Escudero, J M; Molina, R

    2014-03-01

    The variability of total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) results among commercial assays has been suggested to be decreased by calibration to World Health Organization (WHO) reference materials. To characterize the current situation, it is necessary to know its impact in the critical cutoffs used in clinical practice. In the present study, we tested 167 samples with tPSA concentrations of 0 to 20 μg/L using seven PSA and six fPSA commercial assays, including Access, ARCHITECT i2000, ADVIA Centaur XP, IMMULITE 2000, Elecsys, and Lumipulse G1200, in which we only measured tPSA. tPSA and fPSA were measured in Access using the Hybritech and WHO calibrators. Passing-Bablok analysis was performed for PSA, and percentage of fPSA with the Hybritech-calibrated access comparison assay. For tPSA, relative differences were more than 10 % at 0.2 μg/L for ARCHITECT i2000, and at a critical concentration of 3, 4, and 10 μg/L, the relative difference was exceeded by ADVIA Centaur XP and WHO-calibrated Access. For percent fPSA, at a critical concentration of 10 %, the 10 % relative difference limit was exceeded by IMMULITE 2000 assay. At a critical concentration of 20 and 25 %, ADVIA Centaur XP, ARCHITECT i2000, and IMMULITE 2000 assays exceeded the 10 % relative difference limit. We have shown significant discordances between assays included in this study despite advances in standardization conducted in the last years. Further harmonization efforts are required in order to obtain a complete clinical concordance.

  19. Select transition zone prostate cancers may be radiocurable despite markedly elevated prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Kaplan, Irving

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, three men with transition zone prostate cancers were described (Stamey et al., J. Urol. 149: 510-515, 1993) who despite high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels remained PSA failure-free at 22 months postoperatively. This report illustrates that prolonged PSA failure free survival may be achieved when external beam radiation therapy is used to treat similar patients

  20. Prostate-specific antigen patterns in US and European populations : Comparison of six diverse cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Tilling, Kate; Athene Lane, J.; Martin, Richard M.; Albertsen, Peter C.; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Ballentine Carter, H.; Bosch, J. L H Ruud; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Jeffrey Metter, E.; Neal, David E.; Parker, Christopher C.; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there are differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis or changes in PSA levels between US and European populations of men with and without prostate cancer (PCa). Subjects and Methods: We analysed repeated measures of PSA from six clinically and

  1. Development of kit for immunoradiometric assay of prostate specific antigen: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzaid, A.; Boudjemai, S.; Benhidour, A.; Saada, B.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results obtained in the development of immunoradiometric assay of Prostate specific Antigen. The paper describes the immobilisation of anti-PSA on polystyrene beads and tubers and 125 I labelling of anti-T-PSA and f-PSA monoclonal antibodies. The obtained results were encouraging and work is in progress. (author)

  2. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Taewan

    2015-01-01

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  3. A novel IgE antibody targeting the prostate-specific antigen as a potential prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Nicodemus, Christopher F; Penichet, Manuel L; Helguera, Gustavo; Leuchter, Richard K; Quintero, Rafaela; Kozman, Maggie; Rodríguez, José A; Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Schultes, Birgit C

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA), often found at high levels in the serum of PCa patients, has been used as a marker for PCa detection and as a target of immunotherapy. The murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody AR47.47, specific for human PSA, has been shown to enhance antigen presentation by human dendritic cells and induce both CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation when complexed with PSA. In this study, we explored the properties of a novel mouse/human chimeric anti-PSA IgE containing the variable regions of AR47.47 as a potential therapy for PCa. Our goal was to take advantage of the unique properties of IgE in order to trigger immune activation against PCa. Binding characteristics of the antibody were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro degranulation was determined by the release of β-hexosaminidase from effector cells. In vivo degranulation was monitored in human FcεRIα transgenic mice using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. These mice were also used for a vaccination study to determine the in vivo anti-cancer effects of this antibody. Significant differences in survival were determined using the Log Rank test. In vitro T-cell activation was studied using human dendritic cells and autologous T cells. The anti-PSA IgE, expressed in murine myeloma cells, is properly assembled and secreted, and binds the antigen and FcεRI. In addition, this antibody is capable of triggering effector cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo when artificially cross-linked, but not in the presence of the natural soluble antigen, suggesting that such an interaction will not trigger systemic anaphylaxis. Importantly, the anti-PSA IgE combined with PSA also triggers immune activation in vitro and in vivo and significantly prolongs the survival of human FcεRIα transgenic mice challenged with PSA-expressing tumors in a prophylactic vaccination setting. The anti-PSA IgE exhibits

  4. Consequences of an Early PSA Response to Enzalutamide Treatment for Japanese Patients with Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Haruo; Furuya, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Miyao, Takeshi; Syuto, Takahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that an early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to androgen receptor (AR)-targeting agents in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is associated with a better prognosis. We analyzed early PSA response to enzalutamide and oncological outcomes to study their prognostic significance in the Japanese population. Fifty-one patients with mCRPC (26 of pre-docetaxel and 25 of post-docetaxel status) were treated with enzalutamide. The PSA progression-free survival (PFS), radiographic PFS (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The association of rPFS and OS in patients with an early PSA response at 4 weeks after commencement of enzalutamide was studied. Early PSA responses were significantly associated with a longer rPFS (median of 47.9 vs. 20.1 weeks, pPSA response; median of 40.9 vs. 20.1 weeks, p=0.016, in patients exhibiting a 30% PSA response). OS was also significantly associated with an early PSA response (p=0.002 for patients exhibiting a 50% PSA response, p=0.003 for patients exhibiting a 30% PSA response). Multivariate analysis showed that the predictors of a 50% PSA response were an interval to mCRPC and a docetaxel treatment history, while the predictor of a 30% PSA response was a docetaxel treatment history. Furthermore, a 50% PSA response was independently prognostic of rPFS. An early PSA response to enzalutamide was significantly associated with a longer rPFS and OS. This information will aid in the management of patients treated with enzalutamide. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Application of a stool antigen test to evaluate the burden of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspepsia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpa Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP is causally associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. Determination of the prevalence of HP infection in dyspepsia patients′ in particular geographical area is imperative for the appropriate management of dyspepsia. HP antigen detection in stool is a noninvasive diagnostic test of HP infection. This prospective study was conducted to find out the prevalence of HP infection based on stool antigen testing in dyspeptic patients who had also undergone upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy. This study highlights the high prevalence of HP infection in dyspeptic Indian patients, particularly males, and emphasizes the growing importance of the bacterium causing infection among children. We also found HP stool antigen testing to be superior to upper GI endoscopy for detecting HP infection. Hence, we recommend initial testing for HP stool antigen in dyspeptic patients before initiating treatment and before carrying out any invasive procedure such as endoscopy.

  6. Comparative testing of six antigen-based malaria vaccine candidates directed toward merozoite-stage Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, David E; Cavanagh, David R; Remarque, Edmond J

    2008-01-01

    Immunogenicity testing of Plasmodium falciparum antigens being considered as malaria vaccine candidates was undertaken in rabbits. The antigens compared were recombinant baculovirus MSP-1(19) and five Pichia pastoris candidates, including two versions of MSP-1(19), AMA-1 (domains I and II), AMA-1......G concentrations. The two P. pastoris-produced MSP-1(19)-induced IgGs conferred the lowest growth inhibition. Comparative analysis of immunogenicity of vaccine antigens can be used to prioritize candidates before moving to expensive GMP production and clinical testing. The assays used have given discriminating...

  7. The effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-age volume score of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O. Üçer

    2017-04-27

    scorewascalculatedbymultiplyingtheageandprostatevolume and then dividing the total by the prebiopsy PSA level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-AV score of International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) ...

  8. [Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA in Japanese cases and comparison with other methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, M; Yamamoto, N; Shinoda, I; Kawada, Y; Akimoto, S; Shimazaki, J

    1995-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA which is the most frequently used prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay method in the world and a comparison with other methods were performed in Japanese cases in a cooperative research fashion. The minimum detectable level of the method was found to be 0.50 ng of PSA in one ml of serum and 1.9 ng/ml was regarded as the upper normal value in Japanese males. The distribution of serum PSA showed a significant difference between the benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) cases and patients with stage C or D prostate cancer. The sero-diagnosis prostate cancer at an early stage with the TANDEM PSA was difficult. The correlation to other methods of PSA detection was very high. Furthermore, the clinical use of the method in following-up the clinical course of prostate cancer patients was very useful. These findings suggested that the PSA detection using TANDEM PSA is applicable even in Japanese cases although the upper cut-off level is decreased.

  9. Usefulness of transrectal ultrasound in diagnosing prostate cancer: comparison with digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Bo Hyun; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Seung Hoon; Choi, Han Yong; Chai, Soo Eung; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Lee, Soon Jin; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Bo Kyung

    1998-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in diagnosing prostate cancer by comparing the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of TRUS with those of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) and digital rectal examination (DRE). Two hundred and ten consecutive patients underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA and/or abnormal findings on TRUS or DRE. The TRUS findings were analyzed and correlated with pathological diagnosis. PSAD was calculated by dividing the serum PSA level by the prostate volume calculated on TRUS. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of TRUS were compared with those of PSA, PSAD and DRE. Using ROC curve analysis, the combinations of these diagnostic methods were also evaluated for the determination of efficacy in diagnosing prostate cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of serum PSA (cut-off level, 4ng/ml), PSAD (cut-off level, 0.15ng/ml/cm 3 ), DRE, and TRUS were 96%/17%, 96%/37%, 72%/62%, and 89%/68%, respectively. On TRUS, the sensitivity and specificity of low echoic lesions and those of irregular outer margin were 89%/69%, and 60%/90%, respectively. TRUS was statistically more accurate than other diagnostic methods. Of the combinations of diagnostic methods, TRUS and PSAD were most accurate. TRUS demonstrated lower sensitivity but higher specificity than PSA or PSAD. Although it is an accurate modality for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, it cannot be used as a confirmative test due to its relatively low positive predictive value. A combination of diagnostic methods and random biopsy is needed in patients in whom prostate cancer is suspected.=20

  10. Comparison of five assays for antibody to varicella-zoster virus and the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen test.

    OpenAIRE

    Larussa, P; Steinberg, S; Waithe, E; Hanna, B; Holzman, R

    1987-01-01

    Three commercially available assays (the Varicelisa Test Kit [Whittaker M.A. Bioproducts, Walkersville, Md.], the VZV Indirect Fluorescent-Antibody Test [Electro-Nucleonics, Inc., Columbia, Md.], and the Litton VZV Bio-EnzaBead Screen Kit [Litton Bionetics, Inc., Charleston, S.C.]) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays used in our laboratory, one using a membrane-associated antigen and the other using a soluble antigen dotted on nitrocellulose paper, were compared with a varicella-zoster...

  11. Effect of ejaculation on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Tarhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose:To evaluate the effect of ejaculation on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA concentrations in patients with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS. Materials and Methods Our study includes 98 men (62 study and 36 control. After three days of sexual abstinence, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of baseline PSA levels. Then the patients were told to ejaculate. One, 5, 24 and 72 hours after ejaculation, serum total (tPSA, free (fPSA and complexed PSA (cPSA levels were measured. Serum PSA sampling was performed at the same intervals in the control group without ejaculation. Results The mean age in study and control groups patients were 59.03±0.99 years, 61.14±1.30 years, respectively. In the study group, changes in tPSA and fPSA levels after ejaculation were found statistically significant while changes in cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were not significant (p=0.016, p=0.0003, p=0.176, and p=0.173, respectively. Baseline values showed significant differences with 1st and 5th hours. No significant changes in tPSA, fPSA, cPSA levels and f/tPSA values were found in control group (p=0.223, p=0.224, p=0.444, and p=0.718, respectively. The changes in the number of patients exceeding the cutoff values after ejaculation were not statistically significant for tPSA, cPSA, and f/tPSA ratio. Conclusions In this study, ejaculation increased tPSA and fPSA concentrations but it didn’t have a significant effect on serum cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios. However, recent ejaculation may affect the biopsy indication at least near cut off PSA values. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of alterations in the concentration of PSA.

  12. Variation of Prostate-specific Antigen Value in Men and Risk of High-grade Prostate Cancer: Analysis of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniol, Mathieu; Autier, Philippe; Perrin, Paul; Boyle, Peter

    2015-05-01

    To investigate variations in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with an initial normal PSA level in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial study. Data were extracted from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial study data set on all men in the interventional arm, with 2 tests performed in a period of levels was 3.4% (interquartile range, -15% to +26%). The variation in PSA value was not associated with the delay between the first and the second test (P = .36), age (P = .16), body mass index (P = .41), and race (P = .12). A total of 2,781 prostate cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. Adjusting for age and initial PSA level, the risk of prostate cancer increased linearly with increasing PSA level at the second test, with an odds ratio of 1.079 (95% confidence interval, 1.058-1.101) for each percent increase in PSA level. However, the variation in PSA was not associated with a higher Gleason score (P = .95 for level variations in cancer of Gleason score level over time is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, this association is not related to more aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docters, E. H.; Smolko, E. E.; Suarez, C. E.

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All this grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA).

  14. Variants of a Leishmania surface antigen derived from a multigenic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P J; Spithill, T W

    1991-12-25

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) complex comprises a group of immunogenic surface antigens linked to the surface of the Leishmania major promastigote with glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. The L. major genome contains at least 14 PSA-2 genes on a 950-kilobase chromosome and comprising approximately 20% of the length of this chromosome. The sequence of three independent, but incomplete, PSA-2 cDNAs and one genomic fragment encoding a complete PSA-2 coding sequence were compared. PSA-2 genes encode polypeptides exhibiting 22-25aa tandem repeat elements, threonine-rich segments which vary between genes, a conserved COOH-terminal cysteine-rich region, and a conserved GPI anchor signal sequence. PSA-2 genes appear to be transcribed in a complex manner with multiple RNAs. The complex genomic organization of PSA-2 genes is present in other members of the genus suggesting that PSA-2 function is important for the biology of Leishmania.

  15. Efficacy of lower cut off value of serum prostate specific antigen in diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M M; Alam, A K M K; Habib, A K M K; Rahman, H; Hossain, A K M S; Salam, M A; Rahman, S

    2012-12-01

    Indications of prostate biopsy are high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) value and or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. Although serum PSA value of 4 ng/ml is the most commonly used threshold for recommending prostate biopsy, significant proportion of men harbor prostate cancer even when their serum PSA values are less than 4.0 ng/ml. Therefore present study was designed to determine the performance status of serum PSA in lower cut-off values. This hospital based prospective study was conducted in the Department of Urology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Comfort Nursing Home Pvt. Ltd, Dhaka from July 2009 to October 2010. Two hundred six male patients aged over 50 years having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and serum PSA more than 2.5 ng/ml were prepared for prostate biopsy. Trans rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy was done. The test statistics used to analyze the data were descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, ROC curve. For all analytical tests, the level of significance was set at 0.05 and p indication for prostate biopsy.

  16. Prostate-specific antigen, sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections in US men 40–59 years old, 2001–2004: a cross – sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platz Elizabeth A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are hypothesized to play a role in the development of prostate cancer, perhaps due to inflammation-induced oncogenesis. We assessed in a nationally representative population of middle-aged men whether sexual behavior indicators for an increased risk of genital infection were associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA concentration, a marker of prostatic disease and inflammation. Results The percentage of men between the ages of 40 and 59 with a PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/ml was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8% – 3.8%. The percentage of men between the ages of 40 and 59 self-reporting a past diagnosis of genital warts or genital herpes, or a recent diagnosis of gonorrhea or chlamydia is estimated to be 7.3% (95% CI, 6.2% – 8.6%. Men self-reporting that they had had sex without using a condom in the past month had a lower PSA concentration and higher %fPSA than those who did not. There were no associations between any of the other sexual activity or laboratory measures and PSA or %fPSA. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of middle-aged American men, we did not find consistent evidence for an association between sexual behavior or a history of STIs and PSA levels. Therefore, sexual factors are unlikely to lead to falsely elevated PSA tests in this population. We cannot rule out the role of these factors in causing false positive PSA tests in subgroups of the population that have a higher prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior, and more protracted or recent exposures to these agents.

  17. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose.The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test or may be used by the mite to modulate the host's protective response.An aqueous extract of S. scabiei was separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. A parallel immunoblot was probed with serum from patients with ordinary scabies to identify IgM and/or IgG-binding antigens. The genes coding for 23 selected proteins were cloned into E. coli and the expressed recombinant proteins were screened with serum from patients with confirmed ordinary scabies.We identified 50 different proteins produced by S. scabiei, 34 of which were not previously identified, and determined that 66% were recognized by patient IgM and/or IgG. Fourteen proteins were screened for use in a diagnostic test but none possessed enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful. Six of the 9 proteins selected for the possibility that they may be immunomodulatory were not recognized by antibodies in patient serum.Thirty-three proteins that bound IgM and/or IgG from the serum of patients with ordinary scabies were identified. None of the 14 tested were useful for inclusion in a diagnostic test. The identities of 16 proteins that are not recognized as antigens by infected patients were also determined. These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite's ability to modulate its host's innate and adaptive immune responses.

  18. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S; Rider, S Dean; Arlian, Larry G

    2017-06-01

    Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose. The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test or may be used by the mite to modulate the host's protective response. An aqueous extract of S. scabiei was separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. A parallel immunoblot was probed with serum from patients with ordinary scabies to identify IgM and/or IgG-binding antigens. The genes coding for 23 selected proteins were cloned into E. coli and the expressed recombinant proteins were screened with serum from patients with confirmed ordinary scabies. We identified 50 different proteins produced by S. scabiei, 34 of which were not previously identified, and determined that 66% were recognized by patient IgM and/or IgG. Fourteen proteins were screened for use in a diagnostic test but none possessed enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful. Six of the 9 proteins selected for the possibility that they may be immunomodulatory were not recognized by antibodies in patient serum. Thirty-three proteins that bound IgM and/or IgG from the serum of patients with ordinary scabies were identified. None of the 14 tested were useful for inclusion in a diagnostic test. The identities of 16 proteins that are not recognized as antigens by infected patients were also determined. These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite's ability to modulate its host's innate and adaptive immune responses.

  19. Are species-specifi antigen detection tests needed in the diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance in human stool samples of a rapid, qualitative, solid-phase immunochromatographic test (Alere® originally developed to detect Giardia duodenalis antigens in fecal samples of dogs. Methods: Samples from 54 patients with a previous diagnosis of giardiasis were tested by the microscopic examination to assess the performance of an immunochromatographic kit developed to detect Giardia duodenalis coproantigen in dog feces. Results: The agreement between the microscopic and the immunological methods was 83.3%. These findings are consistent with those of other studies using human specific kits. Conclusions: It is suggested that the same immunochromatographic test could be used for Giardia diagnosis in both species.

  20. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vukovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. Results PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7. Conclusions New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI, represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL.

  1. Effective Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a Two-Step Algorithm Including Tests for Antigen and Cytotoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Ticehurst, John R.; Aird, Deborah Z.; Dam, Lisa M.; Borek, Anita P.; Hargrove, John T.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were ≥99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by ≈75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in ≤3 days, we decided that this algorithm would be effective. Over 6 months...

  2. Evaluation of postradiotherapy PSA patterns and correlation with 10-year disease free survival outcomes for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Chan, Heather M.; Fearn, Paul A.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pattern profiles observed after external beam radiotherapy with and without short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ST-ADT) and to report the association of established posttreatment PSA patterns with long-term disease-free survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,665 patients were treated with conformal external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Of 570 patients who had the requisite >10 consecutive PSA measurements for statistical analysis, 194 patients received a median of 3 months of ADT before radiotherapy and 376 were treated with radiotherapy alone. The median follow up was 103 months. Results: In the group treated with ST-ADT, three distinct postradiotherapy PSA patterns were identified: a stable trend (44%), an increasing trend followed by stabilization of the PSA (25%), and an increasing trend (31%). Among the subgroup that demonstrated a rising and subsequent stabilizing patterns, PSA levels had gradually risen to a median value of 0.9 ng/mL after therapy, stabilized, and remained durably suppressed. The only identified trends among patients treated with external beam radiotherapy without ST-ADT were declining PSA levels followed by stable PSA trends or declining patterns followed by rising levels. Patients whose PSA levels stabilized after an initial rise or those with slowly rising PSA profiles had a lower incidence of distant metastasis compared to those with accelerated rises after therapy. Conclusions: For those treated with external beam radiotherapy in conjunction with ST-ADT, a significant percentage who develop a rising PSA after treatment are expected to manifest subsequent stabilization at plateaued levels of approximately 1.0 ng/mL, which can remain durably suppressed. The likelihood of distant metastasis in these patients is low despite the PSA stabilization at levels 1.0 ng/mL or higher and comparable to outcomes observed for those

  3. Serum PSA Evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical failures as prognosticators for treatment outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Tri; Dave, Giatri; Parker, Robert; Kagan, A. Robert

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have proved to be sensitive markers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition, PSA levels are useful for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer progression after radiotherapy. Serum PSA evaluations during radiotherapy, however, have not been well documented. In this study, we investigate the prognostic value of PSA evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for prostatectomy failures. Methods: Forty-one patients with biochemical failures after prostatectomy treated with salvage radiotherapy consented to have their serum PSA levels evaluated at 30 Gy and 45 Gy of irradiation. All 41 patients had negative metastatic workup and pathologically uninvolved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of referral for salvage radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered with 10-25 MV photons, with doses of 59.4-66.6 Gy. No patients received hormonal ablation therapy before irradiation. Results: The mean follow-up for all patients was 30.9 months. At last follow-up, 28/41 patients (68.3%) were free from biochemical failure, with 20 of 41 patients (48.8%) expressing undetectable PSA levels. Serum PSA evaluations at 30 Gy did not significantly predict for either biochemical (p=0.0917) or clinical (p=0.106) disease-free outcome. However, serum PSA evaluations at 45 Gy significantly predicted for both biochemical (p=0.0043) and clinical (p=0.0244) disease-free outcomes, with PSA elevations at 45 Gy significantly associated with poor outcomes. On univariate analysis of prognosticators for biochemical failures, the following were significant: an elevation in serum PSA levels at 45 Gy, detectable serum PSA immediately after prostatectomy, Gleason score 7-10, and serum PSA level >1 ng/ml before salvage radiotherapy. Conclusion: Evaluation of serum PSA level at 45 Gy of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapses after prostatectomy may serve as a significant prognosticator for both biochemical and clinical disease-free outcomes

  4. The accuracy of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test in diagnosing H-pylori in treated and untreated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NL; van Zwet, AA; Thijs, JC; de Jong, A; Pool, MO; Kleibeuker, JH

    Objective and design To evaluate the performance of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA test) in detecting H. pylori infection and monitoring the effect of treatment. This was done in two separate studies using either a biopsy or the C-13-urea breath test based 'gold standard' (in

  5. Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pereira Silva

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum IgG antibodies in Western blotting (WB using a Strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. In addition, the WB results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT results. Serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, and 40 healthy individuals. S. ratti was obtained from fecal culture of experimentally infected Rattus rattus. For IFAT, S. ratti larvae were used as antigen and S. ratti larval antigenic extracts were employed in WB and ELISA. Eleven S. ratti antigenic components were predominantly recognized by IgG antibodies in sera of patients with strongyloidiasis. There was a positive concordance for the three tests in 87.5% of the cases of strongyloidiasis. The negative concordance in the three tests was 94% and 97.5%, in patients with other intestinal parasitoses and healthy individuals, respectively. In cases of positive ELISA and negative IFAT results, diagnosis could be confirmed by WB. ELISA, IFAT, and WB using S. ratti antigens showed a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, WB using S. ratti larval extract was able to recognize 11 immunodominant antigenic components, showing to be a useful tool to define the diagnosis in cases of equivocal serology.

  6. The role of PSA in safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: defence in depth principle (the role of the barriers, how does PSA represents the barriers?); the safety management and nuclear power plants; the probabilistic and deterministic approaches; the PSA applications and safety management

  7. The future (r)evolution of preimplantation genetic diagnosis/human leukocyte antigen testing: ethical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wert, Guido; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2007-09-01

    There has been increasing support for combining preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for specific diseases with a test for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) because the generation of HLA-matched umbilical cord blood cells may save the life of a diseased sibling. To date, this procedure has taken place in the context of conceiving another child--PGD/HLA testing type 1. However, it may well become possible to perform PGD/HLA testing outside this context, that is, to select matched embryos from which embryonic stem cells could be derived and used in cell therapy--PGD/HLA testing type 2. A proactive ethical analysis is needed and is presented in this article. Although PGD/HLA testing type 1 can be morally justified, the risks, pitfalls, and practical limitations of this procedure make it necessary to develop alternative strategies. PGD/HLA testing type 2 may provide an alternative strategy. From an ethical point of view, the controversial issue is that this procedure creates embryos purely for instrumental use. However, given the dominant view that the preimplantation embryo has only limited moral value, this alternative may be as morally justified as PGD/HLA testing type 1.

  8. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Overview of IAEA activities on PSA applications and IAEA references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation describes the IAEA activities in the following areas: requirements and applications of living PSA, PSA applications and tools to improve NPP safety, use of PSA to optimize maintenance, use of PSA for regulatory decision making. 22 refs

  10. High-sensitivity detection of PSA by time-resolved fluorometry with Europium chelate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Kie B.; Jeong, Jin H.; Kim, Byoung C.; Kim, Jae H.; Kim, Young M.; Jeong, Dong S.; Oh, Sang W.; Choi, Eui Y.; Ko, Dong S.

    2006-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an androgen-dependent glycoprotein protease (M.W. 33 kDa) and a member of kallikrein super-family of serine protease, and has chymotrypsin-like enzymatic activity. It is synthesized by the prostate epithelial cells and found in the prostate gland and seminal plasma as a major protein. It is widely used as a clinical marker for diagnosis, screening, monitoring and prognosis of prostate cancer. In normal male adults, the concentration of PSA in the blood is below 4 ng/ml and this value increases in patients with the prostate cancer or the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) due to its leakage into the circulatory system. As such, systematic monitoring of the PSA level in the blood can provide critical information about the progress of the prostatic disease. We have fabricated a bread-board time resolved fluorescence system that could detect a concentration of Prostate Specific Antigen t-PSA) at clinically meaningful level in plasma as well as in whole blood sample. We chose Europium chelates as the fluorescence markers to attach to the PSA for its long decay lifetime and relative photostability. We have simplified the electronic circuits considerably by employing a MCS. With this setup, we have successfully proved that PSA concentration of 4pg/mL can be detected with acceptable reliability.

  11. Optimization of PSA screening policies: a comparison of the patient and societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Denton, Brian T; Balasubramanian, Hari; Shah, Nilay D; Inman, Brant A

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer from the patient and societal perspectives. A partially observable Markov decision process model was used to optimize PSA screening decisions. Age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates and the mortality rates from prostate cancer and competing causes were considered. The model trades off the potential benefit of early detection with the cost of screening and loss of patient quality of life due to screening and treatment. PSA testing and biopsy decisions are made based on the patient's probability of having prostate cancer. Probabilities are inferred based on the patient's complete PSA history using Bayesian updating. The results of all PSA tests and biopsies done in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1993 to 2005 (11,872 men and 50,589 PSA test results). Patients' perspective: to maximize expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); societal perspective: to maximize the expected monetary value based on societal willingness to pay for QALYs and the cost of PSA testing, prostate biopsies, and treatment. From the patient perspective, the optimal policy recommends stopping PSA testing and biopsy at age 76. From the societal perspective, the stopping age is 71. The expected incremental benefit of optimal screening over the traditional guideline of annual PSA screening with threshold 4.0 ng/mL for biopsy is estimated to be 0.165 QALYs per person from the patient perspective and 0.161 QALYs per person from the societal perspective. PSA screening based on traditional guidelines is found to be worse than no screening at all. PSA testing done with traditional guidelines underperforms and therefore underestimates the potential benefit of screening. Optimal screening guidelines differ significantly depending on the perspective of the decision maker.

  12. Development of a PSA information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang

    2007-01-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  13. Development of a PSA information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  14. PSA - a tool for the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, R.

    1992-01-01

    The PSA-model for BWR-type reactors of Finnish power company, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) was finished in year 1989. This basic PSA model included all safety systems, normal operating systems and auxiliary systems. Today TVO is working to enlarge the PSA to level 2 (environmental effects, for the fires, for the floodings and the outages). The TVO's experiences has been showed the PSA an useful tool for the developing the safety of BWR's (orig.)

  15. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  16. Does prostate-specific antigen density alter decision making on biopsy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleeming, R.; de Craen, A. J.; de Reijke, T. M.; van Andel, G.; Kurth, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) to predict prostate cancer in biopsy specimens is evaluated in patients with benign digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/ml. 144 referred patients with a benign DRE and PSA > 4.0 ng/ml

  17. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Frederik A; Pfister, David; Heidenreich, Axel; Vogg, Andreas; Drude, Natascha I; Vöö, Stefan; Mottaghy, Felix M; Behrendt, Florian F

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationship between the extent of disease determined by [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT and the important clinical measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and Gleason score. We retrospectively studied the first 155 patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) referred to our university hospital for [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 44%, 79% and 89% of patients with PSA levels of ≤1, 1-2 and ≥2 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with high PSA levels showed higher rates of local prostate tumours (p PSA and PSAdt were independent determinants of scan positivity and of extrapelvic lymph node metastases. PSAdt was the only independent marker of bone metastases (p = 0.001). Of 20 patients with a PSAdt PSA ≥2 ng/ml, 19 (95%) had a positive scan and 12 (60%) had M1a disease. Of 14 patients with PSA 6 months, only 5 (36%) had a positive scan and 1 (7%) had M1a disease. [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT will identify PCA lesions even in patients with very low PSA levels. Higher PSA levels and shorter PSAdt are independently associated with scan positivity and extrapelvic metastases, and can be used for patient selection for [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT.

  18. PSA bounce after {sup 125}I-brachytherapy for prostate cancer as a favorable prognosticator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeler, Daniel S.; Schwab, Christoph; Schmid, Hans-Peter [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Urology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Thoeni, Armin F. [Lindenhofspital Berne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berne (Switzerland); Hochreiter, Werner [Hirslanden Klinik Aarau, Department of Urology, Aarau (Switzerland); Prikler, Ladislav [Klinik Uroviva Buelach, Department of Urology, Buelach (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Zug, Department of Urology, Zug (Switzerland); Stucki, Patrick [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Department of Urology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Schiefer, Johann; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Putora, Paul Martin [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    Permanent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) with iodine 125 is an established curative treatment for localized prostate cancer. After treatment, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics may show a transient rise (PSA bounce). Our aim was to investigate the association of PSA bounce with biochemical control. Patients treated with BT in Switzerland were registered in a prospective database. Only patients with a follow-up of at least 2 years were included in our analysis. Clinical follow-up and PSA measurements were assessed after 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter. If PSA increased, additional follow-up visits were scheduled. Cases of PSA bounce were defined as a rise of at least 0.2 ng/ml above the initial PSA nadir with a subsequent decline to or below the initial nadir without treatment. Biochemical failure was defined as a rise to nadir + 2 ng/ml. Between March 2001 and November 2010, 713 patients with prostate cancer undergoing BT with at least 2 years of follow-up were registered. Median follow-up time was 41 months. Biochemical failure occurred in 28 patients (3.9 %). PSA bounce occurred in 173 (24.3 %) patients; only three (1.7 %) patients with PSA bounce developed biochemical failure, in contrast to 25 (4.6 %) patients without previous bounce (p < 0.05). The median time to bounce was 12 months, the median time to biochemical failure was 30 months. The median bounce increase was 0.78 ng/ml. Twenty-eight patients with bounce (16.5 %) had a transient PSA rise of + 2 ng/ml above the nadir. In most cases, an early increase in PSA after BT indicates PSA bounce and is associated with a lower risk of biochemical failure. (orig.) [German] Die permanente Low-dose-rate-Brachytherapie (BT) mit {sup 125}I ist ein etabliertes kuratives Verfahren bei lokalisiertem Prostatakarzinom. Posttherapeutisch koennen die PSA-Konzentrationen einen voruebergehenden Anstieg zeigen (Bounce-Phaenomen). Untersucht werden sollte ein moeglicher Zusammenhang mit der

  19. A comparative Study of Aptasensor Vs Immunosensor for Label-Free PSA Cancer Detection on GQDs-AuNRs Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Monika; Nirala, Narsingh R; Srivastava, S K; Prakash, Rajiv

    2018-01-31

    Label-free and sensitive detection of PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) is still a big challenge in the arena of prostate cancer diagnosis in males. We present a comparative study for label-free PSA aptasensor and PSA immunosensor for the PSA-specific monoclonal antibody, based on graphene quantum dots-gold nanorods (GQDs-AuNRs) modified screen-printed electrodes. GQDs-AuNRs composite has been synthesized and used as an electro-active material, which shows fast electron transfer and catalytic property. Aptamer or anti-PSA has immobilized onto the surface of modified screen printed electrodes. Three techniques are used simultaneously, viz. cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedence spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate the analytical performance of both PSA aptasensor and PSA immunosensor with its corresponding PSA antigen. Under optimum conditions, both sensors show comparable results with an almost same limit of detection (LOD) of 0.14 ng mL -1 . The results developed with aptasensor and anti-PSA is also checked through the detection of PSA in real samples with acceptable results. Our study suggests some advantages of aptasensor in terms of better stability, simplicity and cost effectiveness. Further our present work shows enormous potential of our developed sensors for real application using voltammetric and EIS techniques simultaneous to get reliable detection of the disease.

  20. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  1. Development and validation of an immunoperoxidase antigen detection test for improved diagnosis of rabies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadane, Ibnu; Certoma, Andrea F; Peck, Grantley R; Fitria, Yul; Payne, Jean; Colling, Axel; Shiell, Brian J; Beddome, Gary; Wilson, Susanne; Yu, Meng; Morrissy, Chris; Michalski, Wojtek P; Bingham, John; Gardner, Ian A; Allen, John D

    2017-11-01

    Rabies continues to pose a significant threat to human and animal health in regions of Indonesia. Indonesia has an extensive network of veterinary diagnostic laboratories and the 8 National laboratories are equipped to undertake diagnostic testing for rabies using the commercially-procured direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT), which is considered the reference (gold standard) test. However, many of the Indonesian Provincial diagnostic laboratories do not have a fluorescence microscope required to undertake the FAT. Instead, certain Provincial laboratories continue to screen samples using a chemical stain-based test (Seller's stain test, SST). This test has low diagnostic sensitivity, with negative SST-tested samples being forwarded to the nearest National laboratory resulting in significant delays for completion of testing and considerable additional costs. This study sought to develop a cost-effective and diagnostically-accurate immunoperoxidase antigen detection (RIAD) test for rabies that can be readily and quickly performed by the resource-constrained Provincial laboratories. This would reduce the burden on the National laboratories and allow more rapid diagnoses and implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis. The RIAD test was evaluated using brain smears fixed with acetone or formalin and its performance was validated by comparison with established rabies diagnostic tests used in Indonesia, including the SST and FAT. A proficiency testing panel was distributed between Provincial laboratories to assess the reproducibility of the test. The performance of the RIAD test was improved by using acetone fixation of brain smears rather than formalin fixation such that it was of equivalent accuracy to that of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-recommended FAT, with both tests returning median diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values of 0.989 and 0.993, respectively. The RIAD test and FAT had higher diagnostic sensitivity than the SST (median = 0

  2. Evolution of PSA activities in DAE, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is an analytic method for identifying, analysing and evaluating, risk and show evidence that the public health and safety is protected. The world wide use of PSA within operating and regulating organizations is increasing. A substantial amount of effort has been applied in many countries to use PSA in a beneficial manner. In DAE, India regulatory body, viz., Atomic Energy Regulatory Body is now insisting on PSA results for licensing and renewal of licence though not in formal manner. Nuclear Power Corporation is also convinced that the results of PSA study are useful for decision making regarding design evaluation, back fitting, and technical specification modification. This talk covers evaluation of PSA activity in DAE, India right from its inception to the present state of art, giving emphasis on problems faced, data collection and analysis, modelling of human errors, and common cause failures. The talk also includes evaluation of external event PSA, viz., fire PSA, seismic PSA, and application of PSA towards development of Risk Monitor, Risk informed in-service inspection. The talk also outlines the future course of action like Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis, inclusion of ageing effects in PSA, online implementation of Risk Monitor, Software Reliability evaluation, and Passive System reliability. The areas where efforts are needed for effective utilization of PSA are also highlighted. (author)

  3. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  4. The PSA: Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, M.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; Vazquez, J. L.; Arviset, C.; Osuna, P.; PSA development Team

    2012-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. Besides data from the GIOTTO spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations, the PSA contains data from the Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, SMART-1 and Huygens missions. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy interaction with the end-user to input and control the relevant search parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRCS and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, mostly located in Europe. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels

  5. Standardized assessment to enhance the diagnostic value of prostate volume; Part II: Correlation with prostate-specific antigen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Huynen, A. L.; Giesen, R. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    Standardized estimations of prostate volumes are used for interpretation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. In 243 patients with clinically benign diagnosis, automated and reference prostate volumes and transition zone volumes are correlated to PSA levels. Besides, growth curves of PSA level

  6. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  7. PRISM hepatitis B surface antigen detection of hepatits B virus minipool nucleic acid testing yield samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linauts, Sandy; Saldanha, John; Strong, D Michael

    2008-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) residual risk has been estimated at 1:63,000-1:205,000 and introduction of more sensitive serological tests and nucleic acid testing (NAT) would reduce that risk. Sensitivity of the recently licensed Abbott PRISM hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) CLIA and minipool (MP) HBV NAT has been described as comparable and thus the need for HBV NAT has not been compelling. In this study, eight samples identified as yield samples with MP HBV NAT were tested using the PRISM test. Seven samples were identified using the Roche COBAS AmpliScreen HBV test and one additional sample was obtained from the clinical trial for the Roche cobas TaqScreen MPX test. Each of these samples was reactive by MP HBV NAT and nonreactive for HBsAg using one of three licensed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. After licensure of the PRISM HBsAg, aliquots were tested with this assay, and DNA quantitation and genotyping were repeated where sample volume permitted. Three samples (2000, 2300, and 61,000 copies/mL) produced reactive results with PRISM. Four samples with viral loads less than 300 copies per mL produced nonreactive results. One sample, originally quantitated at 37,000 copies per mL (but 3850 copies/mL in repeat testing) was also nonreactive by PRISM. Genotyping of this sample indicated a type C genotype with no mutations. Adding serological sensitivity of PRISM CLIA reduced the NAT yield from the original 1: 385,555 to 1:610,488. However, MP HBV NAT still provides additional sensitivity over CLIA, even for a donation with a viral load of almost 4000 copies per mL.

  8. Diagnostic value of serum free PSA and the ratio of free to total PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Wu Jinchang; Gong Yiming; Li Huiping

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and F/T PSA ratio in differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer (PC), serum FPSA and TPSA levels were measured in 85 patients with PC, 97 BPH and 89 healthy volunteers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and the ratio of F/T PSA was calculated. The results showed that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were increased in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were significantly higher in healthy volunteers of 61-88 years old than that in 20-40 gear old (P 10.0 μg/L were 65.0%, 30.9% and 4.1%, respectively, while they were 5.9%, 20.0% and 74.1% in PC patients (P<0.01). When the TPSA value was between 4.0-10.0 μg/L and the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.10 and below, the probability of PC was larger(88.9%). But the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.25 and above, the probability of PC was smaller(6.20%). Serum FPSA and TPSA both increased with age in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were positively correlated with age. There were about 30.9% of BPH and 20.0% of PC patients with overlapping of TPSA level. Our conclusion is that the F/T PSA ratio can significantly enhance the specificity for PC diagnosis, especially when the TPSA is within the diagnostic gray zone. (authors)

  9. Using the magnitude of PSA bounce after MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy to distinguish recurrence, benign precipitating factors, and idiopathic bounce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Prajnan; Chen, M.-H.; Valentine, Kristin; Lopes, Lynn; Cormack, Robert A.; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Tempany, Clare M.; Kumar, Sanjaya; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To identify events that precipitated a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce and characterize the magnitude, duration, and time to PSA bounce after MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2001, 186 patients with low-risk prostate cancer underwent MRI-guided permanent 125 I source implantation, with or without external beam radiotherapy. A PSA bounce was defined as a ≥15% elevation in PSA compared with the most recent value, followed by a decline to a level at or less than the prebounce value. At the time of PSA measurement, data were prospectively collected on whether the patient had recent ejaculation, ongoing radiation proctitis, or recent instrumentation. Results: A total of 115 patients (61.8%) had a total of 156 PSA bounces. Of these, 36 patients had PSA bounces associated with ejaculation, proctitis, or instrumentation, and 79 experienced idiopathic PSA bounces (not associated with a precipitating event). The magnitude of the PSA bounce was significantly lower for the idiopathic PSA bounce (0.6 ng/mL) compared with that associated with ejaculation (p=0.003), proctitis (p<0.0001), or instrumentation (p=0.007). Patients with biopsy-proven local recurrence had a median PSA elevation of 1.2 ng/mL, significantly higher (p=0.006) than the magnitude of the idiopathic PSA bounce, but not significantly different from the magnitude of the PSA bounce due to ejaculation, proctitis, or instrumentation. Conclusion: In patients treated with MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy, recent ejaculation, instrumentation, or ongoing radiation proctitis can cause a transient increase in PSA, the magnitude of which is significantly higher than that for idiopathic PSA bounce, but is similar to that in patients with recurrent disease

  10. PSA applications. Good practices and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewailly, J.; Magne, L.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, it is shown what the condensed documentation of the main strategic choices and technical assumptions related to a PSA could contain: how to select the internal and external initiating events, how the detail the plant configuration and the general organization of the plant and operating staff, how to highlight the assumptions related to physical models, etc. The proposals in this documentation are based on the R and D D's experience with PSA (construction of PSA models, use of PSA models for operation or maintenance, PSA tools). This document also presents different types of rules or recommendations related to PSA modelling for various applications involved in nuclear power plant operating. Finally, the paper stresses the main difficulties encountered (appropriate use of uncertainties, communication of PSA results to non-specialist users) and it also outlines some prospects for the future. (author)

  11. PSA-alpha-2-macroglobulin complex is enzymatically active in the serum of patients with advanced prostate cancer and can degrade circulating peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Maya B; Brennen, William Nathaniel; Lopez, David; Anthony, Lizamma; Wang, Hao; Platz, Elizabeth; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2018-04-16

    Prostate cancer cells produce high levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the tumor microenvironment but is presumed to be enzymatically inactive in the blood due to complex formation with serum protease inhibitors α-1-antichymotrypsin and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M). PSA-A2M complexes cannot be measured by standard ELISA assays and are also rapidly cleared from the circulation. Thus the exact magnitude of PSA production by prostate cancer cells is not easily measured. The PSA complexed to A2M is unable to cleave proteins but maintains the ability to cleave small peptide substrates. Thus, in advanced prostate cancer, sufficient PSA-A2M may be in circulation to effect total A2M levels, levels of cytokines bound to A2M and hydrolyze small circulating peptide hormones. Total A2M levels in men with advanced prostate cancer and PSA levels above 1000 ng/mL were measured by ELISA and compared to controls. Additional ELISA assays were used to measure levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta which can bind to A2M. The ability of PSA-A2M complexes to hydrolyze protein and peptide substrates was analyzed ± PSA inhibitor. Enzymatic activity of PSA-A2M in serum of men with high PSA levels was also assayed. Serum A2M levels are inversely correlated with PSA levels in men with advanced prostate cancer. Il-6 Levels are significantly elevated in men with PSA >1000 ng/mL compared to controls with PSA PSA-A2M complex in serum of men with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL can hydrolyze small fluorescently labeled peptide substrates but not large proteins that are PSA substrates. PSA can hydrolyze small peptide hormones like PTHrP and osteocalcin. PSA complexed to A2M retains the ability to degrade PTHrP. In advanced prostate cancer with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL, sufficient PSA-A2M is present in circulation to produce enzymatic activity against circulating small peptide hormones. Sufficient PSA is produced in advanced prostate cancer to alter

  12. Impact of pathological tumor stage for salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate-specific antigen < 1.0 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umezawa Rei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate prognostic factors in salvage radiotherapy (RT for patients with pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA Methods Between January 2000 and December 2009, 102 patients underwent salvage RT for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP. Re-failure of PSA after salvage RT was defined as a serum PSA value of 0.2 ng/ml or more above the postradiotherapy nadir followed by another higher value, a continued rise in serum PSA despite salvage RT, or initiation of systemic therapy after completion of salvage RT. Biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results The median follow-up period was 44 months (range, 11-103 months. Forty-three patients experienced PSA re-failure after salvage RT. The 4-year bRFS was 50.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 39.4-62.5%. In the log-rank test, pT3-4 (p Conclusions In patients who have received salvage RT after RP with PSA

  13. Infographic: Benefits and Harms of PSA Screening for Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more has been learned about the benefits and harms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, organizations have begun to recommend against routine screening. Screening is a personal decision that, according to most experts, a man should make in consultation with his doctor, after he has been informed in detail about the potential benefits and harms. |

  14. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. |

  15. Time from first detectable PSA following radical prostatectomy to biochemical recurrence: A competing risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. De Boo (Leonora); M. Pintilie (Melania); P. Yip (Paul); J. Baniel (Jack); N.E. Fleshner (Neil); D. Margel (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In this study, we estimated the time from first detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following radical prostatectomy (RP) to commonly used definitions of biochemical recurrence (BCR). We also identified the predictors of time to BCR. Methods: We identified subjects

  16. Association between use of rapid antigen detection tests and adherence to antibiotics in suspected streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Hernández, Silvia; Sierra, Nuria; Moragas, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Bayona, Carolina

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have analysed adherence to antibiotic treatment in pharyngitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) and treatment adherence among patients 18 years of age or over with pharyngitis treated with different antibiotic regimens. Prospective study from 2003 to 2008. Office-based physician practices. Intervention. The adherence of patients prior to the use of RADTs - no test was available until mid-2006 - was compared with the adherence associated with the use of RADTs. Patients with suspected streptococcal pharyngitis. Patient adherence was assessed by electronic monitoring. The adherence outcomes considered were antibiotic-taking adherence, correct dosing, and good timing adherence during at least 80% of the antibiotic course. A total of 196 patients were recruited. The percentage of container openings was 77.9%+/-17.7%, being significantly higher for patients in whom the RADTs were performed compared with those in whom this test was not undertaken (80.1% vs. 70.8% for thrice-daily antibiotic regimens and 88.1% vs. 76.5% for twice-daily regimens; p pills (71.3% vs. 42.2%; p dosing was always greater when the patient had undergone an RADT. Adherence to antibiotic treatment is higher when an RADT is carried out at the consultation prior to administration of antibiotic treatment.

  17. Predictors of positive or negative legionella urinary antigen test in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Torsten; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Legionella pneumonia remains a diagnostic challenge. The legionella urinary antigen test (LUT) primarily detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, accounting for 64% of Danish cases, and is often the only legionella test performed. We aimed to identify variables predictive of a positive or negative test result and to explore how the LUT was used in clinical practice. The study was an audit-based cohort study. LUT-positive patients were compared with three randomly selected age- and gender-matched LUT-negative referent patients admitted at a Danish university hospital during 2003-2013. Data were extracted from charts and databases. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) were calculated. For CURB-65 and sepsis, sensitivity analyses were made due to incomplete data. In all, 25 cases were compared with 75 referents. Factors associated with LUT positivity included recent travel outside Scandinavia (LR + 5.3), Na(+) 200 mg/L (LR + 3.5), temperature > 39 °C (LR + 3.5), and CURB-65 score ≥ 3 (LR + 3.0-15.0, depending on the model). Decreasing the likelihood of LUT positivity were CRP LUT. The LUT is often used inappropriately and should be accompanied by PCR analysis.

  18. Prostate-specific antigen levels in men aged 70 years and over: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Melisa J; Cumming, Robert G; Smith, David P; Naganathan, Vasi; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J

    2012-04-02

    To describe values of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in older men without diagnosed prostate cancer, categorised by age and country of birth, and to describe self-reported prostate cancer screening. A cohort study (the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project) involving a representative sample of 1434 eligible community-dwelling men with no diagnosis of prostate cancer who were aged 70 years and over and living in a defined geographic area in Sydney, with baseline data collected between 28 January 2005 and 4 June 2007. Serum PSA levels and self-reported prostate cancer screening. 11% of men (155) had a PSA level of ≥6.5 ng/mL, increasing from 7.5% of men aged 70-74 years to 31.4% of men aged≥90 years. PSA levels varied with ethnicity, with Australian-born men (695) having the highest levels (median, 2.3 ng/mL; 5th-95th percentile, 0.4-10.1 ng/mL), followed by men born in China (n=42; 2.1 ng/mL; 0.4-12.4 ng/mL), United Kingdom and Ireland (n=70; 1.9 ng/mL; 0.3-8.9 ng/mL), Greece (n=59; 1.5 ng/mL; 0.2-6.1 ng/mL), and Italy (n=293; 1.4 ng/mL; 0.3-7.2 ng/mL). A PSA test in the previous 2 years was reported by 48% of participants, and a digital rectal examination (DRE) in the previous 2 years by 37%. A significant number of men aged over 70 years reported recent prostate cancer tests. The PSA level ranges reported in this cohort will help with interpreting serum PSA level findings in men aged over 70 years.

  19. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens. In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  20. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......RH agonists to evaluate the effect of normal and precocious puberty on PSA levels and to study the correlation between testosterone and PSA in boys....