WorldWideScience

Sample records for antifungal compound produced

  1. Production and characterization of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiKuan Wang

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 was isolated from koumiss that produces a broad spectrum of antifungal compounds, all of which were active against plant pathogenic fungi in an agar plate assay. Two major antifungal compounds were extracted from the cell-free supernatant broth of L. plantarum IMAU10014. 3-phenyllactic acid and Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester were carried out by HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR analysis. It is the first report that lactic acid bacteria produce antifungal Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester. Of these, the antifungal products also have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, namely against Botrytis cinerea, Glomerella cingulate, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium oxysporum, which was identified by the overlay and well-diffusion assay. F. oxysporum, P. citrinum and P. drechsleri Tucker were the most sensitive among molds.

  2. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  3. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  4. Identification and quantification of antifungal compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, Céline; Coton, Emmanuel; Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; Choiset, Yvan; Van Long, Nicolas Nguyen; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2016-12-19

    Fungal growth in bakery products represents the most frequent cause of spoilage and leads to economic losses for industrials and consumers. Bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria, are commonly known to play an active role in preservation of fermented food, producing a large range of antifungal metabolites. In a previous study (Le Lay et al., 2016), an extensive screening performed both in vitro and in situ allowed for the selection of bacteria exhibiting an antifungal activity. In the present study, active supernatants against Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed to identify and quantify the antifungal compounds associated with the observed activity. Supernatant treatments (pH neutralization, heating and addition of proteinase K) suggested that organic acids played the most important role in the antifungal activity of each tested supernatant. Different methods (HPLC, mass spectrometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays) were then applied to analyze the supernatants and it was shown that the main antifungal compounds corresponded to lactic, acetic and propionic acids, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide, as well as other compounds present at low levels such as phenyllactic, hydroxyphenyllactic, azelaic and caproic acids. Based on these results, various combinations of the identified compounds were used to evaluate their effect on conidial germination and fungal growth of P. corylophilum and Eurotium repens. Some combinations presented the same activity than the bacterial culture supernatant thus confirming the involvement of the identified molecules in the antifungal activity. The obtained results suggested that acetic acid was mainly responsible for the antifungal activity against P. corylophilum and played an important role in E. repens inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 inhibits germination of Penicillium roqueforti conidiospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.; Breeuwer, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Aelst, van A.C.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To identify and characterize an antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 which prevents spore germination of Penicillium roqueforti . Methods and Results: The antifungal compound was isolated by acid precipitation with HCl. This compound inhibited fungal germination and

  6. Candidacidal Action of CF66I, an Antifungal Compound Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    terms of efficacy and/or safety is needed. During the search for .... and the formation of interconnected cells. Cell surfaces were wrinkled, and ... roughening and disruption (Fig 3b, 3c and. 3d). In addition, this compound caused the clusters of ...

  7. Diffusible and Volatile Antifungal Compounds Produced by an Antagonistic Bacillus velezensis G341 against Various Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Mi Lim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify volatile and agar-diffusible antifungal metabolites produced by Bacillus sp. G341 with strong antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi. Strain G341 isolated from four-year-old roots of Korean ginseng with rot symptoms was identified as Bacillus velezensis based on 16S rDNA and gyrA sequences. Strain G341 inhibited mycelial growth of all phytopathogenic fungi tested. In vivo experiment results revealed that n-butanol extract of fermentation broth effectively controlled the development of rice sheath blight, tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew, and red pepper anthracnose. Two antifungal compounds were isolated from strain G341 and identified as bacillomycin L and fengycin A by MS/MS analysis. Moreover, volatile compounds emitted from strain G341 were found to be able to inhibit mycelial growth of various phytopathogenic fungi. Based on volatile compound profiles of strain G341 obtained through headspace collection and analysis on GC-MS, dimethylsulfoxide, 1-butanol, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin were identified. Taken together, these results suggest that B. valezensis G341 can be used as a biocontrol agent for various plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi.

  8. Diffusible and Volatile Antifungal Compounds Produced by an Antagonistic Bacillus velezensis G341 against Various Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong Mi; Yoon, Mi-Young; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Shin, Teak Soo; Park, Hae Woong; Yu, Nan Hee; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify volatile and agar-diffusible antifungal metabolites produced by Bacillus sp. G341 with strong antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi. Strain G341 isolated from four-year-old roots of Korean ginseng with rot symptoms was identified as Bacillus velezensis based on 16S rDNA and gyrA sequences. Strain G341 inhibited mycelial growth of all phytopathogenic fungi tested. In vivo experiment results revealed that n -butanol extract of fermentation broth effectively controlled the development of rice sheath blight, tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew, and red pepper anthracnose. Two antifungal compounds were isolated from strain G341 and identified as bacillomycin L and fengycin A by MS/MS analysis. Moreover, volatile compounds emitted from strain G341 were found to be able to inhibit mycelial growth of various phytopathogenic fungi. Based on volatile compound profiles of strain G341 obtained through headspace collection and analysis on GC-MS, dimethylsulfoxide, 1-butanol, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) were identified. Taken together, these results suggest that B. valezensis G341 can be used as a biocontrol agent for various plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi.

  9. Thermo-stability, dose effects and shelf-life of antifungal compounds produced by the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus szentirmaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenorhabdus spp bacteria are associated with Steinernematid nematodes and produce antifungal metabolites that protect nematode-infected cadavers from fungal colonization. Previous work demonstrated concentrated or cell-free metabolites of X. szentirmaii were toxic to fungal phytopathogens. We prepar...

  10. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte

  11. Diversity of Antifungal Compounds-Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant Based on ARDRA and 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIS TRI WAHYUDI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR play an important role in improvement of seed germination, root development, and water utilization by plants. These rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth directly by producing growth hormones or indirectly by producing antifungal compounds/antibiotics to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. The objective of this research was to analyze the diversity of 22 antifungal-producing rhizobacteria of Bacillus sp. isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant based on Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA and 16S rRNA Sequence. Restriction enzymes in ARDRA analysis, HinfI, HaeIII, and RsaI were used to digest 22 16S rDNA amplified from Bacillus sp. genomes. Based on this analysis, genetic diversity of 22 Bacillus sp. producing antifungal compounds were classified into eight different groups. Moreover, six selected isolates randomly from each ARDRA group that have strong activity to suppress fungal growth were analyzed for their 16S rDNA sequences compared with reference strains. The distributions of these isolates were genetically diverse on several species of Bacillus sp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus, and B. fusiformis. ARDRA is a reliable technique to analyze genetic diversity of Bacillus sp. community in the rhizosphere.

  12. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  13. Functionalised isocoumarins as antifungal compounds: Synthesis and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Paunovic, Nikola; Boric, Ivan; Randjelovic, Jelena; Vojnovic, Sandra; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Pekmezovic, Marina; Savic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted isocoumarins was prepared via Pd-catalysed coupling processes and screened in vitro for antifungal activity against Candida species. The study revealed antifungal potential of isocoumarins possessing the azole substituents, which, in some cases, showed biological properties equal to those of clinically used voriconazole. Selected compounds were also screened against voriconazole resistant Candida krusei 6258 and a clinical isolate Candida parapsilosis CA-27. Although the activity against these targets needs to be improved further, the results emphasise additional potential of this new class of antifungal compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifungal chemical compounds identified using a C. elegans pathogenicity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Breger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal agents. A facile in vivo model that evaluates libraries of chemical compounds could solve some of the main obstacles in current antifungal discovery. We show that Candida albicans, as well as other Candida species, are ingested by Caenorhabditis elegans and establish a persistent lethal infection in the C. elegans intestinal track. Importantly, key components of Candida pathogenesis in mammals, such as filament formation, are also involved in nematode killing. We devised a Candida-mediated C. elegans assay that allows high-throughput in vivo screening of chemical libraries for antifungal activities, while synchronously screening against toxic compounds. The assay is performed in liquid media using standard 96-well plate technology and allows the study of C. albicans in non-planktonic form. A screen of 1,266 compounds with known pharmaceutical activities identified 15 (approximately 1.2% that prolonged survival of C. albicans-infected nematodes and inhibited in vivo filamentation of C. albicans. Two compounds identified in the screen, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a major active component of honeybee propolis, and the fluoroquinolone agent enoxacin exhibited antifungal activity in a murine model of candidiasis. The whole-animal C. elegans assay may help to study the molecular basis of C. albicans pathogenesis and identify antifungal compounds that most likely would not be identified by in vitro screens that target fungal growth. Compounds identified in the screen that affect the virulence of Candida in vivo can potentially be used as "probe compounds" and may have antifungal activity against other fungi.

  16. Avocado roots treated with salicylic acid produce phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl), a compound with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Sánchez, Gerardo; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrated the ability of salicylic acid (SA) to induce a compound in avocado roots that strengthens their defense against Phytophthora cinnamomi. The SA content of avocado roots, before and after the application of exogenous SA, was determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After 4h of SA feeding, the endogenous level in the roots increased to 223 μg g(-1) FW, which was 15 times the amount found in control roots. The methanolic extract obtained from SA-treated avocado roots inhibited the radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A thin layer chromatographic bioassay with the methanolic extract and spores of Aspergillus showed a distinct inhibition zone. The compound responsible for the inhibition was identified as phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the substance reduced germinative tube length in Aspergillus and radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A commercial preparation of phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) caused the same effects on mycelium morphology and radial growth as our isolate, confirming the presence of this compound in the root extracts. This is the first report of the induction of this compound in plants by SA, and the results suggest that it plays an important role in the defense response of avocado. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... 199 active compounds, followed by methanol (189) and hexane (73). This difference is apparently not related to the sectional division of the species (Carr, 1988). Comparison of eluent systems. Lastly we determined which TLC solvent system separa- ted the highest number of active compounds (Table 27).

  18. Antifungal compound produced by the cassava endophyte Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a Composto antifúngico produzido pelo endófito de mandioca Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Mandolesi Pereira de Melo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new organisms and new secondary metabolites, a study was conducted to evaluate the diversity of endophytic bacteria from ethnovarieties of cassava cultivated by Brazilian Amazon Indian tribes and also to study the secondary metabolites produced by a Bacillus pumilus strain. Sixty seven cassava endophytic bacteria were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and FAME analysis. The bacterial profile revealed that 25% of all endophytic isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The isolate B. pumilus MAIIIM4a showed a strong inhibitory activity against the fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatum and Sclerotium rolfsii. Secondary metabolites of this strain were extracted using hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected to bioautography and LC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of pumilacidin, an antifungal compound produced by B. pumilus MAIIIM4a. The bacterial endophytic localization was confirmed by cassava cell tissue examination using scanning electron microscopy.Na busca de novos organismos e novos metabólitos secundários, um estudo foi conduzido visando avaliar a diversidade de bactérias endofíticas de etnovariedades de mandioca cultivadas por tribos indígenas da Amazônia brasileira e também para estudar metabólitos secundários produzidos por Bacillus pumilus. Sessenta e sete bactérias endofíticas de mandioca foram identificadas através do seqüenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e por meio da análise de ácidos graxos (FAME. Essas análises revelaram que 25% de todos os endofíticos pertenciam ao gênero Bacillus. O isolado Bacillus pumilus MAIIIM4a apresentou forte ação inibitória contra os fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatum e Sclerotium rolfsii. Os metabólitos secundários deste isolado foram extraídos do sobrenadante usando-se hexano, diclorometano e acetato de etila. Esses extratos foram utilizados nas análises de bioautografia e LC-MS, as quais

  19. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  20. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) produces anti-fungal natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Schwan, Adrian; Davidson, Jeffrey; Strange, Philip; Liu, Huaizhi; Zhou, Ting; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes) that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s) from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp.) was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  1. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, B V; Poornachandra Rao, K; Chennapa, G; Naik, M K; Chandrashekara, K T; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production.

  2. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, B. V.; Poornachandra Rao, K.; Chennapa, G.; Naik, M. K.; Chandrashekara, K. T.; Sreenivasa, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production. PMID:27285317

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... Among them, phenolic acids and flavonoids have been the object of .... on the previous method as described by Crozier et al. ... Quantification.

  4. Screening of pharmacologically active small molecule compounds identifies antifungal agents against Candida biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao eWatamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida species have emerged as important and common opportunistic human pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently effect. The aim of this study is develop new small-molecule antifungal compounds by library screening methods using C. albicans, and to evaluate their antifungal effects on Candida biofilms and cytotoxic effects on human cells. Wild-type C. albicans strain SC5314 was used in library screening. To identify antifungal compounds, we screened a small-molecule library of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280TM using an antifungal susceptibility test (AST. To investigate the antifungal effects of the hit compounds, ASTs were conducted using Candida strains in various growth modes, including biofilms. We tested the cytotoxicity of the hit compounds using human gingival fibroblast (hGF cells to evaluate their clinical safety. Only 35 compounds were identified by screening, which inhibited the metabolic activity of C. albicans by >50%. Of these, 26 compounds had fungistatic effects and 9 compounds had fungicidal effects on C. albicans. Five compounds, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate, ellipticine and CV-3988, had strong fungicidal effects and could inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida biofilms. However, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine were cytotoxic to hGF cells at low concentrations. CV-3988 showed no cytotoxicity at a fungicidal concentration.Four of the compounds identified, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine, had toxic effects on Candida strains and hGF cells. In contrast, CV-3988 had fungicidal effects on Candida strains, but low cytotoxic effects on hGF cells. Therefore, this screening reveals agent, CV-3988 that was previously unknown to be antifungal agent, which could be a novel therapies for superficial mucosal

  5. Use of response surface methodology to evaluate the effect of metal ions (Ca2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Cu2+) on production of antifungal compounds by Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Hongsheng, Wu; Qirong, Shen

    2010-03-01

    The effects of four metal ions (Ca(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Cu(2+)) were evaluated on growth and production of antifungal compounds by Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 and a quadratic predictive model was developed using response surface methodology (RSM). The results revealed, Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) showed most positive synergistic interactive affect on production of antifungal compounds followed by the positive interactive synergistic affect of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and then Mn(2+) and Cu(2+). While the interactive effect of Ca(2+) with all other three metals inhibited the production of antifungal compounds. The Mn(2+) (P=0.0384), Ni(2+) (P=0.0004) and Cu(2+) (P=0.0117) significantly affected the production of antifungal compounds while the effect of Ca(2+) (P=0.1851) was less significant. The maximum growth (OD(600)=1.55) was obtained at 500 (0), 125 (0), 100 (-2) and 37.5 (0) microM levels and the maximum size of inhibition zone (31 mm) was measured at 400 (-1), 150 (1), 400 (1) and 25 microM (-1) levels of Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The RSM model provided an easy and effective way to determine the interactive effect of metal ions on production of antifungal compounds by P. polymyxa SQR-21 so that optimum media recipes can be developed to produce maximum amounts of antifungal compounds under laboratory and commercial fermentation conditions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification and characterization of antifungal compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 isolated from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Yang, Eun Ju; Woo, Eun Rhan; Chang, Hae Choon

    2014-08-01

    Strain HD1 with antifungal activity was isolated from kimchi and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Antifungal compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 was stronger against filamentous fungi than yeast. Antifungal compounds were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and recycling preparative-HPLC. Structures of the antifungal compounds were elucidated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were identified as 5-oxododecanoic acid (MW 214), 3-hydroxy decanoic acid (MW 188), and 3-hydroxy-5-dodecenoic acid (MW 214). To investigate the potential application of these antifungal compounds for reduction of fungal spoilage in foods, Korean draft rice wine was used as a food model. White film-forming yeasts were observed in control draft rice wine after 11 days of incubation. However, film-forming yeasts were not observed in draft rice wine treated with SPE-prepared culture supernatant of Lb. plantarum HD1 (equivalent to 2.5% addition of culture supernatant) until 27 days of incubation. The addition of antifungal compounds to Korean draft rice wine extended shelf-life up to 27 days at 10 °C without any sterilization process. Therefore, the antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 may lead to the development of powerful biopreservative systems capable of preventing food- and feed-borne fungal spoilage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simple Method of Preparation and Characterization of New Antifungal Active Biginelli Type Heterocyclic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, A. Senthilkumara; Joseph, J.; Raman, N.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, efficient and cost effective method is described for the synthesis of Biginelli type heterocyclic compounds of dihydropyrimidinones analogous. They were prepared from a reaction mixture consisting of substituted benzaldehydes, thiourea and ethylacetoacetate using ammonium dihydrogenphosphate as catalyst. The procedure for the preparation of the compounds is environmentally benign and safe which is advantageous in terms of experimentation, catalyst reusability, yields of the products, shorter reaction times and preclusion of toxic solvents. The four new synthesised compounds were tested for their antifungal activity. They have good antifungal activity comparing to the standard (Fluconazole). PMID:23997611

  8. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R; Pushpangadan, P; Smitt, U W

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-......, antimalarial, and antifungal activity in vitro....

  9. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC 50 values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 μM), C. krusei (34 μM) and C. tropicalis (17 μM). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokwon; Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

    2006-03-08

    A total of 18 organosulfur compounds originating from Petiveria alliacea L. roots have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. These represent compounds occurring in fresh homogenates as well as those present in various macerates, extracts and other preparations made from Petiveria alliacea. Of the compounds assayed, the thiosulfinates, trisulfides and benzylsulfinic acid were observed to be the most active, with the benzyl-containing thiosulfinates exhibiting the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The effect of plant sample preparation conditions on the antimicrobial activity of the extract is discussed.

  11. Study of the Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of Neolignans 8.O.4´ and Structurally Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matyus

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we report the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of a neolignan 8.O.4´series. The most active antifungal compounds show a significant cytotoxic effect which might be related.

  12. Identification and characterization of antifungal compounds using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae reporter bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Tebbets

    Full Text Available New antifungal drugs are urgently needed due to the currently limited selection, the emergence of drug resistance, and the toxicity of several commonly used drugs. To identify drug leads, we screened small molecules using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae reporter bioassay in which S. cerevisiae heterologously expresses Hik1, a group III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK from Magnaporthe grisea. Group III HHKs are integral in fungal cell physiology, and highly conserved throughout this kingdom; they are absent in mammals, making them an attractive drug target. Our screen identified compounds 13 and 33, which showed robust activity against numerous fungal genera including Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp. and molds such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae. Drug-resistant Candida albicans from patients were also highly susceptible to compounds 13 and 33. While the compounds do not act directly on HHKs, microarray analysis showed that compound 13 induced transcripts associated with oxidative stress, and compound 33, transcripts linked with heavy metal stress. Both compounds were highly active against C. albicans biofilm, in vitro and in vivo, and exerted synergy with fluconazole, which was inactive alone. Thus, we identified potent, broad-spectrum antifungal drug leads from a small molecule screen using a high-throughput, S. cerevisiae reporter bioassay.

  13. Antifungal activity of rimocidin and a new rimocidin derivative BU16 produced by Streptomyces mauvecolor BU16 and their effects on pepper anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B J; Kim, J D; Han, J W; Kim, B S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore antifungal metabolites targeting fungal cell envelope and to evaluate the control efficacy against anthracnose development in pepper plants. A natural product library comprising 3000 microbial culture extracts was screened via an adenylate kinase (AK)-based cell lysis assay to detect antifungal metabolites targeting the cell envelope of plant-pathogenic fungi. The culture extract of Streptomyces mauvecolor strain BU16 displayed potent AK-releasing activity. Rimocidin and a new rimocidin derivative, BU16, were identified from the extract as active constituents. BU16 is a tetraene macrolide containing a six-membered hemiketal ring with an ethyl group side chain instead of the propyl group in rimocidin. Rimocidin and BU16 showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various plant-pathogenic fungi and demonstrated potent control efficacy against anthracnose development in pepper plants. Antifungal metabolites produced by S. mauvecolor strain BU16 were identified to be rimocidin and BU16. The compounds displayed potent control efficacy against pepper anthracnose. Rimocidin and BU16 would be active ingredients of disease control agents disrupting cell envelope of plant-pathogenic fungi. The structure and antifungal activity of rimocidin derivative BU16 is first described in this study. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Thailandins A and B, New Polyene Macrolactone Compounds Isolated from Actinokineospora bangkokensis Strain 44EHW(T), Possessing Antifungal Activity against Anthracnose Fungi and Pathogenic Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Greule, Anja; Bechthold, Andreas; Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Paululat, Thomas; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-06-29

    Two new polyene macrolactone antibiotics, thailandins A, 1, and B, 2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of rhizosphere soil-associated Actinokineospora bangkokensis strain 44EHW(T). The new compounds from this strain were purified using semipreparative HPLC and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration while following an antifungal activity guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques including UV, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. These compounds demonstrated broad spectrum antifungal activity against fungi causing anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides DoA d0762, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes DoA c1060, and Colletotrichum capsici DoA c1511) as well as pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans MT 2013/1, Candida parasilopsis DKMU 434, and Cryptococcus neoformans MT 2013/2) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 16 and 32 μg/mL. This is the first report of polyene antibiotics produced by Actinokineospora species as bioactive compounds against anthracnose fungi and pathogenic yeast strains.

  15. A novel antibacterial and antifungal phenolic compound from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subban, Kamalraj; Subramani, Ramesh; Johnpaul, Muthumary

    2013-01-01

    A novel phenolic compound, 4-(2,4,7-trioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-3-yl) phenol (1), was isolated from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, an endophytic fungus associated with Mangifera indica Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (UV, IR, ¹H-, ¹³C- and 2D-NMR, as well as HRESI-MS). Compound (1) shows potent antibacterial and antifungal activity against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The transmission electron microscope study for the mode of inhibition of compound (1) on bacterial pathogens revealed the destruction of bacterial cells by cytoplasm agglutination with the formation of pores in cell wall membranes.

  16. Antifungal Compound Isolated from Catharanthus roseus L. (Pink for Biological Control of Root Rot Rubber Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zahari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rigidoporus microporus, Ganoderma philippii, and Phellinus noxius are root rot rubber diseases and these fungi should be kept under control with environmentally safe compounds from the plant sources. Thus, an antifungal compound isolated from Catharanthus roseus was screened for its effectiveness in controlling the growth of these fungi. The antifungal compound isolated from C. roseus extract was determined through thin layer chromatography (TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. Each C. roseus of the DCM extracts was marked as CRD1, CRD2, CRD3, CRD4, CRD5, CRD6, and CRD7, respectively. TLC results showed that all of the C. roseus extracts peaked with red colour at Rf = 0.61 at 366 nm wavelength, except for CRD7. The CRD4 extract was found to be the most effective against R. microporus and G. philippii with inhibition zones of 3.5 and 1.9 mm, respectively, compared to that of other extracts. These extracts, however, were not effective against P. noxius. The CRD4 extract contained ursolic acid that was detected by NMR analysis and the compound could be developed as a biocontrol agent for controlling R. microporus and G. philippii. Moreover, little or no research has been done to study the effectiveness of C. roseus in controlling these fungi.

  17. Selection of antifungal protein-producing molds from dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Raquel; Rodríguez-Martín, Andrea; Martín, Alberto; Núñez, Félix; Asensio, Miguel A

    2009-09-30

    To control unwanted molds in dry-cured meats it is necessary to allow the fungal development essential for the desired characteristics of the final product. Molds producing antifungal proteins could be useful to prevent hazards due to the growth of mycotoxigenic molds. The objective has been to select Penicillium spp. that produce antifungal proteins against toxigenic molds. To obtain strains adapted to these products, molds were isolated from dry-cured ham. A first screening with 281 isolates by the radial inhibition assay revealed that 166 were active against some of the toxigenic P. echinulatum, P. commune, and Aspergillusniger used as reference molds. The activity of different extracts from cultured medium was evaluated by a microspectroscopic assay. Molds producing active chloroform extracts were eliminated from further consideration. A total of 16 Penicillium isolates were screened for antifungal activity from both cell-free media and the aqueous residues obtained after chloroform extraction. The cell-free media of 10 isolates that produced a strong inhibition of the three reference molds were fractionated by FPLC on a cationic column. For protein purification, the fractions of the three molds that showed high inhibitory activity were further chromatographed on a gel filtration column, and the subfractions containing the highest absorbance peaks were assayed against the most sensitive reference molds. One subfraction each from strains AS51D and RP42C from Penicilliumchrysogenum confirmed the inhibitory activity against the reference molds. SDS-PAGE revealed a single band from each subfraction, with estimated molecular masses of 37kDa for AS51D and 9kDa for RP42C. Although further characterisation is required, both these proteins and the producing strains can be of interest to control unwanted molds on foods.

  18. Antifungal iridoids, triterpenes and phenol compounds from Alibertia myrciifolia Sprunge Ex. Schum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciano, Joao Henrique S.; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Fernandes, Georgia Sampaio [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Souza, Elnatan Bezerra de [Universidade do Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Coord. de Biologia

    2010-07-01

    The new iridoid glucoside 10-O-vanilloyl-geniposidic acid has been isolated from the aerial parts of Alibertia myrciifolia along with hydroxyhopanone, 3{alpha},22-dihydroxyhopane, ursolic acid, luteolin-3',4'-dimethyl ether, caffeic acid and geniposidic acid. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by means of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The antifungal activities of the iridoids 10-O-vanilloyl-geniposidic acid and geniposidic acid were evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi strains Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger. (author)

  19. The potential of compounds isolated from Xylaria spp. as antifungal agents against anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Luciana M; Fortkamp, Diana; Sartori, Sérgio B; Ferreira, Marília C; Gomes, Luiz H; Azevedo, João L; Montoya, Quimi V; Rodrigues, André; Ferreira, Antonio G; Lira, Simone P

    2018-03-31

    Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46μmolmL -1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02μmolmL -1 , respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Production, characterization, and antifungal activity of a biosurfactant produced by Rhodotorula babjevae YS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suparna; Borah, Siddhartha Narayan; Bora, Arijit; Deka, Suresh

    2017-05-30

    Sophorolipids are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants and have been successfully employed in bioremediation and various other industrial sectors. They have also been described to exhibit antimicrobial activity against different bacterial species. Nevertheless, previous literature pertaining to the antifungal activity of sophorolipids are limited indicating the need for further research to explore novel strains with wide antimicrobial activity. A novel yeast strain, Rhodotorula babjevae YS3, was recently isolated from an agricultural field in Assam, Northeast India. This study was primarily emphasized at the characterization and subsequent evaluation of antifungal activity of the sophorolipid biosurfactant produced by R. babjevae YS3. The growth kinetics and biosurfactant production by R. babjevae YS3 was evaluated by cultivation in Bushnell-Haas medium containing glucose (10% w/v) as the sole carbon source. A reduction in the surface tension of the culture medium from 70 to 32.6 mN/m was observed after 24 h. The yield of crude biosurfactant was recorded to be 19.0 g/l which might further increase after optimization of the growth parameters. The biosurfactant was characterized to be a heterogeneous sophorolipid (SL) with both lactonic and acidic forms after TLC, FTIR and LC-MS analyses. The SL exhibited excellent oil spreading and emulsifying activity against crude oil at 38.46 mm 2 and 100% respectively. The CMC was observed to be 130 mg/l. The stability of the SL was evaluated over a wide range of pH (2-10), salinity (2-10% NaCl) and temperature (at 120 °C for time intervals of 30 up to 120 min). The SL was found to retain surface-active properties under the extreme conditions. Additionally, the SL exhibited promising antifungal activity against a considerably broad group of pathogenic fungi viz. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium verticilliodes, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, Corynespora cassiicola, and Trichophyton rubrum. The

  1. Identification of antifungal compounds active against Candida albicans using an improved high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu Okoli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, the most common human pathogenic fungus, can establish a persistent lethal infection in the intestine of the microscopic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The C. elegans-C. albicans infection model was previously adapted to screen for antifungal compounds. Modifications to this screen have been made to facilitate a high-throughput assay including co-inoculation of nematodes with C. albicans and instrumentation allowing precise dispensing of worms into assay wells, eliminating two labor-intensive steps. This high-throughput method was utilized to screen a library of 3,228 compounds represented by 1,948 bioactive compounds and 1,280 small molecules derived via diversity-oriented synthesis. Nineteen compounds were identified that conferred an increase in C. elegans survival, including most known antifungal compounds within the chemical library. In addition to seven clinically used antifungal compounds, twelve compounds were identified which are not primarily used as antifungal agents, including three immunosuppressive drugs. This assay also allowed the assessment of the relative minimal inhibitory concentration, the effective concentration in vivo, and the toxicity of the compound in a single assay.

  2. Antifungal activity of low molecular weight chitosan produced from non-traditional marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pires Avelelas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The four plants pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Cryphonectria parasitica and Heterobasidion annosum are responsible for several diseases affecting different plant species in Portugal, such as pines (H. annosum, chestnuts (P. cinnamomi and C. parasitica and eucalyptus (B. cinerea. These pathogens incurs in large economic losses, and ultimately causes the death of these plants. The use of biopolymers as antimicrobial agents, such as chitosan (derived from chitin, is increasing, in order to reduce the negative impact of conventional chemical treatments on the environment, avoiding health risks. Therefore, eco-friendly polymers were produced through (1 N-acetylation with addition of acetic anhydride and (2 hydrogen peroxide of chitosan samples, obtained from two different sources: shrimp (commercial chitosan and swimming crab bycatch specie Polybius henslowii. The chemical structure and molecular weight of the prepared chitosan derivatives, water soluble chitosan (WSC and chitooligosaccharides (COS, was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and their antifungal activity evaluated against Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Cryphonectria parasitica and Heterobasidion annosum. The concentration range varied from 0.0125 to 0.1 mg/mL and inhibition percentages were determined by differences in radial growth on the agar plates for all species. Although not all species tested exhibited equal vulnerability towards the concentrations range, antifungal activity of chitosan samples proved to be dependent, increasing the inhibitory capacity with lower concentrations. The results obtained support the use of chitosan fromPolybius henslowii when compared with commercial chitosan with shrimp towards antifungal approaches, suggesting that chitin producers can rely on this crab waste as a raw material for chitin extraction, adding value to this bycatch specie. Financial support was obtained

  3. Caryolan-1-ol, an antifungal volatile produced by Streptomyces spp., inhibits the endomembrane system of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gyeongjun; Kim, Junheon; Park, Chung Gyoo; Nislow, Corey; Weller, David M; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces spp. have the ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that interact with the environment. This study aimed to discover antifungal volatiles from the genus Streptomyces and to determine the mechanisms of inhibition. Volatiles identified from Streptomyces spp. included three major terpenes, geosmin, caryolan-1-ol and an unknown sesquiterpene. antiSMASH and KEGG predicted that the volatile terpene synthase gene clusters occur in the Streptomyces genome. Growth inhibition was observed when fungi were exposed to the volatiles. Biological activity of caryolan-1-ol has previously not been investigated. Fungal growth was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by a mixture of the main volatiles, caryolan-1-ol and the unknown sesquiterpene, from Streptomyces sp. S4-7. Furthermore, synthesized caryolan-1-ol showed similar antifungal activity. Results of chemical-genomics profiling assays showed that caryolan-1-ol affected the endomembrane system by disrupting sphingolipid synthesis and normal vesicle trafficking in the fungi. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Purification and characterization of novel antifungal compounds from the sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum strain 21B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavermicocca, P; Valerio, F; Evidente, A; Lazzaroni, S; Corsetti, A; Gobbetti, M

    2000-09-01

    Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were selected for antifungal activity by a conidial germination assay. The 10-fold-concentrated culture filtrate of Lactobacillus plantarum 21B grown in wheat flour hydrolysate almost completely inhibited Eurotium repens IBT18000, Eurotium rubrum FTDC3228, Penicillium corylophilum IBT6978, Penicillium roqueforti IBT18687, Penicillium expansum IDM/FS2, Endomyces fibuliger IBT605 and IDM3812, Aspergillus niger FTDC3227 and IDM1, Aspergillus flavus FTDC3226, Monilia sitophila IDM/FS5, and Fusarium graminearum IDM623. The nonconcentrated culture filtrate of L. plantarum 21B grown in whole wheat flour hydrolysate had similar inhibitory activity. The activity was fungicidal. Calcium propionate at 3 mg ml(-1) was not effective under the same assay conditions, while sodium benzoate caused inhibition similar to L. plantarum 21B. After extraction with ethyl acetate, preparative silica gel thin-layer chromatography, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, novel antifungal compounds such as phenyllactic and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acids were identified in the culture filtrate of L. plantarum 21B. Phenyllactic acid was contained at the highest concentration in the bacterial culture filtrate and had the highest activity. It inhibited all the fungi tested at a concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) except for P. roqueforti IBT18687 and P. corylophilum IBT6978 (inhibitory concentration, 166 mg ml(-1)). L. plantarum 20B, which showed high antimold activity, was also selected. Preliminary studies showed that phenyllactic and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acids were also contained in the bacterial culture filtrate of strain 20B. Growth of A. niger FTDC3227 occurred after 2 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 alone or with S. cerevisiae and Lactobacillus brevis 1D, an unselected but acidifying lactic acid bacterium, while the onset of fungal growth was delayed for 7 days in bread started with S. cerevisiae and selected L. plantarum 21B.

  5. Isolation and characterization of antifungal compound from Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-10 from forage silage with potential beneficial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valan Arasu, M; Jung, M-W; Ilavenil, S; Jane, M; Kim, D-H; Lee, K-D; Park, H-S; Hur, T-Y; Choi, G-J; Lim, Y-C; Al-Dhabi, N A; Choi, K-C

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate, identify and characterize an antifungal compound from Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-10 from forage silage with potential beneficial properties. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic affiliation was determined using bioinformatic tools and identified as Lactobacillus sp. KCC-10 with 100% sequence similarity to L. plantarum. The antifungal substances were extracted with ethyl acetate from spent medium in which Lactobacillus sp. KCC-10 was cultivated. Antifungal activity was assessed using the broth microdilution technique. The compounds were obtained by eluting the crude extract with various concentrations of solvents followed by chromatographic purification. Based on the infrared, (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (1) H NMR spectral data, the compound was identified as a phenolic-related antibiotic. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the compound against Aspergillus clavatus, A. oryzae, Botrytis elliptica and Scytalidium vaccinii was 2.5 mg ml(-1) and that against A. fumigatus, A. niger and S. fusca was 5.0 mg ml(-1) , respectively. In addition, Lactobacillus sp. KCC-10 was highly sensitive towards oxgall (0.3%) but grew well in the presence of sodium taurocholate (0.3%). An antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was an intrinsic feature of this strain; thus, consumption does not represent a health risk to humans or animals. Novel L. plantarum KCC-10 with antifungal and potential probiotic properties was characterized for use in animal food. This study revealed that L. plantarum KCC-10 exhibited good antifungal activity similar to that of probiotic Lactobacillus strains. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  7. Extraction and Identification of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Trichoderma atroviridae (6022 and Evaluating of their Antifungal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahiri Tabarestani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fungi release wide spectrum of secondary metabolites that belong to several chemical groups with different biochemical origins. These materials produce as intermediate and end products of diverse metabolic pathways. The profile of the secondary metabolites for a known species or strain will vary depending on the substrate, the duration of incubation, the type of nutrients, temperature and other environmental parameters. Trichoderma spp. are well-known producers of secondary metabolites with different biological activities. The secondary metabolites with antibiotic activity can be classified into two main types. Low molecular weight and volatile metabolites which are involved in complex Trichoderma plant-pathogen interactions. They belong to various structure classes such as alcohols, ketones, alkanes, furans, simple aromatic compounds, isocyanate compounds, volatile terpenes, some polyketides, butenolides, and pyrones. All of them are relatively nonpolar compounds with a significant vapor pressure. These volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the soil environment could be traveled over distance and affect the physiology of the pathogens. They also enhance growth and systemic resistance in plants. These VOCs have been evaluated for T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. viride, T. longibrachiatum, T. pseudokoningii and T. aureoviride. High molecular weight metabolites (like peptaibols are polar metabolites which act directly by contact between Trichoderma species and competitor organisms. Due to potent separation and highly sensitive detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS is the main method for detection of the fungal VOCs. Mass spectrometric detection offers the possibility to identify individual volatiles from complex mixtures. Structure characterization and confirmation of identity are usually achieved by comparison of mass spectra with library spectra and the determination of chromatographic retention indices. Due to the

  8. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying; He, Hongping; Schulz, Stefan; Liu, Xin; Fusetani, Nobushino; Xiong, Hairong; Xiao, Xiang; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared

  9. In Vitro Evaluation of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Plant-Derived Antifungal Compounds on FUSARIA Growth and Mycotoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Morcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi can lead to significant cereal yield losses, also producing mycotoxins dangerous for human and animal health. The fungal control based on the use of synthetic fungicides can be complemented by "green" methods for crop protection, based on the use of natural products. In this frame, the antifungal activities of bergamot and lemon essential oils and of five natural compounds recurrent in essential oils (citronellal, citral, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and limonene have been evaluated against three species of mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium sporotrichioides, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae responsible for Fusarium Head Blight in small-grain cereals. The natural products concentrations effective for reducing or inhibiting the in vitro fungal growth were determined for each fungal species and the following scale of potency was found: cinnamaldehyde > cuminaldehyde > citral > citronellal > bergamot oil > limonene > lemon oil. Moreover, the in vitro mycotoxin productions of the three Fusaria strains exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of the seven products was evaluated. The three fungal species showed variability in response to the treatments, both in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth and in terms of modulation of mycotoxin production that can be enhanced by sub-lethal concentrations of some natural products. This last finding must be taken into account in the frame of an open field application of some plant-derived fungicides.

  10. PF1163A and B, new antifungal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. I. Taxonomy of producing strain, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, H; Seki, A; Yaguchi, T; Hosoya, A; Sasaki, T; Hoshiko, S; Shomura, T

    2000-01-01

    Two novel antifungal antibiotics, PF1163A and B, were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. They were purified from the solid cultures of rice media using ethyl acetate extraction, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. PF1163A and B showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strain Candida albicans but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells. These compounds inhibited the ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.

  11. Another point of view on side effects of antifungal compounds used in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The release of pharmaceuticals into environment has become an increasing concern in recent years. Fungi are part of the microbial flora of many animals, humans and foodstuffs, and some species can cause disease. An antimycotic or antifungal product is one that is used in the treatment of fungal infections. Even at low concentrations, antifungals exert an action against micro-organisms and exhibit selective toxicity towards them. The use of antimicrobials selects for resistant populations of micro-organisms. Development of resistance to antifungals is an increasing problem in veterinary and human medicine.

  12. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of Antagonistic Compounds by Bacillus sp. with Antifungal Activity against Heritage Contaminating Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the population has become acutely aware of the need to conserve the world’s resources. The study of new compounds produced by natural means is important in the search for alternative green solutions that act against biodeteriogenic fungi, which promote biodeterioration of built cultural heritage sites. The present paper reports new solutions, derived from Bacillus sp. CCLBH 1053 cultures, to produce lipopeptides (LPP that can act as green biocides to promote the safeguarding of stone artwork. In the stationary phases of bacteria growth, peptone supplementation and sub-lethal heat activation improve the second cycle of sporulation, greatly enhancing LPP production. The bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus cultures suppress biodeteriogenic fungi growth on stone materials, and, hence, provide an important contribution to the development of new biocides for cultural heritage rehabilitation.

  14. KB425796-A, a novel antifungal antibiotic produced by Paenibacillus sp. 530603.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hirohito; Yamashita, Midori; Takase, Shigehiro; Hashimoto, Michizane; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Ikuko; Yoshikawa, Koji; Ezaki, Masami; Nitta, Kumiko; Watanabe, Masato; Inamura, Noriaki; Fujie, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    The novel antifungal macrocyclic lipopeptidolactone, KB425796-A (1), was isolated from the fermentation broth of bacterial strain 530603, which was identified as a new Paenibacillus species based on morphological and physiological characteristics, and 16S rRNA sequences. KB425796-A (1) was isolated as white powder by solvent extraction, HP-20 and ODS-B column chromatography, and lyophilization, and was determined to have the molecular formula C79H115N19O18. KB425796-A (1) showed antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus and the micafungin-resistant infectious fungi Trichosporon asahii, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudallescheria boydii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  15. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Sá, Nívea P; Lima, Luciana A R S; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Cota, Betania B; Alves, Tânia M A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Zani, Carlos L

    2010-10-12

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds.

  16. A Novel Mechanistic Approach to Identify New Antifungal Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... The MIC of the more effective compounds, delta-decalactone and mandelonitrile ... screening which is increasingly used as a cost- ..... AD. Lanomycin and glucolanomycin, antifungal agents produced by ...

  17. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Schmidt, Andrew J [Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine, J [Decatur, IL

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  18. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  19. 2-(Substituted phenyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-iums as Novel Antifungal Lead Compounds: Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Juan Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds are a class of structurally simple analogues of quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs. In order to develop novel QBA-like antifungal drugs, in this study, 24 of the title compounds with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring were evaluated for bioactivity against seven phytopathogenic fungi using the mycelial growth rate method and their SAR discussed. Almost all the compounds showed definite activities in vitro against each of the test fungi at 50 μg/mL and a broad antifungal spectrum. In most cases, the mono-halogenated compounds 2–12 exhibited excellent activities superior to the QBAs sanguinarine and chelerythrine. Compound 8 possessed the strongest activities on each of the fungi with EC50 values of 8.88–19.88 µg/mL and a significant concentration-dependent relationship. The SAR is as follows: the N-phenyl group is a high sensitive structural moiety for the activity and the characteristics and position of substituents intensively influence the activity. Generally, electron-withdrawing substituents remarkably enhance the activity while electron-donating substituents cause a decrease of the activity. In most cases, ortha- and para-halogenated isomers were more active than the corresponding m-halogenated isomers. Thus, the title compounds emerged as promising lead compounds for the development of novel biomimetic antifungal agrochemicals. Compounds 8 and 2 should have great potential as new broad spectrum antifungal agents for plant protection.

  20. Identification and characterization of haemofungin, a novel antifungal compound that inhibits the final step of haem biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yaakov, Dafna; Rivkin, Anna; Mircus, Gabriel; Albert, Nathaniel; Dietl, Anna-Maria; Kovalerchick, Dimitry; Carmeli, Shmuel; Haas, Hubertus; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Osherov, Nir

    2016-04-01

    During recent decades, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, whereas the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low and unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to characterize a novel antifungal compound, CW-8/haemofungin, which we previously identified in a screen for compounds affecting fungal cell wall integrity. The in vitro characteristics of haemofungin were investigated by MIC evaluation against a panel of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, bacteria and mammalian cells in culture. Haemofungin mode-of-action studies were performed by screening an Aspergillus nidulans overexpression genomic library for resistance-conferring plasmids and biochemical validation of the target. In vivo efficacy was tested in the Galleria mellonella and Drosophila melanogaster insect models of infection. We demonstrate that haemofungin causes swelling and lysis of growing fungal cells. It inhibits the growth of pathogenic Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium and Rhizopus isolates at micromolar concentrations, while only weakly affecting the growth of mammalian cell lines. Genetic and biochemical analyses in A. nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus indicate that haemofungin primarily inhibits ferrochelatase (HemH), the last enzyme in the haem biosynthetic pathway. Haemofungin was non-toxic and significantly reduced mortality rates of G. mellonella and D. melanogaster infected with A. fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively. Further development and in vivo validation of haemofungin is warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Barot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for identification of bioactive compounds present in crude extract. Results: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of all the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, fatty acids and esters compounds. Among the three species, the maximum crude extract yield (53.46% and the largest inhibition zone (36 mm were recorded in methanol extract of Ulva lactuca, whereas the minimum crude extract yield and inhibition zone were recorded in chloroform extract of the same species as 0.5% and 10 mm, respectively. Methanol and ethyl acetate extract showed the maximum antifungal activity and the major important compounds like steroids, fatty acids and esters were detected with higher amount in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the different seaweed extracts showed moderate to significant antifungal activity against the strains tested as compared with the standard fungicides, and polar solvents methanol and ethyl acetate were comparatively efficient for extraction of different metabolites that are responsible for antifungal activity.

  2. A biotechnological approach for the development of new antifungal compounds to protect the environment and the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the Po Valley aflatoxins play a relevant role: the local food economy is heavily based on cereal cultivations for animal feed and human nutrition. Aims of this project are the identification of new compounds that inhibit Aspergillus proliferation, the development of new inhibitors of aflatoxins production, and the set-up a practical screening procedure to identify the most effective and safe compounds. Design and Methods. New compounds will be synthetized with natural origin molecules as ligands and endogenous metal ions to increase their bioavailability for the fungi as metal complexes. A biotechnological high-throughput screening will be set up to identify efficiently the most powerful substances. The newly synthesized compounds with effective antifungal activities, will be evaluated with battery of tests with different end-points to assess the toxic potential risk for environmental and human health. Expected impact of the study for public health. The fundamental step in the project will be the synthesis of new compounds and the study of their capability to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis. A new, simple, inexpensive and high-throughput method to screen the anti-fungine and anti-mycotoxin activity of the new synthesised compounds will be applied. The evaluation of possible risks for humans due to toxic and genotoxic activities of the molecules will be made with a new approach using different types of cells (bacteria, plants and human cells.

  3. Occurrence and fate of antibiotic, analgesic/anti-inflammatory, and antifungal compounds in five wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Shah, A; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-03-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment as a result of wastewater effluent discharge is a concern in many countries. In order to expand our understanding on the occurrence and fate of PPCPs during wastewater treatment processes, 62 antibiotic, analgesic/anti-inflammatory, and antifungal compounds were analyzed in 72 liquid and 24 biosolid samples from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) during the summer and winter seasons of 2010-2012. This is the first scientific study to compare five different wastewater treatment processes: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically-enhanced primary treatment, secondary activated sludge, and advanced biological nutrient removal. PPCPs were detected in all WWTP influents at median concentrations of 1.5 to 92,000 ng/L, with no seasonal differences. PPCPs were also found in all final effluents at median levels ranging from 3.6 to 4,200 ng/L with higher values during winter (pRemoval efficiencies ranged between -450% and 120%, depending on the compound, WWTP type, and season. Mass balance showed that the fate of analgesic/anti-inflammatory compounds was predominantly biodegradation during biological treatment, while antibiotics and antifungal compounds were more likely to sorb to sludge. However, some PPCPs remained soluble and were detected in effluent samples. Overall, this study highlighted the occurrence and behavior of a large set of PPCPs and determined how their removal is affected by environmental/operational factors in different WWTPs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixtures of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Long-chain Fatty Acids as Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, F. C.; Eisman, P. C.; Sylwestrowicz, H. D.; Mayer, R. L.

    1961-01-01

    The influence of undecylenic acid on the fungistatic effect of phenoxyethyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide (Domiphen bromide) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes was investigated. The unsaturated fatty acid was found to enhance the fungistatic activity of Domiphen bromide against this organism. The ratio of concentrations of these agents has a marked influence on the results of in vitro tests for antifungal action resulting in a completely different effect than heretofore noted in combination experiments against bacteria. The enhancing phenomenon is not particular to T. mentagrophytes, it was observed also with Candida albicans. PMID:14460466

  5. Rhizoctonia solani and Bacterial Inoculants Stimulate Root Exudation of Antifungal Compounds in Lettuce in a Soil-Type Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Windisch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies conducted on a unique field site comprising three contrasting soils (diluvial sand DS, alluvial loam AL, loess loam LL under identical cropping history, demonstrated soil type-dependent differences in biocontrol efficiency against Rhizoctonia solani-induced bottom rot disease in lettuce by two bacterial inoculants (Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re-4-18. Disease severity declined in the order DS > AL > LL. These differences were confirmed under controlled conditions, using the same soils in minirhizotron experiments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS profiling of rhizosphere soil solutions revealed benzoic and lauric acids as antifungal compounds; previously identified in root exudates of lettuce. Pathogen inoculation and pre-inoculation with bacterial inoculants significantly increased the release of antifungal root exudates in a soil type-specific manner; with the highest absolute levels detected on the least-affected LL soil. Soil type-dependent differences were also recorded for the biocontrol effects of the two bacterial inoculants; showing the highest efficiency after double-inoculation on the AL soil. However, this was associated with a reduction of shoot growth and root hair development and a limited micronutrient status of the host plants. Obviously, disease severity and the expression of biocontrol effects are influenced by soil properties with potential impact on reproducibility of practical applications.

  6. Microorganisms and methods for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-12-26

    Microorganisms comprising modifications for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds. The microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate activity of one or more of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytochrome terminal oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme, and isocitrate lyase. The microorganisms optionally comprise modifications that enhance expression or activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The microorganisms are optionally evolved in defined media to enhance specific production of one or more compounds. Methods of producing compounds with the microorganisms are provided.

  7. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  8. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents; Sintese e avaliacao preliminar da atividade antibacteriana e antifungica de derivados N-acilidrazonicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Medicamentos; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches, E-mail: diogo.carvalho@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2012-07-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC{sub 50} values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 {mu}M), C. krusei (34 {mu}M) and C. tropicalis (17 {mu}M). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  9. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovez, Viviane; Carrion, Victor J; Etalo, Desalegn W; Mumm, Roland; Zhu, Hua; van Wezel, Gilles P; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2015-01-01

    In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogs of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  10. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane eCordovez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogues of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  11. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities. For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders.

  12. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Ruch, Jasmin; Pulpitel, Tamara; Ponton, Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities). For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders.

  13. Coumarin Antifungal Lead Compounds from Millettia thonningii and Their Predicted Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Ayine-Tora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens continue to pose challenges to humans and plants despite efforts to control them. Two coumarins, robustic acid and thonningine-C isolated from Millettia thonningii, show promising activity against the fungus Candida albicans with minimum fungicidal concentration of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. Molecular modelling against the putative bio-molecular target, lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51, revealed a plausible binding mode for the active compounds, in which the hydroxyl group binds with a methionine backbone carboxylic group blocking access to the iron catalytic site. This binding disrupts the synthesis of several important sterols for the survival of fungi.

  14. Host cells and methods for producing diacid compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Eric J.; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Dietrich, Jeffrey A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-04-24

    The present invention provides for a method of producing one or more fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids in a genetically modified host cell which does not naturally produce the one or more derived fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids. The invention provides for the biosynthesis of dicarboxylic acid ranging in length from C3 to C26. The host cell can be further modified to increase fatty acid production or export of the desired fatty acid derived compound, and/or decrease fatty acid storage or metabolism.

  15. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities; Sesquiterpenos produzidos pelo fungo endofitico Phomopsis cassiae com atividade antifungica e inibidora de acetilcolinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Lisineia M.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Silva, Dulce H. Siqueira; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Silva, Geraldo H. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Teles, Helder L. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Young, Maria Claudia M., E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seccao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2012-07-01

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  16. Alternative host models for Testing Anti-Protozoal or Antifungal Compounds and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Xander, Patricia; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; Batista, Wagner Luiz

    2018-04-12

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are caused by several parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses and affect more than one billion people in the world. The control and prevention against NTDs need implementation of alternative methods for testing new compounds against these diseases. For the implementation of alternative methods, it is necessary to apply the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs) for the use of laboratory animals. Accordingly, the present review addressed a variety of alternative models to study the infections caused by protozoa and fungi. Overall, vertebrate and invertebrate models of fungal infection have been used to elucidate hostpathogen interactions. However, until now the insect model has not been used in protozoal studies as an alternative method, but there is interest in the scientific community to try new tools to screen alternative drugs to control and prevent protozoal infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Antifungal testing and high-throughput screening of compound library against Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of geomycosis (WNS in bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Bats in the northeastern U.S. are affected by geomycosis caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd. This infection is commonly referred to as White Nose Syndrome (WNS. Over a million hibernating bats have died since the fungus was first discovered in 2006 in a cave near Albany, New York. A population viability analysis conducted on little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, one of six bat species infected with Gd, suggests regional extinction of this species within 20 years. The fungus Gd is a psychrophile ("cold loving", but nothing is known about how it thrives at low temperatures and what pathogenic attributes allow it to infect bats. This study aimed to determine if currently available antifungal drugs and biocides are effective against Gd. We tested five Gd strains for their susceptibility to antifungal drugs and high-throughput screened (HTS one representative strain with SpectrumPlus compound library containing 1,920 compounds. The results indicated that Gd is susceptible to a number of antifungal drugs at concentrations similar to the susceptibility range of human pathogenic fungi. Strains of Gd were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole. In contrast, very high MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations of flucytosine and echinocandins were needed for growth inhibition, which were suggestive of fungal resistance to these drugs. Of the 1,920 compounds in the library, a few caused 50%--to greater than 90% inhibition of Gd growth. A number of azole antifungals, a fungicide, and some biocides caused prominent growth inhibition. Our results could provide a theoretical basis for future strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of most affected bat species and for decontamination of Gd in the cave environment.

  18. Potent In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Naturally Occurring Acetylenic Acids▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Ashfaq, M. Khalid; Babu, K. Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; ElSohly, Hala N.; Manly, Susan P.; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C16 to C20: 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 μM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 μmol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies. PMID:18458131

  19. Potent in vitro antifungal activities of naturally occurring acetylenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Ashfaq, M Khalid; Babu, K Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Elsohly, Hala N; Manly, Susan P; Clark, Alice M

    2008-07-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C(16) to C(20): 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 muM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 mumol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies.

  20. Identification and Characterization of an Antifungal Protein, AfAFPR9, Produced by Marine-Derived Aspergillus fumigatus R9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qi; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    A fungal strain, R9, was isolated from the South Atlantic sediment sample and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. An antifungal protein, AfAFPR9, was purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus fumigatus R9. AfAFPR9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. AfAFPR9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria longipes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.6, 0.6, 1.2, 1.2, and 2.4 μg/disc, respectively. Moreover, AfAFPR9 exhibited a certain extent of thermostability, and metal ion and denaturant tolerance. The iodoacetamide assay showed that the disulfide bridge in AfAFPR9 was indispensable for its antifungal action. The cDNA encoding for AfAFPR9 was cloned from A. fumigatus R9 by RTPCR and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant AfAFPR9 protein exhibited obvious antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, T. viride, and A. longipes. These results reveal the antifungal properties of a RIP member (AfAFPR9) from marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus and indicated its potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungi.

  1. Alternative method to detect compounds produced by Gambierdiscus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Andoni Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins (CTXs and CTX precursors are produced by several Gambierdiscus spp. These polyether toxins are associated to ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. In addition to CTX, maitotoxins (MTX and gambierol are also produced by these dinoflagellates. MTX mechanism of action is strictly Ca2+ dependent, since the toxin induces a massive cytoplasmatic Ca2+ entrance. However, CTX activates the voltage-dependent sodium channels and no relation with calcium fluxes has been showed. The aim of this work was to study the effect of both toxins in the cytoplasmic calcium levels in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line by using the fluorescent probe Fura-2 AM. Two completely different calcium profiles were obtained. While, MTX induces a sustained dose-dependent increase in Fura-2 ratio, CTX produces a light increase in dye ratio. From MTX results a calibration curve concentration versus Fura-2 ratio was obtained where the toxin concentration of an unknown sample can be calculated. Then, the effect of four samples from Gambierdiscus cultures was studied and different calcium profiles were obtained. A high increase in Fura-2 ratio was observed in two samples. The calcium profile was similar to MTX and by using the calibration curve the amount of toxin was calculated (4.9 and 1.8 nM of MTX. In the other samples, from the Fura-2 results the presence of CTX like compounds can be established.

  2. Quantification of the Triazole Antifungal Compounds Voriconazole and Posaconazole in Human Serum or Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, Alejandro R; Rose, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole and posaconazole are triazole antifungal compounds used in the treatment of fungal infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring of both compounds is recommended in order to guide drug dosing to achieve optimal blood concentrations. In this chapter we describe an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of both compounds in human plasma or serum following a simple specimen preparation procedure. Specimen preparation consists of protein precipitation using methanol and acetonitrile followed by a cleanup step that involves filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane. The specimen is then injected into an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS equipped with a C18 column and separated over an acetonitrile gradient. Quantification of the drugs in the specimen is achieved by comparing the response of the unknown specimen to that of the calibrators in the standard curve using multiple reaction monitoring.

  3. Synthesis of new 4-methyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines as potent antifungal compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Leonor Y. Vargas [Universidad Santo Tomas, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales; Zacchino, Susana A. [Universidad Nacional del Rosario, (Argentina). Lab. de Farmacognosia; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Lab. de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological results of new series of 2-(4-pyridyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and their closer precursors, -N-aryl-N-[1-(4-pyridyl)but-3-enyl] amines are reported. It was found that both g-pyridyl substituted precursors and final products, tetrahydroquinolines, showed very good antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (author)

  4. Development of Radiolabeled compounds using reactor-produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Ju; Park, K. B.; Park, S. H.

    2007-06-01

    To establish a robust technology for radiopharmaceutical development, we focused on the configuration of fundamental development of radiolabeled compounds for radioimmunotherapy and drug delivery as well as the development of bifunctional chelating agents and radiolabeling methods for the radiopharmaceuticals with highly specific activity to deliver sufficient number of radionuclides to the target site. In this project, we aim to improve the quality of life and the public welfare by fostering the medical application of radioisotopes for the effective treatment of malignant diseases and by developing efficient radiolabeling methods of specific bio-active materials with radioisotopes and new candidates for radiopharmaceutical application. We have established the procedure for the preparation of radiolabeled antibody and biotin with radioisotopes such as 166 Ho, 131 I, 90 Y and 111 In for tumour targeting. In the future, these technologies will be applicable to development of radioimmunotherapeutic drug. The combination treatment of radioisotope with anti-cancer agents or chemotherapeutic agents may produce a synergistic static effects in the tumour and this synergism would be exerted via gene level through the activation of a cell death pathway. The combination therapy may be very beneficial for cancer treatment and this can overcome not only the hazards of unnecessary exposure to high radiation level during therapy, but also the tendency for drug resistance caused by chemotherapy. To develop new drug delivery system suitable for CT imaging agent, a chitosan derivative and radiolabed Folate-targeted polymer with 131 I were synthesized. We also carried out the development of DTPA derivatives for CT imaging agent, radiolabeled precursor, and established a highly efficient radiolabeling methodology with lanthanide nuclide. In order to develop neuroreceptor targeting compounds, we synthesized WAY-100635 compound and 99m Tc(CO) 3 precursor from Chrysamine G derivatives

  5. Effects of disrupting the polyketide synthase gene WdPKS1 in Wangiella [Exophiala] dermatitidis on melanin production and resistance to killing by antifungal compounds, enzymatic degradation, and extremes in temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Piyali

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wangiella dermatitidis is a human pathogenic fungus that is an etiologic agent of phaeohyphomycosis. W. dermatitidis produces a black pigment that has been identified as a dihydroxynaphthalene melanin and the production of this pigment is associated with its virulence. Cell wall pigmentation in W. dermatitidis depends on the WdPKS1 gene, which encodes a polyketide synthase required for generating the key precursor for dihydroxynaphthalene melanin biosynthesis. Results We analyzed the effects of disrupting WdPKS1 on dihydroxynaphthalene melanin production and resistance to antifungal compounds. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wdpks1Δ-1 yeast had thinner cell walls that lacked an electron-opaque layer compared to wild-type cells. However, digestion of the wdpks1Δ-1 yeast revealed small black particles that were consistent with a melanin-like compound, because they were acid-resistant, reacted with melanin-binding antibody, and demonstrated a free radical signature by electron spin resonance analysis. Despite lacking the WdPKS1 gene, the mutant yeast were capable of catalyzing the formation of melanin from L-3,4-dihyroxyphenylalanine. The wdpks1Δ-1 cells were significantly more susceptible to killing by voriconazole, amphotericin B, NP-1 [a microbicidal peptide], heat and cold, and lysing enzymes than the heavily melanized parental or complemented strains. Conclusion In summary, W. dermatitidis makes WdPKS-dependent and -independent melanins, and the WdPKS1-dependent deposition of melanin in the cell wall confers protection against antifungal agents and environmental stresses. The biological role of the WdPKS-independent melanin remains unclear.

  6. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Setó, L; Purroy, P; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the volatile fractions of 16 essential oils for activity against the more common fungi causing spoilage of bakery products, Eurotium amstelodami, E. herbariorum, E. repens, E. rubrum, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium corylophilum. The study applied 50 microl of pure essential oils in a sterilized filter paper, were carried out at pH 6 and at different water activity levels (0.80-0.90). First, a wheat flour based agar medium was used, where cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils where found to totally inhibit all microorganisms tested. These five essential oils were then tested in sponge cake analogues, but the antifungal activity detected was much more limited. Five essential oils showed potential antifungal capacity against all species tested, over a wide range of water availability. Their activity, however, seems to be substrate-dependent. More research is needed to make them work in real bakery products, as in the preliminary study limited effectiveness was found. The potential of the cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils against species belonging to Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genus has been demonstrated.

  7. Antifungal Compounds Isolated from Smyrnium olusatrum L. Essential Oil, Growing Wild in Cephalonia, Greece. Chemical Analysis and Structure Elucidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimia Tsasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils (EOs from the leaves and the flowers of Smyrnium olusatrum L. , growing wild in the island of Cephalonia (Greece, were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Fifty nine constituents, which accounted for 90.3% (fl and 97.1% (lvs of the oils, were identified. Furanodiene, g ermacrone and furanoeremophil-1-one were the major constituents in both essential oils; they were also isolated from the flowers essential oil and identified using spectroscopic methods, ie. 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS . In addition b -myrcene ( 11.7% and b -phellandrene (5.2% were main constituents in the essential oil of the leaves. The essential oils and the pure isolates were evaluated for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, P. verucosum var. cyclopium by using the microdilution method and proved to possess significant antifungal effect. Among them, (+ furanoeremophil-1-one was particularly active with MIC values in the range of 0.0008-0.125 mg/mL and MFC values of 0.025-0.050 mg/mL and proved more effective than the commercial mycotics ketoconazole and bifonazole used as positive controls.

  8. Antifungal Activity of Bacillus coagulans TQ33, Isolated from Skimmed Milk Powder, against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Feng Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans TQ33 is isolated from the skimmed milk powder and has a broad antifungal activity against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum and Glomerella cingulata. The characteristics of active antifungal substances produced by B. coagulans TQ33 and its antifungal effects against the growth of plant pathogenic fungi has been evaluated. The effect of pH, temperature and protease on the antifungal activity of B. coagulans TQ33 was determined. The results of partial characterization of the antifungal compound indicated that its activity is likely to be due to the production of a proteinaceous substance together with other substances. The greenhouse trials suggest that B. coagulans TQ33 has a great potential for the control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  9. Tioconazole, a new imidazole-antifungal agent for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Antifungal and pharmacologic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, M S; Baird, J R; Brammer, K W; Faulkner, J K; Halliwell, G; Jevons, S; Tarbit, M H

    1983-01-01

    Tioconazole is a new imidazole antifungal agent with broad-spectrum activity. Its in vitro activity against common dermal pathogens is generally better than miconazole by a factor of 2-8. This activity is paralleled by good topical efficacy in a guinea pig dermatomycosis model. Pharmacokinetic studies in animals have demonstrated minimal systemic exposure following dermal application. Acute general pharmacology studies have shown that the compound is well tolerated in animals and unlikely to produce side-effects in man.

  10. Activity of Antifungal Organobismuth(III Compounds Derived from Alkyl Aryl Ketones against S. cerevisiae: Comparison with a Heterocyclic Bismuth Scaffold Consisting of a Diphenyl Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Murafuji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of hypervalent organobismuth(III compounds derived from alkyl aryl ketones [XBi(5-R'C6H3-2-COR(Ar] was synthesized to investigate the effect of the compounds’ structural features on their antifungal activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to bismuth heterocycles [XBi(5-RC6H3-2-SO2C6H4-1'-] derived from diphenyl sulfones, a systematic quantitative structure-activity relationship study was possible. The activity depended on the Ar group and increased for heavier X atoms, whereas lengthening the alkyl chain (R or introducing a substituent (R' reduced the activity. IBi(C6H4-2-COCH3(4-FC6H4 was the most active. Its activity was superior to that of the related acyclic analogues ClBi[C6H4-2-CH2N(CH32](Ar and ClBi(C6H4-2-SO2 tert-Bu(Ar and also comparable to that of heterocyclic ClBi(C6H4-2-SO2C6H4-1'-, which was the most active compound in our previous studies. Density function theory calculations suggested that hypervalent bismuthanes undergo nucleophilic addition with a biomolecule at the bismuth atom to give an intermediate ate complex. For higher antifungal activity, adjusting the lipophilicity-hydrophilicity balance, modeling the three-dimensional molecular structure around the bismuth atom, and stabilizing the ate complex appear to be more important than tuning the Lewis acidity at the bismuth atom.

  11. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  12. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 μg/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms.

  13. Identification of the predominant volatile compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, E; Libbey, L M; Stawicki, S; Wasowicz, E

    1972-11-01

    A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH(2)Cl(2), and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth.

  14. In vitro activity of the novel antifungal compound F901318 against difficult-to-treat Aspergillus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, J B; Rijs, A J M M; Meis, J F; Birch, M; Law, D; Melchers, W J G; Verweij, P E

    2017-09-01

    F901318 is a new antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action with activity against Aspergillus species. We investigated the in vitro activity of F901318 against a collection of Aspergillus isolates. A total of 213 Aspergillus isolates were used in this study. A total of 143 Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolates were used, of which 133 were azole resistant [25 TR34/L98H; 25 TR46/Y121F/T289A; 33 A. fumigatus with cyp51A-associated point mutations (25 G54, 1 G432 and 7 M220); and 50 azole-resistant A. fumigatus without known resistance mechanisms]. Ten azole-susceptible A. fumigatus isolates were used as WT controls. The in vitro activity was also determined against Aspergillus calidoustus (25 isolates), Aspergillus flavus (10), Aspergillus nidulans (10) and Aspergillus tubingensis (25). F901318 activity was compared with that of itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. Minimum effective concentrations and MICs were determined using the EUCAST broth microdilution method. F901318 was active against all tested isolates: A. fumigatus WT, MIC90 0.125 mg/L (range 0.031-0.125); TR34/L98H,TR46/Y121F/T289A and azole resistant without known resistance mechanisms, MIC90 0.125 mg/L (range 0.031-0.25); A. fumigatus with cyp51A-associated point mutations, MIC90 0.062 mg/L (range 0.015-0.125); and other species, A. calidoustus MIC90 0.5 mg/L (range 0.125-0.5), A. flavus MIC90 0.062 mg/L (range 0.015-0.62), A. nidulans MIC90 0.125 mg/L (range 0.062-0.25) and A. tubingensis MIC90 0.062 mg/L (range 0.015-0.25). F901318 showed potent and consistent in vitro activity against difficult-to-treat Aspergillus spp. with intrinsic and acquired antifungal resistance due to known and unknown resistance mechanisms, suggesting no significant implications of azole resistance mechanisms for the mode of action of F901318. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  15. Carbonyl Compounds Produced by Vaporizing Cannabis Oil Thinning Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Cannabis use has increased in the United States, particularly the use of vaporized cannabis oil, which is often mixed with thinning agents for use in vaporizing devices. E-cigarette research shows that heated thinning agents produce potentially harmful carbonyls; however, similar studies have not been conducted (1) with agents that are commonly used in the cannabis industry and (2) at temperatures that are appropriate for cannabis oil vaporization. The goal of this study was to determine whether thinning agents used in the cannabis industry produce potentially harmful carbonyls when heated to a temperature that is appropriate for cannabis oil vaporization. Four thinning agents (propylene glycol [PG], vegetable glycerin [VG], polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], and medium chain triglycerides [MCT]) were heated to 230°C and the resulting vapors were tested for acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde. Each agent was tested three times. Testing was conducted in a smoking laboratory. Carbonyl levels were measured in micrograms per puff block. Analyses showed that PEG 400 produced significantly higher levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde than PG, MCT, and VG. Formaldehyde production was also significantly greater in PG compared with MCT and VG. Acrolein production did not differ significantly across the agents. PG and PEG 400 produced high levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde when heated to 230°C. Formaldehyde production from PEG 400 isolate was particularly high, with one inhalation accounting for 1.12% of the daily exposure limit, nearly the same exposure as smoking one cigarette. Because PG and PEG 400 are often mixed with cannabis oil, individuals who vaporize cannabis oil products may risk exposure to harmful formaldehyde levels. Although more research is needed, consumers and policy makers should consider these potential health effects before use and when drafting cannabis-related legislation.

  16. Rare earth intermetallic compounds produced by a reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A reduction-diffusion process is given for producing novel rare earth intermetallic compounds, such as cobalt--rare earth intermetallic compounds, especially compounds useful in preparing permanent magnets. A particulate mixture of rare earth metal halide, cobalt and calcium hydride is heated to effect reduction of the rare earth metal halide and to diffuse the resulting rare earth metal into the cobalt to form the intermetallic compound

  17. Bioactive Compounds Produced by Hypoxylon fragiforme against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Tomoko Yuyama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Treating infections organized in biofilms is a challenge due to the resistance of the pathogens against antibiotics and host immune cells. Many fungi grow in a wet environment, favorable for the growth of bacterial biofilms, and we speculated that fungi possess some strategies to control these bacterial biofilms. A fungus identified as Hypoxylon fragiforme, was collected in the Harz Mountains, Germany, and its mycelial culture was fermented in different culture media for 67 days to test its biological potential against bacterial biofilms. Sclerin, sclerin diacid and its 3-methyl monoester (methyl 1-(5-hydroxy-6-carboxylic-2,3,4-trimethylphenyl propionate are here described for the first time from this fungus. Sclerin and its diacid interfered with the biofilm formation of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting 86% and 80% of the biofilm at 256 μg mL−1, respectively, but not killing the bacterium. Interestingly, the monomethylester of sclerin diacid was inactive. Although these compounds did not possess any activity against a pre-formed biofilm, they prevented its formation at subtoxic concentrations. Furthermore, sclerin and its diacid displayed a high specificity against Staphylococcus aureus, indicating a good strategy against pathogenic biofilms when combined with antibiotics.

  18. Citridones, new potentiators of antifungal miconazole activity, produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-1938. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2005-05-01

    New phenylfuropyridinones and related compounds, designated citridones A, B, B' and C, were isolated along with known CJ-16,173, from the culture broth of Penicillium sp. FKI-1938 by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Citridones (75 microM) potentiate the miconazole activity against Candida albicans, decreasing the IC50 value of miconazole from 14.5 nM to 3.5 to approximately 6.3 nM.

  19. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bills, Gerald F.; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Antifungal activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei of some substituted quinolinium derivatives has been investigated. It was established that the most perspective compound for detail investigation of antifungal activity by labeled biomarkers method was N-phenylbenzoquinaldinium tetrafluoroborate.

  1. The influence of iron coordination compounds on producing capacity of some crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimova, M.M.; Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to influence of iron coordination compounds on producing capacity of some crops. The influence of aqueous solutions of iron coordination compounds with anions of acetic and ethylen diamin disuccinic acids on germinative energy and germination of cotton crops and grapes was studied in laboratory conditions. The conducted researches shown that application of iron coordination compounds improves the growth, fruiting and the quality of studied crops.

  2. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knøchel, S

    2015-02-02

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Compound cast product and method for producing a compound cast product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Viswanathan, Srinath

    2002-09-17

    A compound cast product is formed in a casting mold (14) having a mold cavity (16) sized and shaped to form the cast product. A plurality of injectors (24) is supported from a bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). The injectors (24) are in fluid communication with the mold cavity (16) through the bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). A molten material holder furnace (12) is located beneath the casting mold (14). The holder furnace (12) defines molten material receiving chambers (36) configured to separately contain supplies of two different molten materials (37, 38). The holder furnace (12) is positioned such that the injectors (24) extend downward into the receiving chamber (36). The receiving chamber (36) is separated into at least two different flow circuits (51, 52). A first molten material (37) is received in a first flow circuit (51), and a second molten material (38) is received into a second flow circuit (52). The first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into the mold cavity (16) by the injectors (24) acting against the force of gravity. The injectors (24) are positioned such that the first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into different areas of the mold cavity (16). The molten materials (37, 38) are allowed to solidify and the resulting compound cast product is removed from the mold cavity (16).

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc......Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer...

  5. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories.

  6. Chemical Resistance of Ornamental Compound Stone Produced with Marble Waste and Unsaturated Polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos E. Gomes; Rodriguez, Rubén J. Sánchez; Vieira, Carlos M. Fontes

    Ornamental compound stone are produced by industry for decades, however, few published studies describe these materials. Brazil has many deposits of stone wastes and a big potential to produce these materials. This work aims to evaluate the chemical resistance of ornamental compound stones produced with marble waste and unsaturated polyester. An adaptation of Annex H of ABNT NBR 13818:97 standard, with reagents commonly used in household products, was used. The results were compared with those obtained for natural stone used in composite production.

  7. Antifungal effect of thymol, thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several human pathogenic fungi can acquire resistance against the available antifungal compounds or need ... Thymol, thymoquinone (TQ) and thymohydroquinone (THQ) are principle constituents of the essential oil of Nigella sativa seeds.

  8. Metal-chelating compounds produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi collected from pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, A; Pereira, G; Aguiar, A; Milagres, A M F

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro production of metal-chelating compounds by ectomycorrhizal fungi collected from pine plantations in southern Chile. Scleroderma verrucosum, Suillus luteus and two isolates of Rhizopogon luteolus were grown in solid and liquid modified Melin-Norkans (MMN) media with and without iron addition and the production of iron-chelating compounds was determined by Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay. The presence of hydroxamate and catecholate-type compounds and organic acids was also investigated in liquid medium. All isolates produced iron-chelating compounds as detected by CAS assay, and catecholates, hydroxamates as well as oxalic, citric and succinic acids were also detected in all fungal cultures. Scleroderma verrucosum produced the greatest amounts of catecholates and hydroxamates whereas the highest amounts of organic acids were detected in S. luteus. Nevertheless, the highest catecholate, hydroxamate and organic acid concentrations did not correlate with the highest CAS reaction which was observed in R. luteolus (Yum isolate). Ectomycorrhizal fungi produced a variety of metal-chelating compounds when grown in liquid MMN medium. However, the addition of iron to all fungi cultures reduced the CAS reaction, hydroxamate and organic acid concentrations. Catecholate production was affected differently by iron, depending on the fungal isolate. The ectomycorrhizal fungi described in this study have never been reported to produce metal-chelating compound production. Moreover, apart from some wood-rotting fungi, this is the first evidence of the presence of catecholates in R. luteolus, S. luteus and S. verrucosum cultures.

  9. Volatile compounds of Aspergillus strains with different abilities to produce ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna, Jadwiga

    2005-03-09

    Volatile compounds emitted by Aspergillus strains having different abilities to produce ochratoxin A were investigated. Thirteen strains of Aspergillus ochraceus, three belonging to the A. ochraceus group, and eight other species of Aspergillus were examined for their abilities to produce volatile compounds and ochratoxin A on a wheat grain medium. The profiles of volatile compounds, analyzed using SPME, in all A. ochraceus strains, regardless of their toxeginicity, were similar and comprised mainly of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octene, and limonene. The prevailing compound was always 1-octen-3-ol. Mellein, which forms part of the ochratoxin A molecule, was found in both toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains. Volatile compounds produced by other Aspergillus strains were similar to those of A. ochraceus. Incubation temperatures (20, 24, and 27 degrees C) and water content in the medium (20, 30, and 40%) influenced both volatile compounds formation and ochratoxin A biosynthesis efficiency, although conditions providing the maximum amount of volatiles were different from those providing the maximum amount of ochratoxin A. The pattern of volatiles produced by toxigenic A. ochraceus strains does not facilitate their differentiation from nontoxigenic strains.

  10. Volatile compounds in samples of cork and also produced by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, M C; Vilas Boas, L; Carneiro, L C; San Romão, M V

    2011-06-22

    The production of volatile compounds by microbial communities of cork samples taken during the cork manufacturing process was investigated. The majority of volatiles were found in samples collected at two stages: resting after the first boiling and nontreated cork disks. Volatile profiles produced by microbiota in both stages are similar. The releasable volatile compounds and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced in cork-based culture medium by five isolated fungal species in pure and mixed cultures were also analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The results showed that 1-octen-3-ol and esters of fatty acids (medium chain length C8-C20) were the main volatile compounds produced by either pure fungal species or their mixture. Apparently, Penicillium glabrum is the main contributor to the overall volatile composition observed in the mixed culture. The production of releasable TCA on cork cannot be attributed to any of the assayed fungal isolates.

  11. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid) Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    OpenAIRE

    Boonruang Kanchana; Chinsirikul Wannee; Hararak Bongkot; Kerddonfag Noppadon; Chonhenchob Vanee

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid) films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(-)-carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced ...

  12. A process for producing lignin and volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie, Tooran; Zhang, Yiqian; Tarasov, Dmitry; Gao, Weijue; Price, Jacquelyn; DeMartini, Nikolai; Hupa, Leena; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    Hot water hydrolysis process is commercially applied for treating wood chips prior to pulping or wood pellet production, while it produces hydrolysis liquor as a by-product. Since the hydrolysis liquor is dilute, the production of value-added materials from it would be challenging. In this study, acidification was proposed as a viable method to extract (1) furfural and acetic acid from hot water hydrolysis liquor and (2) lignin compounds from the liquor. The thermal properties of the precipitates made from the acidification of hydrolysis liquor confirmed the volatile characteristics of precipitates. Membrane dialysis was effective in removing inorganic salts associated with lignin compounds. The purified lignin compounds had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 180-190 °C, and were thermally stable. The results confirmed that lignin compounds present in hot water hydrolysis liquor had different characteristics. The acidification of hydrolysis liquor primarily removed the volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor. Based on these results, a process for producing purified lignin and precipitates of volatile compounds was proposed.

  13. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  14. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and BTEX Compounds in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Lorri

    2002-04-01

    Petroleum Environmental Technologies, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research and Development agreement with the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center to an in-situ pit treatment demonstration and produced water treatment demonstration. The purpose of the test is to demonstrate the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soil and aqueous matrices where ECOSAFE is applied to enhance the degradation of these contaminants.

  15. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Bulgur (Antep Type Produced from Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ibrahim Yousif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulgur is enjoyed and rediscovered by many people as a stable food because of its color, flavor, aroma, texture, and nutritional and economical values. There is more than one type of bulgur overall the world according to production techniques and raw materials. The volatile compounds of bulgur have not been explored yet. In this study, Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy (GS-MS methods were used to determine the volatile flavor compounds of bulgur (Antep type, produced from Durum wheat. Approaching studies were used and the results were optimized to determine the ideal conditions for the extraction and distinguish the compounds responsible for the flavor of bulgur. Approximately, 47 and 37 important volatile compounds were determined for Durum wheat and bulgur, respectively. The study showed that there was a great diversity of volatiles in bulgur produced using Durum wheat and Antep type production method. These can lead to a better understanding of the combination of compounds that give a unique flavor with more researches.

  16. The rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis produces dimethylhexadecylamine, a compound that inhibits growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes I; López-Bucio, José; Flores-Cortez, Idolina; Santoyo, Gustavo; Hernández-Soberano, Christian; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi affect agricultural production worldwide. Control of these pests can be done by the use of fungicides such as captan, which may have deleterious effects on human health. This study demonstrates that the rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 produces volatile organic compounds that inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in vitro. A single compound from the volatile blends, namely dimethylhexadecylamine (DMHDA), could inhibit the growth of both B. cinerea and P. cinnamomi when supplied to the growth medium in low concentrations. DMHDA also inhibited the growth of beneficial fungi Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride but at much higher concentrations. DMHDA-related aminolipids containing 4, 8, 10, 12, and 14 carbons in the alkyl chain were tested for their inhibitory effect on the growth of the pathogens. The results show that the most active compound from those tested was dimethyldodecylamine. This effect correlates with a decrease in the number of membrane lipids present in the mycelium of the pathogen including eicosanoic acid, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester. Strawberry leaflets treated with DMHDA were not injured by the compound. These data indicate that DMHDA and related compounds, which can be produced by microorganisms may effectively inhibit the proliferation of certain plant pathogens.

  17. Production and Recovery of Aroma Compounds Produced by Solid-State Fermentation Using Different Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane B. P. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds with fruity characteristics were produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata in two different bioreactors: columns (laboratory scale and horizontal drum (semi-pilot scale. Coffee husk was used as substrate for the production of volatile compounds by solid-state fermentation. The production of volatile compounds was significantly higher when horizontal drum bioreactor was used than when column bioreactors were used. These results showed that this model of bioreactor presents good perspectives for scale-up and application in an industrial production. Headspace analysis of the solid-state culture detected twelve compounds, among them: ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, and isoamyl acetate. Ethyl acetate was the predominant product in the headspace (28.55 µmol/L/g of initial dry matter. Activated carbon, Tenax-TA, and Amberlite XAD-2 were tested to perform the recovery of the compounds. The adsorbent columns were connected to the column-type bioreactor. All compounds present in the headspace of the columns were adsorbed in Amberlite XAD-2. With Tenax-TA, acetaldehyde was adsorbed in higher concentrations. However, the recovery found by using the activated carbon was very low.

  18. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonruang Kanchana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(--carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid (PLA-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced tensile strength and increased elongation at break of the antifungal PLA films.

  19. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  20. Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; Bates, A.L.; Tewalt, S.; Corum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for CBNG producers, and no previous studies of organic compounds in CBNG produced water have been published. Organic compounds identified in the produced water samples included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, various non-aromatic compounds, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are probably coal-derived. PAHs represented the group of organic compounds most commonly observed. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged up to 23 ??g/L. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 18 to compound concentrations was documented, as two wells with relatively high organic compound contents in produced water in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002. In many areas, including the PRB, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in produced water are also likely present in drinking water supplied from wells in the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are potentially toxic, but at the levels measured in these samples are unlikely to have acute health effects. The human health effects of low-level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water are currently unknown. Continuing studies will evaluate possible toxic effects from low level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water supplies.

  1. Production, optimization, characterization and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... the present study, the antifungal activity of crude A. terrus chitinase was investigated against Apergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae .... Chitinase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by estimating the amount of ..... characterization of two. Bifunctional chitinases lysozyme extracellularly produced by.

  2. Potential of volatile compounds produced by fungi to influence sensory quality of coffee beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamanaka, B. T.; Teixeira, A. A.; Teixeira, A. R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal...... contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São...... Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME...

  3. Characterization of volatile compounds produced by Lactobacillus helveticus strains in a hard cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffia, Facundo; Bergamini, Carina V; Wolf, Irma V; Hynes, Erica R; Perotti, María C

    2018-01-01

    Starter cultures of Lactobacillus helveticus used in hard cooked cheeses play an important role in flavor development. In this work, we studied the capacity of three strains of L. helveticus, two autochthonous (Lh138 and Lh209) and one commercial (LhB02), to grow and to produce volatile compounds in a hard cheese extract. Bacterial counts, pH, profiles of organic acids, carbohydrates, and volatile compounds were analyzed during incubation of extracts for 14 days at 37 ℃. Lactobacilli populations were maintained at 10 6 CFU ml -1 for Lh138, while decreases of approx. 2 log orders were found for LhB02 and Lh209. Both Lh209 and LhB02 slightly increased the acetic acid content whereas mild increase in lactic acid was produced by Lh138. The patterns of volatiles were dependent on the strain which reflect their distinct enzymatic machineries: LhB02 and Lh209 produced a greater diversity of compounds, while Lh138 was the least producer strain. Extracts inoculated with LhB02 and Lh 209 were characterized by ketones, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, and acids, whereas in the extracts with Lh138 the main compounds belonged to aromatic, aldehydes, and ketones groups. Therefore, Lh209 and LhB02 could represent the best cheese starters to improve and intensify the flavor, and even a starter composed by combinations of LhB02 or Lh209 with Lh138 could also be a strategy to diversify cheese flavor.

  4. Identification of an antifungal metabolite produced by a potential biocontrol Actinomyces strain A01 Identificação de um metabólito antifúngico produzido pela cepa Actinomyces A01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Ge Lu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503% was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases.A cepa Actinomyces A01 foi isolada do solo de um campo agrícola no subúrbio de Beijing, China. De acordo com as características morfológicas, culturais, fisiológicas e bioquímicas, e análise da sequência 16S rDNA , a cepa A01 foi identificada como Streptomyces lydicus. Nos testes de espectro antimicrobiano, a cepa A01 apresentou atividade inibitória intensa e estável contra vários fungos patogênicos para plantas, como Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilia laxa, etc. Entretanto, não foi encontrada atividade antibacteriana. Em experimentos em estufas, o desenvolvimento do fungo cinza do tomate foi fortemente

  5. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Marcussen, J.

    2015-01-01

    produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl......Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles...... to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile...

  6. Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Niels O; Mbadi, Phoebe A; Kiss, Gabriella Bukovinszkiné; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem; Smallegange, Renate C

    2011-02-08

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is considered to be highly anthropophilic and volatiles of human origin provide essential cues during its host-seeking behaviour. A synthetic blend of three human-derived volatiles, ammonia, lactic acid and tetradecanoic acid, attracts A. gambiae. In addition, volatiles produced by human skin bacteria are attractive to this mosquito species. The purpose of the current study was to test the effect of ten compounds present in the headspace of human bacteria on the host-seeking process of A. gambiae. The effect of each of the ten compounds on the attractiveness of a basic blend of ammonia, lactic and tetradecanoic acid to A. gambiae was examined. The host-seeking response of A. gambiae was evaluated in a laboratory set-up using a dual-port olfactometer and in a semi-field facility in Kenya using MM-X traps. Odorants were released from LDPE sachets and placed inside the olfactometer as well as in the MM-X traps. Carbon dioxide was added in the semi-field experiments, provided from pressurized cylinders or fermenting yeast. The olfactometer and semi-field set-up allowed for high-throughput testing of the compounds in blends and in multiple concentrations. Compounds with an attractive or inhibitory effect were identified in both bioassays. 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the best attractant in both set-ups and increased the attractiveness of the basic blend up to three times. 2-Phenylethanol reduced the attractiveness of the basic blend in both bioassays by more than 50%. Identification of volatiles released by human skin bacteria led to the discovery of compounds that have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of A. gambiae. 3-Methyl-1-butanol may be used to increase mosquito trap catches, whereas 2-phenylethanol has potential as a spatial repellent. These two compounds could be applied in push-pull strategies to reduce mosquito numbers in malaria endemic areas.

  7. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  8. Compounds producing an effective combinatorial regimen for disruption of HIV-1 latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Pargol; Barreto, Kris; Bernhard, Wendy; Lomness, Adam; Honson, Nicolette; Pfeifer, Tom A; Harrigan, P Richard; Sadowski, Ivan

    2018-02-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the outlook for the HIV epidemic, but does not provide a cure. The proposed "shock-and-kill" strategy is directed at inducing latent HIV reservoirs, which may then be purged via boosted immune response or targeting infected cells. We describe five novel compounds that are capable of reversing HIV latency without affecting the general T-cell activation state. The new compounds exhibit synergy for reactivation of latent provirus with other latency-reversing agents (LRAs), in particular ingenol-3-angelate/PEP005. One compound, designated PH02, was efficient at reactivating viral transcription in several cell lines bearing reporter HIV-1 at different integration sites. Furthermore, it was capable of reversing latency in resting CD4 + T lymphocytes from latently infected aviremic patient cells on HAART, while producing minimal cellular toxicity. The combination of PH02 and PEP005 produces a strong synergistic effect for reactivation, as demonstrated through a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (qVOA), on CD4 + T lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals. We propose that the PH02/PEP005 combination may represent an effective novel treatment for abrogating persistent HIV-1 infection. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red fruits produced in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. A. Soutinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were studied three red fruits (raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry produced in organic mode, to evaluate the variations in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity along maturation. The phenols were extracted from the fruits with two solvents (methanol and acetone and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined with two methods (HPPH and ABTS. Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify and quantify some phenolic compounds present in the fruits analyzed. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all fruits decreased along maturation, either in the methanol or acetone extracts (23 % and 20 % reduction, on average, for methanol and acetone extracts, respectively, although in methanol extracts the levels of phenolic compounds were always higher (0.54 and 0.21 mg GAE/g. The blueberry showed higher level of total phenolics in methanol extract (average 0.67 mg GAE/g, while in the acetone extract it was gooseberry (average 0.31 mg GAE/g. At the end of maturation, all fruits studied had similar values of antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH method (0.52 mmol Trolox/g. For the ABTS method, blueberries showed higher values of antioxidant activity (6.01 mmol Trolox/g against 3.01 and 2.66 mmol Trolox/g, for raspberry and gooseberry, respectively. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

  10. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenozhnikova, Lyudmila P.; Khasenova, Almagul K.; Balgimbaeva, Assya S.; Fedorova, Galina B.; Katrukha, Genrikh S.; Tokareva, Nina L.; Kwa, Boo H.; Azizan, Azliyati

    2012-01-01

    We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics. PMID:22536145

  11. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila P. Trenozhnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics.

  12. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine S Dobb

    Full Text Available Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds.

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of guanylhydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdačić Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel guanylhydrazones were designed, synthesized and characterized. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Compounds 26 and 27 showed excellent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 379 with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 4 μg mL-1, and good antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019. These results suggested that the selected guanylhydrazones could serve as promising leads for improved antimicrobial development. [Project of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Grant No. 172008 and Grant No. 173048

  14. Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A

    2014-02-01

    The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease.

  15. Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

  16. Production of Bioactive Compounds by Bacillus subtilis against Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalisha, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the characteristic of bioactive compound produced by Bacillus subtilis against Sclerotium rolfsii and the influence of additive supplements on the antagonistic activity of B. subtilis. The fact that B. subtilis produced an antifungal substance which has inhibitory effect on wide range of fungi, including S. rolfsii, is well known. To learn the effect of pH, temperature and light condition on the production of antifungal compound, B. subtilis was inoculated in Potato Dextrose Broth at various initial pH, temperatures and light conditions, respectively. This antagonist was found to produce antifungal compound that stable at 80C with 58.3 % inhibition on S. rolfsii. The activity was constant within a wide range of pH (3–11. However, treatment with pH11 lead to higher antifungal activity (31.57 % inhibition and it was also found to produce substance that can endure dark condition (46.24 % inhibition with fungicidal effect on S. rolfsii. A series of experiments also been carried out to enhance the antifungal production by supplementing different carbon source preparation into bacterial liquid culture. B. subtilis were grown in minimal medium containing 1 % of oil palm root, Ganoderma lucidum or chitin, respectively prior to bioassay. Crude culture from oil palm root supplemented culture shown significantly reduction in S. rolfsii growth compared to other carbon source crude culture or the antagonism alone, suggesting that this approach may provide improved biocontrol efficiency.

  17. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  18. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  19. Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Elin; Lindqvist, Dennis; Dahlgren, Henrik; Asplund, Lillemor; Lehtilä, Kari

    2016-02-01

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Insecticidal Compound Produced by an Insect-Pathogenic Bacterium Suppresses Host Defenses through Phenoloxidase Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay-guided column chromatographic strategy was adopted in the present study to fractionate the culture extract of Photorhabdus temperata M1021 to identify potential insecticidal and antimicrobial compounds. An ethyl acetate (EtOAc culture extract of P. temperata was assayed against Galleria mellonella larvae through intra-hemocoel injection and exhibited 100% insect mortality within 60 h. The EtOAc fraction and an isolated compound exhibited phenoloxidase (PO inhibition of up to 60% and 63%, respectively. The compound was identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid, PA by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. PA exhibited insecticidal activity against G. mellonella in a dose-dependent manner, and 100% insect mortality was observed at 108 h after injection of 1 M PA. In a PO inhibition assay, 0.5 and 1 M concentrations of PA were found to inhibit PO activity by 74% and 82%, respectively; and in a melanotic nodule formation assay, nodule formation was significantly inhibited (27 and 10 nodules by PA (0.5 and 1 M, respectively. PA was furthermore found to have substantial antioxidant activity and maximum antioxidant activity was 64.7% for 0.5 M PA as compare to control. Antibacterial activity was assessed by The MIC values ranged from 0.1 M to 0.5 M of PA. This study reports a multifunctional PA, a potential insecticidal agent, could a factor of insect mortality along with other toxins produced by P. temperata M1021.

  1. Purification and characterization of two new cell-bound bioactive compounds produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Margarete Alice Fontes; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf Figved; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; de Moraes, Célia Alencar

    2017-07-03

    Novel compounds and innovative methods are required considering that antibiotic resistance has reached a crisis point. In the study, two cell-bound antimicrobial compounds produced by Lactococcus lactis ID1.5 were isolated and partially characterized. Following purification by cationic exchange and a solid-phase C18 column, antimicrobial activity was recovered after three runs of RPC using 60% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) of 2-propanol for elution, suggesting that more than one antimicrobial compound were produced by L. lactis ID1.5, which were in this study called compounds AI and AII. The mass spectrum of AI and AII showed major intensity ions at m/z 1070.05 and 955.9 Da, respectively. The compound AI showed a spectrum of antimicrobial activity mainly against L. lactis species, while the organisms most sensitive to compound AII were Bacillus subtilis, Listeria innocua, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of both compounds was suppressed by treatment with Tween 80. Nevertheless, both compounds showed high stability to heat and proteases treatments. The isolated compounds, AI and AII, showed distinct properties from other antimicrobial substances already reported as produced by L. lactis, and have a significant inhibitory effect against two clinically important respiratory pathogens. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Musa Phytoalexins and Structural Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gallego

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Several perinaphthenone/phenylphenalenone compounds were synthesized to establish a relationship between structure and antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Substitutions on the unsaturated carbonyl system or addition of a phenyl group reduced antibiotic activity.

  3. Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Psoralen Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of linear furanocoumarins with different substituents have been designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectra (EI-MS, IR, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. All of the target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctorzia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Gibberella zeae, Cucumber anthrax, and Alternaria leaf spot at 100 μg/mL, and some of the designed compounds exhibited potential antifungal activities. Compound 3a (67.9% exhibited higher activity than the control Osthole (66.1% against Botrytis cinerea. Furthermore, compound 4b (62.4% represented equivalent antifungal activity as Osthole (69.5% against Rhizoctonia solani. The structure-activity relationship (SAR study demonstrates that linear furanocoumarin moiety has an important effect on the antifungal activity, promoting the idea of the coumarin ring as a framework that might be exploited in the future.

  4. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  5. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao

    2008-01-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  6. Study on wood vinegars for use as coagulating and antifungal agents on the production of natural rubber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimark, Yodthong; Niamsa, Noi [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2009-06-15

    Coagulating and antifungal properties of wood vinegars in the preparation process of Hevea brasiliensis natural rubber (NR) sheets were investigated and compared with those of formic and acetic acids. The wood vinegars produced from biomasses such as inner coconut shell, bamboo and Eucalyptus woods were evaluated. It was found that plasticity retention index, Mooney viscosity and mechanical properties of NR coagulated by wood vinegars were similar to those using acetic acid and better than using formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of coagulants determined from a fungi growth area on NR sheet surfaces was found in the following order: coconut shell wood vinegar > bamboo wood vinegar {approx} Eucalyptus wood vinegar > acetic acid {approx} formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of the wood vinegars was strongly depended upon their phenolic compound contents and confirmed through the inhibitory growth of the main fungi, Penicillium griseofulvum, on potato dextrose agar. (author)

  7. Microbial cycling of isoprene, the most abundantly produced biological volatile organic compound on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J; Crombie, Andrew T; Murrell, J Colin

    2018-04-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, is highly reactive and can have diverse and often detrimental atmospheric effects, which impact on climate and health. Most isoprene is produced by terrestrial plants, but (micro)algal production is important in aquatic environments, and the relative bacterial contribution remains unknown. Soils are a sink for isoprene, and bacteria that can use isoprene as a carbon and energy source have been cultivated and also identified using cultivation-independent methods from soils, leaves and coastal/marine environments. Bacteria belonging to the Actinobacteria are most frequently isolated and identified, and Proteobacteria have also been shown to degrade isoprene. In the freshwater-sediment isolate, Rhodococcus strain AD45, initial oxidation of isoprene to 1,2-epoxy-isoprene is catalyzed by a multicomponent isoprene monooxygenase encoded by the genes isoABCDEF. The resultant epoxide is converted to a glutathione conjugate by a glutathione S-transferase encoded by isoI, and further degraded by enzymes encoded by isoGHJ. Genome sequence analysis of actinobacterial isolates belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Gordonia has revealed that isoABCDEF and isoGHIJ are linked in an operon, either on a plasmid or the chromosome. In Rhodococcus strain AD45 both isoprene and epoxy-isoprene induce a high level of transcription of 22 contiguous genes, including isoABCDEF and isoGHIJ. Sequence analysis of the isoA gene, encoding the large subunit of the oxygenase component of isoprene monooxygenase, from isolates has facilitated the development of PCR primers that are proving valuable in investigating the ecology of uncultivated isoprene-degrading bacteria.

  8. IIn vitro antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts against early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 27 plant extracts were tested against Alternaria solani (E. & M.) Jones and Grout using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities, the results revealed that Circium arvense, Humulus lupulus, Lauris nobilis and Salvia officinalis showed significant ...

  9. A simple, convenient, and one pot synthetic route for the preparation of 1,3,5-thiadiazines-2-thione heterocyclic compounds and their antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new heterocyclic 1,3,5-thiadiazines-2-thione with aroyl/aryl substituents (3a-c were synthesized by reacting isothiocyanates with N- (propan-2-ylpropan-2- amine in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide as phase transfer catalyst. The structures of these novel compounds were characterized by IR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against Fusarium solani, A. fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus using standard drugs.

  10. Diversity of Micromonospora strains from the deep Mediterranean Sea and their potential to produce bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gärtner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During studies on bacteria from the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea, incubation under in situ conditions (salinity, temperature and pressure and heat treatment were used to selectively enrich representatives of Micromonospora. From sediments of the Ierapetra Basin (4400 m depth and the Herodotos Plain (2800 m depth, 21 isolates were identified as members of the genus Micromonospora. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Micromonospora isolates could be assigned to 14 different phylotypes with an exclusion limit of ≥ 99.5% sequence similarity. They formed 7 phylogenetic clusters. Two of these clusters, which contain isolates obtained after enrichment under pressure incubation and phylogenetically are distinct from representative reference organism, could represent bacteria specifically adapted to the conditions in situ and to life in these deep-sea sediments. The majority of the Micromonospora isolates (90% contained at least one gene cluster for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides (polyketide synthases type I and type II. The determination of biological activities of culture extracts revealed that almost half of the strains produced substances inhibitory to the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical analyses of culture extracts demonstrated the presence of different metabolite profiles also in closely related strains. Therefore, deep-sea Micromonospora isolates are considered to have a large potential for the production of new antibiotic compounds.

  11. Actinomycetes of Orthosipon stamineus rhizosphere as producer of antibacterial compound against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rante, H.; Yulianty, R.; Usmar; Djide, N.; Subehan; Burhamzah, R.; Prasad, M. B.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing case of antibiotic resistence has become an important problem to be faced in treating the infection diseases. The diversities of microbia, especially actinomycetes bacteria which originated from rizosphere soil of medicinal plant, has opened a chance for discovering the metabolites which can be used in solving the antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria problems. The aim of this research was to isolate the actinobacteria originated from medicinal plant rizosphere of Orthosipon stamineus as the producer of anti-multidrug resistances bacteria compounds. Three isolates of actinomycetes has been isolated from Orthosipon stamineus rhizosphere named KC3-1, KC3-2 and KC3-3. One isolate (KC3-3) showed big activity in inhibiting the test microbes by antagonistic test of actinomycetes isolates against Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli antibiotic resistant bacteria. Furthermore, the KC3-3 isolate was fermented in Starch Nitrate Broth (SNB) medium for 14 days. The supernatant and the biomass of the fermentation yield were separated. The supernatant were extracted using ethyl acetate as the solvent and the biomass were extracted using methanol. The antibacterial activity test of ethyl acetate and methanol extract revealed that the extracts can inhibit the bacteria test up to 5% concentration. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts can inhibit the bacteria test up to 5% concentration.

  12. LC-MS/MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Pentacyclic Triterpenes in Antifungal Extracts of Terminalia brownii (Fresen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass Y. A. Salih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decoctions and macerations of the stem bark and wood of Terminalia brownii Fresen. are used in traditional medicine for fungal infections and as fungicides on field crops and in traditional granaries in Sudan. In addition, T. brownii water extracts are commonly used as sprays for protecting wooden houses and furniture. Therefore, using agar disc diffusion and macrodilution methods, eight extracts of various polarities from the stem wood and bark were screened for their growth-inhibitory effects against filamentous fungi commonly causing fruit, vegetable, grain and wood decay, as well as infections in the immunocompromised host. Ethyl acetate extracts of the stem wood and bark gave the best antifungal activities, with MIC values of 250 µg/mL against Nattrassia mangiferae and Fusarium verticillioides, and 500 µg/mL against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Aqueous extracts gave almost as potent effects as the ethyl acetate extracts against the Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, and were slightly more active than the ethyl acetate extracts against Nattrassia mangiferae. Thin layer chromatography, RP-HPLC-DAD and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, were employed to identify the chemical constituents in the ethyl acetate fractions of the stem bark and wood. The stem bark and wood were found to have a similar qualitative composition of polyphenols and triterpenoids, but differed quantitatively from each other. The stilbene derivatives, cis- (3 and trans- resveratrol-3-O-β-galloylglucoside (4, were identified for the first time in T. brownii. Moreover, methyl-(S-flavogallonate (5, quercetin-7-β-O-di-glucoside (8, quercetin-7-O-galloyl-glucoside (10, naringenin-4′-methoxy-7-pyranoside (7, 5,6-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-tri-methoxy flavone (12, gallagic acid dilactone (terminalin (6, a corilagin derivative (9 and two oleanane type triterpenoids (1 and (2 were characterized. The flavonoids, a corilagin derivative and terminalin, have not been

  13. Lethal and Mutagenic Effects of Tritium Decay Produced by Tritiated Compounds Incorporated into Bacteria and Bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, S. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1968-06-15

    The work discussed below is predominantly from the author's laboratory. Some effects of tritium decay on bacteria and bacteriophages, using labelled compounds that are incorporated preferentially into DNA, RNA or protein, have been studied. A relatively high killing efficiency, the probability that a single decay produces loss of colony-forming ability in bacteria or loss of plaque-forming ability in bacteriophages, is observed for thymidine- methyl-{sup 3}H decay, but this is thought to be due to S-particle ionization damage. The most definitive experiments involved a comparison of killing efficiencies for decays originating as thymidine-methyl-{sup 3}H in phage DNA and as amino acid-{sup 3}H in phage protein with the calculated {beta}-particle path length through, the DNA in the two cases. Experimental and calculated values are essentially the same. Radiation-dose calculations to many different bacterial sub-volumes were determined for several different distributions of radioactivity. The high killing efficiency for thymidine-methyl- {sup 3}H decay can be explained by {beta}-particle ionizations, providing DNA is the sensitive target molecule and it is organized in a central volume of the cell (see also Ref.[24]). Although both the lethal and mutagenic effect of thymidine-methyl-{sup 3}H and amino acid-{sup 3}H decays can readily be explained on the basis of {beta}-particle ionizations, the observed large mutation frequency produced by uracil-5{sup 3}H decay cannot. The majority of mutations produced by uracil-5{sup 3}H decays are due to a specific chemical rearrangement of the parent molecule, since decays from uracil-6{sup 3}H are 6 to 7-fold less mutagenic. It is clear that the decays leading to mutations for cells labelled with uracil-5{sup 3}H originate as cytosine-5{sup 3}H in bacterial DNA. Recent work shows that the specific chemical rearrangement causes a C --> T(u) genetic coding change. (author)

  14. In vitro antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts on mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts were tested against Phytophthora infestans using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities Xanthium strumarium, Lauris nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Styrax officinalis were the most active plants that showed potent antifungal activity.

  15. Reactivity Of Radiolytically-Produced Nitrogen Oxide Radicals Toward Aromatic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Gracy

    2010-01-01

    radiolysis of the modifier (Cs-7SB), which solvates both metal complexes, is responsible for this change. These reactions presumably occur due to reactions with radiolytically-produced nitrogen-centered radicals like (sm b ullet)NO, (sm b ullet)NO 2 and (sm b ullet)NO 3 . Anisole (C 6 H 5 -OCH 3 ) was used in this study as a surrogate for Cs-7SB, since both are aryl ethers. Toluene was used as a surrogate for Cs-7SB because of the alkyl group on the benzene ring in both molecules. Anisole, highly reactive in acids, is a small molecule compared to Cs-7SB and the nitration products are easier to identify compared to those for the larger Cs-7SB molecule. Toluene is less reactive than anisole. Therefore, the highly reactive anisole and the less reactive toluene were considered in this study as model compounds to compare the reaction mechanisms and the nitrated products in acidic media under irradiation. Experiments were designed to elucidate the mechanism of the nitration of aromatic rings in γ-irradiated aqueous nitric acid. Since a suite of radical and ionic reactive species are produced in this condensed-phase system, solutions of nitric acid, neutral nitrate and neutral nitrite were irradiated in separate experiments to isolate selected reactive species. Product nitration species were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a reversed phase C-18 column and photodiode array detector. The nitrated anisole product distributions were the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed with radiation. In the irradiated acidic condensed phase, radiation-enhanced nitrous acid-catalyzed nitrosonium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by oxidation reactions dominated over radical addition reactions. In contrast, the distribution of nitrated derivatives for toluene showed nitronium ion electrophilic substitution in the unirradiated acidic medium as a result of thermal nitration only at elevated temperatures

  16. Antifungal resistance in mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, E

    2017-11-01

    The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials. Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are currently the most active agents against Mucorales; however, their activity remains suboptimal and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Combination therapy could be a promising approach to overcome resistance, but further studies are required to confirm its benefits and safety for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Organic Compounds Produced by Photolysis of Realistic Interstellar and Cometary Ice Analogs Containing Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Chang, Sherwood; Scharberg, Maureen A.

    1995-01-01

    The InfraRed (IR) spectra of UltraViolet (UV) and thermally processed, methanol-containing interstellar / cometary ice analogs at temperatures from 12 to 300 K are presented. Infrared spectroscopy, H-1 and C-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicate that CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane), HCO (the formyl radical), H2CO (formaldehyde), CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC([double bond]O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C([double bond]O)NH2 (acetamide), and R[single bond]C[triple bond]N (nitriles) are formed. In addition, the organic materials remaining after photolyzed ice analogs have been warmed to room temperature contain (in rough order of decreasing abundance), (1) hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), (2) ethers, alcohols, and compounds related to PolyOxyMethylene (POM, ([single bond]CH2O[single bond](sub n)), and (3) ketones (R[single bond]C([double bond]O)[single bond]R') and amides (H2NC([double bond]O)[single bond]R). Most of the carbon in these residues is thought to come from the methanol in the original ice. Deuterium and C-13 isotopic labeling demonstrates that methanol is definitely the source of carbon in HMT. High concentrations of HMT in interstellar and cometary ices could have important astrophysical consequences. The ultraviolet photolysis of HMT frozen in H2O ice readily produces the 'XCN' band observed in the spectra of protostellar objects and laboratory ices, as well as other nitriles. Thus, HMT may be a precursor of XCN and a source of CN in comets and the interstellar medium. Also, HMT is known to hydrolyze under acidic conditions to yield ammonia, formaldehyde, and amino acids. Thus, HMT may be a significant source of prebiogenic compounds on asteroidal parent bodies. A potential mechanism for the radiative formation of HMT in cosmic ices is outlined.

  18. Antifungal isopimaranes from Hypoestes serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, L; Guilet, D; Marston, A; Randimbivololona, F; Hostettmann, K

    2003-09-01

    Five isopimarane diterpenes (7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8,15-dien-14-one, 14alpha-hydroxyisopimara-7,15-dien-1-one, 1beta,14alpha-dihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, 7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one and 7beta-acetoxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one) have been isolated from the leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). All compounds exhibited antifungal activity against both the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans; two of them also displayed an acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis.

  19. Comparative evaluation of two Trichoderma harzianum strains for major secondary metabolite production and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitendra; Rana, Virendra S; Sati, Om P; Walia, S

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to identify the major secondary metabolite, produced by two Trichoderma harzianum strains (T-4 and T-5) with their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using poison food technique. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol gradually. Chromatographic separation of ethyl acetate extract of T. harzianum (T-4) resulted in the isolation and identification of palmitic acid (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (2), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), 2(5H)-furanone (4), stigmasterol (5) and β-sitosterol (6), while T. harzianum (T-5) gave palmitic acid (1), 1-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (7), δ-decanolactone (8), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), ergosterol (9), harzianopyridone (10) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (11) as major metabolites. Among compounds screened for antifungal activity, compound 10 was found to be most active (EC50 35.9-50.2 μg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the present investigation provided significant information about antifungal activity and compounds isolated from two different strains of T. harzianum obtained from two different Himalayan locations.

  20. Anti-Fungal activity of essential oil from Baeckea frutescens L against Pleuratus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemi, Renhart; Barus, Ade Irma; Nuwa, Sarinah, Luhan, Gimson

    2017-11-01

    Ujung Atap is an herb that have distinctive odor on its leaves. The plant's essential oil contains bioactive compounds but has not been investigated its anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Essential oil from Ujung Atap leaves is one environmentally friendly natural preservative. This study consisted of distillation Ujung Atap leaves with boiled method, determining the number of acid, essential oil ester, and anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Analysis of the data to calculate anti-fungal activity used probit analysis method to determine the IC50. Results for the distillation of leaves Ujung Atap produce essential oil yield of 0.071% and the average yield of the acid number and the ester of essential oils Ujung Atap leaves are 5.24 and 12.15. Anti-fungal activity Pleurotus ostreatus at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 75 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL BA defunct or fungi was declared dead, while at a concentration of 25 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL still occur inhibitory processes. Results obtained probit analysis method IC50 of 35.48 mg/mL; means the essential oil of Ujung Atap leaf can inhibit fungal growth by 50 percent to 35.48 µg/mL concentration.

  1. Carbon dioxide absorbents containing potassium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, M; Yamada, S; Chen, X; Iwasaki, S; Tsujiguchi, N; Namiki, A

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the concentrations of degraded sevoflurane Compound A during low-flow anesthesia with four carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents. The concentrations of Compound A, obtained from the inspiratory limb of the circle system, were measured by using a gas chromatograph. In the groups administered 2 L/min fresh gas flow with 1% sevoflurane, when the conventional CO(2) absorbents, Wakolime(TM) (Wako, Tokyo, Japan) and Drägersorb(TM) (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany), were used, the concentrations of Compound A increased steadily from a baseline to 14.3 ppm (mean) and 13.2 ppm, respectively, at 2 h after exposure to sevoflurane. In contrast, when the other novel types of absorbents containing decreased or no potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide, Medisorb(TM) (Datex-Ohmeda, Louisville, CO) and Amsorb(TM) (Armstrong, Coleraine, Northern Ireland), were used, Compound A remained at baseline (potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of Compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice. An absorbent containing neither potassium hydroxide nor sodium hydroxide produces the smallest concentrations of Compound A.

  2. Potency of sponge-associated bacteria producing bioactive compounds as biological control of vibriosis on shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adityawati Fajar Rini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to obtain sponge-associated bacteria as biocontrol to inhibit vibriosis in vitro and in vivo, to identify the bacterial isolates based on 16S-rRNA gene, and to detect the presence of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, and polyketide synthase (PKS genes to prove its ability of bioactive compounds synthesis. Aaptos sp. and Hyrtios sp. sponges were collected from Pramuka Island, Jakarta. The isolation using sea water complete (SWC and  zobel marine agar (ZMA medium obtained 174 isolates. A total 69 isolates were screened successfully based on their antibacterial activity. 47 isolates showed negative haemolysis through hemolytic assays. The pathogenicity test used twelve selected isolates that have a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and haemolysis negative. The result of pathogenicity test showed  that 12 isolates were not pathogenic to the shrimp post larvae with no significantly different (P>0.05 between treatment and negative control. Results of challenge test with Vibrio harveyi have a significant difference survival (70±5.0–90±0.0% (P<0.05 compared with positive control (38.3±2.9%. Genetic analysis based on 16S-rRNA revealed the groups of three genera belonged to Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Alcaligenes. Based on amplification of NRPS and PKS genes, four bacterial isolates have been detected to have only NRPS gene, one isolate has only PKS, and one isolate has both genes. The results indicate that the potency of six sponge-associated bacteria as bioactive compounds producers. Keywords: NRPS, PKS, anti-vibriosis, Pacific white shrimp  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh isolat bakteri asosiasi spons yang mempunyai kemampuan dalam menghambat vibriosis secara in vitro, in vivo dan mendeteksi gen 16S-rRNA, nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS serta polyketide synthase (PKS untuk memastikan kemampuan mensintesis senyawa bioaktif. Spons Aaptos sp. dan Hyrtios sp. berhasil

  3. Producing a compound Nucleus via Inelastic Scattering: The 90Zr(alpha,alpha')90Zr* Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2008-05-23

    In a Surrogate reaction a compound nucleus is produced via a direct reaction (pickup, stripping, or inelastic scattering). For a proper application of the Surrogate approach it is necessary to predict the resulting angular momentum and parity distribution in the compound nucleus. A model for determining these distributions is developed for the case of inelastic alpha scattering off a spherical nucleus. The focus is on obtaining a first, simple description of the direct-reaction process that produces the compound nucleus and on providing the basis for a more complete treatment of the problem. The approximations employed in the present description are discussed and the extensions required for a more rigorous treatment of the problem are outlined. To illustrate the formalism, an application to {sup 90}Zr({alpha},{alpha}{prime}){sup 90}Zr* is presented.

  4. Volatile compounds and some physico-chemical properties of pastırma produced with different nitrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Akköse

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different nitrate levels (150, 300, 450, and 600 ppm KNO3 on the volatile compounds and some other properties of pastırma. Methods Pastırma samples were produced under the controlled condition and analyses of volatile compounds, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as an indicator of lipid oxidation, non-protein nitrogenous matter content as an indicator of proteolysis, color and residual nitrite were carried out on the final product. The profile of volatile compounds of pastırma samples was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a solid phase microextraction. Results Nitrate level had a significant effect on pH value (p<0.05 and a very significant effect on TBARS value (p<0.01. No significant differences were determined in terms of aw value, non-protein nitrogenous substance content, color and residual nitrite between pastırma groups produced by using different nitrate levels. Nitrate level had a significant (p<0.05 or a very significant (p<0.01 effect on some volatile compounds. It was determined that the amounts and counts of volatile compounds were lower in the 450 and especially 600 ppm nitrate levels than 150 and 300 ppm nitrate levels (p<0.05. While the use of 600 ppm nitrate did not cause an increase in residual nitrite levels, the use of 150 ppm nitrate did not negatively affect the color of pastırma. However, the levels of volatile compounds decreased with an increasing level of nitrate. Conclusion The use of 600 ppm nitrate is not a risk in terms of residual nitrite in pastırma produced under controlled condition, however, this level is not suitable due to decrease in the amount of volatile compounds.

  5. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    symptoms were less clear and were inconsistent, possibly because of difficulties encountered in measuring these symptoms. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that dose or mode of delivery influenced treatment outcome. Only one study reported on treatment compliance. No study assessed quality of life. One study assessed the maximum rash-free period but provided insufficient data for analysis. One small study in patients with HIV compared the effect of lithium versus placebo on seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face, but treatment outcomes were similar. Authors' conclusions Ketoconazole and ciclopirox are more effective than placebo, but limited evidence suggests that either of these agents is more effective than any other agent within the same class. Very few studies have assessed symptom clearance for longer periods than four weeks. Ketoconazole produced findings similar to those of steroids, but side effects were fewer. Treatment effect on overall quality of life remains unknown. Better outcome measures, studies of better quality and better reporting are all needed to improve the evidence base for antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis. Plain Language Summary Antifungal treatments applied to the skin to treat seborrhoeic dermatitis Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition found throughout the world, with rashes with varying degrees of redness, scaling and itching. It affects people of both sexes but is more common among men. The disease usually starts after puberty and can lead to personal discomfort and cosmetic concerns when rashes occur at prominent skin sites. Drugs that act against moulds, also called antifungal agents, have been commonly used on their own or in combination. Review question Do antifungal treatments applied to the skin clear up the rashes and itching of seborrhoeic dermatitis? Study characteristics We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Trials typically were four weeks long, and very few trials were longer. In

  6. Inhibition of Hyphal Growth of Azole-Resistant Strains of Candida albicans by Triazole Antifungal Agents in the Presence of Lactoferrin-Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Shigeru; Teraguchi, Susumu; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    1998-01-01

    The effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF) or the LF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) on the growth of Candida albicans hyphae, including those of three azole-resistant strains, were investigated by a crystal violet staining method. The hyphae of two highly azole-resistant strains were more susceptible to inhibition by LF or LFcin B than the azole-susceptible strains tested. One moderately azole-resistant strain was defective in the formation of hyphae and showed a susceptibility to LF greater than that of the susceptible strains but a susceptibility to LFcin B similar to that of the susceptible strains. The highly azole-resistant strain TIMM3317 showed trailing growth in the presence of fluconazole or itraconazole, while the extent of growth was reduced by the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC. Thus, the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC resulted in a substantial decrease in the MICs of fluconazole and itraconazole for two highly azole-resistant strains; e.g., the MIC of fluconazole for TIMM3317 was shifted from >256 to 0.25 μg/ml by LF, but the MICs were not decreased for the susceptible strains. The combination effects observed with triazoles and LF-related compounds in the case of the two highly azole-resistant strains were confirmed to be synergistic by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. These results demonstrate that for some azole-resistant C. albicans strains, LF-related compounds combined with triazoles can inhibit the growth of hyphae, an important form of this organism in pathogenesis. PMID:9660988

  7. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  8. Clinical estimation of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds produced by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsuji; Kawahira, Kenjiro; Kamoi, Itsuma; Morita, Kazunori

    1974-01-01

    Scintigrams were made using sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid, sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate, sup(99m)Tc-EDTA and sup(99m)Tc-albumin prepared by electrolysis, and a clinical evaluation was attempted. No side effects were recognized in 228 cases, therefore the object of this study could be attained. Future study was thought to be necessary because the pictures were somewhat indistinct. However, each sup(99m)Tc-labeled compound could be prepared very easily and was extremely convenient for daily use. sup(99m)Tc- is a nuclide which has many advantages for use with scintigrams. More useful sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds will be explored in the future and is expected that electrolysis has many possibilities for use in the preparation of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. On the criterion for the optimum choice of a compound nucleus reaction for producing superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroumougame, R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The possible reaction partners of a cool compound nucleus reaction for the synthesis of the elements Z = 104, 106 and 108 are studied in terms of the potential energy surfaces, interaction barriers and the nuclear shapes calculated within the frame work of the Fragmentation theory based on two centre shell model. An estimate of the total reaction cross-section suggests that for larger fusion probabilities, the mass and charge asymmetries are the only essential criterion for the optimum choice of a cooler compound nuclear reaction. Larger the mass and charge asymmetries, larger is the fusion cross-section. (auth.)

  10. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species ( Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana ) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi ( Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum ). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens ( Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans ). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum . The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating

  11. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M G; Brinkman, P; Escobar Salazar, Natalia; Bos, L D; de Heer, K; Meijer, M; Janssen, H-G; de Cock, H; Wösten, H A B; Visser, C.E.; van Oers, M H J; Sterk, P J

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  12. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  13. The fungal resistome: a risk and an opportunity for the development of novel antifungal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose A; Molero, Gloria; Gil, Concha; Martínez, José L

    2016-08-01

    The risks for toxicity of novel antifungal compounds, together with the emergence of resistance, makes the use of inhibitors of resistance, in combination with antifungal compounds, a suitable strategy for developing novel antifungal formulations. Among them, inhibitors of efflux pumps are suitable candidates. Increasing drug influx or interfering with the stress response may also improve the efficacy of antifungals. Therapies as induction of fungal apoptosis or immunostimulation are also good strategies for reducing the risks for resistance and to improve antifungals' efficacy. Understanding the effect of the acquisition of resistance on the fungal physiology and determining the collateral sensitivity networks are useful for the development of novel strategies based on combination of antifungals for improving the efficacy of the therapy.

  14. Structural Basis of Human CYP51 Inhibition by Antifungal Azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strushkevich, Natallia; Usanov, Sergey A.; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (IBC-Belarus)

    2010-09-22

    The obligatory step in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes is demethylation of sterol precursors at the C14-position, which is catalyzed by CYP51 (sterol 14-alpha demethylase) in three sequential reactions. In mammals, the final product of the pathway is cholesterol, while important intermediates, meiosis-activating sterols, are produced by CYP51. Three crystal structures of human CYP51, ligand-free and complexed with antifungal drugs ketoconazole and econazole, were determined, allowing analysis of the molecular basis for functional conservation within the CYP51 family. Azole binding occurs mostly through hydrophobic interactions with conservative residues of the active site. The substantial conformational changes in the B{prime} helix and F-G loop regions are induced upon ligand binding, consistent with the membrane nature of the protein and its substrate. The access channel is typical for mammalian sterol-metabolizing P450 enzymes, but is different from that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51. Comparison of the azole-bound structures provides insight into the relative binding affinities of human and bacterial P450 enzymes to ketoconazole and fluconazole, which can be useful for the rational design of antifungal compounds and specific modulators of human CYP51.

  15. Two generators to produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, C.; Guillevic, M.; Ackermann, A.; Leuenberger, D.; Niederhauser, B.

    2017-12-01

    To answer the needs of air quality and climate monitoring networks, two new gas generators were developed and manufactured at METAS in order to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations. The technical features of the transportable generators allow for the realization of such gas standards for reactive compounds (e.g. NO2, volatile organic compounds) in the nmol · mol-1 range (ReGaS2), and fluorinated gases in the pmol ṡ mol-1 range (ReGaS3). The generation method is based on permeation and dynamic dilution. The transportable generators have multiple individual permeation chambers allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to five different compounds. This mixture is then diluted using mass flow controllers, thus making the production process adaptable to generate the required amount of substance fraction. All parts of ReGaS2 in contact with the gas mixture are coated to reduce adsorption/desorption processes. Each input parameter required to calculate the generated amount of substance fraction is calibrated with SI-primary standards. The stability and reproducibility of the generated amount of substance fractions were tested with NO2 for ReGaS2 and HFC-125 for ReGaS3. They demonstrate stability over 1-4 d better than 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, and reproducibility better than 0.7% and 1%, respectively. Finally, the relative expanded uncertainty of the generated amount of substance fraction is smaller than 3% with the major contributions coming from the uncertainty of the permeation rate and/or of the purity of the matrix gas. These relative expanded uncertainties meet then the needs of the data quality objectives fixed by the World Meteorological Organization.

  16. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  17. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3–6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0–4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications. PMID:29293588

  18. Study on a method for loading a Li compound to produce tritium using high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, Hiroyuki, E-mail: nakaya@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 8190395 (Japan); Matsuura, Hideaki [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 8190395 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga 8168580 (Japan); Goto, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Tritium production by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor was studied. • The loading method considering tritium outflow suppression was estimated. • A reactor with 600 MWt produced 400–600 g of tritium for 180 days. • A possibility that tritium outflow can be sufficiently suppressed was shown. - Abstract: Tritium production using high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and its outflow from the region loading Li compound into the helium coolant are estimated when considering the suppression of tritium outflow. A Li rod containing a cylindrical Li compound placed in an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cladding tube is assumed as a method for loading Li compound. A gas turbine high-temperature reactor of 300 MW electrical nominal capacity (GTHTR300) with 600 MW thermal output power is considered and modeled using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code MVP-BURN, where burn-up simulations are carried out. Tritium outflow is estimated from equilibrium solution for the tritium diffusion equation in the cladding tube. A GTHTR300 can produce 400–600 g of tritium over a 180-day operation using the chosen method of loading the Li compound while minimizing tritium outflow from the cladding tube. Optimizing tritium production while suppressing tritium outflow is discussed.

  19. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Mathew; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3-6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0-4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications.

  20. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S

    2004-04-01

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered.

  1. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S.

    2004-01-01

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered

  2. Antifungal Effect of (+-Pinoresinol Isolated from Sambucus williamsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Hwang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH indicated that the (+-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  3. Effect of agitation rate on the production of antifungal metabolites by Streptomyces hygroscopicus in a lab-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Ivana Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of antifungal compounds produced by microorganisms in the control of plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi is a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. Among phytopathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium avenaceum are significant pathogens responsible for the storage rot of apple fruits. During storage, transport and marketing A. alternata and F. avenaceum can cause significant losses of apple fruits and their control is of great importance for the producers and consumers. In the present study, the effects of agitation rate on the production of antifungal methabolite( s by Streptomyces hygroscopicus in a 3-L lab-scale bioreactor (Biostat® Aplus, Sartorius AG, Germany against two isolates of A. alternata and two isolates of F. avenaceum were investigated. The cultivation of S. hygroscopicus was carried out at 27°C with agitation rates of 100 rpm and 200 rpm during 7 days. The aim was to analyze the bioprocess parameters of biofungicide production in a medium containing glycerol as a carbon source, and examine the effect of agitation rate on the production of antifungal metabolite(s. The in vitro antifungal activity of the produced metabolites against fungi from the genera Alternaria and Fusarium grown on potato dextrose agar medium was determined every 24 h using wells technique. In the experiments conducted in the bioreactor at different stirring speeds, it was found that the maximum production of antifungal metabolites occurred after 96 hours of cultivation. A higher consumption of nutrients and a larger inhibition zone diameter was registered in the experiment with an agitation rate of 200 rpm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31002

  4. Aluminium Foam and Magnesium Compound Casting Produced by High-Pressure Die Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iban Vicario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are two of the main focal points in vehicle design, promoting the reduction in the weight of vehicles by using lighter materials. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of different aluminium foams and injection parameters in order to obtain compound castings with a compromise between the obtained properties and weight by high-pressure die cast (HPDC using aluminium foams as cores into a magnesium cast part. To evaluate the influence of the different aluminium foams and injection parameters on the final casting products quality, the type and density of the aluminium foam, metal temperature, plunger speed, and multiplication pressure have been varied within a range of suitable values. The obtained compound HPDC castings have been studied by performing visual and RX inspections, obtaining sound composite castings with aluminium foam cores. The presence of an external continuous layer on the foam surface and the correct placement of the foam to support injection conditions permit obtaining good quality parts. A HPDC processed magnesium-aluminium foam composite has been developed for a bicycle application obtaining a suitable combination of mechanical properties and, especially, a reduced weight in the demonstration part.

  5. Preliminary characterization of wild lactic acid bacteria and their abilities to produce flavour compounds in ripened model cheese system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; De Luca, S; Todaro, A; Restuccia, C; Lanza, C M; Spagna, G; Caggia, C

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to preliminary characterize wild lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated during artisanal Pecorino Siciliano (PS) cheese-making for technological and flavour formation abilities in a model cheese system. Twelve LAB were studied for the ability to grow at 10 and 45 degrees C, to coagulate and acidify both reconstituted skim milk and ewe's milk. Moreover, the capacity of the strains to generate aroma compounds was evaluated in a model cheese system at 30- and 60-day ripening. Flavour compounds were screened by sensory analysis and throughout gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Most of the strains were able to grow both at 10 and 45 degrees C and exhibited high ability to acidify and coagulate ewes' milk. Sensory evaluation revealed that the wild strains produced more significant flavour attributes than commercial strains in the 60-day-old model cheese system. GC-MS data confirmed the results of sensory evaluations and showed the ability of wild lactobacilli to generate key volatile compounds. Particularly, three wild lactobacilli strains, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum species, generated both in 60- and 30-day-old model cheeses system, the 3-methyl butan(al)(ol) compound, which is associated with fruity taste. The present work preliminarily demonstrated that the technological and flavour formation abilities of the wild strains are strain-specific and that wild lactobacilli, which produced key flavour compounds during ripening, could be used as tailor-made starters. This study reports the technological characterization and flavour formation ability of wild LAB strains isolated from artisanal Pecorino cheese and highlights that the catabolic activities were highly strain dependent. Hence, wild lactobacilli could be selected as tailor-made starter cultures for the PS cheese manufacture.

  6. Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Liam A M; Zannini, Emanuele; Dal Bello, Fabio; Pawlowska, Agata; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2011-04-29

    Mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. The reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. In this study Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of antifungal compounds active against common bread spoilage fungi. Among the indicator moulds, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium culmorum were the most sensitive organisms. Several antifungal compounds were found to be present in synthetic medium inoculated with L. amylovorus DSM19280 strain, some of them being reported here for the first time. Wheat doughs fermented with L. amylovorus DSM19280 had good rheological properties and the breads thereof were of high quality as shown by rheofermentometer and texture analyser measurements. The results were compared with those obtained with a control non-antifungal L. amylovorus DSM20531(T) strain, a non-acidified and a chemically acidified dough. The quality of sourdough and bread fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was comparable to that obtained by using L. amylovorus DSM20531 (T). Additionally, breads were evaluated for the ability to retard the growth of Fusarium culmorum FST 4.05, Aspergillus niger FST4.21, Penicillium expansum FST 4.22, Penicillium roqueforti FST 4.11 and fungal flora from the bakery environment. The biological preservation of bread with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was also compared to the most commonly used antifungal agent Calcium propionate. Breads containing sourdough fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 were more effective in extending the shelf life of bread than the calcium propionate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, C.E.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  8. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Houbraken, Jos; Popma, Suuske

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181(T) = IBT 6005(T) = IMI 30428(T) ) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192(T) = IBT 22220(T) ) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate...... conidiophores with echinulate thick-walled conidia and produce the extrolites asperphenamate, citreoisocoumarin, communesin A and B, asperentin and 5'-hydroxy-asperentin. Penicillium spathulatum is unique in having restricted colonies on Czapek yeast agar (CYA) with an olive grey reverse, good growth on CYA...... supplemented with 5% NaCl, terverticillate bi- and ter-ramulate conidiophores and consistently produces the extrolites benzomalvin A and D and asperphenamate. The two new species belong to Penicillium section Brevicompacta and are phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium tularense. With exception...

  9. The preparation of organic radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds using short-lived cyclotron-produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenhut, G.J.; Koch, H.

    1982-01-01

    Accelerator-produced nuclides and radiopharmaceutical production are discussed with examples of pertinent methods of isotope production, methods of incorporation into organic molecules, and the general problems attandant on the production and use of these materials in this new and interdisciplinary effort. The literature is surveyed with stress being given to the use of 11 C, 13 N and 15 O. 205 references are included. (author)

  10. Application of glass-nonmetals of waste printed circuit boards to produce phenolic moulding compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jie; Rao Qunli; Xu Zhenming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using glass-nonmetals, a byproduct of recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), to replace wood flour in production of phenolic moulding compound (PMC). Glass-nonmetals were attained by two-step crushing and corona electrostatic separating processes. Glass-nonmetals with particle size shorter than 0.07 mm were in the form of single fibers and resin powder, with the biggest portion (up to 34.6 wt%). Properties of PMC with glass-nonmetals (PMCGN) were compared with reference PMC and the national standard of PMC (PF2C3). When the adding content of glass-nonmetals was 40 wt%, PMCGN exhibited flexural strength of 82 MPa, notched impact strength of 2.4 kJ/m 2 , heat deflection temperature of 175 deg. C, and dielectric strength of 4.8 MV/m, all of which met the national standard. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed strong interfacial bonding between glass fibers and the phenolic resin. All the results showed that the use of glass-nonmetals as filler in PMC represented a promising method for resolving the environmental pollutions and reducing the cost of PMC, thus attaining both environmental and economic benefits

  11. Bioactive compounds produced by gut microbial tannase: implications for colorectal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix eLópez De Felipe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract have a profound influence on the transformation of food into metabolites which can impact human health. Gallic acid and pyrogallol are bioactive compounds displaying diverse biological properties, including carcinogenic inhibiting activities. However its concentration in fruits and vegetables is generally low. These metabolites can be also generated as final products of tannin metabolism by microbes endowed with tannase, which opens up the possibility of their anti-cancer potential being increased. Patients with colorectal cancer display an imbalanced gut microbiota respect to healthy population. The recent use of next generation sequencing technologies has greatly improved knowledge of the identity of bacterial species that colonize non-tumorous and tumorous tissues of colorectal cancer patients. This information provides a unique opportunity to shed light on the role played by gut microorganisms in the different stages of this disease. We here review the recently published gut microbiome associated to colorectal cancer patients and highlight tannase as an underlying gene function of bacterial species that selectively colonize tumorous tissues, but not adjacent non-malignant

  12. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  13. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  14. Characterization of linoleate 10-hydratase of Lactobacillus plantarum and novel antifungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to the antifungal compound 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE by linoleate 10-hydratase (10-LAH. However, the effect of this conversion on cellularmembrane physiology and properties of the cell surface have not been demonstrated. Moreover, L. plantarum produces 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (13-HOE in addition to 10-HOE, but the antifungal activity of 13-HOE was unknown. Phylogenetic analyses conducted in this study did not differentiate between 10-LAH and linoleate 13-hydratase (13-LAH. Thus, linoleate hydratases (LAHs must be characterized through their differences in their activities of linoleate conversion. Four genes encoding putative LAHs from lactobacilli were cloned, heterologous expressed, purified and identified as FAD-dependent 10-LAH. The unsaturated fatty acid substrates stimulated the growth of lactobacilli. We also investigated the role of 10-LAH in ethanol tolerance, membrane fluidity and hydrophobicity of cell surfaces in lactobacilli by disruption of 10-lah. Compared with the L. plantarum 10-lah deficient strain, 10-LAH in wild-type strain did not exert effect on cell survival and membrane fluidity under ethanol stress, but influenced the cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, deletion of 10-LAH in L. plantarum facilitated purification of 13-HOE and demonstration of its antifungal activity against Penicillium roquefortii and Aspergillus niger.

  15. Prospective Source of Antimicrobial Compounds From Pigment Produced by Bacteria associated with Brown Alga ( Phaeophyceae ) Isolated from Karimunjawa island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunggani, A. T.; Darmanto, Y. S.; Radjasa, O. K.; Sabdono, A.

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae or Phaeophyceae characterized by their natural pigments that differ from other important algal classes. Several publications proves that brown algae - associated bacteria have great potential in developing marine pharmaceutical industry since they are capable to synthesized numerous bioactive metabolite compounds. However the potency of marine pigmented microbes associated with brown alga to produce natural pigments and antimicrobials has been less studied. Marine pigmented bacteria associated with brown algae collected from Karimunjawa Island were successfully isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity. The aim of this research was evaluated of the antimicrobial activity of pigments extracted from culturable marine pigmented bacteria on some pathogenic bacteria and yeast. The results showed that all isolates had antimicrobial activity and could be prospectively developed as antimicrobial agent producing pigments. The 6 marine pigmented bacteria was identified to genus level as Pseudoalteromonas, Sphingomonas, Serratia, Paracoccus, Vibrio.

  16. A Panel of Cytochrome P450 BM3 Variants To Produce Drug Metabolites and Diversify Lead Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Andrew M.; Chen, Michael M. Y.; Kulanthaivel, Palaniappan; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Hemmerle, Horst; Arnold, Frances H.

    2011-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that a small panel of variants of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium covers the breadth of reactivity of human P450s by producing 12 of 13 mammalian metabolites for two marketed drugs, verapamil and astemizole, and one research compound. The most active enzymes support preparation of individual metabolites for preclinical bioactivity and toxicology evaluations. Underscoring their potential utility in drug lead diversification, engineered P450 BM3 variants also produce novel metabolites by catalyzing reactions at carbon centers beyond those targeted by animal and human P450s. Production of a specific metabolite can be improved by directed evolution of the enzyme catalyst. Some variants are more active on the more hydrophobic parent drug than on its metabolites, which limits production of multiply-hydroxylated species, a preference that appears to depend on the evolutionary history of the P450 variant. PMID:19774562

  17. Volatile Flavor Compounds Produced by Molds of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fungi imperfecti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, E; Stawicki, S; Wasowicz, E

    1974-06-01

    Strains of molds Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosum, P. raistrickii, P. viridicatum, Alternaria, Cephalosporium, and Fusarium sp. were grown on sterile coarse wheat meal at 26 to 28 C for 120 h. The volatiles from mature cultures were distilled at low temperature under reduced pressure. The distillates from traps -40 and -78 C were extracted with methylene chloride and subsequently concentrated. All the concentrates thus obtained were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemical reactions of functional groups, and olfactory evaluation. Six components detected in the culture distillates were identified positively: 3-methylbutanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and 2-octen-1-ol. They represented 67 to 97% of all the volatiles occurring in the concentrated distillate. The following 14 components were identified tentatively: octane, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, butyl acetate, amyl acetate, octyl acetate, pyridine, hexanol, nonanone, dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, benzaldehyde, propylbenzene, and phenethyl alcohol. Among the volatiles produced by molds, 1-octen-3-ol yielding a characteristic fungal odor was found predominant.

  18. A direct pre-screen for marine bacteria producing compounds inhibiting quorum sensing reveals diverse planktonic bacteria that are bioactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorne, Jamie S; Chang, Barbara J; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sutton, David C

    2015-02-01

    A promising new strategy in antibacterial research is inhibition of the bacterial communication system termed quorum sensing. In this study, a novel and rapid pre-screening method was developed to detect the production of chemical inhibitors of this system (quorum-quenching compounds) by bacteria isolated from marine and estuarine waters. This method involves direct screening of mixed populations on an agar plate, facilitating specific isolation of bioactive colonies. The assay showed that between 4 and 46 % of culturable bacteria from various samples were bioactive, and of the 95 selectively isolated bacteria, 93.7 % inhibited Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence without inhibiting growth, indicating potential production of quorum-quenching compounds. Of the active isolates, 21 % showed further activity against quorum-sensing-regulated pigment production by Serratia marcescens. The majority of bioactive isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplification and sequencing as belonging to the genera Vibrio and Pseudoalteromonas. Extracts of two strongly bioactive Pseudoalteromonas isolates (K1 and B2) were quantitatively assessed for inhibition of growth and quorum-sensing-regulated processes in V. harveyi, S. marcescens and Chromobacterium violaceum. Extracts of the isolates reduced V. harveyi bioluminescence by as much as 98 % and C. violaceum pigment production by 36 % at concentrations which had no adverse effect on growth. The activity found in the extracts indicated that the isolates may produce quorum-quenching compounds. This study further supports the suggestion that quorum quenching may be a common attribute among culturable planktonic marine and estuarine bacteria.

  19. Antifungal Activity from Leaves of Acacia Nilotica against Pythium Aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid and methyl ester of gallic acid has been identified as antifungal compounds against the mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum from acetone-water extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves. The growth of fungus was completely ceased by gallic acid and its methyl ester at 1000 ppm and 750 ppm, respectively. Antifungal properties of both compounds were found to be higher in combination than alone. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both compounds was 1000 ppm. No phytotoxic effect of the compounds was observed on watermelon seed germination. The growth of roots and shoots of watermelon seedlings was promoted by gallic acid but decreased with methyl ester of gallic acid. Nitrate reductase activity of the fungus was significantly inhibited by both compounds.

  20. Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the assessment of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636 using methyl and ethyl ricinoleate, ricinoleic acid and castor oil as precursors. The analysis of the volatile organic compounds was carried out using Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME. Factorial experimental design was used for investigating extraction conditions, verifying stirring rate (0-400 rpm, temperature (25-60 ºC, extraction time (10-30 minutes, and sample volume (2-3 mL. The identification of volatile organic compounds was carried out by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrum Detector (GC/MSD. The conditions that resulted in maximum extraction were: 60 ºC, 10 minutes extraction, no stirring, sample volume of 2.0 mL, and addition of saturated KCl (1:10 v/v. In the bio-production of volatile organic compounds the effect of stirring rate (120-200 rpm, temperature (23-33 ºC, pH (4.0-8.0, precursor concentration (0.02-0.1%, mannitol (0-6%, and asparagine concentration (0-0.2% was investigated. The bio-production at 28 ºC, 160 rpm, pH 6,0 and with the addition of 0.02% ricinoleic acid to the medium yielded the highest production of VOCs, identified as 1,4-butanediol, 1,2,2-trimethylciclopropilamine, beta-ionone; 2,3-butanodione, pentanal, tetradecane, 2-isononenal, 4-octen-3-one, propanoic acid, and octadecane.

  1. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives as antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antifungal activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives against yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The tested benzimidazoles displayed in vitro antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all the compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR has been used to study the relationships between the antifungal activity and lipophilicity parameter, logP, calculated by using CS Chem-Office Software version 7.0. The results are discussed on the basis of statistical data. The best QSAR model for prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzimidazoles was developed. High agreement between experimental and predicted inhibitory values was obtained. The results of this study indicate that the lipophilicity parameter has a significant effect on antifungal activity of this class of compounds, which simplify design of new biologically active molecules.

  2. Determining Antifungal Target Sites in the Sterol Pathway of the Yeast Candida and Saccharomyces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bard, Martin

    1998-01-01

    ... as in topical infections which lead to significant losses in work-place productivity. The work reported here seeks to identify new target sites in the sterol biosynthetic pathway against which new antifungal compounds might be developed...

  3. Combinatorial effect of mutagenesis and medium component optimization on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens antifungal activity and efficacy in eradicating Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Fatma; Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Kamoun, Amel; Zouari, Nabil; Tounsi, Slim; Trigui, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    This work is directed towards Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB371 metabolite production for biocontrol of fungal phytopathogens. In order to maximise antifungal metabolite production by this strain, two approaches were combined: random mutagenesis and medium component optimization. After three rounds of mutagenesis, a hyper active mutant, named M3-7, was obtained. It produces 7 fold more antifungal metabolites (1800AU/mL) than the wild strain in MC medium. A hybrid design was applied to optimise a new medium to enhance antifungal metabolite production by M3-7. The new optimized medium (35g/L of peptone, 32.5g/L of sucrose, 10.5g/L of yeast extract, 2.4g/L of KH 2 PO 4 , 1.3g/L of MgSO 4 and 23mg/L of MnSO 4 ) achieved 1.62 fold enhancement in antifungal compound production (3000AU/mL) by this mutant, compared to that achieved in MC medium. Therefore, combinatory effect of these two approaches (mutagenesis and medium component optimization) allowed 12 fold improvement in antifungal activity (from 250UA/mL to 3000UA/mL). This improvement was confirmed against several phytopathogenic fungi with an increase of MIC and MFC over than 50%. More interestingly, a total eradication of gray mold was obtained on tomato fruits infected by Botrytis cinerea and treated by M3-7, compared to those treated by BLB371. From the practical point of view, combining random mutagenesis and medium optimization could be considered as an excellent tool for obtaining promising biological products useful against phytopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Tanabe, Kazunari; Takeshita, Toru; Yoneda, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Oshiro, Sueko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Hirofuji, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens.

  5. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  6. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  7. Mode of Antifungal Drugs Interaction with Cytochrome P- 450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Mahmodian

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer was used to identify the interactions of substrates and antifungal drugs with the enzyme, Cytochrome P-450; and then Molplot.bas computer program was applied to get three dimensional figures of 5-hydroxy camphor.oxidation products of camphor analogues, and antifungal drugs.Cartesian characteristics of atoms building molecules, are taken from Buildz. for program, which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates of atoms by Zmatrix data. The other program which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates, using fractional characteristics, is the Coord, for program that, gives our cartesian characteristics of the atoms of molecule, then by using these data, we obtain three dimensional figures and distance between active atoms in compounds under consideration. Results show that distance between two oxygen atoms in 5-exo-hydroxy- camphor and the other compounds obtained from oxidation of camphor analogues, with the distance of two oxygen atoms in antifungal compounds under discussion are equal. Therefore, we can conclude that, the antifungal molecule also interacts with enzyme's active site, by its own sites, in a similar manner to the 5-hydroxy camphor molecule, which is:"n1. Nitrogen atom (N of Imidazole and Triazole ring in antifungal molecule with Iron atom in heam molecule belonging to Cytochrome P-450 enzyme, are coordinated."n2. The other atoms such as : 0,S or N in structure of the antifungal drug are coordinated with hydrogen atom of hydroxyl group belong ing to Tyr-96 in the structure of enzyme, forming hydrogen bonding.

  8. Screening for Endophytic Fungi from Turmeric Plant (Curcuma longa L.) of Sukabumi and Cibinong with Potency as Antioxidant Compounds Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustanussalam; Rachman, Fauzy; Septiana, Eris; Lekatompessy, Sylvia J R; Widowati, Tiwit; Sukiman, Harmastini I; Simanjuntak, Partomuan

    2015-01-01

    Potency of medicinal plant is related to microorganisms lived in the plant tissue. Those microorganisms are known as endophytic microbes that live and form colonies in the plant tissue without harming its host. Each plant may contains several endophytic microbes that produce biological compounds or secondary metabolites due to co-evolution or genetic transfer from the host plant to endophytic microbes. Endophytic fungi research done for turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) gave 44 isolated fungi as results. Those 44 fungi isolated were fermented in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media, filtered, extracted with ethylacetate and then were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method and tested for their antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method. The antioxidant activity of the ethylacetate filtrate extracts either from Sukabumi or Cibinong were higher than the biomass extracts. There were 6 fungi that showed antioxidant activities over 65%, i.e., with code name K.Cl.Sb.R9 (93.58%), K.Cl.Sb.A11 (81.49%), KCl.Sb.B1 (78.81%), KCl.Sb.R11 (71.67%) and K.Cl.Sb.A12 (67.76%) from Sukabumi and K.Cl.Cb.U1 (69.27%) from Cibinong. These results showed that bioproduction by endophytic microbes can gave potential antioxidant compounds.

  9. Compounds used to produce cloned animals are genotoxic and mutagenic in mammalian assays in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.J. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biociências de Rio Claro, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Centro de Estudos em Células Tronco, Terapia Celular e Genética Toxicológica, Núcleo de Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde em Desenvolvimento na Região Centro-Oeste, Faculdade de Medicina “Dr. Hélio Mandetta”, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Mestrado em Farmácia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Mantovani, M.S.; Silva, A.F. da [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pesarini, J.R. [Centro de Estudos em Células Tronco, Terapia Celular e Genética Toxicológica, Núcleo de Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde em Desenvolvimento na Região Centro-Oeste, Faculdade de Medicina “Dr. Hélio Mandetta”, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Mauro, M.O. [Centro de Estudos em Células Tronco, Terapia Celular e Genética Toxicológica, Núcleo de Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Programa de Doutorado em Biotecnologia e Biodiversidade - Rede Pró Centro-Oeste, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Ribeiro, L.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biociências de Rio Claro, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-28

    The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero.

  10. Compounds used to produce cloned animals are genotoxic and mutagenic in mammalian assays in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero.

  11. Compounds used to produce cloned animals are genotoxic and mutagenic in mammalian assays in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.J.; Mantovani, M.S.; Silva, A.F. da; Pesarini, J.R.; Mauro, M.O.; Ribeiro, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero

  12. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of PCA amide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Yu, Di-Ya; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qing-Lai; Li, Jun-Kai

    2018-04-18

    To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC 50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 37.3 μM (Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra) and 33.2 μM (Rhizoctonia solani), respectively.

  13. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL.

  14. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids.

  15. Antifungal activity of streptomycetes isolated bentonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Shirobokov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biological activity of streptomycetes, isolated from Ukrainian bentonite clay. Methods. For identification of the investigated microorganisms there were used generally accepted methods for study of morpho-cultural and biochemical properties and sequencing of 16Ѕ rRNA producer. Antagonistic activity of the strain was determined by agar diffusion and agar block method using gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Results. Research of autochthonous flora from bentonite clay of Ukrainian various deposits proved the existence of stable politaxonomic prokaryotic-eukaryotic consortia there. It was particularly interesting that the isolated microorganisms had demonstrated clearly expressed antagonistic properties against fungi. During bacteriological investigation this bacterial culture was identified like representative of the genus Streptomyces. Bentonite streptomycetes, named as Streptomyces SVP-71, inagar mediums (agar block method inhibited the growth of fungi (yeast and mold; zones of growth retardation constituted of 11-36 mm, and did not affect the growth of bacteria. There were investigated the inhibitory effects of supernatant culture fluid, ethanol and butanol extracts of biomass streptomycetes on museum and clinical strains of fungi that are pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. utilis, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. kefir, S. glabrata, C. lusitaniae, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus, Fusarium sporotrichioides. It has been shown that research antifungal factor had 100% of inhibitory effect against all fungi used in experiments in vitro. In parallel, it was found that alcohol extracts hadn’t influence to the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria absolutely. It was shown that the cultural fluid supernatant and alcoholic extracts of biomass had the same antagonistic effect, but with different manifestation. This evidenced about identity of antifungal substances

  16. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Seipke

    Full Text Available Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds.

  17. A Single Streptomyces Symbiont Makes Multiple Antifungals to Support the Fungus Farming Ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Barke, Jörg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Hutchings, Matthew I.

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s) to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds. PMID:21857911

  18. Isolation of a new broad spectrum antifungal polyene from Streptomyces sp. MTCC 5680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, A; Mutalik, V; Parab, R R; Shanbhag, P; Bhave, S; Mishra, P D; Mahajan, G B

    2014-06-01

    A new polyene macrolide antibiotic PN00053 was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. wild-type strain MTCC-5680. The producer strain was isolated from fertile mountain soil of Naldehra region, Himachal Pradesh, India. The compound PN00053 was purified through various steps of chromatographic techniques and bio-activity guided fractionation followed by its characterization using physiochemical properties, spectral data ((1) H-NMR, (13) C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, and COSY) and MS analysis. PN00053 exhibited broad spectrum in vitro antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (HMR), A. fumigatus ATCC 16424, Candida albicans (I.V.), C. albicans ATCC 14503, C. krusei GO6, C. glabrata HO4, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton sp. as well as fluconazole resistant strains C. krusei GO3 and C. glabrata HO5. It did not inhibit growth of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, displaying its specificity against fungi. PN00053 is a novel polyene macrolide isolated from a wild strain of Streptomyces sp. PM0727240 (MTCC5680), an isolate from the mountainous rocky regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. The compound is a new derivative of the antibiotic Roflamycoin [32, 33-didehydroroflamycoin (DDHR)]. It displayed broad spectrum antifungal activity against yeast and filamentous fungi. However, it did not show any antibacterial activity. The in vitro study revealed that PN00053 has better potency as compared to clinical gold standard fluconazole. The development of pathogenic resistance against the polyenes has been seldom reported. Hence, we envisage PN00053 could be a potential antifungal lead. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  20. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins is discussed.

  1. Ebselen exerts antifungal activity by regulating glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangamani, Shankar; Eldesouky, Hassan E; Mohammad, Haroon; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Avramova, Larisa; Hazbun, Tony R; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-01-01

    Ebselen, an organoselenium compound and a clinically safe molecule has been reported to possess potent antifungal activity, but its antifungal mechanism of action and in vivo antifungal activity remain unclear. The antifungal effect of ebselen was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and C. gattii clinical isolates. Chemogenomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify the antifungal target of ebselen. Ebselen's antifungal activity in vivo was investigated in a Caenorhabditis elegans animal model. Ebselen exhibits potent antifungal activity against both Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp., at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2μg/ml. Ebselen rapidly eradicates a high fungal inoculum within 2h of treatment. Investigation of the drug's antifungal mechanism of action indicates that ebselen depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby disturbs the redox homeostasis in fungal cells. Examination of ebselen's in vivo antifungal activity in two Caenorhabditis elegans models of infection demonstrate that ebselen is superior to conventional antifungal drugs (fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin) in reducing Candida and Cryptococcus fungal load. Ebselen possesses potent antifungal activity against clinically relevant isolates of both Candida and Cryptococcus by regulating GSH and ROS production. The potent in vivo antifungal activity of ebselen supports further investigation for repurposing it for use as an antifungal agent. The present study shows that ebselen targets glutathione and also support that glutathione as a potential target for antifungal drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Antifungal Potentials and Antioxidant Capacities of Some Foliose Lichen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar BİLGİN SÖKMEN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to assess of antioxidant and antifungal potential of the foliose lichen species: Flavoparmelia caperata, Xanthoparmelia stenophylla and Xanthoparmelia conspersa. The antifungal activity of lichens were studied against some pathogenic fungi by disc diffusion method. The acetonitrile extracts of these lichens were obtained with Soxhlet extraction. While F. caperata exhibited maximum antifungal activity (32 mm against the C. albicans, the minimum antifungal activity (10 mm was obtained from X. stenophylla lichen against S. cerevisiae. In CUPRAC assay, absorbance values was in order of BHT>X. conspersa>F. caperata>X. stenophylla. As a result of the study, it was concluded that these lichen species may be a potential source for the development of new antifungal and antioxidant compounds.

  3. Chemical Constituents and Antifungal Activity of Ficus hirta Vahl. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2, five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3–7, three flavonoids (8–10, and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4–6, and 8–11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits, showed good antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the phytopathogen of citrus blue mold caused the majority rotten of citrus fruits.

  4. Synthesis of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazones as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhinan; Lv, Min; Li, Qin; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-15

    A series of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria solani, Valsa mali, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Glomerella cingulata. Compounds 7b, 8d, 9a, 9b and 9d exhibited a good and broad-spectrum of antifungal activities against at least five phytopathogenic fungi at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. It demonstrated that addition of one double bond between the phenylsulfonylhydrazone fragment and the furan ring of 6a,b,d could afford more active compounds 9a,b,d; however, introduction of the nitro group on the phenyl ring of 6a-9a gave less potent compounds 6e-9e. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E-Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani, Bipolaris maydis, and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola, in which compounds (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl, (Z-4q (R = α-thienyl, (E-4f′ (R = p-F Ph, (Z-4i (R = m-Me Ph, (Z-4j (R = p-Me Ph, and (Z-4p (R = α-furyl had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  6. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Duan, Wen-Gui; Lin, Gui-Shan; Li, Kun; Hu, Qiong

    2017-09-12

    A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E - Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum , Physalospora piricola , Alternaria solani , Cercospora arachidicola , Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani , Bipolaris maydis , and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola , in which compounds ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl), ( Z )- 4q (R = α -thienyl), ( E )- 4f' (R = p -F Ph), ( Z )- 4i (R = m -Me Ph), ( Z )- 4j (R = p -Me Ph), and ( Z )- 4p (R = α -furyl) had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl) displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  7. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifungal Activity Against Plant Pathogens of Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoning; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Taráwneh, Amer H.; Gao, Jiangtao; Wedge, David E.; Rosa, Luiz H.; Cutler, Horace G.; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1, isocladosporin, 2, 5′-hydroxyasperentin, 3, and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. An additional compound 5′,6-diacetyl cladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. Phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. At 30 μM, c...

  9. Antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion of Laemostenus punctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) against cave-dwelling micromycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Marija; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Ćirić, Ana; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Živković, Nemanja; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2017-06-01

    The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium. Five isolates were selected for testing the antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion: Talaromyces duclauxi, Aspergillus brunneouniseriatus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma viride. The microdilution method has been applied to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). The most sensitive isolate was Penicillium sp., while the other isolates demonstrated a high level of resistance to the tested agent. L. punctatus has developed a special mechanism of producing specific compounds that act synergistically within the secretion mixture, which are responsible for the antifungal action against pathogens from the cave. The results open opportunities for further research in the field of ground beetle defense against pathogens, which could have an important application in human medicine, in addition to the environmental impact, primarily.

  10. Significance of volatile compounds produced by spoilage bacteria in vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon ( Salmo salar ) analyzed by GC-MS and multivariate regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel; Huss, Hans Henrik; Dalgaard, Paw

    2001-01-01

    alcohols, which were produced by microbial activity. Partial least- squares regression of volatile compounds and sensory results allowed for a multiple compound quality index to be developed. This index was based on volatile bacterial metabolites, 1- propanol and 2-butanone, and 2-furan......, 1- penten-3-ol, and 1-propanol. The potency and importance of these compounds was confirmed by gas chromatography- olfactometry. The present study provides valuable information on the bacterial reactions responsible for spoilage off-flavors of cold-smoked salmon, which can be used to develop...

  11. Antifungal activity of bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antifungal action of biomolecules produced from the secondary metabolism of bacterial strains found in the rhizosphere of semi arid plants against human pathogenic Candida albicans. Crude extracts were obtained using ethyl acetate as an organic solvent and the bioactivity was assessed with a ...

  12. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Yolanda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. Methods Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced liquid (NIL, prey-induced liquid (PIL, and chitin-induced liquid (CIL. Non-induced liquid (NIL was collected from fresh naturally opened pitchers, PIL from opened pitchers after 3 hours of induction with Zophobas morio larvae, and CIL from closed pitchers after 5 days of chitin solution injection. The antifungal activity of the liquids against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were detected by disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. Results Inhibition zone diameters of NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. albicans were 35.00 (35.00 – 39.33 mm, 26.33 (23.00 – 40.00 mm, and 30.00 ( 28.00 – 32.00 mm, respectively, while for C. glabrata the zone diameters were 22.22 ± 3.66 mm, 29.89 ± 2.79 mm, and 28.89 ± 1.17 mm, respectively. No inhibition zones were found for NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. krusei and C. tropicalis. At concentrations of 80%, almost all samples showed visually apparent inhibition of fungal growth. Conclusion The pitcher liquid of N. rafflesiana has antifungal properties, presumably due to the presence of many potentially active substances, such as naphthoquinones, as has been proven in other studies.

  13. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  14. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  15. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC

  16. Candidiasis and the impact of flow cytometry on antifungal drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tsun Sheng N; Bernardo, Stella; Walraven, Carla J; Lee, Samuel A

    2017-11-01

    Invasive candidiasis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as substantial health care costs nationally and globally. One of the contributing factors is the development of resistance to antifungal agents that are already in clinical use. Moreover, there are known treatment limitations with all of the available antifungal agents. Since traditional techniques in novel drug discovery are time consuming, high-throughput screening using flow cytometry presents as a potential tool to identify new antifungal agents that would be useful in the management of these patients. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the use of automated high-throughput screening assays based upon flow cytometry to identify potential antifungals from a library comprised of a large number of bioactive compounds. They also review studies that employed the use of this research methodology that has identified compounds with antifungal activity. Expert opinion: High-throughput screening using flow cytometry has substantially decreased the processing time necessary for screening thousands of compounds, and has helped enhance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis. Indeed, the authors see this technology as a powerful tool to help scientists identify new antifungal agents that can be added to the clinician's arsenal in their fight against invasive candidiasis.

  17. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  18. Acylated Flavone Glycosides from the Roots of Saussurea lappa and Their Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemireddy Venkata Ramnareddy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of four novel acylated flavonoid glycosides from the roots of Saussurea lappa and their identification using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry is described. The in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds and their mixture were tested on nine fungal and four bacterial strains, using the microdilution method. The compounds and mixture showed moderate to high antifungal activity against most of the fungi tested, compared to a miconazole standard, while only one compound and the mixture showed antibacterial activity against all strains tested.

  19. The Elements of Antifungal Drug Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Lasse

    In this PhD thesis I will explore the development of antifungal drugs. Fungal infections are estimated to cause the death of 1.5 million patients each year. There is currently a need for new antifungal drugs as the existing drugs are hampered by lack of broad-spectrum antifungal activity, resista...

  20. Antifungal Monoterpene Derivatives from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Bing-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Long

    2016-10-01

    A new monoterpene lactone, (1R,4R,5R,8S)-8-hydroxy-4,8-dimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one (1), along with one related known compound, (2R)-2-[(1R)-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl]propanoic acid (2), were isolated from the liquid culture of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan obtained from the branch of Bruguiera sexangula. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR spectra combined with computational methods via calculation of the optical rotation (OR) and 13 C-NMR. Both compounds exhibited strong antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora nicotianae with MIC values of 3.1 and 6.3 μg/ml, respectively, which are comparable to those of the known antifungal drug ketoconazole. Compound 2 also showed modest antifungal activity against Candida albicans with a MIC value of 50 μg/ml. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  1. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Fátima Dalben Dota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE and propolis microparticles (PMs obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n=89, obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes.

  2. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...

  3. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds impact the biostability of non-chlorinated drinking water produced from surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijnen, W A M; Schurer, R; Bahlman, J A; Ketelaars, H A M; Italiaander, R; van der Wal, A; van der Wielen, P W J J

    2018-02-01

    It is possible to distribute drinking water without a disinfectant residual when the treated water is biologically stable. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of easily and slowly biodegradable compounds on the biostability of the drinking water at three full-scale production plants which use the same surface water, and on the regrowth conditions in the related distribution systems. Easily biodegradable compounds in the drinking water were determined with AOC-P17/Nox during 2012-2015. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds measured as particulate and/or high-molecular organic carbon (PHMOC), were monitored at the inlet and after the different treatment stages of the three treatments during the same period. The results show that PHMOC (300-470 μg C L -1 ) was approximately 10% of the TOC in the surface water and was removed to 50-100 μg C L -1 . The PHMOC in the water consisted of 40-60% of carbohydrates and 10% of proteins. A significant and strong positive correlation was observed for PHMOC concentrations and two recently introduced bioassay methods for slowly biodegradable compounds (AOC-A3 and biomass production potential, BPC 14 ). Moreover, these three parameters in the biological active carbon effluent (BACF) of the three plants showed a positive correlation with regrowth in the drinking water distribution system, which was assessed with Aeromonas, heterotrophic plate counts, coliforms and large invertebrates. In contrast, the AOC-P17/Nox concentrations did not correlate with these regrowth parameters. We therefore conclude that slowly biodegradable compounds in the treated water from these treatment plants seem to have a greater impact on regrowth in the distribution system than easily biodegradable compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antifungal stewardship considerations for adults and pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Rana F; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Seo, Susan K

    2017-08-18

    Antifungal stewardship refers to coordinated interventions to monitor and direct the appropriate use of antifungal agents in order to achieve the best clinical outcomes and minimize selective pressure and adverse events. Antifungal utilization has steadily risen over time in concert with the increase in number of immunocompromised adults and children at risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). Challenges in diagnosing IFI often lead to delays in treatment and poorer outcomes. There are also emerging data linking prior antifungal exposure and suboptimal dosing to the emergence of antifungal resistance, particularly for Candida. Antimicrobial stewardship programs can take a multi-pronged bundle approach to ensure suitable prescribing of antifungals via post-prescription review and feedback and/or prior authorization. Institutional guidelines can also be developed to guide diagnostic testing in at-risk populations; appropriate choice, dose, and duration of antifungal agent; therapeutic drug monitoring; and opportunities for de-escalation and intravenous-to-oral conversion.

  5. Microbial Biotransformation to Obtain New Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Luiz F.; Arruda, Maria F. C.; Vieira, Sergio R.; Campelo, Patrícia M. S.; Grégio, Ana M. T.; Rosa, Edvaldo A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs belong to few chemical groups and such low diversity limits the therapeutic choices. The urgent need of innovative options has pushed researchers to search new bioactive molecules. Literature regarding the last 15 years reveals that different research groups have used different approaches to achieve such goal. However, the discovery of molecules with different mechanisms of action still demands considerable time and efforts. This review was conceived to present how Pharmaceutical Biotechnology might contribute to the discovery of molecules with antifungal properties by microbial biotransformation procedures. Authors present some aspects of (1) microbial biotransformation of herbal medicines and food; (2) possibility of major and minor molecular amendments in existing molecules by biocatalysis; (3) methodological improvements in processes involving whole cells and immobilized enzymes; (4) potential of endophytic fungi to produce antimicrobials by bioconversions; and (5) in silico research driving to the improvement of molecules. All these issues belong to a new conception of transformation procedures, so-called “green chemistry,” which aims the highest possible efficiency with reduced production of waste and the smallest environmental impact. PMID:26733974

  6. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and/or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Han, Gab Jin [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacteria six strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Strains KL3362 and KL3397 were identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum, strain KL3303, 3334, and 3341 show the broad range, KL3362 and KL3397 the narrow range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strains KL3341 and KL3362 were selected as the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) KL3341 producing-antifungal substances were consisted of five different kinds of low molecular weight polypeptides (3) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal substances were analyzed under various environmental conditions. Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal substance production yields were not different, however. Product of antifungal substances according t phosphate is proportional to the concentration. And productivity of antifungal substances was generally high in the range 30 {approx} 37 deg. C at pH 7. In case of adding vitamin B1 or lysine to medium, the antifungal activity was enhanced. (4) Mutants with enhanced antifungal activities were constructed by radiation of {gamma}-ray. (5) AF strains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. 35 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wines produced from Vitis labrusca grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braga de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in the northern Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, specifically the communes of Colombo and Almirante Tamandaré, is based mainly on the utilization of Vitis labrusca grapes var. Bordô (Ives. Total sugar content, pH, and total acidity were analyzed in red wine samples from 2007 and 2008 vintages following official methods of analysis. Moreover, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were analyzed by colorimetric methodologies and the antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical methodology. Phenolic compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic content of wine samples presented concentrations varying between 1582.35 and 2896.08 mg gallic acid.L-1 since the major part corresponds to flavonoid content. In these compounds' concentration range, a direct relationship between phenolic compounds content and levels of antioxidant activity was not observed. Among the identified phenolic compounds, chlorogenic, caffeic, and syringic acids were found to be the major components. Using three principal components, it was possible to explain 81.36% of total variance of the studied samples. Principal Components Analysis does not differentiate between vintages.

  8. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds impact the biostability of non-chlorinated drinking water produced from surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Schurer, R.; Bahlman, J.A.; Ketelaars, H.A.M.; Italiaander, R.; Wal, van der A.; Wielen, van der P.W.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    It is possible to distribute drinking water without a disinfectant residual when the treated water is biologically stable. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of easily and slowly biodegradable compounds on the biostability of the drinking water at three full-scale production

  9. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA E.A. PINTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL. All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  10. Correlations and adsorption mechanisms of aromatic compounds on biochars produced from various biomass at 700 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Jingjing; Lin, Daohui

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of adsorption behavior of organic contaminants on high heat temperature treated biochars is essential for application of biochars as adsorbents in wastewater treatment and soil remediation. In this study, isotherms of 25 aromatic compounds adsorption on biochars pyrolyzed at 700 °C from biomass including wood chips, rice straw, bamboo chips, cellulose, lignin and chitin were investigated to establish correlations between adsorption behavior and physicochemical properties of biochars. Isotherms were well fitted by Polanyi theory-based Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model with three parameters, i.e., adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) and adsorption affinity (E and b). Besides the negative correlation of Q 0 with molecular maximum cross-sectional areas (σ) of organic compounds, positive correlations of Q 0 with total pore volume (V total ) and average diameter of micropore (D) of biochars were observed, indicating that adsorption by biochars is captured by the pore-filling mechanism with molecular sieving effect in biochar pores. Linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) of adsorption affinity (E) with solvatochromic parameters of organic compounds (i. e., α m and π ∗ ) were established, suggesting that hydrophobic effect, π-π interaction and hydrogen-bonding interaction are the main forces responsible for adsorption. The regression coefficient (π 1 ) and intercept (C) of obtained LSERs are correlated with biochar H/C and R micro , respectively, implying that biochars with higher aromaticity and more micropores have stronger π-π bonding potential and hydrophobic effect potential with aromatic molecule, respectively. However, hydrogen-bonding potential of biochars for organic molecules is not changed significantly with properties of biochars. A negative correlation of b with biochar H/C is also obtained. These correlations could be used to predict the adsorption behavior of organic compounds on high heat temperature treated biochars from various biomass for

  11. Antifungal activity of fabrics knitted by metalized Silver/Polyester composite yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İ.; Duru Baykal, P.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, antifungal properties of fabric knitted from metalized silver/polyester composite yarn were investigated. Intermingling is an alternative technique for yarn blending process. Yarns having different features can be combined by feeding the same intermingling jet. This process is defined as commingling. In the study, intermingling process was used to produce metalized silver/polyester composite yarn. Commingled yarns were knitted to single jersey fabrics by IPM brand sample type circular knitting machine. Antifungal activity test was applied to samples against Aspergillus Niger according to AATCC 30 test procedure. It has been identified that the application provides antifungal activity to fabric.

  12. Butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat

    2008-06-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. Compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microM against BChE and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microM against LOX, respectively. The compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton schoen leinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton simii, and Macrophomina phaseolina.

  13. New microbial source of the antifungal allylamine “Terbinafine”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged S. Abdel-Kader

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolated active compound “F12” from the culture media of the Streptomyces sp. KH-F12 was identified using different spectroscopic techniques. Both 1D- and 2D-NMR as well as HRESIMS were utilized to characterize the structure of the isolated compound. ‘F12” was found to be the known systemic antifungal drug terbinafine marketed under the name “Lamisil”. Full analysis of the COSY, HSQC and HMBC enables the full assignment of proton and carbon atoms. Terbinafine is a synthetic allylamine and is reported here for the first time from natural source.

  14. Variation in Scent Compounds of Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill. Produced by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction, Hydrodistillation and Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Erbaş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, rose oil and rose water were hydro-distilled from the fresh oil-bearing rose flowers (Rosa damascena Mill. using Clevenger-type apparatus. Rose concretes were extracted from the fresh rose flowers by using non-polar solvents, e.g. diethyl ether, petroleum ether, cyclo-hexane, chloroform and n-hexane, and subsequently by evaporation of the solvents under vacuum. Absolutes were produced from the concretes with ethyl alcohol extraction at -20°C, leaving behind the wax and other paraffinic substances. Scent compounds of all these products detected by gas chromatography (GC-FID/GC-MS were compared with the natural scent compounds of fresh rose flower detected by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 46 compounds analysis were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS in the fresh flower, and a total of 15 compounds were identified by GC-MS in the hydrodistilled rose oil. While main compounds in rose oil were geraniol (35.4%, citronellol (31.6%, and nerol (15.3%, major compound in fresh rose flower, rose water and residue water was phenylethyl alcohol (43.2, 35.6 and 98.2%, respectively. While the highest concrete yield (0.7% was obtained from diethyl ether extraction, the highest absolute yield (70.9% was obtained from the n-hexane concrete. The diethyl ether concrete gave the highest productivity of absolute, as 249.7 kg of fresh rose flowers was needed to produce 1 kg of absolute.

  15. Thermoelectric and Structural Properties of Zr-/Hf-Based Half-Heusler Compounds Produced at a Large Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, D.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.; Feyand, M.-H.; Wolyniec, A.

    2018-02-01

    The half-Heusler (HH) systems are promising candidates for thermoelectric (TE) applications since they have shown high figures of merit ( zT) of ˜ 1, which are directly related to the energy conversion efficiency. To use HH compounds for TE devices, the materials must be phase-stable at operating temperatures up to 600°C. Currently, only a few HH compositions are available in large quantities. Hence, we focus on the TE and structural properties of three commercially available Zr-/Hf-based HH compounds in this publication. In particular, we evaluate the thermal conductivities and the figures of merit and critically discuss uncertainties and propagation error in the measurements. We find thermal conductivities of less than 6.0 W K^{-1}m^{-1} for all investigated materials and notably high figures of merit of 0.93 and 0.60 for n- and p-type compounds, respectively, at 600°C. Additionally, our investigations reveal that the grain structures of all materials also contain secondary phases like HfO2, Sn-Ni and Ti-Zr-Sn rich phases while an additional SnO_2 phase was found following several hours of harsh heat treatment at 800°C.

  16. Study on mutagenic breeding of bacillus subtilis and properties of its antifungal substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Yao Jianming

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our study. After B. subtilis JA was implanted by N + ions, a strain designated as B. Subtilis JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%, the precipitate enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein. (authors)

  17. First isolation of a novel thermostable antifungal peptide secreted by Aspergillus clavatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Gargouri, Houda; Gargouri, Ali

    2008-11-01

    A novel antifungal peptide produced by an indigenous fungal strain (VR) of Aspergillus clavatus was purified. The antifungal peptide was enriched in the supernatant after heat treatment at 70 degrees C. The thermostable character was exploited in the first purification step, as purified peptide was obtained after ultrafiltration and reverse phase-HPLC on C18 column application. The purified peptide named "AcAFP" for A. clavatus antifungal peptide, has molecular mass of 5773Da determined by MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence showed a notable identity to the limited family of antifungal peptides produced by ascomycetes fungi. The AcAFP activity remains intact even after heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 1h confirming its thermostability. It exhibits a strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of several serious human and plant pathogenic fungi: Fusariuym oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, whereas AcAFP did not affect yeast and bacterial growth.

  18. Occurrence, production, and export of lipophilic compounds by hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacteria and their potential use to produce bulk chemicals from hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilla-Pérez, Efraín; Lange, Alvin Brian; Hetzler, Stephan; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Petroleum (or crude oil) is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Annually, millions of tons of crude petroleum oil enter the marine environment from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) are able to assimilate and metabolize hydrocarbons present in petroleum. Crude oil pollution constitutes a temporary condition of carbon excess coupled to a limited availability of nitrogen that prompts marine oil-degrading bacteria to accumulate storage compounds. Storage lipid compounds such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), or wax esters (WEs) constitute the main accumulated lipophilic substances by bacteria under such unbalanced growth conditions. The importance of these compounds as end-products or precursors to produce interesting biotechnologically relevant chemicals has already been recognized. In this review, we analyze the occurrence and accumulation of lipid storage in marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. We further discuss briefly the production and export of lipophilic compounds by bacteria belonging to the Alcanivorax genus, which became a model strain of an unusual group of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB) and discuss the possibility to produce neutral lipids using A. borkumensis SK2.

  19. Activation of Melanin Synthesis in Alternaria infectoria by Antifungal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Chantal; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Silva, Branca M A; Nakouzi-Naranjo, Antonio; Zuzarte, Mónica; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth E; Casadevall, Arturo; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2015-12-28

    The importance of Alternaria species fungi to human health ranges from their role as etiological agents of serious infections with poor prognoses in immunosuppressed individuals to their association with respiratory allergic diseases. The present work focuses on Alternaria infectoria, which was used as a model organism of the genus, and was designed to unravel melanin production in response to antifungals. After we characterized the pigment produced by A. infectoria, we studied the dynamics of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin production during growth, the degree of melanization in response to antifungals, and how melanization affected susceptibility to several classes of therapeutic drugs. We demonstrate that A. infectoria increased melanin deposition in cell walls in response to nikkomycin Z, caspofungin, and itraconazole but not in response to fluconazole or amphotericin B. These results indicate that A. infectoria activates DHN-melanin synthesis in response to certain antifungal drugs, possibly as a protective mechanism against these drugs. Inhibition of DHN-melanin synthesis by pyroquilon resulted in a lower minimum effective concentration (MEC) of caspofungin and enhanced morphological changes (increased hyphal balloon size), characterized by thinner and less organized A. infectoria cell walls. In summary, A. infectoria synthesizes melanin in response to certain antifungal drugs, and its susceptibility is influenced by melanization, suggesting the therapeutic potential of drug combinations that affect melanin synthesis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Characterization of Compounds with Tumor-Cell Proliferation Inhibition Activity from Mushroom (Phellinus baumii) Mycelia Produced by Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henan; Shao, Qian; Wang, Wenhan; Zhang, Jingsong; Zhang, Zhong; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan

    2017-04-27

    The inhibition of tumor-cell proliferationbyan organicsolvent extract from the solid-state fermentation of Phellinus baumii mycelia inoculated in rice medium was investigated in vitro. The active compounds inhibiting tumor-cell proliferation were characterized. Results revealed that all (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol) fractions inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effecton tumor-cell proliferation, and the butanol fraction had the lowest. Six compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of P. baumii mycelia by the tandem application of silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectroscopic methods as ergosterol (RF1), ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl pentadecanoate (RF3), 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde(RF6), inoscavinA (RF7), baicalein(RF10), and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (RF13). To further clarify the activity of these compounds, the cell-proliferation-inhibition tests of these compounds on various tumor cells were carried out and evaluatedin vitro. Results suggested that compounds RF6, RF7, and RF10 had potent inhibition effects on the proliferation of a series of tumor cell lines, including K562, L1210, SW620, HepG2, LNCaP, and MCF-7cells. These findings indicated that P. baumii mycelia produced by solid-state fermentation in rice canbe used to obtain active compounds with the ability to inhibittumor-cell proliferation.

  1. Characterization of Compounds with Tumor–Cell Proliferation Inhibition Activity from Mushroom (Phellinus baumii Mycelia Produced by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henan Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of tumor-cell proliferationbyan organicsolvent extract from the solid-state fermentation of Phellinus baumii mycelia inoculated in rice medium was investigated in vitro. The active compounds inhibiting tumor-cell proliferation were characterized. Results revealed that all (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effecton tumor-cell proliferation, and the butanol fraction had the lowest. Six compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of P. baumii mycelia by the tandem application of silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC, and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS spectroscopic methods as ergosterol (RF1, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl pentadecanoate (RF3, 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde(RF6, inoscavinA (RF7, baicalein(RF10, and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (RF13. To further clarify the activity of these compounds, the cell-proliferation-inhibition tests of these compounds on various tumor cells were carried out and evaluatedin vitro. Results suggested that compounds RF6, RF7, and RF10 had potent inhibition effects on the proliferation of a series of tumor cell lines, including K562, L1210, SW620, HepG2, LNCaP, and MCF-7cells. These findings indicated that P. baumii mycelia produced by solid-state fermentation in rice canbe used to obtain active compounds with the ability to inhibittumor-cell proliferation.

  2. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  3. Novel whole-cell Reporter Assay for Stress-Based Classification of Antibacterial Compounds Produced by Locally Isolated Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Halami, Prakash M.

    2012-01-01

    Reporter bacteria are beneficial for the rapid and sensitive screening of cultures producing peptide antibiotics, which can be an addition or alternative to the established antibiotics. This study was carried out to validate the usability of specific reporter strains for the target mediated identification of antibiotics produced by native Bacillus spp. isolated from different food sources. During preliminary classification, cell wall stress causing Bacillus isolates were screened by using rep...

  4. Volatile compounds profile and sensory evaluation of Beninese condiments produced by inocula of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azokpota, Paulin; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Annan, Nana T.

    2010-01-01

    in high number and in concentrations which varied according to the inoculum of B. subtilis used. The condiments produced with starter cultures scored significantly (P ... was similar.   CONCLUSION: The investigated B. subtilis, BS1, BS2 and BS3 can be considered as potential starter cultures for the fermentation of African locust beans to produce good quality of Beninese food condiments. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry...

  5. Antifungal Activity of Decyl Gallate against Several Species of Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Alves de Paula e Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to demonstrate that the gallic acid structure modification to the decyl gallate (G14 compound contributed to increase the antifungal activity against several species of pathogenic fungi, mainly, Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Paracoccidioides spp., and Histoplasma capsulatum, according to standardized microdilution method described by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI documents. Moreover this compound has a particularly good selectivity index value, which makes it an excellent candidate for broad-spectrum antifungal prototype and encourages the continuation of subsequent studies for the discovery of its mechanism of action.

  6. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Schwan, Adrian L; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-03

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  7. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone, and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside. Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  8. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  9. Synthesis and Antifungal Activities of 5-(o-Hydroxy phenyl-2-[4'aryl-3'chloro-2'azetidinon-1-yl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New series of 5-(o-hydroxy phenyl-2-[4'aryl-3'chloro-2'azetidinon-1-yl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole have been synthesized and the structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of IR, 1H NMR spectral data. In vitro antifungal activity (MIC activity was evaluated and compared with standard drugs of ketoconazole. Compounds 3c in the series has shown interesting antifungal activity against both C. albicans and A. niger fungus. In the gratifying result, most of the compounds were found to have moderate antifungal activity.

  10. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  11. Antifungal Potential of Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobaswar Hossain Chowdhury

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC present a serious disease threat. Although the echinocandins are recommended as the first line of antifungal drug class, resistance to these agents is beginning to emerge, demonstrating the need for new antifungal agents. Host defense peptides (HDP exhibit potent antifungal activity, but as drugs they are difficult to manufacture efficiently, and they are often inactivated by serum proteins. HDP mimetics are low molecular weight non-peptide compounds that can alleviate these problems and were shown to be membrane-active against C. albicans and NAC. Here, we expand upon our previous works to describe the in vitro and in vivo activity of 11 new HDP mimetics that are active against C. albicans and NAC that are both sensitive and resistant to standard antifungal drugs. These compounds exhibit minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentration (MIC/MFC in the µg/mL range in the presence of serum and are inhibited by divalent cations. Rapid propidium iodide influx into the yeast cells following in vitro exposure suggested that these HDP mimetics were also membrane active. The lead compounds were able to kill C. albicans in an invasive candidiasis CD-1 mouse model with some mimetic candidates decreasing kidney burden by 3–4 logs after 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. The data encouraged further development of this new anti-fungal drug class for invasive candidiasis.

  12. Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis 9407 plays a major role in the biocontrol of apple ring rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Ru, Jinjiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Apple ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a serious apple disease in China. Bacillus subtilis 9407 was isolated from healthy apples and showed strong antifungal activity against B. dothidea. To identify the primary antifungal compound of B. subtilis 9407 and determine its role in controlling apple ring rot, a transposon mutant library was constructed using TnYLB-1, and a mutant completely defective in antifungal activity was obtained. The gene inactivated in the antifungal activity mutant had 98.5% similarity to ppsB in B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, which encodes one of the five synthetases responsible for synthesizing fengycin. A markerless ppsB deletion mutant was constructed. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipopeptide crude extracts from ΔppsB showed almost no inhibition of B. dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B. dothidea were observed in the wild-type strain by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography analysis, but not in ΔppsB. Semipreparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) detection revealed that ΔppsB lost the ability to synthesize fengycin. These results suggest that ppsB is responsible for synthesizing fengycin and that fengycin is the major antifungal compound produced by B. subtilis 9407 against B. dothidea. Moreover, a biocontrol assay showed that the control efficacy of ΔppsB was reduced by half compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that fengycin plays a major role in controlling apple ring rot disease. This is the first report on the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent to control apple ring rot disease by the production of fengycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Method to produce biomass-derived compounds using a co-solvent system containing gamma-valerolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain

    2017-06-27

    A method to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates containing C5- and/or C6-sugar-containing oligomers and/or C5- and/or C6-sugar monomers in which biomass or a biomass-derived reactant is reacted with a solvent system having an organic solvent, and organic co-solvent, and water, in the presence of an acid. The method produces the desired product, while a substantial portion of any lignin present in the reactant appears as a precipitate in the product mixture.

  14. Antifungal metabolites (monorden, monocillin IV, and cerebrosides) from Humicola fuscoatra traaen NRRL 22980, a mycoparasite of Aspergillus flavus sclerotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, D T; Joshi, B K; Gamble, W R; Gloer, J B; Dowd, P F

    1998-11-01

    The mycoparasite Humicola fuscoatra NRRL 22980 was isolated from a sclerotium of Aspergillus flavus that had been buried in a cornfield near Tifton, Ga. When grown on autoclaved rice, this fungus produced the antifungal metabolites monorden, monocillin IV, and a new monorden analog. Each metabolite produced a clear zone of inhibition surrounding paper assay disks on agar plates seeded with conidia of A. flavus. Monorden was twice as inhibitory to A. flavus mycelium extension (MIC > 28 microg/ml) as monocillin IV (MIC > 56 microg/ml). Cerebrosides C and D, metabolites known to potentiate the activity of cell wall-active antibiotics, were separated from the ethyl acetate extract but were not inhibitory to A. flavus when tested as pure compounds. This is the first report of natural products from H. fuscoatra.

  15. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... carcinogenic concern used in food-producing animals. Specifically, the Agency is clarifying the definition of ``S o '' and revising the definition of ``S m '' so that it conforms to the clarified definition of S... to induce cancer in man or animals. However, each clause contains an exception, termed the...

  17. Chemistry, spectroscopy and isotope separation of zirconium and its compounds as revealed by laser diagnostics of laser produced metal beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.A.; Humphries, M.; Rayner, D.M.; Bourne, O.L.; Mitchell, A.

    1986-01-01

    Recent work from the author's laboratory on zirconium beams is reviewed. Zirconium metal beams have been produced by laser vaporization of solid zirconium targets coupled with supersonic expansion of helium gas. The resultant supersonic metal beam is shown to present an ideal environment for various spectroscopic techniques. The state distribution of zirconium atoms in the beam is obtained from low resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) studies. High resolution LIF studies give information on the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of the zirconium-91 isotope. Information on the hyperfine splitting in the excited state is obtained from quantum beat spectroscopy. Low resolution 2 color multiphoton ionization spectroscopy using a XeCl laser allows isotope separation of all isotopes of zirconium. These metal beams are highly reactive and can be used to produce novel chemical species. The results of two studies in which a reactant is added to the expansion gas are reported here. Zirconium oxide (ZrO), a molecule observed in the emission spectra of cool stars and in laboratory studies at high temperatures, is produced in a low temperature, collision free environment by adding small quantities of oxygen to the expansion gas. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF), a molecule previously unobserved, is produced by the addition of small quantities of CF/sub 4/

  18. Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: Another risk to a vulnerable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Mariana B.; Eljarrat, Ethel; Gorga, Marina; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Bassoi, Manuela; Barbosa, Lupércio; Bertozzi, Carolina P.; Marigo, Juliana; Cremer, Marta; Domit, Camila; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Dorneles, Paulo R.; Torres, João Paulo M.

    2012-01-01

    Liver samples from 53 Franciscana dolphins along the Brazilian coast were analyzed for organobrominated compounds. Target substances included the following anthropogenic pollutants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), as well as the naturally-generated methoxylated-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). PBDE concentrations ranged from 6 to 1797 ng/g lw (mean 166 ± 298 ng/g lw) and were similar to those observed in cetaceans from Northern Hemisphere. PBBs were found in all sampling locations (< LOQ to 57 ng/g lw). DBDPE was detected in 42% of the dolphins from the most industrialized Brazilian state and the concentrations ranging from < LOQ to 352 ng/g lw. Franciscana dolphins from the tropical Brazilian shore presented the highest MeO-PBDE concentrations ever reported for coastal cetaceans (up to 14 μg/g lw). Eight MeO-PBDE congeners were detected and the present investigation constituted the first record of occurrence of six of them in marine mammal livers. - Highlights: ► PBDE, emerging BFR and MeO-PBDE levels in Franciscana dolphin from Brazil were reported. ► Six MeO-PBDEs were detected for the first time in marine mammals. ► PBDE contamination was similar than those from other industrialized areas around the world. ► MeO-PBDEs presented the higher concentrations found in coastal biota worldwide. - Concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and emerging brominated compounds in livers of dolphins from South Atlantic.

  19. Occidiofungin is an important component responsible for the antifungal activity of Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain Lyc2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Liu, A X; Guerrero, A; Liu, J; Yu, X Q; Deng, P; Ma, L; Baird, S M; Smith, L; Li, X D; Lu, S E

    2016-03-01

    To identify the taxonomy of tobacco rhizosphere-isolated strain Lyc2 and investigate the mechanisms of the antifungal activities, focusing on antimicrobials gene clusters identification and function analysis. Multilocus sequence typing and 16S rRNA analyses indicated that strain Lyc2 belongs to Burkholderia pyrrocinia. Bioassay results indicated strain Lyc2 showed significant antifungal activities against a broad range of plant and animal fungal pathogens and control efficacy on seedling damping off disease of cotton. A 55·2-kb gene cluster which was homologous to ocf gene clusters in Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was confirmed to be responsible for antifungal activities by random mutagenesis; HPLC was used to verify the production of antifungal compounds. Multiple antibiotic and secondary metabolized biosynthesis gene clusters predicated by antiSMASH revealed the broad spectrum of antimicrobials activities of the strain. Our results revealed the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 and expand our knowledge about production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. Understanding the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 has contributed to discovery of new antibiotics and expand our knowledge of production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kehan Xu,1,* Lei Huang,1,* Zheng Xu,2 Yanwei Wang,1,3 Guojing Bai,1 Qiuye Wu,1 Xiaoyan Wang,1 Shichong Yu,1 Yuanying Jiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 2Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 3Number 422 Hospital of PLA, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r, which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. Keywords: triazole, synthesis, antifungal activity, CYP51

  1. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  2. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Noreen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC or fungicidal (MFC

  3. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  4. Investigations on the production of labelled organic compounds by recoil labelling with gamma,n-produced 11-C-atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenbach, U.

    1981-01-01

    ''Hot'' 11 C atoms are produced from 12 C(γ,n) 11 C nuclear reactions by bremsstrahlung at the 65 MeV electron linear accelerator in Giessen. The relative retention in various C-atoms of the amino acid, methionine, is determined by splitting of the terminal C-atoms of the molecule and by independent determination of the content of 11 C in the isolated and derived fragments. The terminal groups (thiomethyl or carboxyl groups) each carry approx. 25% of the total retained radioactivity, the remaining 50% being spread over the three inner carbon atoms. The activation of alkylamines, crystallised as hydrochlorides, hydrofluorides, oxalates and sulphates, leads to similar yields of direct labelling from 5 to 15%. Amines activated in the liquid state show a retention of less than 5%. The yields for labelled synthetic products are between 10 and 15% for amino acids and are often higher for crystallised amines. Amines activated in the liquid state produced greater yields of synthesis products but at the same time an increase in the product range. The labelled synthesis products can be separated faster by suitable methods such as preparative HPLC and are then available for carrier-free studies in the life sciences. (orig./EF) [de

  5. Antifungal Microbial Agents for Food Biopreservation-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva Salas, Marcia; Mounier, Jérôme; Valence, Florence; Coton, Monika; Thierry, Anne; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-07-08

    Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry, leading to food waste, substantial economic losses for manufacturers and consumers, and a negative impact on brand names. Among causes, fungal contamination can be encountered at various stages of the food chain (e.g., post-harvest, during processing or storage). Fungal development leads to food sensory defects varying from visual deterioration to noticeable odor, flavor, or texture changes but can also have negative health impacts via mycotoxin production by some molds. In order to avoid microbial spoilage and thus extend product shelf life, different treatments-including fungicides and chemical preservatives-are used. In parallel, public authorities encourage the food industry to limit the use of these chemical compounds and develop natural methods for food preservation. This is accompanied by a strong societal demand for 'clean label' food products, as consumers are looking for more natural, less severely processed and safer products. In this context, microbial agents corresponding to bioprotective cultures, fermentates, culture-free supernatant or purified molecules, exhibiting antifungal activities represent a growing interest as an alternative to chemical preservation. This review presents the main fungal spoilers encountered in food products, the antifungal microorganisms tested for food bioprotection, and their mechanisms of action. A focus is made in particular on the recent in situ studies and the constraints associated with the use of antifungal microbial agents for food biopreservation.

  6. The Impact of the Antimicrobial Compounds Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Growth Performance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kralik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free supernatants (CFSs extracted from various lactic acid bacteria (LAB cultures were applied to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP cells to determine their effect on MAP viability. In addition, 5% lactic acid (LA; pH 3 and commercially synthetized nisin bacteriocin were also tested. This procedure was chosen in order to mimic the influence of LAB compounds during the production and storage of fermented milk products, which can be contaminated by MAP. Its presence in milk and milk products is of public concern due to the possible ingestion of MAP by consumers and the discussed role of MAP in Crohn’s disease. Propidium monoazide real-time PCR (PMA qPCR was used for viability determination. Although all CFS showed significant effects on MAP viability, two distinct groups of CFS – effective and less effective – could be distinguished. The effective CFSs were extracted from various lactobacilli cultures, their pH values were mostly lower than 4.5, and their application resulted in >2 log10 reductions in MAP viability. The group of less effective CFS were filtered from Lactococcus and enterococci cultures, their pH values were higher than 4.5, and their effect on MAP viability was <2 log10. LA elicited a reduction in MAP viability that was similar to that of the group of less effective CFS. Almost no effect was found when using commercially synthetized nisin at concentrations of 0.1–1000 μg/ml. A combination of the influence of the type of bacteriocin, the length of its action, bacteriocin production strain, and pH are all probably required for a successful reduction in MAP viability. However, certain bacteriocins and their respective LAB strains (Lactobacillus sp. appear to play a greater role in reducing the viability of MAP than pH.

  7. Studies of the yields of 57Fe(II)-species produced after the EC-decay and of 60Co(II)-species produced in the (n, γ) reaction in cobalt(III) coordination compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hirotoshi; Harada, Masayuki; Endo, Kazutoyo

    1978-01-01

    The yields of 57 Fe(II)-species produced after EC-decay were compared with those of 60 Co(II)-species produced in the 59 Co(n, γ) 60 Co reaction for twelve cobalt(III) coordination compounds. The results indicate that the radiochemical yield of 60 Co(II)-species correlates with the yield of 57 Fe(II)-species except in the case of [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 . The anomalously low yield of 57 Fe(II)-species in [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 is ascribed to the reaction of chromate anions with ammine ligands initiated by the nuclear transformation in a solid. (author)

  8. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  9. Analysis by UPLC-MS-QTOF and antifungal activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Rocha, Janaína Esmeraldo; Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna do; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; de Sousa, Amanda Karine; Dos Santos, Antônia Thassya Lucas; da Cruz, Rafael Pereira; Ferreira, Maciel Horácio; da Silva, Josefa Carolaine Pereira; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Carneiro, Joara Nályda Pereira; Sales, Débora Lima; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra

    2018-05-08

    Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC 50 and the cell viability curve. Minimal Fungicidal Concentration(MFC) and the inhibitory effects of the association of the fractions with Fluconazole, as well as the assays used to verify any morphological changes were performed in microculture chambers based on the concentrations from the microdilution. The IC 50 of the isolated fractions and the fractions associated with each other were calculated, varying from 69.29 to 3444.62 μg/mL and the fractions associated with fluconazole varied from 925.56 to 1.57 μg/mL, it was clear that the association of the natural product with the antifungal presented a synergism. The fractions affected pleomorphism capacity and have a potential antifungal activity as they caused fungal inhibition in isolated use, potentiated the action of Fluconazole, reducing its concentration and impeding morphological transition, one of the virulence factors of the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In Vitro Activity of E1210, a Novel Antifungal, against Clinically Important Yeasts and Molds▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mamiko; Horii, Takaaki; Hata, Katsura; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    E1210 is a new antifungal compound with a novel mechanism of action and broad spectrum of antifungal activity. We investigated the in vitro antifungal activities of E1210 compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin against clinical fungal isolates. E1210 showed potent activities against most Candida spp. (MIC90 of ≤0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml), except for Candida krusei (MICs of 2 to >32 μg/ml). E1210 showed equally potent activities against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida strains. E1210 also had potent activities against various filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC90 of 0.13 μg/ml). E1210 was also active against Fusarium solani and some black molds. Of note, E1210 showed the greatest activities against Pseudallescheria boydii (MICs of 0.03 to 0.13 μg/ml), Scedosporium prolificans (MIC of 0.03 μg/ml), and Paecilomyces lilacinus (MICs of 0.06 μg/ml) among the compounds tested. The antifungal action of E1210 was fungistatic, but E1210 showed no trailing growth of Candida albicans, which has often been observed with fluconazole. In a cytotoxicity assay using human HK-2 cells, E1210 showed toxicity as low as that of fluconazole. Based on these results, E1210 is likely to be a promising antifungal agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. PMID:21825291

  11. Mangrove rare actinobacteria: taxonomy, natural compound, and discovery of bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Adzzie-Shazleen; Othman, Iekhsan; Velu, Saraswati S.; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. The genus Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds as they produced more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue as the primary source of new bioactive compounds. Lately, Streptomyces groups isolated from different environments produced the same types of compound, possibly due to frequent genetic exchanges between species. As a result, there is a dramatic increase in demand to look for new compounds which have pharmacological properties from another group of Actinobacteria, known as rare actinobacteria; which is isolated from special environments such as mangrove. Recently, mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for studies of bioactivities and the discovery of natural products. Many novel compounds discovered from the novel rare actinobacteria have been proven as potential new drugs in medical and pharmaceutical industries such as antibiotics, antimicrobials, antibacterials, anticancer, and antifungals. This review article highlights the latest studies on the discovery of natural compounds from the novel mangrove rare actinobacteria and provides insight on the impact of these findings. PMID:26347734

  12. Mangrove rare actinobacteria: taxonomy, natural compound, and discovery of bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Adzzie-Shazleen; Othman, Iekhsan; Velu, Saraswati S; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. The genus Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds as they produced more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue as the primary source of new bioactive compounds. Lately, Streptomyces groups isolated from different environments produced the same types of compound, possibly due to frequent genetic exchanges between species. As a result, there is a dramatic increase in demand to look for new compounds which have pharmacological properties from another group of Actinobacteria, known as rare actinobacteria; which is isolated from special environments such as mangrove. Recently, mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for studies of bioactivities and the discovery of natural products. Many novel compounds discovered from the novel rare actinobacteria have been proven as potential new drugs in medical and pharmaceutical industries such as antibiotics, antimicrobials, antibacterials, anticancer, and antifungals. This review article highlights the latest studies on the discovery of natural compounds from the novel mangrove rare actinobacteria and provides insight on the impact of these findings.

  13. Mangrove rare actinobacteria: Taxonomy, natural compound and discovery of bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzzie-Shazleen eAzman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. The genus Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds as they produced more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue as the primary source of new bioactive compounds. Lately, Streptomyces groups isolated from different environments produced the same types of compound, possibly due to frequent genetic exchanges between species. As a result, there is a dramatic increase in demand to look for new compounds which have pharmacological properties from another group of Actinobacteria, known as rare actinobacteria; which is isolated from special environments such as mangrove. Recently, mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for studies of bioactivities and the discovery of natural products. Many novel compounds discovered from the novel rare actinobacteria have been proven as potential new drugs in medical and pharmaceutical industries such as antibiotics, antimicrobials, antibacterials, anticancer and antifungals. This review article highlights the latest studies on the discovery of natural compounds from the novel mangrove rare actinobacteria and provides insight on the impact of these findings.

  14. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Study of the behaviour of P-oxides produced in the combustion of phosphorus-bearing organic compounds and their absorption on suitable substances by means of compounds labelled with 32P. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkowski, J.; Gizinski, S.; Kaminski, R.; Reimschuessel, W.

    1976-01-01

    During the pyrolytic reaction of phosphorus-bearing compounds in an atmosphere of oxygen, there are produced P-oxides, which interfere in the determination of carbon and hydrogen. The behaviour of these P-oxides was studied intensively in the empty combustion tube in dependence on temperature, velocity of the carrier gas, the nature of the combustion and the positioning of the tube. The P-oxides were determined by the employment of 32 P-labelled aniline phosphate and by activation measurement of the 32 P directly through the tube walls as well as in the finely divided material. In conventional combustions the P-oxides separate abundantly on the walls of the tube provided that the gas velocity is low, especially in those zones of the tube where there is marked temperature lowering, or where very high temperature prevail. Deposited P-oxides are swept out of the tube only in the course of a very long time. Consequently a tube in which the P-bearing compounds have been burned will interfere because of the eluted P-oxides and hence will interfere also if P-free compounds are burned in this same tube

  16. Antifungal activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons against Ligninolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has caused increasing concern because of their known, or suspected, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurring in the environment are usually the result of the incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials. The main sources of severe PAHs contamination in soil come from fossil fuels, i.e. production or use of fossil fuels or their products, such as coal tar and creosote. Creosote is used as a wood preservation for railway ties, bridge timbers, pilling and large-sized lumber. It consists mainly of PAHs, phenol and cresol compounds that cause harmful health effects. Research on biodegradation has shown that a special group of microorganisms, the white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi, has a remarkable potential to degrade PAHs. This paper presents a study of the antifungal activity of 12 selected PAHs against two ligninolytic fungi Hypoxylon fragiforme (white rot and Coniophora puteana (brown rot. The antifungal activity of PAHs was determined by the disc-diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the tested PAHs (concentration of 2.5 mmol/L depends on the their properties such as molar mass, solubility in water, values of log Kow, ionization potential and Henry’s Law constant as well as number of aromatic rings, molecule topology or pattern of ring linkage. Among the 12 investigated PAHs, benzo(k fluoranthene with five rings, and pyrene with four cyclic condensed benzene rings showed the highest antifungal activity.

  17. Evaluation of 1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Luciana; de L Chazin, Eliza; de S Sanches, Paola; Saito, Max; de Souza, Marcus V N; Gomes, Claudia R B; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Sathler, Plinio C; Silva, Gabriela C C; Lione, Viviane O; Kalil, Marcos; Joffily, Ana; Castro, Helena C; Vasconcelos, Thatyana R A

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few years, fungal infections have emerged as a worrisome global public health problem. Candidiasis is a disease caused by Candida species and has been a problem worldwide mainly for immunosuppressed patients. Lately, the resistant strains and side effects have been reported as important issues for treating Candidiasis, which have to be solved by identifying new drugs. The goal of this work was to synthesize a series of 1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one derivatives, XYbenzo[ d][1,3]oxathiol-2-ones, and evaluate their antifungal activity against five Candida species. In vitro antifungal screening test and minimum inhibitory concentration determination were performed according to CLSI protocols using ketoconazole as the reference drug. The cytotoxicity of the most active compounds was evaluated by hemolysis and MTT (Vero cells) assays. Compounds 2 (XY = 6-hydroxy-5-nitro, MIC = 4-32 µg/mL) and 7 (XY = 6-acetoxy-5-nitro, MIC =16-64 µg/mL) showed good results when compared with current antifungals in CLSI values (MIC = 0.04-250 µg/mL). These compounds exhibited a safer cytotoxicity as well as a lower hemolytic profile than ketoconazole. Overall, the in vitro results pointed to the potential of compounds 2 and 7 as new antifungal prototypes to be further explored. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Isatinones A and B, New Antifungal Oxindole Alkaloids from Isatis costata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Afza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new oxindole alkaloids isatinone A (1 and B (2 have been isolated from Isatis costata, along with the known trisindoline. Their structures have been assigned on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical studies. Both new compounds showed significant antifungal activity.

  19. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA R. MATOS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas, Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72% occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419 and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090 with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples.

  20. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  1. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of s Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Baldaniya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Nʹ-{4-[(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl amino]-6-[(-aryl amino] -1, 3, 5-triazin-2-yl} isonicotinohydrazides (6a-r and N2-(Aryl-N4, N6-dipyrimidin-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamines (4a-o were prepared. All newly synthesized compounds have been tested for their antibacterial activity against gram (+ve and gram (-ve bacteria and also on different strains of fungi. Introduction of -OH, -OCH3, -NO2, -Cl and -Br groups to the heterocyclic frame work enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  2. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  3. Role of Modular Polyketide Synthases in the Production of Polyether Ladder Compounds in Ciguatoxin-Producing Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and G. excentricus (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; Campbell, Katrina; John, Uwe; Smith, Kirsty F; Fraga, Santiago; Rhodes, Lesley L; Murray, Shauna A

    2017-09-01

    Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates. In addition, 24 contigs (G. excentricus: 3, G. polynesiensis: 21) encoding multiple PKS domains (forming typical type I PKSs modules) were found. The proposed structure produced by one of these megasynthases resembles a partial carbon backbone of a polyether ladder compound. Seventeen contigs encoding single domain KS, KR, s-malonyltransacylase, dehydratase and enoyl reductase with sequence similarity to type II fatty acid synthases (FAS) in plants were found. Type I PKS and type II FAS genes were distinguished based on the arrangement of domains on the contigs and their sequence similarity and phylogenetic clustering with known PKS/FAS genes in other organisms. This differentiation of PKS and FAS pathways in Gambierdiscus is important, as it will facilitate approaches to investigating toxin biosynthesis pathways in dinoflagellates. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  4. Characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 in the presence of industrial wastes and its application in the biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elias J; Rocha e Silva, Nathália Maria P; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Silva, Ricardo O; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2014-05-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 cultivated with 2% soybean waste frying oil and 2% corn steep liquor as substrates produced a biosurfactant with potential application in the bioremediation of soils. The biosurfactant was classified as an anionic biomolecule composed of 75% lipids and 25% carbohydrates. Characterization by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) revealed the presence of carbonyl, olefinic and aliphatic groups, with typical spectra of lipids. Four sets of biodegradation experiments were carried out with soil contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds amended with molasses in the presence of an indigenous consortium, as follows: Set 1-soil+bacterial cells; Set 2-soil+biosurfactant; Set 3-soil+bacterial cells+biosurfactant; and Set 4-soil without bacterial cells or biosurfactant (control). Significant oil biodegradation activity (83%) occurred in the first 10 days of the experiments when the biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used together (Set 3), while maximum degradation of the organic compounds (above 95%) was found in Sets 1-3 between 35 and 60 days. It is evident from the results that the biosurfactant alone and its producer species are both capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farsaraei*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The antifungal activity of the essential oils and their constituents against some phytopathogenic fungi has been reported. Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae is one of the Thymus species.  A large number of studies have concerned the chemical compositions and antifungal activity of thyme’s oil. In order to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides, recently considerable attention has been given to search for naturally occurring compounds. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical composition and antifungal activity of T. vulgaris oil cultivated in Iran. Methods: The essential oil from aerial parts of the plant at full flowering stage was subjected to hydrodistillation and chemical compounds were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and Macrophomina phaseolinaby of the oil was evaluated by agar dilution method. The data were subjected to ANOVA according to the SPSS 21 software. Results: Totally 45 compounds representing 96.75% of the oil were found. Thymol (36.81% and ρ-cymene (30.90% were the main components of thyme oil. According to the results, the antifungal activity of the oil increased with a rising in concentration. All of the tested fungi growth was completely inhibited on 1600 µL/L. In this study fungicidal activity was only observed on F. oxysporum and D. spicifera at concentrations higher than 800 µL/L.  Conclusion: The antifungal activity of T. vulgaris essential oil could be probably due to the high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (thymol and monoterpene hydrocarbons (ρ-cymene.

  6. Evaluation of the antifungal effects of bio-oil prepared with lignocellulosic biomass using fast pyrolysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Jeong, Han Seob; Kim, Jae-Young; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the utility of bio-oil, produced via a fast pyrolysis process, as an antifungal agent against wood-rot fungi. Bio-oil solutions (25-100 wt.%) were prepared by diluting the bio-oil with EtOH. Wood block samples (yellow poplar and pitch pine) were treated with diluted bio-oil solutions and then subjected to a leaching process under hot water (70°C) for 72 h. After the wood block samples were thoroughly dried, they were subjected to a soil block test using Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor. The antifungal effect of the 75% and 100% bio-oil solutions was the highest for both wood blocks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that some chemical components in the bio-oil solution could agglomerate together to form clusters in the inner part of the wood during the drying process, which could act as a wood preservative against fungal growth. According to GC/MS analysis, the components of the agglomerate were mainly phenolic compounds derived from lignin polymers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design, synthesis and evaluation of aromatic heterocyclic derivatives as potent antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wei, Peng; Su, Xin; Zhao, Liyu; Wu, Mengya; Hao, Chenzhou; Liu, Chunchi; Zhao, Dongmei; Cheng, Maosheng

    2017-09-08

    To further enhance the anti-Aspergillus efficacy of our previously discovered antifungal lead compounds (1), a series of aromatic heterocyclic derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity. Many of the target compounds showed good inhibitory activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. In particular, the isoxazole nuclei were more suited for improving the activity against Aspergillus spp. Among these compounds, 2-F substituted analogues 23g and 23h displayed the most remarkable in vitro activity against Candida spp., C. neoformans, A. fumigatus and fluconazole-resistant C.alb. strains, which is superior or comparable to the activity of the reference drugs fluconazole and voriconazole. Notably, the compounds 23g and 23h exhibited low inhibition profiles for various isoforms of human cytochrome P450 and excellent blood plasma stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Facile construction of structurally diverse thiazolidinedione-derived compounds via divergent stereoselective cascade organocatalysis and their biological exploratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Shanchao; Zhu, Shiping; Dong, Guoqiang; Miao, Zhenyuan; Yao, Jianzhong; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Wang, Wei

    2013-06-10

    In this article, we present a new approach by merging two powerful synthetic tactics, divergent synthesis and cascade organocatalysis, to create a divergent cascade organocatalysis strategy for the facile construction of new "privileged" substructure-based DOS (pDOS) library. As demonstrated, notably 5 distinct molecular architectures are produced facilely from readily available simple synthons thiazolidinedione and its analogues and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in 1-3 steps with the powerful strategy. The beauty of the chemistry is highlighted by the efficient formation of structurally new and diverse products from structurally close reactants under the similar reaction conditions. Notably, structurally diverse spiro-thiazolidinediones and -rhodanines are produced from organocatalytic enantioselective 3-component Michael-Michael-aldol cascade reactions of respective thiazolidinediones and rhodanines with enals. Nevertheless, under the similar reaction conditions, reactions of isorhodanine via a Michael-cyclization cascade lead to structurally different fused thiopyranoid scaffolds. This strategy significantly minimizes time- and cost-consuming synthetic works. Furthermore, these molecules possess high structural complexity and functional, stereochemical, and skeletal diversity with similarity to natural scaffolds. In the preliminary biological studies of these molecules, compounds 4f, 8a, and 10a exhibit inhibitory activity against the human breast cancer cells, while compounds 8a, 9a, and 9b display good antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Notably, their structures are different from clinically used triazole antifungal drugs. Therefore, they could serve as good lead compounds for the development of new generation of antifungal agents.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis OSY-S3, a Producer of Potent Antimicrobial Agents Active against Bacteria and Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, Michelle M; Yesil, Mustafa; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2018-01-18

    Bacillus velezensis OSY-S3 produces anti- Listeria , anti- Escherichia coli , and antifungal compounds. Additionally, fermentate of B. velezensis OSY-S3 culture removes Staphylococcus aureus biofilms effectively. The draft genome sequence of B. velezensis OSY-S3 reported here had a genome size of ~3.90 Mb and a G+C content of 46.5%. Copyright © 2018 Gerst et al.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis OSY-S3, a Producer of Potent Antimicrobial Agents Active against Bacteria and Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gerst, Michelle M.; Yesil, Mustafa; Yousef, Ahmed E.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus velezensis OSY-S3 produces anti-Listeria, anti-Escherichia coli, and antifungal compounds. Additionally, fermentate of B. velezensis OSY-S3 culture removes Staphylococcus aureus biofilms effectively. The draft genome sequence of B. velezensis OSY-S3 reported here had a genome size of ~3.90 Mb and a G+C content of 46.5%.

  11. Bioactivity-Guided Metabolite Profiling of Feijoa ( Acca sellowiana) Cultivars Identifies 4-Cyclopentene-1,3-dione as a Potent Antifungal Inhibitor of Chitin Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mona; Jackson, Michael D; Brown, Alistair S; Ackerley, David F; Ritson, Nigel J; Keyzers, Robert A; Munkacsi, Andrew B

    2018-06-06

    Pathogenic fungi continue to develop resistance against current antifungal drugs. To explore the potential of agricultural waste products as a source of novel antifungal compounds, we obtained an unbiased GC-MS profile of 151 compounds from 16 commercial and experimental cultivars of feijoa peels. Multivariate analysis correlated 93% of the compound profiles with antifungal bioactivities. Of the 18 compounds that significantly correlated with antifungal activity, 5 had not previously been described from feijoa. Two novel cultivars were the most bioactive, and the compound 4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, detected in these cultivars, was potently antifungal (IC 50 = 1-2 μM) against human-pathogenic Candida species. Haploinsufficiency and fluorescence microscopy analyses determined that the synthesis of chitin, a fungal-cell-wall polysaccharide, was the target of 4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione. This fungal-specific mechanism was consistent with a 22-70-fold reduction in antibacterial activity. Overall, we identified the agricultural waste product of specific cultivars of feijoa peels as a source of potential high-value antifungal compounds.

  12. Antifungal metabolites from fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumarah, Mark W; Kesting, Julie R; Sørensen, Dan

    2011-01-01

    and characterized. Compound 2 is reported for the first time as a natural product and the E/Z conformational isomers 3 and 4 were hitherto unknown. Additionally, the three known macrolides; pyrenophorol (5), dihydropyrenophorin (6), and pyrenophorin (7) were isolated and identified. Their structures were elucidated...... by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR, HRMS and by comparison to literature data where available. The isolated compounds 1, 2, and 5 were antifungal against both the rust Microbotryum violaceum and Saccharomyces cerevisae....

  13. Biosynthesis of components with antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp. using Streptomyces hygroscopicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses of apple fruit during storage are mainly caused by fungal phytopathogens. Traditionally, postharvest fungal disease is controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the harmful impact on environment as well as human health largely limits their application. To reduce these problems in agrochemicals usage, new compounds for plant protection, which are eco-friendly, should be developed. The aim of this study is optimization of medium composition in terms of glucose, soybean meal and phosphates content, by applying response surface methodology, for the production of agents with antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp. For biosynthesis was used strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors on three levels and three repetitions in the central point. Antifungal activity of the obtained cultivation mediums against Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger was determined, in vitro, using the diffusion - disc method. For determination optimal medium components desirability function was used. Achieved model predicts that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (40.93 mm against test microorganisms is produced when the initial content of glucose, soybean meal and phosphates are 47.77 g/l, 24.54 g/l and 0.98 g/l, respectively. To minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of effluents processing, additional three sets of optimization were made. The chosen method for optimization of medium components was efficient, relatively simple and time and material saving. Obtained results can be used for the further techno-economic analysis of the process to select optimal medium composition for industrial application.

  14. Aaptamine Derivatives with Antifungal and Anti-HIV-1 Activities from the South China Sea Sponge Aaptos aaptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Bing Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new alkaloids of aaptamine family, compounds (1–5 and three known derivatives (6–8, have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1–2 are characterized with triazapyrene lactam skeleton, whereas compounds 4–5 share an imidazole-fused aaptamine moiety. These compounds were evaluated in antifungal and anti-HIV-1 assays. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed antifungal activity against six fungi, with MIC values in the range of 4 to 64 μg/mL. Compounds 7–8 exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity, with inhibitory rates of 88.0% and 72.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μM.

  15. Biofilm antifungal susceptibility of Candida urine isolated from ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Luz Becker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the association between the biofilm formations an antifungal resistance has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several Candida species. Besides, studies have included invasive candidiasis from hospitalized patients; however there are few studies that evaluated the species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and biofilm formation of Candida species isolated from ambulatory patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether biofilm producing contributes to antifungal resistance in Candida isolates from urine sample obtained from ambulatory patients. Methods: During one year, 25 urine samples positive for yeast were collected, stored and plated on agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and Sabouread left at room temperature for 5 days for subsequent: 52% (13/25 were C. albicans, 36% (9/25 C. tropicalis, 8% (2/25 C. krusei and 4% (1/25 C. parapsilosis. Results: The ability to form biofilm was detected in 23 (92% of the yeast studied and 15.4% (2/13 of C. albicans were fluconazole (FLU and ketoconazole (KET resistant, while 11.1% (1/9 of C. tropicalis were ketoconazole resistant and were anidulafungin (ANI non-susceptible. Conclusion: our results showed the high capacity for biofilm formation among Candida isolates from ambulatory patients.

  16. Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Malik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Azoles are generally fungistatic, and resistance to fluconazole is emerging in several fungal pathogens. In an attempt to find novel azole antifungal agents with improved activity, a series of tetrazole ring bearing acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antifungal activity. The mechanism of their antifungal activity was assessed by studying their effect on the plasma membrane using flow cytometry and determination of the levels of ergosterol, a fungal-specific sterol. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated a majority of yeast cells when they were treated with the synthesized compounds at concentrations just above MIC, implying that fungicidal activity resulted from extensive lesions of the plasma membrane. Target compounds also caused a considerable reduction in the amount of ergosterol. The results also showed that the presence and position of different substituents on the phenyl ring of the acylhydrazone pendant seem to play a role on the antifungal activity as well as in deciding the fungistatic and fungicidal nature of the compounds.

  17. USE OF A MICRO TITLE PLATE DILUTION ASSAY TO MEASURE ACTIVITY OF ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUNDS AGAINST Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, MORELET. UTILIZACIÓN DE UN ENSAYO DE DILUCIÓN EN MICROPLATOS PARA MEDIR LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIFÚNGICA DE SUSTANCIAS CONTRA Mycosphaerella fijiensis, MORELET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Peláez Montoya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most important disease in banana plantations. The fungus is controlled mainly by fungicide applications with an annual cost of about 350 million dollars in Latin and Central America. Due to the appearance of resistant strains and to the economical and environmental impact caused by the extensive use of fungicides, accurate methods are necessary for monitoring the fungal sensitivity to these agents. In this paper we describe the standarization of a method based on microplate dilutions that measures IC50 of different antifungal compounds against single ascospore cultures of M. fijiensis. The method was used to measure the sensitivity of 30 strains collected from different regions in Colombia against Propiconazol, Benomyl and Azoxystrobin. Used at a larger scale, this method could be useful to monitor M. fijiensis sensitivity against fungicides and to search for new compounds with activity against the fungus.La Sigatoka negra, causada por el hongo Mycosphaerella fijiensis, es la enfermedad más importante que afecta plantaciones de banano y plátano. El hongo es controlado principalmente mediante fungicidas químicos con un costo anual de cerca de 350 millones de dólares para América latina y 25 millones de dólares para Colombia. Debido al desarrollo de cepas del hongo resistentes a los fungicidas y a las consecuencias que para el medio ambiente tiene su uso intensivo, es importante el desarrollo de métodos que permitan monitorear de una manera precisa la aparición de resistencia. También es de gran utilidad disponer de un método que permita evaluar en forma sencilla la actividad de nuevas sustancias contra el hongo. En este artículo describimos la estandarización de un método basado en diluciones en microplatos que permite determinar la IC50 de diversos compuestos antifungicos contra cultivos monospóricos de M. fijiensis. Para su validación, el método fue utilizado

  18. An Interspecies Signaling System Mediated by Fusaric Acid Has Parallel Effects on Antifungal Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas protegens Strain Pf-5 and Antibiosis of Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Kidarsa, Teresa A.; Goebel, Neal C.; Shaffer, Brenda T.; Henkels, Marcella D.; Zabriskie, T. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5 is a rhizosphere bacterium that suppresses soilborne plant diseases and produces at least seven different secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. We derived mutants of Pf-5 with single and multiple mutations in biosynthesis genes for seven antifungal metabolites: 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, hydrogen cyanide, rhizoxin, orfamide A, and toxoflavin. These mutants were tested for inhibition of the pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. Rhizoxin, pyrrolnitrin, and DAPG were found to be primarily responsible for fungal antagonism by Pf-5. Previously, other workers showed that the mycotoxin fusaric acid, which is produced by many Fusarium species, including F. verticillioides, inhibited the production of DAPG by Pseudomonas spp. In this study, amendment of culture media with fusaric acid decreased DAPG production, increased pyoluteorin production, and had no consistent influence on pyrrolnitrin or orfamide A production by Pf-5. Fusaric acid also altered the transcription of biosynthetic genes, indicating that the mycotoxin influenced antibiotic production by Pf-5 at the transcriptional level. Addition of fusaric acid to the culture medium reduced antibiosis of F. verticillioides by Pf-5 and derivative strains that produce DAPG but had no effect on antibiosis by Pf-5 derivatives that suppressed F. verticillioides due to pyrrolnitrin or rhizoxin production. Our results demonstrated the importance of three compounds, rhizoxin, pyrrolnitrin, and DAPG, in suppression of Fusarium spp. by Pf-5 and confirmed that an interspecies signaling system mediated by fusaric acid had parallel effects on antifungal metabolite production and antibiosis by the bacterial biological control organism. PMID:26655755

  19. An Interspecies Signaling System Mediated by Fusaric Acid Has Parallel Effects on Antifungal Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas protegens Strain Pf-5 and Antibiosis of Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Goebel, Neal C; Shaffer, Brenda T; Henkels, Marcella D; Zabriskie, T Mark; Loper, Joyce E

    2015-12-11

    Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5 is a rhizosphere bacterium that suppresses soilborne plant diseases and produces at least seven different secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. We derived mutants of Pf-5 with single and multiple mutations in biosynthesis genes for seven antifungal metabolites: 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, hydrogen cyanide, rhizoxin, orfamide A, and toxoflavin. These mutants were tested for inhibition of the pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. Rhizoxin, pyrrolnitrin, and DAPG were found to be primarily responsible for fungal antagonism by Pf-5. Previously, other workers showed that the mycotoxin fusaric acid, which is produced by many Fusarium species, including F. verticillioides, inhibited the production of DAPG by Pseudomonas spp. In this study, amendment of culture media with fusaric acid decreased DAPG production, increased pyoluteorin production, and had no consistent influence on pyrrolnitrin or orfamide A production by Pf-5. Fusaric acid also altered the transcription of biosynthetic genes, indicating that the mycotoxin influenced antibiotic production by Pf-5 at the transcriptional level. Addition of fusaric acid to the culture medium reduced antibiosis of F. verticillioides by Pf-5 and derivative strains that produce DAPG but had no effect on antibiosis by Pf-5 derivatives that suppressed F. verticillioides due to pyrrolnitrin or rhizoxin production. Our results demonstrated the importance of three compounds, rhizoxin, pyrrolnitrin, and DAPG, in suppression of Fusarium spp. by Pf-5 and confirmed that an interspecies signaling system mediated by fusaric acid had parallel effects on antifungal metabolite production and antibiosis by the bacterial biological control organism. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Inhibitors of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme ICL1 in Candida albicans for potential use as antifungal agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Leong Cheah

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis in humans. In recent years, metabolic pathways in C. albicans have been explored as potential antifungal targets to treat candidiasis. The glyoxylate cycle, which enables C. albicans to survive in nutrient-limited host niches and its. Key enzymes (e.g., isocitrate lyase (ICL1, are particularly attractive antifungal targets for C. albicans. In this study, we used a new screening approach that better reflects the physiological environment that C. albicans cells experience during infection to identify potential inhibitors of ICL. Three compounds (caffeic acid (CAFF, rosmarinic acid (ROS, and apigenin (API were found to have antifungal activity against C. albicans when tested under glucose-depleted conditions. We further confirmed the inhibitory potential of these compounds against ICL using the ICL enzyme assay. Lastly, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these compounds using Lipinski's rule-of-five and ADMET analysis.

  1. Enhancement of downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet by the G_app7 bioactive compound produced by Ganoderma applanatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S. graminicola, as well as the effects of seed treatment with G_app7 on protection of pearl millet from downy mildew. G_app7 consistently demonstrated remarkable effects against S. graminicola by recording significant inhibition of sporangium formation (41.4%), zoospore release (77.5%) and zoospore motility (91%). Analyses of G_app7 compound using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed its close resemblance to metominostrobin, a derivative of strobilurin group of fungicides. Furthermore, the G_app7 was shown to stably maintain the inhibitory effects at different temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. In addition, the anti-oomycete activity of G_app7 was fairly stable for a period of at least 12 months at 4 °C and was only completely lost after being autoclaved. Seed treatment with G_app7 resulted in a significant increase in disease protection (63%) under greenhouse conditions compared with water control. The identification and isolation of this novel and functional anti-oomycete compound from G. applanatum provide a considerable agrochemical importance for plant protection against downy mildew in an environmentally safe and economical manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Isospin influence on the decay modes of compound systems produced in the 78,86Kr + 40,48Ca at 10 AMeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirrone S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the decay modes competition of the compound systems produced in the collisions 78Kr+40Ca and 86Kr+48Ca at 10AMeV is presented. In particular, the N/Z entrance channel influence on the decay paths of the compound systems, directly connected to the isospin influence, is investigated. The experiment was performed at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS in Catania by using the 4π multi-detector CHIMERA. Charge, mass, angular distributions and kinematical features of the reaction products were studied. The analysis shows some differences in the contribution arising from the various reaction mechanisms for the neutron poor and neutron rich systems. Comparison with theoretical statistical and dynamical models are presented for the two systems. Besides a study of the influence of the energy on the entrance channel is performed for the 78Kr+40Ca reaction, by comparing the results of this experiment to those obtained for the same system at 5.5 AMeV with the INDRA device at GANIL.

  3. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  4. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were collected using sterile swabs. Then the isolated candida albicans and standard candida albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured. The antifungal effect was evaluated with disk plate method. Nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. The power of antifungal activity was evaluated with the inhibition zone diameter of each of the extracts. At the end, the data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fried-man statistical tests. Results: Results showed that extracts of Querques infectoria had great antifungal effects. There was not statistically significant difference between nystatine and Querques infectoria extract (P>0.05 however , Querques infectoria was statistically more effective than lavender extract and nystatin showed the highest antifungal activity (P <0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that plant extracts had positive effects on Candida albicans as compared to nystatin. Thus, we hope to find new herbal medicines and compounds to treat candidiasis in the future. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:172-178

  5. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  6. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... may have significant potential for biological control of fungi and theirs toxins. Key words: Citrullus .... antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antiochratoxigenic effect ... C. colocynthis Schrad. fruits were collected in December (2010).

  7. Hydrolysate from a mixture of legume flours with antifungal activity as an ingredient for prolonging the shelf-life of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Verni, Michela; Bordignon, Stefano; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971.97, Penicillium carneum CBS 112297, Penicillium paneum CBS 101032, Penicillium polonicum 112490. A multi-step purification was carried out to identify the active compounds. The antifungal activity was attributed to native proteins (nsLTP, ubiquitin, lectin alpha-1 chain, wound-induced basic protein, defensin-1, defensin-2) and a mixture of peptides, which were released during hydrolysis. Nine peptides were purified and identified as sequences encrypted in legume vicilins, lectins and chitinases. WSE was used as ingredient for making bread under pilot plant conditions. Chemical, structural and sensory characterization of bread showed the lack of significant changes compared to control. The bread made with the legume hydrolysate had a longer shelf-life than that of the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifungal effect of phenolic extract of fermented rice bran with Rhizopus oryzae and its potential use in loaf bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardi-Souza, Taiana; Luz, Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana; Meca, Giuseppe

    2018-03-30

    In this study the antifungal potential of a phenolic extract obtained from rice bran fermented with Rhizopus oryzae CECT 7560 and its application in the elaboration of bread was assessed. Eighteen compounds with antifungal potential were identified by LC-ESI-qTOF-MS in the extract: organic acids, gallates and gallotannins, flavonoids, ellagic acid and benzophenone derivatives. The extract was active against strains of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 390 to 3100 µg mL -1 and minimum fungicidal concentration variable from 780 to 6300 µg mL -1 . The strains that were most sensitive to the phenolic extract were F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, P. roqueforti, P. expansum and A. niger. The phenolic extract added at 5 and 1 g kg -1 concentrations in the preparation of bread loaves contaminated with P. expansum produced a reduction of 0.6 and 0.7 log CFU g -1 . The bread loaves treated with calcium propionate and 10 g kg -1 of the phenolic extract evidenced an improvement in their shelf lives of 3 days. The phenolic extract assessed in this study could be considered as an alternative for inhibiting toxigenic fungi and as a substitute for synthetic compounds in food preservation. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  10. Design, synthesis and antifungal activities of novel strobilurin derivatives containing pyrimidine moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Geo, Yongxin; Liu, Huijun; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences/Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-15

    Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin derivatives with high activity against resistant pathogens, a series of novel β-methoxy acrylate analogues were designed and synthesized by integrating substituted pyrimidine with a strobilurin pharmacophore. The compounds were confirmed and characterized by infrared, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and mass spectroscopy. The bioassays indicated that most of the compounds (1a-1h) exhibited potent antifungal activities against Colletotrichum orbicular, Botrytis cinerea Pers and Protoporphyria caps ici Leon ian at the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Exhilaratingly, compound 1d (R=3-trifluoromethylphenyl) showed better antifungal activity against all the tested fungi than the commercial stilbenetriol fungicide azoxystrobin.

  11. Antifungal Activity of the Volatiles of High Potency Cannabis sativa L. Against Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira S. Wanas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-hexane extracted volatile fraction of high potency Cannabis sativa L (Cannabaceae . was assessed in vitro for antifungal, antibacterial and antileishmanial activities. The oil exhibited selective albeit modest, antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC 50 value of 33.1 µg/mL. Biologically-guided fractionation of the volatile fraction resulted in the isolation of three major compounds (1-3 using various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were identified as α-humulene (1, b -caryophyllene (2 and caryophyllene oxide (3 using GC/FID, GC/MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, respectively. Compound 1 showed potent and selective antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with IC 50 and MIC values of 1.18 m g/mL and 5.0 m g/mL respectively. Whereas compound 2 showed weak activity (IC 50 19.4 µg/mL, while compound 3 was inactive against C. neoformans.

  12. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Shang Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S-6-[(1S,2R-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1, (6S,2E-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2, together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3, LL-P880α (4, and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5 were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1–5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1–4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 50 μg/mL for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1–4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  13. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-Shang; Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Bo; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Si, Jin-Ping; Peng, Wei; Han, Ting

    2015-12-22

    Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S)-6-[(1S,2R)-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1), (6S,2E)-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2), together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3), LL-P880α (4), and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5) were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1-5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1-4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 50 μg/mL) for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1-4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  14. Caerulomycin A- An antifungal compound isolated from marine actinomycetes.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambavane, V.; Tokdar, P.; Parab, R.; Sreekumar, E.S.; Mahajan, G.B.; Mishra, P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Ranadive, P.

    bioactive metabolites from these microbial sources. Antibiotics form the major class of such bioactive metabolites and have been widely used for treating infectious diseases. One of the most critical problems in clinical practice is the increase...

  15. Chemical Variability, Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils and Hydrosol Extract of Calendula arvensis L. from Western Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbes, Rania; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Ilias, Faiza; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of 53 compounds amounting to 92.3 - 98.5% with yields varied of 0.09 - 0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7 - 29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2 - 12.5%), β-curcumene (2.1 - 12.5%), zingiberenol 2 (4.6 - 19.8%) and (E,Z)-farnesol (3.5 - 23.4%). The study of the chemical variability of essential oils allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential oil compositions and the harvest locations. Different concentrations of essential oil and hydrosol extract were prepared and their antioxidant activity were assessed using three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay and β-carotene). The results showed that hydrosol extract presented an interesting antioxidant activity. The in vitro antifungal activity of hydrosol extract produced the best antifungal inhibition against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, while, essential oil was inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. Results showed that the treatments of pear fruits with essential oil and hydrosol extract presented a very interesting protective activity on disease severity of pears caused by P. expansum. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Screening of Azotobacter isolates for PGP properties and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Аmong 50 bacterial isolates obtained from maize rhizospherе, 13 isolates belonged to the genus Azotobacter. Isolates were biochemically characterized and estimated for pH and halo tolerance ability and antibiotic resistance. According to characterization, the six representative isolates were selected and further screened in vitro for plant growth promoting properties: production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, exopolysaccharides, phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity (vs. Helminthosporium sp., Macrophomina sp., Fusarium sp.. Beside HCN production, PGP properties were detected for all isolates except Azt7. All isolates produced IAA in the medium without L-tryptophan and the amount of produced IAA increased with concentration of precursor in medium. The highest amount of IAA was produced by isolates Azt4 (37.69 and 45.86 μg ml-1 and Azt5 (29.44 and 50.38 μg ml-1 in the medium with addition of L-tryptophan (2.5 and 5 mM. The isolates showed the highest antifungal activity against Helminthosporium sp. and the smallest antagonistic effect on Macrophomina sp. Radial Growth Inhibition (RGI obtained by the confrontation of isolates with tested phytopathogenic fungi, ranged from 10 to 48%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31073

  17. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Pingping; Li, Jie; Bu, Huaiyu; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Ruolin; Chen, Sanping

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu 0.5 L] n (1), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 ] n (2), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 (H 2 O)] (3), [Cu(L) 2 (H 2 O)] n (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO 2 )] n (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl - , and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity

  18. Natural products as sources of new fungicides (I: synthesis and antifungal activity of Kakuol derivatives against phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an advanced structural-activity relationship (SAR and to explore the feasibility of kakuol analogues with better anti-fungi activity, a series of 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones were conveniently synthesized by the Friedel-Crafts acyl reaction, etherification reaction, reduction reaction and oximation reaction. Their structures characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and HRMS methods. Their in vitro antifungal activities were assayed. Most of the derivatives showed a remarkable in vitro activity, and some of them appeared significantly more effective than a commercial fungicide hymexazol as positive control. In particular compounds 2h and 2i, were found active with a IC50 value of 3.1 mg/ml and 2.9 mg/ml against Glomerella cingulate, which suggested that 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxyaryl ketones might be a promising candidates in the development of new antifungal compounds. Compounds 2e, 5 and 6 also exhibited high antifungal activities on a wide range of organisms, which might be considered as leading compounds in the development of new antifungal compounds.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.331 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p94-100

  19. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA Z. TOMAZONI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae. Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae, which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Elisa Z; Pansera, Márcia R; Pauletti, Gabriel F; Moura, Sidnei; Ribeiro, Rute T S; Schwambach, Joséli

    2016-05-31

    Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae), which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with antifungal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Kim

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of allicin and its synergistic effects with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B (AmB were investigated in Candida albicans (C. albicans. C. albicans was treated with different conditions of compounds alone and in combination (allicin, AmB, flucytosine, allicin + AmB, allicin + flucytosine, allicin + AmB + flucytosine. After a 24-hour treatment, cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM to measure morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. The clearing assay was conducted to confirm the effects of allicin. The viability of C. albicans treated by allicin alone or with one antifungal drug (AmB, flucytosine in addition was more than 40% after a 24-hr treatment, but the viability of groups treated with combinations of more than two drugs was less than 32%. When the cells were treated with allicin alone or one type of drug, the morphology of the cells did not change noticeably, but when cells were treated with combinations of drugs, there were noticeable morphological changes. In particular, cells treated with allicin + AmB had significant membrane damage (burst or collapsed membranes. Classification of cells according to their cell death phase (CDP allowed us to determine the relationship between cell viability and treatment conditions in detail. The adhesive force was decreased by the treatment in all groups compare to the control. Cells treated with AmB + allicin had a greater adhesive force than cells treated with AmB alone because of the secretion of molecules due to collapsed membranes. All cells treated with allicin or drugs were softer than the control cells. These results suggest that allicin can reduce MIC of AmB while keeping the same efficacy.

  3. An in vitro study of the antifungal activity of Trichoderma virens 7b and a profile of its non-polar antifungal components released against Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lee Pei Lee; Yusof, Mohd Termizi; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Ping, Bonnie Tay Yen; Mohamed Azni, Intan Nur Ainni; Kamarudin, Norman Hj; Sundram, Shamala

    2016-11-01

    Ganoderma boninense is the causal agent of a devastating disease affecting oil palm in Southeast Asian countries. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease slowly rots the base of palms, which radically reduces productive lifespan of this lucrative crop. Previous reports have indicated the successful use of Trichoderma as biological control agent (BCA) against G. boninense and isolate T. virens 7b was selected based on its initial screening. This study attempts to decipher the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of G. boninense by identifying and characterizing the chemical compounds as well as the physical mechanisms by T. virens 7b. Hexane extract of the isolate gave 62.60% ± 6.41 inhibition against G. boninense and observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) detected severe mycelial deformation of the pathogen at the region of inhibition. Similar mycelia deformation of G. boninense was observed with a fungicide treatment, Benlate ® indicating comparable fungicidal effect by T. virens 7b. Fraction 4 and 5 of hexane active fractions through preparative thin layer chromatography (P-TLC) was identified giving the best inhibition of the pathogen. These fractions comprised of ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, lactones, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, sulphides, and free fatty acids profiled through gas chromatography mass spectrometry detector (GC/MSD). A novel antifungal compound discovery of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) by T. virens 7b is reported through this study. T. virens 7b also proved to be an active siderophore producer through chrome azurol S (CAS) agar assay. The study demonstrated the possible mechanisms involved and responsible in the successful inhibition of G. boninense.

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Flindersine isolated from the traditional medicinal plant, Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S

    2009-06-25

    The leaves and root of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae) are widely used as a folk medicine in India. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of Toddalia asiatica leaves and isolated compound Flindersine were tested against bacteria and fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested against bacteria and fungi using disc-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The compound was confirmed using X-ray crystallography technique. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in ethyl acetate extract. One active principle Flindersine (2,6-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-5H-pyrano [3,2-c] quinoline-5-one-9cl) was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. The MIC values of the compound against bacteria Bacillus subtilis (31.25 microg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (62.5 microg/ml), Staphylococcus epidermidis (62.5 microg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis (31.25 microg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (250 microg/ml), Acinetobacter baumannii (125 microg/ml) and fungi Trichophyton rubrum 57 (62.5 microg/ml), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (62.5 microg/ml), Trichophyton simii (62.5 microg/ml), Epidermophyton floccosum (62.5 microg/ml), Magnaporthe grisea (250 microg/ml) and Candida albicans (250 microg/ml) were determined. Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity and isolated compound Flindersine showed moderate activity against bacteria and fungi.

  5. Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP. The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality.

  6. Synthesis and antifungal activity of new bis-{gamma}-lactones analogous to avenaciolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaton, Andreia da Silva; Rubinger, Mayura M. M.; Macedo Junior, Fernando C. de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mayura@ufv.br; Zambolim, Laercio [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia

    2007-03-15

    In a study of the antifungal activity of selected compounds as potentials agrochemicals, we have prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared and NMR spectroscopies three new bis-{gamma}-lactones analogous to avenaciolide, where the octyl group of this natural product was replaced by heptyl, hexyl and pentyl groups. The effects on the mycelia development and conidia germination of Colletotrichum gloesporioides of these compounds and their synthetic precursors were evaluated in vitro. The title compounds were active in the tested conditions, while all the synthetic precursors were inactive. The preparation and characterization of 15 new synthetic intermediates are also described. (author)

  7. Synthesis and antifungal activity of halogenated aromatic bis-γ-lactones analogous to avenaciolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Castelo-Branco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the total syntheses and characterization by elemental analyses, infrared and NMR spectroscopy of three new compounds analogous to avenaciolide, a bis-γ-lactone isolated from Aspergillus avenaceus that possesses antifungal activity, where the octyl group of the natural product was replaced by aromatic groups containing chlorine and fluorine atoms. The effects of the avenaciolide, the novel compounds and their synthetic precursors on mycelia development and conidia germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium solani were evaluated in vitro. The title compounds were almost as active as avenaciolide. The absolute structures of the chlorinated analogs were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  8. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of some flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Ozgen, Selda; Ergun, Fatma

    2010-08-20

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant-derived flavonoids representing two different structural groups were evaluated against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and their drug-resistant isolates, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei) using the microdilution broth method. Herpes simplex virus Type-1 and Parainfluenza-3 virus were employed for antiviral assessment of the flavonoids using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. Ampicillin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, acyclovir, and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. All tested compounds (32-128 microg/ml) showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumanni, S. aureus, and C. krusei. Rutin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.2-0.05 microg/ml) were active against PI-3, while 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.16-0.2 microg/ml) inhibited potently HSV-1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Antifungal Activities of a Series of Dication-Substituted Carbazoles, Furans, and Benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poeta, Maurizio; Schell, Wiley A.; Dykstra, Christine C.; Jones, Susan K.; Tidwell, Richard R.; Kumar, Arvind; Boykin, David W.; Perfect, John R.

    1998-01-01

    Aromatic dicationic compounds possess antimicrobial activity against a wide range of eucaryotic pathogens, and in the present study an examination of the structures-functions of a series of compounds against fungi was performed. Sixty-seven dicationic molecules were screened for their inhibitory and fungicidal activities against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The MICs of a large number of compounds were comparable to those of the standard antifungal drugs amphotericin B and fluconazole. Unlike fluconazole, potent inhibitory compounds in this series were found to have excellent fungicidal activities. The MIC of one of the most potent compounds against C. albicans was 0.39 μg/ml, and it was the most potent compound against C. neoformans (MIC, ≤0.09 μg/ml). Selected compounds were also found to be active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, Candida species other than C. albicans, and fluconazole-resistant strains of C. albicans and C. neoformans. Since some of these compounds have been safely given to animals, these classes of molecules have the potential to be developed as antifungal agents. PMID:9756748

  10. Screening of antifungal azole drugs and agrochemicals with an adapted alamarBlue-based assay demonstrates antibacterial activity of croconazole against Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Nicole; Röltgen, Katharina; Witschel, Matthias; Pluschke, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    An alamarBlue-based growth inhibition assay has been adapted for the thermosensitive and slow-growing pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. The standardized test procedure enables medium-throughput screening of preselected compound libraries. Testing of a set of 48 azoles with known antifungal activity led to the identification of an imidazole antifungal displaying an inhibitory dose (ID) of 9 μM for M. ulcerans.

  11. Antifungal Activity of Gallic Acid In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Meng; Dawuti, Gulina; Dou, Qin; Ma, Yu; Liu, Heng-Ge; Aibai, Silafu

    2017-07-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol natural compound found in many medicinal plant species, including pomegranate rind (Punica granatum L.), and has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. Pomegranate rind is used to treat bacterial and fungal pathogens in Uyghur and other systems of traditional medicine, but, surprisingly, the effects of GA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the NCCLS (M38-A and M27-A2) standard method in vitro, and GA was found to have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, with MICs for all the tested dermatophyte strains between 43.75 and 83.33 μg/mL. Gallic acid was also active against three Candida strains, with MICs between 12.5 and 100.0 μg/mL. The most sensitive Candida species was Candida albicans (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL), and the most sensitive filamentous species was Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 43.75 μg/mL), which was comparable in potency to the control, fluconazole. The mechanism of action was investigated for inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis using an HPLC-based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Gallic acid reduced the activity of sterol 14α-demethylase P450 (CYP51) and squalene epoxidase in the T. rubrum membrane, respectively. In vivo model demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection administration of GA (80 mg/kg d) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a mice infection model of systemic fungal infection. Overall, our results confirm the antifungal effects of GA and suggest a mechanism of action, suggesting that GA has the potential to be developed further as a natural antifungal agent for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, ... Key words: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, methanol extracts, yeast, mould, Saussurea lappa. ... Caesalpinia pulcherrima.

  13. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... antifungal properties, thus it can be used as a natural alternative approach to synthetic ..... composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven ... Leaf Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of African Yam Bean Seeds,.

  14. Antifungal agents. 10. New derivatives of 1-[(aryl)[4-aryl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]methyl]-1H-imidazole, synthesis, anti-candida activity, and quantitative structure-analysis relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafi, Andrea; Costi, Roberta; Botta, Maurizio; Di Santo, Roberto; Corelli, Federico; Massa, Silvio; Ciacci, Andrea; Manetti, Fabrizio; Artico, Marino

    2002-06-20

    The synthesis, anti-Candida activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies of a series of 2,4-dichlorobenzylimidazole derivatives having a phenylpyrrole moiety (related to the antibiotic pyrrolnitrin) in the alpha-position are reported. A number of substituents on the phenyl ring, ranging from hydrophobic (tert-butyl, phenyl, or 1-pyrrolyl moiety) to basic (NH(2)), polar (CF(3), CN, SCH(3), NO(2)), or hydrogen bond donors and acceptor (OH) groups, were chosen to better understand the interaction of these compounds with cytochrome P450 14-alpha-lanosterol demethylase (P450(14DM)). Finally, the triazole counterpart of one of the imidazole compounds was synthesized and tested to investigate influence of the heterocyclic ring on biological activity. The in vitro antifungal activities of the newly synthesized azoles 10p-v,x-c' were tested against Candida albicans and Candida spp. at pH 7.2 and pH 5.6. A CoMFA model, previously derived for a series of antifungal agents belonging to chemically diverse families related to bifonazole, was applied to the new products. Because the results produced by this approach were not encouraging, Catalyst software was chosen to perform a new 3D-QSAR study. Catalyst was preferred this time because of the possibility of considering each compound as a collection of energetically reasonable conformations and of considering alternative stereoisomers. The pharmacophore model developed by Catalyst, named HYPO1, showed good performances in predicting the biological activity data, although it did not exhibit an unequivocal preference for one enantiomeric series of inhibitors relative to the other. One aromatic nitrogen with a lone pair in the ring plane (mapped by all of the considered compounds) and three aromatic ring features were recognized to have pharmacophoric relevance, whereas neither hydrogen bond acceptor nor hydrophobic features were found. These findings confirmed that the key interaction of azole

  15. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodloff AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed over the last two decades: The number of patients suffering from such infections has increased dramatically and the Candida species involved have become more numerous as Candida albicans is replaced as an infecting agent by various non-C. albicans species (NAC. At the same time, additional antifungal agents have become available. The different Candida species may vary in their susceptibility for these various antifungals. This draws more attention to in vitro susceptibility testing. Unfortunately, several different test methods exist that may deliver different results. Moreover, clinical breakpoints (CBP that classify test results into susceptible, intermediate and resistant are controver- sial between CLSI and EUCAST. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that interpretations may vary with the test system being followed by the microbiological laboratory. Thus, knowledge of actual MIC values and pharmacokinetic properties of individual antifungal agents is important in delivering appropriate therapy to patients

  16. A new antifungal phenolic glycoside derivative, iridoids and lignans from Alibertia sessilis (vell.) K. Schum. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane C. da; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Lopes, Marcia N. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: mnlopes@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2007-07-01

    A new antifungal phenolic glycoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-{beta}-D-(5-O-syringoyl)apiofuranosyl-(1 {yields} 6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with four known iridoids, geniposidic acid (2), geniposide (3), 6{alpha}-hydroxygeniposide (4) and 6{beta}-hydroxygeniposide (5); two lignans, (+)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7); and two phenolic acids, chlorogenic (8) and salicylic acids (9) and D-manitol (10), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stems of Alibertia sessilis. Structures of 1 and of the known compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for their antifungal activities against two phytopathogenic fungi strains Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by direct bioautography. (author)

  17. Synthesis and antifungal activity of the derivatives of novel pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jialong; Zhou, Yuanming

    2015-03-09

    A series of pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate derivatives were designed and synthesized in this study. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectral data (infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Then, all of the compounds were bioassayed in vitro against four types of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria porri, Marssonina coronaria, Cercospora petroselini and Rhizoctonia solani) using the mycelium growth inhibition method. The results showed that some of the synthesized pyrazole carboxamides displayed notable antifungal activity. The isoxazole pyrazole carboxylate 7ai exhibited significant antifungal activity against R. solani, with an EC50 value of 0.37 μg/mL. Nonetheless, this value was lower than that of the commercial fungicide, carbendazol.

  18. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of the Derivatives of Novel Pyrazole Carboxamide and Isoxazolol Pyrazole Carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrazole carboxamide and isoxazolol pyrazole carboxylate derivatives were designed and synthesized in this study. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectral data (infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Then, all of the compounds were bioassayed in vitro against four types of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria porri, Marssonina coronaria, Cercospora petroselini and Rhizoctonia solani using the mycelium growth inhibition method. The results showed that some of the synthesized pyrazole carboxamides displayed notable antifungal activity. The isoxazole pyrazole carboxylate 7ai exhibited significant antifungal activity against R. solani, with an EC50 value of 0.37 μg/mL. Nonetheless, this value was lower than that of the commercial fungicide, carbendazol.

  19. Drug-drug interactions of antifungal agents and implications for patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Amsden, Jarrett R

    2005-10-01

    Drug interactions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys result from alterations in pH, ionic complexation, and interference with membrane transport proteins and enzymatic processes involved in intestinal absorption, enteric and hepatic metabolism, renal filtration and excretion. Azole antifungals can be involved in drug interactions at all the sites, by one or more of the above mechanisms. Consequently, azoles interact with a vast array of compounds. Drug-drug interactions associated with amphotericin B formulations are predictable and result from the renal toxicity and electrolyte disturbances associated with these compounds. The echinocandins are unknown cytochrome P450 substrates and to date are relatively devoid of significant drug-drug interactions. This article reviews drug interactions involving antifungal agents that affect other agents and implications for patient care are highlighted.

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of bacteria against Mycosphaerella fijiensis mediated by diffused and volatile metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic microorganisms do not have a unique mode of action. Multiplicity of these is an important feature for selection as biological control agents. Black Sigatoka is considered the foliar disease with most economic impact for the banana industry worldwide. New strategies to control it are required to reduce the use of fungicides. That is why an increasing interest to find biological alternatives, such as the use of antagonistic bacteria, has risen. Assays wer e carr ied ou t to determine whether in v it r o ant if ungal ac ti vity of 20 bacterial str ai ns against My cosphaer ella fijiensis was caused by metabolites diffused into the culture medium or volatile. Results demonstrated that 80.0% of bacterial strains tested showed in vitro antifungal activity by diffused metabolites in the culture medium and 60.0% by producing volatile metabolites. The 55.0% of strains showed both mechanisms. This feature makes these bacteria the best candidate for its selection as biological control agent. Keywords: antagonistic, biocontrol, volatile compounds, diffused metabolites.

  1. Aspergillus--classification and antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzina, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus is one of the most important fungal genera for the man, for its industrial use, its ability to spoil food and not least its medical impact as cause of a variety of diseases. Currently hundreds of species of Aspergillus are known; nearly fifty of them are able to cause infections in humans and animals. Recently, the genus Aspergillus is subdivided into 8 subgenera and 22 sections. The spectrum of diseases caused by Aspergillus species varies from superficial cutaneous to invasive and systemic infections. All species of Aspergillus investigated so far are resistant against the antifungals fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, the range of susceptibilities to currently available antifungals is discussed in this paper.

  2. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Dihydropyrimidinone Derivatives as Anti-Inflammatory, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjna Bhatewara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol for the efficient preparation of aryl and heteroaryl substituted dihydropyrimidinone has been achieved via initial Knoevenagel, subsequent addition, and final cyclization of aldehyde, ethylcyanoacetate, and guanidine nitrate in the presence of piperidine as a catalyst in solvent-free under microwave irradiation. The synthesized compounds showed a good anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal activity.

  3. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  4. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m 2 /g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m 2/ g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl 2 and NaBH 4 as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl 2 , however, NaBH 4 produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m 2 /g for 7 nm and 269 m 2 /g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H + efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  5. New aminoporphyrins bearing urea derivative substituents: synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimipour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the synthesis of 5,10,15-tris(4-aminophenyl-20-(N,N-dialkyl/diaryl-N-phenylurea porphyrins (P1-P4 with alkyl or aryl groups of Ph, iPr, Et and Me, respectively and also the preparation of their manganese (III and cobalt (II complexes (MnP and CoP. The P1-P4 ligands were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis, and metalated with Mn and Co acetate salts. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these compounds in vitro were investigated by agar-disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli (-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-, Staphylococcus aureus(+, Bacillus subtilis (+ and Aspergillus oryzae and Candida albicans. Results showed that antibacterial and antifungal activity of the test samples increased with increase of their concentrations and the highest activity was obtained when the concentration of porphyrin compounds was 100 µg/mL. The activity for the porphyrin ligands depended on the nature of the urea derivative substituents and increased in the order P1 > P2 > P3 >P4, which was consistent with the order of their liposolubility. MnP and CoP complexes exhibited much higher antibacterial and antifungal activity than P1-P4ligands. Further, the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds was generally in the order CoP complexes > MnP complexes > P1-P4 ligands. Among these porphyrin compounds, CoP1displayed the highest antibacterial and antifungal activity, especially with a concentration of 100 µg/mL, against all the four tested bacteria and two fungi, and therefore it could be potential to be used as drug.

  6. Lead application for the stimulation of fusaricidin type compounds by paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, W.; Wu, H.; Qirong, S.

    2011-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strains produce fusaricidin type compounds that are active against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Growth and production of fusaricidin type antifungal compounds by P. polymyxa SQR-21 were compared in tryptone broth supplemented with three concentrations (200, 400 and 600 mu M) of lead. The data revealed that the growth of P. polymyxa increased by 7-34 % and fusaricidin type compounds production increased by 15-70 % with the increase in concentration of lead ion (Pb/sup 2+/). The increase in Pb/sup 2+/ concentration, decreased the intracellular carbohydrate contents but increased the intracellular protein and lipid contents, however, higher levels of Pb/sup 2+/ inhibited the intracellular protein and lipid contents. On the other hand, extracellular protein contents were decreased and extracellular polysaccharide contents were increased with the increase in Pb/sup 2+/ contents in liquid culture. In addition, the regulatory effects of lead were also reflected by decrease of total RNA and increase of relative expression of the six module-containing non ribosomal peptide synthetase (FusA) when the lead treated experimental samples were compared with the untreated controls. The Pb/sup 2+/ seems to be directly or indirectly correlated with the production of fusaricidin type antifungal compounds. This information will aid in developing fermentation technology for maximum antibiotic production. (author)

  7. Study of antimicrobial effect of novel Quaternary Ammonium Compounds on bacteria and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadrnia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quarterly Ammonium Compounds (QuAC are the more effective antimicrobial agents in medicine and industry. It needs to produce the new compounds with the wider spectrum and less toxicity, because of microbial resistance. Aim of this study was microbiological Evaluation of the new Quarterly Ammonium Compounds produced by Structural modifications on some bacteria, yeast and fungi. Material and Methods: 16 Quat salts were designed and made in Ethanol or Aceto Nitril. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined by standard method on Nutrient Broth and Minimal agar culture media for bacteria , Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA for fungi and Nutrient Agar and Saboro Dextrose Agar (SDA for yeasts . Results: Compounds 2,7,8,9,12,13 has the more antimicrobial effect ( minimum of MIC. Furthermore, it was shown that MIC was unrelated to culture compounds. In yeast culture it must to increases the concentration in enriched media. Compounds 9,12 and 13 has the more antibacterial effect as well as antifungal effect. Conclusion: In comparison of structure of produced compounds and results of the study, it was revealed that radical R3 has the most important role in antimicrobial properties of Quats and it could to be substitute any suitable group related to increasing anti microbial effects.

  8. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José J. MALLMANN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment.

  9. Plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Wadhavan, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Shukla, Abhilasha; Dhananjaya, K; Ravikumar, K R; Mallesha, H

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. Latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. Six fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, F. solani, P. digitatum and R. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. Analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antifungal assay revealed the potential inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extracts against the postharvest fungal isolates. Various degree of sensitivity was observed irrespective of plant species studied with A. terreus and P. digitatum as the most susceptible ones. F. solani and A. fumigatus were moderately sensitive to the latex extracts tested. Among the plants, latex of Thevetia peruviana (75.2%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (64.8%) were having potential antifungal activity against the isolates followed by Manilkara zapota (51.1%). In conclusion, use of plant latex makes interest to control postharvest fungal diseases and is fitting well with the concept of safety for human health and environment.

  10. Antifungal Activity of Commercial Essential Oils and Biocides against Candida Albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Elisa; Hidalgo-Bastida, Lilia Araida; Verran, Joanna; Williams, David; Malic, Sladjana

    2018-01-25

    Management of oral candidosis, most frequently caused by Candida albicans , is limited due to the relatively low number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of antifungal tolerance. In this study, the antifungal activity of a range of commercial essential oils, two terpenes, chlorhexidine and triclosan was evaluated against C. albicans in planktonic and biofilm form. In addition, cytotoxicity of the most promising compounds was assessed using murine fibroblasts and expressed as half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Antifungal activity was determined using a broth microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was established against planktonic cells cultured in a range of concentrations of the test agents. The minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was determined by measuring re-growth of cells after pre-formed biofilm was treated for 24 h with the test agents. All tested commercial essential oils demonstrated anticandidal activity (MICs from 0.06% ( v / v ) to 0.4% ( v / v )) against planktonic cultures, with a noticeable increase in resistance exhibited by biofilms (MBECs > 1.5% ( v / v )). The IC50s of the commercial essential oils were lower than the MICs, while a one hour application of chlorhexidine was not cytotoxic at concentrations lower than the MIC. In conclusion, the tested commercial essential oils exhibit potential as therapeutic agents against C. albicans , although host cell cytotoxicity is a consideration when developing these new treatments.

  11. Antifungal activity, main active components and mechanism of Curcuma longa extract against Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Chen, Qin; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaorui; Liu, Qingya; Bao, Jinku

    2018-01-01

    Curcuma longa possesses powerful antifungal activity, as demonstrated in many studies. In this study, the antifungal spectrum of Curcuma longa alcohol extract was determined, and the resulting EC50 values (mg/mL) of its extract on eleven fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium tricinctum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Rhizopus oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum, were 0.1088, 0.1742, 0.1888, 0.2547, 0.3135, 0.3825, 0.4229, 1.2086, 4.5176, 3.8833 and 5.0183, respectively. Among them, F. graminearum was selected to determine the inhibitory effects of the compounds (including curdione, isocurcumenol, curcumenol, curzerene, β-elemene, curcumin, germacrone and curcumol) derived from Curcuma longa. In addition, the antifungal activities of curdione, curcumenol, curzerene, curcumol and isocurcumenol and the synergies of the complexes of curdione and seven other chemicals were investigated. Differential proteomics of F. graminearum was also compared, and at least 2021 reproducible protein spots were identified. Among these spots, 46 were classified as differentially expressed proteins, and these proteins are involved in energy metabolism, tRNA synthesis and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, several fungal physiological differences were also analysed. The antifungal effect included fungal cell membrane disruption and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, respiration, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and NADH oxidase. PMID:29543859

  12. Facile Syntheses and Molecular-Docking of Novel Substituted 3,4-Dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide/carbohydrazide Analogues with Antimicrobial and Antifungal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra D. Bhosale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the use of facile one-pot, high-yielding reactions to synthesize substituted 3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamides 3a–m and carbohydrazide analogues 5a–l as potential antifungal and antimicrobial agents. The structural identity and purity of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on appropriate spectroscopic techniques. Synthesized compounds were assessed in vitro for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The compounds 5h, 5i and 5j were found to be the most potent against Aspergillus fumigatus, with MIC values of 0.039 mg/mL. The compound 5f bearing a 2, 6-dichloro group on the phenyl ring was found to be the most active broad spectrum antibacterial agent with a MIC value of 0.039 mg/mL. The mode of action of the most promising antifungal compounds (one representative from each series; 3j and 5h was established by their molecular docking with the active site of sterol 14α-demethylase. Molecular docking studies revealed a highly spontaneous binding ability of the tested compounds in the access channel away from catalytic heme iron of the enzyme, which suggested that the tested compounds inhibit this enzyme and would avoid heme iron-related deleterious side effects observed with many existing antifungal compounds.

  13. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  14. Disease control effect of strevertenes produced by Streptomyces psammoticus against tomato fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, In Cheon; Kim, Beom Seok

    2011-03-09

    During screening of microorganisms producing antifungal metabolites, Streptomyces psammoticus strain KP1404 was isolated. The culture extract of this strain showed potent disease control efficacy against Fusarium wilt on tomato plants. The antifungal metabolites ST-1 and ST-2 were isolated from the culture extract using a variety of chromatographic procedures. On the basis of MS and NMR spectrometric analysis, the structures of the antifungal active compounds ST-1 and ST-2 were determined to be the polyene antibiotics strevertene A and strevertene B, respectively. In vitro, strevertenes A and B showed inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of Alternaria mali , Aspergillus oryzae , Cylindrocarpon destructans , Colletotrichum orbiculare , Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , even at concentrations of 4-16 μg/mL. Fusarium wilt development on tomato plants was strongly retarded by treatment with 1 μg/mL of these strevertenes. The disease control efficacies of strevertenes on Fusarium wilt were as remarkable as that of benomyl.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization and Antifungal Evaluation of 5-Substituted-4-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole-3-Thioesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 5-substituted-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thioesters was synthesized by converting variously substituted organic acids successively into the corresponding esters, hydrazides, 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols, 5-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-2-thiols and 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thioesters. Finally the target compounds were obtained by refluxing 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thioesters in the presence of hydrazine hydrate and absolute alcohol. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. Some of the evaluated compounds possessed significant antifungal activity as compared to a terbinafine standard.

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The target substrates were characterized by UV, IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR .... Also substituents like methyl, methoxy and hydroxyl, having +M effect that ... antibacterial and antifungal agents and can find use in biomedical area in near future.

  17. Antifungal diterpenes from Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, Lalao; Marston, Andrew; Guilet, David; Schenk, Kurt; Randimbivololona, Fanantenanirainy; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-02-01

    Two new diterpenes, fusicoserpenol A and dolabeserpenoic acid A, with antifungal activity, were isolated from leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectrometric methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of fusicoserpenol A and established the relative configuration.

  18. Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca. ++ ... strong cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory activities in elicited rat peritoneal ... A resting tension of 1 g was applied to each tissue and kept constant ... Statistical analysis .... through opening of VDCs, thus allowing the influx of extra.

  19. Antifungal evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to further examine the medicinal value of Boswellia dalzielii plant by evaluating the antifungal activity and carrying out phytochemical screening of methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and the sub-fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Standard methods were used for ...

  20. Studies of antifungal activity of forsskalea tenacissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisar, M.; Ahmad, V.U.; Nisar, M.; Gilani, S.N.; Pervez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of different extracts from Forsskalea tenacissima prepared by solvent-solvent extraction and vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) was determined. Extracts were found to be active against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Allescheria boydii, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus niger, Drechslera rostrata, Nigrospora oryzae, Stachybotrys atra, Curvularia lunata, Trichophyton semii and Trichophyton schoenleinii. (author)

  1. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  2. Seaweed Bioactive Compounds against Pathogens and Microalgae: Potential Uses on Pharmacology and Harmful Algae Bloom Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrifi, Soukaina El Amrani; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oudra, Brahim; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2018-02-09

    Cyanobacteria are found globally due to their adaptation to various environments. The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms is not a new phenomenon. The bloom-forming and toxin-producing species have been a persistent nuisance all over the world over the last decades. Evidence suggests that this trend might be attributed to a complex interplay of direct and indirect anthropogenic influences. To control cyanobacterial blooms, various strategies, including physical, chemical, and biological methods have been proposed. Nevertheless, the use of those strategies is usually not effective. The isolation of natural compounds from many aquatic and terrestrial plants and seaweeds has become an alternative approach for controlling harmful algae in aquatic systems. Seaweeds have received attention from scientists because of their bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, anti-microalgae, and antioxidant properties. The undesirable effects of cyanobacteria proliferations and potential control methods are here reviewed, focusing on the use of potent bioactive compounds, isolated from seaweeds, against microalgae and cyanobacteria growth.

  3. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  4. Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.

  5. SB-224289 Antagonizes the Antifungal Mechanism of the Marine Depsipeptide Papuamide A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsi D Cassilly

    Full Text Available In order to expand the repertoire of antifungal compounds a novel, high-throughput phenotypic drug screen targeting fungal phosphatidylserine (PS synthase (Cho1p was developed based on antagonism of the toxin papuamide A (Pap-A. Pap-A is a cyclic depsipeptide that binds to PS in the membrane of wild-type Candida albicans, and permeabilizes its plasma membrane, ultimately causing cell death. Organisms with a homozygous deletion of the CHO1 gene (cho1ΔΔ do not produce PS and are able to survive in the presence of Pap-A. Using this phenotype (i.e. resistance to Pap-A as an indicator of Cho1p inhibition, we screened over 5,600 small molecules for Pap-A resistance and identified SB-224289 as a positive hit. SB-224289, previously reported as a selective human 5-HT1B receptor antagonist, also confers resistance to the similar toxin theopapuamide (TPap-A, but not to other cytotoxic depsipeptides tested. Structurally similar molecules and truncated variants of SB-224289 do not confer resistance to Pap-A, suggesting that the toxin-blocking ability of SB-224289 is very specific. Further biochemical characterization revealed that SB-224289 does not inhibit Cho1p, indicating that Pap-A resistance is conferred by another undetermined mechanism. Although the mode of resistance is unclear, interaction between SB-224289 and Pap-A or TPap-A suggests this screening assay could be adapted for discovering other compounds which could antagonize the effects of other environmentally- or medically-relevant depsipeptide toxins.

  6. Antifungal activity of Andrographis paniculata extracts and active principles against skin pathogenic fungal strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Abubakar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Latip, Jalifah; Samah, Othman Abd; Omar, Muhammad Nor; Umar, Abdulrashid; Dogarai, Bashar Bello S

    2012-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant widely cultivated in southern Asia, China, and Europe. It is used in the treatment of skin infections in India, China, and Malaysia by folk medicine practitioners. Antifungal activity of the whole plant extracts and isolation of active principles from A. paniculata were investigated. Dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MEOH) extracts of A. paniculata whole plant were screened for their antifungal potential using broth microdilution method in vitro against seven pathogenic fungal species responsible for skin infections. Active principles were detected through bioguided assays and isolated using chromatography techniques. Structures of compounds were elucidated through spectroscopy techniques and comparisons were made with previously reported data for similar compounds. DCM extract revealed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (100 μg/mL) against Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, whereas MEOH extract revealed lowest MIC (150 µg/mL) against C. tropicalis and Aspergillus niger. DCM extract showed lowest minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) value (250 µg/mL) against M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger, whereas MEOH extract showed lowest MFC (250 µg/mL) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger. Bioassay guided isolation from DCM and MEOH extract afforded 3-O-β-d-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographiside, 14-deoxyandrographolide, and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide as antifungal compounds. The lowest MIC (50 µg/mL) and MFC (50 µg/mL) was exerted by 14-deoxyandrographolide on M. canis. This is first report on the isolation of antifungal substances through bioassay-guided assay from A. paniculata. Our finding justifies the use of A. paniculata in folk medicines for the treatment of fungal skin infections.

  7. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  8. Synthesis, Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activities of 1,2,3-Triazole-Substituted Carnosic Acid and Carnosol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Walter Pertino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abietane diterpenes exhibit an array of interesting biological activities, which have generated significant interest among the pharmacological community. Starting from the abietane diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, twenty four new triazole derivatives were synthesized using click chemistry. The compounds differ in the length of the linker and the substituent on the triazole moiety. The compounds were assessed as antiproliferative and antifungal agents. The antiproliferative activity was determined on normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, lung cancer (SK-MES-1 and bladder carcinoma (J82 cells while the antifungal activity was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32264. The carnosic acid γ-lactone derivatives 1–3 were the most active antiproliferative compounds of the series, with IC50 values in the range of 43.4–46.9 μM and 39.2–48.9 μM for MRC-5 and AGS cells, respectively. Regarding antifungal activity, C. neoformans was the most sensitive fungus, with nine compounds inhibiting more than 50% of its fungal growth at concentrations ≤250 µg∙mL−1. Compound 22, possessing a p-Br-benzyl substituent on the triazole ring, showed the best activity (91% growth inhibition at 250 µg∙mL−1 In turn, six compounds inhibited 50% C. albicans growth at concentrations lower than 250 µg∙mL−1.

  9. Antifungal activity of eicosanoic acids isolated from the endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella sp. against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Bigatti; Pereira de Sá, Nívea; Borelli, Beatriz Martins; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Barbeira, Paulo Jorge Sanches; Cota, Betania Barros; Johann, Susana

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal effects of two eicosanoic acids, 2-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-25-(hydroxymethyl)-14-oxo-6,12-eicosenoic acid (compound 1) and myriocin (compound 2), isolated from Mycosphaerella sp. were evaluated against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. The compounds displayed antifungal activities against several isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.49 to 7.82 μM for compound 1 and 0.48-1.95 μM for compound 2. In the checkerboard microtiter test, both compounds exhibited synergistic activity with amphotericin B against C. gattii. Ultrastructural analysis revealed several signs of damage in C. gattii and C. neoformans cells treated with compounds 1 and 2, including deformities in cell shape, depressions on the surface, and withered cells. The cells of C. gattii treated with compounds 1 and 2 showed less loss of cellular material in comparison to those treated with amphotericin B. The difference in cellular material loss increased in a test compound concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with this observation, compounds 1 and 2 were able to internalize propidium iodide (PI) in C. gattii cells. In addition, compound 2 induced the formation of several pseudohyphae, suggesting that it could reduce virulence in C. gattii cells. The study results show that these natural products led to membrane damage; however, this may not be the main target of action. These compounds have potential antifungal activity and could be useful in further studies for developing more effective combination therapies with amphotericin B and reducing side effects in patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Indolo[3,2-c]cinnolines with antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraja, P; Diana, P; Lauria, A; Passannanti, A; Almerico, A M; Minnei, C; Longu, S; Congiu, D; Musiu, C; La Colla, P

    1999-08-01

    A series of indolo[3,2-c]cinnoline derivatives was prepared and tested to evaluate their biological activity. Most of them inhibited the proliferation of leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumor-derived cell lines at micromolar concentrations, whereas none of the compounds were active against HIV-1. With the exception of 7g, all title compounds showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, being up to 200 times more potent than the reference drug streptomycin. Some of the indolo[3,2-c]cinnolines were also endowed with good antifungal activity, particularly against Criptococcus neoformans.

  11. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Intzar; Khan, Farrah G; Suri, Krishan A; Gupta, Bishan D; Satti, Naresh K; Dutt, Prabhu; Afrin, Farhat; Qazi, Ghulam N; Khan, Inshad A

    2010-02-03

    Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 microg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 microg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 microg/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 x MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 x MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 x to 8 x MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Farhat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Results Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 μg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 μg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 μg/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 × MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 × MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 × to 8 × MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. Conclusions The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. extracts and antifungal activity against Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A H; de Oliveira, G G; Carnevale Neto, F; Portuondo, D F; Batista-Duharte, A; Carlos, I Z

    2017-01-04

    Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. is traditionally used in North and Northeast of Brazil for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Since the strategy associating immunomodulators with antifungal drugs seems to be promissory to improve the treatment efficacy in fungal infections, we aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of V. guianensis ethanolic extract of leaves (VGL) and bark (VGB) against Sporothrix schenckii ATCC 16345 and their antinflammatory activities. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-IT MS/MS for in situ identification of major compounds. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro (microdilution test) and in vivo using a murine model of S. schenckii infection. The production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 by measured by ELISA, as well as measured the production and inhibition of the NO after treatment with the plant extracts or itraconazole (ITR). Two O-glucosyl-flavonoids and 16 prenylated benzophenone derivatives already described for Vismia were detected. Both VGL and VGB showed significant antifungal activity either in in vitro assay of microdilution (MIC=3.9µg/mL) and in vivo model of infection with reduction of S. schenckii load in spleen. It was also observed a predominance of reduction in the production of NO and the proinflammatory cytokines evaluated except TNFα, but with stimulation of IL-10, as evidence of a potential anti-inflammatory effect associated. The results showed that both VGL and VGB have a significant antifungal against S. schenckii and an anti-inflammatory activity. These results can support the use of these extracts for alternative treatment of sporotrichosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. COMPARISON OF POTENCY OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTION OF DANDRUFF SHAMPOOS AND DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Padma P, Anuradha K, Divya K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dandruff a very common scalp disorder with high prevalence in population is caused by numerous host factors in conjunction with Malassezia furfur. Most of the commercially available anti-dandruff hair shampoos contain some form of antifungal agent(s that appear to reduce the incidence of the disease. There are no good scientific studies done to prove the antifungal activity of commercially available hair shampoos. Aim: In this study commercially available shampoos were assessed for antifungal activity against a human dandruff isolate of M. furfur. The shampoos were Head & Shoulders, Clinic All Clear, and Pantene etc. The results demonstrated that all six of the assayed hair shampoos have some antifungal effect on growth of M. furfur. These products have poor efficacies, more side effects and give scope for recurrence of symptoms. Methods and Materials: Therefore different plant extracts that possess various active compounds which have antifungal activity could help to overcome the incidence of the disease and also avoid the emergence of resistance in the pathogen. The plant extracts were tested in different concentrations like 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and they were hibiscus, neem, soap nut, etc. The inhibitory action was studied using agar well assay and disc diffusion method and the results indicated in percentage of inhibition. Conclusion: The study was significant as not only efficient known plant products with anti-dandruff activity could be compared with commercially available shampoos but also their better efficacies at minimum concentrations could be identified. This can help make a polyherbal mixture that could be incorporated in hair oil or shampoos for better anti-dandruff activity.

  15. Antifungal activity of secondary plant metabolites from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.): Glycoalkaloids and phenolic acids show synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, A F; Schieber, A; Gänzle, M G

    2016-04-01

    To study the antifungal effects of the potato secondary metabolites α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and caffeic acid, alone or combined. Resistance to glycoalkaloids varied among the fungal species tested, as derived from minimum inhibitory concentrations assays. Synergistic antifungal activity between glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds was found. Changes in the fluidity of fungal membranes caused by potato secondary plant metabolites were determined by calculation of the generalized polarization values. The results partially explained the synergistic effect between caffeic acid and α-chaconine and supported findings on membrane disruption mechanisms from previous studies on artificial membranes. LC/MS analysis was used to determine variability and relative amounts of sterols in the different fungal species. Results suggested that the sterol pattern of fungi is related to their resistance to potato glycoalkaloids and to their taxonomy. Fungal resistance to α-chaconine and possibly other glycoalkaloids is species dependent. α-Chaconine and caffeic acid show synergistic antifungal activity. The taxonomic classification and the sterol pattern play a role in fungal resistance to glycoalkaloids. Results improve the understanding of the antifungal mode of action of potato secondary metabolites, which is essential for their potential utilization as antifungal agents in nonfood systems. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Investigation of the effect of base strength on the antifungal activity and chemical composition of the fish scales hydrolyzates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaz, S.; Dil, S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of base strength on the antifungal activity of the fish scale hydrolyzate was investigated for six types of samples prepared from the scales of Cyprinus carpio using sodium hydroxide in the range of 1-11 percent strength in the aqueous solution. Each of the sample was analyzed for its acid-base content using titration against HCl in addition to the spot test analysis for phenolic compounds. Each of these samples was analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. Variation in chemical composition and functional group were observed with variation in the base strength. The in vitro antifungal activity of the fish scale hydrolyzates was tested against four pathogenic fungi including Acremonium, Pythium, Verticillium, and Alternaria. The antifungal assay was carried out using agar well diffusion methods. The sterilization was carried out using streptomycin while ketoconazole was used as the standard antifungal agent. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for the most active hydrolyzate which was obtained by 9 percent base solution. The cause of this antifungal activity was also discussed in this communication. (author)

  17. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic metabolites in Anacardiaceae species from northwest Argentina: isolation, identification and potential for control of Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristimuño Ficoseco, M E; Vattuone, M A; Audenaert, K; Catalán, C A N; Sampietro, D A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify antifungal compounds from leaves of Schinus and Schinopsis species useful for the control of toxigenic Fusarium species responsible of ear rot diseases. Leaves of Schinopsis (S. lorentzii and S. haenkeana) and Schinus (S. areira, S. gracilipes and S. fasciculatus) were sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The antifungal activity of the fraction soluble in methanol of these extracts (fCH2Cl2, fAcEt and fMeOH, respectively) was determined by the broth microdilution method and the disc-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory dose (MID), the diameter of growth inhibition (DGI) and the minimum concentration for 50% inhibition of fungal growth (MIC50) were calculated. The fCH2Cl2 and fAcEt of the Schinopsis species had the lowest MID and MIC50 values and the highest DGI. The antifungal compounds were identified as lupeol and a mix of phenolic lipids. The last one had the highest antifungal activity with MIC50 31-28 μg g(-1) and 165-150 μg g(-1) on Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, respectively. The identified metabolites completely inhibited fumonisin and deoxynivalenol production at lower concentrations than ferulic acid, a natural antimycotoxigenic compound. It was proven that lupeol and phenolic lipids were inhibitors of both fungal growth and mycotoxin production of toxigenic Fusarium species. This fact is specially interesting in the control of the toxigenic Fusarium species because several commercial antifungals showed to stimulate mycotoxin biosynthesis at sublethal concentrations. Control of toxigenic Fusarium species requires compounds able to inhibit both fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Our results suggest that the use of lupeol as food preservative and the phenolic lipids as fungal growth inhibitors of F. verticillioides and F. graminearum did not imply an increase in mycotoxin accumulation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Identification of a New Class of Antifungals Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Visesato; Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M.; Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Mansa; Bryan, Arielle; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B.; Ojima, Iwao; Bullesbach, Erika; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J.; Cushion, Melanie; Collins, Margaret; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas; Wong, Lai Hong; Sinha, Sunita; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Flaherty, Patrick; Pan, Xuewen; Cesar, Gabriele Vargas; de Melo Tavares, Patricia; Frases, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Luberto, Chiara; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent estimates suggest that >300 million people are afflicted by serious fungal infections worldwide. Current antifungal drugs are static and toxic and/or have a narrow spectrum of activity. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal drugs. The fungal sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is critical in promoting virulence of a variety of human-pathogenic fungi. In this study, we screened a synthetic drug library for compounds that target the synthesis of fungal, but not mammalian, GlcCer and found two compounds [N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-methylbenzohydrazide (BHBM) and its derivative, 3-bromo-N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide (D0)] that were highly effective in vitro and in vivo against several pathogenic fungi. BHBM and D0 were well tolerated in animals and are highly synergistic or additive to current antifungals. BHBM and D0 significantly affected fungal cell morphology and resulted in the accumulation of intracellular vesicles. Deep-sequencing analysis of drug-resistant mutants revealed that four protein products, encoded by genes APL5, COS111, MKK1, and STE2, which are involved in vesicular transport and cell cycle progression, are targeted by BHBM. PMID:26106079

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of Ocimum selloi essential oil and methylchavicol against phytopathogenic fungi1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Corrêa Bomfim Costa

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Ocimum selloi essential oil was evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spores germination Moniliophthora perniciosa. Six compounds (99.89% of the total oil were identified by GC-MS, of which methyl chavicol, methyl eugenol, β-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, bicyclogermacrene and spathulenol. Essential oil was tested for antifungal activity, which was determined by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination methods. Application of the oil reduced mycelial growth in a dose dependent manner, with maximum inhibition being observed at concentration of 1,000 ppm. Such antifungal activity could be attributed to methyl chavicol since the pure compound was shown to be similarly effective against Moniliophthora perniciosa at 1,000 ppm. The oil when applied at a concentration of 1,000 ppm, reduced the spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and M. perniciosa by 93 and 87%, respectively, but had no effect on the Alternaria alternata. It is concluded that the oil from O. selloi and its major constituent, methyl chavicol, are efficient in inhibiting M. perniciosa, but less effective against C. gloeosporioides and A. alternata. The results obtained from this work may contribute to the development of alternative anti-fungal agents to protect the cacao crop from fungal disease.

  20. Synthesis and antifungal activity of nicotinamide derivatives as succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Hao; Ma, Liang; Dai, Zhi-Cheng; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Dong-Dong; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2014-05-07

    Thirty-eight nicotinamide derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI) and precisely characterized by (1)H NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The compounds were evaluated against two phytopathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, by mycelia growth inhibition assay in vitro. Most of the compounds displayed moderate activity, in which, 3a-17 exhibited the most potent antifungal activity against R. solani and S. sclerotiorum with IC50 values of 15.8 and 20.3 μM, respectively, comparable to those of the commonly used fungicides boscalid and carbendazim. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of nicotinamide derivatives demonstrated that the meta-position of aniline was a key position contributing to the antifungal activity. Inhibition activities against two fungal SDHs were tested and achieved the same tendency with the data acquired from in vitro antifungal assay. Significantly, 3a-17 was demonstrated to successfully suppress disease development in S. sclerotiorum infected cole in vivo. In the molecular docking simulation, sulfur and chlorine of 3a-17 were bound with PHE291 and PRO150 of the SDH homology model, respectively, which could explain the probable mechanism of action between the inhibitory and target protein.

  1. Synthesis, Antifungal Evaluation and In Silico Study of N-(4-Halobenzyl)amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Ricardo Carneiro; Perez, Ana Luiza A L; Medeiros, Cássio Ilan S; Araújo, Marianna Oliveira de; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Sousa, Damião Pergentino de

    2016-12-13

    A collection of 32 structurally related N -(4-halobenzyl)amides were synthesized from cinnamic and benzoic acids through coupling reactions with 4-halobenzylamines, using (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP) as a coupling agent. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods such as infrared, ¹H- and 13 C- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The compounds were then submitted to antimicrobial tests by the minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) and nystatin was used as a control in the antifungal assays. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the influence of structural changes in the cinnamic and benzoic acid substructures on the inhibitory activity against strains of Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , and Candida krusei . A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study with KNIME v. 3.1.0 and Volsurf v. 1.0.7 softwares were realized, showing that descriptors DRDRDR, DRDRAC, L4LgS, IW4 and DD2 influence the antifungal activity of the haloamides. In general, 10 benzamides revealed fungal sensitivity, especially a vanillic amide which enjoyed the lowest MIC. The results demonstrate that a hydroxyl group in the para position, and a methoxyl at the meta position enhance antifungal activity for the amide skeletal structure. In addition, the double bond as a spacer group appears to be important for the activity of amide structures.

  2. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  3. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  4. Whey permeate fermented with kefir grains shows antifungal effect against Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Raúl Ricardo; De Antoni, Graciela; Peláez, Angela León

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the work reported here was to study the antifungal capability of cell-free supernatants obtained from whey permeates after fermentation by the kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 against Fusarium graminearum growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production. The assays were performed in order to study the conidial germination inhibition -in liquid media- and the effect on fungal growth rate and the Latency phase -in solid media. We observed that fermented supernatants of pH 3·5 produced the highest percentages of inhibition of conidial germination. The dilution and, particularly, alkalinisation of them led to the gradual loss of antifungal activity. In the fungal inhibition assays on plates we found that only the highest proportion of supernatant within solid medium had significant antifungal activity, which was determined as fungicidal. There was no ZEA biosynthesis in the medium with the highest proportion of supernatant, whereas at lower concentrations, the mycotoxin production was strain-dependent. From the results obtained we concluded that kefir supernatants had antifungal activity on the F. graminearum strains investigated and inhibited mycotoxin production as well, but in a strain-dependent fashion. The present work constitutes the first report of the effect of the products obtained from the kefir-grain fermentation of whey permeates - a readily available by-product of the dairy industry - on F. graminearum germination, growth, and toxin production.

  5. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  6. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  7. The In Vitro Efficacy of Essential Oils and Antifungal Drugs Against Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Barbara; Głowacka, Anna; Krukowski, Henryk; Lisowski, Andrzej; Lassa, Henryka; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The algae of the genus Prototheca are environmental pathogens whose main reservoir is the habitat of cows. They can cause protothecosis in domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings, with the main etiological agents being Prototheca zopfii in animals and Prototheca wickerhamii in humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of selected essential oils and antifungal antibiotics against P. zopfii isolates. The material consisted of nine P. zopfii strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis. Eight essential oils produced by POLLENA-AROMA, Poland, and nine antifungal agents were tested. The effects of essential oils on P. zopfii were evaluated by microdilution with liquid Sabouraud dextrose broth, and susceptibility to antifungal agents was tested using the disk-diffusion method. All used essential oils inhibited the activity of P. zopfii isolates, with MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 10.5 μl/ml. Cinnamon, clove, and thyme demonstrated the highest activity against the tested P. zopfii strains at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 μl/ml. Of the antifungal agents, the tested strains were the most sensitive to nystatin (100 %). The tested essential oils can be used to complement protothecosis therapy in animals and human beings.

  8. Known and novel terpenes from Buddleja globosa displaying selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, A Y; Houghton, P J; Bloomfield, S; Vlietinck, A; Vanden Berghe, D

    2000-09-01

    Lipophilic extracts of the stembark of Buddleja globosa were found to have antifungal activity at 125 microg/mL against three dermatophytic fungal species but had no activity at 1000 microg/mL against four other fungal species or two yeast species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Si gel column eluates using the sensitive fungal species resulted in active fractions from which were isolated five compounds that were characterized by spectroscopic methods as one novel and four known compounds. The known compounds were the diterpene buddlejone (1), the bisditerpene maytenone, and the two sesquiterpenes buddledin A and buddledin B, while the novel compound was characterized as the diterpene deoxybuddlejone (2). The minimum inhibitory concentration of all the compounds was determined against all the microorganisms under test, and buddledins A and B were shown to exhibit the greatest antifungal activity, with values of 43 microM and 51 microM, respectively, against the sensitive fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Tricophyton interdigitale, and Epidermophyton floccosum.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Coumarin from Ageratum conyzoides L. Leaves on Candida albicans cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Pamudji Widodo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the antifungal activity of coumarin isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. leaves and to observe its influence on Candida albicans cells by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Antifungal activity testing by disk diffusion method showed coumarin was active toward pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans with the MIC value of coumarin of 125 g mL-1. The influence of this substance on C. albicans cells was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The result showed that this compound damaged the cell by pores formation on the cell wall. The death of cells occurred due to leakage and necrotic of cytoplasmic content.

  10. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  11. Tolerability and safety of antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scaglione

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When treating critically ill patients, as those with fungal infections, attention should be focused on the appropriate use of drugs, especially in terms of dose, safety, and tolerability. The fungal infection itself and the concomitant physiological disorders concur to increase the risk of mortality in these patients, therefore the use of any antifungal agent should be carefully evaluated, considering both the direct action on the target fungus and the adverse effects eventually caused. Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins have the greatest tolerability. In fact, unlike amphotericin B, showing nephrotoxicity, and azoles, which are hepatotoxic, the use of echinocandins doesn’t result in major adverse events.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.873

  12. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives. PMID:28621716

  13. Lipid Biosynthesis as an Antifungal Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, commonly including phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols, and triacylglycerols (TAGs, are important biomolecules for the viability of all cells. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols are important constituents of biological membranes. Many lipids play important roles in the regulation of cell metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Neutral lipids, including TAGs and sterol esters (STEs, are important storage lipids in cells. In view of the importance of lipid molecules, this review briefly summarizes the metabolic pathways for sterols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids in fungi and illustrates the differences between fungal and human (or other mammalian cells, especially in relation to lipid biosynthetic pathways. These differences might provide valuable clues for us to find target proteins for novel antifungal drugs. In addition, the development of lipidomics technology in recent years has supplied us with a shortcut for finding new antifungal drug targets; this ability is important for guiding our research on pathogenic fungi.

  14. Chemical method for producing nanoscale semiconductor compound CdS in a polymer matrix; Khimicheskij metod polucheniya nanorazmernogo poluprovodnikovogo soedineniya CdS v polimernoj matritse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglidze, Natalia; Dement' ev, Igor' ; Zadorozhnyj, Aleksandru; Koval' , Andrej; Gashin, Petr [Moldavskij gosudarstvennyj univ., Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Gutsul, Tatiana; Taraburkin, Aleksandr [Academiya nauk Moldovy, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The results of cadmium sulfide synthesis in a polymer matrix from cadmium stearate and tiourea are given. Luminescent properties of the obtained materials were studied. It was shown that the elaborated method allows to efficiently synthesize 2-6 semiconductor compounds with the nano-granulated particles in various organic media including biopolymers. (authors)

  15. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  16. Two new compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong-Hua; Bai, Xue; Feng, Tao; Dong, Ze-Jun; Li, Zheng-Hui; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2016-01-01

    One new lignan, fructusol A (1), and one new thiazine derivative, 2-hydroxy-xanthiazone (2), along with eight known ones, were isolated from the seeds of Xanthium strumarium. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Meanwhile, compounds 1-3 were tested for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) in vitro. No one showed obvious inhibitions (MIC90 > 128 μg/ml).

  17. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Gullo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa. It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents.

  18. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Fernanda P.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Rossi, Suélen A.; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Furlan, Maysa; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa). It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:22675379

  19. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  20. ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING: CURRENT ROLE FROM THE CLINICAL LABORATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Posteraro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of many antifungal agents, antifungal clinical resistance occurs, perhaps as a result of an infecting organism found to be resistant in vitro to one or more antifungals tested. Thus, antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST results, if timely generated by the clinical microbiology and communicated to clinicians, can aid them in the therapeutic decision making, especially for difficult-to-treat invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Although recently refined AFST methods are commercially available to allow a close antifungal resistance surveillance in many clinical setting, novel assays, relying on short-time antifungal drug exposure of fungal isolates, are upcoming tools for AFST. Based on emerging technologies such as flow cytometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and isothermal microcalorimetry, these assays could provide a reliable means for quicker and sensitive assessment of AFST.

  1. Molecular basis of antifungal drug resistance in yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morio, Florent; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Besides inherent differences in in vitro susceptibilities, clinically-relevant yeast species may acquire resistance upon exposure to most antifungal drugs used in the clinic. In recent years, major fundamental research studies have been conducted to improve our understanding of the molecular basis...... of antifungal resistance. This topic is of major interest as antifungal resistance in yeast is clearly evolving and is correlated with clinical failure. This minireview is an overview of the most recent findings about key molecular mechanisms evolving in human pathogenic yeasts, particularly Candida spp......., in the context of antifungal drug resistance. Also included are the methods currently available for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing and for molecular detection of mutations associated with resistance. Finally, the genetic drivers of antifungal resistance are discussed in light of the spectra...

  2. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  3. An Antifungal Combination Matrix Identifies a Rich Pool of Adjuvant Molecules that Enhance Drug Activity against Diverse Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Robbins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for fungal infections. By combining sub-lethal concentrations of the known antifungals fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, terbinafine, benomyl, and cyprodinil with ∼3,600 compounds in diverse fungal species, we generated a deep reservoir of chemical-chemical interactions termed the Antifungal Combinations Matrix (ACM. Follow-up susceptibility testing against a fluconazole-resistant isolate of C. albicans unveiled ACM combinations capable of potentiating fluconazole in this clinical strain. We used chemical genetics to elucidate the mode of action of the antimycobacterial drug clofazimine, a compound with unreported antifungal activity that synergized with several antifungals. Clofazimine induces a cell membrane stress for which the Pkc1 signaling pathway is required for tolerance. Additional tests against additional fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus fumigatus, highlighted that clofazimine exhibits efficacy as a combination agent against multiple fungi. Thus, the ACM is a rich reservoir of chemical combinations with therapeutic potential against diverse fungal pathogens.

  4. Bio-prospecting of soil Streptomyces and its bioassay-guided isolation of microbial derived auxin with antifungal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, P; Yuvaraj, P; Gabrial Paulraj, M; Ignacimuthu, S; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, N

    2018-06-05

    The present study was aimed to isolate bioactive actinomycetes with antifungal properties. Twenty-seven distinct soil derived actinomycetes were investigated for their antifungal activities. Among these, one isolate exhibited significant antifungal activity. Phenotypic and 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis strongly suggested that the active isolate BG4 belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Further, the chemical investigation of the active extract resulted in the isolation of a major compound and it was structurally elucidated as phenyl acetic acid (PAA). PAA exhibited promising antifungal activity with 100% inhibition, ranging from 31.25 to 25μg/mL. It is to be noted that PAA is naturally occurring and biologically active auxin. In addition, it has also been hypothesized that phytohormone endorsing the source of soil-symbionts has similar pathways for synthesizing compounds and its congeners of host due to horizontal gene transfer. These findings demonstrate that microbially derived phytohormone can be used to treat fungal infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation of Commercial PDO Wines Produced in Istria (Croatia According to Variety and Harvest Year Based on HS-SPME-GC/MS Volatile Aroma Compound Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate monovarietal wines made from native and introduced varieties in Istria (Croatia, samples of Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat yellow from two harvest years (2013 and 2014 were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (HS-SPME-GC/MS of volatile aroma compounds. Significant effects of variety and harvest year were determined, but their interaction complicated the differentiation. Particular compounds were consistent as markers of variety in both years: nerol for Malvazija, ethyl cinnamate and a tentatively identified isomer of dimethylbenzaldehyde for Chardonnay, and terpenes for Muscat yellow. Wines from 2013 contained higher concentrations of the majority of important volatiles. A 100 % correct differentiation of Malvazija istarska and Chardonnay wines according to both variety and harvest year was achieved by stepwise linear discriminant analysis.

  6. Differentiation of Commercial PDO Wines Produced in Istria (Croatia) According to Variety and Harvest Year Based on HS-SPME-GC/MS Volatile Aroma Compound Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Horvat, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    To differentiate monovarietal wines made from native and introduced varieties in Istria (Croatia), samples of Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat yellow from two harvest years (2013 and 2014) were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (HS-SPME-GC/MS) of volatile aroma compounds. Significant effects of variety and harvest year were determined, but their interaction complicated the differentiation. Particular compounds were consistent as markers of variety in both years: nerol for Malvazija, ethyl cinnamate and a tentatively identified isomer of dimethylbenzaldehyde for Chardonnay, and terpenes for Muscat yellow. Wines from 2013 contained higher concentrations of the majority of important volatiles. A 100% correct differentiation of Malvazija istarska and Chardonnay wines according to both variety and harvest year was achieved by stepwise linear discriminant analysis.

  7. Cultivation in space flight produces minimal alterations in the susceptibility of Bacillus subtilis cells to 72 different antibiotics and growth-inhibiting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michael D; Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2017-08-18

    Past results have suggested that bacterial antibiotic susceptibility is altered during space flight. To test this notion, Bacillus subtilis cells were cultivated in matched hardware, medium, and environmental conditions either in spaceflight microgravity on the International Space Station, termed Flight (FL) samples, or at Earth-normal gravity, termed Ground Control (GC) samples. Susceptibility of FL and GC samples was compared to 72 antibiotics and growth-inhibitory compounds using the Omnilog Phenotype Microarray (PM) system. Only 9 compounds were identified by PM screening as exhibiting significant differences ( P flight. Importance: This study addresses a major concern of mission planners for human spaceflight, that bacteria accompanying astronauts on long-duration missions might develop a higher level of resistance to antibiotics due to exposure to the spaceflight environment. The results of this study do not support that notion. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity in cocoa mass and chocolates produced from "witch broom disease" resistant and non resistant cocoa cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Paula Bacelar; Maciel,Leonardo Fonseca; Opretzka,Luiza Carolina França; Soares,Sergio Eduardo; Bispo,Eliete da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The "witch broom disease" caused by the fungus called Moniliophthora perniciosa is one of the most important cocoa diseases in Latin America, causing around 70% production reduction in the southern Bahia. In attempt to solve the problem, many cultivars resistant to the disease have been recommended to farmers. On the other hand, the chocolate flavour is composed by many compounds whose formation depends on the genetic background, environment where cocoa is grown and processing operations. The...

  9. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  10. Imaging mass spectrometry and genome mining reveal highly antifungal virulence factor of mushroom soft rot pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Katharina; Scherlach, Kirstin; Bretschneider, Tom; Lackner, Gerald; Roth, Martin; Gross, Harald; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-12-21

    Caught in the act: imaging mass spectrometry of a button mushroom infected with the soft rot pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum in conjunction with genome mining revealed jagaricin as a highly antifungal virulence factor that is not produced under standard cultivation conditions. The structure of jagaricin was rigorously elucidated by a combination of physicochemical analyses, chemical derivatization, and bioinformatics. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lactobacillus plantarum with broad antifungal activity: A promising approach to increase safety and shelf-life of cereal-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pasquale; Arena, Mattia Pia; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-17

    Cereal-based fermented products are worldwide diffused staple food resources and cereal-based beverages represent a promising innovative field in the food market. Contamination and development of spoilage filamentous fungi can result in loss of cereal-based food products and it is a critical safety concern due to their potential ability to produce mycotoxins. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have been proposed as green strategy for the control of the moulds in the food industry due to their ability to produce antifungal metabolites. In this work, eighty-eight Lactobacillus plantarum strains were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium spp. The overlayed method was used for a preliminary discrimination of the strains as no, mild and strong inhibitors. L. plantarum isolates that displayed broad antifungal spectrum activity were further screened based on the antifungal properties of their cell-free supernatant (CFS). CFSs from L. plantarum UFG 108 and L. plantarum UFG 121, in reason of their antifungal potential, were characterized and analyzed by HPLC. Results indicated that lactic acid was produced at high concentration during the growth phase, suggesting that this metabolic aptitude, associated with the low pH, contributed to explain the highlighted antifungal phenotype. Production of phenyllactic acid was also observed. Finally, a new oat-based beverage was obtained by fermentation with the strongest antifungal strain L. plantarum UFG 121. This product was submitted or not to a thermal stabilization and artificially contaminated with F. culmorum. Samples containing L. plantarum UFG 121 showed the best biopreservative effects, since that no differences were observed in terms of some qualitative features between not or contaminated samples with F. culmorum. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the suitability of LAB

  12. Isolation and molecular identification chitinase-producing Streptomyces strains and examination of their in-vitro antagonistic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Dehnad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chemical fungicides are used widely in the world. To reduce the application of synthetic fungicides in treating plant diseases, biological methods are considered as an alternative way to control plant diseases. Many actinomycetes, particularly Streptomyces species are biological agents against a broad spectrum of fungal plant pathogens. The purpose of this study was using the kitinolitik actinomycetes isolated from soil of Eastern Azerbaijan province In order to produce biological pesticides. Materials and methods: Soil samples were taken from different areas of Eastern Azerbaijan province. According to Streptomyces morphological features, single colonies were isolated. To identify the bacteria by molecular characteristic, the genomic DNA was extracted and then the sequences of 16S rDNA were replicated. By using specific primers the bacterial isolates containing chitinase gene were screened. The isolates consisted Chitinase enzyme and were antagonistically cultured with Alternaria genus which is a fungal plant pathogen. Results: Out of 60 soil collected samples, 31 Streptomyces bacterial isolates were separated. Four isolates showed positive results to selectivity action of the chitinase enzyme. Treatment of 3 bacterial isolates with 2 pathogenic fungi showed that AE09 is the most effective anti-fungal isolates. Discussion and conclusion: Soils in Eastern Azerbaijan province are rich of Streptomyces bacteria which generate antifungal compounds. Obtaining the Streptomyces bacteria which have chitinase gene, can lead to identification of very effective strains as anti-fungal.

  13. Antioxidant and antifungal potential of methanol extracts of Phellinus spp. from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica Alejandra; Esqueda, Martín; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Calderón-López, Yazaric

    2012-01-01

    Among the potential natural sources of bioactive compounds, those of the macroscopic fungi Phellinus spp. have been identified by previous researches. Phenolic compounds are among the major antioxidant and antimicrobial contributors due to their bioactive properties. The goal of this study was to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and its relation with the antioxidant and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Phellinus gilvus, Phellinus rimosus and Phellinus badius, respectively. The collected and identified organisms of Phellinus spp. were treated with methanol and the generated aqueous extract was analyzed to quantified total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, radical scavenging activity against DPPH, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and oxygen absorbance capacity. The antifungal property of the extracts was evaluated against Alternaria alternata. The content of phenolic compounds was of 49.31, 46.51 and 44.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g, for P. gilvus, P. rimosus and P. badius, respectively. The total flavonoid content followed the same pattern with values of 30.58, 28, and 26.48 mg of quercetin equivalents/g for P. gilvus, P. rimosus and P. badius, respectively. The variation on the content of phenolic components was reflected on the antioxidant activity of every organism. The antioxidant activity ranked as follows: P. gilvus>P. rimosus>P. badius. The antifungal effect of the different extracts against A. alternata showed a significant effect, all of them, inhibiting the growth of this pathogen. P. gilvus showed the best potential to inactivate free radicals, being all the tested fungi effective to inhibit A. alternata growth. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis, antioxidant, antifungal, molecular docking and ADMET studies of some thiazolyl hydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauthale, Sushama; Tekale, Sunil; Damale, Manoj; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash; Pawar, Rajendra

    2017-08-15

    Some thiazolyl hydrazones were synthesized by one pot reaction of thiophene-2-carbaldehyde or 2, 4-dichlorobenzaldehyde, thiosemicarbazide and various phenacyl bromides which were preliminarily screened for in vitro antioxidant and antifungal activities. Excellent DPPH and H 2 O 2 radical scavenged antioxidant activities were observed with almost all the tested compounds. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, 4e, 4f and 4i showed comparable DPPH scavenged antioxidant potential (90.26-96.56%) whereas H 2 O 2 scavenged antioxidant activity (90.98-92.08%) was noticeable in case of 4a and 4f; showing significant antioxidant potential comparable with the standard ascorbic acid (95.3%). In vitro antifungal activity of synthesized compounds against fungal species Candida albicance, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was found to be moderate to good as compared with the standard fluconazole and MIC values were found in the range of 3.12-25μg/mL. Molecular docking studies revealed that the compounds 4a, 4b and 4c have a potential to become lead molecules in drug discovery process. In silico ADMET study was also performed for predicting pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile of the synthesized antioxidants which expressed good oral drug like behaviour and non-toxic nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral yeast isolates from Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijs Antonius JMM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, little is known on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis. Methods A total of 296 clinical oral yeasts were isolated from 292 HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Identification of the yeasts was performed using standard phenotypic methods. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed using a broth microdilution format according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI; M27-A2. Results Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species from 250 (84.5% patients followed by C. glabrata from 20 (6.8% patients, and C. krusei from 10 (3.4% patients. There was no observed significant difference in species distribution between patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis, but isolates cultured from patients previously treated were significantly less susceptible to the azole compounds compared to those cultured from antifungal naïve patients. Conclusion C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species from patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oral yeast isolates from Tanzania had high level susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous antifungal therapy significantly correlated with reduced susceptibility to azoles antifungal agents.

  16. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Olea africana against pathogenic yeast and nosocomial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoko, Peter; Makgapeetja, David M

    2015-11-17

    Olea africana leaves are used by Bapedi people to treat different ailments. The use of these leaves is not validated, therefore the aim of this study is to validate antimicrobial properties of this plant. The ground leaves were extracted using solvents of varying polarity (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, methanol, butanol and water). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyse the chemical constituents of the extracts. The TLC plates were developed in three different solvent systems, namely, benzene/ethanol/ammonium solution (BEA), chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) and ethyl acetate/methanol/water (EMW). The micro-dilution assay and bioautography method were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the extracts against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Methanol was the best extractant, yielding a larger amount of plant material whereas hexane yielded the least amount. In phytochemical analyses, more compounds were observed in BEA, followed by EMW and CEF. Qualitative 2, 2- diphenylpacryl-1-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay displayed that all the extracts had antioxidant activity. Antioxidant compounds could not be separated using BEA solvent system while with CEF and EMW enabled antioxidant compounds separation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values against test bacteria ranged between 0.16 and 2.50 mg/mL whereas against fungi, MIC ranged from 0.16 to 0.63 mg/mL. Bioautography results demonstrated that more than one compound was responsible for antimicrobial activity in the microdilution assay as the compounds were located at different Rf values. The results indicate that leaf extracts of Olea africana contain compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Therefore, further studies are required to isolate the active compounds and perform

  17. Effects of sugar and amino acid supplementation on Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 58536 antifungal activity against four Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Ployngam, Saowaluck; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2013-09-01

    Cultured cell extracts from ten tropical strains of Aureobasidium pullulans were screened for antifungal activity against four pathogenic Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus terreus) using the well diffusion and conidial germination inhibition assays. The crude cell extract from A. pullulans NRRL 58536 resulted in the greatest fungicidal activity against all four Aspergillus species and so was selected for further investigation into enhancing the production of antifungal activity through optimization of the culture medium, carbon source (sucrose and glucose) and amino acid (phenylalanine, proline, and leucine) supplementation. Sucrose did not support the production of any detectable antifungal activity, while glucose did with the greatest antifungal activity against all four Aspergillus species being produced in cells grown in medium containing 2.5 % (w/v) glucose. With respect to the amino acid supplements, variable trends between the different Aspergillus species and amino acid combinations were observed, with the greatest antifungal activities being obtained when grown with phenylalanine plus leucine supplementation for activity against A. flavus, proline plus leucine for A. terreus, and phenylalanine plus proline and leucine for A. niger and A. fumigatus. Thin layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were all consistent with the main component of the A. pullulans NRRL 58536 extracts being aureobasidins.

  18. High-Resolution Genetics Identifies the Lipid Transfer Protein Sec14p as Target for Antifungal Ergolines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireos Filipuzzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections by fungal pathogens cause more deaths than malaria worldwide. We found the ergoline compound NGx04 in an antifungal screen, with selectivity over mammalian cells. High-resolution chemogenomics identified the lipid transfer protein Sec14p as the target of NGx04 and compound-resistant mutations in Sec14p define compound-target interactions in the substrate binding pocket of the protein. Beyond its essential lipid transfer function in a variety of pathogenic fungi, Sec14p is also involved in secretion of virulence determinants essential for the pathogenicity of fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans, making Sec14p an attractive antifungal target. Consistent with this dual function, we demonstrate that NGx04 inhibits the growth of two clinical isolates of C. neoformans and that NGx04-related compounds have equal and even higher potency against C. neoformans. Furthermore NGx04 analogues showed fungicidal activity against a fluconazole resistant C. neoformans strain. In summary, we present genetic evidence that NGx04 inhibits fungal Sec14p and initial data supporting NGx04 as a novel antifungal starting point.

  19. Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Mathew

    2012-11-01

    . Conclusions Some plant extracts used for treatment of parasitic infections also have good antifungal activity. Because it is much easier to isolate antifungal compounds by bioassay guided fractionation, this approach may facilitate the isolation of anthelmintic compounds from active plant extracts. The viability of this approach can be tested by isolating the antifungal compounds and then determining its anthelmintic activity. Some of these plant extracts may also be useful in combating fungal infections.

  20. Antifungal Activity of Phenyllactic Acid against Molds Isolated from Bakery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavermicocca, Paola; Valerio, Francesca; Visconti, Angelo

    2003-01-01

    Phenyllactic acid (PLA) has recently been found in cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum that show antifungal activity in sourdough breads. The fungicidal activity of PLA and growth inhibition by PLA were evaluated by using a microdilution test and 23 fungal strains belonging to 14 species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium that were isolated from bakery products, flours, or cereals. Less than 7.5 mg of PLA ml−1 was required to obtain 90% growth inhibition for all strains, while fungicidal activity against 19 strains was shown by PLA at levels of ≤10 mg ml−1. Levels of growth inhibition of 50 to 92.4% were observed for all fungal strains after incubation for 3 days in the presence of 7.5 mg of PLA ml−1 in buffered medium at pH 4, which is a condition more similar to those in real food systems. Under these experimental conditions PLA caused an unpredictable delaying effect that was more than 2 days long for 12 strains, including some mycotoxigenic strains of Penicillium verrucosum and Penicillium citrinum and a strain of Penicillium roqueforti (the most widespread contaminant of bakery products); a growth delay of about 2 days was observed for seven other strains. The effect of pH on the inhibitory activity of PLA and the combined effects of the major organic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdough bread (PLA, lactic acid, and acetic acid) were also investigated. The ability of PLA to act as a fungicide and delay the growth of a variety of fungal contaminants provides new perspectives for possibly using this natural antimicrobial compound to control fungal contaminants and extend the shelf lives of foods and/or feedstuffs. PMID:12514051

  1. The Aspergillus niger growth on the treated concrete substrate using variable antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parjo, U. K.; Sunar, N. M.; Leman, A. M.; Gani, P.; Embong, Z.; Tajudin, S. A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Aspergillus niger (A. niger) growth on substrates after incorporates with different compounds of antifungals which is normally used in food industry. The antifungals named as potassium sorbate (PS), calcium benzoate (CB) and zinc salicylate (ZS) were applied on concrete substrate covered with different wall finishing such as acrylic paint (AP), glycerol based paint (GBP), thin wallpaper (THIN) and thick wallpaper (THICK). The concrete substrate were inoculated with spore suspension, incubated at selected temperature (30oC) and relative humidity (90%)in plant growth chamber. The observations were done from the Day 3 until Day 27. The results showed that the growth of the A. niger for concrete treated by PS for AP, GBP, THIN, and THICK were 64%, 32%, 11% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile for CB, the growth of A. niger on AP, GBP, THIN, and THICK were 100%, 12%, 41%, and 13%, respectively. Similarly, treated concrete by ZS revealed that the growth of A. niger on the same substrate cover were 33%, 47%, 40%, and 39%, respectively. The results obtained in this study provide a valuable knowledge on the abilities of antifungals to remediate A. niger that inoculated on the concrete substrate. Consequently, this study proved that the PS covering with THIN more efficiency compares CB and ZS to prevent A. niger growth.

  2. Antifungal Effect of Chitosan as Ca²⁺ Channel Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Geun Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal activity of a range of different molecular weight (MW chitosan against Penicillium italicum. Our results demonstrate that the antifungal activity was dependent both the MW and concentration of the chitosan. Among a series of chitosan derived from the hydrolysis of high MW chitosan, the fractions containing various sizes of chitosan ranging from 3 to 15 glucosamine units named as chitooligomers-F2 (CO-F2 was found to show the highest antifungal activity against P. italicum. Furthermore, the effect of CO-F2 toward this fungus was significantly reduced in the presence of Ca²⁺, whereas its effect was recovered by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, suggesting that the CO-F2 acts via disruption of Ca²⁺ gradient required for survival of the fungus. Our results suggest that CO-F2 may serve as potential compounds to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of the postharvest diseases.

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, Monica; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Dinis, Augusto M; Canhoto, Jorge M; Salgueiro, Lígia R

    2009-08-01

    The chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav., harvested in North and Central Portugal, were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The minimal-inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal-lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oils and of their major constituents were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against different strains of fungi involved in candidosis, dematophytosis, and aspergillosis. The oils were characterized by a high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes, the main compounds being 1,8-cineole (2.4-55.5%), fenchone (1.3-59.7%), and camphor (3.6-48.0%). Statistical analysis differentiated the essential oils into two main types, one characterized by the predominance of fenchone and the other one by the predominance of 1,8-cineole. Within the 1,8-cineole chemotype, two subgroups were well-defined taking into account the percentages of camphor. A significant antifungal activity of the oils was found against dermatophyte strains. The essential oil with the highest content of camphor was the most active with MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32-0.64 microl/ml.

  4. Antifungal potential of Bacillus vallismortis R2 against different phytopathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, P.K.; Kaur, J.; Saini, H.S.

    2015-07-01

    The cash crops grown in an agro-climatic region are prone to infection by various fungal pathogens. The use of chemical fungicides over the years has resulted in emergence of resistant fungal strains, thereby necessitating the development of effective and environmental friendly alternatives. The natural antagonistic interactions among different microbial populations have been exploited as an eco-friendly approach for controlling fungal pathogens resistant to synthetic chemicals. Morphologically distinct bacterial cultures (150), isolated from rhizospheric soils of wheat, rice, onion and tomato plants were screened for their antifungal potential against seven phytopathogenic fungi prevalent in the State of Punjab (India). The bacterial isolate R2, identified as Bacillus vallismortis, supported more than 50% inhibition of different phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum sp, Helminthosporium sp and Magnaporthe grisea) in dual culture plate assay. The thin layer chromatography based bio-autography of acid-precipitated biomolecules (APB) indicated the presence of more than one type of antifungal molecule, as evidenced from zones of inhibition against the respective fungal pathogen. The initial analytical studies indicated the presence of surfactin, iturin A and fengycin-like compounds in APB. The antifungal activity of whole cells and APB of isolate R2 was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The wheat grains treated with APB and exposed to spores of A. alternata showed resistance to the development of black point disease, thereby indicating the potential application of R2 and its biomolecules at field scale level. (Author)

  5. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Pontes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, natural products with antifungal and antioxidant activities are being increasingly researched for a more sustainable alternative to the chemicals currently used for the same purpose. The plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata is a causative agent of diseases in citrus, leading to huge economic losses. Antioxidants are important for the production of medicines for various diseases that may be related to the presence of free radicals, such as cancer, and in the cosmetic industry as an anti-aging agent and the food industry as preservatives. This study evaluated the antifungal and antioxidant potential of extracts of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens, a tree species that occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by an assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, and the antifungal activity was assessed through the evaluation of mycelial growth. Majority of the extracts exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, especially the acetonic extract (4A. The antioxidant activity may be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the extracts showed no inhibitory activity of mycelial growth of the fungus tested, with the exception of dichloromethanic extract (2B, which had an inhibitory effect (10.2% at the end of testing.

  6. Antifungal Activity of Oleuropein against Candida albicans—The In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Zorić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated activity of oleuropein, a complex phenol present in large quantities in olive tree products, against opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Oleuropein was found to have in vitro antifungal activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 12.5 mg·mL−1. Morphological changes in the nuclei after staining with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes revealed that apoptosis was a primary mode of cell death in the analyzed samples treated with subinhibitory concentrations of oleuropein. Our results suggest that this antifungal agent targets virulence factors essential for establishment of the fungal infection. We noticed that oleuropein modulates morphogenetic conversion and inhibits filamentation of C. albicans. The hydrophobicity assay showed that oleuropein in sub-MIC values has significantly decreased, in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH of C. albicans, a factor associated with adhesion to epithelial cells. It was also demonstrated that the tested compound inhibits the activity of SAPs, cellular enzymes secreted by C. albicans, which are reported to be related to the pathogenicity of the fungi. Additionally, we detected that oleuropein causes a reduction in total sterol content in the membrane of C. albicans cells, which might be involved in the mechanism of its antifungal activity.

  7. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43, Margalef index D′ (6.1351, Shannon–Wiener index H′ (3.2743, Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476, PIE index (0.9486, and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705 but a low dominant index λ (0.0524. Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds.

  8. Phytochemical Composition, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Duguetia furfuracea A. St.-Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Souza, Celestina Elba Sobral; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Duguetia furfuracea is popular plant used in popular medicine. Hypothesis/Purpose. This claim evaluated the phytochemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract (HEDF), fractions of Duguetia furfuracea, and antioxidant and antifungal activity. Methods. The chemical profile was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid components were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reaction. The antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) methods. The antifungal activity was determined by microdilution assay. Results. HPLC analysis revealed caffeic acid and rutin as major compounds (HEDF), caffeic acid and quercitrin (Mt-OH fraction), and quercitrin and isoquercitrin (Ac-OEt fraction). The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were found for Ac-OEt fraction, and the crude extract showed higher in vitro antioxidant potential. The antifungal activity showed synergic effect with fluconazole and EHDF against C. krusei, fluconazole and Mt-OH against C. krusei and C. tropicalis, and Ac-OE and fluconazole against C. albicans. Conclusion. The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were marked with antioxidant effect. This is the first report of bioactivity of the synergic effect of HEDF and fractions. More studies would be required to better clarify its mechanism of synergic action. PMID:27127550

  9. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Pingping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Jie [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Bu, Huaiyu, E-mail: 7213792@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wei, Qing [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Zhang, Ruolin [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Chen, Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu{sub 0.5}L]{sub n} (1), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (3), [Cu(L){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO{sub 2})]{sub n} (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl{sup -}, and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity.

  10. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovieva, S E; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N

    2011-01-01

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  11. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  12. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  13. Antifungal Activity of Endemic Salvia tigrina in Turkey | Dulger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketoconazole was used as a positive reference standard to determine the sensitivity of the strains. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL. All the extracts exhibited a strong antifungal effect against the fungal cultures. The extracts exhibited greater antifungal effect against C.

  14. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The active ingredients of this plant could be an addition to the antifungal arsenal to opportunistic fungal yeast pathogens. Key words: Antifungal activity, Dorstenia mannii, yeasts, opportunistic candidiasis. INTRODUCTION. Nowadays, fungal diseases have emerged and are being increasingly recognized as important public ...

  15. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of Trichoderma species. Asma Murtaza, Shazia Shafique, Tehmina Anjum, Sobiya Shafique. Abstract. The antifungal potential of five species of Trichoderma viz., Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma aureoviride, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii and ...

  17. Systemic Antifungal Agents: Current Status and Projected Future Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Rafati, H.; Ilkit, M.; Tolooe, A.; Hedayati, M.T.; Verweij, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    By definition, an antifungal agent is a drug that selectively destroys fungal pathogens with minimal side effects to the host. Despite an increase in the prevalence of fungal infections particularly in immunocompromised patients, only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available for therapy, and

  18. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract and protein fraction of Atlantia monophylla Linn (Rutaceae) leaf. Methods: Ammonium sulphate (0 – 80 %) precipitation method was used to extract protein from the leaves of A. monophylla Linn (Rutaceae). In vitro antifungal ...

  19. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van Geel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as ...

  20. Design of cinnamaldehyde amino acid Schiff base compounds based on the quantitative structure–activity relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Wang; Mingyue Jiang; Shujun Li; Chung-Yun Hse; Chunde Jin; Fangli Sun; Zhuo Li

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde amino acid Schiff base (CAAS) is a new class of safe, bioactive compounds which could be developed as potential antifungal agents for fungal infections. To design new cinnamaldehyde amino acid Schiff base compounds with high bioactivity, the quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) for CAAS compounds against Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and...

  1. Fermentative capabilities and volatile compounds produced by Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Saccharomyces yeast strains in pure and mixed cultures during Agave tequilana juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Ivonne Wendolyne; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2015-09-01

    The fermentative and aromatic capabilities of Kloeckera africana/Hanseniaspora vineae K1, K. apiculata/H. uvarum K2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1 and S2 were studied in pure and mixed culture fermentations using Agave tequila juice as the culture medium. In pure and mixed cultures, Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains showed limited growth and sugar consumption, as well as low ethanol yield and productivity, compared to S. cerevisiae, which yielded more biomass, ethanol and viable cell concentrations. In pure and mixed cultures, S. cerevisiae presented a similar behaviour reaching high biomass production, completely consuming the sugar, leading to high ethanol production. Furthermore, the presence of S. cerevisiae strains in the mixed cultures promoted the production of higher alcohols, acetaldehyde and ethyl esters, whereas Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains stimulated the production of ethyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate compounds.

  2. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and other refrigerants) and is particularly suitable for reactive gas species and/or at concentration ranges which are unstable when stored in pressurised cylinders. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union

  3. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  4. Antifungal activity of salaceyin A against Colletotrichum orbiculare and Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C N; Lee, D; Kim, W; Hong, Y; Ahn, J S; Kim, B S

    2007-08-01

    The antifungal activities of novel salicylic acid derivatives, salaceyin A, 6-(9-methyldecyl) salicylic acid, and salaceyin B, 6-(9-methylundecyl) salicylic acid were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi. Salaceyin A showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, Colletotrichum orbiculare and Phytophthora capsici at 64 microg ml(-1) while salaceyin B was less effective. In vitro antifungal activities of the compounds were influenced by the experimental pH value of the MIC test medium wherein their antifungal activities were enhanced by increasingly acidic conditions. Salaceyin A showed potent in vivo control efficacy against Phytophthora blight in pepper plants. The disease was effectively suppressed at 500 microg ml(-1), which was comparable to the commercial fungicide, metalaxyl. Salaceyin A suppressed anthracnose development on cucumber leaves in a concentration dependent manner. The control efficacy of salaceyin A against C. orbiculare infection was similar to chlorothalonil when applied prior to pathogen inoculation. Since the salaceyins are derivatives of salicylic acid, a known important signal molecule critical to plant defenses against pathogen invasion, we investigated the possibility that exogenous application of the salaceyin A would activate a systemic acquired resistance against P. capsici infection and C. orbiculare development on pepper and cucumber plants respectively. The addition of 500 microg ml(-1) of salaceyin A to the plant root systems did not significantly decrease disease development in the hosts. We are led to conclude that the disease control efficacy of salaceyin A against the Phytophthora blight and anthracnose diseases, mainly originates from the direct interaction of the agent with the pathogens.

  5. Prospects of application of vegetable oils as antifungal agents (Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mikheev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work – to summarize and present modern scientific literature reviews of alternative antifungal agents usage, among which herbal medicines, and in particular herbal oils, may play significant role. Fungal infections (mycoses are one of the leading infectious diseases in the world. Besides the medical importance, pathogenic fungi play a significant role in the food industry as potential pollutants. In order to treat fungal infections and to prevent food spoilage various medications that are products of chemical synthesis are widely used and the need for them increases significantly. However, among large number of medications and herbal drugs only a small part is used to treat fungal infections and to prevent food decay, though plants contain a lot of bioactive compounds with potential antifungal properties. Therefore, question of application of vegetable oils as antifungal agents is relevant. Various plants contain oils that have the potential antifungal properties, but are often used only in gastronomic purpose. The same time those oils can be successfully used for the treatment of candidiasis and infections caused by fungi of genera Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Metrhizium, Ophiostoma, Scopulariopsis and others. Their effects are manifested like using a single vegetable oil and mixtures of oils. Conclusions. Vegetable oils usage has big perspectives due to the lack of «addictive» effect and the development of resistance in fungi of different taxa. Vegetable oils do not require considerable investments for their reception, and thanks to traditions of aromo- and herbal medicine, their usage can be more effective in contrast to traditional chemotherapeutic agents. The search and study of new medicines based on vegetable oils may be a perspective direction of modern microbiological sciences and requires further deep studies of their biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  7. Differential Antifungal Activity of Human and Cryptococcal Melanins with Structural Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Correa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor. To evaluate if cryptococcal and human melanins have antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species they both were assayed for their antifungal properties and physico-chemical characters. Melanin extracts from human hair and different strains of C. neoformans (n = 4 and C. gattii (n = 4 were investigated. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for different melanins against C. neoformans and C. gattii were (average/range: 13.7/(7.8–15.6 and 19.5/(15.6–31.2 μg/mL, respectively, for human melanin; 273.4/(125–>500 and 367.2/(125.5–>500 μg/mL for C. neoformans melanin and 125/(62.5–250 and 156.2/(62–250 μg/mL for C. gattii melanin. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we observed that human melanin showed a compact conformation and cryptococcal melanins exposed an amorphous conformation. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR showed some differences in the signals related to C-C bonds of the aromatic ring of the melanin monomers. High Performance Liquid Chromatography established differences in the chromatograms of fungal melanins extracts in comparison with human and synthetic melanin, particularly in the retention time of the main compound of fungal melanin extracts and also in the presence of minor unknown compounds. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed slight differences in the spectra, specifically the presence of a minor intensity ion in synthetic and human melanin, as well as in some fungal

  8. Differential Antifungal Activity of Human and Cryptococcal Melanins with Structural Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Néstor; Covarrubias, Cristian; Rodas, Paula I; Hermosilla, Germán; Olate, Verónica R; Valdés, Cristián; Meyer, Wieland; Magne, Fabien; Tapia, Cecilia V

    2017-01-01

    Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor. To evaluate if cryptococcal and human melanins have antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species they both were assayed for their antifungal properties and physico-chemical characters. Melanin extracts from human hair and different strains of C. neoformans ( n = 4) and C. gattii ( n = 4) were investigated. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for different melanins against C. neoformans and C. gattii were (average/range): 13.7/(7.8-15.6) and 19.5/(15.6-31.2) μg/mL, respectively, for human melanin; 273.4/(125->500) and 367.2/(125.5->500) μg/mL for C. neoformans melanin and 125/(62.5-250) and 156.2/(62-250) μg/mL for C. gattii melanin. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we observed that human melanin showed a compact conformation and cryptococcal melanins exposed an amorphous conformation. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed some differences in the signals related to C-C bonds of the aromatic ring of the melanin monomers. High Performance Liquid Chromatography established differences in the chromatograms of fungal melanins extracts in comparison with human and synthetic melanin, particularly in the retention time of the main compound of fungal melanin extracts and also in the presence of minor unknown compounds. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed slight differences in the spectra, specifically the presence of a minor intensity ion in synthetic and human melanin, as well as in some fungal melanin extracts. We

  9. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  10. The Effect of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Mycelial Growth of Botrytis cinerea Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane S. Simionato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important postharvest plant pathogens that affect strawberries, grapes and tomatoes is Botrytis cinerea, known as gray mold. The fungus remains in latent form until spore germination conditions are good, making infection control difficult, causing great losses in the whole production chain. This study aimed to purify and identify phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain and to determine its antifungal activity against B. cinerea. The compounds produced were extracted with dichloromethane and passed through a chromatographic process. The purity level of PCA was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography semi-preparative. The structure of PCA was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity was determined by the dry paper disk and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC methods and identified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that PCA inhibited mycelial growth, where MIC was 25 μg mL-1. Microscopic analysis revealed a reduction in exopolysaccharide (EPS formation, showing distorted and damaged hyphae of B. cinerea. The results suggested that PCA has a high potential in the control of B. cinerea and inhibition of EPS (important virulence factor. This natural compound is a potential alternative to postharvest control of gray mold disease.

  11. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniszewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone (compound 4. The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of β-chloro β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of sixty three clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species towards compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 µg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG, was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (compound 4. Thus the effect of compound 4 on formed C. albicans biofilms was minimal. Moreover, strain 90028 exhibited no defects in hyphal growth on Caco-2 monolayer under compound 4 influence at MIC= 16 µg/mL. The MIC values of compound 4 against C. albicans 90028, in medium with sorbitol did not suggest that compound 4 acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall synthesis. Our findings with compound 4 suggest a general strategy for antifungal agent development that might be useful in limiting the emergence of resistance in Candida strains.

  12. Volatile Compounds in Honey Produced in the Central Valley of Ñuble Province, Chile Compuestos Volatiles en Miel Producida en el Valle Central de la Provincia de Ñuble, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Gianelli Barra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME with an 85 µm Carboxen polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber was used to extract volatile compounds, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectometry detector (GC-MS was used to identify the volatile compounds in honeys. Thirty-four different volatile compounds from the headspace of honey produced in the central valley of Ñuble Province, Chile, were extracted with fiber coating CAR/PDMS. The identified compounds were: 10 alcohols, 9 acids, 6 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 furans, 2 terpenes and 2 lactones. Only four of the volatile compounds had never been reported before as honey compounds; these being: 1,3-propanodiol, 2-methyl butanoic acid, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexen-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-octen-2-one. These four compounds were found in three of the 10 analyzed samples. The compounds found in the highest percentage of area were ethanol, acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propane, 3-hydroxy-2-butane, and furfural. However, the analyzed samples did not present a distinctive profile.La extracción de compuestos volátiles desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles se realiza mediante microextracción en fase sólida (SPME, utilizando una fibra de 85 µm de Carboxen polidimetilsiloxano (CAR/PDMS, el análisis de los compuestos volátiles se realiza mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de masa (GC-MS. Un total de 34 diferentes compuestos volátiles fueron extraídos desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles provenientes del valle central de la provincia de Ñuble con la fibra de CAR/PDMS. Los compuestos identificados fueron 10 alcoholes, 9 ácidos, 6 cetonas, 3 aldehídos, 2 furanos, 2 terpenos y 2 lactonas. De los compuestos volátiles sólo tres no han sido reportados con anterioridad en mieles, estos compuestos fueron: 1,3-propanodiol, ácido 2-metil butanoico, 3,4-dimetil-3-hexen-2-ona, 6-metil-5-octen-2-ona. Estos cuatro compuestos se encontraron en sólo tres de las 10 muestras analizadas. Los compuestos que se

  13. Virulence and antifungal therapy of murine disseminated infection by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pamela; López-Fernández, Loida; Guarro, Josep; Capilla, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Rhodotorula infections have emerged in recent years causing mainly fungemia associated to high mortality. We have evaluated the in vitro activity of nine antifungal drugs against four clinical strains of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, being amphotericin B, voriconazole and posaconazole the most active compounds. The experimental virulence of this fungus and the efficacy of the three mentioned drugs were evaluated in disseminated infections in neutropenic mice. Infection resulted in a high fungal load in all the organs studied without evident particular tropism. All treated animals showed reduced burden respect to the control in a strain dependent manner being voriconazole slightly superior to posaconazole and amphotericin B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  15. Synthesis, Antimycobacterial, Antifungal and Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Activity of Chlorinated N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of sixteen pyrazinamide analogues with the -CONH- linker connecting the pyrazine and benzene rings was synthesized by the condensation of chlorides of substituted pyrazinecarboxylic acids with ring-substituted (chlorine anilines. The prepared compounds were characterized and evaluated for their antimycobacterial and antifungal activity, and for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET. 6-Chloro-N-(4-chlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide manifested the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv (65% inhibition at 6.25 μg/mL. The highest antifungal effect against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for 6-chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (MIC = 62.5 μmol/L. 6-Chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(4-chlorophenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide showed the highest PET inhibition in spinach chloroplasts (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts (IC50 = 43.0 μmol/L. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds as well as their structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  16. Metabolomics and Cheminformatics Analysis of Antifungal Function of Plant Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Rajagopalan, NandhaKishore; Tulpan, Dan; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-09-30

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a devastating disease of wheat. Partial resistance to FHB of several wheat cultivars includes specific metabolic responses to inoculation. Previously published studies have determined major metabolic changes induced by pathogens in resistant and susceptible plants. Functionality of the majority of these metabolites in resistance remains unknown. In this work we have made a compilation of all metabolites determined as selectively accumulated following FHB inoculation in resistant plants. Characteristics, as well as possible functions and targets of these metabolites, are investigated using cheminformatics approaches with focus on the likelihood of these metabolites acting as drug-like molecules against fungal pathogens. Results of computational analyses of binding properties of several representative metabolites to homology models of fungal proteins are presented. Theoretical analysis highlights the possibility for strong inhibitory activity of several metabolites against some major proteins in Fusarium graminearum , such as carbonic anhydrases and cytochrome P450s. Activity of several of these compounds has been experimentally confirmed in fungal growth inhibition assays. Analysis of anti-fungal properties of plant metabolites can lead to the development of more resistant wheat varieties while showing novel application of cheminformatics approaches in the analysis of plant/pathogen interactions.

  17. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  18. Antifungal activity against plant pathogens of metabolites from the endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Radwan, Mohamed M; Taráwneh, Amer H; Gao, Jiangtao; Wedge, David E; Rosa, Luiz H; Cutler, Horace G; Cutler, Stephen J

    2013-05-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1; isocladosporin, 2; 5'-hydroxyasperentin, 3; and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. An additional compound, 5',6-diacetylcladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. Phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. At 30 μM, compound 1 exhibited 92.7, 90.1, 95.4, and 79.9% growth inhibition against Colletotrichum acutatum , Colletotrichum fragariae , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , and P. viticola, respectively. Compound 2 showed 50.4, 60.2, and 83.0% growth inhibition at 30 μM against Co. fragariae, Co. gloeosporioides, and P. viticola, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated for the first time from Cl. cladosporioides. Moreover, the identification of essential structural features of the cladosporin nuclei has also been evaluated. These structures provide new templates for the potential treatment and management of plant diseases.

  19. Stable isotope applications in biomolecular structure and mechanisms. A meeting to bring together producers and users of stable-isotope-labeled compounds to assess current and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trewhella, J.; Cross, T.A.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Knowledge of biomolecular structure is a prerequisite for understanding biomolecular function, and stable isotopes play an increasingly important role in structure determination of biological molecules. The first Conference on Stable Isotope Applications in Biomolecular Structure and Mechanisms was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 27--31, 1994. More than 120 participants from 8 countries and 44 institutions reviewed significant developments, discussed the most promising applications for stable isotopes, and addressed future needs and challenges. Participants focused on applications of stable isotopes for studies of the structure and function of proteins, peptides, RNA, and DNA. Recent advances in NMR techniques neutron scattering, EPR, and vibrational spectroscopy were highlighted in addition to the production and synthesis of labeled compounds. This volume includes invited speaker and poster presentations as well as a set of reports from discussion panels that focused on the needs of the scientific community and the potential roles of private industry, the National Stable Isotope Resource, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in serving those needs. This is the leading abstract. Individual papers are processed separately for the database

  20. Rice flakes produced from commercial wild rice: Chemical compositions, vitamin B compounds, mineral and trace element contents and their dietary intake evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Koubová, Eva; Šenkárová, Lenka; Orsavová, Jana

    2018-10-30

    Non-traditional wild rice flakes were analysed for chemical composition, vitamin B compounds, α-tocopherol, mineral and trace elements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were evaluated using FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine regulations. Wild rice flakes proved to be significant contributors of pyridoxine, pantothenic and folic acids, niacin, thiamine, chromium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, molybdenum and iron to essential dietary intakes values. Toxic dietary intake values for aluminium, cadmium, tin and mercury were less than 33%, which complies the limits for adults set by FAO/WHO for toxic elements intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for females and 80 kg for males taking 100 g of flakes as a portion. However, concentrations of Hg reaching between 3.67 and 12.20 µg/100 g in flakes exceeded the average Hg value of 0.27-1.90 μg/100 g in cereals consumed in the EU. It has to be respected in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-10-15

    We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stable isotope applications in biomolecular structure and mechanisms. A meeting to bring together producers and users of stable-isotope-labeled compounds to assess current and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J.; Cross, T.A.; Unkefer, C.J. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    Knowledge of biomolecular structure is a prerequisite for understanding biomolecular function, and stable isotopes play an increasingly important role in structure determination of biological molecules. The first Conference on Stable Isotope Applications in Biomolecular Structure and Mechanisms was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 27--31, 1994. More than 120 participants from 8 countries and 44 institutions reviewed significant developments, discussed the most promising applications for stable isotopes, and addressed future needs and challenges. Participants focused on applications of stable isotopes for studies of the structure and function of proteins, peptides, RNA, and DNA. Recent advances in NMR techniques neutron scattering, EPR, and vibrational spectroscopy were highlighted in addition to the production and synthesis of labeled compounds. This volume includes invited speaker and poster presentations as well as a set of reports from discussion panels that focused on the needs of the scientific community and the potential roles of private industry, the National Stable Isotope Resource, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in serving those needs. This is the leading abstract. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  3. Preliminary antifungal and cytotoxic evaluation of synthetic cycloalkyl[b]thiophene derivatives with PLS-DA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Beatriz C C; De Oliveira, Tiago B; Aquino, Thiago M; de Lima, Maria C A; Pitta, Ivan R; Galdino, Suely L; Lima, Edeltrudes O; Gonçalves-Silva, Teresinha; Militão, Gardênia C G; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus T; Mendonça, Francisco J B

    2012-06-01

    A series of 2-[(arylidene)amino]-cycloalkyl[b]thiophene-3-carbonitriles (2a-x) was synthesized by incorporation of substituted aromatic aldehydes in Gewald adducts (1a-c). The title compounds were screened for their antifungal activity against Candida krusei and Criptococcus neoformans and for their antiproliferative activity against a panel of 3 human cancer cell lines (HT29, NCI H-292 and HEP). For antiproliferative activity, the partial least squares (PLS) methodology was applied. Some of the prepared compounds exhibited promising antifungal and proliferative properties. The most active compounds for antifungal activity were cyclohexyl[b]thiophene derivatives, and for antiproliferative activity cycloheptyl[b]thiophene derivatives, especially 2-[(1H-indol-2-yl-methylidene)amino]- 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-cyclohepta[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile (2r), which inhibited more than 97 % growth of the three cell lines. The PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) applied generated good exploratory and predictive results and showed that the descriptors having shape characteristics were strongly correlated with the biological data.

  4. Antifungal activity of the extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2005-01-01

    Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck (Piperaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained from the leaves of P. regnellii were investigated for their antifungal activities against the yeasts Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. The EtOAc extract presented a significant activity against Candida albicans with MIC at 125 μg mL -1 , and a moderate activity against both C. krusei and C. parapsilosis with MIC at 500 μg mL -1 . Candida tropicalis was not inhibited by this extract at concentrations as high as 1000 μg mL -1 . Based on these findings, the EtOAc extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane and CHCl 3 fractions showed varied levels of antifungal activity against all test yeasts. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compounds eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3 and conocarpan. The structure of the compounds was based on spectral data ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS). Conocarpan was the only active compound on the yeasts. The antifungal property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. (author)

  5. In vitro antifungal and demelanizing activity of Nepeta rtanjensis essential oil against the human pathogen Bipolaris spicifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of Nepeta rtanjensis Diklić & Milojević essential oil was tested against the human pathogenic fungus Bipolaris spicifera (Bainier Subramanian via mycelial growth assay and conidia germination assay. The minimally inhibitory concentration (MIC of the oil was determined at 1.0 μg ml-1, while the MIC for the antifungal drug Bifonazole in a positive control was determined at 10.0 μg ml-1. The maximum of conidia germination inhibition was accomplished at 0.6 μg ml-1. In addition, at 0.6 μg ml-1 and 0.8 μg ml-1 the oil was able to cause morphophysiological changes in B. spicifera. The most significant result is the bleaching effect of the melanized conidial apparatus of the test fungi, since the melanin is the virulence factor in human pathogenic fungi. These results showed the strong antifungal properties of N. rtanjensis essential oil, supporting its possible rational use as an alternative source of new antifungal compounds.

  6. Comparative study on antifungal activities of chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan silver nano composites against Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananjaya, S H S; Erandani, W K C U; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2017-12-01

    Though the metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown favorable results against fungal diseases, erratic environmental toxicity of NPs have raised serious concerns against their applications. Hence, it is vital to modify antifungal compounds into safe substitutes over synthetic chemicals. In this study, antifungal effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and chitosan silver nanocomposites (CAgNCs) were compared against Fusarium oxysporum species complex. CNPs and CAgNCs were synthesized, characterized and compared based on the transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorbance spectra, particle size distribution, zeta potential and thermal stability analysis. Ultra-structural analysis on mycelium membrane of treated F. oxysporum showed that CNPs and CAgNCs could induce a pronounced membrane damage and disruption of the mycelium surface, increase the membrane permeability, and even cell disintegration. CAgNCs showed a significantly higher radial growth inhibition than CNPs in all the tested concentrations. Both CNPs and CAgNCs were not only effective in reducing the fungal growth, but also caused morphological and ultrastructural changes in the pathogen, thereby suggesting its usage as an antifungal dispersion system to control F. oxysporum. Additionally, CNPs and CAgNCs therapy reduced the F. oxysporum infection in zebrafish. Data demonstrates biologically active CNPs and CAgNCs are promising antifungal agents against F. oxysporum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  8. Potential ecological roles of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsmark Jessing, Karina; Duke, Stephen O; Cedergreeen, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin has a complex structure that requires a significant amount of energy for the plant to synthesize. So, what are the benefits to A. annua of producing this unique compound, and what is the ecological role of artemisinin? This review addresses these questions, discussing evidence of the potential utility of artemisinin in protecting the plant from insects and other herbivores, as well as pathogens and competing plant species. Abiotic factors affecting the artemisinin production, as well as mechanisms of artemisinin release to the surroundings also are discussed, and new data are provided on the toxicity of artemisinin towards soil and aquatic organisms. The antifungal and antibacterial effects reported are not very pronounced. Several studies have reported that extracts of A. annua have insecticidal effects, though few studies have proven that artemisinin could be the single compound responsible for the observed effects. However, the pathogen(s) or insect(s) that may have provided the selection pressure for the evolution of artemisinin synthesis may not have been represented in the research thus far conducted. The relatively high level of phytotoxicity of artemisinin in soil indicates that plant/plant allelopathy could be a beneficial function of artemisinin to the producing plant. The release routes of artemisinin (movement from roots and wash off from leaf surfaces) from A. annua to the soil support the rationale for allelopathy.

  9. Antifungal Metabolites (Monorden, Monocillin IV, and Cerebrosides) from Humicola fuscoatra Traaen NRRL 22980, a Mycoparasite of Aspergillus flavus Sclerotia

    OpenAIRE

    Wicklow, Donald T.; Joshi, Biren K.; Gamble, William R.; Gloer, James B.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    1998-01-01

    The mycoparasite Humicola fuscoatra NRRL 22980 was isolated from a sclerotium of Aspergillus flavus that had been buried in a cornfield near Tifton, Ga. When grown on autoclaved rice, this fungus produced the antifungal metabolites monorden, monocillin IV, and a new monorden analog. Each metabolite produced a clear zone of inhibition surrounding paper assay disks on agar plates seeded with conidia of A. flavus. Monorden was twice as inhibitory to A. flavus mycelium extension (MIC > 28 μg/ml) ...

  10. Antifungal activities of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with antifungal agents against Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Tarcieli Pozzebon; Chassot, Francieli; Loreto, Érico Silva; Keller, Jéssica Tairine; Azevedo, Maria Izabel; Zeni, Gilson; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we describe the in vitro activity of a combination of the organoselenium compounds diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and voriconazole against 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium spp. For this analysis, we used the broth microdilution method based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution method. Diphenyl diselenide (MIC range = 4-32 μg/ml) and ebselen (MIC range = 2-8 μg/ml) showed in vitro activity against the isolates tested. The most effective combinations were (synergism rates): ebselen + amphotericin B (88%), ebselen + voriconazole (80%), diphenyl diselenide + amphotericin B (72%), and diphenyl diselenide + voriconazole (64%). Combination with caspofungin resulted in low rates of synergism: ebselen + caspofungin, 36%, and diphenyl diselenide + caspofungin, 28%; combination with itraconazole demonstrated indifferent interactions. Antagonistic effects were not observed for any of the combinations tested. Our findings suggest that the antifungal potential of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen deserves further investigation in in vivo experimental models, especially in combination with amphotericin B and voriconazole. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of ascorbate, nitrate and nitrite on the amount of flavour compounds produced from leucine by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Talon, R.

    2004-01-01

    Resting cells of Staphylococcus xylosus and S. carnosus were incubated with ascorbate, nitrate and nitrite in defined reaction medium and their degradation of H-3-labelled leucine into methyl-branched catabolites were studied using HPLC/radiometric detection. The experiments were carried out...... of nitrite and nitrate for S. xylosus. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate generally increased the concentration of 3-methylbutanoic acid for both S. xylosus and S. carnosus....... with and without addition of alpha-ketoglutarate. The main catabolic product of leucine degradation was 3-methylbutanoic acid but also small amounts of alpha-hydroxy isocaproic acid were produced. Nitrite addition lowered the concentration of 3-methylbutanoic acid for both Staphylococcus species and this effect...

  12. Evaluation of Effective Parameters on Labeling of Hydroxyapatite Compound with 90Y and Introducing the Best Method to Produce 90Y-HAp Radiopharmaceutical for Radio synovectomy