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Sample records for antidiabetic agents effect

  1. Oral Antidiabetic Agents and Cardiovascular Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes; however, a direct protective effect of tight glycemic control remains unproven. In fact, until 2008, when concerns related to rosiglitazone prompted regulatory agencies to mandate assessment...... of cardiovascular safety of new antidiabetic agents, little was known about how these medications affected cardiovascular outcomes. Since then, there has been a considerable increase in the number of cardiovascular trials, which employ a noninferiority design and focus on high-risk populations to establish safety...... in the shortest time possible. In this article, we summarize the 4 major cardiovascular outcome trials of oral antidiabetic agents, completed so far. These include 3 dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin, and sitagliptin) and 1 sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (empagliflozin). We...

  2. Cinnamic Acid Derivatives as Antidiabetics Agents

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    Teni Ernawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Treatment of type II diabetes is usually done by prescribing diet and exercise for the patient however it can also be treated with antidiabetic drugs. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some cinnamic acid derivative compounds which are either isolated from natural materials or the results of the chemical synthesis. In addition, their biological activities as an agent of α-glucosidase inhibitors have also been evaluated. Chemically, cinnamic acid has three main functional groups:  first is the substitution on the phenyl group, second is the additive reaction into the α-β unsaturated, and third is the chemical reaction with carboxylic acid functional groups. Chemical aspects of cinnamic acid derivative compounds have received much attention in the research and development of drugs, especially modifications within three functional groups are very influential. In the last 10 years, a lot of research and development of cinnamic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the α-glucosidase enzyme has been done. One example of the research done in this field is the modification of para position in the structure of cinnamic acid and addition of alkyl groups in the carboxylic group which would increase the activity of the α-glucosidase enzyme therefore the level of inhibition is 100 times higher than that of cinnamic acid compound itself. The novelty of this review article is to focus on the antidiabetic activity of cinnamic acid derivatives.

  3. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2017-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  4. Factors Associated with Treatment Response to Antidiabetic Agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research March 2014; 13 (3): 429-435. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); ... Antidiabetic Agents in Compliant Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Patients: A Brief Summary of ..... Qualitative Analysis. There were no significant ...

  5. Ficus Deltoidea: A potential source for new oral antidiabetic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Shafii Khamis; Muhajir Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas Cotek is one of the common medicinal plant used in Malaysia. Ethno botanical approaches showed that this plant possess antidiabetic property. Previous study had shown that F. deltoidea reduced hyperglycemia in type I diabetic rats at different prandial state. This study was done to elucidate the possible antihyperglycemic mechanisms of F. deltoidea. The results showed that F. deltoidea significantly stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells with the highest magnitude of stimulation was 7.31-fold (p 50 value was 4.15±0.25 mg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme activity revealed the F. deltoidea exhibited a mixed-type inhibition mechanism against sucrase activity. Such observations showed that F. deltoidea has the potential to be developed as new oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (author)

  6. SOME EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THE BIOPREPARATION FROM Picralima nitida SEEDS EXTRACT AS ANTIDIABETIC AGENT

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    O. A. Akinloye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate some untoward effects that could be associated with the use of P. nitida as hypoglycemic agent using some biochemical and histological evidences. The antioxidant property of the plant was determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Biochemical studies in plasma using determining the testes such as blood glucose, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase activities, electrolytes (sodium, potassium and bicarbonate, lipid peroxidation levels, haematological parameters (red blood cell and whole blood cell, platelets, and lymphocyte counts, blood glucose level, lipid profile, and also liver and kidney function tests were performed. Histopathological examinations of the liver, kidney and pancreas were done following the standard Heamatoxylin and Eosin staining method. Methanol extract of the seeds has the highest antioxidant level (36.73%, indicating higher free radical scavenging activity; followed by aqueous extract (19.36% and coconut water extract (4.09%. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose of all the treated rats at the end of the experiment (ranging from 55.59% to 41.66%. Significant increase (p<0.05 in body weights of the treated rats were also observed at the end of the treatment (ranging from 9.26% to 38.89%. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in the hematological parameters in all the extract treated groups. There was also significant decrease (p<0.05 in the lipid profiles of the treated groups. Plasma studied enzymes activities decreased in all treated groups. Ionoregulatory disturbances observed included hyperkalemia and hypernatremia in all the treated groups but were reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the end of the treatment. Urea and bicarbonate concentrations and also of lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in all the groups. The histopathological studies revealed that the extracts were unable to

  7. Cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily vs insulin glargine as add-on therapy to oral antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuyan; Wang, Xiaoyong; Qiao, Qing; Gao, Weiguo; Wang, Jian; Dong, Hengjin

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily vs insulin glargine once daily as add-on therapy to oral antidiabetic agents (OADs) for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The Cardiff Diabetes Model was used to simulate disease progression and estimate the long-term effects of exenatide twice daily vs insulin glargine once daily. Patient profiles and treatment effects required for the model were obtained from literature reviews (English and Chinese databases) and from a meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials comparing exenatide twice daily with insulin glargine once daily add-on to OADs for T2DM in China. Medical expenditure data were collected from 639 patients with T2DM (aged ≥18 years) with and without complications incurred between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015 from claims databases in Shandong, China. Costs (2014 Chinese Yuan [¥]) and benefits were estimated, from the payers' perspective, over 40 years at a discount rate of 3%. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. Patients on exenatide twice daily + OAD had a lower predicted incidence of most cardiovascular and hypoglycaemic events and lower total costs compared with those on insulin glargine once daily + OAD. A greater number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs; 1.94) at a cost saving of ¥117 706 gained was associated with exenatide twice daily vs insulin glargine once daily. (i.e. cost saving of ¥60 764/QALY) per patient. In Chinese patients with T2DM inadequately controlled by OADs, exenatide twice daily is a cost-effective add-on therapy alternative to insulin glargine once daily, and may address the problem of an excess of medical needs resulting from weight gain and hypoglycaemia in T2DM treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nano-preparation of Andrographis paniculata extract by casein micelle for antidiabetic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbianti, Rita; Dewi, Veronica; Imansari, Farisa; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Side effects caused by oral medications for person with diabetic are the background of the development of alternative treatments by traditional medicine, herbs. Andrographis paniculata (AP) is one of the herbs that is potent to be anti-diabetic agent. The active compound of AP, andrographolide have been examined to have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitor. This research aims to encapsulate sambiloto's extract with casein micelle and produce nanoparticles which have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor. Extract of AP is encapsulated by casein micelle and made into nano size using sonicator. The dominant active compounds in AP extract coated by casein are andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12didehydroandrographolide with encapsulation efficiency of 68.83%, 89.15% and 81.69%, the average diameter of the particles is about 120.57 nm and its loading capacity is 28.85%. AP's extract has antidiabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor with percent inhibition of 95%. The morphology of nanoencapsulated AP's extract analyzed by FE-SEM, were similar with casein micelle.

  9. Comparative Efficacy and Acceptability of Anti-Diabetic Agents for Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Brietzke, Elisa; Park, Caroline; Lee, Yena; Musial, Natalie; Pan, Zihang; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2018-05-23

    The current meta-analysis compares the efficacy (i.e., pro-cognitive effects) and acceptability of anti-diabetic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched from inception to January 15, 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anti-diabetic agents with placebo and/or another active anti-diabetic agent for the treatment of AD or MCI. Nineteen eligible studies (n = 4,855) evaluating the effects of six different anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., intranasal insulin, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, metformin, sitagliptin and liraglutide) were included. The results of 29 pairwise comparisons indicated that cognition was significantly improved in subjects treated with anti-diabetic agents compared to placebo. Pioglitazone 15-30 mg demonstrated the greatest efficacy compared to placebo in network meta-analysis. No significant differences in acceptability were identified when comparing agents with each other and with placebo. The current findings indicate a pro-cognitive class effect of anti-diabetic agents in AD/MCI. Other anti-diabetic agents should also be investigated in future studies. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018085967). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Harnessing the potential clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents

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    Campbell-Tofte JI

    2012-08-01

    , should be used for cost-effective validation of the safety and anti-diabetic efficacy of promising medicinal plants. The application of such approaches to studying entire mixtures of plant materials will ensure proper elucidation of novel therapies with improved mechanisms of action, as well as facilitate a personalized clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents.Keywords: medicinal plants, anti-diabetes therapy, natural products, systems biology, 'omics technologies, drug discovery

  11. Physicochemical and crystal structure analyses of the antidiabetic agent troglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Hata, Tadashi; Sekine, Akiko; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Ohashi, Yuji

    2003-07-01

    The antidiabetic agent troglitazone has two asymmetric carbons located at the chroman ring and the thiazolidine ring and is produced as a mixture of equal amounts of four optical isomers, 2R-5S, 2S-5R, 2R-5R, and 2S-5S. The crystalline powdered drug substance consists of two diastereomer pairs, 2R-5R/2S-5S and 2R-5S/2S-5R. There are many types of crystals obtained from various crystallization conditions. The X-ray structure analysis and the physicochemical analyses of troglitazone were performed. The solvated crystals of the 2R-5R/2S-5S pair were crystallized from several solutions: methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, and dichloromethane. The ratio of solvent and troglitazone was 1 : 2 (L1/2-form). The monohydrate crystals were obtained from aqueous acetone solution (L1-form). On the other hand, only an anhydrate crystal of the 2R-5S/2S-5R pair was crystallized from various solutions (H0-form). The dihydrous mixed crystal (MA2-form) was obtained from a mixture of the two diastereomer pairs of 2R-5R/2S-5S and 2R-5S/2S-5R in equal amounts by the slow evaporation of aqueous acetone solution. The crystal structure of the MA2-form is similar to the H0-form. When the MA2 crystal was kept under low humidity, it was converted into the dehydrated form (MA0-form) with retention of the single crystal form. The structure of the MA0-form is isomorphous to the H0-form. The MA2-form was converted into the MA0-form and vice versa with retention of the single crystal under low and high humidity, respectively. The crystallization and storage conditions of the drug substances were successfully analyzed.

  12. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECTS OF TURMERIC IN ALLOXAN INDUCE D DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevangi; Manjunath; Deepak D; Prakash G; Prashant; Chetan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the common constituents of our daily food. The present study wa s undertaken to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Rhizomes of curcuma longa in alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with of Pioglitazone, which is the standard anti-diabetic agent. METHODS: Alloxan monohydrate is used to induce diabetes mellitus in albino rats in the dose of 120mg/kg i.p. and ...

  13. Antidiabetic effect of polyphenolic extracts from selected edible plants as α-amylase, α -glucosidase and PTP1B inhibitors, and β pancreatic cells cytoprotective agents - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakłos-Szyda, Małgorzata; Majewska, Iwona; Redzynia, Małgorzata; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is usually a result of wrong dietary habits and reduced physical activity, represents 85-95% of all diabetes cases and among other diet related diseases is the major cause of deaths. The disease is characterized mainly by hyperglycemia, which is associated with attenuated insulin sensitivity or beta cells dysfunction caused by multiple stimuli, including oxidative stress and loss of insulin secretion. Since polyphenols possess multiple biological activities and constitute an important part of the human diet, they have recently emerged as critical phytochemicals in type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment. Their hypoglycemic action results from their antioxidative effect involved in recovering of altered antioxidant defenses and restoring insulin secreting machinery in pancreatic cells, or abilities to inhibit the activity of carbohydrates hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) or protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is known as the major negative regulator in insulin signaling. This study investigates the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC methods) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS) of 20 polyphenolic extracts obtained from selected edible plants, which were screened in terms of α -amylase, α - glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors or protective agents against oxidative stress induced by tertbutylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in βTC3 pancreatic beta cells used as a model target for antidiabetes drugs. The study concludes that Chaenomeles japonica, Oenothera paradoxa and Viburnum opulus may be promising natural sources for active compounds with antidiabetic properties.

  14. Simultaneous Quantification of Antidiabetic Agents in Human Plasma by a UPLC-QToF-MS Method.

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    Mariana Millan Fachi

    Full Text Available An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, gliclazide, glimepiride, metformin, nateglinide, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and vildagliptin in human plasma was developed and validated, using isoniazid and sulfaquinoxaline as internal standards. Following plasma protein precipitation using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid, chromatographic separation was performed on a cyano column using gradient elution with water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% formic acid. Detection was performed in a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer, using electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode. Data from validation studies demonstrated that the new method is highly sensitive, selective, precise (RSD 0.99, free of matrix and has no residual effects. The developed method was successfully applied to volunteers' plasma samples. Hence, this method was demonstrated to be appropriate for clinical monitoring of antidiabetic agents.

  15. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

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    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  16. Comparative effectiveness of vildagliptin in combination with other oral anti-diabetes agents in usual-care conditions: the EDGE-Latin America study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivil, Carlos O; Márquez-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Angel, Iván D; Paz, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Cruz; Almada, Jorge; Szyskowsky, Ofelia

    2014-09-01

    To assess the proportion of patients on vildagliptin add-on dual therapy who respond to treatment over a 12 month follow-up, relative to comparator oral anti-diabetes dual therapy, in a usual care setting. Participants were patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) aged 18 years and older from 311 centers in Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Venezuela. Patients were taking monotherapy with an oral anti-diabetes drug (OAD), and were prescribed a new add-on OAD based on the judgment of their personal physician. According to this choice, patients were assigned to one of the two cohorts: vildagliptin or comparator OADs. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving an A1c drop >0.3% without edema, hypoglycemia, weight gain or discontinuation due to gastrointestinal (GI) events. The secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with baseline A1c ≥7% who reached the goal of an A1c vildagliptin cohort and 771 in the comparator cohort. The proportion of patients reaching the primary endpoint was higher in the vildagliptin cohort (60.3%) than the comparator cohort (50.7%), OR 1.48 (95% CI: 1.25-1.73). The same was observed for the secondary endpoint (44.8 versus 33.1%) OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.37-1.98). The incidence of adverse events was low and similar between treatment cohorts. In a usual care setting, patients treated with a vildagliptin combination succeeded in lowering A1c to <7%, without weight gain, hypoglycemia or peripheral edema more often than patients treated with comparator combinations, without increased risk of adverse events. Key limitations are the observational nature of the study and its relatively limited 12 month timeframe.

  17. Potential of Lichen Compounds as Antidiabetic Agents with Antioxidative Properties: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Veranja

    2017-01-01

    The advancement in the knowledge of potent antioxidants has uncovered the way for greater insight in the treatment of diabetic complications. Lichens are a rich resource of novel bioactive compounds and their antioxidant potential is well documented. Herein we review the antidiabetic potential of lichens which have received considerable attention, in the recent past. We have correlated the antidiabetic and the antioxidant potential of lichen compounds. The study shows a good accordance between antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of lichens and points out the need to look into gathering the scarce and scattered data on biological activities for effective utilization. The review establishes that the lichen extracts, especially of Parmotrema sp. and Ramalina sp. have shown promising potential in both antidiabetic and antioxidant assays. Ubiquitous compounds, namely, zeorin, methylorsellinate, methyl-β-orcinol carboxylate, methyl haematommate, lecanoric acid, salazinic acid, sekikaic acid, usnic acid, gyrophoric acid, and lobaric acid have shown promising potential in both antidiabetic as well as antioxidant assays highlighting their potential for effective treatment of diabetic mellitus and its associated complications. The available compilation of this data provides the future perspectives and highlight the need for further studies of this potent herbal source to harvest more beneficial therapeutic antidiabetic drugs. PMID:28491237

  18. Recommendations on the effect of antidiabetic drugs in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Jódar-Gimeno, Esteban; Varsavsky, Mariela; Luque-Fernández, Inés; Cortés-Berdonces, María; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations on the effect of antidiabetic drugs on bone fragility to help select the most adequate antidiabetic treatment, especially in diabetic patients with high risk of fracture. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. The GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) was used to establish both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the following terms associated to the name of each antidiabetic drug: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", "bone markers", "calciotropic hormones". Papers in English with publication date before 30 April 2016 were reviewed. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. The document summaries the data on the potential effects of antidiabetic drugs on bone metabolism and fracture risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin-releasing action of the novel antidiabetic agent BTS 67 582.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, N H; Flatt, P R; Bailey, C J

    1998-02-01

    1. BTS 67582 (1,1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate) is a novel antidiabetic agent with a short-acting insulin-releasing effect. This study examined its mode of action in the clonal B-cell line BRIN-BD11. 2. BTS 67582 increased insulin release from BRIN-BD11 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (10[-8] to 10[-4] M) at both non-stimulating (1.1 mM) and stimulating (16.7 mM) concentrations of glucose. 3. BTS 67582 (10[-4] M) potentiated the insulin-releasing effect of a depolarizing concentration of K+ (30 mM), whereas the K+ channel openers pinacidil (400 microM) and diazoxide (300 microM) inhibited BTS 67582-induced release. 4. Suppression of Ca+ channel activity with verapamil (20 microM) reduced the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67582 (10[-4] M). 5. BTS 67582 (10[-4] M) potentiated insulin release induced by amino acids (10 mM), and enhanced the combined stimulant effects of glucose plus either the fatty acid palmitate (10 mM), or agents which raise intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations (25 microM forskolin and 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine), or the cholinoceptor agonist carbachol (100 microM). 6. Inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release by adrenaline or noradrenaline (10 microM) was partially reversed by BTS 67582 (10[-4] M). 7. These data suggest that the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67582 involves regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity and Ca2+ influx, and that the drug augments the stimulant effects of nutrient insulin secretagogues and agents which enhance adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. BTS 67582 may also exert insulin-releasing effects independently of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity.

  20. Factors Associated with Treatment Response to Antidiabetic Agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (sitagliptin and metformin) were the only thiazolidinedione, α-glucosidase inhibitor, DPP-4 inhibitor, and combination agents used, respectively, among the study subjects. Use of Concurrent Medications. Statins were the most commonly prescribed concurrent medication, with 70.0% of subjects receiving statins. This was ...

  1. Antidiabetic Effects of Resveratrol: The Way Forward in Its Clinical Utility

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    Omolola R. Oyenihi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the understanding and management of diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of the disease is increasing unabatedly with resulting disabling and life-reducing consequences to the global human population. The limitations and side effects associated with current antidiabetic therapies have necessitated the search for novel therapeutic agents. Due to the multipathogenicity of diabetes mellitus, plant-derived compounds with proven multiple pharmacological actions have been postulated to “hold the key” in the search for an affordable, efficacious, and safer therapeutic agent in the treatment of the disease and associated complications. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in few plant species, has demonstrated beneficial antidiabetic effects in animals and humans through diverse mechanisms and multiple molecular targets. However, despite the enthusiasm and widespread successes achieved with the use of resveratrol in animal models of diabetes mellitus, there are extremely limited clinical data to confirm the antidiabetic qualities of resveratrol. This review presents an update on the mechanisms of action and protection of resveratrol in diabetes mellitus, highlights challenges in its clinical utility, and suggests the way forward in translating the promising preclinical data to a possible antidiabetic drug in the near future.

  2. Antidiabetic and haematinic effects of Parquetina nigrescens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic and haematinic effects of Parquetina nigrescens on alloxan induced type-1 diabetes and normocytic normochromic anaemia in Wistar rats. ... Background: The plant, Parquetina nigrescens is used in folklore medicine to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications in several parts of West Africa. Objective: To ...

  3. Chemical and Biological Aspects of Extracts from Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushiken, Lucas F; Beserra, Fernando P; Rozza, Ariane L; Bérgamo, Patrícia L; Bérgamo, Danilo A; Pellizzon, Cláudia H

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a leading cause of death in western countries. Despite advancements in the clinical management of the disease, it is not possible to control the late complications of diabetes. The main characteristic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia, which reflects the deterioration in the use of glucose due to a faulty or poor response to insulin secretion. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the chemical tools that are most commonly used to study the disease in rodents. Many plant species have been used in ethnopharmacology or to treat experimentally symptoms of this disease. When evaluated pharmacologically, most of the plants employed as antidiabetic substances have been shown to exhibit hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities, and to contain chemical constituents that may be used as new antidiabetic agents. There are many substances extracted from plants that offer antidiabetic potential, whereas others may result in hypoglycemia as a side effect due to their toxicity, particularly their hepatotoxicity. In this article we present an updated overview of the studies on extracts from medicinal plants, relating the mechanisms of action by which these substances act and the natural principles of antidiabetic activity.

  4. Molecular Modeling Studies of Thiophenyl C-Aryl Glucoside SGLT2 Inhibitors as Potential Antidiabetic Agents

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    Mukesh C. Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A QSAR study on thiophenyl derivatives as SGLT2 inhibitors as potential antidiabetic agents was performed with thirty-three compounds. Comparison of the obtained results indicated the superiority of the genetic algorithm over the simulated annealing and stepwise forward-backward variable method for feature selection. The best 2D QSAR model showed satisfactory statistical parameters for the data set (r2=0.8499, q2=0.8267, and pred_r2=0.7729 with four descriptors describing the nature of substituent groups and the environment of the substitution site. Evaluation of the model implied that electron-rich substitution position improves the inhibitory activity. The good predictive 3D-QSAR models by k-nearest neighbor (kNN method for molecular field analysis (MFA have cross-validated coefficient q2 value of 0.7663 and predicted r2 value of 0.7386. The results have showed that thiophenyl groups are necessary for activity and halogen, bulky, and less bulky groups in thiophenyl nucleus enhanced the biological activity. These studies are promising for the development of novel SGLT2 inhibitor, which may have potent antidiabetic activity.

  5. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  6. Antidiabetic Effect of Galantamine: Novel Effect for a Known Centrally Acting Drug.

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    Mennatallah A Ali

    Full Text Available The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is one of the putative biochemical pathways that link diabetes with Alzheimer disease. Hence, we aimed to verify the potential antidiabetic effect of galantamine, unveil the possible mechanisms and evaluate its interaction with vildagliptin. The n5-STZ rat model was adopted and the diabetic animals were treated with galantamine and/or vildagliptin for 4 weeks. Galantamine lowered the n5-STZ-induced elevation in body weight, food/water intake, serum levels of glucose, fructosamine, and ALT/AST, as well as AChE in the tested organs. Moreover, it modulated successfully the lipid profile assessed in serum, liver, and muscle, and increased serum insulin level, as well as % β-cell function, in a pattern similar to that of vildagliptin. Additionally, galantamine confirmed its antioxidant (Nrf2, TAC, MDA, anti-inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, visfatin, adiponectin and anti-apoptotic (caspase-3, cytochrome c capabilities by altering the n5-STZ effect on all the aforementioned parameters. On the molecular level, galantamine/vildagliptin have improved the insulin (p-insulin receptor, p-Akt, GLUT4/GLUT2 and Wnt/β-catenin (p-GSK-3β, β-catenin signaling pathways. On almost all parameters, the galantamine effects surpassed that of vildagliptin, while the combination regimen showed the best effects. The present results clearly proved that galantamine modulated glucose/lipid profile possibly through its anti-oxidant, -apoptotic, -inflammatory and -cholinesterase properties. These effects could be attributed partly to the enhancement of insulin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Galantamine can be strongly considered as a potential antidiabetic agent and as an add-on therapy with other oral antidiabetics.

  7. Antidiabetic effects of the medicinal plants

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    Waleska C. Dornas

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemy that has a significant impact for their patients. Its incidence is raising leading to an increase in the cost of the cares of the disease and of its complications. The treatment involves, besides dietary control and physical activity, the use of drugs that cause side effects to reach wanted pharmacological actions. However, products of plants are, frequently, considered less poisonous and with fewer side effects than synthetic drugs and widely used by the population. In this paper, several species of plants, used experimentally or in the popular medicine, acting by different ways to control glycemia and/or to inhibit symptoms and characteristic complications of the diabetes, they will be reviewed for evaluation of their supposed therapeutic effects.

  8. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Naila Abdul Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects.Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glicação de proteínas e sobre a difusão de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibição da difusão de glicose e, em menor extensão, através da redução da glicação. Estudos adicionais são necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absorção de glicose pós-prandial e a glicação de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.

  9. Effectiveness and clinical inertia in patients with antidiabetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Ramírez-Riveros, Adriana Carolina; Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique

    2017-06-01

    To establish the effectiveness of antidiabetic therapy and the frequency of clinical inertia in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Colombia. A cross-sectional study with follow-up of patients who had been treated for at least 1 year and were receiving medical consultation for antidiabetic treatment. Effectiveness was established when haemoglobin-A1c levels were inertia was reached, which was defined as no therapeutic modifications despite not achieving management controls. Sociodemographic, clinical and pharmacological variables were evaluated, and multivariate analyses were performed. In total, 363 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were evaluated, with a mean age of 62.0±12.2 years. A total of 1,016 consultations were evaluated, and the therapy was effective at the end of the follow-up in 57.9% of cases. Clinical inertia was found in 56.8% of patients who did not have metabolic control. The most frequently prescribed medications were metformin (84.0%), glibenclamide (23.4%) and insulin glargine (20.7%). Moreover, 57.6% of the patients were treated with two or more antidiabetic medications. Having metabolic control in the first consult of the follow-up was a protective factor against clinical inertia in the subsequent consultations (OR: 0.08; 95%CI: 0.04-0.15; Pinertia was identifiable and quantifiable and found in similar proportions to other countries. Clinical inertia is a relevant condition given that it interferes with the possibility of controlling this pathology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Anti-diabetic effects of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haou-Tzong; Hsieh, Jung-Feng; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a white rot fungus widely used as a tonic for the promotion of longevity and health. Extracts of G. lucidum have been recognized as an alternative adjuvant treatment for diabetes. Among the many biologically active constituents of G. lucidum, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. G. lucidum polysaccharides have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity by increasing plasma insulin levels and decreasing plasma sugar levels in mice. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a promising therapeutic target in diabetes, and G. lucidum proteoglycan can inhibit this enzyme in vitro. Moreover, G. lucidum triterpenoids were shown to have inhibitory activity on aldose reductase and α-glucosidase that can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. In addition, a protein Ling Zhi-8 extracted from G. lucidum significantly decreased lymphocyte infiltration and increased the antibody detection of insulin in diabetic mice. This review summarizes most of the research about the hypoglycemic action effects of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and tritrerpenoids from G. lucidum as a guide for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Antidiabetic Drugs on Gut Microbiota Composition

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    Sophie A. Montandon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D; inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis. In this review; we aim to cover the current knowledge about the effects of antidiabetic drugs on gut microbiota diversity and composition as well as the potential beneficial effects mediated by specific taxa. Metformin is the first-line treatment against T2D. In addition to its glucose-lowering and insulin sensitizing effects, metformin promotes SCFA-producing and mucin-degrading bacteria. Other antidiabetic drugs discussed in this review show positive effects on dysbiosis; but without any consensus specifically regarding the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Thus, beneficial effects might be mediated by specific taxa.

  12. Utilization study of antidiabetic agents in a teaching hospital of Sikkim and adherence to current standard treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Sushrut Varun; Datta, Supratim; Upreti, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has gradually emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in our country. This underlines the need for timely disease detection and decisive therapeutic intervention. This prospective cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a remote North-East Indian tertiary care teaching hospital in the perspective of current standard treatment guidelines. Diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic medication, both as outpatients and inpatients in our hospital over a period of 12 months (May 2013-May 2014), were included in this study. The data obtained were sorted and analyzed on the basis of gender, type of therapy, and hospital setting. A total of 310 patients were included in the study. Metformin was the single most frequently prescribed antidiabetic agent (66.8%) followed by the sulfonylureas group (37.4%). Insulin was prescribed in 23.2% of the patients. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy (65.1%) was used more frequently than monotherapy (34.8%). The use of biguanides (P standard treatment guidelines. Increased use of generic drugs is an area with scope for improvement.

  13. In Vitro Antioxidant Effects of Aloe barbadensis Miller Extracts and the Potential Role of These Extracts as Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Agents on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Model Rats

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    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging ability and the ferric reducing power (FRAP of Aloe vera were measured to determine the antioxidant activity of this species. The in vivo antidiabetic effects of the plant were also investigated using streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats that were divided into five groups based on the treatment received: (1 water (WC; (2 glibenclamide; (3 concentrated gel extract (Gel-C; (4 ethanol (80% gel extract (Gel-Et; and (5 ethanol (80% skin extract of Aloe vera (Skin-Et. Skin-Et, which contained the highest level of total phenolics (62.37 ± 1.34 mggallic acid/kg and flavonoids (20.83 ± 0.77 mg/kg, exhibited the highest scavenging activity (85.01 ± 0.52% and the greatest reducing power (185.98 ± 0.41 µM, indicating that the skin contained the highest level of antioxidants. The oral consumption of Gel-Et for 4 weeks a caused significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose levels of the rats. The rats in the Gel-C-, Gel-Et- and Skin-Et-treated groups experienced a reduction in their total cholesterol levels by 11%, 17% and 25%, respectively and a reduction in their LDL cholesterol levels by 45%, 3% and 69%, respectively. The in vivo experimental antioxidant parameter MDA is strongly correlated with the in vitro antioxidant parameters of flavonoids and polyphenols, namely the DPPH and FRAP values (r = 0.94, 0.92, 0.93, 0.90, thus confirming the antioxidant potential of the Aloe vera extracts.

  14. A nuclear-receptor-dependent phosphatidylcholine pathway with antidiabetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Man; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Mamrosh, Jennifer L; Busby, Scott A; Griffin, Patrick R; Pathak, Manish C; Ortlund, Eric A; Moore, David D

    2011-05-25

    Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (also known as NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC)) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro. DLPC treatment induces bile acid biosynthetic enzymes in mouse liver, increases bile acid levels, and lowers hepatic triglycerides and serum glucose. DLPC treatment also decreases hepatic steatosis and improves glucose homeostasis in two mouse models of insulin resistance. Both the antidiabetic and lipotropic effects are lost in liver-specific Lrh-1 knockouts. These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signalling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and glucose homeostasis.

  15. Recent Advances in Astragalus membranaceus Anti-Diabetic Research: Pharmacological Effects of Its Phytochemical Constituents

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    Kojo Agyemang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The disease burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing throughout the world. The need for more potent drugs to complement the present anti-diabetic drugs has become an imperative. Astragalus membranaceus, a key component of most Chinese herbal anti-diabetic formulas, has been an important prospect for lead anti-diabetic compounds. It has been progressively studied for its anti-diabetic properties. Ethnopharmacological studies have established its potential to alleviate diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have sought to relate its chemical constituents to types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Its total polysaccharides, saponins, and flavonoids fractions and several isolated compounds have been the most studied. The total polysaccharides fraction demonstrated activity to both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. This paper discusses the anti-diabetic effects and pharmacological action of the chemical constituents in relation to types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Metformin-like antidiabetic, cardio-protective and non-glycemic effects of naringenin: Molecular and pharmacological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyane, Ntsoaki Annah; Tlaila, Thabiso Bethwel; Malefane, Tanki Gabriel; Ndwandwe, Dudu Edith; Owira, Peter Mark Oroma

    2017-05-15

    Metformin is a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Its blood glucose-lowering effects are initially due to inhibition of hepatic glucose production and increased peripheral glucose utilization. Metformin has also been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and it is the only oral antihyperglycaemic agent thus far associated with decreased macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. Adenosine Monophosphate Activated-Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent evidence shows that pharmacological activation of AMPK improves blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, blood pressure and insulin-resistance making it a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of T2D. Naringenin a flavonoid found in high concentrations as its glycone naringin in citrus fruits, has been reported to have antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti- dyslipidemic and anti-diabetic effects. It has been shown that naringenin exerts its anti-diabetic effects by inhibition of gluconeogenesis through upregulations of AMPK hence metformin-like effects. Naringin has further been shown to have non-glycemic affects like metformin that mitigate inflammation and cell proliferation. This review evaluates the potential of naringenin as anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemic anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic agent similar to metformin and proposes its further development for therapeutic use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stereospermum tetragonam as an antidiabetic agent by activating PPARγ and GLUT4

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    Bino Kingsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study evaluates the anti-diabetic activity of S. tetragonam LC-MSMS experiments showed the presence of two novel molecules C1 and C2, which were further taken for in silico study against PPARγ. Cell culture studies with A431 cells in the presence of crude aqueous extract showed the elevated level of PPARγ and GLUT4 and also confirmed using in silico studies. Thus, the present study proves the mecode of action of S. tetragonam as an antidiabetic drug.

  18. Stevia rebaudiana loaded titanium oxide nanomaterials as an antidiabetic agent in rats

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    Ariadna Langle

    Full Text Available Abstract Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, is a plant with hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. S. rebaudiana (SrB has become a lead candidate for the treatment of the diabetes mellitus. However, chronic administrations of S. rebaudiana are required to cause the normoglycemic effect. Importantly, nanomaterials in general and titanium dioxide (TiO2 in particular have become effective tools for drug delivery. In this work, we obtained TiO2 nanomaterials with SrB at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 µM by sol–gel method. After this nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Where it was demonstrated, the presence of the S. rebaudiana in TiO2 nanomaterials, which were observed as hemispherical agglomerated particles of different sizes. The nanomaterials were evaluated in male rats whose diabetes mellitus-phenotype was induced by alloxan (200 mg/kg, i.p.. The co-administration of TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM induced a significant and permanent decrease in the glucose concentration since 4 h, until 30 days post-administration. Likewise, the concentrations of insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerides showed a significant recovery to basal levels. The major finding of the study was that the TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM has a potent and prolonged activity antidiabetic. TiO2 can be considered like an appropriated vehicle in the continuous freeing of active substances to treat of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of Aronia melanocarpa and Its Other Therapeutic Properties

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    Ines Banjari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prevalence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched for antidiabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or black chokeberry has been investigated for its therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including cardiovascular disease. Though A. melanocarpa is native to the eastern areas of North America, it has been planted extensively in Europe and Asia as well. Several in vivo studies have displayed the antioxidant properties of A. melanocarpa berry juice and plant extract in rat models where oxidative stress markers were observed to have significant reductions. Some of the potent bioactive compounds present in the fruits and other parts of the plant were identified as (−-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside. Overall, A. melanocarpa could be considered a good source of antioxidants which is effective in combating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Potential of Icariin Metabolites from Epimedium koreanum Nakai as Antidiabetic Therapeutic Agents

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    Da Hye Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic properties of Epimedium koreanum are presumed to be due to the flavonoid component icariin, which has been reported to have broad pharmacological potential and has demonstrated anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-tumor, and hepatoprotective activities. Considering these therapeutic properties of icariin, its deglycosylated icaritin and glycosylated flavonoids (icaeriside II, epimedin A, epimedin B, and epimedin C were evaluated for their ability to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B and α-glucosidase. The results show that icaritin and icariside II exhibit potent inhibitory activities, with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values of 11.59 ± 1.39 μM and 9.94 ± 0.15 μM against PTP1B and 74.42 ± 0.01 and 106.59 ± 0.44 μM against α-glucosidase, respectively. With the exceptions of icaritin and icariside II, glycosylated flavonoids did not exhibit any inhibitory effects in the two assays. Enzyme kinetics analyses revealed that icaritin and icariside II demonstrated noncompetitive-type inhibition against PTP1B, with inhibition constant (Ki values of 11.41 and 11.66 μM, respectively. Moreover, molecular docking analysis confirmed that icaritin and icariside II both occupy the same site as allosteric ligand. Thus, the molecular docking simulation results were in close agreement with the experimental data with respect to inhibition activity. In conclusion, deglycosylated metabolites of icariin from E. koreanum might offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    OpenAIRE

    Geethi Pamunuwa; D. Nedra Karunaratne; Viduranga Y. Waisundara

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioact...

  2. Prescription trends and the selection of initial oral antidiabetic agents for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-H; Chen, S-T; Chang, C-H; Chuang, L-M; Lai, M-S

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of patients, physicians, and medical facilities, and their association with prescriptions that do not include metformin as the initial oral antidiabetic agent. Observational, cross-sectional study. Patients with incident type 2 diabetes between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified from the Taiwan National Insurance Research Database. We describe trends in the initial prescription of antidiabetic medications that do not contain metformin during the study period. A multivariable logistic model and a multilevel linear model were used in the analysis of factors at a range of levels (patient, physician, and medical facility), which may be associated with the selection of oral antidiabetic drugs. During the study period, the proportion of prescriptions that did not include metformin declined from 43.8% to 26.2%. Male patients were more likely to obtain non-metformin prescriptions (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.23), and the likelihood that a patient would be prescribed a non-metformin prescription increased with age. Physicians aged ≥35 years and those with specialties other than endocrinology tended to prescribe non-metformin prescriptions. Metformin was less commonly prescribed in for-profit hospitals (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.11-1.61) and hospitals in smaller cities (adjusted OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05-1.57) and rural areas (adjusted OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.32-2.54). Disparities continue to exist in clinical practice with regard to the treatment of diabetes. These inequalities appear to be linked to a variety of factors related to patients, physicians, and medical facilities. Further study will be required to understand the effects of continuing medical education in enhancing adherence to clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and molecular docking studies of pyrimidinedione based DPP-4 inhibitors as antidiabetic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vibhu; Bhadoriya, Kamlendra Singh

    2018-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of newly developed antidiabetic drugs that bock DPP-4. DPP-4 is responsible for degradation of incretins harmones such as GLP-1 (Glucagon like Peptide) and GIP (Gastric inhibitory polypeptide) that maintain blood-glucose level. Pyrimidinedione based compounds were designed and synthesized for DPP-4 inhibitory activity. These heterocycles were designed by taking Alogliptin as a reference DPP-4 inhibitors and synthesized as N-methylated and N-benzylated pyrimidinediones. These compounds were subjected to DPP-4 assay, five out of nine synthesized compounds have shown in vitro DPP-4 inhibitory activity in significant range. Further, molecular docking studies of these compounds were performed on DPP-4 subunit and compared with natural DPP-4 inhibitors like Flavone, Resveratrol, Quercetin, Diprotin A. Docking studies have led to the conclusion that there are some identical amino acid interactions as Tyr 666 and Tyr 662, seen in both synthesized compounds and natural DPP-4 inhibitors. This study completely gives a good scope for further derivatisation and optimization of synthesized compounds to get clinical candidate as DPP-4 inhibitor for antidiabetic activity.

  4. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Dung Beetle Glycosaminoglycan on db Mice and Gene Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Ban Ji; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Park, Kun-Koo

    2018-04-01

    Anti-diabetes activity of Catharsius molossus (Ca, a type of dung beetle) glycosaminoglycan (G) was evaluated to reduce glucose, creatinine kinase, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in db mice. Diabetic mice in six groups were administrated intraperitoneally: Db heterozygous (Normal), Db homozygous (CON), Heuchys sanguinea glycosaminoglycan (HEG, 5 mg/kg), dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (CaG, 5 mg/kg), bumblebee ( Bombus ignitus ) queen glycosaminoglycan (IQG, 5 mg/kg) and metformin (10 mg/kg), for 1 month. Biochemical analyses in the serum were evaluated to determine their anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory actions in db mice after 1 month treatment with HEG, CaG or IQG treatments. Blood glucose level was decreased by treatment with CaG. CaG produced significant anti-diabetic actions by inhiting creatinine kinase and alkaline phosphatase levels. As diabetic parameters, serum glucose level, total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in CaG5-treated group compared to the controls. Dung beetle glycosaminoglycan, compared to the control, could be a potential therapeutic agent with anti-diabetic activity in diabetic mice. CaG5-treated group, compared to the control, showed the up-regulation of 48 genes including mitochondrial yen coded tRNA lysine (mt-TK), cytochrome P450, family 8/2, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (Cyp8b1), and down-regulation of 79 genes including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100a9) and immunoglobulin kappa chain complex (Igk), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeAsynthase1 (Hmgcs1). Moreover, mitochondrial thymidine kinase (mt-TK), was up-regulated, and calgranulin A (S100a9) were down-regulated by CaG5 treatment, indicating a potential therapeutic use for anti-diabetic agent.

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  6. Anti-diabetic effect of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP)-enriched yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-diabetic effect of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP)-enriched yeast hydrolysate in ... The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the daily ... in the area under curve (AUC) value of YH supplemented groups as compared ...

  7. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: novel antidiabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, William N

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of glucose homeostasis in healthy individuals involves SGLT2 (sodium glucose co-transporter 2)-mediated recovery of glucose from the glomerular filtrate which otherwise would be excreted in urine. Clinical studies indicate that SGLT2 inhibitors provide an insulin-independent means to reduce the hyperglycemia that is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. The pharmacophore common to the SGLT2 inhibitors currently in development is a diarylmethane C-glucoside which is discussed in this review. The focus is how this pharmacophore was further modified as inferred from the patents publishing from 2009 to 2011. The emphasis is on the strategy that each group employed to circumvent the constraints imposed by prior art and how the resulting SGLT2 potency and selectivity versus SGLT1 compared with that of the lead clinical compound dapagliflozin. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a new fundamentally different approach for treatment of diabetes. To date, the clinical results suggest that for non-renally impaired patients this class of inhibitors could be safely used at any stage of T2DM either alone or in combination with other marketed antidiabetic medications.

  8. Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račková, Lucia; Cupáková, Máriá; Tažký, Anton; Mičová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic β cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E β cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on β cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in β cells.

  9. Antidiabetic effect of total flavonoids from Sanguis draxonis in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fufeng; Xiong, Hui; Wang, Jianxia; Ding, Xin; Shu, Guangwen; Mei, Zhinan

    2013-10-07

    Sanguis draxonis (SD) is a kind of red resin obtained from the wood of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. C. Chen (Dracaena cochinchinensis). It is a Chinese traditional herb that is prescribed for the handling of diabetic disorders, which is also supported by an array of scientific studies published in recent years. Although chemical constituents of this plant material have also been previously evaluated (Tang et al., 1995; Wei et al., 1998), it still remains poorly understood which constituent is the major contributor to its antidiabetic activities. Moreover, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying antidiabetic activities of SD. Flavonoids exist at a high level in SD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of total flavonoids from SD (SDF) in type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. T2DM rats were induced by 4 weeks high-fat diet and a singular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35mg/kg). Then T2DM rats were treated with SDF for 21 days, using normal saline as the negative control. For comparison, a standard antidiabetic drug, metformin (200mg/kg), was used as a positive control. Three weeks later, relative biochemical indexes were determined and histopathological examinations were performed to assess the antidiabetic activities of SDF. SDF not only exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity, but also alleviated dyslipidemia, tissue steatosis, and oxidative stress associated with T2DM. Moreover, considerable pancreatic islet protecting effects could be observed after SDF treatment. Further investigations revealed a potential anti-inflammation activity of SDF by determining serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP). This study demonstrates both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of SDF in T2DM rats, suggesting that flavonoids are the major active ingredients accounting for the antidiabetic activity of SD. Alleviating chronic inflammation responses and

  10. Antidiabetic Effect of an Active Components Group from Ilex kudingcha and Its Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Ilex kudingcha are used as an ethnomedicine in the treatment of symptoms related with diabetes mellitus and obesity throughout the centuries in China. The present study investigated the antidiabetic activities of an active components group (ACG obtained from Ilex kudingcha in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice. ACG significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum glycaemic and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and glucokinase were upregulated significantly, while fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic enzyme was downregulated in diabetic mice after treatment of ACG. These findings clearly provided evidences regarding the antidiabetic potentials of ACG from Ilex kudingcha. Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG. They are three dicaffeoylquinic acids that have been reported previously, and three new triterpenoid saponins, which were the first time to be identified in Ilex kudingcha. It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components. Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha.

  11. Analysis of glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of some antidiabetic plants and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Handuwalage, Charith Sandaruwan

    2015-06-09

    Protein cross-linking which occurs towards the latter part of protein glycation is implicated in the development of chronic diabetic complications. Glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were evaluated in this study using a novel, simple, electrophoresis based method. Methanol extracts of thirteen plants including nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were used. Lysozyme and fructose were incubated at 37 °C in the presence or absence of different concentrations of plant extracts up to 31 days. Standard glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine and other appropriate controls were included. A recently established sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method was used to detect the products of protein cross-linking in the incubation mixtures. High molecular weight protein products representing the dimer, trimer and tetramer of lysozyme were detected in the presence of fructose. Among the nine antidiabetic plants, seven showed glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects namely Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark, Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves, Musa paradisiaca (MP) yam, Phyllanthus debilis (PD) whole plant, Phyllanthus emblica (PE) fruit, Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) latex and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) leaves. Inhibition observed with Coccinia grandis (CG) leaves and Strychnos potatorum (SP) seeds were much low. Leaves of Gymnema lactiferum (GL), the plant without known antidiabetic effects showed the lowest inhibition. All three spices namely Coriandrum sativum (CS) seeds, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark and Syzygium aromaticum (SA) flower buds showed cross-link inhibitory effects with higher effects in CS and SA. PD, PE, PM, CS and SA showed almost complete inhibition on the formation of cross-linking with 25 μg/ml extracts. Methanol extracts of PD, PE, PM, CS and SA have shown promising inhibitory effects on glycation induced protein cross-linking.

  12. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Baicalin: An Efficient Carrier for Enhanced Antidiabetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Ximing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that baicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Baicalin is low hydrophilic and poorly absorbed after oral administration. Thus, a suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages of baicalin. The objective of this work was to prepare baicalin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (B-NLCs) for enhanced antidiabetic effects. B-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using Precirol as the solid lipid and Miglyol as the liquid lipid. The properties of the NLCs, such as particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), were investigated. The morphology of NLCs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, drug release and antidiabetic activity were also studied. The results revealed that B-NLCs particles were uniformly in the nanosize range and of spherical morphology with a mean size of 92 ± 3.1 nm, a ZP of -31.35 ± 3.08 mV, and an EE of 85.29 ± 3.42%. Baicalin was released from NLCs in a sustained manner. In addition, B-NLCs showed a significantly higher antidiabetic efficacy compared with baicalin. B-NLCs described in this study are well-suited for the delivery of baicalin. Currently, herbal medicines have attracted increasing attention as a complementary approach for type 2 diabetesBaicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidationA suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages (poor solubility and low bioavailability) of baicalinNanostructured lipid carriers could enhance the antidiabetic effects of baicalin. Abbreviations used: B-NLCs: Baicalin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, B-SUS: Baicalin Water Suspension, EE: Encapsulation Efficiency, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, HbAlc: Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HPLC: High-performance Liquid Chromatography; NLCs: Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, PI: Polydispersity Index, SD: Sprague-Dawley, SLNs: Solid lipid nanoparticles, STZ

  13. Phospholipid complex enriched micelles: A novel drug delivery approach for promoting the antidiabetic effect of repaglinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed Alaa; Abd El-Alim, Sameh Hosam; Basha, Mona; Salama, Abeer

    2017-03-01

    To enhance the oral antidiabetic effect of repaglinide (RG), a newly emerging approach, based on the combination of phospholipid complexation and micelle techniques, was employed. Repaglinide-phospholipid complex (RG-PLC) was prepared by the solvent-evaporation method then characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD). The results revealed obvious disappearance of the characteristic peaks of the prepared RG-PLCs confirming the formation of drug-phospholipid complex. RG-PLC enriched micelles (RG-PLC-Ms) were prepared by the solvent-evaporation technique employing poloxamer 188 as surfactant. The prepared RG-PLC-Ms showed high drug encapsulation efficiencies (93.81-99.38%), with nanometric particle diameters (500.61-665.32nm) of monodisperse distribution and high stability (Zeta potential < -29.8mV). The in vitro release of RG from RG-PLC-Ms was pH-dependant according to the release media. A higher release pattern was reported in pH=1.2 compared to a more retarded release in pH=6.8 owing to two different kinetics of drug release. Oral antidiabetic effect of two optimized RG-PLC-M formulations was evaluated in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model for 7-day treatment protocol. The two investigated formulations depicted normal blood glucose, serum malondialdehyde and insulin levels as well as an improved lipid profile, at the end of daily oral treatment, in contrast to RG marketed tablets implying enhanced antidiabetic effect of the drug. Hence, phospholipid-complex enriched micelles approach holds a promising potential for promoting the antidiabetic effect of RG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  15. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  16. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, D. Nedra

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  17. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethi Pamunuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means.

  18. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamunuwa, Geethi; Karunaratne, D Nedra; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means.

  19. Antidiabetic effect of Scoparia dulcis: effect on lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2005-03-01

    Oxidative damage has been suggested to be a contributory factor in the development and complications of diabetes. The antioxidant effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India was studied in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Oral administration of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) (200 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in plasma insulin. The aqueous extract also resulted in decreased free radical formation in tissues (liver and kidney) studied. The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HPX) and increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) clearly show the antioxidant properties of SPEt in addition to its antidiabetic effect. The effect of SPEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than glibenclamide, a reference drug.

  20. Induced desensitization of the insulinotropic effects of antidiabetic drugs, BTS 67 582 and tolbutamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, Neville H; Ball, Andrew J; Flatt, Peter R

    2000-01-01

    Acute and chronic mechanisms of action of novel insulinotropic antidiabetic drug, BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate), were examined in the stable cultured BRIN-BD11 cell line. BTS 67 582 (100–400 μM) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase (PBTS 67 582 in culture time-dependently decreased subsequent responsiveness to acute challenge with 200 μM BTS 67 582 or 200 μM tolbutamide at 12–18 h (PBTS 67 582 and tolbutamide. Culture with 100 μM BTS 67 582 or 100 μM tolbutamide did not affect basal insulin secretion, cellular insulin content, or cell viability and exerted no influence on the secretory responsiveness to 200 μM of the imidazoline, efaroxan. While 18 h BTS 67 582 culture did not affect the insulin-releasing actions (PBTS 67 582 shares a common signalling pathway to sulphonylurea but not imidazoline drugs. Desensitization of drug action may provide an important approach to dissect sites of action of novel and established insulinotropic antidiabetic agents. PMID:10807689

  1. Induced desensitization of the insulinotropic effects of antidiabetic drugs, BTS 67 582 and tolbutamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, N H; Ball, A J; Flatt, P R

    2000-05-01

    Acute and chronic mechanisms of action of novel insulinotropic antidiabetic drug, BTS 67 582 (1, 1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate), were examined in the stable cultured BRIN-BD11 cell line. BTS 67 582 (100 - 400 microM) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase (PBTS 67 582 in culture time-dependently decreased subsequent responsiveness to acute challenge with 200 microM BTS 67 582 or 200 microM tolbutamide at 12 - 18 h (PBTS 67 582 and tolbutamide. Culture with 100 microM BTS 67 582 or 100 microM tolbutamide did not affect basal insulin secretion, cellular insulin content, or cell viability and exerted no influence on the secretory responsiveness to 200 microM of the imidazoline, efaroxan. While 18 h BTS 67 582 culture did not affect the insulin-releasing actions (PBTS 67 582 shares a common signalling pathway to sulphonylurea but not imidazoline drugs. Desensitization of drug action may provide an important approach to dissect sites of action of novel and established insulinotropic antidiabetic agents.

  2. Antidiabetic effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycaemic effect of kolaviron (KV), (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats has been established. Objectives: To evaluate the possible protective effects of KV on cardiac, renal and hepatic tissues of STZ-diabetic rats. Methods: This study consists of four groups of 6 rats each.

  3. Customization of biliopancreatic limb length to modulate and sustain antidiabetic effect of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A; Rhoads, D B; Tavakkoli, A

    2018-02-01

    Although Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), many patients fail to achieve remission, or relapse. Increasing intestinal limb lengths of RYGB may improve outcomes, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. We hypothesize biliopancreatic (BP) limb length modulates the antidiabetic effect of RYGB. Rats underwent RYGB with a 20-cm (RYGB-20cm) or 40-cm (RYGB-40cm) BP limb and were compared with control animals. After 2 and 4 wk, portal and systemic blood was sampled during intestinal glucose infusion. Portosystemic gradient was used to calculate intestinal glucose utilization (G util ), absorption (G absorp ), and hormone secretion. Intestinal morphology and gene expression were assessed. At 2 wk, G absorp progressively decreased with increasing BP limb length; this pattern persisted at 4 wk. G util increased ≈70% in both RYGB-20cm and -40cm groups at 2 wk. At 4 wk, G util progressively increased with limb length. Furthermore, Roux limb weight, and expression of hexokinase and preproglucagon, exhibited a similar progressive increase. At 4 wk, glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2 levels were higher after RYGB-40cm, with associated increased secretion. We conclude that BP limb length modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. Early postoperatively, a longer BP limb reduces G absorp . Later, G util , Roux limb hypertrophy, hormone secretion, and hormone levels are increased with longer BP limb. Sustained high incretin levels may prevent weight regain and T2D relapse. These data provide the basis for customizing BP limb length according to patient characteristics and desired metabolic effect. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Biliopancreatic limb length in gastric bypass modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. With a longer biliopancreatic limb, Roux limb hypertrophy, increased glucose utilization

  4. Short-term antidiabetic treatment with insulin or metformin has a similar impact on the components of metabolic syndrome in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring antidiabetic agents: results of a prospective, randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiejska, A; Wender-Ozegowska, E; Grewling-Szmit, K; Brazert, M; Brazert, J

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased prevalence of fetal and maternal complications primarily caused by maternal hyperglycemia, which results in abnormal fetal growth. Diet modification is a common first step in the treatment of GDM, followed by antidiabetic pharmacotherapy if this approach fails. Insulin therapy is generally accepted; however, oral hypoglycemic agents have been used in this population. In this prospective, randomised study, we compared maternal metabolic status after treatment with insulin or metformin. Pregnant women (gestational age: ≥ 20 weeks) with GDM requiring medical hypoglycemic treatment were randomly allocated to the Metformin (n = 35) or Insulin (n = 43) Groups. Maternal metabolic status - assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) level, glycemic profile, insulin concentration, Homeostatic Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance index, and lipids - was recorded at booking and throughout pregnancy. The characteristics of the study group were: maternal age 33.5 ± 5.9 years, gestational age at baseline 28.5 ± 3.5 weeks, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) 32.2 ± 3.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c at baseline 5.6 ± 0.6%, and average daily glycemia 5.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dl. Fasting glycemia at term was significantly lower in the Insulin Group but there were no significant differences in mean daily glycemia, HbA1c and BMI at term between the groups. Longitudinally, there was a small but significant increase in BMI and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Insulin Group and a significant increase in the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and a trend towards higher triglycerides in the Metformin Group. Both fasting and average daily glycemia were significantly reduced following treatment in both groups. No such change was evident for HbA1c. In a relative risk analysis, metformin treatment was associated with an insignificant elevated risk of HbA1c, triglycerides and lipid indices falling within the

  5. Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J.; St Jean, David J.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Wahl, Robert C.; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S.; Pennington, Lewis D.; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H.; Andrews, Kristin L.; Bartberger, Michael D.; van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Vonderfecht, Steven L.; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R.; Véniant, Murielle M.; Hale, Clarence

    2013-12-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic β-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  6. Anti-diabetic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Berg leaf decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anapaula Sommer Vinagre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the effects of 3-week treatment of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using a leaf decoction of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (20 g/L on physiological, biochemical and histological parameters. Streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg in citrate buffer, pH 4.5 was administered IP to induce experimental diabetes one week prior to the treatment. STZ caused typical diabetic symptoms: polydypsia, polyuria, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and histopathological modifications in the pancreas, liver and kidney. The treatment of diabetic rats using the decoction decreased blood glucose levels, inhibited hepatic glycogen loss, and prevented potential histopathological alterations in the pancreas and kidneys. No differences were found between the control rats treated with the decoction and the control rats maintained on water only. In conclusion, these results suggest that C. xanthocarpa leaf decoction (20g/L might be useful for diabetes mellitus management, but further pharmacological and toxicological studies are needed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os efeitos do tratamento com o decocto das folhas de Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (20 g/L, durante 3 semanas, sobre parâmetros fisiológicos, bioquímicos e histológicos de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina. O diabete melito foi induzido uma semana antes de iniciar o tratamento experimental, pela administração IP de estreptozotocina (STZ, 70 mg/kg em tampão citrato, pH 4.5. Os ratos tratados com STZ apresentaram sintomas típicos de diabete: polifagia, polidipsia, hiperglicemia, hipertrigliceridemia e alterações histopatológicas no pâncreas, fígado e rim. O tratamento dos ratos diabéticos com o decocto diminuiu os níveis de glicose sanguínea, inibiu a degradação do glicogênio hepático e preveniu possíveis alterações histopatológicas no pâncreas e no rim. Nos ratos controles tratados

  7. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  8. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  9. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide. Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting serum insulin (FINS, insulin sensitivity index (ISI, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA, and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  10. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zang, Xueli; Ma, Jinshu; Xu, Guangyu

    2016-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide). Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD) were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  11. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinan, Rufine; Fagninou, Adnette; Nekoua, Magloire Pandoua; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole; Moutairou, Kabirou; Yessoufou, Akadiri

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN- γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections.

  12. Assessing the effect of treatment duration on the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

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    Anna But

    Full Text Available Most studies that have evaluated the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk have suffered from methodological drawbacks. To avoid time-related biases, we evaluated the effect of treatment duration on the cancer risk among naive users of anti-diabetic medication as compared to non-users. In addition, we addressed the influence of common risk factors such as smoking and BMI. The study population comprised 23,394 participants of FINRISK surveys. Data on cancer and anti-diabetic medication were linked with the study cohorts. We applied Lexis tabulation to the data and analyzed split records by using Poisson regression. Changes in cancer incidence in relation to treatment duration were examined by modeling the rate ratio (RR. After a median follow-up of 9 years, 53 cancer cases among users of anti-diabetic medication and 1,028 among non-users were diagnosed. No significant difference in cancer risk between users and non-users was observed after adjustment. The RR for all medication regardless of its duration was 1.01 [95% CI 0.75-1.33], and 1.37 [0.94-1.94] for period of 1-4 years. The results were similar for metformin, sulfonylurea, and insulin. This study demonstrates that evaluation of the variation in cancer risk in relation to treatment duration is of particular importance for enhancing the accuracy of conclusions on the link between exposure to anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

  13. Assessing the effect of treatment duration on the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Anna; Wang, Haining; Männistö, Satu; Pukkala, Eero; Haukka, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Most studies that have evaluated the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk have suffered from methodological drawbacks. To avoid time-related biases, we evaluated the effect of treatment duration on the cancer risk among naive users of anti-diabetic medication as compared to non-users. In addition, we addressed the influence of common risk factors such as smoking and BMI. The study population comprised 23,394 participants of FINRISK surveys. Data on cancer and anti-diabetic medication were linked with the study cohorts. We applied Lexis tabulation to the data and analyzed split records by using Poisson regression. Changes in cancer incidence in relation to treatment duration were examined by modeling the rate ratio (RR). After a median follow-up of 9 years, 53 cancer cases among users of anti-diabetic medication and 1,028 among non-users were diagnosed. No significant difference in cancer risk between users and non-users was observed after adjustment. The RR for all medication regardless of its duration was 1.01 [95% CI 0.75-1.33], and 1.37 [0.94-1.94] for period of 1-4 years. The results were similar for metformin, sulfonylurea, and insulin. This study demonstrates that evaluation of the variation in cancer risk in relation to treatment duration is of particular importance for enhancing the accuracy of conclusions on the link between exposure to anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

  14. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

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    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  15. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and thermal characterizations of vanadyl(IV) adenine complex prospective as antidiabetic drug agent

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    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-01-01

    The vanadyl(IV) adenine complex; [VO(Adn)2]ṡSO4; was synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of this complex was measured in DMSO solution that showed an electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic investigation of the green solid complex studied here indicate that the adenine acts as a bidentate ligand, coordinated to vanadyl(IV) ions through the nitrogen atoms N7 and nitrogen atom of amino group. Thus, from the results presented the vanadyl(IV) complex has square pyramid geometry. Further characterizations using thermal analyses and scanning electron techniques was useful. The aim of this paper was to introduce a new drug model for the diabetic complications by synthesized a novel mononuclear vanadyl(IV) adenine complex to mimic insulin action and reducing blood sugar level. The antidiabetic ability of this complex was investigated in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results suggested that VO(IV)/adenine complex has antidiabetic activity, it improved the lipid profile, it improved liver and kidney functions, also it ameliorated insulin hormone and blood glucose levels. The vanadyl(IV) complex possesses an antioxidant activity and this was clear through studying SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH and methionine synthase. The current results support the therapeutic potentiality of vanadyl(IV)/adenine complex for the management and treatment of diabetes.

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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    Rath, Diptirani; Kar, Durga Madhab; Panigrahi, Sandeep Kumar; Maharana, Laxmidhar

    2016-11-04

    Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus by tribal people of north-east India and Bangladesh. To evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in normal, glucose loaded and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The methanol (MECR) and aqueous (AECR) extracts (200 and 400mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to normal and diabetic rats with Metformin and solvent control as comparison groups. Long term effects like FBG, OGTT, lipid profile, HbA1c, body weight, histopathology of major organs, etc. were investigated. MECR and AECR did not have hypoglycemic effects in normal rats. Both AECR and MECR (400mg/kg) treatments showed significant reduction in blood glucose during OGTT in diabetic rats at 3h. Single oral administration of methanol and aqueous extracts (400mg/kg) to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose level to 61.90% and 55.39% respectively as compared to the Metformin group i.e. 68.32% at the end of 8h. MECR (400mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats) showed a significant decrease (p<0.01) of blood glucose level to 60.00% as compared to other groups. The treatment also resulted an improvement in body weights, decreased HbA1c and restored lipid profile. Histopathological injury was not observed, rather repair of beta cells was seen in extract treated diabetic rats. Methanolic extract of C. reflexa has significant antidiabetic effects and improves metabolic alterations thereby justifying its traditional folkloric claims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiometabolic effects of antidiabetic drugs in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Iben; Steen Pedersen, Julie; Storgaard, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about 25% of the population worldwide. NAFLD may be viewed as the hepatological manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome due to diabetes or obesity have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease....... This narrative review describes cardiometabolic effects of antidiabetic drugs in NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and manually scanned bibliographies in trial databases and reference lists in relevant articles. RESULTS: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in NAFLD. Conversely......, NAFLD is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is associated with markers of atherosclerosis, and patients have increased risk of ischaemic heart disease. Additionally, patients with NAFLD have increased risk of cardiac dysfunction and heart...

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of a Chinese Herbal Medicinal Compound Sangguayin Preparation via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in db/db Mice

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    Qichang Xing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangguayin (SGY, comprising four types of Chinese herbs, can be used as both food and medicine and has been clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM for a long time. Our previous study demonstrated the antidiabetic effect of SGY in experimental T2DM rats fed with a high-fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin. However, its mechanism of action is questionable. In this study, we refined the traditional SGY decoction and investigated its antidiabetic activity in db/db mice. We evaluated the possible molecular mechanism using skeletal muscle tissues. The results show that the treatment with SGY preparation resulted in a decrease in the blood glucose, glycated serum protein, and blood lipid levels and an improvement in the glucose tolerance as well as insulin resistance. In addition, SGY preparation remarkably upregulated the expression of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K, protein kinase B (Akt, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4. Thus, SGY preparation is an effective agent for the treatment of T2DM, and its molecular mechanism may be related to the regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling in the skeletal muscle.

  20. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: Part 2. Antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice

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    Atsuo Tahara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously we investigated the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT 2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan using normal and diabetic mice. We classified the SGLT2 inhibitors with respect to duration of action as either long-acting (ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin or intermediate-acting (tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin. In the present study, antidiabetic effects of repeated administration of these SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetic mice were investigated. When repeatedly administered for 4 weeks, all SGLT2 inhibitors significantly exhibited antihyperglycemic, antihyperinsulinemic, and pancreas-protective effects, as well as insulin resistance-improving effects. When compared at doses producing comparable reduction in hyperglycemia across all drugs, the antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin were more potent than those of the other four drugs, but these differences among the six drugs were not statistically significant. Further, an oral glucose tolerance test performed after repeated administration demonstrated significant improvement in glucose tolerance only with ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, implying improved insulin resistance and secretion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, although all SGLT2 inhibitors exert antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice, these pharmacologic effects might be slightly superior with the long-acting drugs, which are able to provide favorable blood glucose control throughout the day.

  1. Antidiabetic and protective effects of the aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo L. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabti, Hanae Naceiri; Sayah, Karima; Jaradat, Nidal; Kichou, Faouzi; Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz; Belarj, Badiaa; Cherrah, Yahia; Faouzi, My El Abbes

    2018-02-21

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently a major health problem and the most common chronic disease worldwide. Traditional medicinal plants remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Arbutus unedo L. has been traditionally used to manage several diseases including diabetes. This study was undertaken to contribute the validation of the traditional use of Arbutus unedoL. (Ericaceae) in the treatment of diabetes. Methods In-vitro antidiabetic effect of the A. unedo roots aqueous extract was conducted using α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays. While in-vivo antidiabetic activity was conducted using streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic mice. Diabetic animals were orally administered the aqueous extract in 500 mg/kg of body weight to assess the antidiabetic effect. The blood glucose level and body weight of the experimental animals were monitored for 4 weeks. In addition, the histopathological examination of the treated mice pancreas was also conducted to observe the changes of β-cells during the treatment process. Results The extract produced a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic mice. This decrease was equivalent to that which observed in mice treated with a standard after 2-4 weeks. In addition, the plant extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity with IC50 values of 730.15±0.25 μg/mL and 94.81±5.99 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the histopathologic examination of the pancreas showed a restoration of normal pancreatic islet cell architecture which observed in the diabetic mice treated with plant extract. Conclusions The aqueous A. unedo roots extract has a significant in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic effects and improves metabolic alterations. The revealed results justify its traditional medicinal use.

  2. Anti-diabetic effects of Sargassum oligocystum on Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rat

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome which is associated with the worldwide major public health problems. There are many natural compounds from the sea-market, as a valuable aquatic source, along with the variety of health and therapeutic benefits. In the present research, with respect to the traditional and ethnic uses of Sargassum oligocystum algae for healing of some diseases which have similar metabolic mechanism to the diabetes, its anti-diabetic effects in animal model was proposed. Materials and Methods: The animals (rat were divided into the normal control, diabetic control, positive control and, the test groups. The test groups were gavaged with oral doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg of algae hydroalcoholic extracts. After 30 days of intervention the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDLC, LDLC, insulin, insulin resistance, β-cells function and, the histopathology of pancreatic tissue were evaluated. Results: In animals that were fed with algae extracts a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and HOMA-IR and an increase in the HOMA-B with no significant impacts on the insulin, cholesterol and HDL were observed. Also, the histopathology evaluations in the groups which were treated with algae extract revealed the regeneration and reconstitution of damaged pancreatic β-cells. Conclusion: The results give evidence that, the S. oligocystum algae extract has a healing effect on diabetes which can be considered as a new research prospect for the natural therapy of diabetes.

  3. Antidiabetic effect of gomisin N via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

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    Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2017-12-16

    Gomisin N (GN) is a lignan derived from Schisandra chinensis. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) has gained attention as a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Previously, we reported that GN activated the AMPK pathway and ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of GN in C2C12 myotubes and HFD obese mice. GN enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and Akt. In addition, GN promoted glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, which was accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Treatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, suppressed GN-mediated stimulation of glucose uptake. Furthermore, GN increased the expression of mitochondria biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation genes in C2C12 myotubes. In the in vivo study, administration of GN to HFD mice decreased the levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin, and improved glucose tolerance in HFD obese mice. GN administration rescued the decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt and stimulated the expression of mitochondria biogenesis genes in the skeletal muscle of HFD mice. These findings suggested that GN exerted anti-hyperglycemic effects through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Andrie, Mohamad; Warditiani, Ni Kadek; Siswanto, Eka; Pramono, Suwidjiyo; Lukitaningsih, Endang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by high-fructose-fat diet containing 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 gb.wt. 55 days. The rats were treated with the extract or test compound on the 50th day. Antidiabetic activity was measured by estimating mainly the pre– and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and body weight. Results: The purified extract and andrographolide significantly (PAndrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees or its active compound andrographolide showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in high-fat-fructose-fed rat. PMID:22701250

  5. Antidiabetic and Neuroprotective Effects of Trigonella Foenum-graecum Seed Powder in Diabetic Rat Brain

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    P. Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder (TSP has been reported to have hypoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic action. The objective of the study was to examine the antidiabetic and neuroprotective role of TSP in hyperglycemiainduced alterations in blood glucose, insulin levels and activities of membrane linked enzymes (Na+K+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, calcium (Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in the diabetic rat brain. Female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were made diabetic by a single injection of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight, diabetic rats were given 2 IU insulin, per day with 5% TSP in the diet for three weeks. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in diabetic brain. The increased lipid peroxidation following chronic hyperglycemia was accompanied with a significant increase in the neurolipofuscin deposition and Ca2+ levels with decreased activities of membrane linked ATPases and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic brain. A decrease in synaptosomal membrane fluidity may influence the activity of membrane linked enzymes in diabetes. The present study showed that TSP treatment can reverse the hyperglycemia induced changes to normal levels in diabetic rat brain. TSP administration amended effect of hyperglycemia on alterations in lipid peroxidation, restoring membrane fluidity, activities of membrane bound and antioxidant enzymes, thereby ameliorating the diabetic complications.

  6. CoMFA and CoMSIA studies on C-aryl glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors as potential anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, V K; Bhatt, H G; Patel, P K; Jalu, J; Chintha, C; Gupta, N; Ghate, M

    2013-01-01

    SGLT2 has become a target of therapeutic interest in diabetes research. CoMFA and CoMSIA studies were performed on C-aryl glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors (180 analogues) as potential anti-diabetic agents. Three different alignment strategies were used for the compounds. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained by means of Distill rigid body alignment of training and test sets, and found statistically significant with cross-validated coefficients (q²) of 0.602 and 0.618, respectively, and conventional coefficients (r²) of 0.905 and 0.902, respectively. Both models were validated by a test set of 36 compounds giving satisfactory predicted correlation coefficients (r² pred) of 0.622 and 0.584 for CoMFA and CoMSIA models, respectively. A comparison was made with earlier 3D QSAR study on SGLT2 inhibitors, which shows that our 3D QSAR models are better than earlier models to predict good inhibitory activity. CoMFA and CoMSIA models generated in this work can provide useful information to design new compounds and helped in prediction of activity prior to synthesis.

  7. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  8. The antidiabetic effect of L-carnitine in rats: the role of nitric oxide system

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    Shaghayegh Hajian-Shahri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, the use of L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetes is increasing. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of co-administration of L-arginine (precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide and nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor on antidiabetic activity of L-carnitine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 male rats weighing 180-201g were divided into five groups: (1 non diabetic control rats; (2 untreated diabetic rats; (3 diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine 300 mg/kg (4; diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine 300 mg/kg + L-arginine 300 mg/kg; and (5 diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine (300 mg/kg + nitro-L-arginine (1mg/kg. Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan. After 30 days, liver malondialdehyde levels, lipid profile, serum glucose, and glycated hemoglobin serum levels were measured. Results: Blood glucose, liver enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, and liver malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine compared to the untreated diabetic group (P<0.05. The co-administration of L-arginine and L-carnitine led to a significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin levels and serum glucose, in a manner similar to the group received only L-carnitine. Also, L-arginine and nitro-l-arginine had similar effects on liver lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of L-carnitine is mediated independently from nitric oxide pathways. The interaction between L-carnitine and L-arginine may not be synergistic. So, their combined administration is not recommended for the diabetic patients.

  9. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

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    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  10. Differential anti-diabetic effects and mechanism of action of charantin-rich extract of Taiwanese Momordica charantia between type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice.

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    Wang, Hsien-Yi; Kan, Wei-Chih; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Yu, Sung-Hsun; Chang, Liang-Hao; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2014-07-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), also called bitter melon, has traditionally been used as a natural anti-diabetic agent for anti-hyperglycemic activity in several animal models and clinical trials. We investigated the differences in the anti-diabetic properties and mechanism of action of Taiwanese M. charantia (MC) between type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. To clarify the beneficial effects of MC, we measured non-fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin levels in KK/HIJ mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes (200 mg/kg/day of charantin-rich extract of MC [CEMC]) and in ICR mice with STZ-induced diabetes. After 8 weeks, all the mice were exsanguinated, and the expression of the insulin-signaling-associated proteins in their tissue was evaluated, in coordination with the protective effects of CEMC against pancreatic β-cell toxicity (in vitro). Eight weeks of data indicated that CEMC caused a significant decline in non-fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in the KK/HIJ mice, but not in the ICR mice. Furthermore, CEMC decreased plasma insulin and promoted the sensitivity of insulin by increasing the expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and of IRS-1 in the liver of KK/HIJ mice; however, CEMC extract had no effect on the insulin sensitivity of ICR mice. In vitro study showed that CEMC prevented pancreatic β cells from high-glucose-induced cytotoxicity after 24 h of incubation, but the protective effect was not detectable after 72 h. Collectively, the hypoglycemic effects of CEMC suggest that it has potential for increasing insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D rather than for protecting patients with T1D against β-cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors: a growing class of anti-diabetic agents

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    Eva M Vivian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM.

  12. In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects and Antioxidant Potential of Cassia nemophila Pods

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    Gauhar Rehman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Cassia nemophila pod (EECNP was evaluated by three in vitro assays, including yeast glucose uptake assay, glucose adsorption assay, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The result revealed that the extracts have enhanced the uptake of glucose through the plasma membrane of yeast cells. A linear increase in glucose uptake by yeast cells was noticed with gradual increase in the concentration of the test samples. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of the EECNP was directly proportional to the molar concentration of glucose. Also, the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the extract was increased to a maximum value of 43.3% at 80 μg/ml, which was then decreased to 41.9% at 100 μg/ml. From the results, it was concluded that EECNP possess good antidiabetic and antioxidant properties as shown by in vitro assays.

  13. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  14. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. polyphenol enhanced extract.

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    Yihai Wang

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated serum protein (GSP, and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  15. A novel oral dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (KBP-042) exerts antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Kim V; Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T

    2014-01-01

    -induced obese (DIO) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In vitro, KBP-042 demonstrated superior binding affinity and activation of amylin and calcitonin receptors, and ex vivo, KBP-042 exerted inhibitory action on stimulated insulin and glucagon release from isolated islets. In vivo, KBP-042 induced...... a superior and pronounced reduction in food intake in conjunction with a sustained pair-fed corrected weight loss in DIO rats. Concomitantly, KBP-042 improved glucose homeostasis and reduced hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia in conjunction with enhanced insulin sensitivity. In ZDF rats, KBP-042 induced...... antiobesity and antidiabetic efficacy by dual modulation of insulin sensitivity and directly decelerating stress on the pancreatic α- and β-cells. These results could provide the basis for oral KBP-042 as a novel therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes....

  16. A Hamster Model of Diet-Induced Obesity for Preclinical Evaluation of Anti-Obesity, Anti-Diabetic and Lipid Modulating Agents.

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    Louise S Dalbøge

    Full Text Available Unlike rats and mice, hamsters develop hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia when fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Because hyperlipidemia is a hallmark of human obesity, we aimed to develop and characterize a novel diet-induced obesity (DIO and hypercholesterolemia Golden Syrian hamster model.Hamsters fed a highly palatable fat- and sugar-rich diet (HPFS for 12 weeks showed significant body weight gain, body fat accumulation and impaired glucose tolerance. Cholesterol supplementation to the diet evoked additional hypercholesterolemia. Chronic treatment with the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, SC, BID, 27 days, normalized body weight and glucose tolerance, and lowered blood lipids in the DIO-hamster. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (3.0 mg/kg, PO, QD also improved glucose tolerance. Treatment with peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36, 1.0 mg/kg/day or neuromedin U (NMU, 1.5 mg/kg/day, continuously infused via a subcutaneous osmotic minipump for 14 days, reduced body weight and energy intake and changed food preference from HPFS diet towards chow. Co-treatment with liraglutide and PYY3-36 evoked a pronounced synergistic decrease in body weight and food intake with no lower plateau established. Treatment with the cholesterol uptake inhibitor ezetimibe (10 mg/kg, PO, QD for 14 days lowered plasma total cholesterol with a more marked reduction of LDL levels, as compared to HDL, indicating additional sensitivity to cholesterol modulating drugs in the hyperlipidemic DIO-hamster. In conclusion, the features of combined obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia in the DIO-hamster make this animal model useful for preclinical evaluation of novel anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and lipid modulating agents.

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica Kernel Flour?supplemented diet in streptozotocin?induced type 2 diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Irondi, Emmanuel A.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our previous report showed that Mangifera indica kernel flour (MIKF) is a rich source of pharmacologically important flavonoids and phenolic acids; and that its methanolic extract inhibits some key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in vitro. Hence, this study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of 10% and 20% MIKF?supplemented diets in T2D in rats. T2D was induced in rats using a high?fat diet (HFD), low?dose streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) model, by ...

  18. Effect of once-daily insulin detemir on oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, J; Caputo, S; Damci, T; Orozco-Beltran, D; Pan, C; Svendsen, A L; Sølje, K S; Khunti, K

    2014-04-01

    There are acknowledged benefits to continuing metformin when initiating insulin, but there appears to be growing concern over the role of sulphonylureas and thiazolidinediones when used in combination with insulin. This analysis investigates the effects of continuing or discontinuing oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) following the initiation of once-daily insulin detemir. SOLVE is a 24-week, multinational observational study of insulin detemir initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with one or more OADs. In the total cohort (n = 17 374), there were significant improvements in HbA1c (-1·3%, 95% CI -1·34; -1·27%) and weight (-0·6 kg, 95% CI -0·65; -0·47 kg), with an increase in the incidence rate of minor hypoglycaemia (+0·256 events ppy, P use either prior to (n = 17 086) or during insulin initiation (n = 16 346). HbA1c reductions were significantly greater in patients continuing treatment with metformin (-1·3% vs. -1·1%, P < 0·01), thiazolidinediones (-1·3% vs. -1·0%, P < 0·01) and DPP-IV inhibitors (-1·3% vs. -0·9%, P < 0·001). Final insulin doses were significantly greater in patients discontinuing treatment with sulphonylureas (0·29 vs. 0·26 IU/kg, P < 0·001), glinides (0·28 vs. 0·26 IU/kg, P < 0·01), thiazolidinediones (0·31 vs. 0·26 IU/kg, P < 0·001) and DPP-IV inhibitors (0·35 vs. 0·29 IU/kg, P < 0·001) compared with patients continuing these respective agents. All patient subgroups had a mean weight loss irrespective of OAD continuation, apart from those continuing thiazolidinediones (+0·2 kg). The largest improvements in weight were seen following the withdrawal of sulphonylureas and thiazolidinediones (-1·1 and -1·1 kg, respectively). Discontinuation (or switching) of OADs at the time of insulin initiation appears to be governed principally by concerns about hypoglycaemia and weight. HbA1c improvements were smaller in patients discontinuing OADs at the time of insulin

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  20. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

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    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  1. Comparative effectiveness of oral antidiabetic drugs in preventing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity: A network meta-analysis.

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    Gyeongsil Lee

    Full Text Available In the Guidance for Industry from the Food and Drug Administration in 2008, excess cardiovascular risk should be ruled out in trials of all new antidiabetic drugs; however, relatively few studies have focused on cardiovascular safety with antidiabetic drug use. We aimed to examine mortality and cardiovascular risk using a network meta-analysis. We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov registry databases in March 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials reporting cardiovascular risk with the following oral antidiabetic drugs: metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinedione (TZD, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitors. We assessed the differences in the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and myocardial infarction (MI among antidiabetic drugs with fixed effect models for direct pairwise comparisons and Bayesian network meta-analyses to integrate direct and indirect comparisons. Of the 101,183 patients in 73 randomized controlled trials, 3,434 (3.4% died. The relative risks of all-cause mortality with SGLT2 inhibitor use were 0.68 (95% credible interval: 0.57-0.80, 0.74 (0.49-1.10, 0.63 (0.46-0.87, 0.71 (0.55-0.90, and 0.65 (0.54-0.78, compared with placebo, metformin, sulfonylurea, TZD, and DPP4 inhibitor, respectively. The relative risks of cardiovascular-related mortality with SGLT2 inhibitor use were 0.61 (0.50-0.76, 0.81(0.36-1.90, 0.52(0.31-0.88, 0.66(0.49-0.91, and 0.61(0.48-0.77, compared with placebo, metformin, sulfonylurea, TZD, and DPP4 inhibitor, respectively. The relative risks of ACS with SGLT2 inhibitor use was consistent with that of all-cause mortality. SGLT2 inhibitor use was associated with a lower risk of ACS than the other OADs and placebo. The relative risks of MI with SGLT2 inhibitor use were 0.77 (0.63-0.93 and 0.75 (0.60-0.94, compared with placebo and DPP4 inhibitor, respectively. The

  2. Immunological effects of hypomethylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Katherine E; Goswami, Meghali; Hourigan, Christopher S; Oetjen, Karolyn A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic changes resulting from aberrant methylation patterns are a recurrent observation in hematologic malignancies. Hypomethylating agents have a well-established role in the management of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition to the direct effects of hypomethylating agents on cancer cells, there are several lines of evidence indicating a role for immune-mediated anti-tumor benefits from hypomethylating therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical and basic science literature for the effects of hypomethylating agents, including the most commonly utilized therapeutics azacitidine and decitabine, on immune cell subsets. We summarized the effects of hypomethylating agents on the frequency and function of natural killer cells, T cells, and dendritic cells. In particular, we highlight the effects of hypomethylating agents on expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors, leukemia-associated antigens, and endogenous retroviral elements. Expert commentary: In vitro and ex vivo studies indicate mixed effects on the function of natural killer, dendritic cells and T cells following treatment with hypomethylating agents. Clinical correlates of immune function have suggested that hypomethylating agents have immunomodulatory functions with the potential to synergize with immune checkpoint therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancy, and has become an active area of clinical research.

  3. Effectiveness and content analysis of interventions to enhance oral antidiabetic drug adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignon Zomahoun, H.T.; de Bruin, M.; Guillaumie, L.; Moisan, J.; Grégoire, J.P.; Pérez, N.; Vézina-Im, L.A.; Guénette, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the pooled effect size of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) adherence-enhancing interventions and to explore which of the behavior change techniques (BCTs) applied in the intervention groups modified this pooled intervention effect size. Methods We searched relevant studies

  4. Antidiabetic Effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Its Association with Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Ceren Eyileten

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin, which plays an important role in the central nervous system, and systemic or peripheral inflammatory conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. BDNF is also expressed in several nonneuronal tissues, and platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. Here, we reviewed the potential role of BDNF in platelet reactivity in T2DM and its association with selected inflammatory and platelet activation mediators. Besides that, we focused on adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, and adiponectin which are considered to take part in inflammation and both lipid and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients as previous studies showed the relation between adipocytokines and BDNF. We also reviewed the evidences of the antidiabetic effect of BDNF and the association with circulating inflammatory cytokines in T2DM.

  5. Comparative study of the hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic effects of four agro-waste Citrus peels cultivars and their HPLC standardization

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    Nesrin M. Fayek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Citrus is an economically important fruit for Egypt, but its peel also is one of the major sources of agricultural waste. Due to its fermentation, this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore it is worthwhile to investigate ways to make use of this citrus waste generated by the juice industry. This study was aimed to explore the hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic activities of four varieties of citrus peels agrowastes, to isolate the main flavonoids in the active fractions and to quantify them by HPLC method for nutraceutical purposes. All the tested samples of the agro-waste Citrus fruits peels showed significant decrease in cholesterol, triacylglyceride and glucose. The most decrease in cholesterol level was observed by mandarin peels aqueous homogenate and its hexane fraction (59.3% and 56.8%, respectively reaching the same effect as the reference drug used (54.7%. Mostly, all samples decrease triacylglyceride (by 36%–80.6% better than the reference drug used (by 35%, while, glucose was decreased (by 71.1%–82.8 and 68.6%–79.6%, respectively mostly by the aqueous homogenates (except lime and alcoholic extracts (except mandarin of Citrus fruits peels better than the reference drug used (by 68.3%. All the isolated pectin, from the four cultivars, has significant effect on the three parameters. The comparative HPLC rapid quantification of nobiletin in the different by-product citrus varieties hexane fractions revealed that nobiletin is present in higher concentration in mandarin (10.14% than the other species. Nobiletin and 4′,5,7,8-tetramethoxy flavone were isolated from mandarin peels hexane fraction by chromatographic fractionation. This is the first report of the comparative HPLC quantification of nobiletin and biological studies of different citrus peels species as agro-waste products. Based on these results, we suggest the possibility that Citrus fruits peels may be considered as an antidiabetic and

  6. Anti-diabetic effect of balanced deep-sea water and its mode of action in high-fat diet induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Geun; Shin, Eun Ji; Park, Jung-Eun; Shon, Yun Hee

    2013-10-29

    In this study, we investigated the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) on hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing deep-sea water (DSW) mineral extracts and desalinated water to give a final hardness of 500-2000. Mice given an HFD with BDSW showed lowered fasting plasma glucose levels compared to HFD-fed mice. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that BDSW improves impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas showed that BDSW recovers the size of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and increases the secretion of insulin and glucagon in HFD-fed mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results revealed that the expression of hepatic genes involved in glucogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose oxidation were suppressed, while those in glucose uptake, β-oxidation, and glucose oxidation in muscle were increased in mice fed HFD with BDSW. BDSW increased AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 pre- and mature adipocytes and improved impaired AMPK phosphorylation in the muscles and livers of HFD-induced diabetic mice. BDSW stimulated phosphoinositol-3-kinase and AMPK pathway-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that BDSW has potential as an anti-diabetic agent, given its ability to suppress hyperglycemia and improve glucose intolerance by increasing glucose uptake.

  7. EDGE study in Russian Federation: efficacy and safety of vildagliptine in comparison with other oral antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Gagik Radikovich Galstyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to international consensus, metformin is acknowledged as a first-line therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, in most cases this treatment eventually requires intensification by supplementation with other hypoglycemic medications. The aim of the EDGE study (Effective Diabetes control with vildaGliptin and vildagliptin/mEtformin was to assess the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin in comparison with other oral agents in routine management of patients with T2DM that has been poorly controlled by metformin monotherapy.

  8. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  9. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Sargassum yezoense in db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Woojung; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kim, Yong Kee

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sargassum yezoense (SY) treatment improved glucose and lipid impairment in vivo. ► This pharmacological action is associated with PPARα/γ dual activation. ► It decreases the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver. ► It increases the expression of UCP3 for lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. ► There are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered to be desirable targets for metabolic syndrome, even though their specific agonists have several side effects including body weight gain, edema and tissue failure. Previously, we have reported in vitro effects of Sargassum yezoense (SY) and its ingredients, sargaquinoic acid (SQA) and sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA), on PPARα/γ dual transcriptional activation. In this study, we describe in vivo pharmacological property of SY on metabolic disorders. SY treatment significantly improved glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice model. More importantly, there are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly in SY-treated animals, indicating little side effects of SY in liver and lipid metabolism. In addition, SY led to a decrease in the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver responsible for lowering blood glucose level and an increase in the expression of UCP3 in adipose tissue for the reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol level. Altogether, our data suggest that SY would be a potential therapeutic agent against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders by ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  10. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Sargassum yezoense in db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woojung [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sargassum yezoense (SY) treatment improved glucose and lipid impairment in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This pharmacological action is associated with PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It decreases the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It increases the expression of UCP3 for lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered to be desirable targets for metabolic syndrome, even though their specific agonists have several side effects including body weight gain, edema and tissue failure. Previously, we have reported in vitro effects of Sargassum yezoense (SY) and its ingredients, sargaquinoic acid (SQA) and sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA), on PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual transcriptional activation. In this study, we describe in vivo pharmacological property of SY on metabolic disorders. SY treatment significantly improved glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice model. More importantly, there are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly in SY-treated animals, indicating little side effects of SY in liver and lipid metabolism. In addition, SY led to a decrease in the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver responsible for lowering blood glucose level and an increase in the expression of UCP3 in adipose tissue for the reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol level. Altogether, our data suggest that SY would be a potential therapeutic agent against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders by ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  11. Antidiabetic and Synergistic Effects of Anthocyanin Fraction from Berberis integerrima Fruit on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complex endocrine disorder. There is a serious attempt to identify antidiabetic compounds from natural sources to use with other drugs for reduction of diabetes complications. Present study is based on the investigation of antihyperglycemic effect of anthocyanin fraction of Berberis integerrima Bunge (AFBI fruits on some physiological parameters (glucose level, glycogen content, and body weight in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced diabetic rats and evaluation of synergic effect of this fraction with metformin and glibenclamide. Male Sprague dawley rats were divided into nine groups: healthy control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated with anthocyanin fraction (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively; diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide and metformin separately, diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg, metformin + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg. Treatment of diabetic rats with AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose as compared with control. Moreover, AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly increased liver glycogen and body weight compared to control. Nevertheless, there were no synergistic effects between anthocyanin fraction and metformin or glibenclamide on blood glucose, liver glycogen, and body weight. The results of this study indicate that AFBI possesses hypoglycemic effects and may be considered for evaluation in future diabetes clinical studies.

  12. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF SOS-GFP BIOSENSOR TO IN VITRO RAPID SCREENING OF CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF ANTICANCER AND ANTIDIABETIC PHARMACIST RESIDUES IN SURFACE WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Matejczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli K-12 GFP-based bacterial biosensors allowed the detection of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer drug– cyclophosphamide and antidiabetic drug – metformin in PBS buffer and surface water. Experimental data indicated that recA::gfpmut2 genetic system was sensitive to drugs and drugs mixture applied in experiment. RecA promoter was a good bioindicator in cytotoxic and genotoxic effect screening of cyclophosphamide, metformin and the mixture of the both drugs in PBS buffer and surface water. The results indicated that E. coli K-12 recA::gfp mut2 strain could be potentially useful for first-step screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer and antidiabetic pharmacist residues in water. Next steps in research will include more experimental analysis to validate recA::gfpmut2 genetic system in E. coli K-12 on different anticancer drugs.

  13. Chronic antidiabetic sulfonylureas in vivo: reversible effects on mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

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    Maria Sara Remedi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP channels are critical links between nutrient metabolism and insulin secretion. In humans, reduced or absent beta-cell K ATP channel activity resulting from loss-of-function K ATP mutations induces insulin hypersecretion. Mice with reduced K ATP channel activity also demonstrate hyperinsulinism, but mice with complete loss of K ATP channels (K ATP knockout mice show an unexpected insulin undersecretory phenotype. Therefore we have proposed an "inverse U" hypothesis to explain the response to enhanced excitability, in which excessive hyperexcitability drives beta-cells to insulin secretory failure without cell death. Many patients with type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic sulfonylureas (which inhibit K ATP activity and thereby enhance insulin secretion show long-term insulin secretory failure, which we further suggest might reflect a similar progression.To test the above hypotheses, and to mechanistically investigate the consequences of prolonged hyperexcitability in vivo, we used a novel approach of implanting mice with slow-release sulfonylurea (glibenclamide pellets, to chronically inhibit beta-cell K ATP channels. Glibenclamide-implanted wild-type mice became progressively and consistently diabetic, with significantly (p < 0.05 reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose. After 1 wk of treatment, these mice were as glucose intolerant as adult K ATP knockout mice, and reduction of secretory capacity in freshly isolated islets from implanted animals was as significant (p < 0.05 as those from K ATP knockout animals. However, secretory capacity was fully restored in islets from sulfonylurea-treated mice within hours of drug washout and in vivo within 1 mo after glibenclamide treatment was terminated. Pancreatic immunostaining showed normal islet size and alpha-/beta-cell distribution within the islet, and TUNEL staining showed no evidence of apoptosis.These results demonstrate that

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Effects of Different Parts of Cassia fistula Linn, a Southeast Asian Plant

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    John Wilking Einstein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole parts of Cassia fistula in both normoglycemic and streptozotocin-nictotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Acute toxicity, oral glucose tolerance test and glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm were performed in normal rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by the administration of streptozotocin-nictotinamide (50, 110 mg/kg b.w., resp. intraperitoneally. Different extracts of Cassia was administered to diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Biochemical parameters like blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and serum marker enzymes were determined. The methanolic extract of the bark and leaves were show more effective in causing hypoglycemia in normoglycemic rats. Diabetic rats showed increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, reduced levels of plasma insulin, were significantly reverted to near normal after oral administration of the bark and leaf methanolic extracts. Glucose uptake studies in isolated rat hemidiaphragm have shown enhanced peripheral utilization of glucose. Chronic treatment of Cassia remarkably restored the normal status of the histopathological changes observed in the selected tissues. Dose dependent anti-diabetic effects with the cohorts receiving the methanolic extract of bark followed by leaves of Cassia was revealed.

  15. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  16. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  17. Lansoprazole enhances the antidiabetic effect of sitagliptin in mice with diet-induced obesity and healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, ShaoJun; Sun, JianHua; Tian, XiKui; Sun, Xu; Zhang, ZhenXing; Gao, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors as adjunctive therapy would improve diabetes control and could enhance the hypoglycaemic activity of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of lansoprazole (LPZ), sitagliptin (SITA) and their combination therapy on glucose regulation and gut peptide secretion. Glucose and gut peptide were determined and compared after short-term administration of LPZ or SITA, or in combination to mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to healthy human subjects (n = 16) in a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by a crossover design. In DIO mice, LPZ significantly improve glucose metabolism, increase plasma C-peptide and insulin compared with vehicle treatment. Furthermore, the combination of LPZ and SITA improved glucose tolerance additively, with higher plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared with SITA-treated mice. Similarly, in human in the OGTT, the combination showed significant improvement in glucose-lowering and insulin increase vs SITA-treated group. However, no significant differences in area under curve (AUC) of insulin, glucose and C-peptide between the LPZ-treated group and baseline, except that mean AUCgastrin was significantly increased by LPZ. LPZ and SITA combination therapy appears to have complementary mechanisms of action and additive antidiabetic effect. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Epifluorescent imaging study of the effect of anti-diabetic drug metformin on colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro

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    Venkatasubramani P

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, has recently been associated with inhibition of cell proliferation in multiple cancers. However, it is not clear if the reduction in proliferation on treatment with metformin is a result of cell death or slowdown in the rate of growth of cancer cells, because cell viability assays measure only the number of cells at the beginning and end of the experiment. The aim of this study is to utilize a fluorescent imaging technique to directly follow cell death overtime in order to investigate the effect of metformin on colorectal cancer cells HCT116 and SW480. Epifluorescent imaging analysis carried out using ImageXpress Micro XLS High-Content Imaging System show that there is no significant change in cell death observed in the cancer cell lines, as compared to the control, over multiple closely spaced time points, suggesting that metformin in pharmacological doses may not be an effective inducer of cell death in these colon cancer cell lines.

  19. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Respond to Short-Term Hypoxia by Secreting Factors Beneficial for Human Islets In Vitro and Potentiate Antidiabetic Effect In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Schive, Simen W.; Mirlashari, Mohammad Reza; Hasvold, Grete; Wang, Mengyu; Josefsen, Dag; Gullestad, Hans Petter; Korsgren, Olle; Foss, Aksel; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Scholz, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) release factors beneficial for islets in vitro and protect against hyperglycemia in rodent models of diabetes. Oxygen tension has been shown to induce metabolic changes and alter ASCs? release of soluble factors. The effects of hypoxia on the antidiabetic properties of ASCs have not been explored. To investigate this, we incubated human ASCs for 48 h in 21% (normoxia) or 1% O2 (hypoxia) and compared viability, cell growth, surface markers, differe...

  20. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  1. Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. T. Huyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the antidiabetic effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP together with sulfonylurea (SU in 25 drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. After 4-week treatment with gliclazide (SU, 30 mg daily, all patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups to add on GP extract or placebo extract, 6 g daily, during eight weeks. Results. After 4-week SU treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1C decreased significantly (P<0.001. FPG was further reduced after add-on therapy with 2.9 ± 1.7 and 0.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L in the GP and placebo groups, respectively (P<0.001. Therapy with GP extract also reduced 30- and 120-minute oral glucose tolerance test postload values. HbA1C levels decreased approximately 2% units in the GP group compared to 0.7% unit in the placebo group (P<0.001. Conclusion. GP extract in addition to SU offers an alternative to addition of other oral medication to treat type 2 diabetic patients.

  2. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root’s hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Results: Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (plappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:28348972

  3. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root's hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (plappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.

  4. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Swarnamoni; Barman, Sarajita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (Pgranatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:22529479

  5. Effects of antidiabetic drugs on the incidence of macrovascular complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a new perspective on sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahelić, Dario; Javor, Eugen; Lucijanić, Tomo; Skelin, Marko

    2017-02-01

    Elevated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) values correlate with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of developing macrovascular events. Treatment of T2DM should be based on a multifactorial approach because of its evidence regarding reduction of macrovascular complications and mortality in T2DM. It is well known that intensive glucose control reduces the risk of microvascular complications in T2DM, but the effects of antidiabetic drugs on macrovascular complications and mortality in T2DM are less clear. The results of recent trials have demonstrated clear evidence that empagliflozin and liraglutide reduce cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in T2DM, an effect that is absent in other members of antidiabetic drugs. Empagliflozin is a member of a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Two ongoing randomized clinical trials involving other SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, will provide additional evidence of the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in T2DM population. The aim of this paper is to systematically present the latest evidence regarding the usage of antidiabetic drugs, and the reduction of macrovascular complications and mortality. A special emphasis is put on the novel class of antidiabetic drugs, of SGLT2 inhibitors. Key messages Macrovascular complications and mortality are best clinical trial endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The first antidiabetic drug that demonstrated a reduction in mortality in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. SGLT2 inhibitors are novel class of antidiabetic drugs that play a promising role in the treatment of T2DM.

  6. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: new among antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H

    2014-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by decreased insulin secretion and sensitivity. The available oral anti-diabetic drugs act on many different molecular sites. The most used of oral anti-diabetic agents is metformin that activates glucose transport vesicles to the cell surface. Others are: the sulphonylureas; agents acting on the incretin system; GLP-1 agonists; dipetidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors; meglinitide analogues; and the thiazolidinediones. Despite these many drugs acting by different mechanisms, glycaemic control often remains elusive. None of these drugs have a primary renal mechanism of action on the kidneys, where almost all glucose excreted is normally reabsorbed. That is where the inhibitors of glucose reuptake (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, SGLT2) have a unique site of action. Promotion of urinary loss of glucose by SGLT2 inhibitors embodies a new principle of control in type 2 diabetes that has several advantages with some urogenital side-effects, both of which are evaluated in this review. Specific approvals include use as monotherapy, when diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom the use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance or contraindications, or as add-on therapy with other anti-hyperglycaemic medicinal products including insulin, when these together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycemic control. The basic mechanisms are improved β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. When compared with sulphonylureas or other oral antidiabetic agents, SGLT2 inhibitors provide greater HbA1c reduction. Urogenital side-effects related to the enhanced glycosuria can be troublesome, yet seldom lead to discontinuation. On this background, studies are analysed that compare SGLT2 inhibitors with other oral antidiabetic agents. Their unique mode of action, unloading the excess glycaemic load, contrasts with other oral agents that all act to counter the effects of diabetic

  7. Effectiveness testing of spill-treating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Stoodley, R.; Laroche, N.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory effectiveness tests are described for four classes of spill-treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Many treating agents in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness and the results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil, requiring a large amount of agent to solidify oil-ranging between 16% by weight, to over 200%. Emulsion breakers prevent or reverse the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. A newly-developed effectiveness test shows that only one product is highly effective; however, many products will work, but require large amounts of spill-treating agent. Surfactant--containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that an agent that is a good dispersant is conversely a poor surface-washing agent, and vice versa. Tests of surface-washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25-40%, where this effectiveness is the percentage of heavy oil removed from a test surface. Results using the 'swirling flask' test for dispersant effectiveness are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%. (author)

  8. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF HELIOTROPIUM STRIGOSUM IN RAT MODELS OF TYPE I AND TYPE II DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Akram, Adnan; Aslam, Naveed; Asif, Muhammad; Wajid, Muhammad; Kinfe, Thomas; Jabeen, Qaiser; Muhammad, Sajjad

    2016-11-01

    Heliotropiumz stnigosum Wilid. (Boraginaceae) is used traditionally as a laxative, diuretic, and as a treatment for snake bites and stings of nettles. Recent investigations have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of H. sorigosum. However, antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of H. strigosum has not been investigated to date and we aimed to explore these activities of the crude aqueous methanolic extract of thEaerial parts of H. strigosum (Hs.Cr). Hs.Cr was administered orally at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (type I diabetes) and fructose-fed rats (type II diabetes). The fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration was assessed by glucometer, while semum total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL were estimated by using standard kits. The FBG concentration significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in dose-dependent pattern in both alloxan-induced diabetic and fructose-fed rats on Hs.Cr administration. The percentage glucose reductions in alloxanized rats with glibenclamide, Hs.Cr 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg were obeserved to be 67, 36, 56 and 62%, respectively. In fructose-fed rats, the percentage glucose redutions associated with metformin, Hs.Cr 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg were 23, 5, 11 and 12%, respectively. The extract also corrected the dyslipidemia associated with fructose and alloxan-induced diabetes by significantly (p < 0.00 1) decreasing the concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and by increasing HDL concentration. Our data demonstrate that the H. stigosum has antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effects, thus encouraging further studies.

  9. Novel anti-diabetic effect of SCM-198 via inhibiting the hepatic NF-κB pathway in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Xin, Hong; Liu, Xinhua; Xu, Yajun; Wen, Danyi; Zhang, Yahua; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2012-04-01

    There are reports of early evidence that suggest the involvement of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. Thus, substances that have effects in reducing inflammation could be potential drugs for Type 2 diabetes. Leonurine (4-guanidino-n-butyl syringate; SCM-198) is an alkaloid in HL (Herba leonuri), which was reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesize that SCM-198 may have beneficial effects on Type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we attempted to test this hypothesis by evaluating the anti-diabetic effect of SCM-198 and the possible underlying mechanisms of its effects in db/db mice. SCM-198 (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight), pioglitazone (50 mg/kg of body weight, as a positive control) or 1% CMC-Na (sodium carboxymethylcellulose) were administered to the db/db or db/m mice once daily for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, SCM-198 (200 mg/kg of body weight) treatment significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose level and increased the plasma insulin concentration in the db/db mice, meanwhile it significantly lowered the plasma TAG (triacylglycerol) concentration and increased the HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, the dysregulated transcription of the hepatic glucose metabolic enzymes, including GK (glucokinase), G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase) and PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), was recovered by an Akt-dependent pathway. The pro-inflammatory mediators {such as TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), IL (interleukin)-6, IL-1β, degradation of IκB [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB)] α and thereafter activation of NF-κB} were reversed by SCM-198 treatment in the db/db mice. The present study provides first evidence that SCM-198 exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and has an ameliorating effect on diabetic symptoms via inhibiting of NF-κB/IKK (IκB kinase) pathway. Consequently, we suggest that SCM-198 may be a prospective agent for prevention and

  10. Isolated flavonoids from Ficus racemosa stem bark possess antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and protective effects in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshari, Amit K; Kumar, Ghanendra; Kushwaha, Priya S; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kumar, Pranesh; Rawat, Atul; Kumar, Dinesh; Prakash, Anand; Ghosh, Balaram; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-04-02

    Ficus racemosa (FR) has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is closely associated with prevention, treatment and cure of various human ailments like obesity and diabetes. It is popularly known as gular. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds like polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane type triterpene, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. However, no detail studies related to isolation of flavonoids has been reported previously with their antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological consequences. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological assessments of flavonoids isolated from Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark. We isolated four flavonoids from stem bark of FR and structures were confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (both 1D and 2D), mass spectroscopy (MS). Later, these flavonoids were administered to streptozotocin (STZ) rats once in a day for a period of seven days at 100mg/kg dose. We measured blood glucose level and body weight changes at different days (1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days). Serum lipid profiles were also estimated to investigate the hypolipidemic potential of flavonoids in the similar experiment. Various oxidative stress parameters in pancreas and liver and hepatic biomarker enzymes in plasma were also determined to investigate the toxicity potential of isolated flavonoids. Finally, we performed docking studies to find out the mechanism of action. Our results collectively suggested that four flavonoids reduced blood glucose level and restored body weight, signifying antidiabetic action. There were reduction of other lipid profile parameters and increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) during administration of flavonoids, also signifying hypolipidemic action. Various oxidative stress biomarkers and hepatic enzymes levels were also normalized with respect

  11. Effects of some anti-diabetic plants on the hepatic marker enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was embarked upon in order to evaluate the effects of the chloroform extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava, Anacardium occidentale and Eucalyptus globulus and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica on hepatic marker enzymes of diabetic rats. The degree of hepatic damage caused by diabetes mellitus and the effects ...

  12. Antidiabetic Effects of Momordica charantia (Karela in Male long Evans Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of Momordica charantia (Karela has been reported from many laboratories. To our knowledge the underlying biochemical mechanism of action of this important clinical effect has not been reported. During the course of investigation of this aspect of the herbal fruit, it was reported from our laboratory that ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia suppressed gluconeogenesis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats by depressing the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The herbal extract had also enhanced the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate limiting enzyme of hexose monophosphate shunt (a pathway for the oxidation of glucose.

  13. Validation of the antidiabetic effects of Vernonia amygdalina delile leaf fractions in fortified diet-fed streptozotocin-treated rat model of type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vernonia amygdalina (VA is used in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria. Previous scientific verification of VA is on Type-1 diabetes model, in spite of the continuous increase in Type-2 diabetes (T2D among adults. This study aimed to validate the antidiabetic effects of VA leaf fraction (VALF in a unique T2D rat model. Materials and Methods: Methanol crude extract of VA leaf was fractionated with solvents of increasing order of polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, n- butanol and water. The antidiabetic activities of the fractions were evaluated in vivo in T2D model rats. Albino Wistar rats were induced with T2D and treated with the VALF. Several T2D-related parameters were measured. Results: T2D rats showed significant increase in serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, liver and kidney biomarkers. At 28-day post-oral treatment with the VALF, FBG levels were significantly (P < 0.05 reduced (n- hexane [29.3%], chloroform [66.7%], ethyl acetate [36.2%], n- butanol [45.59%] and aqueous [39.3%]. The glucose tolerance ability was significantly improved in the chloroform fraction (Vernonia amygdalina chloroform fraction [VAc]-treated groups compared to the other fractions-treated group and diabetic control group. Furthermore, the VAc was found to be most effective as it ameliorates most of the alterations caused in the studied parameters in diabetic rats when compared with n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The study validates the anti-diabetic effects of VALF in fortified diet-fed streptozotocin-treated rat model of T2D, and suggests that the VAc is a potential candidate for development of a more effective drug for the management of T2D.

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of ethanol leaf extract of Cissampelos owariensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cissampelos owariensis (lungwort) is a medicinal plant used in Ayurveda for treating diseases. One of such disease is diabetes mellitus. In the present study, ethanol leaf extract of this plant was prepared, and phytochemical composition, acute toxicity, blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of body weight gain in ...

  15. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber Officinale on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic ...

  16. Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

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    Yunlong Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS, then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes.

  17. Medicinal Chemistry of the Anti-Diabetic Effects of Momordica Charantia: Active Constituents and Modes of Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaipaul; Cumming, Emmanuel; Manoharan, Gunasekar; Kalasz, Huba; Adeghate, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    medicinal chemistry and use(s) of M. charantia and its various extracts and compounds, their biochemical properties and how they act as anti-diabetic (hypoglycemic) drugs and the various mechanisms by which they exert their beneficial effects in controlling and treating DM. PMID:21966327

  18. Antiobesity and Antidiabetes Effects of a Cudrania tricuspidata Hydrophilic Extract Presenting PTP1B Inhibitory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hoon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity represent the major health problems and the most age-related metabolic diseases. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B has emerged as an important regulator of insulin signal transduction and is regarded as a pharmaceutical target for metabolic disorders. To find novel natural materials presenting therapeutic activities against diabetes and obesity, we screened various herb extracts using a chip screening allowing the determination of PTP1B inhibitory effects of the tested compounds using insulin receptor (IR as the substrate. Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTe had a strong inhibitory effect on PTP1B activity and substantially inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. CTe was orally administrated to diet-induced obesity (DIO mice once daily for 3 weeks after which changes in glucose, insulin metabolism, and fat accumulation were examined. Hepatic enzyme markers (aspartate aminotransferase, AST, and alanine aminotransferase, ALT and total fat mass and triglyceride levels decreased in CTe-treated mice, whereas body weight and total cholesterol concentration slightly decreased. CTe increased the phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in liver tissue. Furthermore, CTe treatment significantly lowered blood glucose levels and improved insulin secretion in DIO mice. Our results strongly suggest that CTe may represent a promising therapeutic substance against diabetes and obesity.

  19. Antiobesity and Antidiabetes Effects of a Cudrania tricuspidata Hydrophilic Extract Presenting PTP1B Inhibitory Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Lee, Sooung; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Byeong Mo; Kim, Hanseul; Kim, Kunhong; Yang, Kyung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and obesity represent the major health problems and the most age-related metabolic diseases. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has emerged as an important regulator of insulin signal transduction and is regarded as a pharmaceutical target for metabolic disorders. To find novel natural materials presenting therapeutic activities against diabetes and obesity, we screened various herb extracts using a chip screening allowing the determination of PTP1B inhibitory effects of the tested compounds using insulin receptor (IR) as the substrate. Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTe) had a strong inhibitory effect on PTP1B activity and substantially inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. CTe was orally administrated to diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice once daily for 3 weeks after which changes in glucose, insulin metabolism, and fat accumulation were examined. Hepatic enzyme markers (aspartate aminotransferase, AST, and alanine aminotransferase, ALT) and total fat mass and triglyceride levels decreased in CTe-treated mice, whereas body weight and total cholesterol concentration slightly decreased. CTe increased the phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in liver tissue. Furthermore, CTe treatment significantly lowered blood glucose levels and improved insulin secretion in DIO mice. Our results strongly suggest that CTe may represent a promising therapeutic substance against diabetes and obesity. PMID:26989693

  20. Effectiveness and Safety of Newer Antidiabetic Medications for Ramadan Fasting Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Mudher Mikhael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is the most common side effects for most glucose-lowering therapies. It constitutes a serious risk that faces diabetic patients who fast during Ramadan (the 9th month in the Islamic calendar. New glucose-lowering classes like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors are efficacious in controlling blood glucose level with less tendency to induce hypoglycemia and thus may constitute a good choice for diabetic patients during Ramadan. This study reviews the safety and efficacy of newer glucose-lowering therapies during Ramadan. This study was accomplished through a careful literature search about studies that assess the benefit and side effects of these new glucose-lowering therapies during Ramadan during September 2015. Vildagliptin, sitagliptin, liraglutide, exenatide, and dapagliflozin were the only studied glucose-lowering therapies. All of the studied newer glucose-lowering therapies except dapagliflozin were associated with reduced risk to induce hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal upset was common with the usage of liraglutide while increased thirst sensation was common with dapagliflozin. In conclusion DPP-4 inhibitors such as vildagliptin and sitagliptin may form a suitable glucose-lowering therapy option for Ramadan fasting patients.

  1. Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Effects Of Parsley Extract (Petroselinum Crispum) On Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is one of the medicinal herbs in Egypt. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of parsley (10 mg/kg/day) on diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). The volatile compounds were separated by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) for analysis of essential oils. The results showed that 18 compounds could be identified (natural antioxidants). Experimental rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic received parsley, and diabetic received irradiated parsley through gastric intubation for 4 weeks. A single administrative dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg) resulted in hyperglycemia, increase in AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and decrease in body weight, serum insulin, total protein and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Concurrent with those changes, an increased TBARS level was observed. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels of alloxan diabetic rats. Intake of parsley extract after diabetes ameliorated hyperglycemia, AST, ALT, body weight, total protein insulin and lipid profiles, and blunted the increase in TBARS and modulated the levels of SOD, CAT and GSH of alloxan treated rats. It could be concluded that parsley extract has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity caused by diabetes

  2. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

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    Hyeon-Kyu Go

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas powder (PY, water extract of yam (EY, and allantoin (the active constituent of yam in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (STZ, and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin. After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001 compared to STZ (100%: 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001 in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%, total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%, and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%. There were also significant increases (p < 0.001 in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%, GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%, and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%. The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85% together with increases (p < 0.01 in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145% and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%. The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels.

  3. [Recombinant human gapM1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its anti-diabetic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiang; Du, Renqian; Li, Xi; Huang, Haiyan; Yu, Min; Tang, Qiqun

    2009-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly synthesized and secreted by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue, and it can lower the blood glucose level and increase free fatty acid oxidation. In the current study, we developed the globular domain of adiponectin (gapM1) to treat type II diabetes. In both flask and fermentor, we cultivated Pichia pastoris expressing recombinant gapM1 and established the purification procedure by using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. To evaluate the biological activity of recombinant gapM1, we used rat type II diabetes model fed high-fat diet in combination with low-dose STZ (Streptozocin) induction. We purified 200 mg gapM1 with purity of 96% from 10 liters of supernatant. The recombinant gapM1 significantly lowered blood glucose (34.2%), serum triglyceride (79.6%) and total cholesterol (62.1%) in type II diabetes induced rat. Therefore, the recombinant human gapM1 is successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and effectively treated type II diabetes in rat models.

  4. The Antidiabetic and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Pecan Shells in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Ethur, Eduardo M; Porto, Caroline D L; Marroni, Norma P; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2015-12-01

    Pecan shell decoction has been used to treat diabetes and obesity-related diseases. In this study, the effects of a pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) were evaluated in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats, analyzing clinical signs and biochemical as well as genotoxic and mutagenic parameters, to assess its safe use and efficacy. Diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia were induced with streptozotocin (STZ) and tyloxapol, respectively. Animals were orally administered PSAE (100 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) for 28 days. Biochemical analyses and genotoxicity were evaluated in blood samples and mutagenicity was evaluated in bone marrow. PSAE treatment decreased the blood glucose level and stabilized clinical signs of diabetes in diabetic rats. PSAE diminished the increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. The urea levels were higher in diabetic rats than in treated ones; however, creatinine values were the same in all groups. Elevated transaminase levels were suggestive of liver injuries in diabetic rats, and were not altered by PSAE treatment. PSAE did not show genotoxic or mutagenic activities in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats, indicating its safe use at 100 mg/kg b.w. not only in healthy rats but also in rats with induced metabolic alterations. The findings on PSAE's efficacy may indicate that its successful and popular use is in accordance with our results. Thus, PSAE might be a potential candidate for medical purposes as a complementary treatment of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate [Renografin 76] were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk

  6. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

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    Sudha Ponnusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL-1, Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL-1, isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL-1 and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL-1. The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL-1, isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL-1, acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL-1 and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL-1. Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.

  7. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2 , PK , and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Antidiabetic and Antiobesity Effects of Artemether in db/db Mice

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    Yu Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to investigate the effect of artemether on type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The experiments consisted of three groups: normal control (NC, db/+, 1% methylcellulose, intragastric administration, diabetic control (DM, db/db, 1% methylcellulose, intragastric administration, and artemether treated (artemether, db/db, 200 mg/kg of artemether, intragastric administration. The treatment lasted for two weeks. The food intake, body weight, and fasting blood glucose of mice were measured every three days. At the start and end of the experiment, the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT and insulin tolerance test (IPITT were performed. We determined the serum insulin and glucagon levels by ELISA kits and calculated insulin resistance index (HOME-IR. HE staining was used to observe the morphologies of pancreas and liver in mice. The damage of pancreatic beta cells was evaluated by TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence. We found the following: (1 compared with the DM group, the food intake and weight increase rate of artemether group significantly reduced (P<0.05; (2 compared with pretreatment, artemether significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose levels, and the areas under the curves (AUCs of IPGTT were decreased significantly, increasing the tolerance to glucose of db/db mice. (P<0.05; (3 artemether improved hyperinsulinemia and decreased the AUCs of IPITT and HOME-IR, increasing the insulin sensitivity of db/db mice. (4 Artemether significantly ameliorated islet vacuolar degeneration and hepatic steatosis in db/db mice. (5 Artemether reduced the apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells and increased insulin secretion in db/db mice compared with DM group (P<0.05. Our results indicated that artemether significantly improved glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance and had the potential activity to prevent obesity, reduced the severity of fatty liver, and protected pancreatic beta cells, promising to treat type 2 diabetes.

  9. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of spent turmeric oleoresin, a by-product from curcumin production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V Nampoothiri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of spent turmeric oleoresin (STO. Methods: Antidiabetic activity of STO evaluated by α - amylase and α - glucosidase enzyme inhibition assays. The antioxidant capacity studied by DPPH. , ABTS., superoxide radical scavenging and metal chelating activity methods. Results: The STO showed good antidiabetic activity by inhibiting key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, viz α -glucosidase and α -amylase with an IC50values of 0.71 and 0.16毺 g/mL respectively. The IC50 values for DPPH. and ABTS. assay were 58.1 and 33 毺 g/mL respectively. STO effectively scavenged the superoxide free radical with an IC50 value of 61.5毺 g/mL and showed a moderate iron chelation property. Conclusions: The above study reveals that the spent turmeric oleoresin being wasted at present can be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic agent in food and neutraceutical products.

  10. Fishing for Nature's Hits: Establishment of the Zebrafish as a Model for Screening Antidiabetic Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nadia; Tai, Hongmei; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide and significantly impacts their quality of life. Moreover, life threatening diseases, such as myocardial infarction, blindness, and renal disorders, increase the morbidity rate associated with diabetes. Various natural products from medicinal plants have shown potential as antidiabetes agents in cell-based screening systems. However, many of these potential "hits" fail in mammalian tests, due to issues such as poor pharmacokinetics and/or toxic side effects. To address this problem, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model has been developed as a "bridge" to provide an experimentally convenient animal-based screening system to identify drug candidates that are active in vivo. In this review, we discuss the application of zebrafish to drug screening technologies for diabetes research. Specifically, the discovery of natural product-based antidiabetes compounds using zebrafish will be described. For example, it has recently been demonstrated that antidiabetic natural compounds can be identified in zebrafish using activity guided fractionation of crude plant extracts. Moreover, the development of fluorescent-tagged glucose bioprobes has allowed the screening of natural product-based modulators of glucose homeostasis in zebrafish. We hope that the discussion of these advances will illustrate the value and simplicity of establishing zebrafish-based assays for antidiabetic compounds in natural products-based laboratories.

  11. The antidiabetic effects of a dry powder of dietary vegetable and fruit mixtures in diabetic db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Man Yeung

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Man Yeung1, Yi Tan1, Sidney Tam2, Liwei Lu3, King-Hung Ko3, Pai-Hao Yang1,4, Hsiang-Fu Kung4, Marie C Lin11Department of Chemistry, Open Laboratory of Chemical Biology of the Institute of Molecular Technology, 2Clinical Biochemistry Unit, 3Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 4Centre of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, ChinaAbstract: We evaluated the antidiabetic effects of a mixed vegetable powder-formula I (MVP-FI, which is a dry powder mixture of over 65 kinds of vegetables and fruits, using the db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model. The db/db mice at 8–10 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups: vehicle treatment, 1.575 g/kg MVP-FI treatment, and 3.15 g/kg MVP-FI treatment. During 12 days of treatment, we measured food intake and body weight changes, fasting blood glucose levels, and plasma lipid levels. Our results showed that the food intake and the body weight of MVP-FI-treated group were decreased gradually. Moreover, the fasting blood glucose level of the treated group was significantly dropped to a normal level comparable to that of the lean mice. Furthermore, we also found that the plasma triglyceride level in the treated group was dropped, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level was increased and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio was decreased. Taken together, these results suggest that the diabetic conditions of the db/db mice have been improved after 12 days treatment with MVP-FI. The antihyperglycemic and antiobese activities of the MVP-FI, as demonstrated in the present study, may have important clinical implications for improving the management of type 2 diabetic patients.Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, db/db mice, diabetes

  12. Antidiabetic and Renoprotective Effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing Extract in Experimental Type 2 Diabetic Rats: A Potential Nutraceutical Product for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Srimaroeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1 and 3 (Oat3, using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model.

  13. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing extract in experimental type 2 diabetic rats: a potential nutraceutical product for diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimaroeng, Chutima; Ontawong, Atcharaporn; Saowakon, Naruwan; Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2015-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE) has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1) and 3 (Oat3), using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model.

  14. Antidiabetic potential of Brachylaena discolor | Mellem | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional African herbal medicinal system has many reports of anti-diabetic food plants with no known side effects. Such plants and their products have been widely prescribed for diabetic treatment with little known mechanistic basis of their functioning. Therefore, these natural products need to be ...

  15. Evidence based study of antidiabetic potential of C. maxima seeds - In vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushawaha, Devesh Kumar; Yadav, Manjulika; Chatterji, Sanjukta; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Watal, Geeta

    2017-10-01

    In vitro antidiabetic efficacy of Cucurbita maxima seed extract (CMSE) has already been studied in our previous findings. Thus, in order to validate these findings in biological system, in vivo antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract was investigated in normal as well as diabetic experimental models. Variable doses of extract were administered orally to normal and STZ induced mild diabetic rats during fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) studies. In order to determine the extract's antidiabetic potential long-term FBG and post prandial glucose (PPG) studies were also carried out. Most effective dose of 200 mg kg -1 of CMSE decreases the blood glucose level (BGL) in normal rats by 29.02% at 6 h during FBG studies and 23.23% at 3 h during GTT. However, the maximum reduction observed in BGL of mild diabetic rats during GTT the same interval of time was 26.15%. Moreover, in case of severely diabetic rats a significant reduction of 39.33% was observed in FBG levels whereas, in case of positive control, rats treated with 2.5 mg kg -1 of glipizide, a fall of 42.9% in FBG levels was observed after 28 days. Results of PPG level also showed a fall of 33.20% in severely diabetic rats as compared to the positive control showing a fall of 44.2% at the end of the 28 days. Thus, the present study validate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of CMSE and hence this extract could be explored further for developing as a novel antidiabetic agent.

  16. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root’s hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arctium lappa (burdock, (A. lappa root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ-induced type2 diabetes in mice.Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10 as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated.Results: Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (p

  17. Effect of sitagliptin on blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are treatment naive or poorly responsive to existing antidiabetic drugs: the JAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakura, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Naotake; Sasamoto, Kazuo; Ohashi, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Sumiko; Ujihara, Noriko; Kasahara, Tadasu; Tomonaga, Osamu; Nunome, Hideo; Honda, Masashi; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the ameliorating effect of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were previously untreated with or who have a poor responsive to existing antidiabetic drugs. Sitagliptin (50 mg/day) was added on to the pre-existing therapy for type 2 diabetes and changes in the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level after 3 months of treatment were compared with the baseline and performed exploratory analysis. HbA1c levels were significantly decreased after 1 month of treatment compared to baseline, with a mean change in HbA1c level from baseline of -0.73% (range, -0.80 to -0.67) in the entire study population at 3 months. Patients who received a medium dose of glimepiride showed the least improvement in HbA1c levels. The percentage of patients who achieved an HbA1c level of blood glucose level of type 2 diabetes mellitus who were previously untreated with, or poorly responsive to, existing antidiabetic drugs. Thus, sitagliptin is expected to be useful in this patient group. However, the additional administration of sitagliptin in patients treated with medium-dose glimepiride only slightly improved blood glucose control when corrected for baseline HbA1c level.

  18. Absence of antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Galletto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of dried powdered leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (GS. The acute effect of GS administered by oral gavage on glucose blood level of and lipids in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats were investigated in the following conditions: a after a balanced meal; b after the ingestion of 1000 mg/kg amylose or 1000 mg/kg glucose; c after the ingestion of a mixture of 12 mL/kg soybean oil + 1% cholesterol (SOC. In addition, the effect of the treatment with GS during two (sub-acute or four weeks (chronic on body weight, food and water ingestion, glucose blood level and lipids in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats were measured. The dose of GS utilized in the majority of the experiments, i.e., 30 mg/kg, corresponds to that given to treat diabetes in Brazil. GS acutely did not influence the elevation of glycemia promoted by a balanced meal or by the administration of amylose or glucose; but promoted more intense (PNeste estudo foi investigado o potencial antidiabético e hipolipemiante da Gymnema sylvestre (GS. O efeito agudo da GS administrada via oral sobre a glicemia e lipidemia foi avaliado em ratos Wistar sob as seguintes condições: a após refeição balanceada; b após ingestão de 1000 mg de amylose ou 1000 mg/kg de glicose; c após ingestão de uma mistura de 12 mL/kg de óleo de soja + 1% de colesterol (OSC. Foi avaliado também o efeito do tratamento com GS durante duas (sub-agudo ou quatro semanas (crônico sobre o peso corporal, ingestão de água e alimento, glicemia e lipidemia em ratos não diabéticos e diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. A dose de GS utilizada na maioria dos experimentos (30 mg/kg corresponde a dose empregada para tratar diabetes no Brasil. A administração aguda de GS não influenciou a elevação da glicemia durante a refeição balanceada, administração de amilose ou glicose; mas intensificou a elevação da concentração sérica de lip

  19. Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypo- and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial states. The results showed that all of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p< 0.05-0.01; p< 0.005-0.001. Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load (p< 0.01. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats.

  20. Anti-diabetic effect of amorphastilbol through PPARα/γ dual activation in db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woojung; Ham, Jungyeob; Kwon, Hak Cheol [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Amorphastilbol stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ. ► Amorphastilbol improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. ► There are no side effects, such as hepatomegaly, in amorphastilbol-treated mice. ► Amorphastilbol can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against T2DM. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered as desirable targets for metabolic syndrome treatments, even though their specific agonists have several side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. The effects of amorphastilbol (APH) on glucose- and lipid metabolism were investigated with in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte systems and in vivo db/db mice model. APH selectively stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ, which are able to enhance fatty acid oxidation and glucose utilization. Furthermore, APH improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. More importantly, there are no significant side effects, such as weight gain or hepatomegaly, in APH-treated animals, implying that APH do not adversely affect liver or lipid metabolism. All our data suggest that APH can be used as potential therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders, including obesity, by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism.

  1. Anti-diabetic effect of amorphastilbol through PPARα/γ dual activation in db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woojung; Ham, Jungyeob; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Kim, Yong Kee; Kim, Su-Nam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Amorphastilbol stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ. ► Amorphastilbol improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. ► There are no side effects, such as hepatomegaly, in amorphastilbol-treated mice. ► Amorphastilbol can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against T2DM. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered as desirable targets for metabolic syndrome treatments, even though their specific agonists have several side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. The effects of amorphastilbol (APH) on glucose- and lipid metabolism were investigated with in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte systems and in vivo db/db mice model. APH selectively stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ, which are able to enhance fatty acid oxidation and glucose utilization. Furthermore, APH improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. More importantly, there are no significant side effects, such as weight gain or hepatomegaly, in APH-treated animals, implying that APH do not adversely affect liver or lipid metabolism. All our data suggest that APH can be used as potential therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders, including obesity, by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism

  2. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. METHOD: cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories. RESULTS: behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and disadvantages of adhering to medication emerged, such as the possibility of avoiding complications from diabetes, preventing or delaying the use of insulin, and a perception of side effects. The children of patients and physicians are seen as important social references who influence medication adherence. The factors that facilitate adherence include access to free-of-cost medication and taking medications associated with temporal markers. On the other hand, a complex therapeutic regimen was considered a factor that hinders adherence. Understanding how to use medication and forgetfulness impact the perception of patients regarding their ability to adhere to oral antidiabetic agents. CONCLUSION: medication adherence is a complex behavior permeated by behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs that should be taken into account when assessing determinants of behavior. PMID:25296135

  3. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2014-01-01

    to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories. behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and disadvantages of adhering to medication emerged, such as the possibility of avoiding complications from diabetes, preventing or delaying the use of insulin, and a perception of side effects. The children of patients and physicians are seen as important social references who influence medication adherence. The factors that facilitate adherence include access to free-of-cost medication and taking medications associated with temporal markers. On the other hand, a complex therapeutic regimen was considered a factor that hinders adherence. Understanding how to use medication and forgetfulness impact the perception of patients regarding their ability to adhere to oral antidiabetic agents. medication adherence is a complex behavior permeated by behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs that should be taken into account when assessing determinants of behavior.

  4. Separation, Identification, and Antidiabetic Activity of Catechin Isolated from Arbutus unedo L. Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabti, Hanae Naceiri; Jaradat, Nidal; Fichtali, Ismail; Ouedrhiri, Wessal; Jodeh, Shehdeh; Ayesh, Samar; Cherrah, Yahia; Faouzi, My El Abbes

    2018-04-12

    Phytopharmaceuticals play an essential role in medicine, since the need to investigate highly effective and safe drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus disease remains a significant challenge for modern medicine. Arbutus unedo L. root has various therapeutic properties, and has been used widely in the traditional medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The current study aimed to isolate the pharmacologically active compound from A. unedo roots using accelerated solvent extraction technology, to determine its chemical structure using different instrumental analytical methods, and also to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The roots of A. unedo were exhaustively extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex ® technology (Dionex-ASE, Paris, France), and the extract was mixed with XAD-16 resin to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds which were identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), ¹H NMR (300 MHz), and 13 C NMR. The antidiabetic activity of the isolated compound was evaluated using the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The active compound was isolated, and its structure was identified as catechin using instrumental analysis.The results revealed that the isolated compound has potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 87.55 ± 2.23 μg/mL greater than acarbose. This was used as a positive control, which has an IC 50 value of 199.53 ± 1.12 μg/mL. According to the results achieved, the roots of A. unedo were considered the best source of catechin and the Zippertex ® technology method of extraction is the best method for isolation of this therapeutic active compound. In addition, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity results confirmed the traditional use of A. unedo roots as an antidiabetic agent. Future clinical trials and investigations of antidiabetic and other pharmacological effects such as anticancer are required.

  5. Separation, Identification, and Antidiabetic Activity of Catechin Isolated from Arbutus unedo L. Plant Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Naceiri Mrabti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytopharmaceuticals play an essential role in medicine, since the need to investigate highly effective and safe drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus disease remains a significant challenge for modern medicine. Arbutus unedo L. root has various therapeutic properties, and has been used widely in the traditional medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The current study aimed to isolate the pharmacologically active compound from A. unedo roots using accelerated solvent extraction technology, to determine its chemical structure using different instrumental analytical methods, and also to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The roots of A. unedo were exhaustively extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex® technology (Dionex-ASE, Paris, France, and the extract was mixed with XAD-16 resin to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds which were identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC, 1H NMR (300 MHz, and 13C NMR. The antidiabetic activity of the isolated compound was evaluated using the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The active compound was isolated, and its structure was identified as catechin using instrumental analysis.The results revealed that the isolated compound has potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 87.55 ± 2.23 μg/mL greater than acarbose. This was used as a positive control, which has an IC50 value of 199.53 ± 1.12 μg/mL. According to the results achieved, the roots of A. unedo were considered the best source of catechin and the Zippertex® technology method of extraction is the best method for isolation of this therapeutic active compound. In addition, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity results confirmed the traditional use of A. unedo roots as an antidiabetic agent. Future clinical trials and investigations of antidiabetic and other pharmacological effects such as anticancer are required.

  6. Moringa olifeira Lam. Stimulates Activation of the Insulin-Dependent Akt Pathway. Antidiabetic Effect in a Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attakpa, E S; Sangaré, M M; Béhanzin, G J; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the antidiabetic effect of Moringa olifeira Lam. in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. Six mice were randomly selected as normal controls. Moringa olifeira Lam. leaf extract at a dose of 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg body weight, glibenclamide (Glib) at the dose of 10 mg/kg (positive control) and distilled water at 10 ml/kg (control group) were administered orally by gastric intubation, and each group consisted of six mice. Insulinsensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle) were collected to investigate antidiabetic effects and examine the plant's molecular mechanisms. Moringa olifeira Lam. leaf extract prevented weight gain. It also reduced blood glucose in DIO mice. Glib and Moringa olifeira Lam. leaf extract, 400 mg/kg, treatments restored insulin levels towards normal values (P < 0.05 versus diabetic control group). Western immunoblot analysis of different tissues, collected at the end of the study, demonstrated that Moringa olifeira Lam. stimulated activation of the insulin-dependent Akt pathway and increased the protein content of Glut 4 in skeletal muscle. The improvement of hepatic steatosis observed in DIO-treated mice was associated with a decrease in the hepatic content of SREBP-1, a transcription factor involved in de novo lipogenesis. The hepatic PPARα protein content in the plant extract- treated mice remained significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence for direct action of Moringa olifeira Lam. on pancreatic β-cells, enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This correlated with hypoglycaemic effects in diabetic mice associated with restored levels of plasma insulin.

  7. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Phenolic Extract from Rambutan Peels (Nephelium lappaceum) in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Yan; Sun, Liping; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2017-07-26

    Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Glycogen content in mice liver was recovered by RPP, which further increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed that RPP effectively protected the tissue structure of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. In addition, RPP decreased the mesangial index and inhibited the expression of TGF-β in the kidney of diabetic mice.

  8. Effect of capping agents: Structural, optical and biological properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Rabia [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Usman, Muhammad, E-mail: uk_phy@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54729 (Pakistan); Tabassum, Saira; Zia, Muhammad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles have been effectively capped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) shown by the data of XRD, FTIR and UV–visible spectroscopy. • Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to capping agent and band gap energy increases with the decrease in the particle size. • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria is greater than the Gram-negative bacteria. • All biological assays reveal highest activities in capped ZnO nanoparticles as compared to the uncapped ZnO nanoparticles. • Highest antibacterial activity has been exhibited by ZnO-PVP while highest antioxidant and antidiabetic activities have been conferred by ZnO- PEG. - Abstract: Different biological activities of capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated, and the effects of potential capping agents on these biological activities were studied. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and capped by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) using a simple chemical method of co-precipitation. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–vis spectroscopy confirmed the crystallinity, size, functional group, and band gap of synthesized nanoparticles. Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to surfactant. Results of all biological activities indicated significantly higher values in capped as compared to uncapped nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC15224), and Acetobacter was obtained. This activity was more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria, and ZnO-PVP nanoparticles elucidated highest antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 17 mm) against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis species. Antioxidant activities including total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power and %age inhibition of DPPH, and

  9. Effect of capping agents: Structural, optical and biological properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Tabassum, Saira; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles have been effectively capped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) shown by the data of XRD, FTIR and UV–visible spectroscopy. • Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to capping agent and band gap energy increases with the decrease in the particle size. • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria is greater than the Gram-negative bacteria. • All biological assays reveal highest activities in capped ZnO nanoparticles as compared to the uncapped ZnO nanoparticles. • Highest antibacterial activity has been exhibited by ZnO-PVP while highest antioxidant and antidiabetic activities have been conferred by ZnO- PEG. - Abstract: Different biological activities of capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated, and the effects of potential capping agents on these biological activities were studied. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and capped by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) using a simple chemical method of co-precipitation. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–vis spectroscopy confirmed the crystallinity, size, functional group, and band gap of synthesized nanoparticles. Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to surfactant. Results of all biological activities indicated significantly higher values in capped as compared to uncapped nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC15224), and Acetobacter was obtained. This activity was more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria, and ZnO-PVP nanoparticles elucidated highest antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 17 mm) against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis species. Antioxidant activities including total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power and %age inhibition of DPPH, and

  10. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effect of Fagonia cretica L. methanolic extract and Citrus paradise Macfad. juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sairah H. Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fagonia cretica is a medicinal herb reported to have flavanoids of potential therapeutic value and Citrus paradisi is a fruit, whose juice is of great therapeutic value due to its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Aims: To determine anti-hyperglycemic and renal protective effect of methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica and Citrus paradisi juice (grapefruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rabbits by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.. The therapies including Fagonia cretica methanolic extract (500 mg/kg, Citrus paradisi juice (7 mL/kg and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg were administered (p.o. to diabetic groups for 14 days. The biochemical parameters, glucose, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were estimated. Results: Fagonia cretica extract and grapefruit juice therapy significantly (p<0.05 reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Fagonia cretica extract was more effective anti-hyperglycemic agent than Citrus paradisi juice and sitagliptin. Significant (p<0.05 improvement in kidney function was observed in treated groups, the plant extract showing significant improvement as compared to the other two treatments. The histopathological results verified improvement in structural damage of kidney, liver and pancreas with these treatments. Conclusions: Fagonica cretica and Citrus paradisi juice therapy markedly improved hyperglycemia and kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  11. Antidiabetic effects of Morus alba fruit polysaccharides on high-fat diet- and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yukun; Wang, Xueqian; Jiang, Xiang; Kong, Fansheng; Wang, Shumei; Yan, Chunyan

    2017-03-06

    group. Moreover, MFP50 and MFP90 induced repair of damaged pancreatic tissues of the diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic effect of MFP50 was more stable than MFP90, whereas the hypolipidemic effect of MFP90 was slightly better than MFP50. Moreover, the expression levels of InsR, IRS-2, Akt and GLUT4 in the MFP90 group significantly increased relative to that of the T2DM group. MFP50 and MFP90 have markedly antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects and can clearly relieve diabetes symptoms in the T2DM rat model. The M. alba fruit polysaccharides may potentially be utilized as an effective treatment for T2DM. Further research into the structures of active M. alba fruit polysaccharides and their mechanisms in promoting antidiabetic effects are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  13. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.. In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T, which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  14. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhongqin; Pan, Yuxiang; Gao, Xudong; Chen, Haixia

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 4  Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond. After treatment of UIOPC for four weeks, the body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, plasma insulin levels of the diabetic mice were significantly reduced when compared with those of the diabetic mice (p < 0.05). The results on serum profiles and antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that UIOPC had a positive effect on hypoglycemic and antioxidant ability. Histopathology results showed that UIOPC could effectively alleviate the STZ-lesioned tissues in diabetic mice. Furthermore, high dose administration of UIOPC had no obviously influence on serum profiles levels and antioxidant ability of the normal mice and the organ tissues maintained organized and integrity in the sub-acute toxicity study. These results suggested that UIOPC might be a good candidate for the functional food or pharmaceuticals in the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik, Liakot Ali Khan, Masfida Akhter and Begum Rokeya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial state. The results showed that all of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p<0.05-0.01; p<0.005-0.001. Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load (p<0.01. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 diabetic rats.

  16. Physicochemical properties and antidiabetic effects of a polysaccharide from corn silk in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuxiang; Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhongqin; Li, Weiwei; Yuan, Guoqi; Chen, Haixia

    2017-05-15

    This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and antidiabetic effects of a polysaccharide obtained from corn silk (PCS2). PCS2 was isolated and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The hypoglycemic effects were determined using the high-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) insulin resistance mice. The results showed that PCS2 was a heteropolysaccharide with the average molecular weight of 45.5kDa. PCS2 was composed of d-galactose, d-mannose, d-(+)-glucose, d-(+)-xylose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose. PCS2 treatment significantly reduced the body weight loss, decreased blood glucose and serum insulin levels, and improved glucose intolerance (P<0.05). The levels of serum lipid profile were regulated and the levels of glycated serum protein, non-esterified fatty acid were decreased significantly (P<0.01). The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were notably improved (P<0.05). PCS2 also exerted cytoprotective action from histopathological observation. These results suggested that PCS2 could be a good candidate of functional food or medicine for T2DM treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of radioprotective agents on mammal cella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.; Pauly, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aminothiols and thiophosphates on cultures of B14 Chinese Hamster cells wee investigated. 30 min before irradiation, the cells were covered with a solution of the radioprotective agent. After irradiation, this solution was removed and substituted by culture medium. The radioprotective effect increases with increasing cystamine concentrations. With a cystamine concentration of 60 mM, a dose reduction factor of 3 was achieved. Further investigations showed that already after 2 min of incubation, the radioprotective effect in the same as after 60 min. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Phytochemical Compositions and In vitro Assessments of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potentials of Fractions from Ehretia cymosa Thonn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundajo, Akintayo; Ashafa, Anofi Tom

    2017-10-01

    Ehretia cymosa Thonn. is a popular medicinal plant used in different parts of West Africa for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. The current study investigates bioactive constituents and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of fractions from extract of E. cymosa . Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out using standard procedures. Antidiabetic potential was assessed by evaluating the inhibitory effects of the fractions on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, while bioactive constituent's identification was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The phytochemistry tests of the fractions revealed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, terpene, alkaloid, and cardiac glycosides. Methanol fraction shows higher phenolic (27.44 mg gallic acid/g) and flavonoid (235.31 mg quercetin/g) contents, while ethyl acetate fraction revealed higher proanthocyanidins (28.31 mg catechin/g). Methanol fraction displayed higher ( P fractions displayed higher inhibition ( P fraction also inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in competitive and noncompetitive modes, respectively. The GC-MS chromatogram of the methanol fraction revealed 24 compounds, which include phytol (1.78%), stearic acid (1.02%), and 2-hexadecyloxirane (34.18%), which are known antidiabetic and antioxidant agents. The results indicate E. cymosa leaves as source of active phytochemicals with therapeutic potentials in the management of diabetes. E. cymosa fractions possess antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. Hence, it is a source of active phytochemicals with therapeutic potentials in the management of diabetesThe high flavonoid, phenolic, and proanthocyanidin contents of fractions from E. cymosa also contribute to its antioxidant and antidiabetic propertiesMethanol fraction of E. cymosa displayed better antidiabetic activities compared to acarbose as revealed by their half maximal

  19. Antidiabetic Effect of Tibetan Medicine Tang-Kang-Fu-San on High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailu Duan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of a Tibetan medicine, Tang-Kang-Fu-San (TKFS, on experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Firstly two major chemical compositions of TKFS, gallic acid and curcumin, were characterized by HPLC fingerprint analysis. Next T2DM in rats was induced by high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ 35 mg/kg. Then oral gavage administration of three different doses of TKFS (0.3 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg, and 1.2 g/kg was given to T2DM rats. Experimental results showed that TKFS dramatically reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose, fasting blood insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, even though it did not alter the animal body weight. The downregulation of phosphorylation-AKT (p-AKT and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4 in skeletal muscle of T2DM rats was restored and abnormal pathological changes in pancreas tissues were also improved. Our work showed that TKFS could alleviate diabetic syndromes, maintain the glucose homeostasis, and protect against insulin resistance in T2DM rats, and the improvement of AKT phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle would be one of its possible underlying mechanisms.

  20. Antidiabetic effects of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum, a novel food additive in China, on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Mao; Hu, Xin-Zhong; Wu, Rui-Qin; Xu, Chao

    2009-09-25

    Since ancient times, practicians of traditional Chinese medicine have discovered that Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. (Asteraceae) seed powder was useful for the treatment of diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum (ASK gum), which is extracted from seed powder of the plant, is a novel food additive favored by the food industry in China. The objective of this study was to determine the antidiabetic function of ASK gum on type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced with high fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The effects of ASK gum on hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic rats were evaluated. The results were compared to those of normal rats and diabetic rats treated with metformin. The addition of ASK gum to the rats' food supply significantly lowered fasting blood glucose, glycated serum protein, serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride in type 2 diabetic rats, and significantly elevated liver glucokinase, liver glycogen, and serum high density protein cholesterol in the diabetic rats. ASK gum significantly reduced insulin resistance and liver fat accumulation of type 2 diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum can alleviate hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes.

  1. In silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity and the antidiabetic effect of sodium caseinate hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Hung, Chuan-Chuan; Jao, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, You-Liang; Wu, Si-Xian; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2016-02-01

    The frequency (A), a novel in silico parameter, was developed by calculating the ratio of the number of truncated peptides with Xaa-proline and Xaa-alanine to all peptide fragments from a protein hydrolyzed with a specific protease. The highest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity (72.7%) was observed in the hydrolysate of sodium caseinate by bromelain (Cas/BRO), and the constituent proteins of bovine casein also had relatively high A values (0.10-0.17) with BRO hydrolysis. 1CBR (the <1 kDa fraction of Cas/BRO) showed the greatest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity of 77.5% and was used for in vivo test by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The daily administration of 1CBR for 6 weeks was effective to improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats. The results indicate that the novel in silico method has the potential as a screening tool to predict dietary proteins to generate DPP-IV inhibitory and antidiabetic peptides.

  2. Abolishing coinsurance for oral antihyperglycemic agents: effects on social insurance budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasakis, Kostas; Skroumpelos, Anastasis G; Tsiantou, Vassiliki; Milona, Katerina; Kyriopoulos, John

    2011-02-01

    To assess the effects of abolishing coinsurance for oral antihyperglycemic agents (OAAs) on the social insurance fund budget in Greece. A mathematical model estimating the effect of a decrease in patient coinsurance rate on demand for and adherence to OAAs and the subsequent clinical and economic outcomes. Price elasticity of demand for antidiabetic agents was used to estimate quantity demand change as a result of a coinsurance rate decrease and consequent increased adherence to OAAs. Given the inverse relationship between OAA adherence and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level, the model calculated the mean decrease in A1C level and associated cost savings based on the cost difference between patients with controlled versus uncontrolled A1C levels. A decrease in patient coinsurance rate from 25% to 0% led to an incremental increase in OAA adherence of 30.5% and a mean decrease in A1C level of 0.6%. The A1C level decrease contributed to an 18.5% "shift" of uncontrolled patients to controlled A1C levels (<7%), which in economic terms translated into savings of 324 euro per patient over a 3-year period and an investment return rate of 122.8%. A series of 1-way and 2-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to verify the robustness and validity of the outcomes. The introduction of policies aimed at abolishing coinsurance for OAAs can result in improved patient outcomes and cost savings for the healthcare system.

  3. Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Newer Antidiabetic Drugs Approved from 2013 to 2017 in Controlling HbA1c in Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanandy Palanisamy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is the most common form of diabetes mellitus and accounts for about 95% of all diabetes cases. Many newer oral as well as parenteral antidiabetic drugs have been introduced in to the market in recent years to control hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes patients and many of these drugs produce potential side effects in diabetes patients. Hence, this systematic review was aimed to analyze and compare the efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic agents in controlling HbA1c in T2DM patients, that were approved by the United States-Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA from 2013 to 2017. All randomized controlled, double-blind trials published in English during the search period involving the newer antidiabetic agents were selected. In the outcome assessment comparison, semaglutide demonstrated the highest efficacy in lowering HbA1c, with a 1.6% reduction (p < 0.0001 when given at a dose of 1.0 mg. The safety profile of all the agents as compared to placebo or control were similar, with no or slight increase in the occurrence of adverse events (AEs but no fatal reaction was reported. The most common AEs of all the antidiabetic agents were gastrointestinal in nature, with several cases of hypoglycemic events. However, among all these agents, semaglutide seems to be the most efficacious drug to improve glycemic control in terms of HbA1c. Alogliptin has the least overall frequency of AEs compared to other treatment groups.

  4. Carbon dots for fluorescent detection of α-glucosidase activity using enzyme activated inner filter effect and its application to anti-diabetic drug discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Weiheng [Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Wu, Di [School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Xia, Lian [Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Chen, Xuefeng [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xian 710021 (China); Li, Guoliang, E-mail: 61254368@163.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xian 710021 (China); Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Qiu, Nannan [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Chen, Guang; Sun, Zhiwei; You, Jinmao [Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: wuyongning@cfsa.net.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2017-06-22

    Recently, α-glucosidase inhibitor has been widely used in clinic for diabetic therapy. In the present study, a facile and sensitive fluorescent assay based on enzyme activated inner filter effect (IFE) on nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) was first developed for the detection of α-glucosidase. The N-doped CDs with green emission were prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis and gave the fluorescence quantum yield of 30%, which were used as the signal output. Through α-glucosidase catalysis, 4-nitrophenol was released from 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (NGP). Interestingly, the absorption of 4-nitrophenol and the excitation of CDs were completely overlapping. Due to its great molar absorptivity, 4-nitrophenol was capable of acting as a powerful absorber to affect the fluorescent signal of CDs (i.e. IFE). By converting the absorption signals into fluorescence signals, the facile fluorescence assay strategy could be realized for α-glucosidase activity sensing, which effectively avoided the complex modification of the surface of CDs or construction of the nanoprobes. The established IFE-based sensing platform offered a low detection limit of 0.01 U/mL (S/N = 3). This proposed sensing approach has also been expanded to the inhibitor screening and showed excellent applicability. As a typical α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose was investigated with a low detection limit of 10{sup −8} M. This developed method enjoyed many merits including simplicity, lost cost, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity, which also provided a new insight on the application of CDs to develop the facile and sensitive biosensor. - Highlights: • Green N-doped CDs were first prepared by a facile synthesis process. • IFE-based sensor without covalent linking or surface modifications was developed. • The method was successfully applied to α-glucosidase detection. • The method can be employed for sensitive screening of anti-diabetes drugs.

  5. Carbon dots for fluorescent detection of α-glucosidase activity using enzyme activated inner filter effect and its application to anti-diabetic drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Weiheng; Wu, Di; Xia, Lian; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Guoliang; Qiu, Nannan; Chen, Guang; Sun, Zhiwei; You, Jinmao; Wu, Yongning

    2017-01-01

    Recently, α-glucosidase inhibitor has been widely used in clinic for diabetic therapy. In the present study, a facile and sensitive fluorescent assay based on enzyme activated inner filter effect (IFE) on nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) was first developed for the detection of α-glucosidase. The N-doped CDs with green emission were prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis and gave the fluorescence quantum yield of 30%, which were used as the signal output. Through α-glucosidase catalysis, 4-nitrophenol was released from 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (NGP). Interestingly, the absorption of 4-nitrophenol and the excitation of CDs were completely overlapping. Due to its great molar absorptivity, 4-nitrophenol was capable of acting as a powerful absorber to affect the fluorescent signal of CDs (i.e. IFE). By converting the absorption signals into fluorescence signals, the facile fluorescence assay strategy could be realized for α-glucosidase activity sensing, which effectively avoided the complex modification of the surface of CDs or construction of the nanoprobes. The established IFE-based sensing platform offered a low detection limit of 0.01 U/mL (S/N = 3). This proposed sensing approach has also been expanded to the inhibitor screening and showed excellent applicability. As a typical α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose was investigated with a low detection limit of 10"−"8 M. This developed method enjoyed many merits including simplicity, lost cost, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity, which also provided a new insight on the application of CDs to develop the facile and sensitive biosensor. - Highlights: • Green N-doped CDs were first prepared by a facile synthesis process. • IFE-based sensor without covalent linking or surface modifications was developed. • The method was successfully applied to α-glucosidase detection. • The method can be employed for sensitive screening of anti-diabetes drugs.

  6. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  7. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  8. An Effective Method for Protecting the Integrity of Mobile Agent

    OpenAIRE

    YARAHMADI, H.; KAMANKESH, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A mobile agent is software which performs an action autonomously and independently as a person or organizations assistance. Mobile agents are used for searching information, retrieval information, filtering, intruder recognition in networks, and so on. One of the important issues of mobile agent is their security. It must consider different security issues in effective and secured usage of mobile agent. One of those issues is the integrity’s protection of mobile agents.In this paper...

  9. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE and Nopal dry power (NADP in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1 nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control; (2 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control; (3 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE; and (4 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone. In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P<0.05. Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P<0.05 than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  10. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α -glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC 50 values of 67.33 and 86.68  μ g/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05  μ g/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model ( P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  11. Evaluating the antidiabetic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: Xiao-Ke-An in 3T3-L1 cells and KKAy mice using both conventional and holistic omics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Linli; Zhang, Feng; Li, Zheng

    2015-08-13

    Xiao-Ke-An (XKA) is a Chinese medicine widely used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is composed of eight herbal medicines traditionally used for T2D, including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Coptis chinensis Franch, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of XKA with both conventional and holistic omics approaches. The antidiabetic effect of XKA was first investigated in 3T3-L1 cells to study the effect of XKA on adipogenesis in vitro. Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation. The intracellular total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents in XKA treated 3T3-L1 cells were also evaluated. The therapeutic effects of XKA was further evaluated in KKAy mice with both conventional and holistic omics approaches. Body weight, fasting and non-fasting blood glucose, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, serum was collected for the measurement of TG, TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). The liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, heart and adipose tissues were harvested and weighted. The liver was used for further microarray experiment. Omics approaches were adopted to evaluate the holistic rebalancing effect of XKA at molecular network level. XKA significantly inhibited adipogenic differentiation, lowered the intracellular TC and TG contents in 3T3-L1 cells. XKA improved the glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, ameliorated insulin resistance in KKAy mice. Furthermore, XKA also exhibited effective therapeutic effects by reversing the molecular T2D disease network from an unbalanced state. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of XKA with both conventional and holistic omics approaches, providing both phenotypic evidence and underlying action mechanisms for the clinical use of XKA treating T2D.

  12. [Use of new antidiabetics in the elderly population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Sarah; Besse, Arun; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Over the last few years, we have noticed the arrival on the market of new antidiabetic treatments. These represent an potential advantage because of the increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, particularly in the elderly population. Nevertheless, elderly patients have a number of frailties that should be considered in the treatment of this condition. There is a lack of literature in this population as elderly are frequently excluded from randomized controlled trials. Therefore, guidelines were developed based on the consensus of experts in geriatrics and diabetology for this specific population. We have to consider the potential benefits and adverse effects of the new antidiabetics in older patients.

  13. Antidiabetic potential of Conocarpus lancifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Saadullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of Conocarpus lancifolius extract was investigated in vitro, as alpha glucosidase inhibition and in vivo as alloxan induced diabetic rabbits with other biochemical parameters (LDL, HDL, SGPT, SGOT, cretinine, urea and triglyceride. Alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity was performed by using acorbose as standred. Methanolic extract show alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity. The dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05 decreases the blood glucose level, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in treated rabbits as compared to diabetic rabbits. This dose significantly increased the level of HDL in treated group. The activity of SGOT and SGPT also significantly (p<0.05 decreased in treated diabetic rabbits. Phytochemical studies show the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The antidiabetic potential is may be due to its saponin contents.

  14. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana ( Musa spp ) ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) > ... curcas leaf were used and compared with a control with no ripening agent.

  15. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Shokri; Hamed Fathi; Majid Jafari Sabet; Nafiseh Nasri Nasrabadi; Ramin Ataee

    2015-01-01

    Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (ST...

  16. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line therapy with vildagliptin versus other oral agents in type 2 diabetes (EDGE): post-hoc subanalysis of the Belgian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, J; Daci, E; Mathieu, C

    2014-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin versus other oral glucose-lowering drugs added to antidiabetic monotherapy in Belgian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, in comparison to the global EDGE study results. This is a pre-specified post-hoc subanalysis of the Belgian patient cohort from a worldwide 1-year observational study that compared the effectiveness and tolerability of vildagliptin to other oral antidiabetic agents in type 2 diabetes patients failing monotherapy with oral glucose-lowering agents (EDGE). A total of 1793 Belgian patients were enrolled. Physicians could add any oral antidiabetic drug and patients entered either into the vildagliptin or the comparator cohort. The primary effectiveness and tolerability endpoint was defined as the proportion of patients having a treatment response (HbA1c reduction from baseline to month 12 endpoint >0·3%) without hypoglycemia, weight gain, peripheral oedema, or gastrointestinal side-effects. In the Belgian population, 37·8% of patients in the vildagliptin group and 32·8% in the comparator group had a decrease in HbA1c of >0·3% without the predefined tolerability issues of hypoglycemia, weight gain, oedema or, gastrointestinal complaints (primary endpoint), resulting in an unadjusted odds ratio of 1·24 (95% CI: 0·96-1·61). Mean HbA1c change from baseline was -0·81% in the vildagliptin cohort and -0·75% in the comparator cohort. Overall, vildagliptin was well tolerated with similarly low incidences of total adverse events (14·9% versus 14·5% in the compactor group) and serious adverse events (2·7% versus 2·5% in the comparator group). In this EDGE subgroup of Belgian patients with type 2 diabetes who do not achieve the glycemic targets with monotherapy, a similar trend as in the global EDGE study was observed. Adding vildagliptin as a second oral glucose-lowering agent resulted in lowering HbA1c to <7% without weight gain, hypoglycemia or peripheral oedema in a higher proportion of

  17. The effectiveness testing of oil spill-treating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.A.; Laroche, N.; Fieldhouse, B.; Sergy, G.; Stoodley, G.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory effectiveness tests have been developed for four classes of oil spill treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Several treating agent products in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness. The aquatic toxicity of these agents is an important factor and has been measured for many products. These results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil. Test results show that solidifiers require between 16% and 200% of agent by weight compared to the oil. De-emulsifying agents or emulsion breakers prevent the formation of or break water-in-oil emulsions. Surfactant-containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that effectiveness is orthogonal for these two types of treating agents. Tests of surface washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25 to 55%, where this is defined as the percentage of oil removed from a test surface. Dispersant effectiveness results using the swirling flask test are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%

  18. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

  19. Promising cardiovascular and blood pressure effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors: a new class of antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, S G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. Treatment of these patients with traditional as well as newer glucose-lowering drugs has not demonstrated superiority in CV outcomes compared to placebo, despite effective control of diabetes. However, the recently FDA-approved sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of T2DM have demonstrated promising CV-protecting and blood pressure-lowering effects in addition to their effectiveness in glucose lowering, making them a novel class of drugs for the treatment of T2DM. So far, there are three SGLT2 inhibitors approved by the FDA and EMA for the treatment of T2DM: canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. They exert their antihyperglycemic effect through inhibition of SGLT2 in the kidney and significantly reduce glucose reabsorption from the proximal renal tubule. By blocking glucose reabsorption, they lead to loss of calories, weight, abdominal and total body fat, blood pressure and CV complications. One CV outcomes randomized trial and several short-term studies have shown reductions in CV events and blood pressure in patients with T2DM. It is the hope that large ongoing long-term outcome studies will provide further much-needed information, when they are completed. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  20. Antidiabetic effects of scoparic acid D isolated from Scoparia dulcis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Muniappan; Pari, Leelavinothan; Ramkumar, Kunga Mohan; Rajaguru, Palanisamy; Suresh, Thangaraj; Dhanabal, Thangavel; Sitasawad, Sandhya; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic effect of scoparic acid D (SAD), a diterpenoid isolated from the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. SAD was administered orally at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) bodyweight for 15 days. At the end of the experimental period, the SAD-treated STZ diabetic rats showed decreased levels of glucose as compared with diabetic control rats. The improvement in blood glucose levels of SAD-treated rats was associated with a significant increase in plasma insulin levels. SAD at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) bodyweight exhibited a significant effect when compared with other doses. Further, the effect of SAD was tested on STZ-treated rat insulinoma cell lines (RINm5F cells) and isolated islets in vitro. SAD at a dose of 20 microg mL(-1) evoked two-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated islets, indicating its insulin secretagogue activity. Further, SAD protected STZ-mediated cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production in RINm5F cells. The present study thus confirms the antihyperglycaemic effect of SAD and also demonstrated the consistently strong cytoprotective properties of SAD.

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-07-31

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙-) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  2. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙−) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. PMID:26263984

  4. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hy...

  5. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Shokri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (STZ. The experiment was performed on 50 Wistar rats.  A total of 50 rats were divided into 10 groups of 5 and STZ was injected at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days intraperitoneally. After diabetes induction, three groups received, 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of green tea extract,  three groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of cinnamon extract  and three final groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of  cinnamon  and green tea in combination by gavages daily for 6 weeks. After each period of treatments, blood glucose and the weight of animals were determined. At the end of the sixth week, blood glucose and weight loss were improved in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner and the dose of 200 mg/kg extract cinnamon with green tea had the most appropriate synergic effect.

  6. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Clitocybe nuda on Glucose Transporter 4 and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism of the extract of Clitocybe nuda (CNE, in high-fat- (HF- fed mice. C57BL/6J was randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally CNE (including C1: 0.2, C2: 0.5, and C3: 1.0 g/kg/day extracts or rosiglitazone (Rosi or vehicle for 4 weeks. CNE effectively prevented HF-diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05, resp. and attenuated insulin resistance. By treatment with CNE, body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT and hepatic triacylglycerol content were reduced; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. By treatment with CNE, the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 were significantly increased in C3-treated group in the skeletal muscle. Furthermore, CNE reduces the hepatic expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase and glucose production. CNE significantly increases protein contents of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the skeletal muscle and adipose and liver tissues. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by CNE leads to diminished gluconeogenesis in the liver and enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is shown that CNE exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by increasing ATGL expression, which is known to help triglyceride to hydrolyze. Moreover, antidiabetic properties of CNE occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic states by CNE in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, ATGL, and AMPK phosphorylation.

  7. Pharmacogenetics of Anti-Diabetes Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. DiStefano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of treatment modalities exist for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. In addition to dietary and physical activity interventions, T2D is also treated pharmacologically with nine major classes of approved drugs. These medications include insulin and its analogues, sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones (TZDs, meglitinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, amylin analogues, incretin hormone mimetics, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors. Pharmacological treatment strategies for T2D are typically based on efficacy, yet favorable responses to such therapeutics are oftentimes variable and difficult to predict. Characterization of drug response is expected to substantially enhance our ability to provide patients with the most effective treatment strategy given their individual backgrounds, yet pharmacogenetic study of diabetes medications is still in its infancy. To date, major pharmacogenetic studies have focused on response to sulfonylureas, biguanides, and TZDs. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of pharmacogenetics investigations of these specific anti-diabetes medications. We focus not only on the results of these studies, but also on how experimental design, study sample issues, and definition of ‘response’ can significantly impact our interpretation of findings. Understanding the pharmacogenetics of anti-diabetes medications will provide critical baseline information for the development and implementation of genetic screening into therapeutic decision making, and lay the foundation for “individualized medicine” for patients with T2D.

  8. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1–25 µg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25 µg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions. PMID:22980902

  9. Anti-diabetic effects of pumpkin and its components, trigonelline and nicotinic acid, on Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Sato, Hideyo; Igarashi, Kiharu

    2009-05-01

    The effects of a pumpkin paste concentrate and its components on oral glucose tolerance and serum lipid levels were determined in non-obese type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the pumpkin paste concentrate-fed group maintained a lower glucose level than the control group between 15 and 60 min. The compounds considered to be effective in improving glucose tolerance and contained in the methanol extract of the pumpkin in relatively abundant amounts were isolated and identified as trigonelline (TRG) and nicotinic acid (NA).Feeding a diet containing TRG and NA respectively improved and tended to improve glucose tolerance. The insulin level increased after 15 min in the TRG-fed GK rats and then gradually decreased over the next 120 min. In contrast, a gradual increase was seen in the insulin level over 120 min in the control GK rats not fed with TRG, suggesting that TRG could improve the insulin resistance. The serum and liver triglyceride (TG) levels in the TRG- and NA-fed GK rats were lower than those in the control GK rats. Lower activity of liver fatty acid synthase (FAS), and higher activity of liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) and glucokinase (GLK) in the TRG- and NA-fed GK rats than in the control GK rats were observed. This suggests that the regulation of these enzyme activities by TRG and NA was closely related to the suppression of both TG accumulation and the progression of diabetes.

  10. Extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Flower Exhibit Antidiabetic Effects via the Inhibition of α-Glucosidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujie Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assay the effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. flower extracts on hyperglycemia of diet-induced obese mice and the underlying mechanisms. Coreopsis tinctoria flower was extracted with ethanol and water, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid levels, and the constituents of the extracts were measured. For the animal experiments, C57BL/6 mice were fed with a chow diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet mixed with 0.4% (w/w water and ethanol extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria flower for 8 weeks. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on α-glucosidase activity and the antioxidant properties were assayed in vitro. We found that the extracts blocked the increase of fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride (TG, insulin, leptin, and liver lipid levels and prevented the development of glucose tolerance impairment and insulin resistance in the C57BL/6 mice induced by a high-fat diet. The extracts inhibited α-glycosidase activity and increased oxidant activity in vitro. In conclusion, Coreopsis tinctoria flower extracts may ameliorate high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underling mechanism may be via the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. Our data indicate that Coreopsis tinctoria flower could be used as a beverage supplement and a potential source of drugs for treatment of diabetics.

  11. Evidence that metformin exerts its anti-diabetic effects through inhibition of complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M R; Doran, E; Halestrap, A P

    2000-06-15

    Although metformin is widely used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, its mode of action remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that its primary site of action is through a direct inhibition of complex 1 of the respiratory chain. Metformin(50 microM) inhibited mitochondrial oxidation of glutamate+malate in hepatoma cells by 13 and 30% after 24 and 60 h exposure respectively, but succinate oxidation was unaffected. Metformin also caused time-dependent inhibition of complex 1 in isolated mitochondria, whereas in sub-mitochondrial particles inhibition was immediate but required very high metformin concentrations (K(0.5),79 mM). These data are compatible with the slow membrane-potential-driven accumulation of the positively charged drug within the mitochondrial matrix leading to inhibition of complex 1. Metformin inhibition of gluconeogenesis from L-lactate in isolated rat hepatocytes was also time- and concentration-dependent, and accompanied by changes in metabolite levels similar to those induced by other inhibitors of gluconeogenesis acting on complex 1. Freeze-clamped livers from metformin-treated rats exhibited similar changes in metabolite concentrations. We conclude that the drug's pharmacological effects are mediated, at least in part, through a time-dependent, self-limiting inhibition of the respiratory chain that restrains hepatic gluconeogenesis while increasing glucose utilization in peripheral tissues. Lactic acidosis, an occasional side effect, canal so be explained in this way.

  12. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effectiveness Of Different House-Hold Hand Washing Agents On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand hygiene is a very important procedure in infection control. Washing agents commonly in use were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing hand floral and cotton towel was used as drying agent. Agents studied include; water alone, carex soap, dettol, and imperial leather. The hands were inoculated (deliberate ...

  14. Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2006-03-01

    In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. GIP does not potentiate the antidiabetic effects of GLP-1 in hyperglycemic patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentis, Nikolaos; Vardarli, Irfan; Köthe, Lars D

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts insulinotropic activity in type 2 diabetic patients, whereas glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) no longer does. We studied whether GIP can alter the insulinotropic or glucagonostatic activity of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic...... patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve patients with type 2 diabetes (nine men and three women; 61 ± 10 years; BMI 30.0 ± 3.7 kg/m2; HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.5%) were studied. In randomized order, intravenous infusions of GLP-1(7-36)-amide (1.2 pmol · kg-1 · min-1), GIP (4 pmol · kg-1 · min-1), GLP-1 plus GIP...... the insulinotropic and glucose-lowering effects of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes. Rather, the suppression of glucagon by GLP-1 is antagonized by GIP....

  16. Anti-diabetic effects of shubat in type 2 diabetic rats induced by combination of high-glucose-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaer, Tabusi; Yu, Lan; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Xue-Jun; Nabi, Xin-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Shubat, probiotic fermented camel milk, has been used both as a drink with ethnic flavor and a medicine among Kazakh population for diabetic patients. Kazakh people have lower diabetic prevalence and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) than do other ethnic groups living in Xinjiang China, which might be related to the beneficial properties of shubat. We therefore prepared shubat in laboratory and tested anti-diabetic activity and evaluated its possible hypolipidemic and renoprotective effects in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic rats were induced by an administration of high-glucose-fat diet for 6 weeks and an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 30mg/kg). Diabetic rats were divided randomly into four groups and treated for 28 days with sitagliptin (30mg/kg) or shubat (6.97×10(6) lactic acid bacteria+2.20×10(4) yeasts) CFU/mL, (6.97×10(7) lactic acid bacteria+2.20×10(5) yeasts) CFU/mL and (6.97×10(8) lactic acid bacteria+2.20×10(6) yeasts) CFU/mL. In addition, a normal control group and a diabetic control group were used for comparison. All drugs were given orally once daily 10mL/kg for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight (BW) were measured before treatment and every week thereafter. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels and pancreas tissue sections were tested after 4 weeks. Shubat demonstrated positive hypoglycemic activity on FBG, HbAlc, C-peptide and GLP-1 levels, high dose shubat decreased FBG (Pdiabetic controls. Histological analysis showed shubat protected the function of islets of type 2 diabetic rats. The results of this study indicate that shubat has significant hypoglycemic potential in T2D rats and may modulate lipid metabolism and protect renal function in the type 2 diabetic condition, which

  17. Antidiabetic therapies and male reproductive function: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, R S; Escada-Rebelo, S; Silva, A F; Sousa, M I; Ramalho-Santos, J; Amaral, S

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been increasing at alarming rates in recent years, thus jeopardizing human health worldwide. Several antidiabetic drugs have been introduced in the market to manage glycemic levels, and proven effective in avoiding, minimizing or preventing the appearance or development of diabetes mellitus-related complications. However, and despite the established association between such pathology and male reproductive dysfunction, the influence of these therapeutic interventions on such topics have been scarcely explored. Importantly, this pathology may contribute toward the global decline in male fertility, giving the increasing preponderance of diabetes mellitus in young men at their reproductive age. Therefore, it is mandatory that the reproductive health of diabetic individuals is maintained during the antidiabetic treatment. With this in mind, we have gathered the available information and made a critical analysis regarding the effects of several antidiabetic drugs on male reproductive function. Unlike insulin, which has a clear and fundamental role on male reproductive function, the other antidiabetic therapies' effects at this level seem incoherent. In fact, studies are highly controversial possibly due to the different experimental study approaches, which, in our opinion, suggests caution when it comes to prescribing such drugs to young diabetic patients. Overall, much is still to be determined and further studies are needed to clarify the safety of these antidiabetic strategies on male reproductive system. Aspects such as the effects of insulin levels variations, consequent of insulin therapy, as well as what will be the impact of the side effect hypoglycemia, common to several therapeutic strategies discussed, on the male reproductive system are still to be addressed. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. [New oral antidiabetic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féry, F

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic options for type 2 diabetes have grown considerably in recent years with the successive emergence on the market of glitazones, incretin mimetics, gliptins and very soon gliflozins. Meanwhile, physicians have been advised to take into account individual patient characteristics and preferences when setting glycemic targets and choosing the most appropriate molecule. Faced with an abundance of options, clinicians, even those specialized in diabetology, are left confused and are divided in their choices. To guide them in their practice, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) jointly published a position statement in 2012. The guidelines posit that the main criteria to be considered are glucose-lowering efficacy, risk of hypoglycemia, effect on body weight, side effects and costs. Not surprisingly, they propose metformin as first line treatment but do not formulate a precise indication regarding the molecule to be introduced in case of metformin contra-indication, intolerance or monotherapy failure. In addition, there is no mention of gliflozins, which were still under evaluation at the time but are now approved and already marketed in some countries. Here we review the mechanisms of action, efficacy and side effects of the two most recent drug classes, namely incretin-based therapies and gliflozins, and try to position them in the therapeutic algorithm of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shaik Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the

  20. Quantal health effects of three toxic agents combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quantal health effects such as cancer, correlated with the combined action of three toxic agents, are considered. Data on the combined effects of two agents are scarce and no such data exist for three toxicants, yet concerns have arisen about simultaneous exposure of radiation workers to three different agents. Using models developed from the analysis of health effects involving two toxicants, equations for the combined effects of three agents are derived from a more general formalism. An application of practical interest is the incidence of cancer of the esophagus and its correlation with concurrent exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and either low- or high-LET radiation. (author)

  1. Rapid increase in the use of oral antidiabetic drugs in the United States, 1990-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysowski, Diane K; Armstrong, George; Governale, Laura

    2003-06-01

    To describe the use of oral antidiabetic drugs for management of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. from 1990 through 2001. Data on oral antidiabetic drugs were derived from two pharmaceutical marketing databases from IMS Health, the National Prescription Audit Plus and the National Disease and Therapeutic Index. In 1990, 23.4 million outpatient prescriptions of oral antidiabetic agents were dispensed. By 2001, this number had increased 3.9-fold, to 91.8 million prescriptions. Glipizide and glyburide, two sulfonylurea medications, accounted for approximately 77% of prescriptions of oral antidiabetic drugs in 1990 and 35.5% of prescriptions in 2001. By 2001, the biguanide metformin (approved in 1995) had captured approximately 33% of prescriptions, and the thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizers (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone marketed beginning in 1999) accounted for approximately 17% of market share. Compared with patients treated in 1990, those in 2001 were proportionately younger and they more often used oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin in combination. Internists and general and family practitioners were the primary prescribers of this class of drugs. Consistent with the reported increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the number of dispensed outpatient prescriptions of oral antidiabetic drugs increased rapidly between 1990 and 2001. This period was marked by an increase in the treatment of younger people and the use of oral antidiabetic drugs in combination. With the approval in the last decade of several new types of oral antidiabetic medications with different mechanisms of action, options for management of type 2 diabetes have expanded.

  2. Effect of Anti-Parasite Chemotherapeutic Agents on Immune Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    observations). Similar effects of a number of other alkylating agents have been noticed (9, and personal observa- tions). Similarly, corticosteroids inhibit...Wellham, L. L., and Sigel, M. M. Ef- fect of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents on immune reactions of mice. I. Comparison of two nitrosoureas . J...7 D-Ri138 852 EFFECT OF ANTI-PARASITE CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS ON i/i IMMUNE REACTIONS(U) SOUTH CAROLINA UNIV COLUMBIA DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY AND

  3. Extension agents' technical knowledge requirements for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical knowledge requirements of extension agents were investigated in this study. Data for the study was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to the 78 respondents. It was found that respondents were mainly males, were married, were in the middle age category, had BSc/HND, made ...

  4. Quantal health effects for a combination of several toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, F A

    1988-12-01

    Quantal health effects caused by the combined action of a number of toxic agents are modeled using the information available for each toxicant acting in isolation. Two basic models are used; one assumes no interaction, the other postulates a separable kind of interaction in which each agent contributes an enhancement factor independent of all other agents. These two models provide yardsticks by which to measure synergisms and antagonisms in the interaction between the effects of toxic agents. Equations are given in approximations for small and large values of the risk. (author)

  5. Quantal health effects for a combination of several toxic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quantal health effects caused by the combined action of a number of toxic agents are modeled using the information available for each toxicant acting in isolation. Two basic models are used; one assumes no interaction, the other postulates a separable kind of interaction in which each agent contributes an enhancement factor independent of all other agents. These two models provide yardsticks by which to measure synergisms and antagonisms in the interaction between the effects of toxic agents. Equations are given in approximations for small and large values of the risk. (author)

  6. Biomolecular Characterization of Putative Antidiabetic Herbal Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Verena; Haselgrübler, Renate; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Plochberger, Birgit; Borgmann, Daniela; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Winkler, Stephan M.; Schröder, Klaus; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Induction of GLUT4 translocation in the absence of insulin is considered a key concept to decrease elevated blood glucose levels in diabetics. Due to the lack of pharmaceuticals that specifically increase the uptake of glucose from the blood circuit, application of natural compounds might be an alternative strategy. However, the effects and mechanisms of action remain unknown for many of those substances. For this study we investigated extracts prepared from seven different plants, which have been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic effects, for their GLUT4 translocation inducing properties. Quantitation of GLUT4 translocation was determined by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy in insulin sensitive CHO-K1 cells and adipocytes. Two extracts prepared from purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and tindora (Coccinia grandis) were found to induce GLUT4 translocation, accompanied by an increase of intracellular glucose concentrations. Our results indicate that the PI3K pathway is mainly responsible for the respective translocation process. Atomic force microscopy was used to prove complete plasma membrane insertion. Furthermore, this approach suggested a compound mediated distribution of GLUT4 molecules in the plasma membrane similar to insulin stimulated conditions. Utilizing a fluorescent actin marker, TIRF measurements indicated an impact of purslane and tindora on actin remodeling as observed in insulin treated cells. Finally, in-ovo experiments suggested a significant reduction of blood glucose levels under tindora and purslane treated conditions in a living organism. In conclusion, this study confirms the anti-diabetic properties of tindora and purslane, which stimulate GLUT4 translocation in an insulin-like manner. PMID:26820984

  7. Effective ODE Zones in a Multi- Agent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    Simulations which contain a large number of agents with rules for agent-agent interactions may grow to a level of complexity where it is cumbersome to extract useful information, difficult to split or agregate parts, and taxing on computational resources. We present here an example where a coarse...... graining of the system, and replacement of individual interactions with ODEs describing dynamical interactions between ‘effective zones’, leads to a fast and useful simplified model of the original complex system....

  8. Anti-Diabetic Effects of an Ethanol Extract of Cassia Abbreviata Stem Bark on Diabetic Rats and Possible Mechanism of Its Action - Anti-diabetic Properties of Cassia abbreviata -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keagile Bati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of an ethanol extract of Cassia abbreviata (ECA bark and the possible mechanisms of its action in diabetic albino rats. Methods: ECA was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% ethanol. It was filtered and made solvent-free by evaporation on a rotary evaporator. Type 2 diabetes was induced in albino rats by injecting 35 mg/kg body weight (bw of streptozotocin after having fed the rats a high-fat diet for 2 weeks. Diabetic rats were divided into ECA-150, ECA-300 and Metformin (MET-180 groups, where the numbers are the doses in mg.kg.bw administered to the groups. Normal (NC and diabetic (DC controls were given distilled water. The animals had their fasting blood glucose levels and body weights determined every 7 days for 21 days. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs were carried out in all animals at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Liver and kidney samples were harvested for glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase and hexokinase activity analyses. Small intestines and diaphragms from normal rats were used for α-glucosidase and glucose uptake studies against the extract. Results: Two doses, 150 and 300 mg/kg bw, significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and helped them maintain normal body weights. The glucose level in DC rats significantly increased while their body weights decreased. The 150 mg/kg bw dose significantly increased hexokinase and decreased G6Pase activities in the liver and the kidneys. ECA inhibited α-glucosidase activity and promoted glucose uptake in the rats’ hemi-diaphragms. Conclusion: This study revealed that ECA normalized blood glucose levels and body weights in type 2 diabetic rats. The normalization of the glucose levels may possibly be due to inhibition of α-glucosidase, decreased G6Pase activity, increased hexokinase activity and improved glucose uptake by muscle tissues.

  9. Effect of different prokinetic agents and a novel enterokinetic agent on postoperative ileus in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, B. Y.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; de Man, J. G.; Moreels, T. G.; Schuurkes, J. A.; Peeters, T. L.; Herman, A. G.; Pelckmans, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of different prokinetic agents, the motilide erythromycin and the substituted benzamides metoclopramide and cisapride, were investigated in a rat model of postoperative ileus. These effects were compared with that of granisetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(3)) receptor

  10. Marine Algae As A Prospective Source For Antidiabetic Compounds - A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, Pulikkaparambil Sasidharan; Jayasri, Mangalam Achuthananda

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed to several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM. In the continuing search for effective antidiabetic drugs, marine algae (seaweeds) remains as a promising source with potent bioactivity. It is anticipated that the isolation, characterization, and pharmacological study of unexplored marine algae can be useful in the discovery of novel antidiabetic compounds with high biomedical value. Among marine algae, brown and red algae are reported to exhibit antidiabetic activity. Majority of the investigations on algal derived compounds controls the blood glucose levels through the inhbition of carbohydrate hydroloyzing enzymes and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B enzymes, insulin sensitization, glucose uptake effect and other protective effects against diabetic complications. Based on the above perspective this review provides; profiles for various marine algae posessing antidiabetic activity. This study also highlights the therapeutic potential of compounds isolated from marine algae for the effective management of diabetes and its associated complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in controlling Gonometa podorcarpi in conifer ... gilvoides as a potential biological control agent for G. podocarpi. Field and laboratory studies further established that P. .... version for windows (SPSS, 2002). Results. Gonometa podocarpi was present in.

  12. Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  13. Effect of desensitizing agents on dentin permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihata, Hiroshi; Kanehira, Masafumi; Nagai, Tomoko; Finger, Werner J; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro efficacy of two dentin desensitizing products at reducing liquid permeability through human dentin discs. The tested hypothesis was that the products, in spite of different chemical mechanisms were not different at reducing or eliminating flow through dentin discs. Dentin slices (1 mm thick) were prepared from 16 extracted human third molars and their permeability was indirectly recorded in a split chamber model, using a chemiluminescence technique, after EDTA treatment (control), after soaking with albumin, and after desensitizer application. Two products were studied: MS Coat, a self-curing resin-containing oxalate product, and Gluma Desensitizer, a glutaraldehyde/HEMA-based agent without initiator. The dentin slices were mounted between an upper chamber, filled with an aqueous solution of 1% potassium ferricyanide and 0.3% hydrogen peroxide, and a lower chamber filled with 1% sodium hydroxide solution and 0.02% luminol. The upper solution was pressurized, and upon contact with the luminol solution a photochemical signal was generated and recorded as a measure of permeability throughout two consecutive pressurizing cycles at 2.5 and 13 kPa (26 and 133 cm H2O), respectively. The permeability of the control and albumin-soaked samples was similarly high. After application of the desensitizing agents, dentin permeability was reduced to virtually zero at both pressure levels (P < 0.001).

  14. Antidiabetic medication adherence and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... tive of the study was to determine current antidiabetic medication adherence in ...... A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. .... Pascal IGU, Ofoedu JN, Uchenna NP, Nkwa AA, Uchamma GUE.

  15. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Momordica charantia L Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, S; Hussain, F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and pancreatic beta cell regeneration activities of Momordica charantia L fruits (MC). Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were treated with methanolic and ethanolic MC extract. Effects of plant extracts and the drug glibenclamide on serum glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic beta cell were determined after two weeks of treatment. Serum glucose and lipid profiles were assayed by kit methods. Pancreatic tissue histopathology was performed to study pancreatic beta cell regeneration. Momordica charantia extracts produced significant hypoglycaemic effects (p Momordica charantia supplementations were unable to normalize glucose and lipid profiles. Glibenclamide, a standard drug, not only lowered hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia but also restored the normal levels. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells by MC extracts was minimal, with fractional improvement produced by glibenclamide. The most significant finding of the present study was a 28% reduction in hyperglycaemia by MC ethanol extracts. To determine reliable antidiabetic potentials of MC, identification of the relevant antidiabetic components and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25429471

  16. Behavioral effects of nerve agents: laboratory animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse and often subtle behavioral consequences have been reported for humans exposed to nerve agents. Laboratory studies of nerve agent exposure offer rigorous control over important variables, but species other than man must be used. Nonhuman primate models offer the best means of identifying the toxic nervous system effects of nerve agent insult and the countermeasures best capable of preventing or attenuating these effects. Comprehensive behavioral models must evaluate preservation and recovery of function as well as new learning ability. The throughput and sensitivity of the tests chosen are important considerations. A few nonhuman primate studies will be discussed to elaborate recent successes, current limitations, and future directions.(author)

  17. Effects of a Pedagogical Agent's Emotional Expressiveness on Learner Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Enilda J.; Watson, Ginger S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of animated pedagogical agents or avatars in instruction has lagged behind their use in entertainment. This is due in part to the cost and complexity of development and implementation of agents in educational settings, but also results from a lack of research to understand how emotions from animated agents influence instructional effectiveness. The phenomenological study presented here assesses the perceptions of eight learners interacting with low and high intensity emotionally expressive pedagogical agents in a computer-mediated environment. Research methods include maximum variation and snowball sampling with random assignment to treatment. The resulting themes incorporate perceptions of importance, agent humanness, enjoyment, implementation barriers, and suggested improvements. Design recommendations and implications for future research are presented.

  18. The Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-diabetic Effect of Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch Aqueous Extract in Fertile Female Diabetic Rats and the Possible Effects on Reproduction and Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Namjoyan, Foroogh; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Ahmadpour, Forouzan; Darvish Padok, Azam; Panahi, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Boswellia serrata has been used in a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes mellitus and inflammatory diseases. This study focused on the effects of Boswellia serrata aqueous extract on blood glucose and the complications of diabetes in the liver and kidneys and examined the impact of plant on reproduction in diabetic rats. The antioxidant capacity of plant extract was performed using FRAP assay. Diabetic and control rats were administered 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg Boswellia serrata extract. Vaginal plaque was mentioned as a positive sign of pregnancy ;and treatment started with extract or vehicle from 1th to 17th day of gestation by gastric gavage. Blood glucose was measured during 17 days. The Administration of Boswellia serrata in diabetic rats significantly decreased the level of blood glucose and HbA1c after 17th days (P ≤ 0.01). In diabetic group that received no treatment, the abortion of fetus spontaneous was 19.14%. The percentage of absorptions significantly was elevated in vehicle-treated diabetic rats, in comparison with vehicle- treated healthy rats. In the diabetic group, separated necrosis of hepatocytes, anarchism of liver plates, and lymphocytic inflammation were improved. Diabetic complications were not seen and the severity of damage was reduced. These damages include: lymphocytic inflammation in the port areas, irregularities, apoptosis of liver cells, and dilatation of the sinusoids. The results suggest that Boswellia serrata extract has the antidiabetic effects and can prevent the complications of diabetes in the kidneys and liver.

  19. Effects of Sterilizing Agents on Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-03-01

    temperatures. Such studies should also 219. EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON SPORES OF justify one or the other of the calculation methods, pro- BACILLUS COAGULANS ...contingent upon develop- The sporicidal effect of chlorine on spores of Bacillus ment of better and cheaper irradiating equipment. (BA, coagulans was...1957 In a non-nutrient medium of freeze-dried spores of Bacillus subtilis, which are resuspended and irradiated, no 0-effect is evident. Metabolic

  20. Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Josline Y.; Michael, Helana N.; Eskande, Emad Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT) epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT) fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF. The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT) epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6”-O-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5, whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT) epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids PMID:23598921

  1. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  2. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Christopher; de Groot, Jens C.; Prasad, Aman; Freiwald, Anja; Quedenau, Claudia; Kliem, Magdalena; Witzke, Annabell; Kodelja, Vitam; Han, Chung-Ting; Giegold, Sascha; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Siems, Karsten; Müller-Kuhrt, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Schüler, Rita; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Büssow, Konrad; Sauer, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Given worldwide increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, new strategies for preventing and treating metabolic diseases are needed. The nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) plays a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism; however, current PPARγ-targeting drugs are characterized by undesirable side effects. Natural products from edible biomaterial provide a structurally diverse resource to alleviate complex disorders via tailored nutritional intervention. We identified a family of natural products, the amorfrutins, from edible parts of two legumes, Glycyrrhiza foetida and Amorpha fruticosa, as structurally new and powerful antidiabetics with unprecedented effects for a dietary molecule. Amorfrutins bind to and activate PPARγ, which results in selective gene expression and physiological profiles markedly different from activation by current synthetic PPARγ drugs. In diet-induced obese and db/db mice, amorfrutin treatment strongly improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatoxicity. These results show that selective PPARγ-activation by diet-derived ligands may constitute a promising approach to combat metabolic disease. PMID:22509006

  3. Drug Transport Mechanism of Oral Antidiabetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Evren; Yurdasiper, Aysu

    2014-01-01

    Context: Over the last few decades, extensive efforts have been made worldwide to develop nanomedicine delivery systems, especially via oral route for antidiabetic drugs. Absorption of insulin is hindered by epithelial cells of gastrointestinal tract, acidic gastric pH and digestive enzymes. Evidence Acquisition: Recent reports have identified and explained the beneficial role of several structural molecules like mucoadhesive polymers (polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, chitosan) and other copolymers for the efficient transport and release of insulin to its receptors. Results: Insulin nanomedicines based on alginate-dextran sulfate core with a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-albumin shell reduced glycaemia in a dose dependent manner. Orally available exendin-4 formulations exerted their effects in a time dependent manner. Insulin nanoparticles formed by using alginate and dextran sulfate nucleating around calcium and binding to poloxamer, stabilized by chitosan, and subsequently coated with albumin showed a threefold increase of the hypoglycemic effect in comparison to free insulin in animal models. Solid lipid nanoparticles showed an enhancement of the bioavailability of repaglinide (RG) within optimized solid lipid nanoparticle formulations when compared with RG alone. Conclusions: Nanoparticles represent multiparticulate delivery systems designed to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery and to improve bioavailability as well as stability. Nanoparticles can also offer advantages like limiting fluctuations within therapeutic range, reducing side effects, protecting drugs from degradation, decreasing dosing frequency, and improving patient compliance and convenience PMID:24696697

  4. Drug transport mechanism of oral antidiabetic nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Evren; Yurdasiper, Aysu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, extensive efforts have been made worldwide to develop nanomedicine delivery systems, especially via oral route for antidiabetic drugs. Absorption of insulin is hindered by epithelial cells of gastrointestinal tract, acidic gastric pH and digestive enzymes. Recent reports have identified and explained the beneficial role of several structural molecules like mucoadhesive polymers (polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, chitosan) and other copolymers for the efficient transport and release of insulin to its receptors. Insulin nanomedicines based on alginate-dextran sulfate core with a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-albumin shell reduced glycaemia in a dose dependent manner. Orally available exendin-4 formulations exerted their effects in a time dependent manner. Insulin nanoparticles formed by using alginate and dextran sulfate nucleating around calcium and binding to poloxamer, stabilized by chitosan, and subsequently coated with albumin showed a threefold increase of the hypoglycemic effect in comparison to free insulin in animal models. Solid lipid nanoparticles showed an enhancement of the bioavailability of repaglinide (RG) within optimized solid lipid nanoparticle formulations when compared with RG alone. Nanoparticles represent multiparticulate delivery systems designed to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery and to improve bioavailability as well as stability. Nanoparticles can also offer advantages like limiting fluctuations within therapeutic range, reducing side effects, protecting drugs from degradation, decreasing dosing frequency, and improving patient compliance and convenience.

  5. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  6. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (II: in silico prediction in natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally, we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Russo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (˙NO and superoxide (O2˙− scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI. ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  8. Training strategic community agents in health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Teresa C.S.B.; Silva, IIson P.M. da; Jannuzzi, Denise M.S.; Maurmo, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    The main motivation for the development of training was the need to train agents (opinion makers) with proximity and credibility among the population, to clarify the most frequently asked questions in relation to ionizing radiation, the operation of nuclear power plants, emergency plans and about the possibility of there effects of radiation on the health of inhabitants in regions close to the central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. The project has a target audience of 420 agents, 60 of them have already been trained in a pilot project . The results indicate that the topics of training were adequate and the agents have expanded their knowledge. On the other hand, the information passed on to communities by agents, recognized by this population as ' the most reliable people', is of greater credibility and likelihood of success in communicating important issues for the population living in the vicinity of the CNAAA. (author)

  9. EFEK ANTIDIABETES EKSTRAK AIR KULIT BUAH PISANG AMBON (Musa paradisiaca L. TERHADAP MENCIT (Mus musculus MODEL HIPERGLIKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca L. is one type of bananas usually consumed by Indonesian people. Besides its flesh which has high nutrition, its peels also has antioxidant activity. Antioxidants has the ability to reduce oxidative damage in people’s body with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of the aqueous  extract of Pisang Ambon peels and to determine it’s effective dose as an antidiabetic agent in hyperglycemic mice. This study used male mice which all have been intravenously induced with alloxan at a dose of 50 mg/kgBW. They were then divided into five groups. The first two groups got Na CMC 0.5% (negative control and glibenclamide 0.65 mg/kgBW (positive control, while the other three got  the aqueous  extract of Pisang Ambon peels successively at doses of 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kgBW. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance at 95% confidence interval with parameter of blood glucose levels difference between before and after treatment. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Pisang Ambon peels had antidiabetic activity at an effective dose of 400 mg/kgBW in hyperglycemic mice which was comparable to glibenclamide

  10. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Abou Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, and liver-pyruvate kinase (L-PK levels were assessed. Furthermore, the weight and histomorphological changes of the pancreas were studied in the different experimental groups. The herbal preparations significantly reduced the mean plasma glucose and MDA levels and significantly increased the mean plasma insulin, L-PK, and TAC levels in the treated diabetic groups compared to the diabetic control group. An obvious increase in the weight of the pancreas and the size of the islets of Langerhans and improvement in the histoarchitecture were evident in the treated groups compared to untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study provides a scientific evidence for the traditional use of these extracts as antidiabetic and antioxidant agents in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum) Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khalil, Nasser S; Abou-Elhamd, Alaa S; Wasfy, Salwa I A; El Mileegy, Ibtisam M H; Hamed, Mohamed Y; Ageely, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and liver-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) levels were assessed. Furthermore, the weight and histomorphological changes of the pancreas were studied in the different experimental groups. The herbal preparations significantly reduced the mean plasma glucose and MDA levels and significantly increased the mean plasma insulin, L-PK, and TAC levels in the treated diabetic groups compared to the diabetic control group. An obvious increase in the weight of the pancreas and the size of the islets of Langerhans and improvement in the histoarchitecture were evident in the treated groups compared to untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study provides a scientific evidence for the traditional use of these extracts as antidiabetic and antioxidant agents in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Oral anti-diabetics in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Najmul

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes fast during the month of Ramadan worldwide. Hypoglycaemia is one of the major complications associated with long periods without food during the fasting hours. There is also a risk of hyperglycaemia due to over indulgence in food during the two main meals of Suhur and Iftar. Healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the risk of fasting and be competent to provide Ramadan adjusted diabetes care particularly adjustment of oral anti diabetics. This review article has taken into consideration observational studies, randomized trial data, pathophysiology and practical experience in recommending adjustment in oral anti-diabetics during fasting in type-2 diabetics. Metformin and Thiazolidinediones (TZD'S) being insulin sensitizers need minimum adjustment with low risk of hypoglycaemia. Older generation Sulphonylureas (SU) pose a high risk of hypoglycaemia but the newer generations of Sulphonylureas have a reasonable safety profile. Alpha- Glucosidase inhibitors are safe during fasting but their use is limited due to the side effects.

  13. ORGANIZATION OF AVAILABILITY OF THE CIRCULATION OF ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINES BASED ON PHARMACEUTICAL LAW IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrozhek SI

    2016-12-01

    contingent of citizens to timely access to vital antidiabetic drugs in full and the required range. It was also studied the availability of treatment antidiabetic medicines by pharmacoeconomic, forensic and pharmaceutical indicators and found the changes to the average price of antidiabetic drugs for the period from 2012 to 2015 according to changes of the US dollar exchange course, which reduced the availability of antidiabetic drugs for patients with diabetes. In difficult conditions, healthcare financing of urgent issues needs to achieve effective supplement of antidiabetic drugs with optimal use of funds. At the national and regional levels consistently implemented organizational and legal measures to improve the availability of antidiabetic drugs in the healthcare system for patients with diabetes: the development of a system of recovery of insulin; pharmaceutical needs for support from the targeted expenditure of regional budgets; targeted distribution of expenditures among local budgets of administrative units; control over pricing for antidiabetic drugs; optimization of implementation of the statement of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine № 73 "Questions of the realization of the pilot project concerning the introduction of state regulation of prices for insulin" by drafting the amendments thereto. Conclusions. Our studies indicate the need for in-depth reform of the healthcare system by providing subsidies from the state budget of Ukraine, the increase the accessibility of antidiabetic medicines for diabetics.

  14. The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Inhibits the Proliferation of Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis of certain malignancies. However, the mechanisms for the anti-cancer effects of metformin remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effects of metformin on human bladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. Metformin significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of 5637 and T24 cells in vitro; specifically, metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases, accompanied by a strong decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4, E2F1 and an increase of p21waf-1. Further experiments revealed that metformin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the central regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, daily treatment of metformin led to a substantial inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft model with concomitant decrease in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D1 and p-mTOR. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that metformin efficiently suppresses the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and suggest that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  15. The effect of calcium phosphate-containing desensitizing agent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate containing desensitizing pretreatments on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and microleakage of the multimode adhesive agent to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this study, twelve noncarious, freshly extracted human third molar teeth ...

  16. Effect of some stabilizing agents on globule characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of some stabilizing agents (cassava, maize and bentonite mucilages) on globule characteristics and rheological properties of oil in water emulsions. Emulsions were prepared by mixing varying proportions of the mucilages with Arachis oil in the ratio of 60:40 (oil: water) with the aid of a ...

  17. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction parameters of polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) and antidiabetic activity of POP on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. Better extraction parameters of POP were obtained by the single factor test, as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 5 h, and ratio of solvent to raw ...

  18. Efeito de herbicidas sobre agentes fitopatogênicos = Effect of herbicides on phytopathogenic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dias Rosa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Na agricultura moderna, diversas tecnologias auxiliam no aumento daprodutividade, sendo o herbicida uma delas, mas existem consequências atreladas ao seu uso, como os diversos efeitos sobre organismos não alvos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar esses efeitos sobre agentes fitopatogênicos, assim como avaliar o efeito do herbicida glyphosate sobre diversas doenças, em plantas de soja transgênicas.Verificou-se forte ação fungicida com o uso do herbicida glyphosate, assim como os outros avaliados “in vitro”, sobre os fungos testados, e os mesmos resultados foram observados nas plantas em condição de campo.In modern agriculture, several technologies have helped increase productivity, and herbicide is one of them. However, there are consequences linked to its use, such as the various effects on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to verify these effects on phytopathogenic agents, as well as assess the effect of glyphosate on diseases in transgenic soybean. There was a strong fungicide action using glyphosate herbicide as well as with the others evaluated in vitro regarding fungi tested. The same results were observed in plants in field conditions.

  19. Data in support of fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du-Qiang Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice” in the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [1]. Fumosorinone (FU is a new inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1B inhibitor, which was isolated from insect pathogenic fungi Isaria fumosorosea. FU was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study [2]. PTP1B is the physiological antagonist of the insulin signalling pathway. Inhibition of PTP 1B may increase insulin sensitivity [3]. PTP1B has been considered promising as an insulin-sensitive drug target for the prevention and the treatment of insulin-based diseases [4]. We determined the effect of FU on the glucose consumption of IR HepG2 cells. FU caused significant enhancement in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant HepG2 cells compared with control cells.

  20. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin) Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Sharma; Ashok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.) at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg) was used as reference drug. Fasting blood g...

  1. Thiazolidinediones are associated with a decreased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with other antidiabetic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo; Staerk, Laila

    2017-01-01

    sensitizer that also has anti-inflammatory effects, which might decrease the risk of AF compared with other antidiabetic drugs. We used data from the Danish nationwide registries to study 108 624 patients with diabetes and without prior AF who were treated with metformin or sulfonylurea as first-line drugs...... drugs. The decreased risk of AF remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.57-1.00), P = 0.047 associated with TZD treatment compared with other antidiabetic drugs. CONCLUSION: Use of a TZD to treat diabetes was associated with reduced...

  2. Effect of bleaching agent extracts on murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Aletéia M M; Vilela, Polyana G F; Valera, Marcia C; Bolay, Carola; Hiller, Karl Anton; Schweikl, Helmut; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the influence of bleaching agents on immunologically cell surface antigens of murine macrophages in vitro. RAW 264.7 cells were exposed to bleaching gel extracts (40% hydrogen peroxide or 20% carbamide peroxide) and different H 2 O 2 concentrations after 1 and 24-h exposure periods and 1-h exposure and 23-h recovery. Tests were performed with and without N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The expression of surface markers CD14, CD40, and CD54 with and without LPS stimulation was detected by flow cytometry, while the production of TNF-α was measured by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (α = 0.05). Extracts of bleaching agents were cytotoxic for cells after a 1-h exposure; cells could not recover after 24 h. This effect can be mitigated by the antioxidant NAC and increased by BSO, an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis. LPS stimulated expression of all surface markers and TNF-α production. Exposure to bleaching agent extracts and H 2 O 2 leads to a reduction of TNF-α, CD14, and CD40 expression, while the expression of CD54 was upregulated at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Whereas NAC reduced this effect, it was increased in the presence of BSO. Extracts of bleaching agents were irreversibly cytotoxic to macrophages after a 1-h exposure. Only the expression of CD54 was upregulated. The reactions are mediated by the non-enzymatic antioxidant GSH. The addition of an antioxidant can downregulate unfavorable effects of dental bleaching.

  3. Antidiabetic plant-derived nutraceuticals: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Jayapal; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major health problems in the world, especially amongst the urban population. Chemically synthesized drugs used to decrease the ill effects of DM and its secondary complications cause adverse side effects, viz., weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbances, and heart failure. Currently, various other approaches, viz., diet control, physical exercise and use of antidiabetic plant-derived molecules/foods are advocated to manage DM, as they are economical with fewer or no side effects. This review mainly focuses on antidiabetic plants, chemically characterized plant molecules and plant-based foods in the treatment of DM. Very little science-based evidence is available on the mechanism of action of plant-derived food molecules on the DM targets. Critical DM targets include α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPP-IV, aldose reductase, PPAR-γ, AMP kinase and GLUT4. In-depth studies carried out on a few of those targets with specific mechanisms of action are addressed in this review. This review may help future researchers in identifying a right plant molecule to treat DM or to develop food formulations for DM management.

  4. Identification of novel human dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors of natural origin (Part II: in silico prediction in antidiabetic extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012 [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors.

  5. Effects of contrast agents on the fallopian tube in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Selection of the optimal contrast agent for hysterosalpingography was the focus of this study. The authors have evaluated the effect of different iodinated contrast agents on the fallopian tube of a rabbit. Ethiodol (oil-soluble contrast agent), methylglucamine iothalomate (water-soluble ionic agent) 30% and 60%, and Ioxilan (water-soluble monionic contrast agent) were compared. The agents were introduced by fallopian tube catheterization. Findings suggested that nonionic water-soluble contrast agents were the least detrimental to the fallopian tube and surrounding tissue. Iothalomate 60% resulted in mild inflammatory changes. Oil-soluble contrast agents caused granulomatous reaction and fibrinous adhesions

  6. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug.

  7. Phyto-metals screening of selected anti-diabetic herbs and infused concoctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju O. Olujimi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The study thus shows that the herbs and concoctions are safe from the heavy metals considered. However, right dosage of the anti-diabetic concoctions should always be considered to prevent possible chronic side effects from bio-accumulation of heavy metals.

  8. Anti-diabetic potential of aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of methanol extract of the aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy) in diabetic rats. Methods: The methanol extract of the aerial parts of Galium tricornutum was first subjected to acute toxicity studies. Thereafter, the effect of the extract on oral glucose tolerance was determined ...

  9. Anti-diabetic potential of aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-diabetic potential of aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy) Rubiaceae. ... In addition, the effect of the extract on fasting blood glucose, as well as serum lipid profile, urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and protein were investigated in ...

  10. Antidiabetic Activity of Different Extracts of Myrtus Communis in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjeshahin Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Hydroalcoholic (70° extract of leaves of Myrtus communis has been shown to have antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats in our previous study. In this study, we intended to determine the components of the mentioned extract and identify the mechanism for its action.

  11. Hemodynamic effects of a novel pharmacologic stress agent, Higemine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.L.; Liu, X.J.; Tao, Z.H.; Shi, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Higenamine (dl-demethylcodaurine) (HG), which was isolated from aconitum japonicum. This study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of HG in animal study. Methods: We compared the hemodynamic effects of HG (0.5-4μg/min/kg) with Dobutamine (Dob) (5-30μg/min/kg) in 6 dogs: heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), coronary blood flow (CBF), myocardial oxygen consumption (MOC) were measured. Tolerability and safety of HG (1-500μg/mg/min) were evaluated in 8 dogs. Results: Comparison of hemodynamic effects between Dob an HG was presented. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DP: diastolic blood pressure; P<0.01; P<0.05. Diastolic BP slightly decreased, but systolic BP did not change significantly during HG infusion. There was no significant ECG abnormalities and side effects during HG infusion. Conclusion: HG might be a safe and useful pharmacologic stress agent, especially for patients with severe hypertension

  12. Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Ting; Chen, Chuan; Li, Ming-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Ruo-song; Wei, Gui-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yi; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathways, and its increased activity and expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Therefore, the inhibition of PTP1B is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic strategy to treat T2DM. Fumosorinone (FU), a new natural product isolated from insect fungi Isaria fumosorosea, was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study. Herein, the effects of FU on insulin resistance and mechanism in vitro and in vivo were investigated. FU increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and also reduced blood glucose and lipid levels of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. FU decreased the expression of PTP1B both in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. Furthermore, FU increased the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt, GSK3β and Erk1/2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, as well as the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. These results showed that FU increased glucose uptake and improved insulin resistance by down-regulating the expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that it may possess antidiabetic properties. - Highlights: • Fumosorinone is a new PTP1B inhibitor isolated from insect pathogenic fungi. • Fumosorinone attenuated the insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone decreased the expression of PTP1B both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone activated the insulin signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo

  13. Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhi-Qin [College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, key laboratory of pharmaceutical quality control of Hebei province, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Liu, Ting; Chen, Chuan [College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Li, Ming-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Ruo-song; Wei, Gui-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yi [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, key laboratory of pharmaceutical quality control of Hebei province, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Luo, Du-Qiang, E-mail: duqiangluo999@126.com [College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathways, and its increased activity and expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Therefore, the inhibition of PTP1B is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic strategy to treat T2DM. Fumosorinone (FU), a new natural product isolated from insect fungi Isaria fumosorosea, was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study. Herein, the effects of FU on insulin resistance and mechanism in vitro and in vivo were investigated. FU increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and also reduced blood glucose and lipid levels of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. FU decreased the expression of PTP1B both in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. Furthermore, FU increased the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt, GSK3β and Erk1/2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, as well as the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. These results showed that FU increased glucose uptake and improved insulin resistance by down-regulating the expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that it may possess antidiabetic properties. - Highlights: • Fumosorinone is a new PTP1B inhibitor isolated from insect pathogenic fungi. • Fumosorinone attenuated the insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone decreased the expression of PTP1B both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone activated the insulin signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) as a potential pharmaceutical agent for type-2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Galappaththy, Priyadarshani; Constantine, Godwin Roger; Jayawardena, Ranil; Weeratunga, Hasitha Dhananjaya; Premakumara, Sirimal; Katulanda, Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have explored the anti-diabetic effects of Cinnamomum cassia extract in vivo and in vitro. However, there are no studies at present exploring the effects of the indigenous species of Sri Lankan cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to evaluate the potential effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract as a pharmaceutical agent in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Methods/design The study will be conducted as a...

  15. Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, Jose; King, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends. Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment

  16. Are the effects of drugs to prevent and to treat heart failure always concordant? The statin paradox and its implications for understanding the actions of antidiabetic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Milton

    2018-03-22

    Most treatments for chronic heart failure are effective both in preventing its onset and reducing its progression. However, statins prevent the development of heart failure, but they do not decrease morbidity and mortality in those with established heart failure. This apparent discordance cannot be explained by an effect to prevent interval myocardial infarctions. Instead, it seems that the disease that statins were preventing in trials of patients with a metabolic disorder was different from the disease that they were treating in trials of chronic heart failure. The most common phenotype of heart failure in patients with obesity and diabetes is heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In this disorder, the anti-inflammatory effects of statins might ameliorate myocardial fibrosis and cardiac filling abnormalities, but these actions may have little relevance to patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), whose primary derangement is cardiomyocyte loss and stretch. These distinctions may explain why statins were ineffective in trials that focused on HFrEF, but have been reported to produce with favourable effects in observational studies of HFpEF. Similarly, selective cytokine antagonists were ineffective in HFrEF, but have been associated with benefits in HFpEF. These observations may have important implications for our understanding of the effects of antihyperglycaemic medications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have had neutral effects on heart failure events in people at risk for HFpEF, but have exerted deleterious actions in HFrEF. Similarly, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, which exert anti-inflammatory effects and reduce heart failure events in patients who are prone to HFpEF, may not be effective in HFrEF. The distinctions between HFrEF and HFpEF may explain why the effects of drugs on heart failure events in diabetes trials may not be relevant to their use in patients with systolic dysfunction

  17. Immunological Effects of Conventional Chemotherapy and Targeted Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Buqué, Aitziber; Kepp, Oliver; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-12-14

    The tremendous clinical success of checkpoint blockers illustrates the potential of reestablishing latent immunosurveillance for cancer therapy. Although largely neglected in the clinical practice, accumulating evidence indicates that the efficacy of conventional and targeted anticancer agents does not only involve direct cytostatic/cytotoxic effects, but also relies on the (re)activation of tumor-targeting immune responses. Chemotherapy can promote such responses by increasing the immunogenicity of malignant cells, or by inhibiting immunosuppressive circuitries that are established by developing neoplasms. These immunological "side" effects of chemotherapy are desirable, and their in-depth comprehension will facilitate the design of novel combinatorial regimens with improved clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Selambakknu, Sarala; Jamaliah Shariff; Ting, Teo Ming; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

  19. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weidner

    Full Text Available Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita flowers extract (CFE for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.

  1. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Boehmeria nivea (L. Gaudich., Urticaceae, root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sancheti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of 80% methanolic extract of Boehmeria nivea (L. Gaudich., Urticaceae, root in the treatment of diabetes, along with its antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects, was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Preliminary screening of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenolics and flavonoids. The animal study was conducted with variable doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 21 days in diabetic rats. A significant effect was observed at a dose of 500 mg/kg, which was comparable to the standard drug, glibenclamide. Administration of the extract at a 500 mg/kg dose resulted in a significant reduction of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urine sugar and urine ketone levels in diabetic rats in comparison with the diabetic control group. Additionally, this dose significantly increased body weight, hemoglobin, plasma total protein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver glycogen content, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase levels in diabetic rats at the end of 21 days of treatment. Therefore, dietary supplementation with Boehmeria nivea root extract could be beneficial for correcting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and enhancing the antioxidant defense system.

  2. Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan-Rodrigues, M; Alves, T L S; Soares, G L G; Ritter, M R

    2012-01-06

    Plants are widely as antidiabetics. The study of these plants is essential because many of them may have undesirable effects, such as acute or chronic toxicity; or their use may even delay or discourage the adoption of the proper and effective treatment. The present study surveyed the plant species that are popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Sixteen ethnobotanical surveys performed in the state were consulted, and the species used to treat diabetes were listed. For species cited in at least two of the studies, scientific data related to antidiabetic activity were searched in the ISI Knowledge database. The scientific binomial of each species was used as keywords, and data found in review papers were also included. A total of 81 species in 42 families were mentioned; the most important families were Asteraceae and Myrtaceae. Twenty eight species were cited at least twice as being used to treat diabetes in the state. For 11 of these, no scientific data regarding antidiabetic activity could be located. The species most frequently mentioned for use with diabetes were Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) and Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae), in 12 studies each, followed by Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae), in six studies; and Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), Cynara scolymus (Asteraceae), and Leandra australis (Melastomataceae) in four studies each. Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini have been studied in more detail for antidiabetic activity. A considerable number of plant species are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes melitus in the Rio Grande do Sul State. The majority of those plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results, mainly for Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini. However, for most of the plants mentioned, the studies are not sufficient to guarantee the efficacy and safety in the use of these plants in the treatment against

  3. Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antityrosinase activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindappa, M.; Hemashekhar, B.; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Ravishankar Rai, V.; Ramachandra, Y. L.

    2018-06-01

    The current research study is to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Calophyllum tomentosum (CtAgNPs) and evaluated the extract to know the effects of anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity. Using UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) characterized the Calophyllum tomentosum mediated silver nanoparticles. The leaf extract of C. tomentosum yielded flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, terpenoids and coumarins. AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-vis spectra at 438 nm. Crystalline structure with a face centered cubic (fcc) of AgNPs was observed in XRD. FTIR had shown that the phytochemicals were responsible for the reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The size and shape of the AgNPs were determined using SEM. From EDX study analysed the strong absorption property of AgNPs. The CtAgNPs have showed significant antibacterial activity on multi drug resistance bacteria. The CtAgNPs had shown strong antioxidant (DPPH, H2O2 scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging power, reducing power) activities. The CtAgNPs had strongly inhibited the α-glucosidase and DPPIV compared to α-amylase. The CtAgNPs exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity (albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization, heat haemolytic, protein inhibitory, lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase) and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract. Hence, to validate our results the in vivo studies at molecular level are needed to develop an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. The antidiabetic drug ciglitazone induces high grade bladder cancer cells apoptosis through the up-regulation of TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Plissonnier

    Full Text Available Ciglitazone belongs to the thiazolidinediones class of antidiabetic drug family and is a high-affinity ligand for the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ. Apart from its antidiabetic activity, this molecule shows antineoplastic effectiveness in numerous cancer cell lines.Using RT4 (derived from a well differentiated grade I papillary tumor and T24 (derived from an undifferentiated grade III carcinoma bladder cancer cells, we investigated the potential of ciglitazone to induce apoptotic cell death and characterized the molecular mechanisms involved. In RT4 cells, the drug induced G2/M cell cycle arrest characterized by an overexpression of p53, p21(waf1/CIP1 and p27(Kip1 in concomitance with a decrease of cyclin B1. On the contrary, in T24 cells, it triggered apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis occurred at high concentrations through PPARγ activation-independent pathways. We show that in vivo treatment of nude mice by ciglitazone inhibits high grade bladder cancer xenograft development. We identified a novel mechanism by which ciglitazone kills cancer cells. Ciglitazone up-regulated soluble and membrane-bound TRAIL and let TRAIL-resistant T24 cells to respond to TRAIL through caspase activation, death receptor signalling pathway and Bid cleavage. We provided evidence that TRAIL-induced apoptosis is partially driven by ciglitazone-mediated down-regulation of c-FLIP and survivin protein levels through a proteasome-dependent degradation mechanism.Therefore, ciglitazone could be clinically relevant as chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for the treatment of TRAIL-refractory high grade urothelial cancers.

  5. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective isolation of the antidiabetic drug metformin and its transformation product guanylurea from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyzas, George Z.; Nanaki, Stavroula G. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koltsakidou, Anastasia; Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kechagia, Maria [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bikiaris, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lambropoulou, Dimitra A., E-mail: dlambro@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Preparation of novel MIPs with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective isolation and removal of metformin and guanylurea from aqueous media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of synthesized MIPs as dispersive SPE sorbents. • Estimation of expanded uncertainty following a bottom-up approach. - Abstract: In the present study, two novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with remarkable recognition properties for metformin and its transformation product, guanylurea, have been prepared for their selective, enrichment, isolation and removal from aqueous media. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and swelling experiments. The performance of the prepared MIPs was evaluated by various parameters including the influence of pH, contact time, temperature and initial compound concentration. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the removal process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Due to the imprinting effect, adsorption performance of MIPs was always superior to its corresponding NIP (non-imprinted polymer), with maximum adsorption capacity ∼80 mg g{sup −1} for both MIPs. Stability and reusability of the MIPs up to the 5th cycle meant that they could be applied repeatedly without losing substantial removal ability. In the next step, the prepared MIP nanoparticles were evaluated as sorbents in a dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) configuration for selective enrichment and determination of metformin and guanylurea in different aqueous matrices. Under the working extraction conditions, the D-SPE method showed good linearity in the range of 50–1000 ng L{sup −1}, repeatability of the extractions (RSD 2.1–5.1%, n = 3), and low limits of detection (1.5–3.4 ng L{sup −1}). The expanded uncertainty of the data obtained

  6. PAM-1616, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulator with preserved anti-diabetic efficacy and reduced adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chae, Yu Na; Choi, Song-hyen; Moon, Ho Sang; Son, Moon-Ho; Bae, Myung-Ho; Choi, Hyun-ho; Hur, Youn; Kim, Eunkyung; Park, Yoo Hoi; Park, Chan Sun; Kim, Jae Gyu; Lim, Joong In; Shin, Chang Yell

    2011-01-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is known to be a key regulator of insulin resistance. PAM-1616 is a novel, non-thiazolidinedione small molecule compound synthesized in Dong-A Research Center. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological and safety profiles of PAM-1616 as a selective PPARγ modulator. PAM-1616 selectively binds to human PPARγ (IC(50), 24.1±5.6 nM) and is a partial agonist for human PPARγ with an EC(50) of 83.6±43.7 nM and a maximal response of 24.9±7.1% relative to the full agonist, rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 was selective for human PPARγ than for human PPARα (EC(50), 2658±828 nM) without activating human PPARδ, which makes it a selective modulator of PPARγ. Treatment of high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice with PAM-1616 for 21 days improved HOMA-IR. Furthermore, PAM-1616 significantly improved hyperglycemia in db/db mice with little side effect when orally administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Intriguingly, PAM-1616 was seen to increase the gene expression of inducible glucose transporter (GLUT4), while it partially induced that of a fatty acid carrier, aP2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and it also showed partial recruitment of an adipogenic cofactor, TRAP220 as compared to rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 did not cause a significant increase in plasma volume of ICR mice when orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 9 days. PAM-1616 increased the expression of fluid retention-inducing genes such as serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)-1 to a lesser extent as compared to rosiglitazone in human renal epithelial cells. These results suggest that PAM-1616 acts as a selective modulator of PPARγ with excellent antihyperglycemic property. The differential modulation of target gene by PAM-1616 might contribute to the improved side effect profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-diabetic effects of DA-11004, a synthetic IDPc inhibitor in high fat high sucrose diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Yell; Jung, Mi Young; Lee, In Ki; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dong Sung; Lim, Joong In; Kim, Soon Hoe; Yoo, Moohi; Huh, Tae Lin; Sohn, Young Taek; Kim, Won Bae

    2004-01-01

    DA-11004 is a synthetic, potent NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) inhibitor where IC50 for IDPc is 1.49 microM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DA-11004 on the high fat high sucrose (HF)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice. After completing a 8-week period of experimentation, the mice were sacrificed 1 hr after the last DA-11004 treatment and their blood, liver, and adipose tissues (epididymal and retroperitoneal fat) were collected. There was a significant difference in the pattern of increasing body weight between the HF control and the DA-11004 group. In the DA-11004 (100 mg/kg) treated group the increase in body weight significantly declined and a content of epididymal fat and retroperitoneal fat was also significantly decreased as opposed to the HF control. DA-11004 (100 mg/ kg) inhibited the IDPc activity, and thus, NADPH levels in plasma and the levels of free fatty acid (FFA) or glucose in plasma were less than the levels of the HF control group. In conclusion, DA-11004 inhibited the fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissues via IDPc inhibition, and it decreased the plasma glucose levels and FFA in HF diet-induced obesity of C57BL/6J mice.

  8. Comparison of the Chemical Profiles and Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Extracts from Two Ganoderma Species (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqing; Cai, Weixi; Xu, Baojun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mycochemical profiles, antioxidant activities, and antidiabetic effects of 2 species of genus Ganoderma, the red lingzhi (G. lucidum) and purple lingzhi (G. sinense) mushrooms. In Chinese medicinal practice, hot water and ethanol are used as solvents to extract samples. In this study, a total of 4 extracts (ethanol and hot water extracts from G. lucidum and G. sinense) were prepared for further assays. Hot water extracts presented much higher values for total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power than the ethanol extracts. Ethanol (70%) extract of G. lucidum had the strongest α-glycosidase inhibitory capacity, but the lingzhi polysaccharides showed no inhibitory effect. It also had the largest amount of total ganoderic acids. The results indicated that ethanol extracts from both G. lucidum and G. sinense showed better antidiabetic effects than the hot water extracts. Ganoderic acids, rather than polysaccharides, may contribute the antidiabetic effects of both the Ganoderma species.

  9. Mutagenic effects of alkylating agents on prophage lambda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, S.; Kalinin, V.L.; Kuznetsova, L.V.

    1984-06-01

    An evaluation was made of the relative contribution of repair and reparative mechanisms to the mutagenic potency of several alkylating agents on thermoinducible prophage lambdacI857 ind/sup -/ in several stains of E. coli. Following treatment of lysogenic E. coli with the mutagens and heat induction, 0.02 N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induced c mutations with a high frequency (ca. 10%) in both wild type E. coli and cells with repair mutations (recA13, lexA102, uvrA6, umuC36, xthA9, recF143, polA1, uvrD3, uvrD502). It appears that NUM-induced mutations are stabilized as replicative errors due to mismatched, altered bases. Delay in induction following exposure to NMU improves prophage survival and diminishes c mutant formation, regardless of the E. coli genotype. Evidently, carbamoylation is not involved in NMU mutagenicity since 0.02 M KNCO is nonmutagenic and is virtually without effect on prophage viability. Replicative mechanisms are also involved in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (15%) and ethyl methanesulfonate (2%) induced mutations, since the maximum yield of mutants was independent of recA/sup +/ genotype. However, the mutagenicity of methyl methanesulfonate was abolished by the recA mutation, indicating that the mutagenicity of this agent is repair-dependent. Mitomycin C (0.1%) and acridine mustard (0.3%) induce c mutations regardless of recA/sup +/ and, therefore, appear to do so by intercalation. 26 references, 6 figures.

  10. Effects of bleaching agents on human enamel light reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Ljubisa; Fotouhi, Kasra; Lorenz, Heribert; Jordan, Rainer A; Gaengler, Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening has been associated with splitting-up chromogenic molecules by hydrogen peroxides. Though micromorphological alterations are well documented, little is known about optical changes as a function of shifting in wavelengths. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to measure reflectance changes after bleaching in vitro by using a spectrometer. Forty-eight enamel slabs (diameter = 5 mm) were prepared from the sound enamel of extracted human teeth that were: 1) fully impacted, 2) from juveniles ages 10 to 16 years, 3) from adults 35 to 45 years of age and 4) from seniors older than age 65. In all specimens, the baseline total reflectance measurement was performed with a computer-assisted spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL, USA) within wavelengths (wl) from 430 nm to 800 nm. Four enamel samples of each age group were exposed to either 10% or 15% carbamide peroxide (Illuminé Home, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI Limited, Victoria, Australia). After surface treatment, all slabs underwent total reflectance measurement again. Statistical analysis was calculated at wl 450, 500 and 750 nm using the Student's paired t-test and one-way variance analysis. Total reflectance significantly increased after bleaching at all enamel maturation stages, irrespective of the bleaching agent concentration, for wl 450 nm (blue) and 500 nm (green) with penamel from adults and seniors (pwhitening of the dental enamel works at different maturation stages, even in impacted teeth. This effect is irrespective of the bleaching protocol used and the bleaching agent concentration.

  11. Shape Effects in Nanoparticle-Based Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Kayla Shani Brook

    to characterize complex nanoscale structural features and spectral properties of gold nanostars. Specifically, by evaluating the DIC contrast and image patterns of single nanostars, I distinguished between flat and 3D geometries, identified nanostars with 4-fold symmetry, and determined nanostar orientation. Additionally, in multi-wavelength DIC imaging, an inversion in the contrast could be used to indicate the localized surface plasmon resonance of nanostars with 1 and 2 branches. Next, I used DIC to track the rotational and translational dynamics of functionalized nanostars interacting with live cell membranes. The DNA aptamer ligand on the nanostars specifically targets the transmembrane receptor HER2. I tracked single nanoconstructs over long time scales (˜ 20 minutes per particle, > 80 minutes total) with high temporal resolution (4 fps) and found that analysis of the DIC contrast fluctuations could be used to identify multiple modes of rotational behavior on the cell membrane. I developed MATLAB programs to track the moving nanoconstructs in a dynamic background environment and set up a customized live-cell perfusion chamber that is compatible with the bulky high numerical aperture optics. The combination of the environmental control in the chamber and the low light levels required to visualize single nanostars make this technique optimal for long-term tracking of single nanoconstructs in viable cells. Although nanoparticle size is well-known to influence the relaxivity of Gd(III)-based MRI contrast agents that are attached to the surface, the role of nanoparticle shape was previously unknown. Recently, we discovered that the relaxivity of Gd(III)-conjugated DNA bound to nanostars was three-fold higher than that of analogous spherical nanoconstructs. The relaxivities reached enhancements that were beyond limits that could be explained theoretically by size effects alone. We found that the extremely large enhancements could be explained by elongated water

  12. Stabilizing Agents for Drug Nanocrystals: Effect on Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Tuomela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanocrystals are a versatile option for drug delivery purposes, and while the number of poorly soluble drug materials is all the time increasing, more research in this area is performed. Drug nanocrystals have a simple structure—a solid drug core is surrounded by a layer of stabilizing agent. However, despite the considerably simple structure, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer for a certain drug can be challenging. Mostly, the stabilizer selection is based purely on the requirement of physical stability, e.g., maintaining the nanosized particle size as long as possible after the formation of drug nanocrystals. However, it is also worth taking into account that stabilizer can affect the bioavailability in the final formulation via interactions with cells and cell layers. In addition, formation of nanocrystals is only one process step, and for the final formulation, more excipients are often added to the composition. The role of the stabilizers in the final formulation can be more than only stabilizing the nanocrystal particle size. A good example is the stabilizer’s role as cryoprotectant during freeze drying. In this review, the stabilizing effect, role of stabilizers in final nanocrystalline formulations, challenges in reaching in vitro–in vivo correlation with nanocrystalline products, and stabilizers’ effect on higher bioavailability are discussed.

  13. The potential effect of taurine as a radioprotective agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharoud, M.N.M.

    2010-01-01

    People can be exposed to irradiation either external or internal. The potential effects of radiation on health depend in part on the radiation dose delivered and the rate of delivery causing oxidation and free radical formation. The main purpose of the present study was to asses the effect of taurine administration in modulating some biochemical and hematological parameters in female rats exposed to 6 gray γ-irradiation. The data showed in this study that the ionizing γradiation (6 Gy) induced a significant (p<0.05) increment in the levels of serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL) and elevation of cardiac enzyme activities (LDH, CK and AST) and elevation in the activities of serum AST , ALT and ALP. on the other hand , the ionizing radiation induced a significant (p < 0.05) decline in the concentrations of serum total protein and albumin . In case of exposing female rat to gamma ray, the level of MDA was significantly elevated compared to their corresponding normal control group. Whereas, the drastic decrease were observed in hematological parameters (Hb, RBCs, WBCs and Hct). A significant correction was occurred in all previous parameters after the irradiated rats were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with taurine (500 mg/100 g body weigh / day for one month). Leading to the conclusion that taurine is considered as antioxidant and a radio-protector agent.

  14. The Effect of Silane Coupling Agents on a Composite Polyamide-6/Talc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wiebeck

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of the addition of silane agents on the mechanical properties (tensile strength, hardness and flexibility of the composite polyamide-6/talc. For this purpose, 30% and 40% of a talc with and without the addition of silane agents were incorporated into polyamide-6. Three kinds of silane agents were used, resulting in nine formulations. Comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that the silane agents improve the mechanical properties of the composite material.

  15. Cost-Effective Location Management for Mobile Agents on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Sheng Chen; Jiing-Dong Hwang; Chyuan-Der Lu; Ting-Yuan Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Many mobile agent system-related services and applications require interacting with a mobile agent by passing messages. However, an agent’s mobility raises several challenges in delivering messages to a mobile agent accurately. Consisting of tracking and message delivery phases, most mobile agent location management schemes create or receive many update messages and interaction messages to ensure the effectiveness of the schemes. In addition to downgrading the overall performance of a mobile ...

  16. Effect of acrolein and glutathione depleting agents on thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianmei; Wu Xuli; Choi, Young Eun; Kern, Julie C.; Kehrer, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Acrolein is a widespread environmental pollutant that reacts rapidly with nucleophiles, especially cellular thiols. In addition to glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) contain thiol groups and may react with electrophiles. In the present study, A549 cells treated with 5-25 μM acrolein for 30 min lost cellular Trx activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Over 90% of Trx activity was lost at concentrations of 25 μM or greater. In contrast, Trx protein content, as assessed by western blotting, was not altered immediately after the 30 min acrolein treatment. Both Trx activity and protein levels increased 4 h after the acrolein treatment. However, Trx activity remained below control levels at 24 h. A similar dose-response relationship was seen with TR in A549 cells exposed to acrolein. There was, however, a rapid recovery of TR activity such that it attained normal levels by 4 h after doses ≤75 μM acrolein. Diethyl maleate (DEM), a common but not highly specific, agent used to deplete GSH, also inactivated Trx. A 2 h exposure of A549 cells to 1 mM DEM depleted cellular GSH by ∼50% and diminished Trx activity by over 67%. Lower DEM doses (0.125 mM and 0.25 mM) for 1 h had no significant effect on GSH but significantly decreased Trx activity 12 and 23%, respectively. Similar to immediately after acrolein exposure, DEM did not affect Trx protein levels. A Trx-1-GFP fusion protein was transfected into A549 cells. While the fusion protein was expressed, the Trx component was inactive by the insulin reducing assay. In summary, Trx and TR are inactivated by acrolein. In addition, the GSH depleting agent DEM inactivates Trx somewhat more effectively than it depletes GSH. The Trx-1-GFP fusion protein, while readily expressed, appears to have little or no activity, perhaps because the small size of Trx-1 (12 kDa) is affected by the larger GFP

  17. Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles: Effective Agricultural Antibacterial Agent Against Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is an essential mineral element for plants and is nontoxic to organisms. In this study, we took advantage of nanotechnologies to systematically investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs against the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum in vitro and in vivo for the first time. R. solanacearum has contributed to catastrophic bacterial wilt, which has resulted in the world-wide reduction of tobacco production. The results demonstrated that MgONPs possessed statistically significant concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were measured as 200 and 250 μg/mL, respectively. Additional studies, aimed at understanding the toxicity mechanism of MgONPs, indicated that physical injury occurred to the cell membranes, along with decreased motility and biofilm formation ability of R. solanacearum, due to the direct attachment of MgONPs to the surfaces of the bacterial cells, which was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation could also be an important reason for the antibacterial action, inducing DNA damage. The toxicity assessment assay under greenhouse conditions demonstrated that the MgONPs had exerted a large effect on tobacco bacterial wilt, reducing the bacterial wilt index. Altogether, the results suggest that the development of MgONPs as alternative antibacterial agents will become a new research subject.

  18. Iodinated contrast media and contrast-induced nephropathy: is there a preferred cost-effective agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Samin K

    2008-05-01

    Over 20 years have passed since the introduction of the tri-iodinated low-osmolar nonionic contrast agents such as iopamidol, iohexol, ioversol and iopromide. During this time, most cardiology practices have switched to these nonionic agents to avoid the nuisance side effects and cardiac adverse events associated with the older ionic contrast agents. Although the improved tolerability of the nonionic agents is generally attributed to their decreased osmolality (approximately half that of the older ionic contrast agents), in fact, these contrast agents also differ from the older agents in their ionicity, viscosity and direct chemotoxicity. The impact of these properties on safety, together with cost differences, should be considered when selecting a contrast agent.

  19. Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Policy Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are used as a treatment for anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients. In early 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug...

  20. Effect of acidic agents on surface roughness of dental ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlert Kukiattrakoon

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Acidic agents used in this study negatively affected the surface of ceramic materials. This should be considered when restoring the eroded tooth with ceramic restorations in patients who have a high risk of erosive conditions.

  1. studies on in vitro evaluation of antidiabetic potentials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Keywords: fruit peels, antidiabetic activity, α-amylase enzyme, glycosylated haemoglobin. INTRODUCTION ... absorption of starch into the body thereby .... room temperature for 72 hrs (Abirami et al.,. 2014). ... carbohydrate digestion. One of ...

  2. Effect of reducing agents on wheat gluten and quality characteristics of flour and cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of reducing agents (Lcystine, glutathione and proteases on wheat gluten recovery and quality characteristics of dough and cookies. PBW-343 and RAJ-3765 wheat varieties were analysed for physico-chemical properties which indicated that wheat variety RAJ-3765 had superior quality characteristics in comparison to PBW-343. Wet gluten and dry gluten %yields were reduced with addition of reducing agents. As the concentration of reducing agents increased gluten, yield decreased further. The dough strength (resistance to extension decreased, whereas extension of dough increased significantly with the addition of reducing agents. Upon addition of reducing agents, spread factor increased, whereas hardness decreased. Glutathione was found to be the most effective reducing agent out of the three reducing agents used in this study.

  3. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  4. Effect of two mobilizing agents on the elimination of 147Pm from rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Kunyuan; Gao Xianhua; Lao Qinhua

    1984-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the effect of two new mobilizing agents: N,N-bis-carboxymethyl amino acetylcysteine and hyaluronidase on the elimination of intracheally-injected 147 Pm from rats. The results showed that both the two agents could promote the elimination of 147 Pm from rats and decrease the body retention of rats. The former agent is much more effective in elimination than the other

  5. The effect of alkylating agents on model supported metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem-Senatalar, A.; Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering); Oukaci, R. (CERHYD, Algiers (Algeria))

    1988-01-01

    Interactions between model supported metal clusters and alkylating agents were studied in an effort to understand a novel chemical trapping technique developed for identifying species adsorbed on catalyst surfaces. It was found that these interactions are more complex than had previously been suggested. Studies were completed using deuterium-labeled dimethyl sulfate (DMS), (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as a trapping agent to interact with the supported metal cluster ethylidyne tricobalt enneacarbonyl. Results showed that oxygenated products formed during the trapping reaction contained {minus}OCD{sub 3} groups from the DMS, indicating that the interaction was not a simple alkylation. 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. An Agent-Based Intervention to Assist Drivers Under Stereotype Threat: Effects of In-Vehicle Agents' Attributional Error Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yeon Kyoung; Lee-Won, Roselyn J

    2016-10-01

    For members of a group negatively stereotyped in a domain, making mistakes can aggravate the influence of stereotype threat because negative stereotypes often blame target individuals and attribute the outcome to their lack of ability. Virtual agents offering real-time error feedback may influence performance under stereotype threat by shaping the performers' attributional perception of errors they commit. We explored this possibility with female drivers, considering the prevalence of the "women-are-bad-drivers" stereotype. Specifically, we investigated how in-vehicle voice agents offering error feedback based on responsibility attribution (internal vs. external) and outcome attribution (ability vs. effort) influence female drivers' performance under stereotype threat. In addressing this question, we conducted an experiment in a virtual driving simulation environment that provided moment-to-moment error feedback messages. Participants performed a challenging driving task and made mistakes preprogrammed to occur. Results showed that the agent's error feedback with outcome attribution moderated the stereotype threat effect on driving performance. Participants under stereotype threat had a smaller number of collisions when the errors were attributed to effort than to ability. In addition, outcome attribution feedback moderated the effect of responsibility attribution on driving performance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    2005-09-01

    Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.

  8. An embodiment effect in computer-based learning with animated pedagogical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E; DaPra, C Scott

    2012-09-01

    How do social cues such as gesturing, facial expression, eye gaze, and human-like movement affect multimedia learning with onscreen agents? To help address this question, students were asked to twice view a 4-min narrated presentation on how solar cells work in which the screen showed an animated pedagogical agent standing to the left of 11 successive slides. Across three experiments, learners performed better on a transfer test when a human-voiced agent displayed human-like gestures, facial expression, eye gaze, and body movement than when the agent did not, yielding an embodiment effect. In Experiment 2 the embodiment effect was found when the agent spoke in a human voice but not in a machine voice. In Experiment 3, the embodiment effect was found both when students were told the onscreen agent was consistent with their choice of agent characteristics and when inconsistent. Students who viewed a highly embodied agent also rated the social attributes of the agent more positively than did students who viewed a nongesturing agent. The results are explained by social agency theory, in which social cues in a multimedia message prime a feeling of social partnership in the learner, which leads to deeper cognitive processing during learning, and results in a more meaningful learning outcome as reflected in transfer test performance.

  9. Can agent based models effectively reduce fisheries management implementation uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, M.

    2016-02-01

    Uncertainty is an inherent feature of fisheries management. Implementation uncertainty remains a challenge to quantify often due to unintended responses of users to management interventions. This problem will continue to plague both single species and ecosystem based fisheries management advice unless the mechanisms driving these behaviors are properly understood. Equilibrium models, where each actor in the system is treated as uniform and predictable, are not well suited to forecast the unintended behaviors of individual fishers. Alternatively, agent based models (AMBs) can simulate the behaviors of each individual actor driven by differing incentives and constraints. This study evaluated the feasibility of using AMBs to capture macro scale behaviors of the US West Coast Groundfish fleet. Agent behavior was specified at the vessel level. Agents made daily fishing decisions using knowledge of their own cost structure, catch history, and the histories of catch and quota markets. By adding only a relatively small number of incentives, the model was able to reproduce highly realistic macro patterns of expected outcomes in response to management policies (catch restrictions, MPAs, ITQs) while preserving vessel heterogeneity. These simulations indicate that agent based modeling approaches hold much promise for simulating fisher behaviors and reducing implementation uncertainty. Additional processes affecting behavior, informed by surveys, are continually being added to the fisher behavior model. Further coupling of the fisher behavior model to a spatial ecosystem model will provide a fully integrated social, ecological, and economic model capable of performing management strategy evaluations to properly consider implementation uncertainty in fisheries management.

  10. Effect of Food Sources of Natural Chemo preventive Agents on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The work attempted to evaluate the potential of natural products containing cancer chemopreventive agents in increasing the level of some endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione STransferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD-1,2) in brain and kidney ...

  11. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  12. Effect of capping agents on optical and antibacterial properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) were synthesized in aqueous phase by the freezing temperature injection technique using different capping agents (viz. thioglycolic acid, 1-thioglycerol, L-cysteine). Absorption spectra of CdSe QDs exhibited a blue shift as compared to its bulk counterpart, which is an indication ...

  13. Antidiabetic Activity from Gallic Acid Encapsulated Nanochitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowatiningrum; Ngadiwiyana; Ismiyarto; Fachriyah, E.; Eviana, I.; Eldiana, O.; Amaliyah, N.; Sektianingrum, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a health problem in the world because it causes death. One of the phenolic compounds that have antidiabetic activity is gallic acid. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The result of chitosan nanoparticle’s Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that chitosan nanoparticle’s size is uniform and it is smaller than chitosan. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of gallic acid which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 50.76%. Inhibition test result showed that gallic acid-chitosan nanoparticles at 50 ppm could inhibite α-glucosidase activity in 28.87% with 54.94 in IC50. So it can be concluded that gallic acid can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  14. Anti-Diabetic Potential of the Leaves of Anisomeles malabarica in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddanna Kotha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic metabolic disorder that is affecting a majority of populations in recent years. There is a requirement for new drugs that are safer and cheaper due to the side effects associated with the available medications. Methods: We investigated the anti-diabetic activity of leaves of Anisomeles malabarica following bioactivity guided fractionation. The different solvent (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of A. malabarica leaves were used in acute treatment studies to evaluate and identify the active fraction. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to further fractionation using silica gel column chromatography and the compounds were identified by LC-SRM/MS and GC-MS. Additional chronic treatment studies were carried out using this active fraction (AMAF for 30 days in experimental diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance were measured along with insulin resistance/sensitivity indicators (HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI to assess the beneficial effects of A. malabarica in the management of diabetes mellitus. Results: Among the different solvent extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract showed maximum (66% anti-hyperglycemic activity. The hexane and ethyl acetate (1: 1 fraction that has maximum anti-diabetic activity was identified as active fraction of A. malabarica (AMAF. The FBG, HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity/resistance indicators such as glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI were significantly improved to near normal in diabetic rats treated with AMAF. Further, we identified key flavonoids and fatty acids as the anti-diabetic active principles from the AMAF of A. malabarica leaves. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that Anisomeles malabarica has potential anti-diabetic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  15. Synthesis of (+)-Antroquinonol: An Antihyperglycemic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulake, Rohidas S; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chen, Chinpiao

    2015-06-19

    The total synthesis of antroquinonol has been accomplished through Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and Barton-McCombie reaction, and the α,β-unsaturation was achieved through selenylation and oxidation protocols. In vitro and in vivo studies on the glucose-lowering properties of antroquinonol indicate that it is a potential antidiabetic agent.

  16. Generic substitution of antidiabetic drugs in the elderly does not affect adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Trotta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The possibility that variation in packaging and pill appearance may reduce adherence is a reason for concern, especially for chronic diseases. The objectives of the study were to quantify the extent of switches between generic antidiabetics and to verify whether switching between different products of the same substance affects adherence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All elderly residents of the Umbria Region who received at least 2 prescriptions of antidiabetics in 2010 and 2011 were included in the study. Switching was defined as the dispensing of two different products of the same substance in a series of two prescriptions. Single and multiple switchers were identified according to the number of switches during 2011. Switching relevant to the three off-patent substances with generic use ≥ 5% (metformin, gliclazide and repaglinide was quantified. The effect of switching on adherence, defined as the proportion of days in 2011 covered by prescriptions (Medication Possession Ratio, MPR, was estimated. RESULTS: Among the 15 964 patients receiving antidiabetics (14.4% of the elderly population 9211 were prescribed at least one of the generic substances. Of these patients, 23.3% experienced a single switch and 15.7% were multiple switchers (61.0% never switched. The proportion of multiple switchers increased with the number of prescriptions, reaching 26% among patients with ≥ 11 prescriptions. MPR was 62%, 62% and 72%, respectively among non-switchers, single and multiple switchers. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients treated with antidiabetics, the substitution between branded and unbranded products (as well as between generics of the same substance, did not negatively affect adherence.

  17. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  18. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  19. Evaluation of the Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Cissus sicyoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Luis Beltrame

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the antidiabetic and antibacterial effect of Cissus sicyoides (CS from Brazil. Diabetic rats that received water (A group or extracts from the aerial parts of the plant (Cs group during four weeks were employed. After this period, serum levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Glycemia was not affected by treatment with CS. However, there was an increased cholesterol and triglyceride level in Cs group. In addition, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanolic extract from aerial parts of CS was performed for isolation of antibacterial compounds.beta-Sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 50 mug/ml and 100 mug/ml, respectively. In spite of popular belief, CS did not show antidiabetic activity. However, two compounds isolated from aerial parts of the plant (beta-sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside showed antibacterial activity.No presente trabalho foram investigados os efeitos antibacteriano e antidiabético da planta Cissus sicyoides (CS coletada no Brasil. Ratos diabéticos receberam água (grupo A ou extratos da parte aérea da planta (grupo CS durante 4 semanas. Após este período, os níveis séricos de glicose, colesterol e triglicerídeos dos ratos foram determinados. A glicemia não foi afetada pelo tratamento com CS. Entretanto, houve aumento nos níveis de colesterol e triglicerídeos nos ratos do grupo CS. Em adição, fracionamento bio-monitorado foi realizado para o isolamento de compostos com atividade antibacteriana. beta-Sitosterol e sitosterol-beta-D-glucopiranosídeo isolados mostram atividade antibacteriana contra Bacillus subtilis com concentrações mínimas inibitórias (MICs de 50 mig/ml e 100 mig/ml, respectivamente. Apesar da crença popular, CS não mostrou atividade antidiabética. Entretanto, dois compostos isolados da parte aérea da

  20. Cost-Effective Location Management for Mobile Agents on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Sheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mobile agent system-related services and applications require interacting with a mobile agent by passing messages. However, an agent’s mobility raises several challenges in delivering messages to a mobile agent accurately. Consisting of tracking and message delivery phases, most mobile agent location management schemes create or receive many update messages and interaction messages to ensure the effectiveness of the schemes. In addition to downgrading the overall performance of a mobile agent location management scheme, excessive transmission of messages increases the network load. The migration locality of a mobile agent and the interaction rate between mobile agents significantly affect the performance of a mobile agent location management scheme with respect to location management cost. This work presents a novel Dual Home based Scheme (DHS that can lower the location management costs in terms of migration locality and interaction rate. While the DHS scheme uniquely adopts dual home location management architecture, a selective update strategy based on that architecture is also designed for cost-effective location management of mobile agents. Moreover, DHS is compared with available schemes based on formulations and simulation experiments from the perspective of location management costs. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DHS scheme performs satisfactorily in terms of migration locality and interaction rate.

  1. Barriers and Effective Educational Strategies to Develop Extension Agents' Professional Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakai, Dona; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Moore, Gary E.; Kistler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here determined the barriers and effective educational strategies to develop Extension agents' professional competencies. This was a descriptive survey research conducted with a random sample of Extension agents. Increased workload and lack of time and funding were identified as the most constraining barriers of Extension agents…

  2. Effects of Cueing by a Pedagogical Agent in an Instructional Animation: A Cognitive Load Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a pedagogical agent that cued relevant information in a story-based instructional animation on the cardiovascular system. Based on cognitive load theory, it was expected that the experimental condition with the pedagogical agent would facilitate students to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant…

  3. Lapse of time effects on tax evasion in an agent-based econophysics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Götz; Pickhardt, Michael

    2013-05-01

    We investigate an inhomogeneous Ising model in the context of tax evasion dynamics where different types of agents are parameterized via local temperatures and magnetic fields. In particular, we analyze the impact of lapse of time effects (i.e. backauditing) and endogenously determined penalty rates on tax compliance. Both features contribute to a microfoundation of agent-based econophysics models of tax evasion.

  4. Root Conditioning and Agents Effect in Regeneration of Periodontal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadkhoda Z

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis affected root surfaces are hypermineralized and contaminated with cytotoxic and"nother biologically active substances."nThe instrumented surface will inervitably be coverd by a smear layer following root planing with or without flap."nSmear layer is resistant to saline rinsing, but may be removed with agents such as acids (e.g.citric acid, tetracyclines, EDTA, and laser."nLow pH aqueous solutions such as citric acid have been used in surgical periodontal therapy mainly for two reasons, It dissolves smear layer after a relatively short exposure time and it has been claimed to selectively remove root surface associated mineral exposing collagen to varying degrees. A root surface coated with collagen appears to be a preferred surface for fibroblast attachment, a cellular event fundamental to successful periodontal wound healing."nSeveral studies indicate the potential of tetracycline (TTE-HCL in periodontal regeneration. Its acidic pH suggest that it can be used as a demineralization agent and removing the smear layer and exposing collagen matrix of the dentin."nChalating agent (EDTA working at neutral pH appears preferable with respect to preserving the integrity of exposed collagen fibers, early colonization, and wound healing. In addition, etching at neutral pH has been reported preserve adjacent tissue- vitality, while etching at low pH necrotizes the fiap and adjacent periodontium."nClinical and subclinical studies have demonstrated laser waves can remove calculus and bacterial plaque and pocket epithelium and strile the root surface and can expose the dentin collagen and dentinal tublules, and leads to pronounce reducing of probing depth around teeth diseased with periodontitis.

  5. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  6. Anti-diabetic potential of the essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves toward streptozotocin-treated mice and HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hye-Eun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Sohn, Eun Jung; Lee, Min-Ho; Ko, Hyun-Suk; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome creates risk factors for coronary heart disease, diabetes, fatty liver, obesity and several cancers. Our group has already reported that the essential oil from leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) exerted antihyperlipidemic effects by upregulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibiting acyl-coenzyme A, cholesterol acyltransferases. We evaluated in the current study the anti-diabetic effects of EOPK on mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes and on HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells. EOPK significantly protected HIT-T15 cells from STZ-induced cytotoxicity and reduced the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice when compared with the untreated control. EOPK consistently and significantly suppressed the α-amylase activity in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced the expression of insulin at the mRNA level in STZ-treated HIT-T15 cells, while the expression of insulin was attenuated. EOPK also significantly abrogated the population of reactive oxygen species when compared to the untreated control in STZ-treated HIT-T15 cells. Furthermore, EOPK significantly reduce nitric oxide production, suppressed the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase and suppressed the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in STZ-treated HIT-T15 cells, implying its potential application to diabetic retinopathy. Overall, our findings suggest that EOPK had hypoglycemic potential by inhibiting reactive oxygene species (ROS), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and VEGF in STZ-treated mice and HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells as a potent anti-diabetic agent.

  7. The antidiabetic action of camel milk in experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus: an overview on the changes in incretin hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, A A

    2014-06-01

    Folk medicine stories accredited the aptitude of camel milk (CMK) as a hypoglycemic agent and recent studies have confirmed this in the diabetic patients and experimental animals. However, the mechanism(s) by which CMK influences glucose homeostasis is yet unclear. The current study investigated the changes in the glucose homeostatic parameters, the incretin hormones, and the inflammatory cytokines in the CMK-treated diabetic animals. A model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 40 mg/kg/day for 4 repeated doses. Camel milk treatment was administered for 8 weeks. The changes in glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose tolerance, fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin resistance (IR), TNF-α, TGF-β1, lipid profile, atherogenic index (AI), and body weight were investigated. The untreated diabetic animals showed hyperglycemia, increased HOMA-IR, hyperlipidemia, elevated AI, high serum incretins [GLP-1 and GIP], TNF-α, and TGF-β1 levels and weight loss as compared with the control group. Camel milk treatment to the diabetic animals resulted in significant lowered fasting glucose level, hypolipidemia, decreased HOMA-IR, recovery of insulin secretion, weight gain, and no mortality during the study. Additionally, CMK inhibits the diabetes-induced elevation in incretin hormones, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels. The increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, decreased HOMA-IR, modulation of the secretion and/or the action of incretins, and the anti-inflammatory effect are anticipated mechanisms to the antidiabetic effect of CMK and suggest it as a valuable adjuvant antidiabetic therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The effects of anesthetic agents on oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakan, Selvinaz; Düzgüner, Vesile

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the instability between antioxidant defense of the body and the production of free radical that causes peroxydation on the lipid layer. Free radicals are reactive oxygen species that are produced in the course of normal metabolisms of aerobe organisms and they may cause disorders in cell structure and organelles by interacting macromolecules, like lipid, protein, nucleic acids. Therefore, they may cause cardiovascular, immune system, liver, kidney illnesses and many other illnesses like cancer, aging, cataract, diabetes. It is known that many drugs used for the purpose of anesthetizing may cause lipid peroxidation in organism. For these reasons, determining the Oxidative stress index of anaesthetic stress chosen in the ones that are exposed to long term anaesthetic agents and anaesthesia appliccations, is so substantial.

  9. Gamma radiation effect on sisal / polyurethane composites without coupling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cardoso Vasco

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural fibers and polyurethane based composites may present chemical bonding between the components of the polymer and the lignin of the fiber. The incidence of radiation can cause degradation of the polymeric material and alter its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to obtain and characterize cold pressed composites from polyurethane derived from castor oil and sisal fibers, without coupling agents, through thermogravimetric and mechanical tests, before and after the incidence of 25 kGy dose of gamma radiation. Woven composites that were not irradiated had maximum values of 4.40 GPa for flexural elastic modulus on three point flexural test and dispersed fiber composite that were not irradiated had maximum values of 2.25 GPa. These materials are adequate for use in non-structural applications in radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic rooms.

  10. Gamma radiation effect on sisal / polyurethane composites without coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, Marina Cardoso; Claro Neto, Salvador; Nascimento, Eduardo Mauro; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: marina.mcv@gmail.com [University of Patras (Greece); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Natural fibers and polyurethane based composites may present chemical bonding between the components of the polymer and the lignin of the fiber. The incidence of radiation can cause degradation of the polymeric material and alter its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to obtain and characterize cold pressed composites from polyurethane derived from castor oil and sisal fibers, without coupling agents, through thermogravimetric and mechanical tests, before and after the incidence of 25 kGy dose of gamma radiation. Woven composites that were not irradiated had maximum values of 4.40 GPa for flexural elastic modulus on three point flexural test and dispersed fiber composite that were not irradiated had maximum values of 2.25 GPa. These materials are adequate for use in non-structural applications in radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic rooms. (author)

  11. In vitro and in vivo antidiabetic potential of extracts and a furostanol saponin from Balanites aegyptiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Shahira Mohammed; Abdel Motaal, Amira; El Awdan, Sally Abdel Wanees

    2017-12-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits are well-known antidiabetic drug in Egyptian folk medicine. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action is still unclear. Searching for the possible mechanisms of action of the plant and identification of its bioactive compounds. A bio-guided protocol based on the evaluation of α-glucosidase (AG) and aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activities was adopted to isolate the biologically active compounds from the methanol extract (MeEx). An in vivo antidiabetic study was conducted for the active extract, fraction and compound using streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino Wistar rats at two dose levels (100 and 200 mg/kg.b/wt) for 2 weeks. Three compounds were isolated and identified: a sterol, (1) stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside; a pregnane glucoside, (2) pregn-5-ene-3β,16β,20(R)-trio1-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside; a furostanol saponin, (3) 26-(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-22-O-methylfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside. Only compound 3 possessed significant AG and AR inhibitory activities (IC 50  = 3.12 ± 0.17 and 1.04 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively), while compounds 1 and 2 were inactive. The in vivo antidiabetic study revealed that MeEx and furostanol saponin 3 possessed significant activities at a dose of 200 mg/kg through reducing the fasting plasma glucose level by 46.14% and 51.39%, respectively, as well as reducing the total cholesterol by 24.44% and 31.90%, respectively. Compound 3 also caused increment in insulin and C-peptide levels by 63.56% and 65%, respectively. We presented a scientific base for using Balanites aegyptiaca, and shed the light on one of its saponins, as an antidiabetic agent in fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia along with the improvement of diabetic complications.

  12. An adenovirus-derived protein: A novel candidate for anti-diabetic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vijay; Na, Ha-Na; Dubuisson, Olga; Burke, Susan J; Collier, J Jason; Burk, David; Mendoza, Tamra; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to human adenovirus Ad36 is causatively and correlatively linked with better glycemic control in animals and humans, respectively. Although the anti-hyperglycemic property of Ad36 may offer some therapeutic potential, it is impractical to use an infectious agent for therapeutic benefit. Cell-based studies identified that Ad36 enhances cellular glucose disposal via its E4orf1 protein. Ability to improve glycemic control in vivo is a critical prerequisite for further investigating the therapeutic potential of E4orf1. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the ability of E4orf1 to improve glycemic control independent of insulin despite high fat diet. 8-9wk old male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (60% kcal) were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector (Control). Glycemic control was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance test. Islet cell size, amount of insulin and glucagon were determined in formalin-fixed pancreas. Rat insulinoma cell line (832/13) was infected with E4orf1 or control to determine changes in glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Protein from flash frozen adipose tissue depots, liver and muscle was used to determine molecular signaling by western blotting. In multiple experiments, retrovirus-mediated E4orf1 expression in C57BL/6J mice significantly and reproducibly improved glucose excursion following a glucose load despite a high fat diet (60% energy). Importantly, E4orf1 improved glucose clearance without increasing insulin sensitivity, production or secretion, underscoring its insulin-independent effect. E4orf1 modulated molecular signaling in mice tissue, which included greater protein abundance of adiponectin, p-AKT and Glucose transporter Glu4. This study provides the proof of concept for translational development of E4orf1 as a potential anti-diabetic agent. High fat intake and impaired insulin signaling are often associated with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. Hence, the

  13. Pattern of pharmaceutical retailing of anti-diabetic products in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famuyiwa, O O

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four pharmacists in the city of Ibadan were surveyed through a self-administered structured questionnaire as to the extent of their involvement in the pharmaceutical retailing of antidiabetic products and their cost. Oral hypoglycemic agents especially, chlorpropamide (Diabenese) and glibenclamide (Daonil) were the most readily available drugs being obtainable from 21 (87.5%) pharmacies. Insulin was stocked regularly by only 14 (58.3%) of the pharmacists and insulin syringes and needles could be obtained from only 10 (41.6%) of the pharmacies. Among materials for urine testing, clinistix strip was the most readily available and fully one-third of the pharmacies did not stock any such material. The prices of all the products were disturbingly high and between 1983 and 1986 when retail prices were re-assessed, the cost of some materials had escalated by as much as 400%. Scarcity of antidiabetic products and their high cost pose serious challenges for those involved in the care of diabetic patients in Nigeria. Some suggestions have been made as to what steps both the government and the pharmaceutical industry can take in ensuring the availability of these life sustaining products for the increasingly large Nigerian diabetic population.

  14. [Glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory proteins as molecular targets for novel antidiabetic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, P M; Igudin, E L; Tiulpakov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The impairment of glucose homeostasis leads to hyperglycemia and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic ß-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and intestine enterocytes, is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis. In hepatocytes, GK controls the glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis and inhibits the glucose synthesis via the gluconeogenesis pathway. Glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) synthesized in hepatocytes acts as an endogenous GK inhibitor. During fasting, GKRP binds GK, inactivates it, and transports it into the cell nucleus, thus isolating it from the hepatocyte carbohydrate metabolism. In the beginning of the 2000s, the research was mainly focused on the development and trials of the small molecule GK activators as potential antidiabetic glucose-lowering drugs. However, the use of such substances increased the risk of hypoglycemia, and clinical studies of most synthetic GK activators are currently discontinued. Allosteric inhibitors of the GK-GKRP interaction are coming as alternative agents increasing the GK activity that can substitute GKA. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and the current state of art in the development of potential antidiabetic drugs targeted to GK as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis.

  15. Polyvinylpyrrolidone Matrix as an Effective Reducing Agent and Stabilizer during Reception of Silver Nanoparticles in Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Semenyuk, Nataliya; Kostiv, Ulyana; Dudok, Galyna; Nechay, Jaroslav; Skorokhoda, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    The use of polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix as an effective reducing agent and stabilizer during reception of silver nanoparticles in composites is substantiated. The influence of various factors on patterns of obtaining silver nanoparticles and their size.

  16. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  17. Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ya; Qiu, Pengcheng; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many fruits and herbs had been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines for treating diabetes mellitus (DM); however, scientific and accurate evidences regarding their efficacy and possible mechanisms were largely unknown. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) was used in folk medicine in treating DM, but there is no literature about these effects. The present study was aimed at confirming the treatment effects of SMSO in type 1 DM. Methods Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight. After diabetes induction, mice were treated with SMSO at dose of 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, and 4 g/kg. Drugs were given by gavage administration once a day continuously for 28 days. At the end of treatment, several biochemical parameters and molecular mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays, ELISA, and Western blotting. The chemical compositions of SMSO were also tested. Results SMSO treatment significantly improved the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia, reduced FBG level, increased plasma insulin levels, reduced plasma lipids levels, and protected islet injury. The results also showed that SMSO mitigated oxidative stress and alleviated the liver and renal injury in diabetes mice. SMSO also protected islet cells from apoptotic damage by suppressing ER mediated and mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathways. Further constituent analysis results showed that SMSO had rich natural resources which had beneficial effects on DM. Conclusions This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:29853958

  18. The effects of water soluble contrast agents on the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, I.; Donchey, S.; Doust, B.; Branson, J.; Munro, V.

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast agents Gastrografin R (Sodium diatrizoate and meglumine diatrizoate, Schering, Berlin), Iopamiro 300 R (Iopamidol, Schering, Berlin), and Dionosil Aqueous R (propyliodone BP, Glaxo, England) were instilled into the tracheobronchial tree of rats in doses of either 0.1 ml and 0.25 ml. Rats being used as controls, underwent sham operations with the instillation of air instead of contrast agent. In all, 85 rats were used. All rats that had not already died from the effects of contrast agent were sacrificed 30 minutes after instillation. The relative effects of the contrast agents were measured by comparing: survival time; radiographic effects of the contrast agents on the lungs; and pathological changes as estimated by post mortem lung section and microscopy. The least toxic agent was the one with the lowest osmotic activity, namely Aqueous Dionosil. It is therefore recommended that Aqueous Dionosil be used in preference to Gastrografin or Iopamidol for studies of the oesophagus whenever there is a danger of aspiration of contrast agent into the tracheobronchial tree. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties of water and n-butanol soluble extracts from Saharian Anvillea radiata in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandouli, Chouaib; Cassien, Mathieu; Mercier, Anne; Delehedde, Caroline; Ricquebourg, Emilie; Stocker, Pierre; Mekaouche, Mourad; Leulmi, Zineb; Mechakra, Aicha; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Culcasi, Marcel; Pietri, Sylvia

    2017-07-31

    According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties. Six extracts (water soluble and organic) from aerial parts of the plant were analyzed phytochemically (total phenolic and flavonoid content) and screened for in vitro superoxide (by chemiluminescence) and hydroxyl radical (by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping) scavenging, antioxidant (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC assays), xanthine oxidase, metal chelating, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory property, and protective effects on copper-induced lipoprotein oxidation. Then selected hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were assessed for toxicity in normal human lung fibroblasts and A549 cancer cells using FMCA and MTT assays. Two water-soluble extracts having the best overall properties were assessed for their (i) protective effect at 1-15µg/mL on metabolic activity of rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells exposed to hyperglycemic medium, and (ii) acute hypoglycemic effect on 16-weeks HFD-induced diabetic mice. Then diabetic mice were administered HFD supplemented by extracts (up to 150mg/kg/day) for 12 additional weeks using standard diet as control and the antidiabetic drug, metformin (150mg/kg), as positive control. Then the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts were determined. Of the highly efficient

  20. In vitro contractile effects of agents used in the clinical management of postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John J; Crosby, David A; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2016-10-15

    Uterine atony is a major cause of postpartum haemorrhage and maternal mortality. However, the comparative pharmacology of agents used to treat this condition is poorly understood. This study evaluates, using human pregnant myometrium in vitro, a range of contractile parameters for agents used in the clinical treatment of atonic postpartum haemorrhage. The effects of oxytocin, carbetocin, ergometrine, carboprost, syntometrine and misoprostol were investigated in 146 myometrial strips from 19 donors. The potency and maximal response values were obtained, and compared, using both maximal amplitude and mean contractile force as indices of contraction. Single, EC50 concentrations of the agents were administered and both force and contraction peak parameters were compared during a 15-min exposure. Differences were considered significant when Poxytocin and carbetocin being the most potent. The most important difference between the agents was in their ability to increase the mean contractile force, with oxytocin superior to all agents except syntometrine. In single dose experiments, mean contractile force was the parameter that separated the agents. In this respect, oxytocin was not statistically different from carboprost or syntometrine, but was superior to all other agents. These findings support a clear role for oxytocin as the first line agent for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage and raise doubts about the potential clinical usefulness of misoprostol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cynodon dactylon extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Watal, Geeta

    2007-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, respectively. The effect of repeated oral administration of aqueous extract on serum lipid profile in diabetic rats was also examined. A range of doses, viz. 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg bw of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon were evaluated and the dose of 500mg/kg was identified as the most effective dose. It lowers blood glucose level around 31% after 4h of administration in normal rats. The same dose of 500mg/kg produced a fall of 23% in blood glucose level within 1h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) of mild diabetic rats. This dose has almost similar effect as that of standard drug tolbutamide (250mg/kg bw). Severely diabetic rats were also treated daily with 500mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 59% was observed in fasting blood glucose level. A reduction in the urine sugar level and increase in body weight of severe diabetic rats were additional corroborating factors for its antidiabetic potential. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased by 35, 77 and 29%, respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL) was increased by 18%. These results clearly indicate that aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.

  2. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in blood glucose as compared to control. Liver function test also showed significant changes (p<0.001 as compared to alloxan-treated group. The results of this study showed that crude P. lentiscus gum have considerable efficacy in curing diabetes and have hepatoprotective effect.

  3. Effectiveness of bleaching agent on composite resin discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Sampoerno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discoloration of teeth, especially anterior teeth, is one of aesthetic problems. The use of tooth bleaching agents for discolored natural teeth is becoming increasingly popular. Many dentists, however, get many problems when they conduct bleaching process since there is much composite filling on patient’s anterior teeth. Although many research have focused on the discoloration of composite resin after bleaching process, the problem still becomes debatable. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of the discoloration between hybrid composite and nano composite before and after the application of tooth bleaching agent, 38% hydrogen peroxide. Methods: Eighteen disk-shaped specimens (5 mm of each of two composite resins, hybrid and nano filler, were prepared. The each group was treated 3 times and the specimens were divided into two groups consisted of 9 specimens for each, and then immersed in black tea solutions for 72 hours. Next, after having staining and bleaching processes, the color of the specimens was measured with a optic spectrophotometer by using photo with type BPY-47 and digital microvolt. The differences of the light intensity among three measurements were then calculated. Afterwards, GLM MANOVA Repeated Measure and parametric analysis (Independent t-test and Paired t-test were then used to analyze the data. Results: After staining process, it is then known that the nano composite had more discoloration and more affected by the black tea solution than the hybrid one. Conclusion: After bleaching, the discoloration was finally removed completely from both hybride and nano filler composite resins and became brighter from the baseline color.Latar belakang: Salah satu problem estetik adalah adanya perubahan warna pada gigi anterior. Peningkatan pemakaian bahan bleaching semakin popular. Banyak dokter gigi mempunyai problem ketika mereka akan melakukan proses bleaching dan ditemukan banyak

  4. Synthesis and in vitro antidiabetic activity of some alkyl carbazole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    ... or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ... Thus, the search for new leads for antidiabetic drugs with lower ... precoated plate (0.25mm) using toluene: ethyl acetate (7:2v/v) as ...

  5. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe. METHODS: A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany), Wales and the rest of the UK. Women...

  6. Antidiabetic And Toxicological Evaluation Of Aqueous Ethanol Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secamone afzelii Rhoem is used in ethnomedicine for hepatic diseases, diabetes, venereal diseases, amenorrhoea and toothaches. This present study was aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic activity and to establish the toxicological profile of the plant to confirm its traditional application and justify continuous usage.

  7. Anti-diabetic activity of Holothuria thomasi saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Barky, Amira R; Hussein, Samy A; Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A; Hafez, Yehia A; Mohamed, Tarek M

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a global health problem. It characterized by hyperglycemia that induces oxidative stress leading to a generation of free radicals. A wide variety of natural products in plants and other marine animals represent antioxidant activity and other health benefits like those of sea cucumber. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of glycosidic compound - saponin - derived from the Egyptian sea cucumber, Holothuria thomasi. Saponin has been extracted from the Egyptian sea cucumber and confirmed by hemolysis, Salkowski tests, FT/IR, UV and GC-MS analysis. Eighty white female albino rats were divided into four equal groups. The first two groups of rats; control normal and control normal saponin-treated groups. The last two groups which were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin had one diabetic control and the other diabetic group that got 300mg/kg B.wt. of saponin extract after Thirty-five days after diabetes induction and lasted for six weeks. The functional group of saponin extract which established with FT/IR spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of saponin in the extracted materials as shown in the peak of the functional group in relevance to the standard one. The UV spectra revealed that λ max of saponin extract was 282nm which in accordance to the standard saponin. Also, GC-MS analysis indicated that the aglycone part of saponin was methyl esters of octadecanoic acid. Saponin extract significantly decreased serum glucose, α-amylase activity, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α concentrations and liver L-MDA. However, serum insulin and liver glycogen levels were significantly increased as compared with the diabetic non-treated groups. The histopathological results supported that saponin extract markedly reduced the degenerative change in β-cells. This study, therefore, depicts that the Egyptian Holothuria thomasi, sea cucumber saponin as a hypoglycemic agent with the potential to normalize

  8. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Anabasis articulata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... hyperglycemic mice (glucose treated and alloxan treated mice) to confirm the antidiabetic potential of ... Key word: Anabasis articulata, antihyperglycemic; diabetic mice; antidiabetic effect; saponin, alkaloids. ..... London, pp.

  9. Low molecular weight compounds as effective dispersing agents in the formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Jun; Natsuki, Toshiaki, E-mail: natsuki@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Abe, Takao [Shinshu University, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    A convenient method to synthesize uniform, well-dispersed colloidal silver nanoparticles is described. Aldonic acid or {alpha}-hydroxy acid compounds of low molecular weight are used instead of polymeric compounds as dispersing agents to prepare silver nanoparticles. The size, conformation, and electrical conductivity of the silver nanoparticles, and the effect and function of the dispersing agents are investigated in detail. Using these low molecular weight compounds as dispersing agents, silver nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm or less and high electrical conductivity can be obtained. In addition, this procedure allows silver nanoparticles to be sintered at 150 Degree-Sign C, which is lower than that required for silver nanoparticle formulation using polymeric compounds (200 Degree-Sign C). The silver nanoparticles produced by this process can be used to prepare various inks and to manufacture electronic circuits. It is found that low molecular weight compounds are more effective dispersing agents than polymeric compounds in the formation of silver nanoparticles.

  10. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in α-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25 μg/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o. have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o., and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o. treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models.

  11. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal; Viswanatha, G. L.; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in α-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25 μg/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22919408

  12. New amides from seeds of Silybum marianum with potential antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ning-Bo; Jia, Cui-Cui; Xu, Jun; Li, Da-Hong; Xu, Fan-Xing; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Two new amide compounds, mariamides A and B (1-2), were obtained together with fourteen known compounds from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS data. Most of the compounds showed significant antioxidant activities than positive control in ABTS and FRAP assays. However, only amide compounds 1-4 showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity and compounds 7 and 16 showed the most potent activity against DPPH. Most of the compounds showed moderate to stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Nevertheless, only flavonoids showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activities. These results indicate a use of milk thistle seed extracts as promising antioxidant and antidiabetic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical effect of Cystenosine on leukocytopenia at the time of therapy with radiation and antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide; Usui, Ryu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Mihashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    Out of 62 cases, 25 cases received only radiotherapy, 11 cases received both radiotherapy and antineoplastic agents, and 26 cases received only antineoplastic agents. Total dose of x-ray ranges from 3000 to 6200 rad in 18 of 36 cases of the former two groups, and 2600 to 6260 rad of 60 Co dose were irradiated to 18 cases of the rest. This agent was administered 9 tablets per a day (one tablet contains 200 mg of inosine and 20 mg of cystine) for 19 to 142 days. Its effects on leukocytopenia showed marked effectiveness in 9 out of 25 cases treated with only radiation, effectiveness in 8 cases, and ineffectiveness in 3 cases. Its effective rate was 72.8%. The effective rate was 65.4% in the cases treated with only antineoplastic agents, and was 67.7% in all cases. A certain relationship between dose and the effective rate was not recognized. Radiation sickness, such as loss of appetite general fatigue and mausea, decreased gradually by using this agent. Side effect was not recognized particularly. (Kanao. N.)

  14. 241 Comparative Effectiveness of Certain Antimicrobial Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... effectiveness of antimicrobial preservation during storage life of preparations ... The low cost and long history of safe use probably explains the .... In Hugo, W.B and Rusell, A.D. Pharmaceutical.

  15. Effects of the topical hemostatic agent Ankaferd Blood Stopper on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-11

    Apr 11, 2013 ... localized AO, septic socket, necrotic socket, and alveolalgia.[5‑11]. First, in the literature, AO ... angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and/or ..... effects of Ankaferd as an alternative medicine. Altern Med Rev ...

  16. Level Of Extension Agents Motivation And Effectiveness In Abia State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiadikwe N. Benjamin Agbarevo Nwogu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is known to affect effectiveness of workers but the level of extension agents motivation and how this has affected their effectiveness in Abia state is apparently unknown. A study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of motivation on effectiveness of extension agents in Abia State Nigeria. Two blocks were selected from each of the three zones in the state at the first stage giving total of 6 blocks. The second stage involved the selection of two sub-circles from each of the 6 blocks selected giving a total of 12 extension sub-circles. At the third stage 10 extension agents from each of the sub-circles were randomly selected giving a sample size of 120 extension agents. The data for the study was collected with use of a structured questionnaire. The extension agents level of motivation and effectiveness were measured with the aid of a 5 point Likert rating scale. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics used were the mean frequencies and the Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient which was used to determine the coefficient of correlation r . The inferential statistic used was the t-test of significance of relationship. The study found a significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents. Hence the null hypothesis which stated that there is no significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents was rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted at 95 confidence level and 119 degrees of freedom.

  17. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widespread defoliation of plantation forests by insect pests causes economic losses worldwide. Successful pest outbreak management requires knowledge of effective pest management options. Currently, such knowledge is inadequate for Gonometa podocarpi an indigenous pest that has devastated conifer plantations in ...

  19. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  20. Clemastine as Antimicrobial Agent: Effectiveness and Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Fazli Bazaz

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the antimicrobial activity of Clemastine was studied.The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs of this drug against some bacteria were determined using tube dilution method.To find out the bactericidal activity of Clemastine, the number of living bacteria in the presence of drug was counted by a culture method (pour plate method. Thereafter, the preservative effectiveness of Clemastine was studied in detail using standard method (USP 1985.The results show a good antibacterial but not antifungal activity."nIn considering the mechanism of action of Clemastine, it can be seen that the drug has some effect on cell membrane permeability and causes leakage of intracellular material including the K+ .Comparing the bactericidal results with the leakage of K+, shows that the leakage may be due to the bactericidal activity of the drug.

  1. Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanholder, R.; Waterloos, M.A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Section, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Hakim, R.; Schulman, G. [Department of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Barium, at clinical dilutions, causes a significant increase of baseline ''resting state'' phagocytic activity, which in turn leads to significant blunting of subsequent response to phagocytic challenge and adversely affects the response to all bacteria tested. There is no baseline activation of leukocytes by the water-soluble media, although there was some inhibition (rather than activation) of leukocyte metabolic activity. The effect of the water-soluble media in bacteria was more complex (although inhibition is minor compared to barium). Our data demonstrate that barium is a significat activator of phagocytic cells, which results in deactivation of phagocytic response when challenged; these dsata serve to explain the enhanced adverse effect of barium in cased of fecal peritonitis. (orig.)

  2. Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Vanholder, R.; Waterloos, M.A.; Hakim, R.; Schulman, G.

    2000-01-01

    Barium, at clinical dilutions, causes a significant increase of baseline ''resting state'' phagocytic activity, which in turn leads to significant blunting of subsequent response to phagocytic challenge and adversely affects the response to all bacteria tested. There is no baseline activation of leukocytes by the water-soluble media, although there was some inhibition (rather than activation) of leukocyte metabolic activity. The effect of the water-soluble media in bacteria was more complex (although inhibition is minor compared to barium). Our data demonstrate that barium is a significant activator of phagocytic cells, which results in deactivation of phagocytic response when challenged; these data serve to explain the enhanced adverse effect of barium in cased of fecal peritonitis. (orig.)

  3. The effect of swelling agent on the pore characteristics of mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bakhtiari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of swelling agent on the physicochemical properties of mesoporous hydroxyapatite particles synthesized by self-assembly process has been investigated. Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and 1-dodecanethiol were used as soft template and swelling agent respectively. The results of the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, simultaneous thermal analysis (STA, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, small-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR assessments revealed that in the case of low concentration, 1-dodecanethiol performed as swelling agent and caused an increase in the pore size. However, at higher concentrations it led to the formation of microemulsion and foamy structures. The optimum swelling agent: surfactant mass ratio in synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite particles with high pore volume was determined to be around 2.1 in this study.

  4. The effect of swelling agent on the pore characteristics of mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Bakhtiari; J. Javadpour; H.R. Rezaie; M. Erfan; M.A. Shokrgozar

    2015-01-01

    The effect of swelling agent on the physicochemical properties of mesoporous hydroxyapatite particles synthesized by self-assembly process has been investigated. Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and 1-dodecanethiol were used as soft template and swelling agent respectively. The results of the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, small-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) assessments revealed that in the case of low concentration, 1-dodecanethiol performed as swelling agent and caused an increase in the pore size. However, at higher concentrations it led to the formation of microemulsion and foamy structures. The optimum swelling agent:surfactant mass ratio in synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite particles with high pore volume was determined to be around 2.1 in this study.

  5. Activation of aluminum as an effective reducing agent by pitting corrosion for wet-chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, and Br⁻ in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu₂Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent.

  6. Protective Effects of Selected Botanical Agents on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jam Jolly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious health problem affecting more than 200 million elderly people worldwide. The early symptoms of this disease are hardly detectable. It causes progressive bone loss, which ultimately renders the patients susceptible to fractures. Osteoporosis must be prevented because the associated fragility fractures result in high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Many plants used in herbal medicine contain bioactive compounds possessing skeletal protective effects. This paper explores the anti-osteoporotic properties of selected herbal plants, including their actions on osteoblasts (bone forming cells, osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells, and bone remodelling. Some of the herbal plant families included in this review are Berberidaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Labiatae, Simaroubaceaea, and Myrsinaceae. Their active constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmaceutical applications were discussed. The literature shows that very few herbal plants have undergone human clinical trials to evaluate their pharmacological effects on bone to date. Therefore, more intensive research should be performed on these plants to validate their anti-osteoporotic properties so that they can complement the currently available conventional drugs in the battle against osteoporosis.

  7. Effects of competition and cooperation interaction between agents on networks in the presence of a market capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonubi, A.; Arcagni, A.; Stefani, S.; Ausloos, M.

    2016-08-01

    A network effect is introduced taking into account competition, cooperation, and mixed-type interaction among agents along a generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra model. It is also argued that the presence of a market capacity undoubtedly enforces a definite limit on the agent's size growth. The state stability of triadic agents, i.e., the most basic network plaquette, is investigated analytically for possible scenarios, through a fixed-point analysis. It is discovered that: (i) market demand is only satisfied for full competition when one agent monopolizes the market; (ii) growth of agent size is encouraged in full cooperation; (iii) collaboration among agents to compete against one single agent may result in the disappearance of this single agent out of the market; and (iv) cooperating with two rivals may become a growth strategy for an intelligent agent.

  8. Effects of competition and cooperation interaction between agents on networks in the presence of a market capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonubi, A; Arcagni, A; Stefani, S; Ausloos, M

    2016-08-01

    A network effect is introduced taking into account competition, cooperation, and mixed-type interaction among agents along a generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra model. It is also argued that the presence of a market capacity undoubtedly enforces a definite limit on the agent's size growth. The state stability of triadic agents, i.e., the most basic network plaquette, is investigated analytically for possible scenarios, through a fixed-point analysis. It is discovered that: (i) market demand is only satisfied for full competition when one agent monopolizes the market; (ii) growth of agent size is encouraged in full cooperation; (iii) collaboration among agents to compete against one single agent may result in the disappearance of this single agent out of the market; and (iv) cooperating with two rivals may become a growth strategy for an intelligent agent.

  9. Synergistic Effects of Nucleating Agents and Plasticizers on the Crystallization Behavior of Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nucleating agents and plasticizers on the thermal and mechanical performance of PLA nanocomposites was investigated with the objective of increasing the crystallinity and balancing the stiffness and toughness of PLA mechanical properties. Calcium carbonate, halloysite nanotubes, talc and LAK (sulfates were compared with each other as heterogeneous nucleating agents. Both the DSC isothermal and non-isothermal studies indicated that talc and LAK were the more effective nucleating agents among the selected fillers. Poly(D-lactic acid (PDLA acted also as a nucleating agent due to the formation of the PLA stereocomplex. The half crystallization time was reduced by the addition of talc to about 2 min from 37.5 min of pure PLA by the isothermal crystallization study. The dynamic mechanical thermal study (DMTA indicated that nanofillers acted as both reinforcement fillers and nucleating agents in relation to the higher storage modulus. The plasticized PLA studied by DMTA indicated a decreasing glass transition temperature with the increasing of the PEG content. The addition of nanofiller increased the Young’s modulus. PEG had the plasticization effect of increasing the break deformation, while sharply decreasing the stiffness and strength of PLA. The synergistic effect of nanofillers and plasticizer achieved the balance between stiffness and toughness with well-controlled crystallization.

  10. Meta-analysis of the effects of prokinetic agents in patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Ito, Masanori; Tanaka, Shinji; Nishi, Nobuo; Chayama, Kazuaki; Haruma, Ken

    2007-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is often treated with prokinetic agents; however, the efficacy of prokinetic agents in patients with FD has been questioned recently. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effects of prokinetic agents in patients with FD. Prokinetic agents, including metoclopramide, domperidone, trimebutine, cisapride, itopride and mosapride, used for treatment of FD between 1951 and 2005 were identified. Twenty-seven studies were selected. Difference in the probability of response between the interventional drug and placebo was used as a summary statistic for the treatment effect. Meta-regression analysis was used to detect sources of heterogeneity. In total, 1844 subjects were assigned to an experimental arm, and 1591 subjects were assigned to a placebo arm. Publication bias was ruled out by funnel plot and statistical testing (P = 0.975). In the overall analysis, the summary statistic was 0.295 (95% confidence interval: 0.208-0.382, P < 0.001), indicating that the interventional drug has 30% excess probability of producing a response compared with placebo. The most significant source of heterogeneity was the year of publication (P < 0.001). The data clearly indicate that prokinetic agents are significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of FD. Although FD is a chronic condition, efficacy was assessed over short periods. Long-term randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the effect.

  11. Effects of antiresorptive agents on osteomyelitis: novel insights into the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the jaw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dan; Gromov, Kirill; Proulx, Steven T

    2010-01-01

    The effects of antiresorptive agents (e.g., alendronate [Aln], osteoprotegerin [OPG]) on bone infection are unknown. Thus, their effects on implant-associated osteomyelitis (OM) were investigated in mice using PBS (placebo), gentamycin, and etanercept (TNFR:Fc) controls. None of the drugs affecte...

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Antidiabetic Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varinder; Bedi, Gurleen Kaur; Shri, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Management of type 2 diabetes by delaying or preventing glucose absorption using natural products is gaining significant attention. Edible mushrooms are well documented for their nutritional and medicinal properties. This investigation was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extracts of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms, namely, Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe indica, and Volvariella volvacea, using in vitro models (α-amylase inhibition assay, glucose uptake by yeast cells, and glucose adsorption capacity). The most active extract was subsequently examined in vivo using the oral starch tolerance test in mice. All prepared extracts showed dose-dependent inhibition of α-amylase and an increase in glucose transport across yeast cells. C. indica extract was the most active α-amylase inhibitor (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 18.07 ± 0.75 mg/mL) and exhibited maximum glucose uptake by yeast cells (77.53 ± 0.97% at 35 mg/mL). All extracts demonstrated weak glucose adsorption ability. The positive in vitro tests for C. indica paved the way for in vivo studies. C. indica extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced postprandial blood glucose peaks in mice challenged with starch. The extract (400 mg/kg) and acarbose normalized blood glucose levels at 180 minutes, when they were statistically similar to values in normal mice. Thus, it may be concluded that the antidiabetic effect of C. indica is mediated by inhibition of starch metabolism (α-amylase inhibition), increased glucose uptake by peripheral cells (promotion of glucose uptake by yeast cells), and mild entrapment (adsorption) of glucose. Hence, C. indica can be developed as antidiabetic drug after detailed pharmacological studies.

  13. Clinical usage of hypolipidemic and antidiabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M

    2005-06-28

    Factors predisposing hormone-dependent tissues to the development of tumors coincide, at least partly, with hormonal-metabolic promoters (like insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, visceral obesity, etc.) of other main non-communicable diseases. This important knowledge poses the question of whether the same approach which is applied for prevention/treatment of a metabolic syndrome and the associated endocrine disorders might also be used in preventive and therapeutic oncology. Whereas an answer to this question remains controversial and is based mainly on experimental evidence, there is accumulating clinical data suggesting a practical significance of such a strategy, even though it is not to be considered as directly cytostatic. Among the many drugs under discussion, three groups of medicines (statins, antidiabetic biguanides, and thiazolidinediones) are the most attractive. The concept of metabolic rehabilitation is proposed and used practically in an adjuvant setting for the correction of the above-mentioned endocrine-metabolic disorders commonly found in cancer patients. The current use and aim of this approach is to improve the survival of patients and limit cancer progression. Nonetheless, it also appears potentially useful as a neoadjuvant therapy as well as a prophylactic treatment earlier in life for specific groups of people with hormone-associated enhanced oncological risk. It seems possible that certain hypolipidemic and antidiabetic medicines with pleiotropic effects might be combined with traditional antisteroid prevention/therapeutic approaches in routine clinical situations as well as for overcoming resistance to standard cancer hormonal therapies including receptor-negative cases. Characteristic at the end of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century is an epidemic of diabetes and obesity, which might further increase the incidence of certain cancers. This makes it timely to apply hypolipidemic and antidiabetic drugs (in combination

  14. α-Methyl artoflavanocoumarin from Juniperus chinensis exerts anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting PTP1B and activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Jin; Seong, Su Hui; Ali, Md Yousof; Min, Byung-Sun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest global health issues and much research effort continues to be directed toward identifying novel therapeutic agents. Insulin resistance is a challenging integrally related topic and molecules capable of overcoming it are of considerable therapeutic interest in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signaling transduction and is regarded a novel therapeutic target in T2DM. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (MAFC), a natural flavanocoumarin isolated from Juniperus chinensis, on PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. MAFC was found to potently inhibit PTP1B with an IC 50 of 25.27 ± 0.14 µM, and a kinetics study revealed MAFC is a mixed type PTP1B inhibitor with a K i value of 13.84 µM. Molecular docking simulations demonstrated MAFC can bind to catalytic and allosteric sites of PTP1B. Furthermore, MAFC significantly increased glucose uptake and decreased the expression of PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, down-regulated the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser307), and dose-dependently enhanced the protein levels of IRS-1, phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and ERK1. These results suggest that MAFC from J. chinensis has therapeutic potential in T2DM by inhibiting PTP1B and activating insulin signaling pathways.

  15. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  16. Combined effect of environmental radiation and other agents: Is there a synergism trap?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.; Burkart, W.

    2002-01-01

    Most assessments of possible deleterious outcomes from environmental and occupational exposures concentrate on single agents and neglect the potential for combined effects, i.e. synergisms or antagonisms. Biomechanistic considerations based on multistep processes such as carcinogenesis indicate the potential for highly detrimental interactions, if two or more consecutive rate limiting steps are specifically effected by different agents. However, low specificity towards molecular structure or DNA-sequence - and therefore exchangeability - of many genotoxic agents indicate little functional specificity and therefore little vulnerability towards synergism at most occupational and environmental exposure situations. The low potential for significant combined effects for those common low exposure situations where non-genotoxic agents with highly non-linear dose effect relationships and apparent thresholds are involved, is also evident. Nevertheless, a quantitative assessment of the contribution of synergistic interactions to the total detriment from natural and man-made toxicants based on experimental data is far away. The existing database on combined effects is rudimentary, mainly descriptive and rarely covers exposure ranges large enough to make direct inferences to present day low dose exposure situations. In view of the multitude of possible interactions between the large number of potentially harmful agents in the human environment, descriptive approaches will have to be supplemented by the use of mechanistic models for critical health endpoints such as cancer. Finally an important question considering the shape of dose effect relationships for ionizing radiation arises from the unresolved question whether real or apparent thresholds may be used for any genotoxic agent separately or only one time for an exposed genome. (author)

  17. Mechanisms of self-organization and finite size effects in a minimal agent based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfi, V; Cristelli, M; Pietronero, L; Zaccaria, A

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the self-organization phenomenon in which the stylized facts originate from finite size effects with respect to the number of agents considered and disappear in the limit of an infinite population. By introducing the possibility that agents can enter or leave the market depending on the behavior of the price, it is possible to show that the system self-organizes in a regime with a finite number of agents which corresponds to the stylized facts. The mechanism for entering or leaving the market is based on the idea that a too stable market is unappealing for traders, while the presence of price movements attracts agents to enter and speculate on the market. We show that this mechanism is also compatible with the idea that agents are scared by a noisy and risky market at shorter timescales. We also show that the mechanism for self-organization is robust with respect to variations of the exit/entry rules and that the attempt to trigger the system to self-organize in a region without stylized facts leads to an unrealistic dynamics. We study the self-organization in a specific agent based model but we believe that the basic ideas should be of general validity

  18. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  19. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  20. Tagatose, a new antidiabetic and obesity control drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Levin, G V; Donner, T W

    2008-02-01

    A potentially important new drug for treating type 2 diabetes, tagatose, is now in phase 3 clinical trial. The history, development, additional health benefits, mechanisms of action and the potential for the drug are presented in context with a review of the rapidly growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes and treatments for it. An epimer of fructose, the natural hexose tagatose was originally developed by Spherix Incorporated (formerly Biospherics Inc.) as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Only 20% of orally ingested tagatose is fully metabolized, principally in the liver, following a metabolic pathway identical to that of fructose. Following a decade of studies, tagatose became generally recognized as safe for use in foods and beverages under US FDA regulation. The simple sugar is commercially produced by isomerization of galactose, which is prepared from lactose. Early human studies suggested tagatose as a potential antidiabetic drug through its beneficial effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. A subsequent 14-month trial confirmed its potential for treating type 2 diabetes, and tagatose showed promise for inducing weight loss and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, both important to the control of diabetes and constituting benefits independent of the disease. Furthermore, tagatose was shown to be an antioxidant and a prebiotic, both properties cited in the maintenance and promotion of health. No current therapies for type 2 diabetes provide these multiple health benefits. The predominant side effects of tagatose are gastrointestinal disturbances associated with excessive consumption, generally accommodated within 1- to 2-week period. The health and use potentials for tagatose (branded Naturlose((R)) for this use) are given with respect to current type 2 diabetes drugs and markets. Under an FDA-affirmed protocol, Spherix is currently conducting a phase 3 trial to evaluate a placebo-subtracted treatment effect based on a decrease in Hb

  1. Ecological effects of ionizing radiation and other toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, Kei; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparative evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation and other various toxic agents on aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors investigated effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, acidification, aluminum, manganese, nickel, copper and gadolinium on the microcosm, i.e., the experimental model ecosystem consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Eseherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of toxic agents in the microcosm were not only direct effects but also community-level effects due to interactions among the constituting species or between organisms and toxic agents. In general, the degrees of effects observed in the microcosm could be categorized as follows: no effects; recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. These results were analyzed by the ecological effect index (EEI), in which differences in the cell densities between exposed and control microcosm were represented by the Euclidean distance function. A 50% effect doses for the microcosm (ED M50 ), at which the EEI became 50%, were evaluated to be 530 Gy for γ-rays, 2100 J m -2 for UV, 4100 μM for manganese, 45 μM for nickel, 110 μM for copper and 250 μM for gadolinium. (author)

  2. Training strategic community agents in health effects of ionizing radiation; Capacitacao de agentes comunitarios de saude em efeitos das radiacoes ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Teresa C.S.B.; Silva, IIson P.M. da; Jannuzzi, Denise M.S. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CIRA/FEAM), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Informacoes em Radioepidemiologia; Maurmo, Alexandre M., E-mail: ammaurmo@gmail.com [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CMRl/CTNV/FEAM), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Treinamento Prof. Nelson Valverde. Centro de Medicina das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2013-11-01

    The main motivation for the development of training was the need to train agents (opinion makers) with proximity and credibility among the population, to clarify the most frequently asked questions in relation to ionizing radiation, the operation of nuclear power plants, emergency plans and about the possibility of there effects of radiation on the health of inhabitants in regions close to the central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. The project has a target audience of 420 agents, 60 of them have already been trained in a pilot project . The results indicate that the topics of training were adequate and the agents have expanded their knowledge. On the other hand, the information passed on to communities by agents, recognized by this population as ' the most reliable people', is of greater credibility and likelihood of success in communicating important issues for the population living in the vicinity of the CNAAA. (author)

  3. Synthesis and antidiabetic activity of β-acetamido ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-hua Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of trifluoroacetic acid as a catalyst in the Dakin–West reaction for the synthesis of β-acetamido ketones. The method has several advantages such as requiring only mild conditions and a low concentration of catalyst. Screening of 19 β-acetamido ketones for antidiabetic activity in vitro showed that their activity as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR agonists and as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-IV inhibitors was fairly weak.

  4. Measuring the effects of topically applied skin optical clearing agents and modeling the effects and consequences for laser therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkruysse, Wim; Khan, Misbah; Choi, Bernard; Svaasand, Lars O.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2005-04-01

    Human skin prepared with an optical clearing agent manifests reduced scattering as a result of de-hydration and refractive index matching. This has potentially large effects for laser therapies of several skin lesions such as port wine stain, hair removal and tattoo removal. With most topically applied clearing agents the clearing effect is limited because they penetrate poorly through the intact superficial skin layer (stratum corneum). Agent application modi other than topical are impractical and have limited the success of optical clearing in laser dermatology. In recent reports, however, a mixture of lipofylic and hydrofylic agents was shown to successfully penetrate through the intact stratum corneum layer which has raised new interest in this field. Immediately after application, the optical clearing effect is superficial and, as the agent diffuses through the skin, reduced scattering is manifested in deeper skin layers. For practical purposes as well as to maximize therapeutic success, it is important to quantify the reduced scattering as well as the trans-cutaneous transport dynamics of the agent. We determined the time and tissue depth resolved effects of optically cleared skin by inserting a microscopic reflector array in the skin. Depth dependent light intensity was measured by quantifying the signal of the reflector array with optical coherence tomography. A 1-dimensional mass diffusion model was used to estimate a trans-cutaneous transport diffusion constant for the clearing agent mixture. The results are used in Monte Carlo modeling to determine the optimal time of laser treatment after topical application of the optical clearing agent.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the encapsulation of new antidiabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives using PLGA nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, F N; Ibiapino, A L; De Figueiredo, L P; De Castro, C E; Giacomelli, F C; Ferreira, F F; Barreiro, E J; Lima, L M; Do Amaral, D N

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated the feasibly of using PLGA nanoparticles to promote the encapsulation of novel anti-diabetic sulphonylhydrazone and antitumor N-acylhydrazone derivatives. The motivation is to further demonstrate the possibility of long-term release of anti-diabetic as well as higher accumulation of the antitumor derivative by using the nanotechnology-based production. The produced nanoparticles were obtained by the nanoprecipitation method, which revealed to be effective in the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds. The determined sizes were in the range of ∼100 nm, which are supposed to be suitable for both potential applications. The preliminary experimental data demonstrated the formation of stable nanosystems and further experiments are underway in order to determine the loading content, encapsulation efficiency and release profile of the hydrophobic bioactive compounds. (paper)

  6. Honey bee as an effective pollinating agent of pumpkin Abelha melífera como eficiente agente polinizador de moranga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nicodemo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of fruits and seeds of many crops is increased when bees visit their flowers pollinating them. The aim of this research was to study the pollination of pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. Exposição, to determine the diversity of insects visiting its flowers, the time and type of provision obtained and the effect of the visits on fruit set, fruit size and weight, and number of seeds. Apis mellifera L. accounted for 73.4% of the visits made by bees, collecting pollen during 34.5 s per flower and nectar in 43.9 s and 29.3 s from female and male flowers, respectively. Trigona spinipes (Fabr. collected only nectar, during a mean time of 60.5 s per flower, and represented 26.6% of the visits by bees. Diabrotica speciosa (Germ. only fed on the petals of the flower. When no insect visits occurred, there was no production of fruits. In the flowers with free visitation by insects, fruit set was 40%. The higher the number of visits, up to 16, by A. mellifera to female flowers, the greater was the fruit set, fruit size and weight, and number of seeds. In flowers visited by insects from the onset of anthesis until 9 a.m., fruit set was 35%. After 9 a.m., there was no fruit set, demonstrating the important role of A. mellifera as a pollinating agent of pumpkin, since it was the only insect visiting up to 9 a.m.A produção de frutos e sementes de várias culturas é favorecida quando abelhas visitam suas flores, efetuando a polinização. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a polinização em moranga (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. Exposição, no que se refere à identificação dos insetos que visitam mais freqüentemente suas flores, o tempo e tipo de recurso floral coletado e o resultado das visitas destes insetos na frutificação, tamanho, peso e número de sementes dos frutos. Apis mellifera L. foi responsável por 73.4% das visitas realizadas por abelhas, coletando pólen em 34.5 s e néctar em 43.9 s e 29.3 s, respectivamente para

  7. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Han Linna; Liu Tongjun; Guo Jianyou; Liu Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk ...

  8. Anti-diabetic drug utilization of pregnant diabetic women in us managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Caitlin A; Delaney, Joseph A C; Winterstein, Almut G

    2014-01-17

    With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood, treatment of diabetes in pregnancy faces new challenges. Anti-diabetic drug utilization patterns of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are poorly described. We aim to describe anti-diabetic (AD) agent utilization among diabetic pregnant women. We utilized IMS LifeLink, including administrative claims data of patients in US managed care plans, to establish a retrospective cohort of women, age 18-46 years (N = 96,740) with billed procedures for a live birth, and a 12 month eligibility period before and 3 month after delivery. Diabetes mellitus was identified from ≥2 in- or outpatient claims with diagnoses (ICD-9-CM 250.XX) before pregnancy. We estimated the prevalence of AD drugs before, during and after pregnancy, and secular trends across the study period (1999-2009), using linear regression. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the extent of misclassification of trimesters. Almost six percent (n = 5,581) of the live birth cohort had diabetes mellitus. Throughout the study, 48% (1999) and 78% (2009) (p metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZD), and combination AD. The annual prevalence of insulin use increased by only 1% from 39% (1999) to 40% (2009) (p = 0.589) during pregnancy, while use of sulfonylureas and metformin increased from 2.5% and 4.2% (1999) to 17.3% and 15.3% (2009) (p use steadily increased in prevalence from the 1st to 3rd trimester (16.5% and 3.3% to 33.0% and 7.5%), while metformin and TZD use decreased (11.4% and 1.6% to 3.8% and 0.2%). AD use during pregnancy demonstrates the need for additional investigation regarding safety and efficacy of AD drugs on maternal outcomes.

  9. Effect of a re‑wetting agent on bond strength of an adhesive to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study investigated the effect of a re‑wetting agent on the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) of primary and permanent dentin after acid or laser etching. Materials and Methods: Twelve permanent and 12 primary molar teeth were ground to expose an occlusal dentin surface. Each group teeth were randomly ...

  10. A small effect of adding antiviral agents in treating patients with severe Bell palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.L. van der; Rovers, M.M.; Ru, J.A. de; Heijden, G.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    In this evidence-based case report, the authors studied the following clinical question: What is the effect of adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with severe or complete Bell palsy? The search yielded 250 original research articles. The 6 randomized trials of

  11. Supporting Multimedia Learning with Visual Signalling and Animated Pedagogical Agent: Moderating Effects of Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. M.; Ozogul, G.; Reisslein, M.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of visual signalling to relevant information in multiple external representations and the visual presence of an animated pedagogical agent (APA). Students learned electric circuit analysis using a computer-based learning environment that included Cartesian graphs, equations and electric circuit diagrams. The…

  12. Teachable Agents and the Protege Effect: Increasing the Effort towards Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Chin, Doris B.; Oppezzo, Marily A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Betty's Brain is a computer-based learning environment that capitalizes on the social aspects of learning. In Betty's Brain, students instruct a character called a Teachable Agent (TA) which can reason based on how it is taught. Two studies demonstrate the "protege effect": students make greater effort to learn for their TAs than they do…

  13. Effects of biological control agents and exotic plant invasion on deer mouse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2004-01-01

    Exotic insects are commonly introduced as biological control agents to reduce densities of invasive exotic plants. Although current biocontrol programs for weeds take precautions to minimize ecological risks, little attention is paid to the potential nontarget effects of introduced food subsidies on native consumers. Previous research demonstrated that two gall flies (...

  14. Effect of Wetting Agents and Approaching Anodes on Lead Migration in Electrokinetic Soil Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Yee-Sern; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation slides for my conference paper "Effect of Wetting Agents and Approaching Anodes on Lead Migration in Electrokinetic Soil Remediation", which was presented in 5th International Conference on Chemical Engineering and Applications, Taipei on 27 August 2014.

  15. Effect of Fermentation Time and Leavening Agent on the Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of production techniques, quality of market samples and effects of fermentation times (6 and 8hrs), leavening agents (yeasts and baking powder) and shelf life (fresh and 24h) on the quality of masa were carried out through interviews, processing operations, laboratory analyses and sensory studies. Statistical ...

  16. The effect of impact modifier and of nucleating agent on the radiation tolerance of polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Dongyuan (Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China)); Czvikovszky, T.; Dobo, J.; Somogyi, A. (Research Inst. for the Plastics Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The effect of two types of additives was investigated with respect to the oxidative post-irradiation stability of polypropylene: SBS thermoplastic rubbers as impact modifiers and benzoic acid as nucleating agent. Testing was performed by ultimate deformation on bending. The thermoplastic rubber additive increased the post-irradiation stability of polypropylene substantially. (author).

  17. The effect of impact modifier and of nucleating agent on the radiation tolerance of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongyuan; Czvikovszky, T.; Dobo, J.; Somogyi, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of two types of additives was investigated with respect to the oxidative post-irradiation stability of polypropylene: SBS thermoplastic rubbers as impact modifiers and benzoic acid as nucleating agent. Testing was performed by ultimate deformation on bending. The thermoplastic rubber additive increased the post-irradiation stability of polypropylene substantially. (author)

  18. Dependence of radioprotective effect of chemical modifying agents on their intracellular concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidus, L.K.; Korystov, Y.N.; Kublik, L.N.; Vexler, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Regularities of the radioprotective effect of chemical modifying agents cysteamine, caffeine benzoate, thioglycolic acid, and caffeine, all weak electrolytes, have been studied in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Efficiency of protection is shown to be dependent on pH and concentrations of the drug inside the cells and in the medium. Based on the theory of the dissociation of weak electrolytes and their distribution between the cells and the medium a strong correlation between the efficiency of modification of the radiation response and intracellular concentration of a modifying agent is shown. (author)

  19. Effect and Removal Mechanisms of 6 Different Washing Agents for Building Wastes Containing Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xing-run

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the building wastes contaminated by chromium in Haibei Chemical Plan in China as objects, we studied the contents of total Cr and Cr (VI of different sizes, analyzed the effect of 6 different washing agents, discussed the removal mechanisms of 6 different washing agents for Cr in various forms, and finally selected applicable washing agent. As per the results, particle size had little impact on the contents of total Cr and Cr (VI; after one washing with water, the removal rate of total Cr and Cr (VI was 75% and 78%, respectively, and after the second washing with 6 agents, the removal rate of citric acid was the highest, above 90% for total Cr and above 99% for hexavalent chromium; the pH of building wastes were reduced by citric acid, and under acid condition, hexavalent chromium was reduced to trivalent chromium spontaneously by organic acid, which led to better removal rate of acid soluble Cr and reducible Cr; due to the complexing action, citric acid had best removal rate for oxidizable trivalent chromium. In conclusion, citric acid is the most applicable second washing agent for building wastes.

  20. [Effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenzhong; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins. Five resin composite materials were tested in this in vitro study. The five composites were as follow: two indirect composite resins (Adoro SR, Ceramage) and three direct composite resins (Filtek Z350, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, and Gradia Direct Anterior). For each material, twenty disk-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into five groups according to the color parameters of specimens before bleaching treatment. The composite resin specimens were treated by one of five sample solutions which were at-home bleaching agents (10% and 15% carbarmide peroxide), in- office bleaching agents (38% H(2)O(2) and 35%H(2)O(2)) and deionized water (control group). The color parameters of specimens were measured by spectrophotometer at baseline and after bleaching treatments. The color differences (ΔE values) between baseline and post-treatments were calculated. The data of color differences were evaluated statistically using two-way analysis with a significance level of 0.05. The color changes of the resin composites were less than 2.0 after bleaching agent treatment, therefore were not perceptible. Slight increase of L(*) values and decrease of C(*)ab values in color parameters of specimens were observed. There were statistically significant differences in ΔE values for different bleaching treatments and resin materials (P = 0.001). The bleaching agents did not affect the color of indirect and direct composite resins tested.

  1. Experimental Study on the Curing Effect of Dredged Sediments with Three Types of Curing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment solidification technology is widely used to dispose dredged sediment, three types of curing agents were used in this study to solidified the dredged sediment from shallows in Nantong with three types of curing agents: JY, ZL and FJ. The results showed that the optimal additive amounts of these three curing agents were 140g JY, 16g ZL, 2.0g FJ per 1000g of the dredged sediment respectively, their 28d USC were up to 2.48 MPa, 2.96 MPa and 3.00 MPa. JY has obvious early strength effect, which of FJ is not that obvious, but the later-stage strength of sediment solidified by FJ are relatively higher.

  2. The effect of different physical agents in the behaviour of bss-13 Lettuce variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Calderon, S.; Mendoza, M.; Perez, M.; Perez, G.; Labrada, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two physical agents in their physiological answer the BSS-13 lettuce variety. Rays gamma Co 60 and rays laser (He-Ne) were the physiological agents utilised. A group of seed were irradiated with gamma in a dose of 10 and 100Grey, and the other group with a time of exposure of 15 sec and 15 min., and power density of 0,4mW/cm2, the rest was no irradiated and was considered like witness. The seed were planted in the protected cultural where remained until of transplantation in field conditions. In the harvest was measured the height, diameter and weight of lettuce. The results show that both agents were presented with an outstanding stimulating with laser with a good efficiency respect to control

  3. Effect of nanoparticle encapsulation on the photostability of the sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, P; Simeoni, S; Scalia, S; Genta, I; Modena, T; Conti, B; Pavanetto, F

    2002-10-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of nanoparticle-based systems on the light-induced decomposition of the sunscreen agent, trans-2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (trans-EHMC). Ethylcellulose (EC) and poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) were used as biocompatible polymers for the preparation of the particulate systems. The "salting out" method was used for nanoparticle preparation and several variables were evaluated in order to optimize product characteristics. The photodegradation of the sunscreen agent in emulsion vehicles was reduced by encapsulation into the PLGA nanoparticles (the extent of degradation was 35.3% for the sunscreen-loaded nanoparticles compared to 52.3% for free trans-EHMC) whereas the EC nanoparticle system had no significant effect. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticles loaded with trans-EHMC improve the photostability of the sunscreen agent.

  4. Combretum lanceolatum flowers extract shows antidiabetic activity through activation of AMPK by quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Porto Dechandt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum Pohl ex Eichler, Combretaceae, flowers extract (ClEtOH in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were divided into four groups: diabetic control, diabetic treated with 500 mg/kg of metformin and diabetic treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH for 21 days. The treatment of diabetic rats with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH promoted an increase in the weight of liver, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, improving body weight gain. Diabetic rats treated with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH also presented reduction in glycemia, glycosuria and urinary urea levels, and increase in liver glycogen content. HPLC chromatogram showed that quercetin is the major compound in the extract. The phosphorylation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were increased in liver slices incubated in vitro with 50 µg/mL of ClEtOH, similarly to the incubation with metformin (50 µg/mL or quercetin (10 µg/mL. The antihyperglycemic effect of ClEtOH was similar to that of metformin and appears to be through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, since urinary urea was reduced and skeletal muscle mass was increased. These data indicate that the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum extract could be mediated, at least in part, through activation of adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase by quercetin.

  5. Antidiabetic Activity of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Ramdas B.; Sangameswaran, B.; Mohite, Popat B.; Khanage, Shantaram G.

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous leaves extract of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. (Family: Fabaceae) was evaluated for its antidiabetic potential on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the chronic model, the aqueous extract was administered to normal and STZ- induced diabetic rats at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) p.o. per day for 30 days. The fasting Blood Glucose Levels (BGL), serum insulin level and biochemical data such as glycosylated hemoglobin, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) were evaluated and all were compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg b.w.). The statistical data indicated significant increase in the body weight, liver glycogen, serum insulin and HDL levels and decrease in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides when compared with glibenclamide. Thus the aqueous leaves extract of Sesbania sesban had beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level and lipid profile of STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23407749

  6. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect of metformin as a novel therapeutic agent in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Qingqiong; Hu, Dan; Hu, Shuiqing; Yan, Ming; Sun, Zujun; Chen, Fuxiang

    2012-01-01

    Metformin, which is widely used as an antidiabetic agent, has recently been reported to reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis in certain malignancies. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the effect of metformin on the development and progression of several cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. OSCC cells treated with or without metformin were counted using a hemocytometer. The clonogenic ability of OSCC cells after metformin treatment was determined by colony formation assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, and the activation of related signaling pathways was examined by immunoblotting. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of metformin was examined using a xenograft mouse model. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining were used to determine the expression of cyclin D1 and the presence of apoptotic cells in tumors from mice treated with or without metformin. Metformin inhibited proliferation in the OSCC cell lines CAL27, WSU-HN6 and SCC25 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the colony formation of OSCC cells in vitro. Metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was accompanied by an obvious activation of the AMP kinase pathway and a strongly decreased activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and S6 kinase. Metformin treatment led to a remarkable decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and CDK6 protein levels and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, but did not affect p21 or p27 protein expression in OSCC cells. In addition, metformin induced apoptosis in OSCC cells, significantly down-regulating the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Metformin also markedly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and increased the numbers of apoptotic cells in vivo, thus inhibiting

  7. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, 066400, People's Republic of China. 2College of ... data demonstrated POP at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) exhibited optimal effect. The above .... standard diet and water ad libitum.

  8. Efek Antidiabetes Kombinasi Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum Linn. dan Rimpang Kunyit (Curcumma domestica Val. dengan Pembanding Glibenklamid pada Penderita Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ame Suciati Setiawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. and curcumin extract (Curcumma domestica Val. can be used as an antidiabetic oral to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients and the clinical trial showed that the extract can decrease blood glucose at a dose 2.4 g/day. This clinical trial was conducted to know the antidiabetic effect of the combination of garlic and curcumin extract compared with antidiabetic oral, glibenclamide. The subjects were >35 years of age with type 2 DM who came to internal and endocrine clinic RSUP. Hasan Sadikin Bandung and has been treated with medical nutrition therapy for 2 weeks period November 2007–December 2008. The research design was parallel, randomized and double blind. The combination of garlic and curcumin extract decreased mean value of fasting blood glucose 9.25 mg/dL, 2h PP blood glucose 22.25 mg/dL, HbA1c 1,30% and insulin 12.57 mg/ dL compared with baseline whereas glibenclamide decreased the mean value of fasting blood glucose 72.37 mg/dL, 2h PP 114,25 mg/dL, HbA1c 4.12% and increased insulin 3.34 mg/dL. In conclusion, the extract combination has antidiabetic effect eventhough the effect was not as high as glibenclamide

  9. [Effect of prokinetic agents on the electrical activity of stomach and duodenum in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fujun; Zou, Yiyou; Huang, Tianhui

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effect of prokinetic agents such as domperidone, mosapride, clarithromycin, and itopride on the electrical activity of the stomach and duodenum in SD rats,and also to explore the mechanism. The organism functional experiment system BL-420E was used to record the myoelectrical activity in the stomach and duodenum of SD rats in all groups using domperidone, mosapride, itopride, clarithromycin, and physiological saline on the interdigestive phase. The effect of the prokinetic agents on the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal electromyogram in the SD rats was compared. The antagonists such as atropine, phentolamine, and propranolol were added to investigate the mechanism of action with all prokinetic agents. All prokinetic agents increased the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats(Pitopride was the most obvious among the 3 groups (Pitopride, and physiological saline were inhibited by atropine(PItopride, mosapride, domperidone, and clarithromycin can increase the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats. The mechanism may be related to cholinergic receptors, but not adrenergic receptors.

  10. Mesoscopic effects in an agent-based bargaining model in regular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, David J; Santos, José I; Galán, José M; López-Paredes, Adolfo

    2011-03-09

    The effect of spatial structure has been proved very relevant in repeated games. In this work we propose an agent based model where a fixed finite population of tagged agents play iteratively the Nash demand game in a regular lattice. The model extends the multiagent bargaining model by Axtell, Epstein and Young modifying the assumption of global interaction. Each agent is endowed with a memory and plays the best reply against the opponent's most frequent demand. We focus our analysis on the transient dynamics of the system, studying by computer simulation the set of states in which the system spends a considerable fraction of the time. The results show that all the possible persistent regimes in the global interaction model can also be observed in this spatial version. We also find that the mesoscopic properties of the interaction networks that the spatial distribution induces in the model have a significant impact on the diffusion of strategies, and can lead to new persistent regimes different from those found in previous research. In particular, community structure in the intratype interaction networks may cause that communities reach different persistent regimes as a consequence of the hindering diffusion effect of fluctuating agents at their borders.

  11. Mesoscopic effects in an agent-based bargaining model in regular lattices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Poza

    Full Text Available The effect of spatial structure has been proved very relevant in repeated games. In this work we propose an agent based model where a fixed finite population of tagged agents play iteratively the Nash demand game in a regular lattice. The model extends the multiagent bargaining model by Axtell, Epstein and Young modifying the assumption of global interaction. Each agent is endowed with a memory and plays the best reply against the opponent's most frequent demand. We focus our analysis on the transient dynamics of the system, studying by computer simulation the set of states in which the system spends a considerable fraction of the time. The results show that all the possible persistent regimes in the global interaction model can also be observed in this spatial version. We also find that the mesoscopic properties of the interaction networks that the spatial distribution induces in the model have a significant impact on the diffusion of strategies, and can lead to new persistent regimes different from those found in previous research. In particular, community structure in the intratype interaction networks may cause that communities reach different persistent regimes as a consequence of the hindering diffusion effect of fluctuating agents at their borders.

  12. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...... covering seven different products in greenhouse workers with emphasis on sensitization and respiratory effects. Methods: 579 persons aged 17-67 years culturing ornamental flowers were included. They were followed for three years with annual examinations including interview about exposure and symptoms, lung...... no effect on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms or lung function was observed. The persons had a relatively long exposure. Therefore, a healthy worker effect may have influenced the results....

  13. Multi-agent systems: effective approach for cancer care information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza; Rahimi, Azin

    2013-01-01

    Physicians, in order to study the causes of cancer, detect cancer earlier, prevent or determine the effectiveness of treatment, and specify the reasons for the treatment ineffectiveness, need to access accurate, comprehensive, and timely cancer data. The cancer care environment has become more complex because of the need for coordination and communication among health care professionals with different skills in a variety of roles and the existence of large amounts of data with various formats. The goals of health care systems in such a complex environment are correct health data management, providing appropriate information needs of users to enhance the integrity and quality of health care, timely access to accurate information and reducing medical errors. These roles in new systems with use of agents efficiently perform well. Because of the potential capability of agent systems to solve complex and dynamic health problems, health care system, in order to gain full advantage of E- health, steps must be taken to make use of this technology. Multi-agent systems have effective roles in health service quality improvement especially in telemedicine, emergency situations and management of chronic diseases such as cancer. In the design and implementation of agent based systems, planning items such as information confidentiality and privacy, architecture, communication standards, ethical and legal aspects, identification opportunities and barriers should be considered. It should be noted that usage of agent systems only with a technical view is associated with many problems such as lack of user acceptance. The aim of this commentary is to survey applications, opportunities and barriers of this new artificial intelligence tool for cancer care information as an approach to improve cancer care management.

  14. Effect of microbubble contrast agent during high intensity focused ultrasound ablation on rabbit liver in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dong Jin; Cho, Se Hyun; Lee, Jae Mun; Hahn, Seong-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) during HIFU ablation of a rabbit liver. Materials and methods: HIFU ablations (intensity of 400 W/cm 2 for 4 s, six times, with a 5 s interval between exposures) were performed upon 16 in vivo rabbit livers before and after intravenous injection of a microbubble contrast agent (0.8 ml). A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare mean ablation volume and time required to tissue ablation on real-time US. Shape of ablation and pattern of coagulative necrosis were analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Results: The volume of coagulative necrosis was significantly larger in the combination microbubble and HIFU group than in the HIFU alone group (P < 0.05). Also, time to reach ablation was shorter in the combination microbubble and HIFU group than in the HIFU alone group (P < 0.05). When analyzing the shape of tissue ablation, a pyramidal shape was more prevalently in the HIFU alone group compared to the combination microbubble and HIFU group (P < 0.05). Following an analysis of the pattern of coagulative necrosis, non-cavitary necrosis was found in ten and cavitary necrosis in six of the samples in the combination microbubble and HIFU group. Conversely, non-cavitary necrosis occurred in all 16 samples in the HIFU alone group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HIFU of in vivo rabbit livers with a microbubble contrast agent produced larger zones of ablation and more cavitary tissue necrosis than without the use of a microbubble contrast agent. Microbubble contrast agents may be useful in tissue ablation by enhancing the treatment effect of HIFU.

  15. Effect of a whitening agent application on enamel bond strength of self-etching primer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Sato, Hikaru; Sato, Tomomi; Moore, B Keith; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2004-06-01

    Though reduction in bond strength after tooth whitening has been reported, little is known about it's effect on enamel bond strength of two-step bonding systems that exclude phosphoric acid etching prior to bonding agent application. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of whitening procedure using an in-office whitening agent on enamel bond strength of self-etching primer systems. Three self-etching primer systems, Imperva Fluoro Bond, Mac Bond II, Clearfil SE Bond, and a one-bottle adhesive system Single Bond as a control material, were used. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and the facial enamel or dentin surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit SiC paper. An in-office whitening agent, Hi-Lite was applied on the tooth surface according to the manufacturer's instruction. Bonding procedures were done soon after rinsing off the whitening agent or after 24 hours storage in distilled water. Specimens without whitening procedure were prepared as controls. Fifteen specimens per test group were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 24 hours, then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. One-way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple range test were used for statistical analysis of the results. For the specimens made soon after rinsing off the whitening agent, a significant decrease in enamel bond strength was observed for all the bonding systems used. For the specimens made after 24 hours storage in water, a small decrease in enamel bond strength was observed and no significant differences were found compared to those of controls (without whitening). From the results of this study, enamel bond strengths of the self-etching primer systems might be affected to a lesser degree after rinsing with water followed by 24 hours storage in water.

  16. Effect of sealant agents on the color stability and surface roughness of nanohybrid composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Şahin, Onur; Koroglu, Aysegül; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-07-01

    The effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of nanohybrid composite resins is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of 4 nanohybrid composite resin materials. Forty disks (10×2 mm) were fabricated for each nanohybrid composite resin material (Z-550, Tetric EvoCeram, Clearfill Majesty, Ice) (N=160) and divided into 4 surface treatment groups: 1 conventional polishing (control) and 3 different sealant agent (Palaseal, Optiglaze, BisCover) coupling groups (n=10). The specimens were thermocycled, and surface roughness (Ra) values were obtained with a profilometer. Scanning electron microscope images were also recorded. CIELab color parameters of each specimen were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after 7 days of storage in a coffee solution. Color differences were calculated by the CIEDE 2000 (ΔE00) formula. The data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The surface treatment technique significantly affected the Ra values of the composite resins tested (Pcomposite resin material was also significant for ΔE00 values (Pcomposite resin groups, significant decreases in Ra were observed only for the Palaseal agent coupled composite resin groups (except Ice) compared with the control groups (Pcomposite resin group, except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty (Pcomposite resin groups, significant differences were observed between the color change seen with BisCover and other sealants for Clearfill Majesty composite resin (Pcomposite resins except for Ice produced smoother surfaces. All surface sealant agents provided less discoloration of nanohybrid composite resins after coffee staining compared with conventional polishing except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty composite resin. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. 49 CFR 551.66 - What is the legal effect of service of process on an agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the legal effect of service of process on... Service of Process on Foreign Manufacturers and Importers Method of Service of Process § 551.66 What is the legal effect of service of process on an agent? Service on an agent of administrative or judicial...

  18. [Effects of nootropic agents on visual functions and lacrimal antioxidative activity in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, N G; Kuznetsova, T P; Borisova, S A; Abdulkadyrova, M Zh

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the nootropic agents pantogam and nooclerine on visual functions in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. These agents have been found to have a beneficial effect on the functional activity of the retina and optic nerve, light sensitivity, hemo- and hydrodynamics of the eye.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of oral antiplatelet agents--current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Cohen, David J; Magnuson, Elizabeth A

    2011-08-09

    Cardiovascular disease is both highly prevalent and exceedingly costly to treat. Several novel antiplatelet agents have been found to be effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. Understanding both the economic and the clinical implications of these novel therapies is particularly important. In this article, the results of published evaluations of the cost-effectiveness of oral antiplatelet strategies for use across a range of clinical conditions and treatment settings are reviewed. The results of these studies support the use of aspirin for primary prevention in high-risk patients and for secondary prevention in all patients with previous cardiovascular events. Although the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after an event remains uncertain, favorable cost-effectiveness estimates have been demonstrated for aspirin plus clopidogrel versus aspirin alone after a myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary intervention. Moreover, prasugrel has been shown to be more cost-effective than clopidogrel for patients with an acute coronary syndrome and planned percutaneous coronary intervention. As novel antiplatelet agents emerge and existing agents are tested in different patient populations, the evaluation of the relative economic efficiency of these oral antiplatelet treatment strategies will continue to be instrumental to optimally inform clinical and health-policy decision-making.

  20. Effect Carrier Agent Formulation in Drying Rate and Antioxidant Activity of Roselle Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Febiani Dwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Roselle (Hibiscus sabdarifa L contains anthocyanins as the natural colorant and antioxidant. Drying the roselle extract was aims to produce the dry product that easy consumption as antioxidant. The carrier agent was added in roselle extract to improve the drying rate and maintain the nutritional value. This research studied the effect of carrier agent in drying rate and antioxidant activity. The method consists of two step involving roselle extraction using ultrasonic and the drying process. The roselle extraction by ultrasonic use the water as the solvent. The carrier agent (0%,5%,10% of maltodextrin was added in roselle extract. The mixture was then dried in tray dryer dehumidification using zeolite in drying temperature 50,60, and 70⁰C. As the response, the moisture content was observed by gravimetry every 15 minutes for 150 minutes. The result showed that Page model was fitted to determine the constant of drying rate. Higher concentration of carrier agent enhanced the moisture evaporation process. Based on the DPPH analysis, the degradation of antioxidant activity in temperature 70⁰C was 2.14 times higher than in temperature 50⁰C. As the conclusion, addition of maltodextrin can speed up the drying process and retain the antioxidant activity of.

  1. Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self-presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard; Björklund, Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (N = 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = -0.41 [-0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (d = 0.44 [-0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (d = 0.49 [-0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (d = 0.04 [-0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (d = 0.23 [-0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oxygen-saving effect of a new cardiotonic agent, MCI-154, in diseased human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Takeuchi, M; Takaoka, H; Hata, K; Hayashi, Y; Yamakawa, H; Yokoyama, M

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the left ventricular mechanoenergetic effects of a novel Ca2+ sensitizing agent, MCI-154, on diseased human hearts compared with dobutamine. Unlike conventional cardiotonic agents, a Ca2+ sensitizer that could produce a positive inotropic action by altering the responsiveness of myofilament to Ca2+ could generate force with smaller amounts of Ca2+; thus, it may potentially save energy expenditure. The left ventricular pressure-volume relation and myocardial oxygen consumption per beat (Vo2) were measured by a conductance (volume) catheter and a Webster catheter. Left ventricular contractility (Emax), systolic pressure-volume area (PVA [index of left ventricular total mechanical energy]) and Vo2 were assessed before and after infusion of MCI-154 or dobut-amine. The PVA-independent Vo2 (Vo2 mainly for excitation-contraction coupling) was assessed as the Vo2 at zero PVA. Both agents increased Emax comparably (dobutamine: from 3.55 +/- 1.10 [mean +/- SD] to 5.04 +/- 1.16 mm Hg/ml per m2, p delta PVA-independent Vo2/delta Emax) was less with MCI-154 than with dobutamine (0.14 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.80 J/mm Hg per ml per m2, p action mediated by MCI-154 could provide an energetic advantage over the conventional cardiotonic action with currently used inotropic agents.

  3. Effect of Different Nucleating Agents on the Crystallization of Ziegler-Natta Isotactic Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Avalos-Belmontes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziegler-Natta isotactic polypropylene (iPP was melt mixed with four different nucleating agents (carbon nanotubes (CNT, carbon nanofibers (CNF, lithium benzoate (LiBe, and a sorbitol derivative (Millad in order to study their effect on the crystallization of iPP. It was found that the four different nucleating agents promote the alpha crystalline form. At 0.01 wt%, the carbon nanoparticles produced the higher crystallization temperature “Tc” (~119°C, whereas, at 0.10 wt%, LiBe and Millad produced a markedly higher Tc (~125°C. Tc of pure iPP was 111°C. With 0.1 wt% nucleating agent, at 120°C, the crystallization half-life time of PP, when using LiBe or Millad, was 15 times faster than for pure PP, whereas, when using carbon nanoparticles, it was 20–25 times faster. At 135°C, with 0.01 wt% nucleating agent, the isothermal crystallization process of iPP was completed after 25 min, as well as with Millad. With LiBe, it was completed after just 15 min and, with any of the carbon nanoparticles, it was practically over after only a couple of minutes.

  4. Red blood cell labeling with technetium-99m. Effect of radiopaque contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, J.; Chervu, L.R.; Bernstein, R.G.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Radiographic contrast agents have been reported in the literature to interfere significantly with red blood cell (RBC) labeling in vivo by Tc-99m. Moreover, in the presence of contrast agents, red cells have been known to undergo significant morphologic changes. These observations led to the current RBC labeling study in patients (N = 25) undergoing procedures with the administration of contrast media. Before and after contrast administration, blood samples were drawn from each patient into vacutainer tubes containing heparin and RBC labeling was performed using 1-ml aliquots of these samples following the Brookhaven National Laboratory protocol. The differences in average percentage labeling yield with and without contrast media were not significant. In vivo labeling in hypertensive rats with administration of contrast media up to 600 mg likewise consistently gave high labeling yields at all concentrations. Purported alterations in cell labeling attributed to contrast agents are not reflected in these studies, and other pathophysiologic factors need to be identified to substantiate the previous reports. In vitro study offers a potentially useful and simple method to delineate effects of various agents on cell labeling

  5. The effect of bleaching agents on the microhardness of dental aesthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, S B; Biskin, T

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of three home bleaching agents on the microhardness of various dental aesthetic restorative materials. The restorative materials were: feldspatic porcelain, microfilled composite resin and light-cured modified glass-ionomer cement and the bleaching agents Nite-White (16% carbamide peroxide), Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide and carbapol jel) and Rembrandt (10% carbamide peroxide jel). A total of 90 restorative material samples were prepared 1 cm diameter and 6 mm thick and kept in distilled water for 24 h before commencing bleaching which was carried out for 8 h day-1 for 4 weeks. Microhardness measurements were then made using a Tukon tester. Statistically significant differences with respect to unbleached controls were found only for the feldspatic porcelain and microfilled composite resins (P light cured modified glass-ionomer cement. For the composite resin, whereas Nite-White increased its microhardness, the other bleaching agents decreased it. There were no significant differences between the bleaching agents for any of the restorative materials.

  6. Effect of in-office bleaching agents on physical properties of dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourouzis, Petros; Koulaouzidou, Elisabeth A; Helvatjoglu-Antoniades, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The physical properties of dental restorative materials have a crucial effect on the longevity of restorations and moreover on the esthetic demands of patients, but they may be compromised by bleaching treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-office bleaching agents on the physical properties of three composite resin restorative materials. The bleaching agents used were hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide at high concentrations. Specimens of each material were prepared, cured, and polished. Measurements of color difference, microhardness, and surface roughness were recorded before and after bleaching and data were examined statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD post-hoc test at P composite resin altered after the bleaching procedure (P composite resins tested (P > .05). The silorane-based composite resin tested showed some color alteration after bleaching procedures. The bleaching procedure did not alter the microhardness and the surface roughness of all composite resins tested.

  7. Effect of crosslinking agents on chitosan microspheres in controlled release of diclofenac sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Vanessa L.; Laranjeira,Mauro C. M.; Fávere,Valfredo T.; Pedrosa,Rozângela C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work chitosan microspheres were prepared by the simple coacervation method and crosslinked using epichlorhydrin or glutaraldehyde for the controlled release of diclofenac sodium. The effects of the crosslinking agents on chitosan microspheres over a 12-hour period were assessed with regard to swelling, hydrolysis, porosity, crosslinking, impregnation of diclofenac sodium (DS), and consequently to the release of DS in buffer solutions, simulating the gastrointestinal tract. The degree ...

  8. Effects of Photo-chemically Activated Alkylating Agents of the FR900482 Family on Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Vidya; Ducept, Pascal; Williams, Robert M.; Luger, Karolin

    2007-01-01

    Bioreductive alkylating agents are an important class of clinical antitumor antibiotics that cross-link and mono-alkylate DNA. Here we use a synthetic photochemically activated derivative of FR400482 to investigate the molecular mechanism of this class of drugs in a biologically relevant context. We find that the organization of DNA into nucleosomes effectively protects it against drug-mediated cross-linking, while permitting mono-alkylation. This modification has the potential to form covale...

  9. A Prokinetic Agent with a Dual Effect – Itopride – In the Treatment of Dysmotility

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Dite; Martin Rydlo; Milan Dockal; Arnost Martinek

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of dyspeptic symptoms in clinical practice reflect the high prevalence of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Prokinetic agents are the current mainstay in the therapy of functional dyspepsia. One of these drugs is itopride. We evaluated therapeutic efficacy of itopride according to the literature review. The therapeutic potential of itopride is connected with a dual effect: influencing of enzyme acetylcholinesterase activity and blocking dopamine D2 receptor...

  10. Comparative studies on the effect of radiation-sensitizing agents used in radiating VX2 Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migita, Hidenobu

    1975-01-01

    The effects of 5-Fu and BUdR as radiation-sensitizing agents macroscopically were investigated in 122 VX2 Carcinomas transplanted into the calves of the hind legs of rabbits. Experimental groups and contrast groups are divided into six as follows: A: No treatment, B: 5-Fu infusion, C: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion, D: Radiation, E: 5-Fu infusion and radiation, and F: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion and radiation. The amount of agent given to each was 5 mg/kg/day of 5-Fu and 50 mg/kg/day of BUdR, and the amount of radiation was 300 rad/day. 5-Fu was used as the Antimetabolite, and its amount was one-tenth of that in the 5-Fu Infusion Group. The agent and the radiation were given for five days. 1. In the 300 rad/day Group, the radiation was not enough to result in a complete cure. 2. In the two Agent Infusion Group, 5-Fu and BUdR+Antimetabolite proved to be anti-cancer, but neither of them resulted in effective treatment. 3. The 5-Fu Infusion and Radiation Group, showed a strong degenerative change in the tumor cell and a radiosensitive effect from 5-Fu, but the tumor was not lessened. 4. In the BUdR-Antimetabolite Infusion and Radiation Group, the tumor began to reduce on the third day. On the seventh and fourteenth days, necrosis of the greater part of tumor was seen, and the rest of the tumor cells were found to be in degenerative change. On the twenty first day, no live tumor cell was found, only dead remains of tumor cells. The results were confirmed both macroscopically and histopathologically. 5. BUdR can be expected to be effective in clinical application to oral malignant tumors. (Evans, J.)

  11. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  12. Effects of bleaching agents and adhesive systems in dental pulp: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Antonieta Veloso Carvalho de; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Magalhães, Denildo; Biffi, João Carlos Gabrielli

    2012-01-01

    The dental pulp may be exposed to several irritants that are potentially noxious to the health and functions of this tissue. Each type of irritant or injury has different effects on the pulp, which are generally characterized by acute inflammation, chronic inflammation or necrosis. Common examples of irritants are dental caries, cavity preparation procedures, traumatic injuries, and chemical substances like bleaching agents and adhesive systems. The present study aimed to review the current k...

  13. Effect of the nitroimidazole Ro 03-8799 on the activity of chemotherapeutic agents against a murine tumour in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, P. W.; Gibson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the 2-nitroimidazole Ro 03-8799 (8799) on the activity of 11 chemotherapeutic agents against the anaplastic MT tumour in mice has been determined by soft agar cloning. The 8799, whilst producing little cytotoxicity by itself, potentiated the cytotoxic actions of the alkylating agents melphalan and cyclophosphamide, and the nitrosoureas BCNU, CCNU and MeCCNU. This potentiation was influenced by the time interval between the administration of 8799 and the chemotherapeutic agents, ...

  14. "Effect of nano-filled surface coating agent on fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement: An in vitro trial"

    OpenAIRE

    S Tiwari; B Nandlal

    2013-01-01

    Context: To overcome the drawbacks of glass ionomer cement of sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture contamination the use of surface coating agent is recommended. The search in this area led to invent of use of nanofillers in surface coating agent, but its effect on fluoride release is not clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement with and without surface coating agent. Settings and Design: This in vitro ...

  15. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  16. Effect of silane coupling agent on interfacial adhesion of copper/glass fabric/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langroudi, A. E.; Yousefi, A. A.; Kabiri, Kourosh

    2003-01-01

    The effect of silane coupling agent on the peel strength of copper/prep reg/copper composites was investigated. The composite consisted of one or two sheets of prepress covered by two copper plates. The prep reg was prepared by hand dry-lay-up technique using an epoxy resin and an electrical resistant glass fabric (e-glass style 2165). 4,4'-methylene dianiline. An aromatic amine, was used as curing agent. curing times for prep reg and composite at 120 d ig C and 170 d ig C were 15 min and 1 h, respectively. γ-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane was used as coupling agent. The effect of aminopropyl trimethoxy silane on the adhesion of epoxy/glass and epoxy/copper interfaces was investigated by two methods. In the first method, the surface of the glass fabric and/or the copper plates were treated by aminopropyl trimethoxy silane. In the second method, aminopropyl trimethoxy silane was directly added to epoxy resin. In addition, the effect of additional resin on the adhesion strength was also studied by the latter method

  17. Bayesian Nonparametric Estimation of Targeted Agent Effects on Biomarker Change to Predict Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Rebecca; Guindani, Michele; Thall, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The effect of a targeted agent on a cancer patient's clinical outcome putatively is mediated through the agent's effect on one or more early biological events. This is motivated by pre-clinical experiments with cells or animals that identify such events, represented by binary or quantitative biomarkers. When evaluating targeted agents in humans, central questions are whether the distribution of a targeted biomarker changes following treatment, the nature and magnitude of this change, and whether it is associated with clinical outcome. Major difficulties in estimating these effects are that a biomarker's distribution may be complex, vary substantially between patients, and have complicated relationships with clinical outcomes. We present a probabilistically coherent framework for modeling and estimation in this setting, including a hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture model for biomarkers that we use to define a functional profile of pre-versus-post treatment biomarker distribution change. The functional is similar to the receiver operating characteristic used in diagnostic testing. The hierarchical model yields clusters of individual patient biomarker profile functionals, and we use the profile as a covariate in a regression model for clinical outcome. The methodology is illustrated by analysis of a dataset from a clinical trial in prostate cancer using imatinib to target platelet-derived growth factor, with the clinical aim to improve progression-free survival time. PMID:25319212

  18. Mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation and chemical and environmental agents in Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1988-01-01

    The studies covered the following problems: an influence of some environmental agents on the mutagenic effectiveness of ionizing radiation, interaction between ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the induction of somatic mutations and also an application of Tradescantia model system for biological monitoring. The studies showed that the pretreatment of Tradescantia plants with sodium fluoride or the modification of the soil composition with dolomite admixture, visibly influences plants radiosensitivity. The analysis of the changes in the dose-response curves suggested that the employed agents were influencing in different ways the repair processes of the DNA. The studies on the interaction between agents proved that the synergistic effect occurs in case of combined action of ionizing radiation with such chemical mutagens as ethyl methansulfonate or 1,2 dibromomethane. It was also discovered that in the range of low doses the effect was proportional to radiation dose and total exposition to chemical mutagen. The field application of Tradescantia method defined the mutagenicity of air pollution in the Cracow area. The highest frequencies of mutations were detected after the Chernobyl accident and after the damage of the filters in the Pharmaceutical Plant. The applied method was evaluated in respect of its usefulness for biological monitoring of environmental pollution. 163 refs. (author)

  19. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa; Reynaud, Olivier; Le Bihan, Denis; Uhrig, Lynn; Jarraya, Bechir

    2012-01-01

    During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T2'*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7 T and 17.2 T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine). We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T2'*- weighted images at 17.2 T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7 T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation. (authors)

  20. Effects of lead mineralogy on soil washing enhanced by ferric salts as extracting and oxidizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Park, Sang-Min; Yoon, Geun-Seok; Tsang, Daniel C W; Baek, Kitae

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl 3 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO 3 , Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbS, and Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO 3 , disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na 2 -EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO 4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents. In contrast, washing processes using FeCl 3 and HCl were not effective for extraction from Pb minerals because of PbCl 2 precipitation. Yet, the newly formed PbCl 2 could be dissolved by subsequent wash with distilled water under acidic conditions. When applying our washing method to remediate field-contaminated soil from a shooting range that had high concentrations of Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 and PbCO 3 , we extracted more Pb (approximately 99% extraction) from the soil using 100 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 than other washing agents at the same process conditions. Our results show that ferric salts can be alternative washing agents for Pb-contaminated soils in view of their extracting and oxidizing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on micro-leakage of composite resin interface in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-ling; Xu, Juan; Zhao, Xin-yi; He, Hui-ming

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agents at different concentrations and with different carriers on the micro-leakage of composite resin interface. Class V cavity (2 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth) preparations were made at the enamelo-cemental junction on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 35 extracted human premolars. The cavities were filled with hybrid composite resin. The teeth were stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37 degrees celsius; before thermocyling for 500 times between 5 and 55 degrees celsius;. The teeth were then randomly assigned into 7 groups, and in groups 1-6, the bleaching gels containing 10% or 20% of CP were applied on the buccal and lingual surface of the teeth for two weeks (6-8 h/day, 37 degrees celsius;, 100% relative humidity) using Carbopol, PVP or Poloxamer as the thickening carriers, respectively. The seventh group served as the control without bleaching treatment. Nail polish was applied to the surface of the tooth, and all the teeth were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution followed by developing solution. The teeth were finally sectioned through the midline of the restoration and observed under stereomicroscope. SEM micrographs were also made to observe the interface. With the same bleaching agent, the micro-leakage in the gingival wall was slightly greater than in the occlusive wall, but the difference was not significant. Only 20% CP with Poloxamer as the thickening agent significantly increased the leakage of dentine-resin composite interface, and 10% and 20% CP with Carbopol or PVP as the thickening agents and 10% CP with Poloxamer produced minimal effects on filling the micro-leakage. Thickening carriers and the concentration of CP (20% or below) have no significant effect on micro-leakage of composite resin.

  2. Oxidative stress and expression of insulin signaling proteins in the brain of diabetic rats: Role of Nigella sativa oil and antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbaa, Mahmoud; Abdulmalek, Shaymaa A; Khalil, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    oxidative stress, the pro-inflammatory mediators and amyloidogenic pathway. Moreover, it lowers the insulin receptor inhibitory effect of IOMe-AG538 and modifies the insulin-signaling pathway. Therefore, it prevents the neurotoxicity, amyloid plaque formation and Tau hyper-phosphorylation and restores AD-related miRNA normal levels. These data suggest that NSO or its combined treatments with anti-diabetic drugs have a possible benefit as disease modifying agents for the insulin resistance in the brain through enhancing brain insulin signaling pathway.

  3. [Effects of different neutralizing agents on succinate production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuona; Jiang, Min; Li, Jian; Fang, Xiaojiang; Ye, Guizi; Bai, Xuefei; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Wei, Ping

    2010-11-01

    Different neutralizing agents were used as pH controller to investigate their effects on the growth and succinic acid production of Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The fermentation results showed that Ca(OH)2, CaCO3 and NH4OH were not suitable for succinic acid production by A. succinogenes NJ113 because of their negative effects on cell growth. When Na-base was used, cells would flocculate and lump, and due to the sodium ion concentration reaching to a high level, OD660 dropped sharply after 12 h of fermentation. Mg-base was better because there was no significant inhibition by magnesium ion. Two combined neutralizing agents were used to maintain pH level, one with NaOH and Mg(OH)2 while the other with Na2CO3 and Mg(OH)2. The optimum ratios of the combined neutralizing agents were both 1:1 (g:g) when using 100 g/L glucose. When NaOH and Mg(OH)2 were chosen with the ratio of 1:1(g:g), 69.8 g/L of the succinic acid and 74.5% of the yield was obtained.

  4. Effects of alkylating agents on dopamine D(3) receptors in rat brain: selective protection by dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Weiss, N T; Tarazi, F I; Kula, N S; Baldessarini, R J

    1999-11-13

    Dopamine D(3) receptors are structurally highly homologous to other D(2)-like dopamine receptors, but differ from them pharmacologically. D(3) receptors are notably resistant to alkylation by 1-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), which readily alkylates D(2) receptors. We compared EEDQ with N-(p-isothiocyanatophenethyl)spiperone (NIPS), a selective D(2)-like receptor alkylating agent, for effects on D(3) and D(2) receptors in rat brain using autoradiographic analysis. Neither agent occluded D(3) receptors in vivo at doses that produced substantial blockade of D(2) receptors, even after catecholamine-depleting pretreatments. In vitro, however, D(3) receptors were readily alkylated by both NIPS (IC(50)=40 nM) and EEDQ (IC(50)=12 microM). These effects on D(3) sites were blocked by nM concentrations of dopamine, whereas microM concentrations were required to protect D(2) receptors from the alkylating agents. The findings are consistent with the view that alkylation of D(3) receptors in vivo is prevented by its high affinity for even minor concentrations of endogenous dopamine.

  5. Cooperative biological effects between ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Lorenzo; D'Arco, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), at environmentally and therapeutically relevant doses or as a result of diagnostics or accidents, causes cyto- and genotoxic damage. However, exposure to IR alone is a rare event as it occurs in spatial and temporal combination with several physico-chemical agents. Some of these are of known noxiousness, as is the case with chemical compounds at high dose, hence additive/synergistic effects can be expected or have been demonstrated. Conversely, the cellular toxicity of other agents, such as non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), is only presumed and their short- and long-term cooperation on IR-induced damage remains undetermined. In this review, we shall examine evidence in support of the interplay between spatially and/or temporally related environmentally relevant stressors. In vitro or animal-based studies as well as epidemiological surveys have generally examined the combined action of no more than a couple of known or potentially DNA-damaging agents. Moreover, most existing research mainly focused on short-term effects of combined exposures. Hence, it is important that quantitative research addresses the issue of the possible cooperation between chronic exposure to environmental trace contaminants and exposure to EMFs, examining not only the modulation of damage acutely induced by IR but also long-term genome stability. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Diaz, D; Merino, C; Velázquez, M M

    2015-11-11

    Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  7. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Diaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  8. Semiconducting polymer dot as a highly effective contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Jian

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we developed a novel PIID-DTBT based semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) that have broad and strong optical absorption in the visible-light region (500 nm - 700 nm). Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and gold nanorods (GNRs) that have been verified as an excellent photoacoustic contrast agent were compared with Pdots based on photoacoustic imaging method. Both ex vivo and in vivo experiment demonstrated Pdots have a better photoacoustic conversion efficiency at 532 nm than GNPs and similar photoacoustic performance with GNRs at 700 nm at the same mass concentration. Our work demonstrates the great potential of Pdots as a highly effective contrast agent for precise localization of lesions relative to the blood vessels based on photoacoustic tomography imaging.

  9. Economic effectiveness of using a dispersing agent in preparing drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubaydullayev, S R

    1978-01-01

    A technique is suggested for preparing argillaceous solutions with the help of a dispersing agent for laboratory studies and a set of formulas for evaluating the economic effectiveness of the obtained solution. Initially an original argillaceous solution from clay powder with viscosity of 25 s is prepared. Then the solution is treated in a laboratory ultrasonic dispersing device until the condition ''does not flow.'' After this, by adding water, viscosity of the solution is brought to 25 s, and density to 1.2 g/cm/sup 3/. In this case the output of solution after treatment by the dispersing agent is improved by 35.2%. As a result annual saving of clay of about 365 T for the Pamukskiy clay plant or R 4745 in a monetary expression is reached.

  10. The kidney as a new target for antidiabetic drugs: SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, S; Chang, Y-Y; Chempakaseril, S J; Guduru, R C; Huynh, L M; John, J S; John, S T; Joseph, M E; Judge, R; Kimmey, R; Kudratov, K; Lee, P J; Madhani, I C; Shim, P J; Singh, S; Singh, S; Ruchalski, C; Raffa, R B

    2013-10-01

    A novel class of antidiabetic drugs - SGLT2 (Na(+) /glucose cotransporter type 2) inhibitors - target renal reabsorption of glucose and promote normal glucose levels, independent of insulin production or its action at receptors. We review this new mechanistic approach and the reported efficacy and safety of clinical testing of lead compounds. Information was obtained from various bibliographic sources, including PubMed and others, on the basic science and the clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors. The information was then summarized and evaluated from the perspective of contribution to a fuller understanding of the potential and current status of the lead clinical candidates. Diabetes mellitus is a spectrum of disorders that involves inadequate insulin function resulting in adverse health sequelae due to acute and chronic hyperglycaemia. Current antidiabetic pharmacotherapy primarily addresses either insulin production at the pancreatic β-cells or insulin action at insulin receptors. These drugs have less than full clinical effectiveness and sometimes therapy-limiting adverse effects. The third major component of glucose balance, namely elimination, has not been a significant therapeutic target to date. SGLT2 inhibitors are a novel approach. A sufficient number of clinical trials have been conducted on sufficiently chemically diverse SGLT2 inhibitors to reasonably conclude that they have efficacy (HbA1c reductions of 0·4-1%), and thus far, the majority of adverse effects have been mild and transitory or treatable, with the caveat of possible association with increased risk of breast cancer in women and bladder cancer in men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of surface treatment on bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan [Department of Electrochemistry, Universität Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Roudsari, Sareh Esmaeily Sabet [Department of Optoelectonics, Universität Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari [School of Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahbar, Nima, E-mail: nrahbar@wpi.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to understand the dominant mechanism in bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic by investigating the effects of different surface treatments. Effects of two major mechanisms of chemical and micromechanical adhesion were evaluated on bond strength of zirconia to luting agent. Specimens of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks were fabricated. Seven groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. 1) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion (SZ), 2) zirconia specimens after etching (ZH), 3) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion and simultaneous etching (HSZ), 4) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of a Fluorapatite-Leucite glaze (GZ), 5) GZ specimens with additional acid etching (HGZ), 6) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of salt glaze (SGZ) and 7) SGZ specimens after etching with 2% HCl (HSGZ). Composite cylinders were bonded to airborne-particle-abraded surfaces of ZirkonZahn specimens with Panavia F2 resin luting agent. Failure modes were examined under 30 × magnification and the effect of surface treatments was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SZ and HSZ groups had the highest and GZ and SGZ groups had the lowest mean shear bond strengths among all groups. Mean shear bond strengths were significantly decreased by applying a glaze layer on zirconia surfaces in GZ and SGZ groups. However, bond strengths were improved after etching process. Airborne particle abrasion resulted in higher shear bond strengths compared to etching treatment. Modes of failure varied among different groups. Finally, it is concluded that micromechanical adhesion was a more effective mechanism than chemical adhesion and airborne particle abrasion significantly increased mean shear bond strengths compared with another surface treatments. - Highlights: • Understanding the dominant mechanism of bonding

  12. Hormetic Effect of Berberine Attenuates the Anticancer Activity of Chemotherapeutic Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaolin Bao

    Full Text Available Hormesis is a phenomenon of biphasic dose response characterized by exhibiting stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or toxic effects at high doses. Increasing numbers of chemicals of various types have been shown to induce apparent hormetic effect on cancer cells. However, the underlying significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Berberine, one of the major active components of Rhizoma coptidis, has been manifested with notable anticancer activities. This study aims to investigate the hormetic effect of berberine and its influence on the anticancer activities of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results demonstrated that berberine at low dose range (1.25 ~ 5 μM promoted cell proliferation to 112% ~170% of the untreated control in various cancer cells, while berberine at high dose rage (10 ~ 80 μM inhibited cell proliferation. Further, we observed that co-treatment with low dose berberine could significantly attenuate the anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic agents, including fluorouracil (5-FU, camptothecin (CPT, and paclitaxel (TAX. The hormetic effect and thereby the attenuated anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic drugs by berberine may attributable to the activated protective stress response in cancer cells triggered by berberine, as evidenced by up-regulated MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These results provided important information to understand the potential side effects of hormesis, and suggested cautious application of natural compounds and relevant herbs in adjuvant treatment of cancer.

  13. Stimulatory and protective effects of alkylating agents applied in ultra-low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhalsky, A L; Shmarina, G V

    2001-01-01

    Alkylating drugs belonging to the nitrogen mustard family are known as cytostatic and immunosuppressive agents. Ultra-low doses of these drugs may demonstrate pharmacological effects unlike this category of drugs. In the case of a gradual dose decrease, the number of targets for alkylation is also reduced and the drug switches from cytostatic to cell growth modifier. We postulate that application of ultra-low doses of alkylating drugs may result in a beneficial effect in the therapy of diseases associated with chronic inflammation of the mucosa, especially with the signs of epithelial atrophy. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Randomized and double-blinded pilot clinical study of the safety and anti-diabetic efficacy of the Rauvolfia-Citrus tea, as used in Nigerian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Tofte, Joan I A; Mølgaard, Per; Josefsen, Knud; Abdallah, Zostam; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Cornett, Claus; Mu, Huiling; Richter, Erik A; Petersen, Henning Willads; Nørregaard, Jens Christian; Winther, Kaj

    2011-01-27

    The aim of this randomized and double blinded pilot clinical trial was to investigate the anti-diabetic efficacy of the Rauvolfia-Citrus (RC) tea in humans. We have earlier shown that a combination of calorie-restriction and chronic administration of the RC tea to the genetic diabetic (BKS-db) mice resulted in the normalization of blood sugar, reduction in lipid accumulated in the mice eyes and prevention of the degeneration of the otherwise brittle BKS-db pancreas. The tea is made by boiling foliage of Rauvolfia vomitoria and fruits of Citrus aurantium and is used to treat diabetes in Nigerian folk medicine. The RC tea was produced using the Nigerian traditional recipe and tested in the traditional dosage on 23 Danish type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. The participants were divided into two equivalent groups after stratification by sex, age and BMI, in a 4-month double-blinded, placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Most of the study subjects (19/23) were using oral anti-diabetic agents (OADs). Mean disease duration was 6±4.6 years, mean age was 64±7 years and mean BMI was 28.7±3.8 kg/m(2). Prior to starting the treatment, the participants received individual dietician consultations. At the end of the 4-month treatment period, the treated group showed an 11% decrease in 2-h postprandial plasma glucose relative to the 3% increase in the placebo group (p=0.004). The improvement in blood glucose clearance with RC tea treatment was reflected in a 6% reduction in HbA(1c) (p=0.02) and in a 10% reduction in fasting plasma glucose (p=0.02), when comparing the post 4-month treatment to pre-treatment baseline values. Though the basal levels of phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase enzyme in skeletal muscle were significantly reduced in the treated group (p=0.04), as compared to the placebo, only the pattern of reductions in the tissue fatty acids (FAs) differed in the two groups. While all types of FAs were reduced in placebo, only saturated (SFA) and

  15. The Effects of Leader-Member Exchanges on the Relationships Between Extension Agents and County Extension Directors in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Matt Benge; Amy Harder

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between a supervisor and employee has a direct effect on the employee’s job satisfaction, work productivity, and efficiency. Understanding the interactions between Extension agents and County Extension Directors is critical to maintaining positive relationships and providing adequate support to Extension supervisors through professional development and training opportunities. This article examined the dyadic relationships between Extension agents and County Extension Direc...

  16. Release time of residual oxygen after dental bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide: effect of a catalase-based neutralizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasso, Bárbara; Salomone, Paloma; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    This article assessed the effect of a catalase-based agent on residual oxygen (O2) release from teeth exposed to 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The use of the catalase-based neutralizer agent for 2-3 minutes was able to release residual O2 5 days after exposure to a 35% H2O2-based bleaching gel.

  17. Technological progress and effects of (supra) regional innovation and production collaboration. An agent-based model simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Pyka, A.; Serguieva, A.; Maringer, D.; Palade, V.; Almeida, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a novel technology development model in which economic agents search for transformations to build artifacts. Using this technology development model, we conduct an agent-based model simulation study on the effect of (supra-)regional collaboration in production and innovation on

  18. Antidiabetic actions of a phosphatidylcholine ligand for nuclear receptor LRH-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Man; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Mamrosh, Jennifer L.; Busby, Scott A.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Pathak, Manish C.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Moore, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis1,2. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands3–5, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine, DLPC) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro. DLPC treatment induces bile acid biosynthetic enzymes in mouse liver, increases bile acid levels, and lowers hepatic triglycerides and serum glucose. DLPC treatment also decreases hepatic steatosis and improves glucose homeostasis in two mouse models of insulin resistance. Both the antidiabetic and lipotropic effects are lost in liver specific Lrh-1 knockouts. These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signaling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. PMID:21614002

  19. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  20. Phytochemical screening and study of antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of extracts from stem wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Dipak Raj; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Saru, Dil Bahadur; Yadav, Uday Narayan; Khanal, Dharma Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and to study the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of extracts from stem wood of Pterocarpus marsupium . Ethanol, acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (1:1) extracts of stem wood of P. marsupium were subjected to phytochemical screening and analysis of biological activities from August 2015 to January 2016. The antioxidant assay was carried out using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging method, antimicrobial activity testing by cup diffusion method, antidiabetic test evaluation by oral glucose tolerance test in mice, anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by hind paw edema method in mice and analgesic test evaluation by a chemical writhing method in mice. The results of the study revealed that P. marsupium is a source of various phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Both the acetone and IPA extract as well as the ethanol extract of stem wood of P. marsupium exhibited a dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Acetone and IPA extract showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, while the ethanolic extract was found to possess antidiabetic activity. The antidiabetic activity of the extract was found to be time and dose-dependent. Similarly, the acetone and IPA extract was found to have anti-inflammatory activity, which was also time and dose-dependent. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract showed analgesic activity, which was dose-dependent. The ethanolic extract was found to be nontoxic. Thus, this study laid sufficient background for the further research on extracts from stem wood of P. marsupium for identification, subsequent purification and isolation of compounds having antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities.

  1. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycating activities of the Eysenhardtia polystachya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Baez, Efren Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP) bark methanol-water extract. Materials and Methods : The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by studying in vitro the scavenging of DPPH and ABTS free radical, reactive oxygen species such as RO2, O2·-, H2O2, OH., H2O2, ONOO-, NO, HOCl,1 O2, chelating ability, ORAC, β-carotene-bleaching and lipid peroxidation. The antiglycation activities of EP were evaluated by haemoglobin, bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose, BSA-methylglyoxal and BSA-glucose assays. Oral administration of EP at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/g was studied in normal, glucose-loaded and antidiabetic effects on streptozotocin-induced mildly diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) mice. Results: EP showed Hdonor activity, free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating ability and lipid peroxidation Antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. EP is an inhibitor of fluorescent AGE, methylglyoxal and the glycation of haemoglobin. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, EP reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, TBARS, LDL and G6Pase. Conclusions: Eysenhardtia polystachya possesses considerable antioxidant activity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and demonstrated an anti-AGEs and hepatoprotective role, inhibits hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and oxidative stress indicating that these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24991120

  2. Review of antidiabetic fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices commonly consumed in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-04-06

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and its prevalence is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Modifications of lifestyle such as suitable diet and exercise programs along with pharmacotherapy and education of patients are beneficial therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. Our aim is to present a review for researchers who are interested in the biologically active dietary plants traditionally utilized in the treatment of diabetes. Information was obtained from a literature search of electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sci Finder and Cochrane. Common and scientific name of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic effects of fruits and vegetables may be due to their inducing nature on pancreatic β-cells for insulin secretion, or bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and anthocyanins, which act as insulin-like molecules or insulin secretagogues. This write-up covers hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How to fight obesity with antidiabetic drugs: targeting gut or kidney?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baretić, M; Troskot, R

    2015-03-01

    The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes follows the increased prevalence of obesity. Both diseases share common pathophysiological pathways; obesity is in most cases the first step, whereas diabetes is the second one. Weight gain occurs during the treatment of diabetes with drugs causing endogenous or exogenous hyperinsulinemia. Insulin and sulfonylurea are making patients more obese and more insulin resistant. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 agonists) and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) are antidiabetic drugs with weight loss property. GLP-1 agonists mimic an incretin action. They release insulin after a meal during hyperglycemia and suppress glucagon. The weight loss effect is a consequence of central action increased satiety. Some of GLP-1 agonists weight loss is a result of decelerated gastric emptying rate. SGLT2 inhibitors block sodium glucose cotransporter in proximal tubule brush border and produce glucose excretion with urinary loss. Urinary glucose leak results in calories and weight loss. Even a modest weight loss has positive outcome on metabolic features of diabetic patient; such drugs have important role in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. However, there are some still unresolved questions. The weight loss they produce is modest. Those drugs are expensive and not available to many diabetic patients, they are significantly more expensive compared to "traditional" hypoglycemic drugs. The hypoglycemic endpoint of GLP-1 agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors often requires adding another antidiabetic drug. The most radical and most effective therapy of type 2 diabetes and obesity is bariatric surgery having significant number of diabetes remission.

  4. The combined effect of interferon synthesis inductors, radiosensitizing and antitumoral agents on solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidze, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments with mice bearing solid sarcoma 37 a study was conducted on the combined effect of radiation and inductors of endogenous inerferon synthesis (IEIS), together with hyperthermia or together with an alkylating and carbomoilating agent, dimethinur. The effect was estimated by the tumor growth coefficient and by the number of animals with the regressed tumors. Poly I; polyC was not shiown to influence the efficiency of hyperthermia combined with radiation with radiation; dextransulphate and tiloron increased the radiosensitizing effect of hyperthermia. Dimethinur aggravated the effect of radiation, but with IEIS used together with dimethynur and radiation, the response of the tumor increased insignificantly as compared to the effect of IEIS together with radiation

  5. A small effect of adding antiviral agents in treating patients with severe Bell palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Erwin L; Rovers, Maroeska M; de Ru, J Alexander; van der Heijden, Geert J

    2012-03-01

    In this evidence-based case report, the authors studied the following clinical question: What is the effect of adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with severe or complete Bell palsy? The search yielded 250 original research articles. The 6 randomized trials of these that could be used all reported low-quality data for answering the clinical question; apart from apparent flaws, they did not primarily include patients with severe or complete Bell palsy. Complete functional facial nerve recovery was seen in 75% of the patients receiving prednisolone only and in 83% with additional antiviral treatment. The pooled risk difference of 7% (95% confidence interval, -1% to 15%) results in a number needed to treat of 14 (ie, slightly favors adding an antiviral agent). The authors conclude that although a strong recommendation for adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids to further improve the recovery of patients with severe Bell palsy is precluded by the lack of robust evidence, it should be discussed with the patient.

  6. Effect of Viscous Agents on Corneal Density in Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Alfred R; Meyer, Linda M; Schönfeld, Carl-Ludwig

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of the viscous agents, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carbomer, povidone, and a combination of HPMC and povidone on corneal density in patients with dry eye disease. In total, 98 eyes of 49 patients suffering from dry eye and 65 eyes of 33 healthy age-matched individuals were included in this prospective, randomized study. Corneal morphology was documented with Scheimpflug photography and corneal density was analyzed in 5 anatomical layers (epithelium, bowman membrane, stroma, descemet's membrane, and endothelium). Corneal density was evaluated for the active ingredients HPMC, carbomer, povidone, and a combination of HPMC and povidone as the viscous agents contained in the artificial tear formulations used by the dry eye patients. Data were compared to the age-matched healthy control group without medication. Corneal density in dry eye patients was reduced in all 5 anatomical layers compared to controls. Corneal density was highest and very close to control in patients treated with HPMC containing ocular lubricants. Patients treated with lubricants, including carbomer as the viscous agent displayed a significant reduction of corneal density in layers 1 and 2 compared to control. HPMC containing ocular lubricants can help to maintain physiological corneal density and may be beneficial in the treatment of dry eye disease.

  7. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on the Radionuclides Excretion from Internally Contaminated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Mangood, Sh.A.; Sohsah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present work was oriented to investigate the effectiveness of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CaDTPA) as therapeutic agents for the elimination of either 134 Cs or 60 Co from contaminated rats after intake of one of the isotopes. The study was performed by using 48 adult rats divided into 8 identical groups each of six rats having approximately the same body weight. The groups included a reference group, without isotope or therapeutic agent administration, four groups given one of the isotopes and four groups given the isotopes and treated with different therapeutic regimes. The isotope content of the treated and untreated contaminated rats were followed by daily whole body radiometric counting for three weeks. On plotting log % radionuclide retained as a function of time, elapsed between radionuclide administration and radiometric counting, straight lines were obtained. The results indicate that excretion can mostly be represented by two stages; the first is fast followed by a second slow stage. The % radionuclide excreted, the corresponding rate constant and the biological half-life of each stage was estimated. It was found that the application of PB + vermiculite is more efficient, to remove 134 Cs, from contaminated rats, than PB only and CaDTPA is more efficient to remove 60Co. Therefore, it is recommended to use the three therapeutic agents to remove both isotopes when taken simultaneously

  8. Effects of Heterogeneity in Residential Preferences on an Agent-Based Model of Urban Sprawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Brown

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of agent-based models (ABMs to represent heterogeneity in the characteristics and behaviors of actors enables analyses about the implications of this heterogeneity for system behavior. The importance of heterogeneity in the specification of ABMs, however, creates new demands for empirical support. An earlier analysis of a survey of residential preferences within southeastern Michigan revealed seven groups of residents with similar preferences on similar characteristics of location. In this paper, we present an ABM that represents the process of residential development within an urban system and run it for a hypothetical pattern of environmental variation. Residential locations are selected by residential agents, who evaluate locations on the basis of preference for nearness to urban services, including jobs, aesthetic quality of the landscape, and their similarity to their neighbors. We populate our ABM with a population of residential preferences drawn from the survey results in five different ways: (1 preferences drawn at random; (2 equal preferences based on the mean from the entire survey sample; (3 preferences drawn from a single distribution, whose mean and standard deviation are derived from the survey sample; (4 equal preferences within each of seven groups, based on the group means; and (5 preferences drawn from distributions for each of seven groups, defined by group means and standard deviations. Model sensitivity analysis, based on multiple runs of our model under each case, revealed that adding heterogeneity to agents has a significant effect on model outcomes, measured by aggregate patterns of development sprawl and clustering.

  9. Assessing the effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Augusto Ricardo; de Leão Withers, Eduardo Henrique; Grando, Karlos Giovani; Ambrosio, Aldrieli Regina; Shimizu, Roberto Hideo; Melo, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Tooth bleaching is, today, one of the most widespread cosmetic treatments in dental practice,  so it is important to determine whether it can interfere with orthodontic bonding or not. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Forty-five upper bicuspids were divided into three groups (n = 15). In the control Group (C), the brackets were bonded without previous bleaching treatment. Group 1 (G1) was treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent 24 h before bracket bonding. Group 2 was also bleached, and the brackets were bonded after 30 days. The shear bond strength of the brackets was measured using an EMIC machine, and the results were analyzed by ANOVA. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups (P > 0.05), with Group C showing a mean bond strength of 9.72 ± 2.63 MPa, G1 of 8.09 ± 2.63 MPa, and G2 of 11.15 ± 4.42 MPa. It was possible to conclude that 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent does not affect the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded 24 h and 30 days after bleaching.

  10. Effect of carboxylic acids as compatibilizer agent on mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch and polypropylene blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Bercini; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2016-01-01

    In this work, polypropylene/thermoplastic starch (PP/TPS) blends were prepared as an alternative material to use in disposable packaging, reducing the negative polymeric environmental impact. Unfortunately, this material displays morphological characteristics typical of immiscible polymer blends and a compatibilizer agent is needed. Three different carboxyl acids: myristic (C14), palmitic (C16) and stearic acids (C18) were used as natural compatibilizer agent (NCA). The effects of NCA on the mechanical, physical, thermal and morphological properties of PP/TPS blends were investigated and compared against PP/TPS with and without PP-grafted maleic anhydride (PPgMA). When compared to PP/TPS, blends with C18, PPgMA and C14 presented an improvement of 25, 22 and 17% in tensile strength at break and of 180, 194 and 259% in elongation at break, respectively. The highest increase, 54%, in the impact strength was achieved with C14 incorporation. Improvements could be seen, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, in the compatibility between the immiscible components by acids incorporation. These results showed that carboxylic acids, specifically C14, could be used as compatibilizer agent and could substitute PPgMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeong-Chul; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Seong-Hoon; Park, Kui-Lea; Hur, Sook-Jin; Heo, Yong

    2003-07-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. This study was undertaken to evaluate overall immunologic spectrum of the Vietnam War Korean veterans exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD. Quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the veterans suffered from chronic diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure (Veterans-patient group) were decreased in comparison with those of the veterans without the diseases and the age-matched healthy controls, but no differences in leukocyte populations. Plasma IgG levels were lowered in the veterans than the controls, owing to significant decrease in the IgG1 levels. Increase in the IgE levels was observed in the plasma from the veterans. Alteration of T cell-mediated immunity was also resulted from activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with polyclonal T cell activators. Production of IFNgamma, a major cytokine mediating host resistance against infection or tumoregenesis, was lowered in the veterans-patient group. However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the patient group. Overall, this study suggests that military service in Vietnam and/or Agent Orange exposure disturbs immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulation of B and T cell activities.

  12. Effects of antineoplastic agents and ionizing irradiation on a human testicular cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osieka, R.; Pfeiffer, R.; Glatte, P.; Schmidt, C.G.; Bamberg, M.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotherapy has afforded a high percentage of definitive cures in advanced testicular cancer. Nevertheless some patients with large tumor burden still succumb to chemorefractory disease. Therefore preclinical and clinical evaluation of new drugs and agents not primarily used against this type of disease are still mandatory. For preclinical drug screening purposes heterotransplantation of specific human tumors yields a model with high validity for tumor markers and drug response. Heterotransplantation of a human embryonal testicular cancer was used for simultaneous testing of established agents such as cisplatin, melphalan, bleomycin, vinblastine, etoposide and adriamycin and some newer derivatives such as PHM or mafosfamide. Furthermore agents such as procarbazine, dacarbazine and methyl-CCNU that cross the blood-brain-barrier displayed some interesting activity. The results hint at a unique chemosensitivity pattern of the xenograft line, with some accordance between clinical response to vinblastine and bleomycin and good response of the xenografts to bleomycin but not to vinblastine. Radiotherapy was also effective against this tumor line, but there was not much difference in response when the schedule of fractionation was changed. It is concluded that a combined modality approach might salvage patients with residual, chemorefractory disease. (orig.) [de

  13. Effects of Immunomodulators and Biologic Agents on Sexual Health in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanar, Ozdemir; Berry, Andrew C; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Lee, Ann Joo; Aldridge, Petra; Myers, Travis; Eid, Emely

    2017-01-01

    Although much knowledge has been gained regarding the medical and surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a paucity of information is available on the psychosexual issues related to IBD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual health of patients with IBD who were taking immunomodulators and/or biologic agents vs patients with IBD who were not on that medication regimen. All study participants completed a validated sexual health questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index or the International Index of Erectile Function, to assess their subjective perception of the effect of IBD on the different domains of sexual function during the prior 1-month time period. No statistically significant differences in any baseline demographic variables were found for either sex between the group taking immunomodulators/biologic agents and the nontreatment group. Among females and males, individual question responses, domain scores, and total scores showed no statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment groups. Our data suggest that the use of immunomodulators or biologic agents does not affect female or male sexual health. However, treatment of patients with IBD must be individualized based on the aggressive nature of the disease, treatment goals, and the tolerability of various medications.

  14. Nanotechnology based approaches for anti-diabetic drugs delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Gorain, Bapi; Low, Siew Yeng; Tan, Siew Ann; Ling, Emily Chai Siaw; Lim, Yin Khai; Chin, Chuan Ming; Lee, Pei Yee; Lee, Chun Mey; Ooi, Chun Haw; Choudhury, Hira; Pandey, Manisha

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology science has been diverged its application in several fields with the advantages to operate with nanometric range of objects. Emerging field of nanotechnology has been also being approached and applied in medical biology for improved efficacy and safety. Increased success in therapeutic field has focused several approaches in the treatment of the common metabolic disorder, diabetes. The development of nanocarriers for improved delivery of different oral hypoglycemic agents compared to conventional therapies includes nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, dendrimer, niosomes and micelles, which produces great control over the increased blood glucose level and thus becoming an eye catching and most promising technology now-a-days. Besides, embellishment of nanocarriers with several ligands makes it more targeted delivery with the protection of entrapped hypoglycaemic agents against degradation, thereby optimizing prolonged blood glucose lowering effect. Thus, nanocarriers of hypoglycemic agents provide the aim towards improved diabetes management with minimized risk of acute and chronic complications. In this review, we provide an overview on distinctive features of each nano-based drug delivery system for diabetic treatment and current NPs applications in diabetes management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hypoxia and memory. Specific features of nootropic agents effects and their use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A

    2000-01-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxic adaptation are powerful factors of controlling memory and behavior processes. Acute hypoxia exerts a differential impact on different deficits of mnestic and cognitive functions. Instrumental reflexes of active and passive avoidance, negative learning, behavior with a change in the stereotype of learning are more greatly damaged. Memory with spatial and visual differentiation and their rearrangement change to a lesser extent and conditional reflexes are not deranged. In this contract, altitude hypoxic adaptation enhances information fixation and increases the degree and duration of retention of temporary relations. Nootropic agents with an antihypoxic action exert a marked effect on hypoxia-induced cognitive and memory disorders and the magnitude of this effect depends on the ration of proper nootropic to antihypoxic components in the spectrum of the drugs' pharmacological activity. The agents that combine a prevailing antiamnestic effect and a marked and moderate antihypoxic action (mexidole, nooglutil, pyracetam, beglymin, etc.) are most effective in eliminating different hypoxia-induced cognitive and memory disorders, nootropic drugs that have a pronounced antiamnestic activity (centrophenoxine, etc.) and no antihypoxic component also restore the main types of mnestic disorders after hypoxia, but to a lesser extent.

  16. Antidiabetic potential of Caesalpinia sumatrana, a medicinal herbs traditionally used by local tribe in East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, D. A.; Rosamah, E.; Kusuma, I. W.

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the research was to analyze the content of phytochemicals, to examine the antioxidant and antidiabeticpotentials of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of Caesalpinia sumatrana. Method to measure antioxidant capacity of sample involves the use of the free radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) which is widely used to test the ability of compounds to act as free radical. Analysis the potential of antidiabeticactivity of the extracts was determined by α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory assay. Of all extracts obtained by successive maceration, ethanol maceration gave the highest extract by 2.63% of extract on the dry weigh basis. The result of phytochemicals showed that all extracts contain alkaloid and flavonoid. The highest antioxidant activity was 82.32% with IC50 value of 5.00 µg/ml obtained by ethanol extract. The results of enzyme inhibitory assay of α-glucosidase showed that ethanol extract of C. sumatrana had IC50 value 17.16 µg/mL to inhibit ɑ-glucosidase activity and IC50 value 16.78 µg/mL for ɑ-amylase. The present result displayed potential of the plant to be developed as natural antidiabetic and antioxidant agents.

  17. Comparative efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drug regimens added to metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Mearns

    Full Text Available When first line therapy with metformin is insufficient for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, the optimal adjunctive therapy is unclear. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antidiabetic agents in patients with inadequately controlled T2D on metformin alone.A search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, regulatory websites was performed. We included randomized controlled trials of 3-12 months duration, evaluating Food and Drug Administration or European Union approved agents (noninsulin and long acting, once daily basal insulins in patients experiencing inadequate glycemic control with metformin monotherapy (≥ 1500 mg daily or maximally tolerated dose for ≥ 4 weeks. Random-effects network meta-analyses were used to compare the weighted mean difference for changes from baseline in HbA1c, body weight (BW and systolic blood pressure (SBP, and the risk of developing hypoglycemia, urinary (UTI and genital tract infection (GTI.Sixty-two trials evaluating 25 agents were included. All agents significantly reduced HbA1c vs. placebo; albeit not to the same extent (range, 0.43% for miglitol to 1.29% for glibenclamide. Glargine, sulfonylureas (SUs and nateglinide were associated with increased hypoglycemia risk vs. placebo (range, 4.00-11.67. Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, miglitol and empagliflozin/linagliptin significantly reduced BW (range, 1.15-2.26 kg whereas SUs, thiazolindinediones, glargine and alogliptin/pioglitazone caused weight gain (range, 1.19-2.44 kg. SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin/linagliptin, liraglutide and sitagliptin decreased SBP (range, 1.88-5.43 mmHg. No therapy increased UTI risk vs. placebo; however, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of GTI (range, 2.16-8.03.Adding different AHAs to metformin was associated with varying effects on HbA1c, BW, SBP, hypoglycemia, UTI and GTI which should impact clinician choice when selecting adjunctive

  18. Effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents on split-dose repair in intestinal crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Theodore L.; Ross, Glenda Y.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents interact with radiation to enhance the amount of radiation damage observed in both tumor and normal tissues. It is important to predict this interaction and to determine the effect of drug on sublethal damage repair. To evaluate for effects in rapid renewing normal tissues, the intestinal crypt cell in vivo assay is an excellent one to employ. These studies investigate the effect of eleven cancer chemotherapeutic drugs on split-dose repair in the intestinal crypt cell of the mouse. Methods and Materials: LAF1 male mice, age 10-12 weeks, were exposed to whole-body irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays delivered as a single dose or as equally divided doses delivered with intervals between the two exposures of 2 to 24 h. In the experimental group, the cancer chemotherapeutic agent was administered intraperitoneally 2 h before the first radiation dose. At 3.6 days after the second irradiation, the mice were sacrificed; the jejunum was removed, fixed, and sectioned for light microscopy. The number of regenerating crypts were counted and corrected to represent the number of surviving cells per circumference. Results: Of the eleven drugs tested, only carmustine eliminated split-dose repair. Cisplatin delayed repair, and methotrexate caused marked synchronization obliterating the observation of split-dose repair. Conclusions: Most cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents do not inhibit sublethal damage repair in intestinal crypt cells when given 2 h before the first radiation exposure. Absence of the initial increase in survival seen with split-dose radiation is noted with carmustine and high-dose methotrexate

  19. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, R K

    1972-01-01

    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.

  20. Comparison of effectiveness of four chelating agents in removing incorporated sup 241 Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Lun; Yumin, Wang; Zhikang, Wei [Ministry of Nuclear Industry, Taiyuan, SX (China). Inst. of Radiation Protection; and others

    1988-02-01

    The effectiveness of four chelating agents (Ca-DTPA, Zn-DTPA, quinamic acid and H-73-10) in removing incorporated {sup 241}Am was studied on 200 rats. The results show that Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA are more effective than the others. They decreased the {sup 241}Am contents in the rat liver and skeleton down to only about 5 and 10 per cent of the control values, respectively. Quinamic acid has the same effectiveness in reducing the {sup 241}Am contents in the rat skeleton and liver as that of DTPA, but it leads to the cumulation of {sup 241}Am in the kidney, i. e., the {sup 241}Am content in the kidney is even higher than that in control rats. Although H-73-10 can remove {sup 241}Am from the rat organs, it is much less effective than DTPA.

  1. New approaches to assessing the effects of mutagenic agents on the integrity of the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elespuru, R.K.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Heritable genetic alterations, although individually rare, have a substantial collective health impact. Approximately 20% of these are new mutations of unknown cause. Assessment of the effect of exposures to DNA damaging agents, i.e. mutagenic chemicals and radiations, on the integrity of the human genome and on the occurrence of genetic disease remains a daunting challenge. Recent insights may explain why previous examination of human exposures to ionizing radiation, as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, failed to reveal heritable genetic effects. New opportunities to assess the heritable genetic damaging effects of environmental mutagens are afforded by: (1) integration of knowledge on the molecular nature of genetic disorders and the molecular effects of mutagens; (2) the development of more practical assays for germline mutagenesis; (3) the likely use of population-based genetic screening in personalized medicine

  2. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  3. Drug–drug Interaction between Pravastatin and Gemfibrozil (Antihyperlipidemic) with Gliclazide (Antidiabetic) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanpur, CM; Satyanarayana, S; Reddy, NS; Kumar, KE; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a condition of increased blood glucose level in the body. Antihyperlipidemic drugs like statins and fibrates are widely used for prophylactic treatment in dyslipideamia and atherosclerosis. Diabetic dislipidemia exists with increased triglycerides, low HDL and high LDL levels. Hence, with oral hypoglycemic drugs, the addition of a lipid-lowering drug is necessary for controlling dislipidemia. In such a situation, there may be chances of drug–drug interactions between antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic drugs. The present study is planned to evaluate the safety of gliclazide (antidiabetic) in the presence of pravastatin and gemfibrozil (antihyperlpidemic) in rats. Studies in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were conducted with oral doses of gliclazide and their combination with pravastatin and gemfibrozil, with an adequate washout period in between the treatments. Blood samples were collected in rats by retroorbital puncture at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h. All the blood samples were analyzed for glucose by GOD –POD. Gliclazide (½ TD) produced hypoglycemic activity in normal and diabetic rats, with peak activity at 2 and 8 h. Pravastatin (TD) + gemfibrozil (TD) combination treatment increased the hypoglycemic effect of gliclazide in normal rats or diabetic rats when administered together. The interaction observed due to inhibition of both the enzymes (CYP 450 2C9 and CYP 450 3A4) responsible for the metabolism of gliclazide showed increased half-life, which was seen in the present study. Because concomitant administration of gliclazide with provastatin and gemfibrozil in diabetes is associated with atherosclerosis, it should be contraindicated or used with caution. PMID:21264118

  4. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  5. Effects of Shrinkage Reducing Agent and Expansive Additive on Mortar Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Treesuwan, Sarapon; Maleesee, Komsan

    2017-01-01

    This research is to study the effect of mortar mixed with shrinkage reducing agent (polyoxyalkylene alkyl ether type), expansive additive (CaO type), and fly ash (hereinafter “SRA,” “EX,” and “FA,” resp.). Moreover, steam curing was studied to improve the properties of mortar. The plastic shrinkage test was conducted by using the strain gauge embedded at 0.5 cm from the surface according to the ASTM C1579-06 standard within early age followed by the total shrinkage test and compressive streng...

  6. Effects of Electron Acceptors, Reducing Agents, and Toxic Metabolites on Anaerobic Degradation of Heterocyclic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Dorthe; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Arvin, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of four heterocyclic compounds was examined under nitrate-reducing, sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Soil samples from a creosote-polluted site in Denmark were used as inoculum. Indole and quinoline were degraded under all redox conditions with the highest degradation...... of quinoline under sulphate-reducing conditions which was inhibited by sulphide at concentrations above 0.8 mM. Degradation of quinoline under methanogenic conditions was also inhibited by 3.2 mM sulphide used as a reducing agent, but sulphide had no inhibitory effect on the degradation of indole...... in methanogenic and sulphate-reducing soil slurries...

  7. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-05-01

    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Synthesis, effect of capping agents, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Viswanath, V.; Janu, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical method in alcohol base. During synthesis three capping agents, i.e. triethanolamine (TEA), oleic acid and thioglycerol, were used and the effect of concentrations was analyzed for their effectiveness in limiting the particle growth. Thermal stability of ZnO nanoparticles prepared using TEA, oleic acid and thioglycerol capping agents, was studied using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). ZnO nanoparticles capped with TEA showed maximum weight loss. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for structural and morphological characterization of ZnO nanoparticles. Particle size was evaluated using effective mass approximation method from UV-vis spectroscopy and Scherrer's formula from XRD patterns. XRD analysis revealed single crystal ZnO nanoparticles of size 12-20 nm in case of TEA capping. TEA, oleic acid and thioglycerol capped synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were investigated at room temperature photoluminescence for three excitation wavelengths i.e. 304, 322 and 325 nm, showing strong peaks at about 471 nm when excited at 322 and 325 nm whereas strong peak was observed at 411 for 304 nm excitation.

  9. Complement-induced histamine release from human basophils. III. Effect of pharmacologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, W A; Siraganian, R P

    1977-02-01

    Human serum activated with zymosan generates a factor (C5a) that releases histamine from autologous basophils. Previously we have presented evidence that this mechanism for C5a-induced release differs from IgE-mediated reactions. The effect of several pharmacologic agents known to alter IgE-mediated release was studied to determine whether they have a similar action on serum-induced release. Deuterium oxide (D2O), which enhances allergic release, inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion the serum-induced reaction at incubation temperatures of 25 and 32 degrees C. The colchicine-induced inhibition was not reversed by D2O. Cytochalasin B, which gives a variable enhancement of IgE-mediated release, had a marked enhancing effect on the serum-induced reaction in all subjects tested. The following agents known to inhibit the IgE-mediated reaction also inhibited serum-induced release at 25 degrees C: colchicine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, aminophylline, isoproterenol, cholera toxin, chlorphenesin, diethylcarbamazine, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. These results suggest that the serum-induced release is modulated by i