Sample records for anticlines

  1. A Growing Anticline in Tainan City, Taiwan (United States)

    Lee, C.; Lee, C.; Cheng, C.; Liao, C.; Wen, S.


    Tainan City has been known as an earthquake prone town since the early immigration of the ¡§Han¡" people from Mainland China about four hundred years ago. For the purpose of clarifying tectonic activity and paleo-earthquakes in the Tainan City area, we have finished the excavation of three trenches and the drilling of four holes at the so-called Houchiali Fault on the eastern margin of the Tainan tableland. We carefully observed the cores and exposures in the trenches, performed a detailed mapping, and took samples for C-14 dating and other types of analysis. The results show the trench sites are located at a flexure scarp without direct evidence of faulting. But, from the fact of tilting of Holocene sediments to about 50 degrees and the development of a fracture system in the sediments, one may realize that this is without doubt an active structure. We have tested many different models to interpret the observed geologic evidence in the trenches and outcrops, finally determined a growing fault-propagation fold model to be the best interpretation for the Tainan Anticline, while the Houchiali fault is a back-kink or a blind back-thrust type. A diapiric fold had been discussed as possible for a long time by many researchers, but a fault-propagation fold in origin does not contradict with a mud diapiric feature, which was formed during the folding. Field evidence shows that the main active phase of the Houchiali Fault and the Tainan Anticline would have been after the deposition of the Tainan Formation about two to three thousand years ago. During the active deformation phase, the Tawan Formation onlaped the Tainan Formation, as well as tilted during the folding, thus, beds on higher stratigraphic horizon show lower dip-angle. Estimated from a detailed geologic profile, the horizontal shortening of the anticline is estimated to be 30 meters. The vertical uplift of the Tainan Formation is also about 30 meters. This indicates that the deformation rate has been about 1

  2. The Jinadriyah anticlines: a surface model for oil fields in eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMahmoud, Mohammed J; Khalil, Mesbah H; Moustafa, Adel R


    Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named herein the North and South Jinadriyah anticlines. The outcrops in both anticlines belong to the Lower Cretaceous Yamama Formation which consists of limestone in its lower part and limestone with shale in its upper part. The study included initially detailed interpretation of Google Earth and Landsat TM images to map the structural pattern of the anticlines. Detailed field mapping confirmed the satellite image interpretation and helped describe the geometry of the two anticlines in detail. The 3.5-km-long South Jinadriyah anticline is an open doubly plunging asymmetric anticline. The western flank is dissected by 13 minor reverse faults of north-south orientation. The North Jinadriyah anticline is about 5.5 km long and is relatively more complex than the South Jinadriyah anticline. It consists of northern, central, and southern segments that differ from each others in orientation and style. The anticline is dissected by 18 minor faults of different orientations and sense of displacement. Two perpendicular fracture sets with one being parallel to the anticline axes were recorded in the two anticlines. Both anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds that were formed during the Late Cretaceous first Alpine orogeny. The mid-Late Tertiary second Alpine orogeny and Late Tertiary eastward tilting of the Arabian Plate increased the degree of folding and faulting. (author)

  3. A study of petroleum system in Chuhuangkeng anticline, NW Taiwan (United States)

    Yiang, S.; Tsai, L. Y.


    Since energy demand is still increasing in the world, the exploration of unconventional fossil fuel becomes more and more important today. Miaoli area of the NW Western Foothill Belt, Taiwan, had been a major oil and gas producing field in the past, important oil/gas producing structures include Tiechenshen, Chinshui and Chuhuangkeng anticline. The reservoir rocks of unconventional resources need to be examined to illustrate the remaining hydrocarbon potential of Chuhuangkeng anticline. A standard evaluation procedure for assessing integrated geochemical parameters can thus be established. In this study, we combine various geochemical parameters including TOC, porosity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement to assess the HC potential of shale gas reservoirs. The results show that Wuchishan and Mushan Formations possess the best hydrocarbon potential in Chuhuangkeng anticline. The maturation of Wuchishan and Mushan Formations are both in oil window (Ro of Wuchishan formation =1.7% , Ro of Mushan =1.01~1.53% ). The maturation of Shitih Formation barely reached oil window, however the shallower depth and less exploration cost are the advantages of Shitih Formation. Moreover, Wuchishan Formation is a dry gas field and Mushan Formation is a condensate gas field. The results of porosity show that there are secondary porosity existed in Mushan Formation which provides the extra storage space for hydrocarbon. Additionally, Piling Shale is a good cap rock on top of Mushan formation, it further benefits the conservation of oil and gas in Mushan Formation. In conclude, Mushan Formation is the most potential HC target in future shale gas exploration.

  4. 75 FR 53980 - Notice of Field Tours for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group (United States)


    ... Project Area (PAPA) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), and the Pinedale Anticline...) PAWG will conduct field tours of the Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA). Tours are open to the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The PAWG was established by the EIS ROD for the PAPA on July 27, 2000, and carried...

  5. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.


    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  6. Magnetotelluric signature of anticlines in Iran's Sehqanat oil field (United States)

    Mansoori, Isa; Oskooi, Behrooz; Pedersen, Laust B.


    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has proved to be an effective tool in hydrocarbon exploration especially in areas with geological structures/formations where seismic reflection provides neither good quality data nor images. The Sehqanat oil field located in the sedimentary zone of Zagros in SW of Iran is a typical example. It is covered by the high velocity and heterogeneous formation of Gachsaran, which is exposed at the surface and has a thickness varying from 500 m to more than 2 km in the region. Gachsaran is composed mainly of salt and evaporites overlying, as a cap rock, the Asmari limestone formation which is the main reservoir in all oil fields of Iran along the Zagros range. The main geological interface which is targeted to be imaged with the MT method is the contact between the highly conductive evaporites of the Gachsaran formation and the underlying more resistive carbonates of the Asmari formation. MT data at more than 600 stations along five parallel SW-NE profiles crossing the main geological trend of the study area and transient electromagnetic data over 400 stations to be used for static shift corrections of the MT data were available. Dimensionality and strike analysis of the MT data show dominant two-dimensional (2-D) conditions in almost all sites and periods. The 2-D resistivity models resolved the boundary between Gachsaran and Asmari formations as a transition zone from highly conductive to resistive structures. The Sehqanat anticline has also been delineated throughout the 2-D resistivity sections as a resistive dome-shaped body located in the middle part of the MT profiles. There is a considerable correlation between the 2-D resistivity models and the adjacent 2-D reflection seismic sections so that a more reliable interpretation on the hydrocarbon trap of the Sehqanat anticline can be obtained.

  7. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Palazzuolo anticline (Northern Apennines - Italy) (United States)

    Carlini, Mirko; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Clemenzi, Luca; Ogata, Kei; Aldega, Luca; Corrado, Sveva; Tagliaferri, Alessio; Tinterri, Roberto; Viola, Giulio


    The Santerno valley (Northern Apennines, Italy) offers very good exposures of the regional scale Palazzuolo anticline, a thrust-related fold that represents one of the major deep-rooted contractional structures in this portion of the chain. Good outcropping conditions allowed the study of the detailed geometry and deformational processes affecting the anticline. The growth of the Palazzuolo anticline started during the deposition of the Langhian-Tortonian foredeep deposits of the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation and affected its sedimentation forming a composite growth wedge whose thickness decreases by 70% from the basin depocenter to the anticlinal crest. The growth of the anticline was steered by a major blind thrust characterized by a flat-ramp-flat geometry that only during the latest stages of its activity (reasonably Plio-Quaternary) cut out-of-sequence through the crest-forelimb transition and produced a well-developed footwall drag syncline (Castellaccio thrust). Burial by the eroded portion of the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation and the overlying ocean-derived Ligurian units is inferred to have caused a maximum temperature in the studied sandstones of 100-110°C (from vitrinite reflectance and clay minerals data), while paleofluid temperatures inferred from calcite vein structural diagenesis (petrography, O and C stable isotope geochemistry, and microthermometry) are inferred to be lower than 70°C. The collected multidisciplinary dataset integrated with the high-resolution physical stratigraphy allowed us to constrain the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Palazzuolo anticline along a balanced cross-section and its sequential restoration. Temporal constraints and eventual multiple stages of the fault activity are being investigated through (U-Th)/He dating of apatites and K-Ar isotopic dating of authigenic synkinematic illite related to the brittle faulting accommodated along the Castellaccio thrust.

  8. 76 FR 22723 - Notice of Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming (United States)


    .... Mountain Time at the BLM Pinedale Field Office. A field tour of the Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA... PAWG was established by the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) for the PAPA on July 27, 2000, and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the PAPA Supplemental EIS on...

  9. 77 FR 41201 - Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming (United States)


    ... (ROD) for the Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA) on July 27, 2000, and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the PAPA Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on September 12, 2008. The...) on mitigation, monitoring and adaptive management in the PAPA. PAWG duties and responsibilities are...

  10. 75 FR 53980 - Notice of Rescheduled Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group (United States)


    ... Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA) on July 27, 2000 and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the PAPA Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) on September 12, 2008. The PAWG is a... on mitigation, monitoring, and adaptive management issues as oil and gas development in the PAPA...

  11. 76 FR 65534 - Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming (United States)


    ... Decision (ROD) for the Pinedale Anticline Project Area (PAPA) on July 27, 2000, and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the PAPA Supplemental EIS on September 12, 2008. The Secretary of the... adaptive management in the PAPA. The PAWG is governed by rules found at 43 CFR 1784 et seq. and FACA...

  12. Novel hockey-stick mesogens with the nematic, synclinic and anticlinic smectic C phase sequence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Vladimíra; Žurek, J.; Kozmik, V.; Svoboda, J.; Glogarová, Milada; Kroupa, Jan; Pociecha, D.


    Roč. 35, č. 8 (2008), 1023-1036 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : liquid crystals * synclinic and anticlinic ordering * hockey-stick mezogens Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2008

  13. Reassessing the roles of PIN proteins and anticlinal microtubules during pavement cell morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belteton, Samuel; Sawchuk, Megan G.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Scarpella, Enrico; Szymanski, Daniel B.


    The leaf epidermis is a biomechanical shell that influences the size and shape of the organ. Its morphogenesis is a multiscale process in which nanometer-scale cytoskeletal protein complexes, individual cells, and groups of cells pattern growth and define macroscopic leaf traits. Interdigitated growth of neighboring cells is an evolutionarily conserved developmental strategy. Understanding how signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins pattern cell walls during this form of tissue morphogenesis is an important research challenge. The cellular and molecular control of a lobed cell morphology is currently thought to involve PIN-FORMED (PIN)-type plasma membrane efflux carriers that generate subcellular auxin gradients. Auxin gradients were proposed to function across cell boundaries to encode stable offset patterns of cortical microtubules and actin filaments between adjacent cells. Many models suggest that long-lived microtubules along the anticlinal cell wall generate local cell wall heterogeneities that restrict local growth and specify the timing and location of lobe formation. Here we used Arabidopsis reverse genetics and multivariate long-term time-lapse imaging to test current cell shape control models. We found that neither PIN proteins nor microtubules along the anticlinal wall predict the patterns of lobe formation. In fields of lobing cells, anticlinal microtubules are not correlated with cell shape and are unstable at the time scales of cell expansion. Our analyses indicate that anticlinal microtubules have multiple functions in pavement cells, and that lobe initiation is likely controlled by complex interactions among cell geometry, cell wall stress patterns, and transient microtubule networks that span the anticlinal and periclinal walls.

  14. Subsurface temperature as a passkey for exploration of mature basins: Hot anticlines - A key to discovery? (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.


    Temperature anomalies associated with oil-producing structures in the US Midcontinent and similar cratonic areas probably can be used reliably as a passkey for petroleum exploration in mature areas, and thus the concept of hot anticlines could be a key to discovery. Analysis of accumulated data during the past several decades allows a definition of the problem of hot anticlines. A possible solution for migration and entrapment of petroleum can be explained by the Roberts temperature differential model and the Walters fluid-flow paradigm. In fact, if the Roberts model is valid, higher shallow temperatures, temperature gradients, or heat flow could indicate the entrapment of hydrocarbons at depth. The recognition and promotion of shallow "hotspots" as an exploration key is not new and was proposed years ago by Haas and Hoffmann, Kappelmeyer, and as recently as 1986 by Blackwell.

  15. New data on the structure and the oil- and gas-bearing capacity of the Astrakhan anticline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, V.P.; Bespiatov, V.I.; Fedorov, D.L.; Kolos, V.M.; Kontsenbin, U.P.; Shavanov, B.A.; Shestiuk, V.A.


    The geological and geophysical data obtained in recent years on the Astrakhan anticline are examined. Based on a comprehensive interpretation of seismic prospecting, electrical prospecting gravitational and magnetic prospecting data, conclusions are reached on the block structure of the foundation and on the subsalt Paleozoic layer of the anticline. Promising regions which are characterized by geophysical anomalies in pool types are identified; these fields are recommended for full-scale exploration-prospecting operations.

  16. Structure and seismic hazard of the Ventura Avenue anticline and Ventura fault, California (United States)

    Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.; Pratt, T. L.; McAuliffe, L. J.


    The Ventura Avenue anticline, in the western Transverse Ranges, is one of the fastest uplifting structures in southern California, rising at a rate of ~5 mm/yr (Rockwell et al., 1988). However, there is disagreement about whether this structure poses a seismic hazard, due to uncertainty about the nature of the Ventura fault, which lies along the southern margin of the fold. Two models have been proposed: either the Ventura fault extends to seismogenic depths beneath the anticline (e.g., Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 1976), or it is a shallow, bending-moment fault that does not pose a significant seismic hazard (e.g., Yeats, 1982a,b; Huftile and Yeats, 1995). Seismic data across the tip of the Ventura fault suggest that it deforms late Pleistocene and younger strata, implying that the fault system is active. Given that the fault trace extends directly through the city of Ventura, distinguishing between these two interpretations has considerable importance in regional seismic hazard assessments. We use well data, industry seismic reflection profiles, and two seismic profiles acquired by our group in August 2010, to construct a more complete 3D model of the system. Based on dipmeter logs and stratigraphic cutoffs imaged in seismic reflection profiles, we show that the north-dipping Ventura fault extends to seismogenic depth beneath the anticline. Fault offset increases with depth, implying that the Ventura fault has propagated upwards over time. Thus, we interpret the Ventura Avenue anticline to be a fault-propagation fold underlain by an active thrust ramp. A decrease in the uplift rate of the anticline at 30 ka, as measured from uplifted terraces (Rockwell et al., 1988), is consistent with a breakthrough of the Ventura fault at that time, although the fault is still blind as it is buried by a sedimentary cover. In order to assess the hazard of the fault, we examine its regional extent. The Ventura fold trend continues offshore and coincides with a set of oil fields. A 3D

  17. Crestal graben fluid evolution during growth of the Puig-reig anticline (South Pyrenean fold and thrust belt) (United States)

    Cruset, David; Cantarero, Irene; Travé, Anna; Vergés, Jaume; John, Cedric M.


    The Puig-reig anticline, located in the South Pyrenean fold and thrust belt, developed during the Alpine compression, which affected the upper Eocene-lower Oligocene sediments of the Solsona and Berga Formations. In this study, we highlight the controls on formation of joints and reverse, strike-slip and normal faults developed in the crest domain of the Puig-reig anticline as well as the relationships between fluids and these fractures. We integrated structural, petrographic and geochemical studies, using for the first time in the SE Pyrenees the clumped isotopes thermometry to obtain reliable temperatures of calcite precipitation. Structural and microstructural analysis demonstrate that at outcrop scale fracturing was controlled by rigidity contrasts between layers, diagenesis and structural position within the anticline, whereas grain size, cementation and porosity controlled deformation at the microscopic scale. Petrographic and geochemical studies of calcite precipitated in host rock porosity and fault planes reveal the presence of two migrating fluids, which represents two different stages of evolution of the Puig-reig anticline. During the layer-parallel shortening, hydrothermal fluids with temperatures between 92 and 130 °C circulated through the main thrusts to the permeable host rocks, reverse and most of strike-slip faults precipitating as cement Cc1. During the fold growth, meteoric waters circulated downwards through normal and some strike-slip faults and mixed at depth with the previous hydrothermal fluid, precipitating as cement Cc2 at temperatures between 77 and 93 °C. Integration of the results from the Puig-reig anticline in this work and the El Guix anticline indicates that hydrothermal fluids did not reach the El Guix anticline, in which only meteoric and evolved meteoric waters circulated along the fold.

  18. A Fault-Cored Anticline Boundary Element Model Incorporating the Combined Fault Slip and Buckling Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Huang


    Full Text Available We develop a folding boundary element model in a medium containing a fault and elastic layers to show that anticlines growing over slipping reverse faults can be significantly amplified by mechanical layering buckling under horizontal shortening. Previous studies suggested that folds over blind reverse faults grow primarily during deformation increments associated with slips on the fault during and immediately after earthquakes. Under this assumption, the potential for earthquakes on blind faults can be determined directly from fold geometry because the amount of slip on the fault can be estimated directly from the fold geometry using the solution for a dislocation in an elastic half-space. Studies that assume folds grown solely by slip on a fault may therefore significantly overestimate fault slip. Our boundary element technique demonstrates that the fold amplitude produced in a medium containing a fault and elastic layers with free slip and subjected to layer-parallel shortening can grow to more than twice the fold amplitude produced in homogeneous media without mechanical layering under the same amount of shortening. In addition, the fold wavelengths produced by the combined fault slip and buckling mechanisms may be narrower than folds produced by fault slip in an elastic half space by a factor of two. We also show that subsurface fold geometry of the Kettleman Hills Anticline in Central California inferred from seismic reflection image is consistent with a model that incorporates layer buckling over a dipping, blind reverse fault and the coseismic uplift pattern produced during a 1985 earthquake centered over the anticline forelimb is predicted by the model.

  19. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade


    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after

  20. The anticline presence in The Salinas zone, Burruyacu department, Tucuman, Republica Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolotti, P; Falcon, C. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman. Argentina


    This paper is about the use of aerial photographs to determine the existence of surface structures recently evidenced by the masking produced by deforestation, soil movement and agriculture, in a foothill region of the Tucuman province. The photo geological observations were confirmed by geological and structural determinations of surface, showing the presence of an anticline with the core surrounded by the stratums as well as easily recognizable by their different colors and apparent thickness. The photographs and satellite images highlights the fractionation of the complex wi ch affects the Tertiary (Pliocene) and Quaternary (Pleistocene) sediments period

  1. Late Quaternary deformation of the Longquan anticline in the Longmenshan thrust belt, eastern Tibet, and its tectonic implication (United States)

    Li, Kang; Xu, Xi-Wei; Tan, Xi-Bin; Chen, Gui-Hua; Xu, Chong; Kang, Wen-Jun


    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake are a consequence of ongoing India-Tibet collision and reflect the growth of the Longmenshan thrust belt (LSTB). Assessing seismic hazards associated with the Longquan anticline and its contribution to crustal shortening of the LSTB requires understanding of its fold structure and activity. To address this, the geometry of fluvial terraces across the anticline was surveyed and measured by real-time kinematic (RTK), and these terraces were dated by using radiocarbon with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles suggest that the Longquan anticline grows laterally through kink-band migration and a total cumulative shortening is about 1.13 km in NW-SE direction. Combining with previous studies of depth of decollement, this yields a crustal shortening rate of ∼1.47 mm/yr in NW-SE direction and constrains the time of initiation of the Longquan anticline deformation to 1-2 Ma in the late Pliocene. Obviously, our result indicate that the Longquan anticline is active and potentially seismogenic, and that it should be incorporated into current regional seismic hazard models for the highly populated area of Sichuan basin.

  2. Determination of uranium and thorium in rock samples from Harargaj Anticline by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Molla, N.I.; Sharif, A.K.M.; Basunia, S.; Islam, S.; Miah, R.U.; Hossain, S.M.; Chowdhury, M.I.; Bhuiyan, A.D.; Stegnar, P.


    Uranium and thorium were determined in geological materials such as radioactive rock samples collected from the Harargaj Anticline in Moulavi Bazar. The pure instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used in qualitative and quantitative analysis of the rock samples for U and Th. The samples were properly prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of the order of 10 12 n*cm -2 *s -1 using the TRIGA MARK II research reactor facility at the AERE, Savar, Dhaka. After activation the samples were subjected to γ-ray spectrometry using a high purity germanium detection system. As a result of the analysis, U and Th could be determined. The data are consistent with the values reported by the ground radiometric survey group for some of the samples. (author) 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  3. Tiechanshan-Tunghsiao anticline earthquake analysis: Implications for northwestern Taiwan potential carbon dioxide storage site seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Juin Rau


    Full Text Available We analyze the seismicity and earthquake focal mechanisms beneath the Tiechanshan-Tunghsiao (TCS-TH anticline over the last two decades for seismic hazard evaluation of a potential carbon dioxide storage site in northwestern Taiwan. Seismicity in the TCS-TH anticline indicates both spatial and temporal clustering at a depth range of 7 - 12 km. Thirteen 3.0 ≤ ML ≤ 5.2 earthquake focal mechanisms show a combination of thrust, strike-slip, and normal faulting mechanisms under the TCS-TH anticline. A 1992 ML 5.2 earthquake with a focal depth of ~10 km, the largest event ever recorded beneath the TCS-TH anticline during the last two decades, has a normal fault mechanism with the T-axis trending NNE-SSW and nodal planes oriented NNW-SSE, dipping either gently to the NNE or steeply to the SSW. Thrust fault mechanisms that occurred with mostly E-W or NWW-SEE striking P-axes and strike-slip faulting events indicate NWW-SEE striking P-axes and NNE-SSW trending T-axes, which are consistent with the regional plate convergence direction. For the strike-slip faulting events, if we take the N-S or NNW-SSE striking nodal planes as the fault planes, the strike-slip faults are sinistral motions and correspond to the Tapingting fault, which is a strike-slip fault reactivated from the inherited normal fault and intersects the Tiechanshan and Tunghsiao anticlines.

  4. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America (United States)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro


    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  5. Tectonic origin for polygonal normal faults in pelagic limestones of the Cingoli anticline hinge (Italy) (United States)

    Petracchini, Lorenzo; Antonellini, Marco; Billi, Andrea; Scrocca, Davide


    Polygonal faults are a relatively-recent new class of normal faults which are thought to be formed during early burial and diagenesis as a consequence of heterogeneous lateral volume changes. Polygonal faults are non-systematically oriented and, in map view, they form rhombus-, pentagon-, or hexagon-like pattern, suggesting a non-tectonic origin. Furthermore, polygonal faults are layer bound and they are restricted to particular stratigraphic level. Predicting the pattern of polygonal normal fault results crucial for geofluid exploration and exploitation, but, despite the large number of studies, the origin of these faults remains still largely controversial. One of the main reason for this uncertainty is that they are poorly known in outcrops. Polygonal faults have been identified in few localities within Mesozoic chalk (United Kingdom, France, and Egypt), in Paleogene claystone (Belgium), and in the Cretaceous Khoman Formation (Egypt) where polygonal faults have been observed in an extensive exposure of chalk. In this study, we describe an outcrop in the Cingoli anticline hinge, which is located at external front of the northern Apennines fold-thrust belt (Italy), showing normal faults that we interpreted as syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting) polygonal faults. The outcrop shows three vertical exposures of sub-horizontal fine-grained marly limestones with chert interlayers of Albian-Turonian age. Intraformational short normal faults affect the carbonate and chert beds. These faults are poorly-systematic and they cut through the carbonate beds whereas usually stop against the chert layers. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, clayey residue, and micro-breccias including clasts of chert and carbonate. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The aim of our study is to understand the nucleation

  6. NW Africa post-rift tectonics: fieldwork constraints from an "unfitting" anticline in west Morocco (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Gouiza, Mohamed


    The evolution of the Moroccan Atlantic rifted margin is marked by a period of abnormal and excessive early post-rift subsidence during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous affecting the proximal coastal basins, the continental shelf and the distal deep basins, which acted coevally to km-scale uplift and erosion of large domains to the east. The tectonics of the uplift event are still unclear, as it took place 30 to 50 Myr after lithospheric breakup between Morocco and Nova Scotia and prior to the Atlas/Alpine contraction, which gave rise to the Atlas and the Rif mountain belts. The Essaouira-Haha basin, located on the coastal plain of the Atlantic rifted margin of Morocco, and bounded by two uplifted Paleozoic basement highs (i.e. the Massif Ancien of Marrakech, to the east, and the Jebilet, to the northeast), is an ideal location to investigate the tectonic processes that might have triggered these vertical movements. Although most of the deformation observed in the basin is classically attributed to Upper Cretaceous halokinesis and Neogene Atlas contraction, recent works have shown the existence of contractional structures. We carry out a structural analysis of the Jbel Amsittene Anticline, located in the middle of the Essaouira-Haha basin to investigate the tectonics of its formation and its relationship with the above-mentioned exhumation. We show structural field data along several cross-sections transecting the anticline, and characterize a salt-cored fault propagation fold verging north, with a Triassic salt acting as a detachment plane. Regional kinematic indicators and structures show overall NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW shortening and active tectonics during the postrift phase, as indicated by syn-tectonic wedges seen for the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous period. These facts discard the "salt-drives-tectonics" theory to let "tectonic-drives-salt" one to rise, and point to factors other than small-cell mantle convection acting during the evolution of the Moroccan

  7. Groundwater Exploration Using Fuzzy Logic Approach in GIS for AN Area around AN Anticline, Fars Province (United States)

    Rafati, S.; Nikeghbal, M.


    In the recent years, the over-use of water resource due to the population growth and industrial developing has become serious. With attention to demand for water, it's essential to explore and evaluate new water resource and mapping its potential. In this paper, a fuzzy set theory, as a knowledge driven approach for map combination, was applied to produce a potential map for ground water resources. To achieve this objective, a variety of spatial data including geology, slope, elevation, drainage, fault and joint were complied. Then fuzzy membership functions were evaluated for each data layer. These data were integrated using the fuzzy γ operator with a value of γ = 0.95. The final map indicates Quaternary formation consists of alluvial deposits near the 200 meter distance from the anti-cline as a suitable area for groundwater resource. Finding out an accurate method which accelerates processing for determining the location of groundwater before drilling is an effective solution leading to save budget and time.

  8. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells. (United States)

    Armour, William J; Barton, Deborah A; Law, Andrew M K; Overall, Robyn L


    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Strain distribution and model for formation of eastern Umtanum Ridge anticline, south-central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, E.H.


    Umtanum Ridge in south-central Washington is the topographic expression of a complex anticline within the Yakima Fold system in the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group. The Yakima Fold system, which is partly contained within the Hanford Site, is an example of a layered basalt sequence folded near the surface of the earth. The Pasco Basin stratigraphic nomenclature is used in this repot. Rockwelll Hanford Operations, under contract to the US Department of Energy, is investigating the feasibility of therminal high-level nuclear waste storage in mined repositories in basalt beneath the Hanford Site. Because thereis essentially no basalt within the Site that has not been involved in some folding, any potential location for a repository will be either on the limbs or near the hinge zone of a Yakima Fold structure. Umtanum Ridge is the best exposed Yakima Fold structure in the vicinity of the Site for studying the nature and three-dimensional style of deformation of a multilayered basalt sequence. The structural geometry, distribution of strain within the Umtanum structure and deformational mechanisms of the Umtanum Ridge are discussed.

  10. Strain distribution and model for formation of eastern Umtanum Ridge anticline, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.H.


    Umtanum Ridge in south-central Washington is the topographic expression of a complex anticline within the Yakima Fold system in the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group. The Yakima Fold system, which is partly contained within the Hanford Site, is an example of a layered basalt sequence folded near the surface of the earth. The Pasco Basin stratigraphic nomenclature is used in this repot. Rockwelll Hanford Operations, under contract to the US Department of Energy, is investigating the feasibility of therminal high-level nuclear waste storage in mined repositories in basalt beneath the Hanford Site. Because thereis essentially no basalt within the Site that has not been involved in some folding, any potential location for a repository will be either on the limbs or near the hinge zone of a Yakima Fold structure. Umtanum Ridge is the best exposed Yakima Fold structure in the vicinity of the Site for studying the nature and three-dimensional style of deformation of a multilayered basalt sequence. The structural geometry, distribution of strain within the Umtanum structure and deformational mechanisms of the Umtanum Ridge are discussed

  11. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications (United States)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny


    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  12. Trace fossils and dubiofossils from the Ediacaran and Cambrian of the Alcudia Anticline, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Simón


    Full Text Available The fossil record of the Ediacaran—Cambrian transition in Spain provides potentially useful information to understand this critical episode in the history of life on Earth. In the present work, new findings of trace fossils and dubiofossils are described from the upper Ediacaran and lowermost Cambrian of the Alcudian unit in the Alcudia Anticline, at the southern margin of the Central Iberian Zone (valle de Alcudia, Iberian Massif, Spain. Two new trace fossil sites are described from the Upper Alcudian subunit and assigned to the Fortunian stage (lower Cambrian, Terreneuvian series and to the regional Lower Corduban substage. They contain examples of arthropod-like scratches (Monomorphichnus lineatus, small bilobed trails (similar to Archaeonassa, an inclined burrow with spreite (may be a teichichnid, and long unbranched burrows with very fine transversal structure (probably the ventral surface of Psammichnites. Torrowangea aff. rosei and possible body fossils of late Ediacaran age are described from the Lower Alcudian subunit, including a disc resembling a frond holdfast and a diamond-shaped complex structure with no known equivalents.

  13. Dynamics of fault-fluid-hydrate system around a shale-cored anticline in deepwater Nigeria (United States)

    Sultan, N.; Riboulot, V.; Ker, S.; Marsset, B.; GéLi, L.; Tary, J. B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Voisset, M.; Lanfumey, V.; Colliat, J. L.; Adamy, J.; Grimaud, S.


    Gas hydrates were recovered by coring at the eastern border of a shale-cored anticline in the eastern Niger Delta. To characterize the link between faults and fluid release and to identify the role of fluid flow in the gas hydrate dynamics, three piezometers were deployed for periods ranging from 387 to 435 days. Two of them were deployed along a major fault linked to a shallow hydrocarbon reservoir while the third monitored the fluid pressure in a pockmark aligned above the same major fault. In addition, 10 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed for around 60 days. The piezometers simultaneously registered a prolonged fluid flow event lasting 90 days. During this time, OBS measurements record several episodic fluid release events. By combining and analyzing existing and newly acquired data, we show that the fluid-fault system operates according to the following three stages: (1) upward pore fluid migration through existing conduits and free gas circulation within several shallow sandy layers intersecting the major fault, (2) gas accumulation and pore pressure increases within sandy-silty layers, and (3) hydrofracturing and fluid pressure dissipation through sporadic degassing events, causing pore fluid circulation through shallow sandy layers and drawing overlying seawater into the sediment. This paper clearly demonstrates how an integrated approach based on seafloor observations, in situ measurements, and monitoring is essential for understanding fault-fluid-hydrate systems.

  14. Characterization and growth mechanism of a peculiar nodular structure in shale: Comprehensive study over the Sitakund anticline, Bengal basin. (United States)

    Gazi, M. Y.; Kabir, S. M. M.; Imam, M. B.


    Nodular shales commonly occur in comparatively older and silty shales near the axial (proximity to core) region of Sitakund Anticline (Study area), Sitapahar Anticline, Patharia Structure, Sylhet Anticline and Mirinja Anticline as observed. Stratigraphically, they are pronounced in the Surma group of Neogene succession. They are less abundant in limb portion. In many outcrop, they are found in the incompetent bed with the obliterated bedding bounded by well bedded competent beds. Their occurrence are sporadic rather than continuous along and across the strike of the bed. At some places huge number cluster of small and big nodular shales occur while in the other places, they occur as isolated mass in the highly disturbed or obliterated beds. The Surma group is the prime startigraphic unit in Bangladesh with major economic and academic importance. Yet there is a lack of comprehensive characterization of mudrocks of Surma group. This has prompted the present research to be undertaken. An initial field based study has been followed by detail textural, mineralogical, petrological and geochemical by using upscale laboratory techniques that include Thin Section Microscopy, Laser Particle Size Analyses, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Florescence (XRF). From laser diffraction analysis, it is evident that nodular shales are silty in nature containing approximately 60% silt (Mainly quartz). XRD pattern shows that Nodular shale contains clay minerals, predominantly illite, Kaolinite, Chlorite and expandable mixed layer clay mineral. Detail geochemical analysis of some nodular shale samples shows that there are no significant variation from other samples in major and trace element concentration. Microcrack's within the quartz grains were observed in nodular shale. Projection of 15 nodular shale long axes in outcrop shows their orientation in NNW-SSE that is parallel to the fold axis. The study suggests a new name of conventionally called

  15. Twist deformation in anticlinic antiferroelectric structure in smectic B.sub.2./sub. imposed by the surface anchoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor; Novotná, Vladimíra; Glogarová, Milada


    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2008), s. 11-19 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0431 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : smectic liquid crystals * bent-shaped molecules * anticlinic antiferroelectric structure * ferroelectric structure * twist deformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2008

  16. Morphotectonic evolution of triangular facets and wine-glass valleys in the Noakoh anticline, Zagros, Iran: Implications for active tectonics (United States)

    Bahrami, Shahram


    The Noakoh anticline is located in Kermanshah province and is part of the Simply Folded Belt of Zagros. Boundaries of 97 triangular facets and 67 wine-glass (W-G) valleys, which formed on anticline limbs, were delineated using Quickbird satellite imagery. The strata dip (D), area (A), base length (BL), topographic slope (S) of facets, the maximum width (M), outlet width (O) and ratio of maximum width to outlet width (W index) of W-G valleys were analysed in detail. Noakoh anticline was subdivided into 9 tectonic zones on the basis of dip, topographic slopes and width of limbs. Results show that there are strong positive correlations between means of D-BL and S-BL pairs. Poor positive correlations exist between means of D-A and S-A pairs. Among W-G valley metrics, the W index has strong relations with D and S parameters. Based on the results, steep facets with long bases and well developed W-G valleys with narrow outlets and wide upper parts are associated with more rotated limbs having steep slopes. Facets on the northeastern slope have more forest cover, micro-organism activity, karstic features and soil cover, whereas facets on relatively drier southwestern slope are characterized by physical weathering processes and minor karstic landforms. This study demonstrates that, apart from tectonic activity as a major control on the morphometry of facets and valleys, climate and slope aspect have also acted as secondary factors on the development of the studied landforms.

  17. Naturally occurring hydrogen gas from a borehole on the western flank of Nemaha anticline in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, E.D.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.; Angino, E.E.; Zeller, E.


    Since August 1982, the CFA 1 Scott well in Sec. 20, T14S, R6E, Morris County, Kansas, located about 14 mi (23 km) south of Junction City, has yielded a gas composed of 50 +/- 10% free hydrogen, 50 +/- 10% nitrogen, and only traces of hydrocarbons. This analysis has been ascertained by gas chromatography and mass spectrography of samples taken over a period of 6 months. The reservoir rock is a Kinderhook sand from 2176 to 2196 ft (663 to 669m) depth. The gas samples analyzed are accumulating in the head space above a fluid level (salt water) of 1805 ft (550m) from a botton-hole depth of 2197 ft (670m). The Scott well is located on the western flank of the complexly faulted Nemaha anticline, updip from the central North American rift system and 30 mi (48 km) south of Riley County where serpentinized kimberlites occur. The geothermal gradient is 30/sup 0/C/km (87/sup 0/F/mi). Basement rock beneath the well is granite, probably overlying deeply buried magnetic rocks. No single mechanism is responsible solely for generating this H/sub 2/-rich gas from the Scott well; rather, a combination of fortuitous geologic and possibly biologic processes are contributing in various proportions to the production of the H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. Conceivably, the local geologic setting merely is circumstantial and unrelated to the genesis of the gases. However, in view of its spatial association with the central North American rift Zone, a major geologic feature with similarity to the East Pacific Rise, the Kansas gas occurrence warrants additional study.

  18. Fold-related-fracturing at the Livingstone River anticline (AB; Canada) by coupling field surveying and numerical modelling (United States)

    Humair, Florian; Epard, Jean-Luc; Bauville, Arthur; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Pana, Dinu; Kaus, Boris; Schmalholz, Stefan


    The interpretation of fold-related joints and faults is of primary importance in terms of fluids prospection (e.g. water, oil, gas, C02) since anticlines are potential structural trap while fracturing can strongly influence the storage capacity as well as the migration pathways. Located at the front of the Foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta (Canada), the Livingstone Range (LRA) is analogous to hydrocarbon reservoir that occur elsewhere in the Foothills (Cooley et al., 2011). The Livingstone Range fold system is related to the development of the Livingstone thrust that cuts around 1000m up-section from a regional decollement in the Palliser Formation (Devonian) to another in the Fernie Formation (Jurassic). Our study focuses on the detailed structural investigation of the Livingstone River anticline (northern part of the LRA). It aims at characterizing the anticline geometry as well as the fracturing pattern (orientation, mode, infilling, spacing, trace length, density, and cross-cutting relationships) in order to propose a kinematic interpretation of the fold-related fracturing genesis. The study area is investigated at different scales by combining field surveys with remote sensing (HR-Digital Elevation Model, Ground-based LiDAR, Gigapixel photography) and thin-sections analyses. In a second step we performed finite difference 3D numerical simulations in order to compute the evolution of local principal stress orientation during folding. We compared the fracture (or plastic bands) distribution in the field with 1) a dynamic numerical model of detachment folding; and 2) an instantaneous numerical model based on the final fold geometry. Cooley, M.A., Price, R.A., Dixon, J.M., Kyser, T.K. 2011. Along-strike variations and internal details of chevron-style flexural slip thrust-propagation folds within the southern Livingstone Range anticlinorium, a paleo-hydrocarbon reservoir in southern Alberta Foothills, Canada. AAPG bulletin, 95 (11), 1821-1849.

  19. Geometry, kinematics and dynamic characteristics of a compound transfer zone: the Dongying anticline, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Fei


    Full Text Available The Dongying anticline is an E-W striking complex fault-bounded block unit which located in the central Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. The anticline covers an area of approximately 12 km2. The overlying succession, which is mainly composed of Tertiary strata, is cut by normal faults with opposing dips. In terms of the general structure, the study area is located in a compound transfer zone with major bounding faults to the west (Ying 1 fault and east (Ying -8 and -31 faults. Using three-dimensional seismic data, wireline log and checkshot data, the geometries and kinematics of faults in the transfer zone were studied, and fault displacements were calculated. The results show that when activity on the Ying 1 fault diminished, displacement was transferred to the Ying -8, Ying -31 and secondary faults so that total displacement increased. Dynamic analysis shows that the stress fields in the transfer zone were complex: the northern portion was a left-lateral extensional shear zone, and the southern portion was a right-lateral extensional shear zone. A model of potential hydrocarbon traps in the Dongying transfer zone was constructed based on the above data combined with the observed reservoir rock distribution and the sealing characteristics of the faults. The hydrocarbons were mainly expulsed from Minfeng Sag during deposition periods of Neogene Guantao and Minghuazhen Formations, and migrated along major faults from source kitchens to reservoirs. The secondary faults acted as barriers, resulting in the formation of fault-bound compartments. The high points of the anticline and well-sealed traps near secondary faults are potential targets. This paper provides a reservoir formation model of the low-order transfer zone and can be applied to the hydrocarbon exploration in transfer zones, especially the complex fault block oilfields in eastern China.

  20. Metallogenetic modeling for uranium exploration in rocks of the Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal nucleus, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia; Modelagem metalogenetica para prospeccao de uranio nas rochas do nucleo da Anticlinal Abaira-Jussiape, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Jocilene dos Santos; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Barbosa, Johildo Salomao Figueiredo [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPGG/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Abram, Maisa Bastos; Martins, Adriano Alberto Marques, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional de Salvador. Servico Geologico do Brasil


    The NNW-SSE-trending Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal is an antiformal culmination of folding and shearing in the Paramirim Corridor of the Western Chapada Diamantina. In its core paleoproterozoic, mylonitized Caraguatai Suite, tonalites-granodiorites, alkali-feldspar granites, syenites to quartz-syenites and Jussiape Suite granites crop out. Compressional and distensional stresses mark the structural geology of the area. The compressional structures are related to two distinct deformation phases, named D1a and D1b. The main compressional phase is ductile D1a, which is related to the nucleation of dextral to dextral-reverse shearing zones. Deformation and syn-D1a recrystallization involving plagioclase and the K-feldspar suggest deformation temperature conditions above 550 deg C. The following phase D2 is of ductilebrittle nature and culminates in reverse shearing zones. The distensional structures correspond to the D3 phase and are represented by frontal shear zones with normal movement. The petrographic study helped identify a pre-D1a hydrothermal alteration process related to albitization and potassification, syn-D1 oxidation process, and hydration and saussuritization related to phases D2 and D3. The integration of lithological, petrographic, structural and geophysical data by means of the logic Fuzzy, plus the existing information regarding structural and lithologic controls of the known uranium mineralization in the Paramirim Corridor, led us to identify two promising areas for radioactive element exploration in the nucleus of Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal. (author)

  1. The Barrancas anticline in west-central Argentina: new geomorphic and geologic constraints on the geometry and activity of a fault-related fold (United States)

    Rimando, J. M.; Schoenbohm, L. M.


    The Barrancas anticline in Mendoza Province, west-central Argentina is a N-NW-oriented, east-vergent fault-bend fold located in the transition from the mainly east-vergent, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera to the mainly west-vergent, thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas — one of the most active thrust zones on Earth. Previous studies of the Barrancas anticline interpreted its structure from 2-D and 3-D seismic data. The anticline is a fault-bend fold with multiple segments with different uplift histories and which linked only after 2.3Ma. This study aims to establish the temporal persistence of segmentation and to describe the role, extent and rates of deformation processes involved in the development of the Barrancas anticline from morphometric analyses, geologic and geomorphic mapping, and accurate dating of relevant geomorphic features. Longitudinal profile analysis of streams on the anticline reveals marked differences in normalized steepness index (ksn) between the western and eastern limbs as well as variation along strike. This distribution of ksn values reveals patterns consistent with asymmetry and segmentation of the Barrancas anticline. Swath profiles parallel to the fold axis resemble fault slip distribution profiles which was a basis for segmentation from previous studies. Drainage basin morphometric indices such as hypsometry, drainage density, and basin elongation were also measured. Hypsometric integral values were particularly higher on the west than on the east, possibly indicating younger folding on the western limb. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the nature, extent, timing, and rate of folding at the transition from thin- to thick-skinned thrust deformation in west-central Argentina. Additionally, this study will contribute to assessment of seismic hazards associated with fault-related folds in Argentina and in similar tectonic settings worldwide.

  2. Forecasting cracked collectors on anticlinal type structures at late stage of exploration in oil and gas area (United States)

    Hasanov, M. A.; Aleksandrov, B. L.; Eljayev, A. S.; Ezirbaev, T. B.; Gatsaeva, S. S.


    The possibility of using complex information on morphological parameters of structures, block porosity and the reservoir pressure gradient over previously explored deposits for the development of a multidimensional equation for estimating secondary porosity is considered. This is examined by the example of reservoirs with secondary (fractured) porosity of the Upper Cretaceous carbonate deposits of the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya oil and gas bearing region of the Ciscaucasia. The use of this equation makes it possible to predict the magnitude of the secondary porosity on the anticlinal structures, which are newly discovered by seismic methods at a later stage of exploration in the relevant oil and gas region, as a quantitative criterion that predicts the presence of a trap.

  3. The Skælskør structure in eastern Denmark – wrench-related anticline or primary Late Cretaceous sea-floor topography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlyk, Finn; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Lykke-Andersen, Holger


    Sorgenfrei (1951) identified a number of NW–SE oriented highs in the Upper Cretaceous – Danian Chalk Group in eastern Denmark, including the Skælskør structure and interpreted them as anticlinal folds formed by wrenching along what today is known as the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. Recent reflection seis...

  4. Structural evolution and tectonic style of the Tunisian central Atlas; role of inherited faults in compressive tectonics (Ghoualguia anticline) (United States)

    Briki, Haithem; Ahmadi, Riadh; Smida, Rabiaa; Rekhiss, Farhat


    Geological mapping, field cross sections, structural analyses and new subsurface data were used to characterize the geometry and tectonic setting of the Ghoualguia structure, which is an E-W-trending anticline located between the Kalaa Khasba and Rouhia troughs of the central Tunisian Atlas. The results show an important NE-SW extensional phase during the Mesozoic, as demonstrated by synsedimentary normal faults (NW-SE and E-W) and thickness variations. In the Aouled Mdoua area, the absence of Paleocene-Eocene rocks indicates that the eastern and western parts of the Ghoualguia structure were separated by high topography. In addition, the angular unconformity observed between the Upper Cretaceous unit (Abiod Fm.) and the upper Eocene series (Souar Fm.) provide evidence of a tilted-block structure delineated by North-South faults. A major compressional phase during the middle to late Miocene created various detachment levels that originated mainly in the Triassic and Cretaceous deposits. Faults were reactivated as thrust and strike-slip faults, creating fault-related fold structures. In the core of the Ghoualguia fold, an original S-dipping normal fault underwent reverse movement as a back thrust. Fault-slip data indicate that the area records a major NE-SW extensional phase that took place during the late Miocene and Pliocene. A balanced cross section provides insight into the existence of two main detachment levels rooted in the Triassic (depth ± 6 km) and the lower Cretaceous (depth ± 2.5 km). The balanced cross section highlights a shortening of about 2.5 km along cross section and 1.5 km in the central part of the Ghoualguia anticline. This work underlines the predominant role of the inherited Mesozoic structures during the evolution of the Atlassic range and their influence on the geometry of the central Tunisian atlas.

  5. Salt structures and vertical axis rotations; a case study in the Barbastro-Balaguer anticline, Southern Pyrenees. (United States)

    Pueyo, Emilio L.; Oliván, Carlota; Soto, Ruth; Rodríguez-Pintó, Adriana; Santolaria, Pablo; Luzón, Aránzazu; Casas, Antonio M.; Ayala, Conxi


    Vertical axis rotations are common in all deformation settings. At larger scales, for example in fold and thrust belts, they are usually related to differential shortening along strike and this may be caused by a number of reasons (interplay of plate boundaries, sedimentary wedges, detachment level distribution, etc.). At smaller scales, local stress fields, interference of non-coaxial deformation phases, development of non-cylindrical structures, etc. may play an important role to accommodate significant magnitudes of rotation. Apart from their implication in the truly 4D understanding of geological structures, the occurrence of vertical axis rotation usually precludes the application of most 3D restoration techniques and thus, increases the uncertainty in any 3D reconstruction. Salt structures may form in different geological settings, but focusing on compressive regimes, very little is known about the relation between their geometry and kinematics and their ability to accommodate vertical axis rotations (i.e. local or regional lateral gradients of shortening). The Barbastro-Balaguer anticline (BBA) is the southernmost structure of the Central Pyrenees. It is a large detachment fold spreading more than 150 km along the front. In contrast to most frontal Pyrenean structures, the BBA is detached in Priabonian evaporites and was folded during Oligocene times as witnessed by well exposed growth strata. Along strike changes in the fold axis trend may reach 50°, an overall the anticline displays a convex shape towards the foreland (south). A residual Bouguer anomaly map based on a densely sampled gravimetric surveying (10.000 stations) has helped delineating a heterogeneous distribution of the Eocene detachment level in the subsurface. In this contribution we explore the interplay between vertical axis rotations, detachment level distribution and the fold geometry (structural trend and style based on hundreds of data). Seventy paleomagnetic sites evenly and densely

  6. Growth and seismic hazard of the Montserrat anticline in the North Canterbury fold and thrust belt, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    VanderLeest, R. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Oakley, D. O. S.; Gardner, T. W.


    Fault-related fold growth is a seismic hazard in North Canterbury, New Zealand. The North Canterbury fold and thrust belt (NCFTB) is located at the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone, South Island, New Zealand where the Pacific plate transitions from subduction to transpression along the Alpine fault. Transpression causes shortening beneath the South Island, resulting in basement thrusts generating folds such as the Montserrat anticline. We focus on fault geometry and seismic hazard associated with this structure, exposed along the coast where Pleistocene marine terraces on the backlimb record tectonic uplift. To constrain parameters associated with evolution of this fault-related fold, we model the fold using several trishear kinematic models. A listric fault is most compatible with field and regional geophysical studies. Ages of marine terraces and inner edge elevations constrain uplift rate due to slip on the Glendhu fault to 1.1 ± 0.1 m(ka)-1. An ∼800 year recurrence interval is calculated for the Glendhu fault. Listric fault geometry lengthens the recurrence interval relative to other fault geometry models. An accurate understanding of subsurface fault geometry and kinematics is important for estimating seismic hazard in regions of fault-related folding such as the NCFTB because it affects recurrence interval estimations.

  7. Uplift rates of marine terraces as a constraint on fault-propagation fold kinematics: Examples from the Hawkswood and Kate anticlines, North Canterbury, New Zealand (United States)

    Oakley, David O. S.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Stewart, Mary Kate


    Marine terraces on growing fault-propagation folds provide valuable insight into the relationship between fold kinematics and uplift rates, providing a means to distinguish among otherwise non-unique kinematic model solutions. Here, we investigate this relationship at two locations in North Canterbury, New Zealand: the Kate anticline and Haumuri Bluff, at the northern end of the Hawkswood anticline. At both locations, we calculate uplift rates of previously dated marine terraces, using DGPS surveys to estimate terrace inner edge elevations. We then use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to fit fault-propagation fold kinematic models to structural geologic data, and we incorporate marine terrace uplift into the models as an additional constraint. At Haumuri Bluff, we find that marine terraces, when restored to originally horizontal surfaces, can help to eliminate certain trishear models that would fit the geologic data alone. At Kate anticline, we compare uplift rates at different structural positions and find that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is more consistent with trishear than with a parallel-fault propagation fold kink-band model. Finally, we use our model results to compute new estimates for fault slip rates ( 1-2 m/ka at Kate anticline and 1-4 m/ka at Haumuri Bluff) and ages of the folds ( 1 Ma), which are consistent with previous estimates for the onset of folding in this region. These results are consistent with previous work on the age of onset of folding in this region, provide revised estimates of fault slip rates necessary to understand the seismic hazard posed by these faults, and demonstrate the value of incorporating marine terraces in inverse fold kinematic models as a means to distinguish among non-unique solutions.

  8. Structural evolution of Pico del Águila anticline (External Sierras, southern Pyrenees) derived from sandbox, numerical and 3D structural modelling techniques




    This paper reports on the integration of different modelling techniques to construct a unified conceptual model of structural evolution of the Pico del Águila anticline (External Sierras, southern Pyrenees, Spain). The structure is a well-known example of a detachment fold, which exhibits a N-S structural trend, perpendicular to the general structural trend of the southern Pyrenees (mainly E-W). Based on field observations of an unevenly distributed Triassic décollement, analogue modelling sh...

  9. Multi-scale Fracture Patterns Associated with a Complex Anticline Structure: Insights from Field Outcrop Analogues of the Jebel Hafit Pericline, Al Ain-UAE (United States)

    Kokkalas, S.; Jones, R. R.; Long, J. J.; Zampos, M.; Wilkinson, M. W.; Gilment, S.


    The formation of folds and their associated fracture patterns plays an important role in controlling the migration and concentration of fluids within the upper crust. Prediction of fracture patterns from various fold shapes and kinematics still remains poorly understood in terms of spatial and temporal distribution of fracture sets. Thus, a more detailed field-based multi scale approach is required to better constrain 3D models of fold-fracture relationships, which are critical for reservoir characterization studies. In order to generate reservoir-scale fracture models representative fracture properties across a wider range of scales are needed. For this reason we applied modern geospatial technologies, including terrestrial LiDAR, photogrammetry and satellite images in the asymmetric, east verging, four-way closure Jebel Hafit anticline, in the eastern part of the United Arab Emirates. The excellent surface outcrops allowed the rapid acquisition of extensive areas of fracture data from both limbs and fold hinge area of the anticline, even from large areas of steep exposure that are practically inaccessible on foot. The digital outcrops provide longer 1D transects, and 2D or 3D surface datasets and give more robust data, particularly for fracture heights, lengths, spacing, clustering, termination and connectivity. The fracture patterns across the folded structure are more complex than those predicted from conceptual models and geomechanical fracture modeling. Mechanical layering, pre-existing structures and sedimentation during fold growth seem to exert a critical influence in the development of fracture systems within Jebel Hafit anticline and directly affect fracture orientations, spacing/intensity, segmentation and connectivity. Seismic and borehole data provide additional constraints on the sub-surface fold geometry and existence of large-scale thrusting in the core of the anticline. The complexity of the relationship between fold geometry and fracture

  10. Carbonate concretions in synkinematic Quaternary sediments as markers of paleo-fluid flow induced by the development of the Quattro Castella growth anticline, Northern Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Pizzati, Mattia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Iacumin, Paola; Storti, Fabrizio


    Diagenetic alterations and synkinematic precipitation of mineral masses may provide a useful tool to understand paleo-fluid flows in transforming porous media. In compressive settings of a fold-and-thrust-belt, the presence of deep or blind thrusts could lead to the generation of folds that affects synkinematic sedimentation, superficial flow pattern and deep fluids migration. In this contribution we present a multidisciplinary field and laboratory study on carbonate concretions developed in poorly lithified, synkinematic sediments of the Quattro Castella anticline in Northern Apennines, Italy. The study site is located along the Enza River, where Plio-Quaternary shallow marine to continental sediments are extensively exposed. The entire exposed section is a portion of the forelimb of the growing anticline, active since Late Miocene times. Field mapping was aimed to link bedding attitude of synkinematic sediments with the geometry, arrangement, shape and size of concretionary bodies. Concretions are both tabular (i.e. parallel to bedding) and elongate (i.e. plunging parallel to bedding dip). In situ permeability measurements and laboratory grain size analyses were performed along the studied section to characterize the petrophysical properties of sediments hosting carbonate concretions. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses and petrographic observations were used to constrain the diagenetic environment during calcite precipitation. Our results indicate that the growing anticline promoted the development of a local hydraulic gradient which induced cement precipitation in the form of carbonate concretions in synkinematic sediments.

  11. Late Pleistocene acceleration of deformation across the northern Tianshan piedmont (China) evidenced from the morpho-tectonic evolution of the Dushanzi anticline (United States)

    Charreau, Julien; Saint-Carlier, Dimitri; Lavé, Jérôme; Dominguez, Stéphane; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Nathan D.; Malatesta, Luca Claude; Wang, Shengli; Rhodes, Edward J.


    We document the temporal evolution of deformation in the northern Tianshan piedmont where the deformation is partitioned across several thrusts and folds. We focus on the Dushanzi anticline, where abandoned terraces and growth strata allow us to constrain the history of folding since the Miocene. Based on subsurface seismic imaging, structural measurements and morphological analysis, we show that this anticline is associated with two decollement levels. We use kink band migration in growth strata dated by paleomagnetism to constrain the shortening from the Mio-Pliocene to the Holocene. Our results show that the Dushanzi anticline has been active since at least 8 Ma and that the fold grew at a steady shortening rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr from 8 to 1.5 Ma with possible variations from 2.5 to 1.5 Ma. Then it accelerated rapidly to a rate of 4.3 ± 1.0 mm/yr over at least the last 100 ka. These results, together with similar temporal shortening evolutions across other structures, suggest that the deformation rate across the eastern Tianshan piedmont increased relatively recently. This may reflect either a redistribution of the deformation from the internal structures toward the borders or a general acceleration of the deformation across the entire range.

  12. Modeling echelon vein and pressure solution seam arrays in limestone from field observations at Raplee anticline, Utah (United States)

    Seyum, S.; Pollard, D. D.


    We investigate the development of two sets of bed-perpendicular, echelon vein arrays and complementary echelon pressure solution seam arrays within folded Pennsylvanian to Permian period limestones at Raplee anticline, Utah. These structures, and similar structures found elsewhere around the world, are considered to be associated with zones of localized shearing (e.g. homogeneous simple shear) that are often described with kinematic models. An objective of our research is to propose a new deformation mechanism for the development of fracture and pressure solution seam arrays to shed light on the tectonic history of the area. A mechanical model is used to evaluate the resulting apertures and shapes of veins from a prescribed initial setup, and to evaluate the strain and stress fields in the model limestone, where the equations of motion and constitutive laws govern the deformation. Model input parameters are based on systematic geometric features, rock physical properties, and the tectonic environment. In their natural setting, the geometries of these veins and pressure solution seams, such as length, shape, aperture, spacing, orientation, and intersection relationships, can vary greatly within a single array, and certainly vary with spatial and stratigraphic position across the 14 km length of Raplee anticline. Similarly, the geometric attributes of arrays can be different locally and across the fold. The burial history of the strata, pre-existing fractures, lithologic boundary conditions, diagenesis, strain rate, and shortening and removal of material due to limestone dissolution are additional components to consider as potential contributors to the development of these structures. We show how the numerical model input parameters can be applied or rejected sequentially to gradually increase the model complexity, while maintaining an understanding of the implications on deformation due to each parameter. We input the geometry of echelon vein and pressure solution

  13. Interpreting Fracture Patterns in Sandstones Interbedded with Ductile Strata at the Salt Valley Anticline, Arches National Park, Utah; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Sandstones that overlie or that are interbedded with evaporitic or other ductile strata commonly contain numerous localized domains of fractures, each covering an area of a few square miles. Fractures within the Entrada Sandstone at the Salt Valley Anticline are associated with salt mobility within the underlying Paradox Formation. The fracture relationships observed at Salt Valley (along with examples from Paleozoic strata at the southern edge of the Holbrook basin in northeastern Arizona, and sandstones of the Frontier Formation along the western edge of the Green River basin in southwestern Wyoming), show that although each fracture domain may contain consistently oriented fractures, the orientations and patterns of the fractures vary considerably from domain to domain. Most of the fracture patterns in the brittle sandstones are related to local stresses created by subtle, irregular flexures resulting from mobility of the associated, interbedded ductile strata (halite or shale). Sequential episodes of evaporite dissolution and/or mobility in different directions can result in multiple, superimposed fracture sets in the associated sandstones. Multiple sets of superimposed fractures create reservoir-quality fracture interconnectivity within restricted localities of a formation. However, it is difficult to predict the orientations and characteristics of this type of fracturing in the subsurface. This is primarily because the orientations and characteristics of these fractures typically have little relationship to the regional tectonic stresses that might be used to predict fracture characteristics prior to drilling. Nevertheless, the high probability of numerous, intersecting fractures in such settings attests to the importance of determining fracture orientations in these types of fractured reservoirs

  14. A numerical study of stress/strain response to oil development in reservoir rocks-a case study in Xingshugang area of Daqing Anticline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zian; Ma Teng; Yi Jin; Zhu Jiangjian; Lin Ge; Zhang Lu; Zhu Yan; Sun Yaliang; Zhu Jun


    Formation pressure and the underground stress field will be disturbed by high pressure injection and production activities during oilfield development. Such disturbance will induce the deformation of formation rock, sometimes causing formation to slip. As a result, production wells and/or injection wells will encounter sanding, casing deformation, or even casing shear problems. This article introduced a simulation study on formation pressure and the underground stress field variation during injection and production activities in the Xingshugang area of the Daqing Anticline, Songliao Basin, China. The relationships of injection pressure to formation pressure, underground stress field variation, and strain variation were investigated in this paper.

  15. Regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning in the auriferous Mariana anticline, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Strauss, Harald; Brätz, Helene; Kwitko-Ribeiro, Rogerio


    The distribution of mineral deposits, characterised as barite deposits, hematite-rich auriferous deposits and auriferous tourmaline-sulfide deposits, displays a regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning along the thrust-delineated limbs of the Mariana anticline, in the south-eastern part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cross-cut relationships of barite veins and sulfide lodes indicate that sulfidation occurred in a late-tectonic context, which is here attributed to the collapse of the ˜0.6-Ga Brasiliano thrust front. Reconnaissance S-isotopic data from barite and pyrite (Antônio Pereira barite deposit and its adjacent gold deposit, respectively), and arsenopyrite (Passagem de Mariana gold deposit), suggest a new interpretation for the hydrothermal fluid overprint in the Mariana anticline. The Antônio Pereira barite has Δ33S values that are near zero, constraining the sulfate source to rocks younger than 2.45 Ga. The barite-δ34S values are between +19.6 and +20.8 ‰. The Passagem arsenopyrite and tourmaline have Co/Ni ratios that define a positive linear trend with the Antônio Pereira pyrite. The latter has homogenous δ34S values, between +8.8 and +8.9 ‰, which are compatible with thermochemical reduction of aqueous sulfate with the S-isotopic composition of the Antônio Pereira barite.

  16. Paleo-fluid flow in folded, poorly lithified Quaternary sediments revealed by diagenetic concretions developed during the growth of Quattro Castella Anticline (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Pizzati, Mattia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Iacumin, Paola; Swennen, Rudy; Storti, Fabrizio


    Diagenetic concretions and mineral masses may provide a useful tool to better understand paleo-fluid flows in transforming porous media. Moreover, the selective cementation responsible of diagenetic alterations formation, plays a key role in diminishing sediments porosity and permeability and hence reservoir quality. In compressive settings of a fold-and-thrust-belt, the presence of deep or blind thrusts could lead to the generation of folds which may influence syn-kinematic sedimentation, deep fluids migration and shallow fluid flow pattern. In this contribution we present a multidisciplinary field and laboratory study on carbonate concretions developed in Quaternary poorly lithified, shallow marine syn-kinematic sediments of the Quattro Castella Anticline in Northern Apennines (Italy). The study site is located along the Enza River, where shallow marine to continental sediments are exposed along the forelimb of the fold nucleated during Late Miocene and still active today. Field mapping was aimed to link bedding attitude of syn-kinematic sediments with the geometry, arrangement, shape and size of concretionary bodies. The studied concretions are both tabular (i.e. parallel to sediment bedding) and elongate single or coalescent concretionary bodies (i.e. plunging at different angle to bedding dip throughout the stratigraphic section). Concretions dimensions range from a few centimeters in single elongate concretions, up to a few meters in tabular and coalescent ones. In situ permeability measurements and laboratory grain size analyses were performed along the studied section to constrain the petrophysical properties of sediments hosting carbonate concretions. Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes analyses on carbonate concretions (performed both on hand specimens and also on thin sections), together with petrographic and cathodoluminescence observations, were used to better constrain the diagenetic environment in which calcite precipitation occurred. Our results

  17. Thin‐ or thick‐skinned faulting in the Yakima fold and thrust belt (WA)? Constraints from kinematic modeling of the saddle mountains anticline (United States)

    Casale, Gabriele; Pratt, Thomas L.


    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) deforms the Columbia River Basalt Group flows of Washington State. The YFTB fault geometries and slip rates are crucial parameters for seismic‐hazard assessments of nearby dams and nuclear facilities, yet there are competing models for the subsurface fault geometry involving shallowly rooted versus deeply rooted fault systems. The YFTB is also thought to be analogous to the evenly spaced wrinkle ridges found on other terrestrial planets. Using seismic reflection data, borehole logs, and surface geologic data, we tested two proposed kinematic end‐member thick‐ and thin‐skinned fault models beneath the Saddle Mountains anticline of the YFTB. Observed subsurface geometry can be produced by 600–800 m of heave along a single listric‐reverse fault or ∼3.5  km of slip along two superposed low‐angle thrust faults. Both models require decollement slip between 7 and 9 km depth, resulting in greater fault areas than sometimes assumed in hazard assessments. Both models require initial slip much earlier than previously thought and may provide insight into the subsurface geometry of analogous comparisons to wrinkle ridges observed on other planets.

  18. Along-strike thickness variations of décollement levels controlling lateral changes in fold-and-thrust belts: the Barbastro-Balaguer Anticline (Southern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Santolaria, Pablo; Calvín, Pablo; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Soto, Ruth; Ayala, Concepción; Casas, Antonio; Oliván, Carlota; Luzón, Aránzazu


    Marginal Ranges) depicts mainly a ramp-flat geometry. Southwards, on the autochthonous deformation zone, the Barbastro-Balaguer Anticline (BBA) structure, which core is constituted by Eocene evaporites, seems to mimic the geometry of the SPFT. It displays a lateral change, from east to west, in both its orientation (N110E to N160E) and geometry (anticline to backthrust structure) probably linked to an important lateral thickness variation (as deduce from the residual anomaly map) of the Eocene evaporites that display a significant accumulation in the east and thin drastically and even disappear to the west. There, its distal pinch out is interpreted to promote the nucleation of the BBA backthrust. The distribution of the Eocene evaporites in the subsurface and the lateral changes in thickness are suggested to be significant factors during the late stages of the emplacement of the SPFT and associated structures.

  19. Characterization of potential transport pathways and implications for groundwater management near an anticline in the Central Basin area, Los Angeles County, California (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Wagner, Brian J.; Land, Michael; Landon, Matthew K.


    The Central Groundwater Basin (Central Basin) of southern Los Angeles County includes ~280 mi2 of the Los Angeles Coastal Plain and serves as the primary source of water for more than two million residents. In the Santa Fe Springs–Whittier–Norwalk area, located in the northeastern part of the basin, several sources of volatile organic compounds have been identified. The volatile organic compunds are thought to have contributed to a large, commingled contaminant plume in groundwater that extends south-southwest downgradient from the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site across folded geologic strata, known as the Santa Fe Springs Anticline. A multifaceted study—that incorporated a three-dimensional sequence-stratigraphic geologic model, two-dimensional groundwater particle-tracking simulations, and new groundwater chemistry data—was conducted to gain insight into the geologic and hydrologic controls on contaminant migration in the study area and to assess the potential for this shallow groundwater contamination to migrate into producing aquifer zones. Conceptual flow models were developed along a flow-parallel cross section based on the modeled stratigraphic architecture, observed geochemistry, and numerical model simulations that generally agree with observed water levels and contaminant distributions. These models predict that contaminants introduced into groundwater at shallow depths near the Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund Site and along the study cross section will likely migrate downgradient to depths intercepted by public supply wells. These conclusions, however, are subject to limitations and simplifications inherent in the modeling approaches used, as well as a significant scarcity of available geologic and hydrogeochemical information at depth and in the downgradient parts of the study area.

  20. Anomalous high deformation rate in mudstone of fold-and-thrust belt in southwestern Taiwan: mud diapirism or mud-core anticline? (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Ping; Tung, Hsin; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Tan, Eh


    simulate the deformation. We will discuss how the contrast of viscosity in mudstone and sandstone contributed in deformation pattern and upward mobility. We will also test the hypothesis of mud diapirism of a recent study and incorporate a new mud-cored anticline model to explain the mechanics of anomalous deformation in the study area.

  1. Depositional facies, environments and sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the Middle Triassic-Lower Cretaceous (pre-Late Albian) succession in Arif El-Naga anticline, northeast Sinai, Egypt (United States)

    El-Azabi, M. H.; El-Araby, A.


    The Middle Triassic-Lower Cretaceous (pre-Late Albian) succession of Arif El-Naga anticline comprises various distinctive facies and environments that are connected with eustatic relative sea-level changes, local/regional tectonism, variable sediment influx and base-level changes. It displays six unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. The Triassic deposits are divided into a lower clastic facies (early Middle Triassic sequence) and an upper carbonate unit (late Middle- and latest Middle/early Late Triassic sequences). The early Middle Triassic sequence consists of sandstone with shale/mudstone interbeds that formed under variable regimes, ranging from braided fluvial, lower shoreface to beach foreshore. The marine part of this sequence marks retrogradational and progradational parasequences of transgressive- and highstand systems tract deposits respectively. Deposition has taken place under warm semi-arid climate and a steady supply of clastics. The late Middle- and latest Middle/early Late Triassic sequences are carbonate facies developed on an extensive shallow marine shelf under dry-warm climate. The late Middle Triassic sequence includes retrogradational shallow subtidal oyster rudstone and progradational lower intertidal lime-mudstone parasequences that define the transgressive- and highstand systems tracts respectively. It terminates with upper intertidal oncolitic packstone with bored upper surface. The next latest Middle/early Late Triassic sequence is marked by lime-mudstone, packstone/grainstone and algal stromatolitic bindstone with minor shale/mudstone. These lower intertidal/shallow subtidal deposits of a transgressive-systems tract are followed upward by progradational highstand lower intertidal lime-mudstone deposits. The overlying Jurassic deposits encompass two different sequences. The Lower Jurassic sequence is made up of intercalating lower intertidal lime-mudstone and wave-dominated beach foreshore sandstone which formed during a short

  2. El anticlinal y las discordancias de Pareja (Guadalajara): definición de las unidades cenozoicas de la Depresión Intermedia (provs. Cuenca y Guadalajara, España)


    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José


    Este trabajo contempla las unidades representadas en la sección estratigráfica del Anticlinal la Pareja (Guadalajara, España) en la cuenca cenozoica denominada Depresión Intermedia. La columna estratigráfica de la zona permite identificar tres unidades principales separadas por discordancias angulares relacionables con fases tectónicas de la orogenia alpina. También se han diferenciado subunidades que, en su mayor parte, vienen definidas por rupturas sedimentarias ligadas a proces...

  3. El anticlinal y las discordancias de Pareja (Guadalajara: definición de las unidades cenozoicas de la Depresión Intermedia (provs. Cuenca y Guadalajara, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribas, I.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stratigraphic units visible at the Pareja Anticline in the Cenozoic-age Depresión Intermedia. The stratigraphic section allowed us to identify three main stratigraphic units differentiated through angular unconformities and sedimentary breaks. Some subunits are also been defined from sedimentary breaks linked to minor diastrophic processes. These subunits as well as the main ones (Cretaceous-Paleogene Unit, Paleogene Unit and Neogene Unit can be defined as tectosedimentary units being identifiable in all the Depresión Intermedia Basin extent through field sections and borehole logs where large numbers of fossil mammals have been located.Este trabajo contempla las unidades representadas en la sección estratigráfica del Anticlinal la Pareja (Guadalajara, España en la cuenca cenozoica denominada Depresión Intermedia. La columna estratigráfica de la zona permite identificar tres unidades principales separadas por discordancias angulares relacionables con fases tectónicas de la orogenia alpina. También se han diferenciado subunidades que, en su mayor parte, vienen definidas por rupturas sedimentarias ligadas a procesos diastróficos y que, como las tres unidades principales (Unidad Cretácico-Paleógena, Unidad Paleógena y Unidad Neógena, se corresponden con unidades tectosedimentarias, siendo identificables en toda la extensión de la Depresión Intermedia a partir de cortes y sondeos mecánicos de reconocimiento donde abundan los yacimientos de micromamíferos.

  4. Los carbonatos marinos aptienses del anticlinal de Santillana del Mar. Cantabria: Procesos diagenéticos y su relación con los contenidos en Sr. Fe y Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort, R.


    Full Text Available Strontium, Fe, and Mn are reported for lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks from Santillana del Mar anticline, Cantabria. The carbonate rocks studied in this work include limestones, dolostones, and dedolomitized dolostones. The limestones are packstones composed of orbitolinid debris. The dolostones consist of geometric hypidiotopic mosaics with crystals ranging from 50 um up to 200 um, diagenesis having obliterated almost all primary textures. Only sorne orbitolinid ghosts are presento Mean values obtained for Sr, Fe, and Mn contents in limestones are 216 ppm, 605 ppm, and 33 ppm, respectively. For dolostones, these values are 48 ppm, 9.740 ppm, and 165 pp, respectively. Finally, mean values for Sr, Fe and Mn in dedolomitized dolostones are 15 ppm, 12.202 ppm, and 202 ppm, respectively. These values are agreed with previous hypothesis about dolomitization by late diagenetic processes and dedolomitization in a meteoric environment. Although Sr contents can be a useful tool in limestones diagenesis, Sr/Fe and Sr/Mn ratios reveal more clearly the different diagenetic processes wich take place in carbonate rocks.En este trabajo se hace un estudio de los contenidos en Sr, Fe y Mn en los carbonatos del Cretácico inferior del anticlinal de Santillana del Mar, Cantabria. Las rocas carbonáticas estudiadas incluyen calizas, dolomías y dolomías dedolomitizadas. Las calizas están constituidas por packstones de orbitolinas. Las dolomías son mosaicos de cristales con tamaños que oscilan entre 50 micras y 200 micras, habienduo destruido la diagénesis casi todas las texturas primarias. Unicamente se observan algunos fantasmas de orbitolinas. Los valores medios obtenidos para el Sr, Fe y Mn en las calizas, son 216 ppm, 605 ppm y 33 ppm, respectivamente. Para las dolomías estos valores son de 48 ppm, 9.740 ppm y 165 ppm, respectivamente y, por último, en las dolomías dedolomitizadas los contenidos medios presentes para el Sr, Fe y Mn son de 15 ppm, 12

  5. Petrophysical examination of CO₂-brine-rock interactions-results of the first stage of long-term experiments in the potential Zaosie Anticline reservoir (central Poland) for CO₂ storage. (United States)

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Wdowin, Magdalena; Manecki, Maciej


    The objective of the study was determination of experiment-induced alterations and changes in the properties of reservoir rocks and sealing rocks sampled from potential reservoir for CO₂. In the experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO₂ pressure of 6 MPa for 20 months at room temperature. Samples of Lower Jurassic reservoir rocks and sealing rocks (sandstones, claystones, and mudstones) from the Zaosie Anticline (central Poland) were analysed for their petrophysical properties (specific surface area, porosity, pore size and distribution) before and after the experiment. Comparison of the ionic composition the brines before and after the experiment demonstrated an increase in total dissolved solids as well as the concentration of sulphates and calcium ions. This indicates partial dissolution of the rock matrix and the cements. As a result of the reaction, the properties of reservoir rocks did not changed significantly and should not affect the process of CO₂ storage. In the case of the sealing rocks, however, the porosity, the framework density, as well as the average capillary and threshold diameter increased. Also, the pore distribution in the pore space changed in favour of larger pores. The reasons for these changes could not be explained by petrographic characteristics and should be thoroughly investigated.

  6. Landslides triggered by the storm of November 3-5, 1985, Wills Mountain Anticline, West Virginia and Virginia: Chapter C in Geomorphic studies of the storm and flood of November 3-5, 1985, in the upper Potomac and Cheat River basins in West Virginia and Virginia (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; McGeehin, John P.; Cron, Elizabeth D.; Carr, Carolyn E.; Harper, John M.; Howard, Alan D.


    More than 3,000 landslides were triggered by heavy rainfall in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia and Virginia, November 3-5, 1985. These landslides provided the opportunity to study spatial controls on landslides, magnitude and frequency of triggering events, and the effects of landslides on flood-induced geomorphic change. The study area consists of parts of the Wills Mountain anticline, a major NE-trending structure in the central Appalachians, and a portion of the adjacent Appalachian Plateau. Across the anticline and adjacent plateau, bedrock lithologies vary markedly and include pure marine limestone, marine shale, deltaic mudstone/sandstone sequences, and orthoquartzites. Because of the geologic structure, bedrock lithology varies little along strike. The spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the storm was controlled primarily by rainfall, bedrock lithology, surficial lithology, land cover, and slope morphology. The triggering rainfall was of moderate intensity and long duration. Two-day storm totals varied from 170 mm to more than 240 mm in the study area. Most landslides occurred at the northeast end of the study area, where 48-h rainfall totals were in excess of 200 mm. Different rainfall thresholds are apparent for triggering landslides on different bedrock lithologies. The highest density of landslides occurred in shallow colluvium and residuum of the Reedsville Shale (Ordovician), followed by regolith of the Greenbriar and Mauch Chunk Groups (Mississippian). Most of the landslides in these fine-grained regoliths were shallow slides and slumps, many of which transformed to mudflows and delivered sediment directly to streams; a smaller number of debris avalanches were triggered high on quartzite ridges.Instability of colluvium and residuum derived from the Reedsville Shale, compared with regolith from four other fine-grained bedrock lithologies, is attributable to its low strength combined with moderate infiltration rates that

  7. Translational self-diffusion in the synclinic to anticlinic phases of a ferroelectric liquid crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cifelli, M.; Domenici, V.; Dvinskikh, S.V.; Glogarová, Milada; Veracini, A.


    Roč. 6, č. 23 (2010), s. 5999-6003 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : chiral smectogen * echo sequences * ferroelectric liquid crystal * intra-layer * molecular self -diffusion * pulsed field gradient NMR Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.457, year: 2010

  8. 75 FR 21035 - Notice of Rescheduled Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming (United States)


    ... and Development Project Area (PAPA) on July 27, 2000 and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement of the PAPA on September 12, 2008. The PAWG... decisions as PAPA development proceeds. Additional information about the PAWG can be found at: http://www...

  9. 77 FR 2315 - Call for Nominations for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming (United States)


    ... Area (PAPA) on July 27, 2000, and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the PAPA Supplemental... the PAPA. PAWG duties and responsibilities are as follows: 1. Develop recommendations for the BLM... for the PAPA. At the direction of the Designated Federal Officer, the PAWG may review and analyze...

  10. 75 FR 66789 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations: Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming (United States)


    ... Area (PAPA) on July 27, 2000, and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the PAPA Supplemental... to the BLM on mitigation, monitoring, and adaptive management in the PAPA. Additional information...

  11. 77 FR 58863 - Notice of Meeting of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group (United States)


    ... the PAPA on July 27, 2000 and carried forward with the release of the PAPA Supplemental EIS ROD on..., monitoring, and adaptive management issues as oil and gas development in the PAPA proceeds. Additional...

  12. 76 FR 65209 - Notice of Meetings of the Pinedale Anticline Working Group, Wyoming (United States)


    ... established by the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) for the PAPA on July 27, 2000 and carried forward with the release of the ROD for the PAPA Supplemental EIS on September 12, 2008... development in the PAPA proceeds. Additional information about the PAWG can be found at:

  13. Relation between shell beds and trace fossils of the Albian-Cenomanian Aitamir Formation in Amirabad anticline- northeast Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H., Mohamadian,


    Full Text Available Aitamir Formation (Albian-Cenomanian in the Kopet-Dagh Basin has diverse trace fossils and several shell beds. These trace fossils contain diverse ethological patterns, including domichnia, fodinichnia, grazing, equilibrichnia, navichnia, chemichnia and fugichnia. The types of shell beds distinguished based on differences in sedimentological, palaeoecological and taphonomic features. Shell beds and sandstone layers containing characteristic trace fossils represent a storm-influenced succession. Bioturbation increases markedly towards the top of the shell beds as the energy of deposition declines to allow colonization by benthonic faunal assemblages. Types of shell beds generally including (1 initial firmground substrates in foreshore to offshore environments as indicated by the Glossifungites ichnofacies, including Gastrochaenolites, Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides, (2 basal storm-erosive lag deposits, (3 re-worked shell beds of main storm deposits as indicated by the Glossifungites ichnofacies, including Ophiomorpha (4 fair-weather shell beds in a near-shore position and above fair-weather wave base. (5 Composite or multiple-event concentration from time averaged and multiple event deposit. Seven trace fossil assemblages are identified in Aitamir Formation deposits. They are (1 the Zoophycos Ichnofacies (2 the distal Cruziana ichnofacies, (3 the archetypical Cruziana ichnofacies, (4 the mixed Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies, (5 the distal Skolithos ichnofacies, (6 the archetypal Skolithos Ichnofacies, and (7 impoverished expression of the Skolithos ichnofacies. This succession of shell beds and trace fossil assemblages reflects a gradational decrease in hydraulic energy levels induced by storms.

  14. Relation between shell beds and trace fossils of the Albian-Cenomanian Aitamir Formation in Amirabad anticline- northeast Mashhad


    H., Mohamadian,; M., Mahmudy- Gharaie,; A., Mahboubi,; R., Moussavi- Harami,; A., Bayetgol,


    Aitamir Formation (Albian-Cenomanian) in the Kopet-Dagh Basin has diverse trace fossils and several shell beds. These trace fossils contain diverse ethological patterns, including domichnia, fodinichnia, grazing, equilibrichnia, navichnia, chemichnia and fugichnia. The types of shell beds distinguished based on differences in sedimentological, palaeoecological and taphonomic features. Shell beds and sandstone layers containing characteristic trace fossils represent a storm-influenced successi...

  15. Tritium, carbon-14, and iodine-129 as indicators for localized vertical recharge along an anticline in the Columbia River Basalts using a decay-corrected mixing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Johnson, V.G.; Early, T.O.


    Tritium, 14 C, and 129 I in groundwater samples are used to demonstrate vertical recharge and measure flow velocity in the fractured and faulted Umtanum Ridge-Gable Mountain acticline, within the Columbia River Basalts, at a sampling site about 6 mi northeast of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at the Hanford Site, Washington State. Mixing model calculations yield an apparent downward migration rate of 15 to 19 ft/yr through a sequence of aquifers in the Wanapum Basalt that range in depth from 698 to 1373 ft. Estimates of the vertical flow rate in the overlying Saddle Mountains Basalt are somewhat higher. Hydrographs from neighboring wells, hydrostatic heads, pump test data, and the chemical composition of groundwater samples from the sampling well are consistent with interaquifer communication. Some hydrologic evidence from aquifers in this region suggests that, in the past, flow may have been upward. This possible reversal of flow may be associated with water table mounding in the unconfined aquifer, caused by waste disposal activities at the Hanford Site since World War II. 17 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Stress determination and geomechanical stability analysis of an oil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological history of this basin includes a long time subsidence and deposition which is interrupted by a short-term uplift. Its folding process began during Miocene and Pliocene anti- clines and continued until now, hence forming a long anticline (Mottiei 1995). These anticlines constitute most of oil traps in this basin.

  17. Karaton-Tengiz block's forming peculiarities in connection with petroleum and gas content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal'yan, I.B.


    The Pustynnoye, Tazhigali, Korolevskoe and Tengiz deposit are discovered within Karaton-Tengiz block. petroleum sediments confine to carbonate sediments. Tengiz deposit confines to the same name tectonic sedimentation large anticline elevation. (author)

  18. Growth stratal records of instantaneous and progressive limb rotation in the Precordillera thrust belt and Bermejo basin, Argentina (United States)

    Zapata, TomáS. R.; Allmendinger, Richard W.


    Analysis of synorogenic deposits preserved near the thrust front zone of the Precordillera fold and thrust belt and in the Bermejo foreland basin in central Argentina documents the evolution of deformation during the last 5 Myr as well as the thrust system kinematics. Seismic lines across the area display examples of progressive and instantaneous limb rotations. The easternmost thrust plate of the Central Precordillera, the Niquivil thrust, experienced episodic motion in two main stages: a first thrust movement as a fault-propagation fold and a second movement as a high-angle anticlinal breakthrough fault after a period of quiescence. Growth strata deposited in the La Pareja intermontane basin and the Las Salinas and Bermejo anticline recorded continuous growth of Eastern Precordilleran structures beginning at ˜2.7 Ma, with uplift rates of ˜0.3 mm/yr for the Niquivil anticline, 1.08 mm/yr for the Las Salinas anticline, and between ˜0.6 and 0.38 mm/yr during the last ˜2 Myr for the Bermejo anticline. Once the Eastern Precordillera began to grow, the propagation of the Niquivil thrust stopped, restricting the deformation to the young Vallecito out-of sequence thrust. The complex geometry of growth strata deposited on the back limb of the Las Salinas anticline can be explained by using a model of a two-step fault propagation fold with constant layer thickness. The Bermejo anticline of the Eastern Precordillera is formed by the simultaneous propagation of a shallow fault, responsible for the fold shape, and a deep fault that produced vertical uplift. A growth triangle that documents instantaneous forelimb rotation for a fault-propagation fold is recorded for the first time in a published seismic line.

  19. Latest Quaternary rapid river incision across an inactive fold in the northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland (United States)

    Lu, Honghua; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Tianqi; Lü, Yanwu; Zhao, Junxiang; Li, Youli; Zheng, Xiangmin


    This work focuses on the incision process over the Tuostai anticline, a fold of the proximal structure Belt I in the northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland, where the Sikeshu River has incised deeply into the alluvial gravels and the fold's underlying bedrock strata. Field investigation and geomorphic mapping define five terraces of the Sikeshu River (designated as T1 to T5 from oldest to youngest) preserved within the Tuostai anticline. 10Be surface exposure dating and optically stimulated luminescence dating constrain stabilization of the highest three terrace surfaces at about 80 ka (T1), 16 ka (T2), and 15 ka (T3), respectively. Around 16 ka, the calculated river incision rates significantly increase from 6 mm/yr. Undeformed longitudinal profiles of terraces T2, T3 and T4 over the Tuostai anticline suggest that this structure may have been tectonically inactive since stabilization of these three terraces. We thus think that the observed rapid river incision over the Tuostai anticline has not been largely forced by tectonic uplift. Instead, the progressively warmer and wetter palaeoclimatic condition within the Tian Shan range and its surrounding area during the period of ∼20-10 ka may have enhanced river incision across the Tuostai anticline. A reduced sediment/water ratio might have lowered the gradient of the Sikeshu River.

  20. Initial assessment of recharge areas for large karst springs: a case study from the central Zagros Mountains, Iran (United States)

    Karimi Vardanjani, Hossein; Chitsazan, Manouchehr; Ford, Derek; Karimi, Haji; Charchi, Abbas


    Sousan Spring emerges from the Keyno Anticline, Zagros Mountains (Iran), and the mean annual discharge is 24 m3/s. Geological and hydrochemical evaluations suggest that the spring recharge is from the limestone Ilam-Sarvak Formation (Cretaceous) but the Mafaroon Fault, a major thrust feature, influences the regional groundwater flow path by juxtaposing other strata. Geological, geochemical, stable isotope and water balance studies were employed to interpret this behavior. Using the isotope data, the sources and elevations of the recharge area were found. Temporal variations of the isotopic data were compared with variations of electrical conductivity (EC). Unexpectedly, high EC was associated with a relative increase of discharge and depletion of δ18O. Several hypotheses were investigated and approximate water balance studies employed for validation. It was found that an elongated catchment on the Keyno Anticline plus a lesser catchment on a pair of parallel anticlines recharge the aquifer. While the long groundwater flow path along the Keyno Anticline plus guidance by Mafaroon Fault and the adjacent Garou shaly strata lead to increased EC in the Sousan Spring at the end of the dry season, a flow pulse from two adjoining anticlines (Mahalbakh and Shirgoon) arrives at the same time to increase the discharge and deplete the δ18O signal. Apparently the spring did not experience true base flow conditions during the recorded hydrological year. Although the spring response to specific precipitation events was similar to typical karst aquifers, standard interpretation of recession curves and related coefficients will not be practical at Sousan.

  1. The paleogeologic-geographical conditions of non-anti clinical traps formation in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanov, A.M.


    Full text : The plegicil-geographical researches had established the predominant development of definite non-anticlinal traps in some stages and oil deposits related with them. At the final stage of the Alpine tectonic cycle more favorable conditions rise for formation of paleogemorphological and structural-stractigraphical types of non-anticlinal traps due to relation with increase of the tectonic movements contrast and existence of numerous regional and local bakers in sedimentation. The complex history of the geotechnical development of the mentioned large tectonic units made the favorable conditions for formation of non-anticlinal traps of different in various stratigraphical complexes. Marine tangerines begun in the Early Cretaceous had led to accumulation of carbonaceous mainly, then sandy-clayey formations. The Middle Cretaceous is characterized with instability of the geotectonic regime

  2. The parenchymo-vascular cambium and its derivative tissues in stems and roots of Bougainvillaea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Puławska


    Full Text Available In the shoots and roots of Bougainmllaea, the parenchymo-vascular cambium produces thinwalled secondary parenchyma to one side and the secondary vascular bundles embedded in the "conjunctive tissue" to the other. Periclinal division of a single cambial cell in one radial row brings about periclinal divisions of the adjacent cells of the neighbouring rows. Anticlinal division of a single cambial cell at one level, on the other hand, causes anticlinal. divisions of the adjacent cells of the overlying and underlying tiers.

  3. Geomorphic response of a continental margin to tectonic and eustatic variations, the Levant margin during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (United States)

    Ben Moshe, Liran; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Enzel, Yehouda; Uri, Schattner


    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97±0.01-5.33 Ma) the Mediterranean Levant margin experienced major eustatic and sedimentary cycles as well as tectonic motion along the nearby Dead Sea fault plate boundary. New structures formed along this margin with morphology responding to these changes. Our study focuses on changes in this morphology across the margin. It is based on interpretation of three 3D seismic reflection volumes from offshore Israel. Multi-attribute analysis aided the extraction of key reflectors. Morphologic analysis of these data quantified interacting eustasy, sedimentation, and tectonics. Late Messinian morphologic domains include: (a) continental shelf; (b) 'Delta' anticline, forming a ridge diagonal to the strike of the margin; (c) southward dipping 'Hadera' valley, separating between (a) and (b); (d) 'Delta Gap' - a water gap crossing perpendicular to the anticline axis, exhibiting a sinuous thalweg; (e) continental slope. Drainage across the margin developed in several stages. Remains of turbidite flows crossing the margin down-slope were spotted across the 'Delta' anticline. These flows accumulated with the MSC evaporate sequence and prior to the anticline folding. Rising of the anticline, above the then bathymetry, either blocked or diverted the turbidites. That rising also defined the Hadera valley. In-situ evaporates, covering the valley floor, are, in turn covered by a fan-delta at the distal end of the valley. The fan-delta complex contains eroded evaporites and Lago-Mare fauna. Its top is truncated by dendritic fluvial channels that drained towards the Delta Gap. The Delta Gap was carved through the Delta ridge in a morphological and structural transition zone. We propose that during the first stages of the MSC (5.97±0.01-5.59 ma) destabilization of the continental slope due to oscillating sea level produced gravity currents that flowed through the pre-existing Delta anticline. Subsequent folding of the Delta anticline


    Antweiler, J.C.; Williams, F.E.


    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Teton Wilderness, the Teton Corridor, and the Du Noir Addition to the Washakie Wilderness in Wyoming. As a result of this study it was determined that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, but there is probable potential for oil and gas resources in two anticlines in the western part of the Teton Wilderness and in the postulated Younts Basin in the eastern part of the wilderness and the eastern part of the Du Noir Addition. The Whetstone anticline is the largest.

  5. Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement (United States)

    Hite, Robert J.; Lohman, Stanley William


    Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin.The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits.Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines.The central or salt-bearing cores of the anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable.The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively slow

  6. The value of leaf micromorphological in the taxonomic delimitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on the leaf epidermis of the three species of Emilia: E. coccinea (Sims) G. Don, E. praetermissa Milne-Redhead, and E. sonchifolia (L) DC using light microscope. Epidermal cells in the species are irregular with anticlinal wall pattern sinuous in E. coccinea, sinuous in E. sonchifolia, and straight to ...

  7. Pectin degradation by Botrytis cinerea: recognition of endopolygalacturonases by an Arabidopsis receptor and utilization of Dgalacturonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisha Zhang, Lisha


    The necrotrophic fungal plant pathogenBotrytis cinerea is able to infect over 200 host plants and cause severe damage to crops, both pre- and post-harvest. B. cinerea often penetrates host leaf tissue at the anticlinal cell wall and subsequently grows into and through the

  8. Tectonic setting of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, eastern Washington (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.


    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

  9. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.


    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  10. The development and geometry of shape change in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halsey Leah E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaf epidermis is an important architectural control element that influences the growth properties of underlying tissues and the overall form of the organ. In dicots, interdigitated pavement cells are the building blocks of the tissue, and their morphogenesis includes the assembly of specialized cell walls that surround the apical, basal, and lateral (anticlinal cell surfaces. The microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are highly polarized along the cortex of the anticlinal wall; however, the relationships between these arrays and cell morphogenesis are unclear. Results We developed new quantitative tools to compare population-level growth statistics with time-lapse imaging of cotyledon pavement cells in an intact tissue. The analysis revealed alternating waves of lobe initiation and a phase of lateral isotropic expansion that persisted for days. During lateral isotropic diffuse growth, microtubule organization varied greatly between cell surfaces. Parallel microtubule bundles were distributed unevenly along the anticlinal surface, with subsets marking stable cortical domains at cell indentations and others clearly populating the cortex within convex cell protrusions. Conclusions Pavement cell morphogenesis is discontinuous, and includes punctuated phases of lobe initiation and lateral isotropic expansion. In the epidermis, lateral isotropic growth is independent of pavement cell size and shape. Cortical microtubules along the upper cell surface and stable cortical patches of anticlinal microtubules may coordinate the growth behaviors of orthogonal cell walls. This work illustrates the importance of directly linking protein localization data to the growth behavior of leaf epidermal cells.

  11. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic characters employable for their delimitation are their habits, stomata type, length and width of stomata, length and width of epidermal cells, anticlinal walls and stomata index on the abaxial surfaces. Others are air spaces, presence of tannins and sand crystals, abundance of sclerenchyma cells and thick cuticle in ...

  12. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  13. The role of E–W basement faults in the Mesozoic geodynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dorra Tanfous Amri


    Oct 10, 2017 ... and occurred only along main strike-slip faults. In addition, seismic lines show that Triassic rocks are .... ated anticlines are due to an E–W strike-slip fault, whereas Zargouni (1985), Boukadi (1994), Zouari ...... right–lateral oblique–slip features such as the Gafsa fault (Boukadi and Bédir 1996; Hlaiem 1999; ...

  14. Petroleum resources assessment (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report consists of 4 subjects. 1) An interactive seismic velocity analysis, 2) AVO analysis for direct hydrocarbon detection, 3) 3D seismic data processing, 4) Study of structural(syncline) effect of the near surface on the resolution of anticline oil trap structure by seismic modeling. (author). 36 refs., 3 tabs., 97 figs.

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises and high-angle reverse faults. The structure (basement trough) has a length of ...

  16. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises and high-angle reverse faults. The structure (basement trough) has a length of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. A study of the micro-morphology of 53 accessions of West African. Okra was undertaken using light microscopy techniques. Results showed that epidermal cells are polygonal, isodiametric and irregularly shaped with different anticlinal cell wall patterns. Stomata type is 100% paracytic and 100% amphistomatic ...

  18. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are their habits, stomata type, length and width of stomata, length and width of epidermal cells, anticlinal walls ... cushion for sleeping mats (Terashima and ..... habits. This also might be the reason why they wrap more food than T. daniellii. However, T. daniellii is more widely known and more often used for food wrapping ...

  19. Tectonic setting of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, eastern Washington (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.


    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

  20. Epidermal morphology of west african okra Abelmoschus caillei (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the micro-morphology of 53 accessions of West African Okra was undertaken using light microscopy techniques. Results showed that epidermal cells are polygonal, isodiametric and irregularly shaped with different anticlinal cell wall patterns. Stomata type is 100% paracytic and 100% amphistomatic in distribution ...

  1. A study of Quaternary structures in the Qom region, West Central Iran (United States)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Safaei, H.; Yassaghi, A.; Vafa, H.; Naeimi, A.; Madanipour, S.; Ahmadi, M.


    West Central Iran comprises numerous Quaternary faults. Having either strike-slip or thrust mechanisms, these faults are potentially active and therefore capable of creating destructive earthquakes. In this paper, we use satellite images as well as field trips to identify these active faults in the Qom region. The Qom and Indes faults are the main NW-trending faults along which a Quaternary restraining step-over zone has formed. Kamarkuh, Mohsen Abad, and Ferdows anticlines are potentially active structures that formed in this restraining step-over zone. There are some thrusts and anticlines, such as the Alborz anticline and Alborz fault, which are parallel to strike-slip faults such as the Qom fault, indicating deformation partitioning in the area. In addition to NW-trending structures, there is an important NE-trending fault known as the Qomrud fault that has deformed Quaternary deposits and affected Kushk-e-Nosrat fault, Alborz anticline, and Qomrud River. The results of this study imply that the major Quaternary faults of West Central Iran and their restraining step-over zones are potentially active.

  2. New geological-geophysical data on the structure of the Ninetyeast Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Sager, W.W.; Frey, F.A; Pringle, M.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Gauntlett, E.; Mervine, E.E.; Marinova, Y.G.; Piotrowski, A.A; Paul, S.F.; Huang, S.; Eisin, A

    fan. Farther up to 17 degrees N, the Ninetyeast Ridge is traceable in the form of a buried anticlinal uplift of the oceanic basaltic basement. There are many hypotheses proposed for explaining the origin of this enigmatic structure, of which two...

  3. Conodont faunas from Portugal and southwestern Spain Part 6. A Lower Famennian conodont fauna at Monte do Forno da Cal (South Portugal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den M.; Schermerhorn, L.J.G.


    A Lower marginifera Zone conodont fauna is described from the Phyllite-Quartzite Group in the Estação de Ourique anticline in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. The composition of the fauna is indicative of a shallow to very shallow marine environment.

  4. Structural interpretation of “Zulu” oil field, Niger Delta | Ibe | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faults were interpreted and identified (F1, F2, and F3) using fault sticks, which was modeled to generate the skeletons. It was observed that the fault skeletons showed pillar gridded pattern that produced the reservoir which shows enclosed anticline structures that serves as a good traps for hydrocarbon accumulation.

  5. The hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of the two-layered Shiraz aquifer in the northwest of Maharlou saline lake, south of Iran (United States)

    Tajabadi, Mehdi; Zare, Mohammad; Chitsazan, Manouchehr


    Maharlou saline lake is the outlet of Shiraz closed basin in southern Iran, surrounded by several disconnected alluvial fresh water aquifers. These aquifers in the west and northwest of the lake are recharged by karstic anticlines such as Kaftarak in the north and Barmshour in the south. Here groundwater salinity varies along the depth so that better quality water is located below brackish or saline waters. The aim of this study is to investigate the reason for the salinity anomaly and the origin of the fresher groundwater in lower depth. Hence, the change in groundwater salinity along depth has been investigated by means of a set of geoelectrical, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and environmental isotopes data. The interpretation of geoelectrical profiles and hydrogeological data indicates that the aquifer in the southeast of Shiraz plain is a two-layer aquifer separated by a fine-grained (silt and clay) layer with an approximate thickness of 40 m at the depth of about 100-120 m. Hydrgeochemistry showed that the shallow aquifer is recharged by Kaftarak karstic anticline and is affected by the saline lake water. The lake water fraction varies in different parts from zero for shallow aquifer close to the karstic anticlines to ∼70 percent in the margin of the lake. The deep aquifer is protected from the intrusion of saline lake water due to the presence of the above-mentioned confining layer with lake water fraction of zero. The stable isotopes signatures also indicate that the 'fresh' groundwater belonging to the deep aquifer is not subject to severe evaporation or mixing which is typical of the karstic water of the area. It is concluded that the characteristics of the deep aquifer are similar to those of the karstic carbonate aquifer. This karstic aquifer is most probably the Barmshour carbonated anticline buried under the shallow aquifer in the southern part. It may also be the extension of the Kaftarak anticline in the northern part.

  6. Relationship of the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake with geological structure. Evaluation of earthquake source fault in active folding zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Abe, Shintaro


    We compile the important points to evaluate earthquake source fault in active folding zone through a temporary aftershock observation of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake. The aftershock distribution shows spindle shape whose middle part is wide and both ends are narrow in NNE-SSW trending. The range of seismic activity corresponds well to the distribution of fold axes in this area, whose middle part is anticlinorium (some anticlines) and both ends are single anticline. In the middle part, the west dipping aftershock plane including the mainshock (M6.8) is located under the Higashiyama anticline. Another west dipping aftershock plane including the largest aftershock (M6.5) is located under the Tamugiyama and Komatsugura anticlines, and the east margin of the aftershock distribution corresponds well with Suwa-toge flexure. Therefore the present fold structure should have been formed by an accumulation of the same faults movement. In other words, it is important to refer the fold axes distribution pattern, especially with flexure, for the evaluation of earthquake source fault. In addition, we performed FEM analyses to investigate the relation of fold structure to the thickness of the sedimentary layer and the dip angle of the fault. Reverse fault movement forms asymmetric fold above the fault, which steeper slope is formed just above the upper end of the fault. As the sedimentary layer became thicker, anticline axis moved to hanging wall side in the fold structure. As the dip angle became smaller, the wavelength of the fold became longer and the fold structure grew highly asymmetric. Thus the shape of the fold structure is useful as an index to estimate the blind thrust below it. (author)

  7. The Cadomian Orogeny in Saxo-Thuringia, Germany: geochemical and Nd Sr Pb isotopic characterization of marginal basins with constraints to geotectonic setting and provenance (United States)

    Linnemann, Ulf; Romer, Rolf L.


    The Cadomian basement and the Cambro-Ordovician overstep sequence in Saxo-Thuringia is characterized by clastic sedimentation from the Late Neoproterozoic to the Ordovician. Magmatism in the Avalonian-Cadomian Arc preserved in Saxo-Thuringia occurred between ca. 570 and 540 Ma. Peri-Gondwanan basin remnants with Cadomian to Early Palaeozoic rocks are exposed as very low-grade metamorphosed rocks in six areas (Schwarzburg Anticline, Berga Anticline, Doberlug Syncline, North Saxon Anticline, Lausitz Anticline, and Elbe Zone). A hiatus in sedimentation between 540 and 530 Ma (Cadomian unconformity) is related to the Cadomian Orogeny. A second gap in sedimentation occurred during the Upper Cambrian (500 to 490 Ma) and is documented by a disconformity between Lower to Middle Cambrian rocks and overlying Tremadocian sediments. Major and trace-element signatures of the Cadomian sediments reflect an active margin ("continental arc"), those of the Ordovician sediments a passive margin. The Cambrian sediments have inherited the arc signature through the input of relatively unaltered Cadomian detritus. Initial Nd and Pb isotope data from the six Saxo-Thuringian areas demonstrate that there is no change in source area with time for each location, but that there are minor contrasts among the locations. (1) Cadomian sediments from the Lausitz Anticline, the Doberlug Syncline and the Elbe Zone have lower 207Pb/ 204Pb than all other areas. (2) The core of the Schwarzburg Anticline, which is overprinted by greenschist facies conditions and detached, is isotopically heterogeneous. One part of its metasedimentary units has less radiogenic Nd than sediments from other low-grade units of similar age in the same area. (3) Cadomian sediments from the Schwarzburg Anticline show an input of younger felsic crust. (4) The Rothstein Group shows distinct input of young volcanic material. Also, (5) Cadomian sediments from the Lausitz Anticline, the Elbe Zone and parts of the North Saxon

  8. Qingshankou-Putaohua/Shaertu and Jurassic Coal-Denglouku/Nongan total petroleum systems in the Songliao Basin, China (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Qiang, Jin; McCabe, Peter J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Persits, Felix


    The Qingshankou-Putaohua/Shaertu petroleum system involves the generation of oil and gas from a mature pod of lacustrine source rock near the center of the Songliao Basin in northeastern China. The primary source rock is the Lower Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, and a secondary source rock is Member 1 of the Lower Cretaceous Nenjiang Formation. The most productive of six sandstone reservoirs are the Putaohua reservoir (Member 1 of the Lower Cretaceous Yaojia Formation) and the Shaertu reservoir (Members 2 and 3 of the Yaojia Formation and Member 1 of the Nenjiang Formation). Most oil and associated gas generated from the Qingshankou Formation and Nenjiang Formation (Member 1) are trapped in large faulted anticlines, fault blocks, and faulted anticlinal noses in combination with facies-change and (or) diagenetic stratigraphic traps. Two assessment units are defined in the petroleum system: (1) an anticlinal assessment unit; and (2) a subtle-traps assessment unit consisting of (a) anticlinal noses in combination with fault or stratigraphic traps, (b) stratigraphic traps, and (c) unconventional reservoirs. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are expected in both assessment units in small (5?10 million barrels of oil; 30?60 billion ft3 gas) and medium (10?25 million barrels of oil; 60?150 billion ft3 of gas) fields. Also, undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are expected in several large fields (25?73 million barrels of oil; 150?173 billion ft3 of gas). The Jurassic coal?Dengloukou/Nongan petroleum system involves the generation of natural gas from multiple pods of mature source rock in graben structures at the base of the Songliao Basin. Sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Denglouku Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation are the major reservoir rocks. Most of the known natural gas is trapped in anticlines, anticlinal noses, and fault blocks. This petroleum system is largely unexplored in comparison to

  9. Active folding of fluvial terraces across a `blind' Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India. (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.


    In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline, and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the Suruin-Mastargh anticline hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and four yield multiple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and depth profiles terrigenous cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) ages between 53 ka and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Murree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggests rock uplift rates across the Suruin-Mastargh anticline range between 1.8-2.5 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rates across the Suruin-Mastargh anticline range between 3.8-5.4 mm/yr since 53 ka. Geodetic data indicate that an 11-12 mm/yr arc-normal shortening rate characterizes the interseismic strain accumulation across the plate boundary due to India-Tibet convergence. These data combined with rates of other active internal faults in the Kashmir Himalaya indicate that the Riasi fault accounts for the remainder 60% of the convergence not taken up by the Suruin-Mastargh anticline. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled

  10. The Hanford Site's Gable Mountain structure: A comparison of the recurrence of design earthquakes based on fault slip rates and a probabilistic exposure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, A.C.


    Gable Mountain is a segment of the Umtanum Ridge-Gable Mountain structural trend, an east-west trending series of anticlines, one of the major geologic structures on the Hanford Site. A probabilistic seismic exposure model indicates that Gable Mountain and two adjacent segments contribute significantly to the seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. Geologic measurements of the uplift of initially horizontal (11-12 Ma) basalt flows indicate that a broad, continuous, primary anticline grew at an average rate of 0.009-0.011 mm/a, and narrow, segmented, secondary anticlines grew at rates of 0.009 mm/a at Gable Butte and 0.018 mm/a at Gable Mountain. The buried Southeast Anticline appears to have a different geometry, consisting of a single, intermediate-width anticline with an estimated growth rate of 0.007 mm/a. The recurrence rate and maximum magnitude of earthquakes for the fault models were used to estimate the fault slip rate for each of the fault models and to determine the implied structural growth rate of the segments. The current model for Gable Mountain-Gable Butte predicts 0.004 mm/a of vertical uplift due to primary faulting and 0.008 mm/a due to secondary faulting. These rates are roughly half the structurally estimated rates for Gable Mountain, but the model does not account for the smaller secondary fold at Gable Butte. The model predicted an uplift rate for the Southeast Anticline of 0.006 mm/a, caused by the low open-quotes fault capabilityclose quotes weighting rather than a different fault geometry. The effects of previous modifications to the fault models are examined and potential future modifications are suggested. For example, the earthquake recurrence relationship used in the current exposure model has a b-value of 1.15, compared to a previous value of 0.85. This increases the implied deformation rates due to secondary fault models, and therefore supports the use of this regionally determined b-value to this fault/fold system

  11. Three-dimensional gravity investigation of the Hanford reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, B.H.; Deju, R.A.


    Models of the basalt surface buried under the Hanford reservation are constructed from gravity data. The method uses a modified third order polynomial surface to remove the regional effects and a gravity-geologic method to remove the water table effects. When these influences are subtracted from previous data, the anomaly remaining directly reflects the irregularity of the underlying basalt surface. The Umtanum Anticline and the Cold Creek Syncline are delineated beneath the overlying surficial deposits. Along the crest of the Umtanum Anticline, a number of gravity lows are evident. These may identify locations of breaching by an ancestral river. In addition, the data are examined to determine optimum gravity data spacing for modeling. Optimum results were obtained using a station separation of one per four square miles. Less will delineate only the major underlying structures. It is also very important to have all data points distributed in a regularly spaced grid

  12. Gravity studies of the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, B.H.; Lillie, J.T.; Deju, R.A.


    Gravity studies over Hanford added to the understanding of the geology of the Pasco Basin. The Bouguer anomaly indicated the basin is the site of the greatest thickness of Columbia River Basalt. The residual gravity anomaly delineated the major anticlinal and synclinal structures under Hanford. Three-dimensional gravity models characterized these buried folds by indicating their shape and relief. Finally, two-dimensional gravity models further delineated the shape of these buried folds and suggested locations where ancestral rivers may have breached the Umtanum anticlinal folds within the basin. Analysis of the three-dimensional model studies indicates that one-fifth of the original data would have delineated the buried structures. Two- or three-body gravity models produced better results than a poly-body model. Gravity was found to be an effective and rapid reconnaissance method of studying buried bedrock structures

  13. Seismic structure and stratigraphy of northern edge of Bahaman-Cuban collision zone (United States)

    Ball, M.M.; Martin, R.G.; Bock, W.D.; Sylwester, R.E.; Bowles, R.M.; Taylor, D.; Coward, E.L.; Dodd, J.E.; Gilbert, L.


    Common-depth-point (CDP) seismic reflection data in the southwestern Bahamas reveal the northern edge of the tectonized zone that resulted from the late Mesozoic-early Cenozoic collision of Cuba and the Bahamas. Two seismic facies are present. A 10-km broad anticline occurs at the south end of Santaren Channel. Platform carbonates in the core of this structure overlie Early Cretaceous and older basinal carbonate deposits and are onlapped by Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic basinal facies. The structure is inferred to be a hanging-wall anticline at the northern limit of the Cuban fold-thrust belt formed in the Late Cretaceous. A deeper water embayment extended northward into the Straits of Florida, around northern Cay Sal Bank, and back into Santaren Channel during the Early Cretaceous.

  14. A case for wind enhanced tectonics: Plio-Quaternary sedimentation, erosion, and structural evolution controlled by wind within the Qaidam Basin, China (United States)

    Heermance, R. V.; Kapp, P. A.; Pullen, A.; Garzione, C. N.


    The interplay between tectonics and localized erosion through fluvial and/or glacial processes has been widely documented. Wind erosion, however, has gone largely un-recognized as a potentially important process in this concept. We document an acceleration in shortening in response to wind deflation above actively deforming fault propagation anticlines since ~3.0 Ma in the Qaidam Basin, China. Evidence for this comes from a 1750 m measured section along the southwestern flank of an intra-basin anticline (38.33°N, 93.46°E) and regional cross-sections. Magnetostratigraphy provides age control for prominent stratigraphic and isotopic changes within the section. A positive shift of ~6‰ in the δ18O values of lake carbonates occurs at 1090 m (3.1 Ma), interpreted to be the result of increased aridity at that time. An intraformational angular unconformity, associated with anticline growth, appears at 1172 m (3.0 Ma) and records the initiation of growth strata deposition. At 1235 m (2.6 Ma), a marked lithofacies change to sub-aerial, evaporitic conditions is observed, and is associated with a 3-fold reduction in sedimentation rate. Paleo-yardangs, which are wind-eroded landforms preserved in the stratigraphic record, appear at 1260 m (2.4 Ma). These observations indicate that regional aridification at 3.1 Ma was followed closely by or coincident with fold growth. Facies changes to more evaporitic strata and erosion of the basin floor (based on paleo-yardangs) trailed initial climate and tectonic changes by 500,000-700,000 years. Although the on-lap relationship of post-growth strata implies that syn-tectonic strata may have pinched-out along the flanks of the anticline, our new analysis indicates that at least 1172 m of pre-growth strata must have been eroded from the core of the anticline since 3.0 Ma at a time-averaged rate of ~0.4 mm/year, comparable to fluvial and glacial erosion rates within active tectonic settings. The lack of an integrated fluvial channel

  15. Genetic-Structural relations in some types of spanish uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia Medina, M.


    On the spanish hercynian areas there are different types of uraniferous deposits, which may be classified in the following groups: Group I, high temperature magmatic deposits, Group II, low temperature veins and Group III supergenic deposits, generated by weathering of the former ones or by lixiviation of the intra granitic uranium. The deposits belonging to Group I are founding the hercynian ge anticlinal; those of Groups II and III, chiefly in the eugeosyncline. The explanation suggested for these genetic-structural relationships assumes that, in the ge anticlinal, uranium would migrate from the dioritic magmas to form and high temperature deposits. In the eugeosyncline, a large fraction of the uranium would migrate towards more differentiated granites, in which it might partially remain or from which it might have been finally concentrated in the epithermal veins or by later tectonic actions. The Group III deposits ar more frequent in the eugeosyncline, due to the greater abundance of more differentiated intrusive rocks. (Author) 16 refs

  16. Case history of the Chingtsaohu Gasfield, Taiwan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.S.L.; Tang, C.H.; Hsu, C.H.


    The Chingtsaohu-Chiting structure is represented on the surface by an elongated, asymmetrical anticline with its axis trending for a traceable length of about 15 km. The steeper NE. flank of the anticline is terminated by the longitudinal Hsinchu thrust fault. The data obtained from the drilling of 14 wells in the Chingtsaohu gas field show that 12 substantial oil and gas zones are present at different stratigraphic levels ranging from the Pliocene Chinshui Shale down to the lower Miocene Mushan Formation. Of the 12 zones, 9 zones have been proved by direct formation tests and the rest by indirect logging interpretations. The substantial producers were grouped into 12 zones according to stratigraphic sequence. The traps developed in these zones may be classified into 3 basic types: (1) structural trap; (2) combination structural and stratigraphic trap; and (3) fluid trap.

  17. Analysis on geological conditions and orientation of uranium exploration in Diebu orefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zilong; Qi Fucheng; Fu Jin; He Zhongbo; Wang Wenquan; Su Xiangli; Li Zhixing


    The uranium-rich formation of siliceous-limestone-mudstone was controlled by EW-striking depressions between platforms in Diebu. The spatial distribution of uranium orebodies are controlled by the horizontal and vertical extension of siliceous-limestone lenses. Analysis on the superposition of key ore-forming factors, including uranium-rich formation, siliceous-limestone lenses, structure-hydrothermal alteration, radioactive anomaly and geochemical anomaly combination, etc. indicate that the northwest depression and Zhanwa-Diaodeka depression of Baiyi anticline are the main orientation of deep and peripheral exploration in known deposits, and the new favorable ore-forming regions are Makeku and Sangjisi in the east part of north side of and Jiangzha-Baiyi region in the south side of Taiyangding anticline. (authors)

  18. Genetic-Structural relations in some types of spanish uranium deposits; Relaciones genetico-estructurales de algunos tipos de mienralizaciones uraniferas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia Medina, M.


    On the spanish hercynian areas there are different types of uraniferous deposits, which may be classified in the following groups: Group I, high temperature magmatic deposits, Group II, low temperature veins and Group III supergenic deposits, generated by weathering of the former ones or by lixiviation of the intra granitic uranium. The deposits belonging to Group I are founding the hercynian ge anticlinal; those of Groups II and III, chiefly in the eugeosyncline. The explanation suggested for these genetic-structural relationships assumes that, in the ge anticlinal, uranium would migrate from the dioritic magmas to form and high temperature deposits. In the eugeosyncline, a large fraction of the uranium would migrate towards more differentiated granites, in which it might partially remain or from which it might have been finally concentrated in the epithermal veins or by later tectonic actions. The Group III deposits ar more frequent in the eugeosyncline, due to the greater abundance of more differentiated intrusive rocks. (Author) 16 refs.

  19. Evolución de las unidades morfoestructurales de la región de Diquiyú, Oax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ochoterena F.


    Full Text Available After a brief analysis on the phisiography, the climatic conditions and the more important data related with the population, the basal complex rocks of the Diquiyú area are discussed on a certain detail. The conclusion is that the Guerrero–Oaxaca palcobasin must have been formed on metamorphic pre–jurassic rocks locally covered by andesitic–basaltic lavas and tuffs. On top of the metamorphic rocks sedimental materials were deposited forming the "Conglomerado Cualac". Over the extrusive–igneous materials the sediments gave origin to the Rosario formation. Both formations are thus equally old and they are interdigited in such a way that the first seems to cover the second in the central part of the Diquiyú anticlinal. This anticlinal was formed by a laccolithe which gave place to a window of erosion. Later on, a volcano was born, and today it remaines only as a volcanic neck by the village of Diquiyú.

  20. pplication of Fractal Technique for Analysis of Geophysical - Geochemical Databases in Tekieh Pb-Zn Ore Deposit (SE of Arak)


    Seyed Reza Mehrnia


    Introduction Tekieh Lead-Zinc ore deposit that is located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone has been recognized as one of the most important mineralized regions in Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic sub-state, south east of Arak (Momenzadeh and Ziseman, 1981). Carbonate host units have been developed along (or across) the Vishan-Tekieh anticline as the main structure extended in NW-SE trends (Annells et al, 1985). According to geochemical investigations (Salehi, 2004), the element content o...

  1. Balanced Cross-Section Across The Southern Utah Overthrust Belt (Otb)


    Nowir, M. Atef [محمد عاطف نوير; Grant, Sheldon K.; Grant, Sheldon K.


    Balanced cross-sections are offering the chance of better understanding of areas of complex geological structures that are insufficiently understood. Detailed field study and structural analysis by employing geometric balancing techniques is used to construct cross-sections along the major fold, the Virgin - Kanarra anticline, over a distance of 70 miles in the southern part of the Utah OTB. Two models were used to construct the cross sections: a) A computer modeling program, used to draw ...

  2. An Assessment of Previous Archaeological Surveys at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee (United States)


    of Paleozoic limestone and sandstone formations (Fenne- man 1938). This physiographic province is underlain by layered sedimentary rock that has been...warped and deformed into a series of long arches or anticlines, broad basins, and domes by tec- tonic forces acting throughout much of the Paleozoic ...whole-flake classification was used for items characterized by the presence of a bulb of percussion on the ventral surface and a striking platform

  3. 3-Chloromethyl-6,7-dimethyl-1,2-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kayalvizhi


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H10ClNO, the benzoisoxazole ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0121 Å and the chloro substituent in the side chain is anticlinal relative to the N—C bond of the isoxazole ring. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are linked via a pair of weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming dimers through a cyclic R22(8 association.

  4. Strontium isotopes as an indicator for groundwater salinity sources in the Kirkuk region, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahib, Layth Y. [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Geology Department, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadreya, Baghdad (Iraq); Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)


    The Kirkuk region in northern Iraq hosts some of the largest oil fields in the Middle East. Several anticline structures enabled vertical migration and entrapment of the oil. Frequently, complex fracture systems and faults cut across the Eocene and middle Oligocene reservoirs and the cap rock, the Fatha Formation of Miocene age. Seepage of crude oil and oil field brines are therefore a common observation in the anticline axes and contamination of shallow groundwater resources is a major concern. In this study, 65 water samples were collected in the Kirkuk region to analyze and distinguish mixing processes between shallow groundwater resources, uprising oil field brines, and dissolution of gypsum and halite from the Fatha Formation. Hydrochemical analyses of the water samples included general hydrochemistry, stable water isotopes, as well as strontium concentrations and for 22 of the samples strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Strontium concentrations increased close to the anticline axes with highest concentrations in the oil field brines (300 mg/l). Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes as isotope signatures of the oil field brines and of waters from the Fatha Formation are significantly different. It could be shown, that mixing of shallow groundwater with oil field brines is occurring close to the major fault zones in the anticlines but high concentrations of strontium in the water samples are mainly due to dissolution from the Fatha Formation. - Highlights: • This field study evaluates the salinity sources in the groundwater in Kirkuk region. • Salinity is related to evaporates dissolving and/or mixing with oil field brine. • Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes.

  5. Fluvial response to active extension: evidence from 3D seismic data from the Frio Formation (Oligo-Miocene) of the Texas Gulf of Mexico Coast, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Maynard [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, TX (United States)


    Tectonic deformation of the land surface is known to influence the gradient, water and sediment discharge and the grain-size of modern fluvial systems. Any change in these variables alters the equilibrium of a fluvial system, potentially causing a change in channel morphology. 3D seismic data from the Tertiary (Miocene) age, Upper Frio Formation, Kelsey Field, South Texas, in the US are used to examine changing fluvial channel morphology through time during a period of active growth of a rollover anticline in the hanging wall of a normal fault (the Vicksburg Fault). The studied interval varies between 22 and 47 m thick, and spans several hundred thousand years. It consists of an alternation of fluvial sandstones, overbank mudstones and coal. Seismic extractions show the evolution of sinuous fluvial channels during a phase of growth fault activity. Prior to growth, a single sinuous channel is imaged. During growth, the fluvial system became decapitated by a developing rollover anticline, and a highly sinuous drainage network formed, with frequent avulsion events, headward propagation of streams and related stream capture. Increased channel sinuosity was spatially associated with increased avulsion frequency in the area down dip to the east of the rollover anticline, more than 10 km from the active fault. More than 25 m of relative accommodation developed on the flank of the growing rollover anticline compared with on the crest. The increased channel sinuosity is interpreted as reflecting an increase in longitudinal valley slope analogous to observations made in flume experiments and modern river systems. The increase in avulsion frequency is attributed to increased aggradation as the rivers adjusted back to equilibrium grade following the increase in slope.

  6. Structural characteristics of an active fold-and-thrust system in the southeastern Atacama Basin, northern Chile (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Rung; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; González, Gabriel; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Lo, Ching-Hua; Liou, Ya-Hsuan


    The western South American margin is one of the most active plate boundaries in the world. Using various remote sensing data sets, we mapped the neotectonic characteristics of an area at the southeastern corner of the Atacama Basin, northern Chile, in the Andean forearc. There, one major N-S trending ridge is clearly visible both in the satellite images and in the field. This ridge reaches 250 m above the basin floor in its middle part and is asymmetrical, with a steep eastern slope and a much gentler western slope. The geometry of the ridge indicates that it formed as an asymmetrical anticline. This anticline is likely formed as a shear fault-bend fold, with a major décollement at a depth of about 2.5 km in the Naranja Formation. We suggest that this décollement is a major structure of the Atacama Basin area. From the ages of the ignimbrites and lake deposits that were deformed by this anticline, we obtained a long-term shortening rate of the major underlying structure at about 0.2 mm/yr. This thin-skinned fold-and-thrust system appears to be active since at least about 3 Ma, and could be as long as since middle Miocene. Therefore, crustal structures may play important roles in the Neogene development of the western Andean margin.

  7. Epidermal anatomy of Barthelopteris germarii from the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian of France and Germany. (United States)

    Krings, M; Kerp, H


    The epidermal anatomy of Barthelopteris germarii, a late Paleozoic seed fern, is described on the basis of material from the Upper Stephanian of Central France. A number of features are described for the first time for this species. Some have never been reported for late Paleozoic pteridosperms. Although our material is in most respects very similar to previously described material of B. germarii from Germany, there are also some striking differences, especially the peltate glandular trichomes that are very common in the French but completely absent in the German material. Their presence is most probably an ecological adaptation as in many modern plants. This and other epidermal and gross-morphological features (e.g., the presence of papillae on subsidiary cells of the stomata, anastomosing venation) indicate that B. germarii was well adapted to stressed conditions. Of more general interest is the preservation of the material. There appears to exist a clear relationship between the preservation of anticlinal walls and the thickness of the parenchymatic mesophyll; anticlinal walls are very well preserved where parenchyma was thin. Therefore, the absence of anticlinal walls in fossil cuticles, which has often been used as a taxonomic character, is not necessarily a primary feature.

  8. Tectonic characteristics and distribution of Putaohua oil Reservoir in Changchang area of Songliao basin (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Liu, Dameng


    Since the Late Jurassic in the Songliao Basin, the tectonic movement of Yanshan and Heshan has experienced a lot of tectonic movement. The tectonic activity has a clearer display on the seismic profile. The tectonic deformation is generally weak in the east, Features. The regional structure of the Chaochang area is located on the Chaoyangou terrace and Changchunling anticline belt in the central depression of the northern part of the Songliao Basin, and across the two tectonic units of the Chaoyanggou terrace and Changchunling anticline. The study area is characterized by a low tectonic pattern in the southwest and northwest. The highest point is located near the Chang72 well in the Changchunling anticline. The elevation is about -100 m, and the lowest point is the Zhou50 Well near the depth of about - 1750 m. Based on the technical means such as splicing, closed difference correction, horizon calibration, seismic interpretation and attribute extraction of 9 seismic blocks in the study area, the seismic interpretation of the top of the Putaohua reservoir is completed, and the next step Style, tectonic evolution characteristics, oil and gas accumulation law and other research work to lay the foundation.

  9. Study of Seismogenic Crust In The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia And Its Relation To The Seismicity of The Ghawar Fields (United States)

    Mogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.


    The Rayn Anticlines (RA) developed in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are truncated by the Abu-Jifan Fault (AJF) to their southeast and by the Wadi-Batin Fault (WBF) to the northwest. This set of anticlines is comprised of six sub-parallel super-giant anticlines, including the Ghawar Anticline (GA). Here we firstly present a revised seismicity map for the Eastern Province on the basis of ';Reviewed ISC Earthquake Catalogue' for the period 1970-2010 that shows the Eastern Province crust is seismogenic down to about 45 km depth while its surface width is 220 km (what is seven times wider than the width of GA). The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) Earthquake Network Catalogue for Eastern Province shows that characteristic magnitude completeness (Mc), based on the assumption of self-similarity, have detected all local earthquakes above the cut-off magnitude ≥ 2.7. SGS catalogue events demonstrate that the GA is seismically intensely active where 826 events have originated during the period of 2005-10, of maximum magnitude ML 4.24. These events came almost in equal proportions from the Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah and Haradh production divisions belonging to the central and southern Ghawar oil/gas Fields, where, the seismic zones orient in NE and NW directions respectively. Focal-depth distribution of events along the strike direction of seismic zones follows the ';En Nala axis' in GA and broadly defines an inverted triangular zone extending to crustal depths. Seismic activity below both the production divisions is supposedly triggered by hydrocarbon fluid-extraction activity; although, their root cause is probably due to regional compressive stress operative across RA. Triggered seismicity locally shows better correlation to mutually opposite reverse faults oriented NW and NE transgressing the Haradh and Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah production divisions under the influence of regional compressive stress oriented N40°E. Some support to this inference comes from mapped surface faults

  10. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.


    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  11. Aquifer exploration for underground gas storage. Results of the Hinrichshagen project, NE Germany; UGS-Eignungspruefung. Ergebnisse der Nacherkundung der Struktur Hinrichshagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, M.; Stoewer, M. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Neumann, V.; Zuehlke, M. [GAZPROM Germania GmbH, Berlin (Germany)


    Natural gas is a major component of the European energy mix. In 2011, about one third of Germany's import of natural gas was of Russian origin. After completion a maximum of about 55 billion m{sup 3}/a can be transported from Russia to Central and Western Europe via the 1200 km Nord Stream pipeline through the Baltic Sea. The pipeline has currently no storage capacity before its entry-point in Germany. Therefore, suitable geologic structures located in the Northeastern part of Germany were evaluated accordingly. Based on available vintage data the anticline structure of Hinrichshagen was identified as the most suitable storage site. The initial evaluation of the anticline in the 70ies based on ten wells and dozens of km 2D seismic resulted in a proof of suitability and led to a recommendation for further development of a storage site. Although the initial data pool seemed to be very good and the model of the structure and the storage operation was free of any contradictions the decision to perform a second phase of exploration was of vital importance for that project. The wireline programme encompassed a full log suite including FMI and NMR logs. Well tests using reservoir fluid (brine) were performed to check the lateral and vertical interference between the wells. Approx. 310 m cores were gained from the monitor horizon, the seal and the reservoir. The results of core and logging analysis and the interpretation of the high resolution 3D seismic survey built the base of both the static and dynamic model. The initial structural concept of Hinrichshagen anticline had to be revised significantly. The new model shows a tectonically strong faulted and segmented anticline. The main difference compared to the vintage data was the identification of a central fault zone cutting the anticline in a Western and Eastern part, which has previously not been identifiable by the use of both old and new well data only. As a result the working gas capacity was reduced to approx

  12. Geology and ore deposits of the Klondike Ridge area, Colorado (United States)

    Vogel, John David


    The region described in this report is in the northeastern part of the Colorado Plateau and is transitional between two major structural elements. The western part is typical of the salt anticline region of the Plateau, but the eastern part has features which reflect movements in the nearby San Juan Mountains. There are five major structural elements in the report area: the Gypsum Valley anticline, Dry Creek Basin, the Horse Park fault block, Disappointment Valley, and the Dolores anticline. Three periods of major uplift are recognized In the southeastern end of the Gypsum Valley anticline. Each was followed by collapse of the overlying strata. Erosion after the first two periods removed nearly all topographic relief over the anticline; erosion after the last uplift has not yet had a profound effect on the topography except where evaporite beds are exposed at the surface. The first and greatest period of salt flow and anticlinal uplift began in the late Pennsylvanian and continued intermittently and on an ever decreasing scale into the Early Cretaceous. Most movement was in the Permian and Triassic periods. The second period of uplift and collapse was essentially contemporaneous with widespread tectonic activity on. the northwestern side of the San Juan Mountains and may have Occurred in the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Granogabbro sills and dikes were intruded during the middle or upper Tertiary in Disappointment Valley and adjoining parts of the Gypsum Valley and Dolores anticlines. The third and mildest period of uplift occurred in the Pleistocene and was essentially contemporaneous with the post-Hinsdale uplift of the San Juan Mountains. This uplift began near the end of the earliest, or Cerro, stage of glaciation. Uranium-vanadium, manganese, and copper ore as well as gravel have been mined in the Klondike district. All deposits are small, and few have yielded more than 100 tons of ore. Most of the latter are carnotite deposits. Carnotite occurs in the lower

  13. Late Cenozoic structure and stratigraphy of south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Fecht, K.R.; Lindsey, K.A.


    The structural framework of the Columbia Basin began developing before Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) volcanism. Prior to 17.5 Ma, the eastern part of the basin was a relatively stable area, with a basement of Paleozoic and older crystalline rock. The western part was an area of subsidence in which large volumes of sediment and volcanic rocks accumulated. Concurrent with eruption of the CRBG, anticlinal ridges of the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) were growing under north-south compression. Topographic expression of these features was later masked by the large volume of CRBG basalt flowing west from fissures in the eastern Columbia Basin. The folds continued to develop after cessation of volcanism, leading to as much as 1,000 m of structural relief in the past 10 million years. Post-CRBG evolution of the Columbia Basin is recorded principally in folding and faulting in the YFB and sediments deposited in the basins. The accompanying tectonism resulted in lateral migration of major depositional systems into subsiding structural lows. Although known late Cenozoic faults are on anticlinal ridges, earthquake focal mechanisms and contemporary strain measurements indicate most stress release is occurring in the synclinal areas under north-south compression. There is no obvious correlation between focal mechanisms for earthquakes whose foci are in the CRBG and the location of known faults. High in situ stress values help to explain the occurrence of microseismicity in the Columbia Basin but not the pattern. Microseismicity appears to occur in unaltered fresh basalt. Faulted basalt associated with the YFB is highly brecciated and commonly altered to clay. The high stress, abundance of ground water in confined aquifers of the CRBG, and altered basalt in fault zones suggest that the frontal faults on the anticlinal ridges probably have some aseismic deformation. 85 refs

  14. Spectroscopic and theoretical studies of some 2-(2‧-haloacetyl)-5-substituted: 1-Methylpyrrole, furan and thiophene (United States)

    Valença, Jéssica; Rodrigues, Daniel N. S.; Olivato, Paulo R.; Dal Colle, Maurizio


    The conformational study of some 2-(2‧-haloacetyl)-5-substituted five-membered heteroaromatic compounds Z-CH2C(O)(C4H2X)sbnd Y bearing a halogen (Z = Cl or Br) at the 2‧-position and (Y = NO2, H, Me or Cl) substituents at the 5-position of the heteroaromatic ring for X = NMe, O and S was performed by IR carbonyl stretching band (νCO) analysis supported by the harmonic frequency, NBO and PCM calculations on the minima and saddle-point structures obtained at the M05-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. The computational results predicted the presence of four stable conformers, classified by the orientation of the Xring-Csbnd Cdbnd O (syn/anti) and the Odbnd Csbnd C-Z (anticlinal/ synperiplanar) moieties as ac(syn), sp(syn), ac(anti) and sp(anti). The anti/syn equilibrium controls the relative stabilities of the conformers to a large extent while the anticlinal/synperiplanar accounts for the observed trend of the IR carbonyl band components. The computed νCO frequencies and the PCM trend of the relative abundance in solvents of increasing permittivity allowed the pairs of ac(syn)/ac(anti) and sp(syn)/sp(anti) conformers to be assigned to the lower and higher νCO frequency IR carbonyl doublet components, respectively. The PCM data failed to reproduce the experimental carbonyl triplet found in chloroform. However, the additional component could be justified by assuming the formation of complexes constituted by one chloroform molecule hydrogen bonded to the conformers in a PCM chloroform continuum. The NBO and short contact analysis suggested that the syn/anti conformational equilibrium is governed mainly by electrostatic interactions, while the anticlinal/synperiplanar depends to different extents on both orbital and electrostatic interactions.

  15. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and sources of salinity of the springs near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, China (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Lidong; Zhang, Yuqi; Shen, Xiaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Ye, Shen; Fang, Bin


    Natural springs have the potential to provide important information on hydrogeochemical processes within aquifers. This study used traditional and classic technical methods and procedures to determine the characteristics and evolution of springs to gain further knowledge on the differences between hot saline springs and cold fresh springs. In a short river segment near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, southwest China, several natural springs coexist with total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from less than 1 to 15 g/L and temperatures from 15 to 40 °C. The springs emanate from the outcropping Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates in the river valley cutting the core of an anticline. The cold springs are of Cl·HCO3-Na·Ca and Cl·SO4-Na types, and the hot saline springs are mainly of Cl-Na type. The chemistry of the springs has undergone some changes with time. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate that the spring waters are of a meteoric origin. The salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The evolution of the springs involves the following mechanisms: the groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, then undergoes deep circulation in the core of the anticline (incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing strata occurs), and emerges in the river valley in the form of hot springs with high TDS. Groundwater also undergoes shallow circulation in the northern and southern flanks of the anticline and appears in the river valley in the form of cold springs with low TDS.

  16. Lateral root initiation and formation within the parental root meristem of Cucurbita pepo: is auxin a key player? (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Kiryushkin, Alexey S; Semenova, Victoria A; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N


    In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging. The effects of exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on root branching were analysed. The earliest LRI event involved a group of symmetric anticlinal divisions in pericycle cell files at a distance of 250-350 µm from the initial cells. The visualization of the ARMs enabled the precise detection of cells involved in determining the site of LR primordium formation. A local ARM appeared in sister cells of the pericycle and endodermis files before the first division. Cortical cells contributed to LR development after the anticlinal divisions in the pericycle via the formation of an ARM. Exogenous auxins did not increase the total number of LRs and did not affect the LRI index. Although exogenous auxin transport inhibitors acted in different ways, they all reduced the number of LRs formed. Literature data, as well as results obtained in this study, suggest that the formation of a local ARM before the first anticlinal formative divisions is the common mechanism underlying LRI in flowering plants. We propose that the mechanisms of the regulation of root branching are independent of the position of the LRI site relative to the parental root tip.

  17. Late Cenozoic structure and stratigraphy of south-central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology; Campbell, N.P. [Yakima Valley Coll., WA (United States); Fecht, K.R.; Lindsey, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    The structural framework of the Columbia Basin began developing before Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) volcanism. Prior to 17.5 Ma, the eastern part of the basin was a relatively stable area, with a basement of Paleozoic and older crystalline rock. The western part was an area of subsidence in which large volumes of sediment and volcanic rocks accumulated. Concurrent with eruption of the CRBG, anticlinal ridges of the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) were growing under north-south compression. Topographic expression of these features was later masked by the large volume of CRBG basalt flowing west from fissures in the eastern Columbia Basin. The folds continued to develop after cessation of volcanism, leading to as much as 1,000 m of structural relief in the past 10 million years. Post-CRBG evolution of the Columbia Basin is recorded principally in folding and faulting in the YFB and sediments deposited in the basins. The accompanying tectonism resulted in lateral migration of major depositional systems into subsiding structural lows. Although known late Cenozoic faults are on anticlinal ridges, earthquake focal mechanisms and contemporary strain measurements indicate most stress release is occurring in the synclinal areas under north-south compression. There is no obvious correlation between focal mechanisms for earthquakes whose foci are in the CRBG and the location of known faults. High in situ stress values help to explain the occurrence of microseismicity in the Columbia Basin but not the pattern. Microseismicity appears to occur in unaltered fresh basalt. Faulted basalt associated with the YFB is highly brecciated and commonly altered to clay. The high stress, abundance of ground water in confined aquifers of the CRBG, and altered basalt in fault zones suggest that the frontal faults on the anticlinal ridges probably have some aseismic deformation. 85 refs.

  18. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan; Chung, Chen-Tung; Huang, Ming-Zi; Kuo, Hsuan-Yu


    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northern side and the Central Range in the southern side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from igneous intrusion associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use reflection seismic survey to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially in SanShin, Wujie, and Lize area. We aim to find the relationship between underground structures and geothermal forming mechanism. The research uses reflection seismic survey to investigate the high geothermal gradient area with two mini-vibrators and 240-channel system. The total length of seismic lines is more than 30 kilometers. The results show that alluvial sediments covering the area about 400 600 meters thick and then thin out to the west in SanShin area. In SanShin , the Taiyaqiao anticline in Hsuehshan Range has entered the plain area and is bounded by the Zhuoshui fault (south) and the Zailian fault (north). In Wujie and Lize , Zhuoshui fault cut through a strong reflector which is the top of the gravel layer near the bottom of the alluvial layer, while the SanShin fault seems to cut near very shallow strata. These two faults are a strike-slip fault with a bit of normal fault component distributing over a range of 600 meters. In Ilan Plain, the geothermal forming mechanism is controlled by anticlines and faults. The hydrothermal solution which migrates upward along these anticline or fault zones to the shallow part causing high geothermal gradients in these areas.

  19. Use of integrated analogue and numerical modelling to predict tridimensional fracture intensity in fault-related-folds. (United States)

    Pizzati, Mattia; Cavozzi, Cristian; Magistroni, Corrado; Storti, Fabrizio


    Fracture density pattern predictions with low uncertainty is a fundamental issue for constraining fluid flow pathways in thrust-related anticlines in the frontal parts of thrust-and-fold belts and accretionary prisms, which can also provide plays for hydrocarbon exploration and development. Among the drivers that concur to determine the distribution of fractures in fold-and-thrust-belts, the complex kinematic pathways of folded structures play a key role. In areas with scarce and not reliable underground information, analogue modelling can provide effective support for developing and validating reliable hypotheses on structural architectures and their evolution. In this contribution, we propose a working method that combines analogue and numerical modelling. We deformed a sand-silicone multilayer to eventually produce a non-cylindrical thrust-related anticline at the wedge toe, which was our test geological structure at the reservoir scale. We cut 60 serial cross-sections through the central part of the deformed model to analyze faults and folds geometry using dedicated software (3D Move). The cross-sections were also used to reconstruct the 3D geometry of reference surfaces that compose the mechanical stratigraphy thanks to the use of the software GoCad. From the 3D model of the experimental anticline, by using 3D Move it was possible to calculate the cumulative stress and strain underwent by the deformed reference layers at the end of the deformation and also in incremental steps of fold growth. Based on these model outputs it was also possible to predict the orientation of three main fractures sets (joints and conjugate shear fractures) and their occurrence and density on model surfaces. The next step was the upscaling of the fracture network to the entire digital model volume, to create DFNs.

  20. Bathymetric highs in the mid-slope region of the western continental margin of India - Structure and mode of origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.; Kodagali, V.N.

    -filled depression of ~0.2 km wide. Over all the seafloor relief’s shows a broad anticline with gentle and evenly deepening flanks on either side overlain by ~2 s (TWT) thick sediments. The seismic reflectors of relatively wide structure E (Fig. 7) show a series... 'horst' structure that is bounded on both sides by steep faults. Sediments thickness patterns and faulted basement are confirmed from the fault-bounded trough, named the 'Kori-Comorin Depression' (Biswas, 1989) or "eastern part of shelf margin basin...

  1. Deformation Analysis of Curved Folds in the Southern Upper Magdalena Valley. Colombia (United States)

    Jimenez, G.; Bayona, G. A.; Silva, C.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.


    In the Upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia there are folds with changes in the strike of their axes (e.g La Hocha Anticline), the origin of which was studied by integrating field, paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy data. Two structural domains were defined: the northern is a symmetrical fold and has a strike N10W, whereas the southern is an asymmetrical fold and has a N30E strike. The principal fault is the San Jacinto Fault, which is a reverse fault with slikensides indicating also a horizontal component of displacement. In the hanging wall of the San Jacinto Fault Mesozoic rocks crops out forming an anticline, whereas in the footwall Cenozoic rocks with vertical and locally overturned beds are exposed. Four magnetic components were isolated, being the low coercivity/temperature component similar to the present field. A characteristic component isolated in Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks is a pre-fold but post-Oligocene component (n=5, D=0.8, I=2.4, K=62.33, a95=9.8). Two characteristic components were isolated in Jurassic rocks. The directions of the first are similar between domains (north domain: n=10 D=20.7 I=35.6 K=13 a95=12.5; south domain: n=6 D=12 I=28.9 K=16 a95=9.5), suggesting no relationship between strike changes and declination variation. The other component has negative inclination (n=2 D=13.8 I=-27.1 K=61.42 a95=11.8) indicating a mean paleolatitude of 14.4S in Jurassic time. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the curved fold is controlled by the geometry of the paleobasin and support the northward translation of accreted terranes along the Western margin of South America during the Jurassic. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analysis in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks document three magnetic fabrics: (1) Undeformed fabrics are located in the back limb of La Hocha Anticline; (2) tectonics fabrics are associated to reverse fault planes in the north and south domains and indicated a relationship between the anisotropy ellipsoid with the local stress

  2. Facies architecture and diagenesis of Belgian Late Frasnian carbonate mounds


    Boulvain, Frédéric


    Late Frasnian Petit-Mont Member carbonate mounds occur in the southern pail of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Philippeville Anticline (SW Belgium). These mounds are 30 to 80 m thick and 100 to 250 m in diameter. They are embedded in shale, nodular shale and argillaceous limestone. Based on facies mapping of 14 buildups and related off-mound sediments, these mounds typically started from below the photic and storm wave base zones and builtup into shallow water environments. Above an argill...

  3. Ferroelectric smectic phase formed by achiral straight core mesogens. (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Li, Jianjun; Weissflog, Wolfgang


    We report electro-optic experiments in liquid crystalline freestanding films of achiral hockey stick shaped mesogens with a straight aromatic core. The material forms two smectic mesophases. In the higher temperature phase, a spontaneous polarization exists in the smectic layer plane and the films show polar switching in electric fields. It is the first example of a ferroelectric phase formed by nearly rodlike achiral mesogens. Mirror symmetry of the phase is spontaneously broken. We propose a molecular configuration similar to a synclinic ferroelectric (C(S)P(F)) high temperature phase and an anticlinic, probably antiferroelectric (C(A)P(A)) low temperature phase.

  4. Differential accumulation and distribution of natural gas and its main controlling factors in the Sinian Dengying Fm, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugen Liu


    Full Text Available In order to disclose the genetic relationship between the hydrocarbon reservoirs and the transformation mechanism between ancient and modern gas reservoirs in the Sinian Dengying Fm in the Sichuan Basin, by using the drilling data, and geologic, geophysical and geochemical methods together, the differential accumulation and distribution of natural gas and its main controlling factors in this study area were identified following the idea of corroborating macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic results each other. The results demonstrate as follows. (1 The crude oil in the paleo-oil reservoirs of the Dengying Fm cracked into gas to form the early overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs 100 Ma. From 100 Ma to 20 Ma, the constant uplifting of the Sichuan Basin coupled with the shift of structural highs and the initial occurrence of Weiyuan anticline caused the adjustment of the early overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs into the late overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs. (2 With the increase of uplifting magnitude since 20 Ma, the formations overlying the Dengying Fm in Weiyuan structure experienced rapid erosion, resulting in decline of the caprock sealing ability and damage to the preservation conditions. Therefore, the natural gas in the Dengying Fm started to leak and dissipate from the eroded window of the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Fm located on the top of the Weiyuan anticline, which is the beginning of the differential accumulation and dissipation of the natural gas in the Dengying Fm across the Sichuan Basin. During the process of the differential accumulation and dissipation, the gas below the spill point of the structural gas traps in Ziyang, Jinshi and Longnüsi–Moxi–Anpingdian–Gaoshiti areas migrated to the Weiyuan anticline along the unconformity of the Dengying Fm, and dissipated through the eroded window of the Jialingjiang Fm on the top of the Weiyuan anticline, resulting in a transformation of abnormal high pressure of gas reservoir

  5. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.


    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  6. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq) (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan


    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  7. Boletín de la Sociedad Española para la Defensa del Patrimonio Geológico y Minero, Nº8


    Puche Riart, Octavio; Mata Perelló, José M.


    La estructura geológica del diapiro de Cardona es una maravilla morfológica única en el mundo por su belleza y dimensiones. En ella se encuentra la Gran Bofia, la Muntanya de Sal Roja, la Vall Salada, y también el Turó de Sant Onafre. El conjunto del afloramiento salino tiene una forma elipsoidal, con un eje mayor de unos 2 Km, y uno menor de 500 m. Tectónicamente se trata de un anticlinal, cuyo eje tiene una dirección de N 700 E, Y su núcleo está ocupado por una masa salina compuesta de dife...

  8. Results of tectonic measurements in the Lunan Stone forest, China: Rezultati tektonskih meritev v "Kamnitem gozdu" pri Lunanu, Kitajska:


    Šebela, Stanka


    The main tectonic trending in the Lunan Stone Forest is from 315 to 330° (NW-SE), followed by a trending 45 to 60° (NE-SW) and by 285 to 300° (NW-SE). The layers of Permian limestones stike towards NW and W dipping by an angle of 5 to 20° and are slightly folded into several smaller anticlines and synclines V Kamnitem gozdu pri Lunanu so glavne smeri tektonskih razpok 315-330° (SZ-JV), sledi smer 45-60° (SV-JZ) in smer 285-300° (SZ-JV). Plasti permijskih apnencev vpadajo proti SZ in Z pod ...

  9. Geologic map of the Tuba City 30' x 60' quadrangle, Coconino County, northern Arizona (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Stoffer, Philip W.; Priest, Susan S.


    gentle elongated anticline, the Limestone Ridge Anticline, forms the crest of Marble Plateau. Here, Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata generally dip less than 1° to 2° in all directions from a central high area along Limestone Ridge north of Bodaway Mesa and east of Cedar Ridge and The Gap. The Limestone Ridge Anticline plunges gently southeast toward the Painted Desert at the south edge of the quadrangle and northward toward Lees Ferry, Arizona, at the north-central edge of the quadrangle. The Tuba City Syncline is a very broad northwest-southeast-oriented-synclinal downwarp that parallels the Echo Cliffs Monocline north of Tuba City. The Preston Mesa Anticline is a small fold present on Kaibito Plateau north of Tuba City.

  10. Dzhezkazgan and associated sandstone copper deposits of the Chu-Sarysu basin, Central Kazakhstan (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Seltmann, Reimar; Zientek, Michael L.; Syusyura, Boris; Creaser, Robert A.; Dolgopolova, Alla


    Sandstone-hosted copper (sandstone Cu) deposits occur within a 200-km reach of the northern Chu-Sarysu basin of central Kazakhstan (Dzhezkazgan and Zhaman-Aibat deposits, and the Zhilandy group of deposits). The deposits consist of Cu sulfide minerals as intergranular cement and grain replacement in 10 ore-bearing members of sandstone and conglomerate within a 600- to 1,000-m thick Pennsylvanian fluvial red-bed sequence. Copper metal content of the deposits ranges from 22 million metric tons (Mt, Dzehzkazgan) to 0.13Mt (Karashoshak in the Zhilandy group), with average grades of 0.85 to 1.7% Cu and significant values for silver (Ag) and rhenium (Re). Broader zones of iron reduction (bleaching) of sandstones and conglomerates of the red-bed sequence extend over 10 km beyond each of the deposits along E-NE-trending anticlines, which began to form in the Pennsylvanian. The bleached zones and organic residues within them are remnants of ormer petroleum fluid accumulations trapped by these anticlines. Deposit sites along these F1anticlines are localized at and adjacent to the intersections of nearly orthogonal N-NW-trending F2synclines. These structural lows served to guide the flow of dense ore brines across the petroleum-bearing anticlines, resulting in ore sulfide precipitation where the two fluids mixed. The ore brine was sourced either from the overlying Early Permian lacustrine evaporitic basin, whose depocenter occurs between the major deposits, or from underlying Upper Devonian marine evaporites. Sulfur isotopes indicate biologic reduction of sulfate but do not resolve whether the sulfate was contributed from the brine or from the petroleum fluids. New Re-Os age dates of Cu sulfides from the Dzhezkazgan deposit indicate that mineralization took place between 299 to 309 Ma near the Pennsylvanian-Permian age boundary. At the Dzhezkazgan and some Zhilandy deposits, F2fold deformation continued after ore deposition. Copper orebodies in Lower Permian

  11. Calcrete palaeosols from the lower carboniferous llanelly formation, South Wales (United States)

    Paul Wright, V.


    Three calcrete-bearing palaeosol units are described from the lower Carboniferous Llanelly Formation in South Wales, and are named the Tyle'r bont Pedocomplex, the Cwm Dyar Pedoderm and the Llanelly Pedocomplex. These units were formed on semi-arid to arid floodplains and are associated with sheet flood, stream flood and meandering-channel deposits. Three major processes operated during pedogenesis; calcification, pedoturbation and solution. Pedoturbation resulted in the formation of brecciated horizons, pseudo-anticlinal and prismatic structures and a predominance of disorthic nodules. The soils developed in smectite-rich clays under a seasonally arid climate resulting in strong argillipedoturbation.

  12. Research and application of AMT method in Happiness valley district in Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiang; Zhang Ruliang; Yao Shancong; Fan Honghai; Wang Shengyun


    There are great challenges and difficulties in uranium geology work because of large area grass covered land and few outcrops in Happiness valley district in Namibia. To overcome the problems above, AMT method is undertaken to carry out profile investigation. After finding out electric parameters, different lithologic interfaces were divided, two fracture zones and one anticline structure were, this works laid the ground for the exploration of uranium deposit in Namibia and shew that AMT method is an effective one in finding underground structures. (authors)

  13. Los Fósiles Humanos de Atapuerca (Burgos: Nota Preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano AGUIRRE


    Full Text Available Los restos cuyo estudio nos ocupa, han sido extraídos en la denominada «Sima de los Huesos» en la Cueva Mayor, situada en la Sierra de Atapuerca, en las cercanías del pueblo de Ibeas de Juarros, a 14 km. de Burgos, en la margen derecha del río Arlanzón. La Sierra de Atapuerca puede definirse geológicamente como un anticlinal de calizas y margas del cretácico superior, rodeado por terrenos neógenos que se apoyan con una fuerte discordancia angular.

  14. Taxonomic Evaluation of Fifteen Species of Ipomoea L. (Convolvulaceae from South-Western Nigeria using Foliar Micromorphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO


    Full Text Available Foliar micromorphological study was carried out on I. triloba, I. eriocarpa, I. alba, I. hederifolia, I. muricata, I. intrapilosa, I. asarifolia, I. batatas, I. aquatica, I. mauritiana, I. carnea, I.involucrata, I. nil, I. heterotricha and I. obscura to determine the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and search for useful and stable anatomical characters for the identification of the species. Leaf epidermal features that provided useful specific distinctions are cell shape, anticlinal wall pattern, stomata shape, stomata type, trichome, cuticular striations, crystal, granular periclinal wall, stomata size, stomata index, scale and tannin. The characters revealed interrelationships among the Ipomoea species and also suggest their monophyly.

  15. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi


    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  16. Numerical Modeling of Geomechanical Processes Related to CO{sub 2} Injection within Generic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Andreas


    In this project generic anticline structures have been used for numerical modeling analyses to study the influence of geometrical parameters, fluid flow boundary conditions, in situ stress regime and inter-bedding friction coefficient on geomechanical risks such as fracture reactivation and fracture generation. The resulting stress states for these structures are also used to determine safe drilling directions and a methodology for wellbore trajection optimization is developed that is applicable for non-Andersonian stress states. The results of the fluid flow simulation show that the type of fluid flow boundary condition is of utmost importance and has significant impact on all injection related parameters. It is recommended that further research is conducted to establish a method to quantify the fluid flow boundary conditions for injection applications. The results of the geomechanical simulation show that in situ stress regime is a crucial, if not the most important, factor determining geomechanical risks. For extension and strike slip stress regimes anticline structures should be favored over horizontally layered basin as they feature higher ΔP{sub c} magnitudes. If sedimentary basins are tectonically relaxed and their state of stress is characterized by the uni-axial strain model the basin is in exact frictional equilibrium and fluids should not be injected. The results also show that low inter bedding friction coefficients effectively decouple layers resulting in lower ΔP{sub c} magnitudes, especially for the compressional stress regime.

  17. Feasibility study of surveying an offshore gas reservoir by using low-frequency electromagnetic sounding: example of Shtokman deposit at Barents Sea (Invited) (United States)

    Velikhov, E.; Zhdanov, M. S.


    We have studied the feasibility of using a low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) survey to search for hydrocarbons deposits in the prospective offshore anticline structures. Our study was based on an example of the well known Shtokman gas deposit. The problem was solved using three-dimensional numerical modeling of the EM field by the integral equation method. The different sources of the low-frequency EM field were considered. We calculated all six components of the electromagnetic field in the points located at the bottom of the sea within the area above the anticline for various frequencies in a range from 0.01Hz to 10 Hz. The computer simulation was done for a case where hydrocarbons were present in the reservoir and for a case where there were no hydrocarbons. The main goal of this computer simulation was to establish if there were detectable variations in the resistivity of a thin hydrocarbon-containing layer and that of the host rock to detect the presence of a deposit. We also investigated what are the most informative components of the EM field and what are the optimal parameters of the source (transmitter type, orientation, frequency, distance) for a hydrocarbon reservoir discovery. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the marine controlled-source EM method for offshore hydrocarbon exploration. These results can be used for the optimal marine EM survey design as well.

  18. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary (United States)

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.


    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  19. Directional semivariogram analysis to identify and rank controls on the spatial variability of fracture networks (United States)

    Hanke, John R.; Fischer, Mark P.; Pollyea, Ryan M.


    In this study, the directional semivariogram is deployed to investigate the spatial variability of map-scale fracture network attributes in the Paradox Basin, Utah. The relative variability ratio (R) is introduced as the ratio of integrated anisotropic semivariogram models, and R is shown to be an effective metric for quantifying the magnitude of spatial variability for any two azimuthal directions. R is applied to a GIS-based data set comprising roughly 1200 fractures, in an area which is bounded by a map-scale anticline and a km-scale normal fault. This analysis reveals that proximity to the fault strongly influences the magnitude of spatial variability for both fracture intensity and intersection density within 1-2 km. Additionally, there is significant anisotropy in the spatial variability, which is correlated with trends of the anticline and fault. The direction of minimum spatial correlation is normal to the fault at proximal distances, and gradually rotates and becomes subparallel to the fold axis over the same 1-2 km distance away from the fault. We interpret these changes to reflect varying scales of influence of the fault and the fold on fracture network development: the fault locally influences the magnitude and variability of fracture network attributes, whereas the fold sets the background level and structure of directional variability.

  20. The impact of episodic fault-related folding on Late Holocene degradation terraces along Waipara River, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, A.; Campbell, J.K.


    The Waipara River flows eastwards through growing folds in the tectonically active foothills of New Zealand's Southern Alps. In the middle Waipara region, flights of degradation terraces are widespread and rise to 55 m above river channels. Ages of terrace surfaces and paleoearthquakes on four faults are constrained by radiocarbon samples and weathering-rind dates from surface cobbles of Torlesse Group sandstone. Terrace ages indicate rapid incision (c. 30-100 mm/yr) of Waipara River and three tributaries during the Late Holocene. Cumulative-incision curves suggest a 15-25 m lowering of regional base level over the last thousand years and an additional 20-25 m of local incision 200-600 yr BP along Waipara River where it crosses Doctors Anticline. Rapid river incision was strongly influenced by rock uplift on the anticline associated with fault rupture during an earthquake 300-400 yr BP. From incision data we infer that the earthquake was preceded and followed by aseismic fold growth. Tectonic uplift during folding was probably, at most, one-third of local river incision; this discrepancy may relate to the short sample period and to locally elevated stream erosive power due in part to a reduction in floodplain width. (author). 41 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Using slope-area and apatite fission track analysis to decipher the rock uplift pattern of the Yumu Shan: New insights into the growth of the NE Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wang, Yizhou; Zheng, Dewen; Pang, Jianzhang; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Weitao; Yu, Jingxing; Zhang, Zhuqi; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Peizhen; Li, Youjuan


    Studies have shown that the growth of the Qilian Shan, the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, started 10 Ma ago. However, when and how it expanded northwards is still under debate. Here we focus on the rock uplift pattern of the Yumu Shan, an active fault-related fold in the Hexi Corridor north to the Qilian Shan. Normalized channel steepness achieved from the analysis of river longitudinal profiles shows a spatially variant rock uplift pattern, with higher rates in the middle part and lower rates towards the west and east tips. The compression of the mountain is typically accommodated by fault-fold related shortening and vertical thickening. Apatite fission track thermochronology reveals that the growth of the Yumu Shan started 4 Ma ago, similar to the work on active tectonics. Combining the onset ages of the growth of the Qilian Shan (10 Ma), Laojunmiao anticline (3-4 Ma), Baiyanghe anticline (3-4 Ma), Wenshu Shan (4.5 Ma) and Heli Shan (2 Ma), we draw an conclusion that the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau initiated growth in the mid-Miocene and expanded to the Hexi Corridor and to the south of the Alxa block in the early Pleistocene.

  2. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.


    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  3. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.E.


    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site

  4. Outlook of searching for oil and gas formations in the lower Frasnian-middle Devonian oil and gas complex in northern regions of the Timano-Pechora Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksin, G.A.; Rapoport, B.I.; Rassomakhin, V.Y.; Rossikhin, Y.A.


    In the northern part of the Timano-Pechora Province, highly promising middle Devonian and lower Frasnian terrigenous deposits are broadly developed. Seismic exploration has established a reduction in thicknesses of the subdomanic deposits in the near-anticline zones of structures of the ancient formation which are associated with zones of oil and gas accumulation are confined to traps of nonanticlinal and mixed types. In order to realize the program for studying terrigenous deposits of the Devonian it is necessary to accelerate drilling of search and parametric wells 8 of Kumzha, 1 of Vydshor, and 1 of Nosovaya. It is necessary to begin drilling well 5 at the Laydozhskiy field in the anticline of the new elevation revealed from results of detailed seismic work. It is necessary to drill wells on the lower Paleozoic deposits at the Diyatynskiy, Myadloveyyakhskiy, Nyamyurkhitskiy, Sadayeginskiy, East Khoreyverskiy elevations of the North Khoreyverskiy Basin, on structures of the Sorokin swell, on the Malozemel'sko-Kolguyevskiy monocline. It is necessary to accelerate searches at the khyl'chuyuskiy, Yareyyuskiy, North Khar'yaginskiy, Inzyreyskiy and other areas of the Kolvinskiy megaswell. The most important primary task of investigating the lower Frasnian-middle Devonian complex is to trace the zones of development of terrigenous deposits of the middle Devonian and zones of their thinning, as well as to prepare all structures in these deposits for seismic exploration by MOGT.

  5. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A. G.; White, W. A.; Guevara, E. H.; Smyth, R. C.; Raney, J. A.; Gibeaut, J. C.


    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins.

  6. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey


    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  7. Use of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Tools for Seismic Hazard Assessment for Shallow Oilfields and its Impact on the Settlements at Masjed-i-Soleiman Area, Zagros Mountains, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Ollah Safari


    Full Text Available Masjed-i-Soleiman (MIS is situated in the northern part of the Dezful embayment, which is in the Zagros fold–thrust belt with high seismic activities. MIS faces a shallow buried anticline, formed by the shallowest oilfield with a thick gas cap. The cap rocks of this oilfield are highly fractured, which has resulted in leakages from the gas cap. In this paper, we have used remote sensing techniques and image interpretation for the identification of the Niayesh, Lahbari, Andika and MIS fault zones in the studied area. Further, the study exploited seismic potential mapping using the remote sensing techniques. The relationships between the structural controls and localized gas leakage are assessed within the GIS environment. Additionally, field observation data corroborated that the leakages (and seepages are smashed within the intersection of Niayesh and MIS fault zone, which belongs to the high fractured hinge zone of the MIS anticline. As a result, the reactivation of these active faults may cause large earthquakes with a maximum magnitude of between 6.23 < Ms < 7.05 (Richter scale and maximum horizontal acceleration 0.26 < a < 0.55 g. Finally, the authors concluded that this anticipated earthquake may cause large scale fracturing of cap rocks, releasing a large volume of H2S gas from the uppermost layer of the reservoir.

  8. Further comprehension of natural gas accumulation, distribution, and prediction prospects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li


    Full Text Available In-depth research reveals that the natural gas accumulation and distribution are characterized by cycle, sequence, equilibrium, traceability, and multi-stage. To be specific, every geotectonic cycle represents a gas reservoir forming system where natural gas is generated, migrated, accumulated, and formed into a reservoir in a certain play. Essentially, hydrocarbon accumulation occurs when migration force and resistance reach an equilibrium. In this situation, the closer to the source rock, the higher the accumulation efficiency is. Historically, reservoirs were formed in multiple phases. Moreover, zones in source rocks and adjacent to source rocks, unconformity belts, and faulted anticline belts are favorable areas to finding large gas fields. Apart from the common unconformity belts and faulted anticline belts, in-source and near-source zones should be considered as critical targets for future exploration. Subsequent exploration should focus on Upper Palaeozoic in the southeastern Ordos Basin, Triassic in southwestern Sichuan Basin, Jurassic in the northern section of the Kuqa Depression and other zones where no great breakthroughs have been made. Keywords: Large gas field, Distribution characteristics, Potential zone, Prospect

  9. Using Vertical Electrical Soundings for Characterizing Hydrogeological and Tectonic Settings in Deir El-Adas Area, Yarmouk Basin, Syria (United States)

    Al-Fares, Walid


    The present study is aimed at characterizing the subsurface geological and tectonic structure in Deir El-Adas area, by using Vertical Electrical Sounding survey (VES) and hydrogeological investigations, in order to determine the causes of the failure for the majority of the wells drilled in the area. The survey data was treated in three different approaches including direct VES inversion, pseudo-2D method and horizontal profiling, in order to maximize the reliability of the data interpretation. The results revealed the presence of a local faulted anticline structure at the top of the Paleogene formation, underneath the basaltic outcrops where Deir El-Adas village is situated. The appearance of this subsurface anticline structure has complicated the local hydro-geological situation, and most likely led to limitation of the groundwater recharge in the area. Moreover, the performed piezometric and discharge maps indicated the presence of a notable groundwater watershed, in addition to feeble water productivity of the wells drilled adjacent to Deir El-Adas, mostly related to the subsurface geological and tectonic settings in the area.

  10. Actin-dependence of the chloroplast cold positioning response in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Kimura


    Full Text Available The subcellular positioning of chloroplasts can be changed by alterations in the environment such as light and temperature. For example, in leaf mesophyll cells, chloroplasts localize along anticlinal cell walls under high-intensity light, and along periclinal cell walls under low-intensity light. These types of positioning responses are involved in photosynthetic optimization. In light-mediated chloroplast positioning responses, chloroplasts move to the appropriate positions in an actin-dependent manner, although some exceptions also depend on microtubule. Even under low-intensity light, at low temperature (e.g., 5°C, chloroplasts localize along anticlinal cell walls; this phenomenon is termed chloroplast cold positioning. In this study, we analyzed whether chloroplast cold positioning is dependent on actin filaments and/or microtubules in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. When liverwort cells were treated with drugs for the de-polymerization of actin filaments, chloroplast cold positioning was completely inhibited. In contrast, chloroplast cold positioning was not affected by treatment with a drug for the de-polymerization of microtubules. These observations indicate the actin-dependence of chloroplast cold positioning in M. polymorpha. Actin filaments during the chloroplast cold positioning response were visualized by using fluorescent probes based on fluorescent proteins in living liverwort cells, and thus, their behavior during the chloroplast cold positioning response was documented.

  11. An application of the geophysical methods and ALS DTM for the identification of the geological structure in the Kraśnik region - Lublin Upland, Poland (United States)

    Kamiński, Mirosław


    The purpose of the study was the assessment of the viability of selected geophysical methods and the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) for the identification and interpretation of the geological structure. The studied area is covered with a dense forest. For this reason, the ALS numerical terrain model was applied for the analysis of the topography. Three geophysical methods were used: gravimetric, in the form of a semi-detailed gravimetric photograph, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). The numerical terrain model enabled the identification of Jurassic limestone outcrops and interpretation of the directions of the faults network. The geological interpretation of the digitally processed gravimetric data enabled the determination of the spatial orientation of the synclines and anticlines axes and of the course directions of main faults. Vertical Electrical Sounding carried along the section line perpendicular to the Gościeradów anticline axis enabled the interpretation of the lithology of this structure and identification of its complex tectonic structure. The shallow geophysical surveys using the ERT method enabled the estimation of the thickness of Quaternary formations deposited unconformably on the highly eroded Jurassic limestone outcrop. The lithology of Quaternary, Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks was also interpreted.

  12. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.


    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural fracturing of rocks: application to the Ahnet basin (Algeria); Fracturation naturelle des roches: application au bassin de l`Ahnet (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badsi, M.


    In the Ahnet basin, the production seems to be unrelated to lithological variations in the reservoirs. In these large anticline structures, located in the central Ahnet basin, the presence of gas has been proven, but only a few production wells have been moderately successful. This inconsistency is probably related to the spatial distribution of fracturing throughout the reservoir. In order to investigate several hypothesis, we used several approach to solve problems posed by the interpreter: namely understanding the deformation process, predicting the fractured zones and building the discrete model of fracture network. This approach combines several methods, including sand box modelling, numerical modelling and Statistics rules, often related with fractal behaviour of faults families, have been used for extrapolating observations from seismic or from wells. The numerical tools and sand box analysis have allowed us to answer to the questions related to the formation of this large anticlines in the Ahnet basin and suggest a probable origin of the variation in the spatial distribution of natural fractures. The deterministic predictions of small-scale faults use probabilistic approaches for spatial interpolation assuming implicitly relationship between detected large faults and unresolved small faults. The statistical modelling is used to carry out analysis of the spatial variation of mean fracture attributes at the global scale (a few kilometers) and a 3D stochastic modelling of the fracture system at the local scale (a few ten of meters). (author) 139 refs.

  14. Geology of the Devonian Marcellus Shale--Valley and Ridge province, Virginia and West Virginia--a field trip guidebook for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Eastern Section Meeting, September 28-29, 2011 (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Coleman, James L.; Haynes, John T.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.; McDowell, Ronald R.; Lewis, J. Eric; Spear, Tyler P.; Swezey, Christopher S.


    Detailed and reconnaissance field mapping and the results of geochemical and mineralogical analyses of outcrop samples indicate that the Devonian shales of the Broadtop Synclinorium from central Virginia to southern Pennsylvania have an organic content sufficiently high and a thermal maturity sufficiently moderate to be considered for a shale gas play. The organically rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale is present throughout most of the synclinorium, being absent only where it has been eroded from the crests of anticlines. Geochemical analyses of outcrop and well samples indicate that hydrocarbons have been generated and expelled from the kerogen originally in place in the shale. The mineralogical characteristics of the Marcellus Shale samples from the Broadtop Synclinorium are slightly different from the averages of samples from New York, Pennsylvania, northeast Ohio, and northern West Virginia. The Middle Devonian shale interval is moderately to heavily fractured in all areas, but in some areas substantial fault shearing has removed a regular "cleat" system of fractures. Conventional anticlinal gas fields in the study area that are productive from the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone suggest that a continuous shale gas system may be in place within the Marcellus Shale interval at least in a portion of the synclinorium. Third-order intraformational deformation is evident within the Marcellus shale exposures. Correlations between outcrops and geophysical logs from exploration wells nearby will be examined by field trip attendees.

  15. Outlying Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, Fillmore County, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkel, A.C.; Morey, G.B.; Lively, R.S.; Mossler, J.H. (Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN (United States))


    A recently discovered sulfide-rich mineralized zone in the Lower Ordovician Oneota Dolomite exposed in a quarry in Fillmore, Co., Minnesota, is the northernmost known occurrence of carbonate-hosted mineralization that has features characteristic of the classic deposits in the main Upper Mississippi Valley (UMV) mining district. Mineralization is stratiform and appears to be restricted to an algal reef facies at least 4 m thick and over 60 m in diameter. The sulfides occur as vein fillings in narrow fractures, along the laminae of algal domes and mats, as cavity fillings in vugs and brecciated zones, and possibly as disseminations by replacement. This deposit lies along the axis of the northern part of the Allamakee (Mineral Point) anticline, which trends southeastward and extends into Iowa and wisconsin where it is associated with several mines within and in the fringes of the main UMV mining district. The genesis of this stratiform body may be related both to its position on the anticline and to the abundance of algal features, which locally enhanced porosity compared to less porous, massive Oneota Dolomite elsewhere in the area. Although preliminary assays of samples from this deposit show only slightly anomalous Pb, Cu and Zn values, many features typical of mined deposits to the south indicate potential for the discovery of economic orebodies in Minnesota. Because it is an outlying deposit far from the postulated source of ore-bearing fluids responsible for UMV mineralization, additional study may also yield important information concerning the regional genesis of these orebodies.

  16. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting (United States)

    Bentley, R.; Hinthome, J.

    The 28th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, September 13-20, 1981, was hosted by the Department of Geology at Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. A total of 31 papers was presented to the 91 registrants in two general sessions. Topics included seismology, general geophysics, volcanology, hydrology, oceanography, and two special symposia: Tectonics of the Columbia Plateau and Neogene —Quaternary Faults of the Pacific Northwest' and ‘Studies of the Eruption of Mount Saint Helens.’ Before and after the formal meetings, several field conferences were conducted to examine the Neogene tectonics of the Coast Range (Bob Bentley, Al Niem, and Ray Wells, leaders); the Columbia River Gorge (Bob Bentley, Marv Beeson, and Terry Tolan, leaders); the western Columbia Plateau northsouth transect (Bob Bentley and Jim Anderson, leaders); Quaternary structures of the Toppenish Ridge anticline (Don Tahkeal, Newell Campbell, and Bob Bentley, leaders); the Umtanum imbricate fault zone and pre-Saddle Mountains unconformity near Priest Rapids Dam (Ed Price and Bob Bentley, leaders); and the Yakima anticlines in the Cle Elum-Wallula deformed zone between Ellensburg and Yakima (Bob Bentley, leader).

  17. ) Ima Field: A Type Marginal Field-Challenges and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, T. J.


    The IMA Field is located in the south-eastern Niger Delta in approximately 30' of water. Discovered in 1972 by Japan Petroleum, commercial accumulation was not established until 1994 by the AMNI/Abacan Joint Venture, with the drilling of ima-3 well, which discovered the major reservoirs in the C and D sands. Recoverable Reserve of 48MMBO. Ten wells have been drilled on the IMA structure to date, with a cumulative production of 16 Million barrels of condensates.The IMA Field is a typical Niger Delta rollover anticlinal structure trending northeast southwest with a regional tilt to the northeast. The major trapping mechanism is the anticline.The sediments of IMA Field are Miocene Agbada Fm. They are deltaic deposits with high sand/shale ratio. The reservoirs are loosely compacted sandstones with porosity values ranging from 21% to 27% while permeability is generally measured in darcies.The development of IMA Field posed financial and logistical challenges since the partners had decided to fast track this process, and since neither had the resources to drill the development wells, assemble/install the crude processing and storage facilities; a mixture of debt financing and contractor financing arrangements were made.The prospects in IMA Field are to be found in early realisation of the limitations of a marginal field, particularly the management of cash flow. Workers and field development funding is financed by current production. Appraisal and exploration drilling within the same lease have required equity financing (participation)

  18. Postseismic afterslip 30 years after the 1978 Tabas-e-Golshan (Iran) earthquake: observations and implications for the geological evolution of thrust belts (United States)

    Copley, Alex


    This paper presents InSAR observations of postseismic afterslip occurring up to 30 yr after the Mw7.3 1978 Tabas-e-Golshan thrust-faulting earthquake in eastern Iran. Comparison of the surface motion from 1996 to 1999 with that from 2003 to 2010, along with information provided by the Quaternary-averaged slip rates of faults in the region, suggests that the imaged slip is transient and decaying through time. Models of the surface deformation field imply slip on faults dipping at 55 ± 10°, reaching from the surface to depths of 4-5 km, and slipping at 5 ± 1 mm yr-1. These faults outcrop on the margins of low anticlinal hills composed of actively uplifting Neogene deposits. When compared with the previously studied main shock focal parameters (slip on a plane dipping at 16 ± 5° with a centroid depth of ˜9 km), and the aftershock distribution (a band at ˜6-14 km), the InSAR results imply postseismic slip on a high-angle thrust ramp connecting the surface anticlines to the coseismic low-angle fault plane at depth. In one location, both a thrust ramp and also a backthrust are postseismically active. The InSAR observations demonstrate the role of postseismic afterslip in the growth of these commonly observed thrust belt geometries, and highlight that deformation throughout the seismic cycle can contribute to the geological evolution of regions of active faulting.

  19. Comparison of fault-related folding algorithms to restore a fold-and-thrust-belt (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Tanner, David


    Fault-related folding means the contemporaneous evolution of folds as a consequence of fault movement. It is a common deformation process in the upper crust that occurs worldwide in accretionary wedges, fold-and-thrust belts, and intra-plate settings, in either strike-slip, compressional, or extensional regimes. Over the last 30 years different algorithms have been developed to simulate the kinematic evolution of fault-related folds. All these models of fault-related folding include similar simplifications and limitations and use the same kinematic behaviour throughout the model (Brandes & Tanner, 2014). We used a natural example of fault-related folding from the Limón fold-and-thrust belt in eastern Costa Rica to test two different algorithms and to compare the resulting geometries. A thrust fault and its hanging-wall anticline were restored using both the trishear method (Allmendinger, 1998; Zehnder & Allmendinger, 2000) and the fault-parallel flow approach (Ziesch et al. 2014); both methods are widely used in academia and industry. The resulting hanging-wall folds above the thrust fault are restored in substantially different fashions. This is largely a function of the propagation-to-slip ratio of the thrust, which controls the geometry of the related anticline. Understanding the controlling factors for anticline evolution is important for the evaluation of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs and the characterization of fault processes. References: Allmendinger, R.W., 1998. Inverse and forward numerical modeling of trishear fault propagation folds. Tectonics, 17, 640-656. Brandes, C., Tanner, D.C. 2014. Fault-related folding: a review of kinematic models and their application. Earth Science Reviews, 138, 352-370. Zehnder, A.T., Allmendinger, R.W., 2000. Velocity field for the trishear model. Journal of Structural Geology, 22, 1009-1014. Ziesch, J., Tanner, D.C., Krawczyk, C.M. 2014. Strain associated with the fault-parallel flow algorithm during kinematic fault

  20. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado (United States)

    Lindsey, D.A.


    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  1. Characterization of methane-hydrate formation inferred from insitu Vp-density relationship for hydrate-bearing sediment cores obtained off the eastern coast of India (United States)

    Kinoshita, M.; Hamada, Y.; Hirose, T.; Yamada, Y.


    In 2015, the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Drilling Expedition 02 was carried out off the eastern margin of the Indian Peninsula in order to investigate distribution and occurrence of gas hydrates. From 25 drill sites, downhole logging data, cored samples, and drilling performance data were collected. One of the target areas (area B) is located on the axial and flank of an anticline, where the BSR is identified 100 m beneath the summit of anticline. 3 sites were drilled in the crest. The lower potential hydrate zone II was suggested by downhole logging (LWD) at 270-290 m below seafloor across the top of anticline. Core samples from this interval is characterized by a higher natural gamma radiation, gamma-ray-based higher bulk density and lower porosity, and higher electrical resistivity. All these features are in good agreement with LWD results. During this expedition, numerous special core sampling operations (PCAT) were carried out, keeping its insitu pressure in a pressure-tight vessel. They enabled acquiring insitu P-wave velocity and gamma-ray attenuation density measurements. In-situ X-CT images exhibit very clear hydrate distribution as lower density patches. Hydrate-bearing sediments exhibit a Vp-density trend that is clearly different from the ordinary formation. Vp values are significantly higher than 2 km/s whereas the density remains constant at 2-2.2 g/cm3 in hydrate zones. At some hydrate-bearing sediments, we noticed that Vp is negatively correlated to the density in the deeper portion (235-285 mbsf). On the other hand, in the shallower portion they are positively correlated. From lithostratigraphy the shallower portion consists of sand, whereas deeper portion are silty-clay dominant. We infer that the sand-dominant, shallower hydrate is a pore-filling type, and Vp is correlated positively to density. On the other hand, the clay-dominant, deeper hydrate is filled in vertical veins, and Vp is negatively correlated to density. Negative

  2. Resistivity imaging of strata and faults in Bangladesh (United States)

    Hosain, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.


    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, the largest in the world, is subject to deformation by active tectonics and dynamic river systems. It lies near the juncture of the Indian, Eurasian and Burmese plates and is being overthrust by both the Shillong Massif and the Indo-Burman Ranges. There are multiple major and minor active faults in Bangladesh, many of which are buried by the sedimentation. For example, the Madhupur tract is a Pleistocene upland in the middle part of Bengal Basin. Whether it is a passive interfluve of the river system or a tilted and tectonically uplifted block has been debated for decades. The Tippera Surface, in Comilla at the eastern part of the basin, is composed of uplifted and oxidized Holocene strata and overlies buried anticlines of the Indo-Burman fold belt. Furthermore, the rivers are subject to migrations, avulsions and other changes in course. The last major avulsion of the Brahmaputra River was only ~200 years ago. During the sea level fall in the last glaciation the major rivers created large incised valleys. In much of the exposed uplands there was the development of a weathered clay surface. This now forms a clay layer separating the Pleistocene and Holocene strata in large parts of Bangladesh. We use electrical resistivity surveying and hand-drilled borehole lithological data to better understand the subsurface discontinuities and structures. The resistivity system consists of an 84 electrode array powered by 2 car batteries and is capable of imaging lithologies to ~100m depth, similar to the depths of the boreholes used to calibrate the data. We extend our previous work on the western margin of the Madhupur Tract with additional lines on the eastern flank of Madhupur. Resistivity lines along the exposed Lalmai anticline in Comilla image the now tilted Holocene-Pleistocene clay layer. Additional lines along the subsurface continuation of the anticline provide additional information on the subsurface lithologies associated with

  3. Do mesoscale faults in a young fold belt indicate regional or local stress? (United States)

    Kokado, Akihiro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi


    The result of paleostress analyses of mesoscale faults is usually thought of as evidence of a regional stress. On the other hand, the recent advancement of the trishear modeling has enabled us to predict the deformation field around fault-propagation folds without the difficulty of assuming paleo mechanical properties of rocks and sediments. We combined the analysis of observed mesoscale faults and the trishear modeling to understand the significance of regional and local stresses for the formation of mesoscale faults. To this end, we conducted the 2D trishear inverse modeling with a curved thrust fault to predict the subsurface structure and strain field of an anticline, which has a more or less horizontal axis and shows a map-scale plane strain perpendicular to the axis, in the active fold belt of Niigata region, central Japan. The anticline is thought to have been formed by fault-propagation folding under WNW-ESE regional compression. Based on the attitudes of strata and the positions of key tephra beds in Lower Pleistocene soft sediments cropping out at the surface, we obtained (1) a fault-propagation fold with the fault tip at a depth of ca. 4 km as the optimal subsurface structure, and (2) the temporal variation of deformation field during the folding. We assumed that mesoscale faults were activated along the direction of maximum shear strain on the faults to test whether the fault-slip data collected at the surface were consistent with the deformation in some stage(s) of folding. The Wallace-Bott hypothesis was used to estimate the consistence of faults with the regional stress. As a result, the folding and the regional stress explained 27 and 33 of 45 observed faults, respectively, with the 11 faults being consistent with the both. Both the folding and regional one were inconsistent with the remaining 17 faults, which could be explained by transfer faulting and/or the gravitational spreading of the growing anticline. The lesson we learnt from this work was

  4. Organic geochemistry of petroleum seepages within the Jurassic Bencliff Grit, Osmington Mills, Dorset, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.F.; Farrimond, P. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry; Hindle, A.D. [Egdon Resources (UK) Ltd., Odiham (United Kingdom)


    Occurrences of oil within the Bencliff Grit at Osmington Mills were studied through an integration of organic geochemistry and a consideration of the geological setting. Oil-stained sandstones dominate the cliff outcrop with localized regions of particularly concentrated oil impregnation. A second 'live' seep of oil occurs where the Bencliff Grit beds pass below high tide level at Bran Point. Organic geochemical analyses showed both oils to be at least moderately biodegraded, with the oils in the cliff outcrop showing enrichment in polar constituents compared with the active seep. Multivariate statistical analysis of the molecular composition identified an enrichment in diasterane biomarkers in the oils of the live seep; this difference is ascribed to source and/or maturity differences. The oil within the outcrop is considered to represent the residual staining of an unroofed oil field, whilst the live seepage at Bran Point represents a migration pathway towards the eroded anticline. (Author)

  5. Leaf epidermal characters of Solanum sect. polytrichum (Solanaceae) as taxonomic evidence. (United States)

    Nurit-Silva, Kiriaki; De Fátima Agra, Maria


    The morphological similarities among the species of Solanum are remarkable, and are often very difficult one clear distinction between them. This paper presents a comparative anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of five Brazilian species of Solanum sect. Polytrichum, carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermis surfaces were investigated to evaluate their taxonomic significance to be used for separation and delimitation of the species of the section. As results, some micro-morphological characters of the leaf epidermis, such as density, distribution and type of stellate trichomes, and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and also the type and distribution of stomata proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation and delimitation of the species, and also may contribute as an additional support to the interspecific taxonomy and systematic of Solanum sect. Polytrichum. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Location and extent of Tertiary structures in Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, and mantle dynamics that focus deformation and subsidence (United States)

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Saltus, Richard W.


    This report is a new compilation of the location and extent of folds and faults in Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska. Data sources are previously published maps, well locations, and seismic-reflection data. We also utilize interpretation of new aeromagnetic data and some proprietary seismic-reflection data. Some structures are remarkably well displayed on frequency-filtered aeromagnetic maps, which are a useful tool for constraining the length of some structures. Most anticlines in and around the basin have at least shows of oil or gas, and some structures are considered to be seismically active. The new map better displays the pattern of faulting and folding. Deformation is greatest in upper Cook Inlet, where structures are oriented slightly counterclockwise of the basin bounding faults. The north ends of these structures bend to the northeast, which gives a pattern consistent with right-transpressional deformation.

  7. Leaf epidermis of the rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae). (United States)

    Lobo, Ghislaine Maria; de Souza, Thaysi Ventura; Voltolini, Caroline Heinig; Reis, Ademir; Santos, Marisa


    Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant's rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment.

  8. Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Maria Lobo


    Full Text Available Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant’s rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment.

  9. Distributed Active Folding across the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Derived from the Combined Analysis of Srtm Topography and Seismic Profiling (United States)

    Cormier, M.; Seeber, L.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Gulick, S. P.; McHugh, C. M.; Hornbach, M.


    Sinistral transpression across the northern Caribbean plate boundary is partitioned across Hispaniola between two subparallel transforms that accommodate strike-slip motion, and a wide swath of intervening NW-trending folds. These folds correspond to mountain chains continuous with offshore anticlinal ridges. The mapping of onshore flights of marine terraces exposed across these folds, combined with the dating of fossil corals, have constrained uplift rates for their emerged portions [Mann et al., 1995]. Slope maps produced from recently released SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data with a resolution of ~30 m highlight the full 3D geometry of the deformed marine terraces across these folds. Offshore multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) profiles collected in 1982 by GSI / Western Geophysical constrain the broader geometry of the submerged anticline limbs. This combined dataset is used to investigate the deformation history of four folds whose emerged limbs are only moderately disrupted by mass wasting. One of the exposed structures (St Marc peninsula) displays both fold limbs, with the highest uplift predictably centered on the axial trace of the fold. Two others display terraces that remain planar and are progressively tilted away from the presumed anticline crests, indicating in each case that only one of the fold limbs is exposed above sea level and that it is subsiding relative to the crest. Lastly, the west end of Gonave Island, the WNW-trending island located between the north and south peninsulas of Haiti, displays nearly horizontal terraces. While prior investigation of the lowest ~125 ka terrace indicates that it has not uplifted since it was formed [Mann et al., 1995], nearshore MCS data reveal a ~350 m-deep horizontal erosional surface that truncates folded reflectors. This suggests that the submerged portion of the Gonave anticline crest is subsiding. Furthermore, progressive tilting of the seismic reflectors on the fold limbs requires that


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes V. Luis A.


    Full Text Available Commonly seismic images are displayed in time domain because the model in depth can be known only in well logs. To produce seismic sections, pre and post stack processing approaches use time or depth velocity models whereas the common reflection method does not, instead it requires a set of parameters established for the first layer. A set of synthetic data of an anticline model, with sources and receivers placed on a flat topography, was used to observe the performance of this method. As result, a better reflector recovering compared against conventional processing sequence was observed.
    The procedure was extended to real data, using a dataset acquired on a zone characterized by mild topography and quiet environment reflectors in the Eastern Colombia planes, observing an enhanced and a better continuity of the reflectors in the CRS stacked section.

  11. Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury’s Cranfield, Mississippi, USA (United States)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Meckel, Timothy A.; Trevino, Ramon H.; Lu, Jiemin; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Choi, Jong-Won; Freeman, David; Cook, Paul; Daley, Thomas M.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Freifeild, Barry M.; Doughty, Christine; Carrigan, Charles R.; La Brecque, Doug; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Yang, Changbing; Romanak, Katherine D.; Zhang, Tongwei; Holt, Robert M.; Lindler, Jeffery S.; Butsch, Robert J.


    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale.

  12. Structural interpretation of seismic data of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area, Northern Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Shaker Zahra


    Full Text Available The 2D and 3D seismic data are interpreted to evaluate the subsurface geologic structures in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri area that occupy the northern central part of the Gulf of Suez. The 2D seismic data are used for determination of the structural configurations and the tectonic features which is analyzed through the study of interpretation with the available geologic data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting tops (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations are represented. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area is an asymmetrical NW-SE trending anticlinal feature dissected by a set of NW-SE fault system (clysmic. Added, the Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where the area is of NE dip and affected by severe faulting through varying stratigraphic levels.

  13. Study of fault configuration related mysteries through multi seismic attribute analysis technique in Zamzama gas field area, southern Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi


    Full Text Available Seismic attribute analysis approach has been applied for the interpretation and identification of fault geometry of Zamzama Gas Field. Zamzama gas field area, which lies in the vicinity of Kirthar fold and thrust belt, Southern Indus Basin of Pakistan. The Zamzama fault and its related structure have been predicted by applying the Average Energy Attribute, Instantaneous Frequency Attribute, relative Acoustic Impedance Attribute and Chaotic Reflection Attribute on the seismic line GHPK98A.34. The results have been confirmed by applying the spectral decomposition attribute on the same seismic line that reveal the geometric configuration of Zamzama structure. The fault is reverse and started from 0 s and ended at the depth of 2.5 s on the vertical seismic section. Hanging wall moves up along the fault plane under the action of eastward oriented stress, which formed a large north–south oriented and eastward verging thrusted anticline.

  14. Geology of the late Proterozoic-Palaeozoic Amadeus basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, A.T.


    The main objective of the excursion was a study of the Precambrian to Carboniferous succession in the MacDonnell ranges, the northern homoclinal flank of the Amadeus basin, and in the Gardiner range, part of the central fold belt of the basin. Emphasis was placed on examining some features of the practically unmetamorphosed Precambrian rocks which form approximately one-third of the sedimentary column. They include tillites of 2 glaciations, evaporites, well-preserved microbiotas in primary black chert, and a great variety of stromatolites. Features of the Cambrian rocks to be inspected include basal red beds with an unusual trace fossil assemblage, evaporites, facies changes controlled by provenances to the west and south, and late Cambrian rostroconchs. The 2 major hydrocarbon-bearing anticlines in the sequence, and examples of well-exposed folds, nappes, thrusts, and inselbergs were seen during the air reconnaissance. An examination also was made of Gosses Bluff impact crater and Henbury meteorite craters. 42 references.

  15. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder


    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  16. Ultrastructural analyses of somatic embryo initiation, development and polarity establishment from mesophyll cells of Dactylis glomerata (United States)

    Vasilenko, A.; McDaniel, J. K.; Conger, B. V.


    Somatic embryos initiate and develop directly from single mesophyll cells in in vitro-cultured leaf segments of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Embryogenic cells establish themselves in the predivision stage by formation of thicker cell walls and dense cytoplasm. Electron microscopy observations for embryos ranging from the pre-cell-division stage to 20-cell proembryos confirm previous light microscopy studies showing a single cell origin. They also confirm that the first division is predominantly periclinal and that this division plane is important in establishing embryo polarity and in determining the embryo axis. If the first division is anticlinal or if divisions are in random planes after the first division, divisions may not continue to produce an embryo. This result may produce an embryogenic cell mass, callus formation, or no structure at all. Grant numbers: NAGW-3141, NAG10-0221.

  17. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.


    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  18. Biostratigraphy of the Garau Formation in Naft well subsurface stratigraphic section, South Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y., Ezampanah,


    Full Text Available In order to biostratigraphy of the Garau Formation in the centeral Lurestan, one subsurface section (Naft well in Naft anticline, south Kermanshah was selected and studied. The drilled thickness of the Garau Formation in this section is up to 485 meters and lithologically composed of argillaceous limestones and dark gray marls. In this research 1150 thin sections of subsurface Naft well section were studied. In biostratigraphic studies of the Garau Formation in study section 61 species belong to 17 genera of planktonic foraminifera were recognized and 9 biozones were identified. Based on distribution of fossils and biozones identificated, the age of the Garau Formation in drilled part of the subsurface Naft well section is Early Aptian to Early Cenomanian.

  19. Shallow seismic imaging of folds above the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Shaw, John H.; Dolan, James F.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Plesch, Andreas


    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles image discrete folds in the shallow subsurface (Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system, Los Angeles basin, California. The profiles demonstrate late Quaternary activity at the fault tip, precisely locate the axial surfaces of folds within the upper 100 m, and constrain the geometry and kinematics of recent folding. The Santa Fe Springs segment of the Puente Hills fault zone shows an upward-narrowing kink band with an active anticlinal axial surface, consistent with fault-bend folding above an active thrust ramp. The Coyote Hills segment shows an active synclinal axial surface that coincides with the base of a 9-m-high scarp, consistent with tip-line folding or the presence of a backthrust. The seismic profiles pinpoint targets for future geologic work to constrain slip rates and ages of past events on this important fault system.

  20. Meltwater channel scars and the extent of Mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Pennsylvania (United States)

    Marsh, Ben


    High-resolution digital topographic data permit morphological analyses of glacial processes in detail that was previously infeasible. High-level glaciofluvial erosional scars in central Pennsylvania, identified and delimited using LiDAR data, define the approximate ice depth during a pre-Wisconsin advance, > 770,000 BP, on a landscape unaffected by Wisconsin glaciation. Distinctive scars on the prows of anticlinal ridges at 175-350 m above the valley floor locate the levels of subice meltwater channels. A two-component planar GIS model of the ice surface is derived using these features and intersected with a digital model of contemporary topography to create a glacial limit map. The map is compared to published maps, demonstrating the limits of conventional sediment-based mapping. Additional distinctive meltwater features that were cut during deglaciation are modeled in a similar fashion.

  1. Cerro Amarillo rhyolites, advanced AFC in the northern SVZ, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E; Hildreth, W


    Cerro Amarillo is a Quaternary medium size (500m high, 2 km 2 ) rhyolite dome complex located close to the Chile-Argentina border, reaching a height of 4162 m, between the headwaters of the Rio Colina and the Nieves Negras Pass. It overlies a broad anticline of thick Middle Jurassic pelites (Alvarez et al., 1997). Thiele (1980) includes this complex in his 'Unidad Volcanica Antigua', a Pleistocene composite map unit made up of andesites and trachyandesites. Ramos et al. (1997), while recognizing its rhyolitic character, assigned a Tertiary age to the lava domes, most likely based on the late Pliocene age of silicic dikes outcropping eastward, in Argentina. Both the lack of younger overlying units and freshness of its components, together with preservation of the unconsolidated, easily eroded pyroclastic deposits at its base, suggest, however, that it is not older than Pleistocene (au)

  2. Depth imaging system for seismic reflection data. Part 1. Outline of system; Hanshaho jishin tansa data no tame no shindo imaging system. 1. System no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Structures of oil and gas fields to be recently explored have changed from simple structures represented by anticline into more complicated and more delicate structures in the deeper underground. In order to discover and develop prospective oil and gas fields among such geological structures, it is indispensable to construct a system which can treat seismic exploration date collectively before stacking and can easily perform imaging of underground structures accurately. Based on the advancement of hardware, Japan National Oil Corporation and Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd. have developed a depth imaging system as an interactive tool for constructing underground structures accurately through a cooperation of highly accurate imaging technology. Using this system, two-dimensional underground structure models can be easily given and modified by interactively referring to results of depth migration velocity analysis and stacking velocity analysis, well data, cross sections after depth transform, etc. 1 fig.

  3. Strates de croissance et cinématique à court-terme de la déformation (dizaines à centaines de milliers d'années) (United States)

    Castelltort, Sébastien; Pochat, Stéphane; Van den Driessche, Jean


    High-frequency stratigraphic cycles (10 s to 100 s ka) often show, at a specific location, an alternation of 'dynamic' (proximal-energetic), and 'non-dynamic' (distal-pelagic) processes with time. When sedimentation is syn-deformation, these processes tend respectively to fill-up tectonically-induced topography or to drape it. As a consequence, growth strata are alternatively thickened and isopach across the growth structure. High-resolution kinematic studies of growth structures (folds and faults), which assume that sedimentation always fills up topographies ('fill-to-the-top' model), may therefore mistake sedimentary cyclicity for tectonic cyclicity. We address this problem with one example of growth anticline in the Spanish Pyrenees, and we discuss the fill-to-the-top model. To cite this article: S. Castelltort et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  4. Ultrastructure of endothelium in ovules of Penstemon gentianoides Poir. (Scrophulariaceae) at mature embryo sac phase. (United States)

    Dane, Feruzan; Olgun, Göksel; Ekici, Nuran


    In this study ultrastructural differences between endothelial cells of different location in Penstemon gentianoides have been examined with electron microscope at mature embryo sac phase. Embryo sac is of the Polygonum type and surrounded by endothelium except the micropylar region. The cuticle is located primarily around the chalazal three-fourths of the embryo sac. Endothelium cells around the chalaza and toward the micropylar region are rich in cytoplasmic organelles. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells near the central cell has large vacuoles and few organelles. There are also plasmodesmas on the anticlinal walls of endothelial cells. The endothelium and the micropylar integumentary cells play a role in transport of metabolites into the embryo sac.

  5. Five Earthquakes In The Last 50 Ka In The Northwestern Yakima Fold And Thrust Belt, Central Washington (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Blakely, R. J.; Barnett, E. A.; Foit, F. F.; Weaver, C. S.


    Stratigraphic and structural relationships revealed in paleoseismic trenches suggest at least five earthquakes occurred in the last 50 ka along two prominent anticlines of the Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB). The YFTB is a series of northwest- and west-trending anticlinal ridges and synclinal valleys formed during and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Here we focus on scarps along Umtanum and Boylston Ridges. Air photos and LiDAR show an E-W trending, up-to-the-north scarp (~8 m high, ~11 km long) lying at the base of the southern limb of the Umtanum Ridge anticline at Wenas Valley, near the city of Yakima. A trench across the scarp exposed volcaniclastic deposits overlain by buried soils and colluvial deposits. Electron microprobe analysis of tephra from the uppermost volcaniclastic layers indicates correlation with Mt. St. Helens Set C (possibly Cy), erupted ~47 ka. Eight normal faults and one possible reverse fault deform the tephra, buried soils, and colluvial deposits above the tephra. Cross cutting relations require at least three earthquakes over the last ~47 ka. We infer bending moment deformation above a buried reverse fault as the most likely cause of surface faulting observed along the Wenas Valley scarp. LiDAR images at Boylston Ridge east of Ellensburg, WA reveal a ~4-km-long, NE-trending, up-to-the-west scarp. Trenches across this scarp showed Miocene basalt overlain by a thin, cobble-rich, colluvial soil at the surface. A single high-angle reverse fault offsets the basalt, and a fissure filled with colluvium separates the fault blocks. Older colluvium and a soil formed in the colluvium are both offset by the fault, suggesting at least two episodes of movement. Inclined striae on the fault plane hint at right-lateral oblique offset. About 1 km to the NE, a 700-m-long stretch of stream floodplain is incised as much as 7 m. Electron microprobe analysis of a tephra layer in the incised floodplain

  6. Tectonic comparisons of Caucasus and California cordillera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhern, M.E.


    Many parallels exist between the Caucasus region, shaped as the Eurasian and Arabian-African plates converged during the Cenozoic Alpine orogeny, and California, where the North American and Pacific plates interact. The Forecaucasian platform hosts many large oil and gas fields in molasse-filled foredeeps of high heat flow. Production is from Permian to Pliocene tight anticlines on reverse faults, diapiric structures, shoe-string sands of the prolific Maikop series, and Tertiary fanglomerates and sand lenses. Although not an exact parallel, this production suggests potential in Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine and Tertiary fanglomeratic, tuffaceous, and fluvial sediments in basins of the sparsely drilled Basin and Range. The Greater Caucasus, like the Sierra Nevada, show Paleozoic-Mesozoic geosynclinal sedimentation, subduction, and granitic magmatism. The former have undergone much folding, thrusting, and Quaternary volcanism. Jurassic bituminous limestone is exposed, a source for the petroliferous Transcaucasian Intermontane depression. The latter is filled with thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic flysch and molasse and, like California's Great Valley forearc basin, orogenic terrane and permeable soils favor enology. Sources also include Eocene and Miocene diatomaceous and bituminous clays. Reservoirs include prolific Pliocene sands, Eocene olistostromes, fractured tuffaceous rocks, and Cretaceous-Miocene sandstones in anticlines and stratigraphic traps. Migration to basin flanks was aided by compression. The Lesser Caucasus, a continuation of the main ophiolite foldbelt of Turkey, shares a subduction and accretionary history with the Franciscan melange. This microplate was obducted to Eurasia as the prong-shaped Arabian plate moved it and other microplates of the east Mediterranean in several directions (the Turkish microplate dextrally along the North Anatolian transform fault) and deformed wide areas.

  7. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen


    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  8. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China (United States)

    Zhou, X.


    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  9. Model Mineralisasi Pembentukan Opal Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chusni Ansori


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.100Opal is a beautiful precious gemstone that is equal or more valuable than diamond. In Indonesia, precious opal is found at the Lebak Regency, Province of Banten. Banten’s opal widely has been recognized due to its beautiful opalescence. This paper is a review of the last research; preliminary study of Banten’s opal, characteristics of opal-CT and determining of opal type from geochemical data, added by new data to compile concept and to make mineralization model. In order to fulfill these targets, field geology research and analysis of mineralog/gemology, petrography, X-RD, and major and trace element geochemistry have been done. The Banten’s opal is opal-CT showing opalescence (play of colour, weathering, and leaching silica from volcanic glass by dark grey claystone hosted. Mineralization model is divided into three periods; at Early Pliocene volcanic clastic sediments rich in volcanic glass occured as fluvial sediments. Afterwards, at Late Pliocene - Pleistocene folding, weathering and leaching of silica took place. Intensive jointing, faulting, and folding quickened weathering and leaching processes to formed opal at limb of anticline through Holocene. The prospecting area of Banten’s opal is in tuff unit with intercalation of conglomerate or pumiceous breccia, at limb of anticline. The host rock of opal is dark grey claystone which underlies polimict conglomerate/pebbly sandstone sequence with cross stratification, imbricated, and erossional stucture; more than 8 m deep.

  10. Stratigraphic and structural compartmentalization observed within a model turbidite reservoir, Pennsylvanian Upper Jackfork Formation, Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatt, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, D. [Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Stone, C. [Arkansas Geological Commission, Little Rock, AR (United States)] [and others


    Hollywood Quarry is a 600 x 375 x 150 ft. (200 x 125 x 50m) excavation which provides a window into lower Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation turbidite stratal architecture along the crest of a faulted anticlinal fold. A variety of turbidite facies are present, including: (a) lenticular, channelized sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates within shale, (b) laterally continuous, interbedded thin sandstones and shales, and (c) thicker, laterally continuous shales. The sandstone and shale layers we broken by several strike-slip and reverse faults, with vertical displacements of up to several feet. This combination of facies and structural elements has resulted in a highly compartmentalized stratigraphic interval, both horizontally and vertically, along the anticlinal flexure. The quarry can be considered analogous to a scaled-down turbidite reservoir. Outcrop gamma-ray logs, measured sections, a fault map, and cross sections provide a database which is analogous to what would be available for a subsurface reservoir. Thus, the quarry provides an ideal outdoor geologic and engineering {open_quote}workshop{close_quote} venue for visualizing the potential complexities of a combination structural-stratigraphic (turbidite) reservoir. Since all forms of compartmentalization are readily visible in the quarry, problems related to management of compartmentalized reservoirs can be discussed and analyzed first-hand while standing in the quarry, within this {open_quote}model reservoir{close_quotes}. These problems include: (a) the high degree of stratigraphic and structural complexity that may be encountered, even at close well spacings, (b) uncertainty in well log correlations and log-shape interpretations, (c) variations in volumetric calculations as a function of amount of data available, and (d) potential production problems associated with specific {open_quote}field{close_quote} development plans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Novosel


    Full Text Available On the site of Maslenica bridge structural tectonic, geophysical and engineering geological investigations, geotechnical drilling and laboratory sample testings were performed. Maslenica anticline is characteristic for the investigated area. It is built from the limestone of Cretaceous age. The anticline has an asymmetrical form with the vergence of the axial plane towards the north. Reverse faults with recent activities are present. The recent activity was proved by the discovery of the broken stalactite with the displacement of 11 cm, whose age is 36000 years. On quite young stalactites (stalagmites in the cave on the west side, no displacements were noticed. For the next period of 500 years the maximal possible displacement of 2.0 cm is foreseen. Smaller caves with the dimensions of 1 m3, were formed on the intersections of the reverse faults and greater joints. The canyon Novsko ždrilo was formed in the fault shear zone with tectonic transport to the right. According to the range of fracture, three characteristic types of rock masses were separated by engineering geological investigations. According to »Geomechanical classification« (RMR the first type corresponds to II to III class, while the second type corresponds to IV class, and the third type corresponds to V class (mylonite. Because of the complexity of the terrain structure, original engineering geological bases of design have not enabled the direct application of the analysis of stress-strain behaviour. Because of that the simplified geotechnical models were done. They enabled the projecting of foundation in the rock mass and renewal of poor quality rock mass.

  12. The development of a Triassic fold-thrust belt in a synclinal depositional system, Bowen Basin (eastern Australia) (United States)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Sliwa, Renate; Esterle, Joan; Rosenbaum, Gideon


    A synclinal depositional system in eastern Australia (Taroom Trough, Bowen Basin) was affected by folds and thrusts, but the structural style associated with this deformation is not fully understood. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and 2-D seismic reflection data, we conducted a structural analysis that unravels the geometry and kinematics of major thrust faults in the eastern-central part of the Taroom Trough. Major structures are the east dipping Cockatoo, Miles, and Taroom faults and west dipping Burunga and Glebe faults. Our results show that west dipping thrusts have a listric geometry that produced gentle hanging-wall anticlines. A north striking gentle symmetric syncline and anticline pair is also observed to the west of the Burunga Fault. These observations indicate that the deformation in the central Taroom Trough was controlled by décollements in the basement rocks. The décollements and resultant structures were likely developed in response to mild contraction of the synclinal depositional system during the last phase of the Permian-Triassic Hunter-Bowen Orogeny (HBO). The last phase of the HBO also resulted in the reactivation of preexisting east dipping Cockatoo and Miles faults. The bulk longitudinal strain, however, in the eastern-central Bowen Basin was low ( 2.8% shortening), with the deformation restricted to a relatively narrow zone. In contrast, deformation in the northern Bowen Basin was distributed in a wider fold-thrust belt that accommodated a higher amount of strain. This change in the pattern of deformation along the eastern part of the Bowen Basin could possibly be explained by along-strike variations in the rates of trench advance.

  13. Distributed deformation in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt: insights from geomorphology (United States)

    Obaid, Ahmed; Allen, Mark


    The Zagros fold-and-thrust belt is part of the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, and is an excellent region to study the interactions of tectonics and landscape. In this work we present results of a geomorphic analysis covering the entire range, coupled with more detailed analysis of the Kirkuk Embayment, Iraq. This particular region is a low elevation, low relief region of the Zagros, important for the enormous oil and gas reserves held in late Cenozoic anticlinal traps. Constraints from published earthquake focal mechanisms and hydrocarbon industry sub-surface data are combined with original fieldwork observations in northern Iraq, to produce a new regional cross-section and structural interpretation for the Kirkuk Embayment. We find that overall late Cenozoic shortening across the Embayment is on the order of 5%, representing only a few km. This deformation takes place on a series of anticlines, which are interpreted as overlying steep, planar, basement thrusts. These thrusts are further interpreted as reactivated normal faults, on the basis of (rare) published seismic data. The regional earthquake record confirms the basement involvement, although detachments within the sedimentary succession are also important, especially within the Middle Miocene Fat'ha Formation. Overall, the Zagros is sometimes represented as having a few major thrusts each persistent for 100s of km along the strike of the range. However, these faults are very rarely associated with major structural relief and/or surface fault ruptures during earthquakes. We have analysed the hypsometry of the range and find only gradational changes in the hypsometric integral of drainage basins across strike. This contrasts with regions such as the eastern Tibetan Plateau, where published analysis has revealed abrupt changes, correlating with the surface traces of active thrusts. Our interpretation is that the hypsometry of the Zagros reflects distributed deformation on numerous smaller faults, rather

  14. Carbonate-cemented hardgrounds: a subtle indicator for seep activity offshore Humboldt Bay (United States)

    Shapiro, R. S.; Bazard, D.


    Active hydrocarbon seeps are common in the accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. In Humboldt County, California, the prism is exposed at the surface as a series of fault-propagated anticlines trending NW-SE. Offshore of the town of Samoa, a northwest-plunging anticline is breached at approximately 40 meters water depth, allowing hydrocarbons to seep out to the seafloor (40.8° N, 124.25° W). The assumed microbial activity at the seep leads to the production of interstitial carbonate cements forming hardgrounds. Cementation is pervasive and blocks eroded from the seep area of the seabed are transported onshore during storm events. Blocks collected from the beach range from 3--40 centimeters across. The sediments of the blocks are palimpsest transgressive deposits composed mostly of immature fine sand, but ranging from very fine to rounded gravels 4 cm diameter. Cementation is not dependent on grain size as all of the sediment sizes are cemented. In rare void spaces, a concentric banding of cements is obvious. The interstitial cements preserve original sedimentary structures including graded beds and high-angle cross-beds. Centimeter-scale subspherical concretions occur on the undersides of some blocks. There is no disruption of bedding in contrast to other seeps where the expulsion of gas can create pockmarks, brecciation, and other disturbances. Unlike the better studied seeps farther south in the Eel River basin, the Samoa seeps do not seem to host a rich chemosynthetic fauna. Whole and (mostly) fragmented shells preserved by the cemented sands represent a typical benthic inner shelf community including Dendraster, Macoma, and Olivella. Burrows preserved in the sands are largely horizontal and 1--2 mm diameter. Seep carbonate-cemented hardgrounds are less well studied then the more obvious meter-scale 'chemoherm' deposits. However, they may be more prevalent in the rock record and provide a new proxy for locating ancient seeps and hydrocarbon

  15. Predicting pore pressure in active fold-thrust systems: An empirical model for the deepwater Sabah foldbelt (United States)

    Couzens-Schultz, Brent A.; Azbel, Konstantin


    Measurements related to mudrock (shale and siltstone) porosity such as acoustic velocity, density or electrical resistivity, have traditionally been used to predict pore pressures in extensional stress settings. The underlying assumption is that burial and vertical effective stress (VES), which is the overburden minus the pore pressure, controls the compaction of these rocks through porosity loss. The dataset presented here compares VES and acoustic velocity of similar composition mudrocks in both an extensional and a compressional stress setting. In the extensional stress environment, the mudrocks follow a typical compaction trend with a porosity loss and increase in acoustic velocity that can be related to VES. In an active fold-thrust belt, the compressive stresses further reduce the porosity and increase the acoustic velocity of the mudrocks. First a layer-parallel shortening compacts sediments beyond what is observed for the VES. This additional compaction is further enhanced near thrust faults and in anticlinal forelimbs, presumably due to additional shear stress in these areas. The mudrocks located in folds that are buried by additional sedimentation do not compact again until the tectonic compaction is overridden by enough new burial. After that, the mudrocks follow the observed extensional setting compaction trend. In the fold-thrust belt, the observed reduction in porosity by stresses other than burial leads to an under-prediction of pore pressure using traditional methods. To account for this, we present a correction that can be applied to the acoustic velocity (or porosity) using two parameters: (a) proximity to thrust faults and anticlinal forelimbs and (b) the amount of burial after fold formation. With these corrections, the extensional velocity-VES compaction trend can be used to accurately predict pore pressure within the active fold-thrust belt. The correction is calibrated with well data and is empirical. None-the-less, it is a first step toward

  16. Crustal structure of Central Sicily (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo


    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  17. Geology of the eastern emerald belt (EEB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Giovani; Terraza, Roberto; Montoya, Diana


    The stratigraphic record in EEB begins with an upper Paleozoic basal siliciclastic sequence (Farallones Group, Devonian - Carboniferous), unconformably overlain by basal Cretaceous formations (Bata to the east, Santa Rosa - Ubala - Chivor to the west o the Quetame Massif). The Cretaceous marine ingression took place in a tectonically active basin since Triassic and Jurassic. This tectonic setting last until the end of earliest Cretaceous giving place to a thick sedimentary sequence made of the aforementioned basal units and the Lutitas de Macanal, Las Juntas, Fomeque and Une formations. Paleozoic basement highs normal fault bounded, restrict the Cretaceous sedimentation in the EEB zone, this is evidence especially for the basal Cretaceous units (Berriasian). In this way, to the east of Montecristo Anticline (overlaying Farallones Group) we found conglomerates (Bata Formation), instead to the west sedimentation was mainly lodolithic (Santa Rosa Formation, new litostratigraphic unit). Toward Ubala, overlaying Paleozoic basement (Farallones Anticline) rest a calcareous -Terrigenous set (Ubala Formation new litostratigraphic unit). In Chivor - Malacara area we found evaporitic sets with calcareous rocks (Chivor Formation, new litostratigraphic unit) overlaying Santa Rosa Formation. In Valanginian times the sea regionally drown the area of EEB and give rise to marine offshore conditions (Lutitas de Macanal Formation) with episodic events of gravity flows (El Figaro - Los Cedros members). During Hauterivian to Albian times the accumulation of a sandy - muddy sediments in tidal fats or deltaic systems give rise the record of Las Juntas -Une formations. Finally in Barremian early Albian times there are a siliciclastic - calcareous record of marine offshore environments (Fomeque Formation).

  18. Some structural-tectonic pecularities of the Okumya uplift and adjacent regions of Abkhazia and Megrelia, in connection with prospecting for petroleum and gas. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakyaniya, D.E.


    The unusual tectonic relation of the Okumya uplift, its southern submergence or the Okumya structural cusp with the southern Megrelia uplift on the one hand and with the central Megrelia and Ochamchiri depressions on the other is noted. These basic structural elements of Abkhazia and Megrelia and their local folds have different orientations and configurations. The different degrees of folding of the indicated large structural elements and their local folds are indicated. Lower Jurassic marine and terrigenous, Middle Jurassic volcanogenic-sedimentary, Upper Jurassic sandy-clayey lagunal, Cretaceous and Paleocene-Eocene carbonate, and Oligocene-Postpliocene molasse formations accumulated in the examined territory of Abkhazia and Megrelia. The overall thickness of these deposits in Ochamchiri and Megrelia depressions reaches 8-10 km. The Okumya and southern Megrelia uplifts and the central megrelia and Ochamchiri depressions have a discontinuous-inherited character of geologic development. Within the confines of the Okumya uplift and adjacent regions of Abkhazia and Megrelia, sandy horizons of salt-bearing variegated suites of the Upper Jurassic and Tkvarcheli and Bziaursk suites of the Middle Jurassic in Satandzhoi, Zugdidi, Tskhelikari, and other anticlinals, and also within the boundaries of the Okumya cusp within reach for current large-scale drilling of wells at depths (to 5000 m) are regarded as promising objects in prospecting for petroleum and gas. The drilling of formation-evaluation wells in the dome of the Satandzhoi anticlinal in the village of Otsartse and also the drilling of prospecting test wells on the Okumya structural crusp southwest of the village of Okumya are recommended. The outlook in searches for petroleum and gas in the Sorsk suite is limited in connection with the depth (more than 6 km) of bedding of the given suite.

  19. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.R.


    The Pioneer Anticline, 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, California, which has yielded oil since 1926, was the subject of a three-year study aimed at recovering more oil. A team from Michigan Technological University of Houghton, Michigan (MTU), and Digital Petrophysics, Inc. of Bakersfield, California (DPI), undertook the study as part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Extraction and Process Technology Program. The program provides support for projects which cross-cut geoscience and engineering research in order to develop innovative technologies for increasing the recovery of some of the estimated 340 billion barrels of in-place oil remaining in U.S. reservoirs. In recent years, low prices and declining production have increased the likelihood that oil fields will be prematurely abandoned, locking away large volumes of unrecovered oil. The major companies have sold many of their fields to smaller operators in an attempt to concentrate their efforts on fewer {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} properties and on overseas exploration. As a result, small companies with fewer resources at their disposal are becoming responsible for an ever-increasing share of U.S. production. The goal of the MTU-DPI project was to make small independent producers who are inheriting old fields from the majors aware that high technology computer software is now available at relatively low cost. In this project, a suite of relatively inexpensive, PC-based software packages, including a commercial database, a multimedia presentation manager, several well-log analysis program, a mapping and cross-section program, and 2-D and 3-D visualization programs, were tested and evaluated on Pioneer Anticline in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. These relatively inexpensive, commercially available PC-based programs can be assembled into a compatible package for a fraction of the cost of a workstation program with similar capabilities.

  20. Palaeozoic Magmatism Associated with Gold-Antimony-Tin-Tungsten-Lead-Zinc and Silver Mineralization in the Neighbouring of Porto, Northern Portugal (United States)

    Couto, Helena; Roger, Guy


    In the studied area there are evidences of Palaeozoic magmatism along the stratigraphic succession from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Igneous, volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks occur along and around a significant Variscan structure, the Valongo Anticline, an asymmetrical antiform anticline, trending NW-SE, located in Central Iberian Zone in the neighbourhood of Porto (Northern Portugal). Mineralizations of gold-antimony-tin-tungsten-lead-zinc and silver occur in the area. Magmatism related to acid and basic subvolcanic and volcanic rocks occurs interbedded in Montalto Formation metasediments (conglomerates, quartzite, wakes and slates) of Cambrian age. In the transition Cambrian-Ordovician (Tremadocian?) underlying the Lower Ordovician massive quartzite of Santa Justa Formation (Floian age), volcanic rocks show bimodal composition and occur interbedded in a lithologic association mainly composed of conglomerate and quartzite with minor slate and wake intercalations. The acid volcanism consists of interbedded volcanoclastic rocks of rhyolitic affinities and black and green cherts in thick layers represent the basic volcanism. To the top of this basal Early Ordovician volcano-sedimentary succession, overlaying Floian massive quartzites, a succession of interbedded quartzite’s, wackes and slates, enriched in ironstones in the normal limb, and bearing prints of volcanic origin occur. Sub-concordant quartz veins (exhalative-origin) interbedded in the ironstones were interpreted as volcanic layers recrystallized during the circulation of hydrothermal mineralizing fluids. The presence of igneous rocks in Palaeozoic Carboniferous metasediments around Porto is known since middle of nineteen century. Granodioritic porphyry intrusion occurs interbedded in carboniferous metasediments. Metasedimentary country rocks are surrounded by pre- to post-orogenic Variscan granites with no direct spatial relationship with mineralization but hidden granitic apexes suggest an indirect

  1. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): seismo-tectonic implications (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico


    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time-series has allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time-series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time-series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm yr-1) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesize a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterized by interseismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  2. Emplacement and Deformation of Mesozoic Gabbros of the High Atlas (Morocco): Paleomagnetism and Magnetic Fabrics (United States)

    Calvín, P.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Moussaid, B.


    A paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric study is performed in Upper Jurassic gabbros of the central High Atlas (Morocco). These gabbros were emplaced in the core of preexisting structures developed during the extensional stage and linked to basement faults. These structures were reactivated as anticlines during the Cenozoic compressional inversion. Gabbros from 19 out of the 33 sampled sites show a stable characteristic magnetization, carried by magnetite, which has been interpreted as a primary component. This component shows an important dispersion due to postemplacement tectonic movements. The absence of paleoposition markers in these igneous rocks precludes direct restorations. A novel approach analyzing the orientation of the primary magnetization is used here to restore the magmatic bodies and to understand the deformational history recorded by these rocks. Paleomagnetic vectors are distributed along small circles with horizontal axes, indicating horizontal axis rotations of the gabbro bodies. These rotations are higher when the ratio between shales and gabbros in the core of the anticlines increases. Due to the uncertainties inherent to this work (the igneous bodies recording strong rotations), interpretations must be qualitative. The magnetic fabric is carried by ferromagnetic (s.s.) minerals mimicking the magmatic fabric. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes, using the rotation routine inferred from paleomagnetic results, result in more tightly clustered magnetic lineations, which also become horizontal and are considered in terms of magma flow trend during its emplacement: NW-SE (parallel to the general extensional direction) in the western sector and NE-SW (parallel to the main faults) in the easternmost structures.

  3. Comparative assessment of geo dynamics processes of oil and gas production areas at the west and east boards of the south-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhardecki, A.V; Zhukov, V.S; Poloudin, G.A


    Full text: Alpine geosynclinals s belt including fold mountains up Carpathian and Crimea Mountainous to Copetdag and Pamirs divided to two unequal parts by the South-Caspian depression.Ashgabadian depression at the east side and Kyrian depression extends and get deeper at the east direction and transforms to South-Caspian depression. Large in number of oil and gas deposits and fields are situated at the areas of this depressions on the west and east boards of the South Caspian. They have a many common characteristics. They are:1.Anticline highs are form tectonic structure like a line. Lines was branching, anticline highs are shingling.2.Red color reservoir of the depression at the east board and production reservoir at the west board of the depression are the main oil and gas containing reservoirs and are stratigraphic analogy of the middle Pliocene age.3.Both side of the depression are areas of the diapiric folding and mud volcanic activity. 4.The intensive seismic activity.5 Marine gryphons, island and sandbank sometime appear and disappear at the littoral area. 6.The Caspian Sea level has quick changes at the geological history and present time.Thus, it is possible to mark two main factors of activation of the geo dynamic processes. First deformation terrestrial surface, and second -induced seismic activity. Comparing above mentioned data on western and east it is visible to boards of the South-Caspian hollow, that for want of availability of the large number identical tectonic of features there are essential distinctions in a character of induced geo dynamic activity. In the long term, in accordance with me development of oil deposits, it is possible to expect manifestation of both factors of activation of geo dynamic processes on both boards of the South-Caspian hollow

  4. Modelling studies for influence factors of gas bubble in compressed air energy storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chaobin; Zhang, Keni; Li, Cai; Wang, Xiaoyu


    CAES (Compressed air energy storage) is credited with its potential ability for large-scale energy storage. Generally, it is more convenient using deep aquifers than employing underground caverns for energy storage, because of extensive presence of aquifers. During the first stage in a typical process of CAESA (compressed air energy storage in aquifers), a large amount of compressed air is injected into the target aquifer to develop an initial space (a gas bubble) for energy storage. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of aquifer's permeability, geological structure and operation parameters on the formation of gas bubble and the sustainability for the later cycling operation. The SCT (system cycle times) was designed as a parameter to evaluate the reservoir performance and the effect of operation parameters. Simulation results for pressure and gas saturation results of basic model confirm the feasibility of compressed air energy storage in aquifers. The results of different permeability cases show that, for a certain scale of CAESA system, there is an optimum permeability range for a candidate aquifer. An aquifer within this permeability range will not only satisfy the injectivity requirement but also have the best energy efficiency. Structural impact analysis indicates that the anticline structure has the best performance to hold the bubble under the same daily cycling schedule with the same initial injected air mass. In addition, our results indicate that the SCT shows a logarithmic growth as the injected air mass increase. During the formation of gas bubble, compressed air should be injected into aquifers with moderate rate and the injection can be done in several stages with different injection rate to avoid onset pressure. - Highlights: • Impact of permeability, geological structure, operation parameters was investigated. • With certain air production rate, an optimum permeability exists for performance.

  5. Exhumation and stress history in the sedimentary cover during Laramide thick-skinned tectonics assessed by stylolite roughness analysis. (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; David, Marie-Eléonore; Koehn, Daniel; Coltier, Robin


    Basement-involvement in shortening in forelands has a strong impact on the overlying sedimentary cover. The basement influences namely the geometry of folds and structures, the stress evolution and the nature and pathways for fluid migrations. However, these influences are poorly documented in context where the basement/cover interface is shallow (key major structures such as the Sheep Mountain Anticline, the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline, and the Bighorn Mountains Arch. Stylolite recognized in the field are clearly related to successive stages of deformation of the sedimentary cover, including fold development. We further apply a newly developed roughness analysis of pressure-solution stylolites which grant access (1) to the magnitude of the vertical principal stress, hence the maximum burial depth of the strata based on sedimentary stylolites, (2) to the principal stress orientations and regimes based on tectonic stylolites and (3) ultimately to the complete stress tensor when sedimentary and tectonic stylolites can be considered coeval. This approach was then coupled to mechanical properties of main competent formations exposed in the basin. Results of stylolite paleopiezometry, compared and combined to existing paleostress estimates from calcite twins and to exhumation reconstruction from low-temperature thermochronology, unravel the potential of the method to refine the structural history at the structure- and basin-scale. On top of the advances this case study adds to the methodology, the quantified reconstruction of stress-exhumation evolution in such a broken-foreland context offers a unique opportunity to discuss how thick-skinned tectonics impacts stress distribution in the sedimentary cover.

  6. 3-D anatomy of an active fault-propagation fold: A multidisciplinary case study from Tsaishi, western Caucasus (Georgia) (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Russo, E.; Bonali, F. L.; Alania, V.; Chabukiani, A.; Enukidze, O.; Tsereteli, N.


    Ongoing deformation processes combining fault propagation and folding are the cause of diffuse seismicity in many areas of the world. A detailed understanding of the structural evolution of tectonically active folds is crucial for the evaluation of seismic hazard. This paper proposes an integrated analysis of an active fold, consisting in the development of a 3D model by combination of geomorphological observations, field geological-structural data and seismic reflection sections. Our case study is the Tsaishi anticline, located at the southwestern tip of the Rioni Basin uplifted area, at the foothill of Greater Caucasus (Western Georgia). We recognized that the fold started to form since the beginning of the middle Miocene, although preliminary data suggest the possibility of initial local uplift in the Oligocene. Folding process continues up to nowadays giving rise to a south-vergent anticline, as shown by upwarped late Quaternary river deposits. The fold backlimb is affected by three main back-thrusts, whereas at the foot of the forelimb a main north-dipping thrust comes very close to the surface based on seismic sections. Here, field data show the presence of a 13-km-long fault scarp (or fold scarp). Along the scarp is located the epicenter of the strongest earthquake to date: the MS 6.0 Tsaishi earthquake that struck the area in 1614 CE. Based on our results, we propose that the overall structure can be classified as an active fault-propagation fold. The recognition of its very recent growing associated with a major, underlying active fault, represents also a major contribution to the seismic hazard assessment of this populated area.

  7. Geology and mineral deposits of the Carlile quadrangle, Crook County, Wyoming (United States)

    Bergendahl, M.H.; Davis, R.E.; Izett, G.A.


    The Carlile quadrangle-is along the northwestern flank of the Black Hills uplift in Crook County, Wyo. The area-is primarily one of canyons and divides that are a result of downcutting by the Belle Fourche River and its tributaries through an alternating succession of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone or shale beds. The present topography is also influenced by the regional structure, as reflected by the beds that dip gently westward and by the local structural features such as anticlines, domes, synclines, basins, and terraces, which are superimposed upon the regional setting. Rocks exposed include shale and thin limestone and sandstone beds belonging to the Redwater shale member of the Sundance formation and to the Morrison formation, both of Late Jurassic age; sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone of the Lakota and Fall River formations of Early Cretaceous age; and shale and sandstone of the Skull Creek shale, Newcastle sandstone, and Mowry shale, also of Early Cretaceous age. In the southwestern part of the quadrangle rocks of the Upper Cretaceous series are exposed. These include the Belle Fourche shale, Greenhorn formation, and Carlile shale. Gravel terraces, landslide debris, and stream alluvium comprise the surficial deposits. The Lakota and Fall River formations, which make up the Iriyan Kara group, contain uranium deposits locally in the northern Black Hills. These formations were informally subdivided in order to show clearly the vertical and lateral distribution of the sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone facies within them.The Lakota was subdivided into a sandstone unit and an overlying mudstone unit; the Fall River was subdivided, in ascending order, into a siltstone unit, a mudstone unit, a sandstone unit, and an upper unit. The lithologic character of the Lakota changes abruptly locally, and the units are quite inconsistent with respect to composition, thickness, and extent. This is in contrast to a notable consistency in the lithologic character and

  8. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.


    a broad anticlinal fold that occurs parallel to, but ??2 km north of, the axis of the Pliocene Wilmington anticline. The Dominguez sequence breaches the crest of the young anticline, cuts through the upper Pleistocene Mesa and Pacific sequences, and into the middle Pleistocene Harbor sequence. Saltwater migrates along channels within the Dominguez sequence and into the underlying sequences (composed mostly of shallow marine and tidal sands, silts, and clays) that contain the classically defined Gage and Lynwood aquifers. The newly recognized Pacific Coast Highway fault cuts through the core of this young fold and is downthrown on the northern side, thereby creating accommodation space for a thick succession of middle Pleistocene sediments that constitute the Upper Wilmington sequence. North of the Pacific Coast Highway fault, the Upper Wilmington sequence contains the classic Silverado aquifer (composed of fluviodeltaic deposits); the Silverado is the primary freshwater aquifer for the West Coast and Central Los Angeles Groundwater Basins. Pore fluid and electric log analyses show the upper part of this aquifer to be saline-intruded near the crest of the young fold. This relationship implies that some saltwater is migrating into deeper aquifers from above, across the regional unconformity that marks the base of the Harbor sequence (ca. 240-270 ka). This sequence-stratigraphic model provides new insight into the potential flow paths for saltwater intrusion, and as such, should allow improved characterization of fluidflow that will aid in transport model studies and in managing groundwater resources. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  9. First quantification of severe wind erosion in yardang fields using cosmogenic 10Be within the western Qaidam Basin, China (United States)

    Rohrmann, A.; Heermance, R.; Kapp, P. A.; Mc-Callister, A.


    Desert environments are a major source of global loess and may undergo substantial wind-erosion as evidenced by yardangs, which are streamlined bedrock ridges sculpted from uni-directional winds. However, there are few quantitative estimates of wind erosion rates in deflationary deserts, globally. Here, we report the first quantitative rates of bedrock wind erosion determined using cosmogenic 10Be in the western Qaidam basin, China, where roughly one-third of the modern basin floor (~3.88 × 104 km2) exposes yardangs. Eleven Neogene bedrock sandstone samples and one pre-Cenozoic granite sample were analyzed for 10Be concentrations. The Neogene samples were collected from crests and limbs of broad and actively growing anticlines, where in most places strata have been wind-sculpted into yardangs. Sedimentary bedrock erosion rates vary from 0.04-0.34 mm/yr, although 60 percent (n=7) of all samples cluster tightly at 0.1 ± 0.03 mm/yr. Erosion rates assume steady-state erosion over ~10,000 years. The lowest rate of 0.0025 mm/yr was obtained from a granite bedrock sample along the Altyn-Tagh range bounding the northwestern margin of the Qaidam basin and is consistent with other 10Be bedrock erosion rates collected from granitic bedrock elsewhere on the Tibetan Plateau. These results demonstrate the importance of lithology in controlling bedrock erodibility by wind. The highest erosion rates of 0.17, 0.25, and 0.34 mm/yr were determined along a transect across an active anticline. The lowest of the three rates was obtained from the top of the structure, suggesting that wind erosion and thus wind speeds are highest on the limbs of an anticline as wind is forced around the obstacle (Bernoulli-effect), rather than flowing over it. The determined sedimentary bedrock erosion rates of 0.04-0.34 mm/yr are in good agreement with previous analysis of basin wide-average erosion rates from geological cross-sections (0.29 mm/yr) and simple erosion calculations using previous lake

  10. The promotion of geomorphosites on salt from Sovata - Praid and Turda using cultural and scientific tourism (United States)

    Toma, B.; Irimus, I.; Petrea, D.


    The paper highlights the role of geomorphosites on salt, in experts and specialists training, in geography of tourism and planning, namely, the involvement of educational factor in defining managerial and marketing skills of future specialists in training. Geographical area of investigation belongs to the Transylvanian tectonic basin, overlapped to saliferous tectonic area from eastern Transylvania, represented by Praid - Sovata - Corund anticline and Sic -Cojocna - Turda anticline, analysis is focused on the Praid - Sovata and Turda diapirs. Saliferous area Praid - Sovata - Corund is situated on the contact area of the Transylvanian Basin with neo-eruptiv mountain chain of Eastern Carpathians, Calimani - Gurghiu - Harghita, and at the contact of Târnavelor Plateau with the orogen alignment of Gurghiu - Harghita Mountains. The salt body, in the horizontal plane, has a quasi-circular shape, slightly ellipsoidal, with diameters of 1.2 and 1.4 km, and is estimated to have a burial depth of 2.6 to 2.8 km. The salt massif from Praid, pierce the Mio-Pliocene blanket around and appears at the surface as diapir, flanked by sedimentary rocks that are partially covered by extrusive post-Pliocene volcanic formations and Quaternary deposits. Evaporitic deposits presents a varied lithology represented by gypsum, anhydrite, salt rock, potassium salt and celestine. The salt massif from Turda develops on the anticline Sic -Cojocna - Turda, oriented NE - SW, 2 km NE of Turda's downtown. It has an elongated shape, about 4 km, with widths ranging from 700 m to 200 m and also with a thickness ranging from 750 m to over 1000 m. In terms of stratigraphy, the salt massif is surrounded by deposits belonging to Badenian, Sarmatian and Quaternary. Due to salt dissolution by meteoric waters, carsto-saline lakes were formed, and due to ceiling collapse, because of an intensive exploitation, and infiltrations of rainwater and rivers, antropo-salted lakes were formed. The water and mud of

  11. Style, magnitude, and timing of shortening at the eastern end of Kura fold-thrust belt, Azerbaijan (United States)

    Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Murtuzayev, I.


    Although the Greater Caucasus forms the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, the main locus of shortening has shifted south since 5 Ma, producing the Kura fold-thrust belt in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Eastward-decreasing structural complexity and depth of exposure within the thrust belt suggest eastward propagation of faulting. Two topographic features define the eastern termination of the Kura fold-thrust belt at ~48°E: a southern range front exposing south-directed, closely spaced (back thrust. To determine the style, magnitude, and timing of shortening at the east end of the fold-thrust belt, we conducted 1:100K-scale structural mapping covering ~1000 ~km^2 of this region. Along-strike changes in structural geometry divide the map area into two structural domains, the Surxayxan in the west and the Qaramaryam to the east. The Surxayxan domain (47.5°E to 47.8°E) is characterized by two main, north-dipping thrusts, the Savalan to the north and Agcayazi ~4-6 km to the S. At maximum displacement the Savalan thrust places Apsheron sediments over Baku-Khazar deposits, repeating ~2 km of section. The hanging wall anticline of the Savalan thrust is poorly preserved, but a footwall syncline occurs along its full length. The Agcayazi thrust defines the southern range front in this domain, characterized by exposures of Apsheron sediments with the overturned forelimb of the hanging wall anticline preserved in limited areas, but no definitive exposure of the thrust. The Qaramaryam structural domain (47.8°E to 48.3°E) is characterized by the eastwards termination of the Agcayazi thrust and transfer of slip to the north-dipping Padar and Inca thrusts to the south, which together form the Qaramaryam anticline. The latter two thrusts are separated by ~4 km and expose the top of the Apsheron at their maximum displacements but mostly deform Baku-Khazar sediments. In both domains, fold geometries are consistent with a trishear model. Preliminary balanced cross sections

  12. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Devary, Joseph L.; Hartshorn, Donald C.


    area swarm has largely subsided. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will continue to monitor for activity at this location. The highest-magnitude events (3.0Mc) were recorded on February 4, 2010 within the Wooded Island swarm (depth 2.4 km) and May 8, 2010 on or near the Saddle Mountain anticline (depth 3.0 km). This latter event is not considered unusual in that earthquakes have been previously recorded at this location, for example, in October 2006 (Rohay et al. 2007). With regard to the depth distribution, 173 earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), 18 earthquakes were located at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and 19 earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, 178 earthquakes were located in known swarm areas, 4 earthquakes occurred on or near a geologic structure (Saddle Mountain anticline), and 28 earthquakes were classified as random events. The Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer (SMA) network was triggered several times by the Wooded Island swarm events and the events located on or near the Saddle Mountain anticline. The maximum acceleration value recorded by the SMA network during fiscal year 2010 occurred February 4, 2010 (Wooded Island swarm event), approximately 2 times lower than the reportable action level for Hanford facilities (2% g) with no action required.

  13. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss


    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  14. Beaufort Sea deep-water gas hydrate recovery from a seafloor mound in a region of widespread BSR occurrence (United States)

    Hart, Patrick E.; Pohlman, John W.; Lorenson, T.D.; Edwards, Brian D.


    Gas hydrate was recovered from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay in August 2010 during a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy expedition (USCG cruise ID HLY1002) under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Interpretation of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 1977 by the USGS across the Beaufort Sea continental margin identified a regional bottom simulating reflection (BSR), indicating that a large segment of the Beaufort Sea slope is underlain by gas hydrate. During HLY1002, gas hydrate was sampled by serendipity with a piston core targeting a steep-sided bathymetric high originally thought to be an outcrop of older, exposed strata. The feature cored is an approximately 1100m diameter, 130 m high conical mound, referred to here as the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM), which overlies the crest of a buried anticline in a region of sub-parallel compressional folds beneath the eastern Beaufort outer slope. An MCS profile shows a prominent BSR upslope and downslope from the mound. The absence of a BSR beneath the CSM and occurrence of gas hydrate near the summit indicates that free gas has migrated via deep-rooted thrust faults or by structural focusing up the flanks of the anticline to the seafloor. Gas hydrate recovered from near the CSM summit at a subbottom depth of about 5.7 meters in a water depth of 2538 m was of nodular and vein-filling morphology. Although the hydrate was not preserved, residual gas from the core liner contained >95% methane by volume when corrected for atmospheric contamination. The presence of trace C4+hydrocarbons (extrusion contributing to the development of the mound. Blister-like inflation of the seafloor caused by formation and accumulation of shallow hydrate lenses is also a likely factor in CSM growth. Pore water analysis shows the sulfate-methane transition to be very shallow (0-1 mbsf), also supporting an active high-flux interpretation. Pore water with chloride concentrations as low as 160 m

  15. Research on the evolution model and deformation mechanisms of Baishuihe landslide based on analyzing geologic process of slope (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, H.; Cai, Y.; Tan, Q.


    The landslide is a result of both inner and exterior geologic agents, and inner ones always have significant influences on the susceptibility of geologic bodies to the exterior ones. However, current researches focus more on impacts of exterior factors, such as precipitation and reservoir water, than that of geologic process. Baishuihe landslide, located on the south bank of Yangtze River and 56km upstream from the Three Gorges Project, was taken as the study subject with the in-situ investigation and exploration carried out for the first step. After the spatial analysis using the 3D model of topography built by ArcGIS (Fig.1), geologic characteristics of the slope that lies in a certain range near the Baishuihe landslide on the same bank were investigated for further insights into geologic process of the slope, with help of the geological map and structure outline map. Baishuihe landslide developed on the north limb of Baifuping anticline, a dip slope on the southwest margin of Zigui basin. The eastern and western boundaries are both ridges and in the middle a distinct slide depression is in process of deforming. Evolutionary process of Baishuihe landslide includes three steps below. 1) Emergence of Baifuping anticline leaded to interbedded dislocation, tension cracks and joint fractures in bedrocks. 2) Weathering continuously weakened strength of soft interlayers in the Shazhenxi Formation (T3s). 3) Rock slide caused by neotectonics happened on a large scale along the weak layers and joint planes, forming initial Baishuihe landslide. Although the landslide has undergone reconstruction for a long time, it could still be divided clearly into two parts, namely a) the rock landslide at the back half (south) and b) the debris landslide at the front half (north). a) The deformation mechanism for the rock landslide is believed to be deterioration in strength of weak bedding planes due to precipitation and free face caused by human activities or river incision. b

  16. Antecedent morphology and active tectonics in the upper Bengal Delta: Multi-temporal controls on river mobility and sediment preservation (United States)

    Pickering, J.; Goodbred, S. L.; Hartzog, T.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Palamenghi, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mondal, D.; Hossain, S.; Petter, A. L.; Paola, C.


    The upper Bengal delta is a tectonically active depositional environment composed of unconsolidated muds and sands constructed by channel migration, avulsion, and overbank processes. These riverine sediments define the channels, floodplains, and terraces that make up the surface morphology of the upper delta plain. Until recently, the stratigraphic architecture underlying this surface morphology was poorly defined, and at present, both the origin of the upland terraces and the nature of the river avulsions continue to be debated. However, stratigraphic results from a 41-well drilling transect and a corresponding high-resolution multichannel seismic expedition in 2011 in north-central Bangladesh have begun to reveal the subsurface distribution of sediments in this dynamic environment. Two adjacent sand-dominated Holocene channel systems, presently occupied by the Jamuna and Old Brahmaputra Rivers, are each bounded by mud-capped morphological features. Pleistocene-aged terraces (Barind and Madhupur Terraces) bound the modern Jamuna River valley on either side. These terraces are composed of fining-upward fluviodeltaic deposits capped by 5-10 m of mud. The Madhupur Terrace also forms the southwestern boundary of the alternate channel course along the Old Brahmaputra, and the northeastern boundary of this valley is formed by a tectonically influenced wedge of Pleistocene mud (Sylhet Basin). This wedge is capped by a thin veneer of Holocene mud interfingered with ephemeral channel sands derived from the overthrusting 2-km high Shillong Anticline. Each of these mud-capped morphological deposits represents an area of the delta that has persisted throughout the Pleistocene; thus we focus on these fine-grained sediments in an effort to understand the long-term transition from surface morphology to preserved stratigraphy. We suggest that these Pleistocene features are an important control on river course mobility, and subsequently, on sediment deposition and preservation, at

  17. Neogene deformation of thrust-top Rzeszów Basin (Outer Carpathians, Poland) (United States)

    Uroda, Joanna


    The Rzeszów Basin is a 220 km2 basin located in the frontal part of Polish Outer Carpathians fold-and-thrust belt. Its sedimentary succession consist of ca. 600 m- thick Miocene evaporates, litoral and marine sediments. This basin developed between Babica-Kąkolówka anticline and frontal thrust of Carpathian Orogen. Rzeszów thrust-top basin is a part of Carpathian foreland basin system- wedge-top depozone. The sediments of wedge -top depozone were syntectonic deformed, what is valuable tool to understand kinematic history of the orogen. Analysis of field and 3D seismic reflection data showed the internal structure of the basin. Seismic data reveal the presence of fault-bend-folds in the basement of Rzeszów basin. The architecture of the basin - the presence of fault-releated folds - suggest that the sediments were deformed in last compressing phase of Carpathian Orogen deformation. Evolution of Rzeszów Basin is compared with Bonini (1999) model of thrust-top basin whose development is controlled by the kinematics of two competing thrust anticlines. Analysis of seismic and well data in Rzeszów basin suggest that growth sediments are thicker in south part of the basin. During the thrusting the passive rotation of the internal thrust had taken place, what influence the basin fill architecture and depocentre migration opposite to thrust propagation. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grant No 2012/07/N/ST10/03221 of the Polish National Centre of Science "Tectonic activity of the Skole Nappe based on analysis of changes in the vertical profile and depocentre migration of Neogene sediments in Rzeszów-Strzyżów area (Outer Carpathians)". Seismic data by courtesy of the Polish Gas and Oil Company. References Bonini M., Moratti G., Sani F., 1999, Evolution and depocentre migration in thrust-top basins: inferences from the Messinian Velona Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy), Tectonophysics 304, 95-108.

  18. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed


    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEff<15% and SH< 15%). The lateral distribution maps revealed that most of the hydrocarbons (for S1A and S1C units) are indicated at the middle of the study area as NE-SW oriented closures. The analysis and interpretation of seismic data had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil

  19. Submergence and Uplift Associated to Paleoearthquakes in the Northern Sunda Subduction System: Implications for Future Earthquakes. (United States)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Mustaque, S.


    Recent studies documented that the northern part of the Sunda subduction zone ruptured several times in the past 1500 years including one in 1762. To better understand megathrust surface ruptures and the hazards associated to them, we surveyed the SE coast of Bangladesh along the Teknaf peninsula and the Saint Martin anticline by dating coral microatolls of Porites lutea species by the U-Th dating method. Porites luteagrows a few centimeters below the low tide level creating a 5-12 mm thick skeletal band per year, which makes them a good indicator of relative sea level change that might be caused during tectonic submergence and uplift. U-Th ages were obtained from coral slabs and their growth bands interpreted from x-rays. The corals and marine terraces uplift were measured with high precision RTK GPS and modeled with high resolution DEM. The coral microatolls along the St. Martin anticline were dated to be ~ 250, 800 and 1300 years old. Since storm and other climatic phenomenon cannot cause uplift, we interpret that 2.5 m uplift was caused by 1762 earthquake that killed the coral microatolls. The coral slabs show three growth interruptions, where skeletal growth bands continued to grow onlapping the older growth bands. These growth onlaps could be the result of smaller uplift events after 1762 that did not result in coral mortality. The subsidence history extracted from vertical growth of the slabs suggests that the island is submerging at a rate of 11 mm/year. Corals growing 250 m from the dead coral colony post date the 1762 earthquake. Today living Porites lutea can be found 2.5 m below the dead coral heads and 9 cm above the spring low tide. The elevation of marine terraces (T1, T2 and T3) along the Teknaf coast is 2.5 m, 5-7 m and 11-13 m above sea level, respectively. A shell bed on top of T1 was dated at 1763 (dated by C14). This and the other two terraces could have been uplifted during the three earthquakes dated from coral microatolls. Considering the

  20. Spatial distribution of landslides triggered from the 2007 Niigata Chuetsu–Oki Japan Earthquake (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert E.; Tanaka, Yasuo


    Understanding the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced landslides from specific earthquakes provides an opportunity to recognize what to expect from future events. The July 16, 2007 Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata Chuetsu–Oki Japan earthquake triggered hundreds of landslides in the area surrounding the coastal city of Kashiwazaki and provides one such opportunity to evaluate the impacts of an offshore, magnitude 6 + earthquake on a steep coastal region. As part of a larger effort to document all forms of geotechnical damage from this earthquake, we performed landslide inventory mapping throughout the epicentral area and analyzed the resulting data for spatial, seismic-motion, and geologic correlations to describe the pattern of landsliding. Coupled with examination of a third-party, aerial-photo-based landslide inventory, our analyses reveal several areas of high landslide concentration that are not readily explained by either traditional epicentral and fault–plane-distance metrics or by recorded and inferred ground-motions. Whereas average landslide concentrations averaged less than 1 landslide per square kilometer (LS/km2), some areas reached up to 2 LS/km2 in the Nishiyama Hills to the northeast of Kashiwazaki and between 2 and 11 LS/km2 in coastal areas to the north and south of the city. Correlation with seismometer-based and monument overturning back-calculated ground motions suggests that a minimum peak ground acceleration (PGA) of approximately 0.2 g was necessary for landsliding throughout the region, but does not explain the subregional areas of high landslide concentration. However, analysis of topographic slope and the distribution of generally weak, dip-slope, geologic units does sufficiently explain why, on a sub-regional scale, high landslide concentrations occurred where they did. These include: (1) an inland region of steep, dip-slope, anticlinal sedimentary strata with associated fold belt compression and uplift of the anticline and (2

  1. Quantification of fold growth of frontal antiforms in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE Iraq) (United States)

    Bretis, Bernhard; Bartl, Nikolaus; Graseman, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan


    The Zagros fold and thrust belt is a seismically active orogen, where actual kinematic models based on GPS networks suggest a north-south shortening between Arabian and Eurasian in the order of 1.5-2.5 cm/yr. Most of this deformation is partitioned in south-southwest oriented folding and thrusting with northwest-southeast to north-south trending dextral strike slip faults. The Zagros fold and thrust belt is of great economic interest because it has been estimated that this area contains about 15% of the global recoverable hydrocarbons. Whereas the SE parts of the Zagros have been investigated by detailed geological studies, the NW extent being part of the Republic of Iraq have experienced considerably less attention. In this study we combine field work and remote sensing techniques in order to investigate the interaction of erosion and fold growth in the area NE of Erbil (Kurdistan, Iraq). In particular we focus on the interaction of the transient development of drainage patterns along growing antiforms, which directly reflects the kinematics of progressive fold growth. Detailed geomorphological studies of the Bana Bawi-, Permam- and Safeen fold trains show that these anticlines have not developed from subcylindrical embryonic folds but they have merged from different fold segments that joined laterally during fold amplification. This fold segments with length between 5 and 25 km have been detected by mapping ancient and modern river courses that initially cut the nose of growing folds and eventually got defeated leaving behind a wind gap. Fold segments, propagating in different directions force rivers to join resulting in steep gorges, which dissect the merging fold noses. Along rapidly lateral growing folds (e.g. at the SE end of the Bana Bawi Anticline) we observed "curved wind gaps", a new type of abandoned river course, where form of the wind gap mimics a formed nose of a growing antiform. The inherited curved segments of uplifted curved river courses strongly

  2. Structural Architecturing of the Western Khisor Range, North of Saiyiduwali: Implications for Hydrocarbon Prospects, KPK, Pakistan

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    Iftikhar Alam


    Full Text Available Western Khisor Range segment of the Trans-Indus ranges is a south-vergent, east-west trending foldthrust belt that protrudes southward into Himalayan foreland deep. The frontal flanks of range are characterized by east-west trending parallel to enechelon, plunging local anticlines and synclines structures. General structural style of folds was observed asymmetric to overturn and dominantly south vergent. The frontal outskirts of the study area is demarcated by a youngest partly emergent thrust fault named as Khisor Thrust. Outcrops projection to subsurface of the structural features suggests a thin-skinned tectonic mechanism for growth of the western Khisor Range where gliding surface for the frontal thrust sheet being located within the Cambrian rocks of Jhelum Group at a maximum depth of 4km. The structural evolution of the western Khisor Range is generally ascribed to southward directed thrust transferral system along the basal décollement being observed at base of the Cambrian Khewra Sandstone. Along this detachment horizon the Khewra Sandstone emplaced over the Recent alluvium and boulder bed deposits. The Khisor Thrust fault bulldozed the fore limb of the Saiyiduwali Anticline and demarcates the north-western proximity of the Punjab Foredeep. The Khisor Thrust sheet is predominantly comprised of the shallow marine rocks of Paleozoic to Mesozoic, laterally extended along the range. The stratigraphic framework of the western Khisor Range is considerably related and correlative to the eastern Trans-Indus and Salt ranges. Cambrian strata of the western Khisor Range comprise of Jhelum Group where its apex is underlain by the Permian Nilawahan and Zaluch groups rocks, consists of the Sardhai and Amb formations. The Sardhai Formation was observed 50m thick and consists of dark gray to blackish gray and black carbonaceous shale while the lower constituents of the Amb Formation contains dark gray carbonaceous and calcareous shale up to 30m thick

  3. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oton, S.W


    It is well known that the most dominant types of Hydrocarbon types found in the petroliferous Niger Delta are the classical rollover anticlinical traps 'I of oil exploration in the delta, these easy-to-find rollover structures are getting exhausted. They are most numerous at shallow depths in the younger delta front sedimentary sequence. Generally, during this primary oil exploration stage, oil and gas exploration have been concentrated in the shallow depths where they are easy to reach, easy to explore and easy to produce. This means that the present and future exploration campaigns in the Niger Delta should be directed towards other types of hydrocarbon trapping mechanisms that have been mapped in the delta. Many exploration models have been used and oil has been found in at least nine types of traps in the Niger Delta. The contrary (or anitithetic) fault model was used at the close of the last century. This model is so called because the controlling antithetic fault has a regional dip contrary to the structure-building growth fault with which it is associated. These faults, which are widespread in the Niger Delta, are easy to map especially on the Petro geological model. In this period, several promising hydrocarbon accumulations trapped against antithetic faults were discovered and tested. These hydrocarbon targets also seem fully explored and exhausted now. Recently, from modern high resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic data a lot of good prospects have been mapped and drilled in the deep horizon. In the last few years, a lot of unexplored oil have been discovered and tested in the deep horizons. They are mostly in hanging wall traps, at depth below 4,000 meters. This shows that most of the remaining undiscovered hydrocarbons in the Niger Delta may well be in these deep hanging wall traps between 4,000 and close to 5,600 meters. A definite search for deep-seated hanging wall traps is therefore recommended in a bid to find more new reservoirs and thereby increase the

  5. Mesoscopic S-C fabrics in shallow fault zones: a case history from the Umbria-Marche Apennines (Central Italy) (United States)

    Barchi, M. R.; Lena, G.; Alvarez, W.; Felici, F.; Lupattelli, A.


    Several examples of fault zones, characterised by a penetrative S-C fabric at a mesoscopic scale, developed at shallow depth (DCucco anticline with a down-section trajectory, and producing the tectonic superposition of younger (Miocene marls and sandstones) on older (Paleogene limestones) rocks.. The clayey rocks of the hangingwall block are almost undeformed. We performed a detailed mesostructural analysis along several outcrops of the STZ, aimed to: i) a detailed qualitative and quantitative description of a significant example of S-C fabric, developed in sedimentary rocks at shallow crustal levels; ii) the reconstruction of the structural meso and macro-architecture of the shear-related damage zone; iii) the study of the factors, controlling the genesis and development of the analyzed tectonic pattern. The STZ consists of an intensely cleaved fault core (S-C fabric, where C-surfaces are spaced 5-10 cm, whilst S-surfaces are spaced 2-20 mm), up to 50 m thick, affecting the Eocene-Oligocene marly succession. Within the fault core, a set of steeper reverse shear planes (C2, dip>45°) affects and displaces the pre-existing S-C fabric. Just below the fault core, a band of asymmetric chevron folds is observed. Going down into the footwall block, the mudstones of the Scaglia Rossa Fm. are characterized by a progressively less intense and more brittle deformation, superimposed on a previous set of tectonic features (spaced pressure solution cleavages and associated calcite veins, i.e. "background deformation"). As expected, within the STZ, the magnitude of deformation decreases with the distance from the main tectonic contact; however, far from the fault core, the magnitude of deformation is lithologically controlled: almost undeformed calcareous beds are alternated to intensely sheared intervals, localised along weak, marly horizons. The interpretation of a seismic profile, suggest that the STZ is the surface expression of two different thrusts, splaying-out from two d

  6. Simulating oil recovery during CO{sub 2} sequestration into a mature oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamukcu, Y.Z. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Gumrah, F. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)


    The advantages of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into depleted oil reservoirs were discussed with particular reference to the Kartaltepe Field in southeast Turkey. Geologic sequestration is gaining interest as an option to dispose large amount of CO{sub 2} safely and economically for long-term periods. This emerging technology to reduce large amounts of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere involves the capture of CO{sub 2} from hydrocarbon emissions, transportation of compressed CO{sub 2} from the source to the field, and injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into the subsurface. While CO{sub 2} injection into oil reservoirs has been in practice for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes for more than 35 years, this paper focused on how to maximize oil recovery with the minimum quantity of CO{sub 2} and sequestering the maximum amount of CO{sub 2}. The Kartaltepe Field which has been in production since 1982, consists of alternating layers of sands and shales deposited in deltaic and marine carbonates to form a faulted anticline structure extending over an area of 2.70 km by 0.75 km. The light crude is produced from a carbonate formation at an average depth of 1930 m to 1950 m. The primary drive mechanism is water drive. The reservoir is a heterogeneous reef composed of two distinct carbonate formations. The upper formation is limestone with an average porosity of 5 per cent and average permeability of 0.06 md. The lower formation is dolomite with an average porosity of 25 per cent, and average permeability of 60 md. The reservoir shape is anticline, and it is bounded by faults and underlain by an aquifer. Reservoir rock and fluid data were evaluated and merged into CMG/STARS simulator. History matching was done with production data to verify the results of the simulator with field data. Once a good match was obtained, different scenarios were simulated. The results showed that CO{sub 2} injection can increase oil recovery. However, it was determined that

  7. Active thrusting and folding in the Qilian Shan, and decoupling between upper crust and mantle in northeastern Tibet (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Meyer, B.; Avouac, J. P.; Peltzer, G.; Gaudemer, Y.; Guo, Shunmin; Xiang, Hongfa; Yin, Kelun; Chen, Zhitai; Cai, Shuahua; Dai, Huagang


    Fieldwork south of the city of Gaotai (Gansu province, China) shows that active shortening of surface sediments in the foothills of the Yumu Shan, a large fore-mountain of the Qilian Shan, at the northeastern edge of Tibet, involves both overthrusting and flexural-slip folding. North of this mountain, we found and mapped a prominent north-facing thrust scarp that offsets a Holocene fan sloping gently (3.4°) to the north. Part of this scarp appears to be related to the M ≈ 7.5, 180 A.D. earthquake that may have led to the demise of the Han Dynasty city of Luo Tuo Chen, in the Hexi corridor. A set of 10, 100-150 m long profiles measured across this scarp, 3.2 m high on the average, can be made to fit the diffusion-degraded morphology of a surface break related to the 180 A.D. event using a value of about 3.3 m 2/10 3 yr for the mass diffusivity ϰ of fanglomerates in this part of Gansu province. Smaller mountain-facing scarps on a terrace-capped foothill result from bedding slip concurrent with active folding of underlying, steeply northdipping, Plioquaternary sandstone and conglomerate beds. Holocene uplift rates along the Yumu Shan, which is only one of the Qilian Shan ranges, are estimated to be between 0.4 and 1.9 mm/yr, which implies that much of the mountain formed in the Quaternary. The periclinal structure of the Plioquaternary envelope under which the Paleozoic core of the Yumu Shan plunges towards the west suggests that the whole 3200 m high mountain is a basement ramp anticline. Mountains striking parallel to the Yumu Shan, with similar structure and comparable or greater sizes north and south of the Hexi corridor probably also correspond to recent, crustal ramp anticlines. This implies that the wide, mountainous upper crustal wedge making the northeastern edge of the Tibet-Qinghai plateau is detached from the underlying lower crust and upper mantle.

  8. Neoarchaean tectonic history of the Witwatersrand Basin and Ventersdorp Supergroup: New constraints from high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data (United States)

    Manzi, Musa S. D.; Hein, Kim A. A.; King, Nick; Durrheim, Raymond J.


    First-order scale structures in the West Wits Line and West Rand goldfields of the Witwatersrand Basin (South Africa) were mapped using the high-resolution 3D reflection seismic method. Structural models constrain the magnitude of displacement of thrusts and faults, the gross structural architecture and Neoarchaean tectonic evolution of the West Rand and Bank fault zones, which offset the gold-bearing reefs of the basin. The merging of several 3D seismic surveys made clear the gross strato-structural architecture of the goldfields; a macroscopic fold-thrust belt is crosscut by a macroscopic extensional fault array. These are dissected, eroded and overlain by the Transvaal Supergroup above an angular unconformity. The seismic sections confirm that the West Rand Group (ca. 2985-2902 Ma) is unconformably overlain by the Central Rand Group (ca. 2902-2849 Ma), with tilting of the West Rand Group syn- to post-erosion at ca. 2.9 Ga. The seismic sections also confirm that an unconformable relationship exists between the Central Rand Group and the auriferous Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR), with an easterly-verging fold-thrust belt being initiated concomitant to deposition of the VCR at approximately 2.72 Ga. Fold-thrust formation included development of the (1) newly identified first-order scale Libanon Anticline, (2) Tandeka and Jabulani thrusts which displace the West Rand Group, and (3) parasite folds. The fold-thrust belt is crosscut by a macroscopic extensional fault array (or rift-like system of faults) which incepted towards the end of extrusion of the Ventersdorp lavas, and certainly during deposition of the Platberg Group (2709-2643 Ma) when a mantle plume may have heated the lithosphere. The West Rand and Bank fault zones formed at this time and include (1) the West Rand and Bank faults which are scissors faults; (2) second and third-order scale normal faults in the immediate footwall and hanging wall of the faults; (3) drag synclines, and (4) rollover anticlines.

  9. Subsurface Deformation in the Gangetic Plain - First results from the BrahmaSeis multichannel seismic survey on Bangladesh Rivers (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Palamenghi, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Petter, A. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mondal, D.; Khan, S. R.


    shot rates on the order of 5 to 8 seconds, were sufficiently dense to achieve a horizontal resolution between 1 and 5 meters, and vertical resolution is on the order of 1 meter. Preliminary processing has revealed several areas, where pronounced deformation can be derived from underlying pre-Holocene strata geometries, revealing anticlines and reflector truncation at the base of the river plain sediments. In particular the Jamuna N-S transect completely images this Holocene base reflector. In the northernmost survey lines on Jamuna, it seems that the assumed position of the Dauki Fault finds it expression in subsurface deformation, an anticline geometry as well as steps in the Holocene base reflector.

  10. Tectonics and sedimentology of post-rift anomalous vertical movements: the rifted margin of Morocco (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Charton, Remi; Luber, Tim; Arantegui, Angel; Redfern, Jonathan


    Roughly 15 years ago it was discovered that substantial parts of the Morocco passive continental margin experienced km-scale, post-rift exhumation. It was predicted that the sands resulting from the associated erosion would be present in the offshore and potentially form hydrocarbon reservoirs. At the same time, anomalous post-rift vertical movements have been documented in various localities of the world and rifted continental margins are at present exciting objects of research. Following intense research efforts the knowledge of the kinematics of vertical movements and their implications for sedimentary systems is increasing. The low-T geochronology initially limited to the classical Meseta-Massif Ancien de Marrakech transect has been expanded reaching the Reguibate Massif to the S and covering, possibly more importantly, one transect in E-W direction along the Anti Atlas. Exhumation occurred along two dominant trends. In N-S direction a several hundred-kilometers long exhuming domain developed roughly parallel to the Atlantic margin. Changes in magnitude and timing of exhumation are observed along this elevated domain associated with E-W trending undulations. The timing of main stage of upward movement of E-W trending highs seems to be Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in the Meseta and High Atlas and somewhat older, Early to Middle Jurassic, in the Anti-Atlas and Reguibate. The discovery of E-W trending highs and lows has major implication for sediment distribution and dispersal. At the large scale, it means that the drainage basins were smaller than initially predicted. This seems to be compatible with the paucity of sands encountered by recent exploration wells drilled offshore Morocco. At the scale of several kilometers, W-E trending anticlines and synclines developed in a generally subsiding coastal environment. These folds often had an expression at the sea floor documented by ravinement surfaces and (Jurassic) reef build-ups on top of the anticlines

  11. Water in carbonate rocks of the Madison Group in southeastern Montana--A preliminary evaluation (United States)

    Miller, W. Roger


    The Madison Group of Mississippian age comprises, from oldest to youngest, the Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Limestones and the Charles Formation. The Madison crops out in the Bighorn and Pryor Mountains and in the mountains west of the study area. These rocks consist of cyclically deposited normal-marine carbonates and restricted-marine carbonates and evaporites. The Madison ranges in thickness from about 700 feet (210 metres) in the Bighorn Mountains to about 2,000 feet (610 metres) in the Williston basin. The top of the Madison ranges in depth from land surface in the mountains to about 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) below land surface along the MontanaWyoming border. The potentiometric surface of water in the Madison Group slopes northeastward from the outcrops. Potentiometric lows occur in the Cat Creek anticline-Porcupine dome area along the Bighorn River and at the north end of Powder River basin. Potentiometric highs occur in outcrop areas, on the interstream divide between the Bighorn, Tongue, and Yellowstone Rivers, and along the Cedar Creek anticline. The potentiometric surface ranges from 1,200 feet (370 metres) below land surface in the topographically high areas in the southern part of the area to 1,000 feet (300 metres) above land surface along the Yellowstone River. Yields from wells range from about 50 gallons per minute (3 litres per second) at several places to a reported 1,400 gallons per minute (88 litres per second) from a flowing well on the north side of the Porcupine dome. Yields estimated or reported from drill-stem tests range from about 1 to 157 gallons per minute {0.1 to 9.9 litres per second). Water from the Madison generally contains less than 3,000 milligrams per litre dissolved solids south of T. 1 N., and from 3,000 to 10,000 milligrams per litre in most of the remaining area; in the Williston basin the concentration increases to more than 100,000 milligrams per litre. In the southeastern and southwestern parts of the area, calcium

  12. Penetration of UV-B radiation in foliage: evidence that the epidermis behaves as a non-uniform filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, T.A.; Martin, G.; Vogelmann, T.C.


    In some plants, particularly herbaceous species, a considerable proportion of incident ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) penetrates into the leaf mesophyll where it is potentially damaging to nucleic acids and the photosynthetic machinery. We used optical techniques to look at the spatial variation in UV-B penetration through the epidermis of foliage of two herbaceous species (Chenopodium album and Smilacina stellata) and a conifer (Picea pungens). Measurements of UV-B penetration in intact foliage with a fibre-optic microprobe revealed that 300 nm radiation reached 161±36μm (mean±SD) into leaves of C. album, 154±40μm in S. stellata and 17±2μm in P. pungens, with epidermal transmittance being 39±14%, 55±19% and 0%, respectively. A thin polymer film was developed which fluoresced blue when irradiated by UV-B. Fresh epidermal leaf peels were placed over the film and irradiated with UV-B, and microscopic examination of the film from below allowed us to determine the spatial pattern of UV-B penetration through the epidermis. In herbaceous species, film fluorescence below cell walls, but not epidermal and guard cell protoplasts indicated that UV-B transmittance was much greater through anticlinal cell wall regions than protoplasts. Ultraviolet-B transmittance through large areas of epidermal cells could be induced by plasmolysis. Epidermal transmittance was also relatively high through stomal pores (and what appear to be nuclei in Smilacina), but relatively low through stomatal guard cells. Results from the fluorescing film technique were substantiated by direct measurements of UV-B transmittance through epidermal peels with a fibre-optic microprobe run paradermally along the bottom or inner side of irradiated peels. In Smilacina, we estimate that UV-B epidermal transmittance was up to 90% through anticlinal cell wall regions, but <10% through protoplast areas. In contrast to herbaceous species, we did not detect any UV-B transmittance through the

  13. Seismotectonics of the 6 February 2012 Mw 6.7 Negros Earthquake, central Philippines (United States)

    Aurelio, M. A.; Dianala, J. D. B.; Taguibao, K. J. L.; Pastoriza, L. R.; Reyes, K.; Sarande, R.; Lucero, A.


    At 03:49 UTC on the 6th of February 2012, Negros Island in the Visayan region of central Philippines was struck by a magnitude Mw 6.7 earthquake causing deaths of over 50 people and tremendous infrastructure damage leaving hundreds of families homeless. The epicenter was located in the vicinity of the eastern coastal towns of La Libertad and Tayasan of the Province of Negros Oriental. Earthquake-induced surface deformation was mostly in the form of landslides, liquefaction, ground settlement, subsidence and lateral spread. There were no clear indications of a fault surface rupture. The earthquake was triggered by a fault that has not been previously recognized. Earthquake data, including epicentral and hypocentral distributions of main shock and aftershocks, and focal mechanism solutions of the main shock and major aftershocks, indicate a northeast striking, northwest dipping nodal plane with a reverse fault mechanism. Offshore seismic profiles in the Tañon Strait between the islands of Negros and Cebu show a northwest dipping reverse fault consistent in location, geometry and mechanism with the nodal plane calculated from earthquake data. The earthquake generator is here proposed to be named the Negros Oriental Thrust (NOT). Geologic transects established from structural traverses across the earthquake region reveal an east-verging fold-thrust system. In the latitude of Guihulngan, this fold-thrust system is represented by the Razor Back Anticline - Negros Oriental Thrust pair, and by the Pamplona Anticline - Yupisan Thrust pair in the latitude of Dumaguete to the south. Together, these active fold-thrust systems are causing active deformation of the western section of the Visayan Sea Basin under a compressional tectonic regime. This finding contradicts previous tectonic models that interpret the Tañon Strait as a graben, bounded on both sides by normal faults supposedly operating under an extensional regime. The Negros Earthquake and the active fold

  14. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.


    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 23 local earthquakes during the third quarter of FY 2010. Sixteen earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), five earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the pre-basalt sediments, and two earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, twelve earthquakes were located in known swarm areas, 3 earthquakes occurred near a geologic structure (Saddle Mountain anticline), and eight earthquakes were classified as random events. The highest magnitude event (3.0 Mc) was recorded on May 8, 2010 at depth 3.0 km with epicenter located near the Saddle Mountain anticline. Later in the quarter (May 24 and June 28) two additional earthquakes were also recorded nearly at the same location. These events are not considered unusual in that earthquakes have been previously recorded at this location, for example, in October 2006 (Rohay et al; 2007). Six earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just

  15. Pore-water evolution and solute-transport mechanisms in Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Mont Russelin (Canton Jura, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, M. [Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Haller de, A. [Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)


    Data pertinent to pore-water composition in Opalinus Clay in the Mont Terri and Mont Russelin anticlines have been collected over the last 20 years from long-term in situ pore-water sampling in dedicated boreholes, from laboratory analyses on drill cores and from the geochemical characteristics of vein infills. Together with independent knowledge on regional geology, an attempt is made here to constrain the geochemical evolution of the pore-waters. Following basin inversion and the establishment of continental conditions in the late Cretaceous, the Malm limestones acted as a fresh-water upper boundary leading to progressive out-diffusion of salinity from the originally marine pore-waters of the Jurassic low-permeability sequence. Model calculations suggest that at the end of the Palaeogene, pore-water salinity in Opalinus Clay was about half the original value. In the Chattian/Aquitanian, partial evaporation of sea-water occurred. It is postulated that brines diffused into the underlying sequence over a period of several Myr, resulting in an increase of salinity in Opalinus Clay to levels observed today. This hypothesis is further supported by the isotopic signatures of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in current pore-waters. These are not simple binary mixtures of sea and meteoric water, but their Cl{sup -} and stable water-isotope signatures can be potentially explained by a component of partially evaporated sea-water. After the re-establishment of fresh-water conditions on the surface and the formation of the Jura Fold and Thrust Belt, erosion caused the activation of aquifers embedding the low-permeability sequence, leading to the curved profiles of various pore-water tracers that are observed today. Fluid flow triggered by deformation events during thrusting and folding of the anticlines occurred and is documented by infrequent vein infills in major fault structures. However, this flow was spatially focussed and of limited duration and so did not

  16. A study of seed micromorphology in the genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán Cela, Pablo


    Full Text Available Seed micromorphology of 19 taxa of the genus Ophrys have been studied using SEM and light microscope. Quantitative data (length and width of seed and embryo, number of testa cells along the longitudinal axis, volume of seed and embryo, and percentage of free air space, as well as qualitative characters (seed shape, features of the anticlinal and periclinal walls, ornamentation and colour were analysed. All the seeds are fusiform, with an asymmetrical basal pole, the periclinal walls of the medial cells have parallel and transverse to slanting ridges, and raised anticlinal walls. Statistical analyses show two large clusters according to the volumes of seed and embryo. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and their recent diversification, however, seed features are not congruent with the recognition of sections and groups within Ophrys.Se ha estudiado la micromorfología de semillas de 19 taxones del género Ophrys mediante el empleo de microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido. Se han analizado datos cuantitativos (longitud y anchura de la semilla y del embrión, número de células en la testa a lo largo del eje longitudinal, volumen de la semilla y del embrión, y porcentaje de espacio aéreo libre y cualitativos (morfología de la semilla, características de sus paredes anticlinales y periclinales, ornamentación y color. Todas las semillas analizadas son fusiformes, con polo basal asimétrico, ornamentación de las paredes periclinales formada por costillas paralelas y transversales a oblicuas, y paredes anticlinales prominentes. Los análisis estadísticos revelan dos grandes cluster según los valores de los volúmenes de la semilla y el embrión. Nuestros resultados apoyan la monofilia del género y su reciente diversificación, sin embargo, los caracteres micromorfológicos de las semillas no son congruentes con el reconocimiento de secciones y grupos dentro del género Ophrys.

  17. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.


    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  18. Conodont biostratigraphy of lower Ordovician rocks, Arbuckle Group, southern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresbach, R.I.; Ethington, R.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))


    The Arbuckle Group of southern Oklahoma displays the only complete exposure of the shallow-water carbonates that characterize the Lower Ordovician of interior North America. Trilobites have been described from some parts of this sequence and sporadic occurrences of other invertebrates are known, but much of the sequence is sparingly fossiliferous. As a consequence, these magnificent exposures have not contributed notably to continuing efforts toward development of a comprehensive biostratigraphic scheme for the Lower Ordovician of the North American platform. Samples collected at 25-ft intervals through the Arbuckle Group along and adjacent to Interstate Highway 35 on the south flank of the Arbuckle anticline near Ardmore, Oklahoma, produced conodonts in abundances ranging from a few tens to over a thousand elements per kilogram and displaying good to excellent preservation with low CAI. These conodonts document a biostratigraphic continuum that provides a standard for correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks in the subsurface of central US and of the many localized and incomplete outcrops of generally equivalent strata in the Ozark and Upper Mississippi Valley regions. The stratigraphic continuity of the collections makes the I-35 section an ideal standard reference section for graphic correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks containing conodonts of the Mid-Continent Province.

  19. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.


    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  20. Micromorphological Characterization of the Leaf and Rhizome of Agapanthus praecox subsp. praecox Willd. (Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Josephine Sharaibi


    Full Text Available Agapanthus praecox subsp. praecox Willd. is a highly valued medicinal plant of family Amaryllidaceae. The genus Agapanthus has been difficult to classify into distinct species due to broad similar morphology of its members. Present taxonomic confusion in this genus and numerous medicinal uses of A. praecox necessitate its proper identification. The leaf and rhizome microcharacters were studied using scanning electron, light microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Epidermal cells are polygonal having wavy anticlinal walls with mean adaxial length of 80.04±0.5 μm and mean abaxial length of 85.33±0.6 μm. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata with mean pore length of 22.14±0.2 μm on the adaxial and 15.02±0.3 μm on the abaxial surface. The mean stomata densities on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were 280.5±0.5 mm2 and 350.6±0.6 mm2. Trichomes and secretory ducts are absent on both surfaces. EDX spectroscopy showed that beryllium, carbon, oxygen, sodium, and silicon were present on both epidermal surfaces and rhizome while nitrogen, aluminum, and chlorine were detected only on the adaxial surface and sulphur was detected only in the rhizome.

  1. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System (United States)

    Lindquist, Sandra J.


    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  2. Petroleum geology of the Puguang sour gas field in the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongsheng; Guo, Tonglou; Zhu, Guangyou; Cai, Xunyu [SINOPEC Southern Exploration and Development Company, Kunming, Yunnan 650200 (China); Zhang, Shuichang [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Maowen [Geological Survey of (Canada)


    The Puguang sour gas field in northeastern Sichuan Basin is the largest gas discovery in the Paleozoic marine strata in China, with at least 9 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of proven gas reserves. It is one of the many anticlinal structures formed during the Indo-Sinian orogeny, with gas being trapped in a composite structure-lithology pool. The presence of the Upper Permian coal measures, Lower Silurian and Lower Cambrian marine shales provided excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. The Lower Triassic and Upper Permian oolitic dolomites serve as high quality reservoir rocks, with 10-25% porosity and 1-1000 mD permeability, largely due to diagenetically produced secondary porosity. The Lower and Middle Triassic evaporate beds have acted as the direct top seal for the large Lower Triassic-Upper Permian gas accumulation. The thick Upper Triassic and Jurassic mudstone beds regionally cap the underlying marine carbonate strata. The deep-seated basement faults acted as vertical hydrocarbon migration conduits during faulting, and became effective flow barriers when the faulting ceased. The deep burial of a paleo-oil accumulation in reservoirs rich in sulfate resulted in extensive thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This, together with the new gas injection and structural reconfiguration, transformed a paleo-oil pool to a large sour gas pool. (author)

  3. Crystal structure of [4-(2-methoxyphenyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-6-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl](thiophen-2-ylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajni Swamy


    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H18F3N3O2S, a 2-methoxy-substituted derivative, is closely related to its 4-methyl- and 4-chloro-substituted analogues and yet displays no structural relationships with them. The thiophene ring is disorder free and the –CF3 group exhibits disorder, respectively, in contrast and similar to that observed in the 4-methyl- and 4-chloro-substituted derivatives. The torsion angle which defines the twist of the thiophene ring is −69.6 (2° (gauche in the title compound, whereas it is anticlinal in the 4-methyl- and 4-chloro-substituted derivatives, with respective values of 99.9 (2 and 99.3 (2°. The absence of disorder in the thiophene ring facilitates one of its ring C atoms to participate in the lone intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond present in the crystal, leading to a characteristic C(5 chain graph-set motif linking molecules related through glides along [010]. An intramoleculr C—H...N hydrogen bond also occurs.

  4. Ground-water hydrology and radioactive waste disposal at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.


    This paper is a summary of the hydrologic activities conducted at the Hanford Site as a part of the environmental protection effort. The Site encompasses 1,480 square kilometers in the arid, southeastern part of Washington State. Precipitation averages about 160 millimeters per year with a negligible amount, if any, recharging the water table, which is from 50 to 100 meters below the ground surface. An unconfined aquifer occurs in the upper and middle Ringold Formations. The lower Ringold Formation along with interbed and interflow zones in the Saddle Mountain and Wanapum basalts forms a confined aquifer system. A potential exists for the interconnection of the unconfined and confined aquifer systems, especially near Gable Mountain where the anticlinal ridge was eroded by the catastrophic floods of the ancestral Columbia River system. Liquid wastes from chemical processing operations have resulted in large quantities of processing and cooling water disposed to ground via ponds, cribs, and ditches. The ground-water hydrology program at Hanford is designed: (1) to define and quantify the ground-water flow systems, (2) to evaluate the impact of the liquid waste discharges on these flow systems, and (3) to predict the impact on the ground-water systems of changes in system inputs. This work is conducted through a drilling, sampling, testing, and modeling program


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ŞERBAN


    Full Text Available The basin of diapir anticlinal from Ocna Şugatag entered into the accelerated transformation soon after the cessation of exploitations (the beginning of the years '60. Along of the most 50 years of evolution formed and disappeared lacustrine basins, all on natural way in little dolines, mostly all of them, through the breakdown of galleries or halls of salt exploitation, with the individualization of greatest lacustrine basins. These dynamics rearward are very accelerated, the evidence beeing the crumbling of some portions of borders with a rhythms of 0.5 – 1.5 meters on year. The phenomenon of collapse of the mines is far from beeing finished because the most of these (Mihai and Dragoş are little affected and the support piling have a reduced diameter. In conditions of the exploitation of the brine from underground in balneary aim, it is possible that in short time to asist to new lakes formation with an bigger surface than ones existing.

  6. Development of the pericarp, septa and zone of dehiscence in the fruit of Cassia tora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Rao


    Full Text Available The pod of Cassia tora is the product of a single carpel consisting of 20-30 seeds enclosed one in each compartment formed by the ingrowth of the endocarpic tissue. There are three distinct histological zones of the pericarp Epicarp (a, Mesocarp (b and Endocarp (c. The paracytic stomata and uniseriate multicellular trichomes are found only in the outermost layer of the epicarp. The epicarp is single layered. The outer mesocarp in later stages of its development has many collenchyma, particularly at dorsal and ventral margins. The mesocarp develops from the homogenous mesodermal tissue of the ovary wall. The middle mesocarpic tissue becomes sclerenchymatous above the :main bundles providing rigidity at the two sutures where the zones of dehiscence develop inbetween them. The endocarp develops from the inner epidermis and 2-3 hypodermal layers. Due to frequent periclinal and anticlinal divisions and enlargement of the cells in the inner hypodermal layers, the septa are formed which never fuse; thus the so called compartment of the seed is not completely closed and the seeds slide off on separation of the valves. The inner hypodermal layers form the band of sclerenchyma above the septal cells. The inner margins without septa and sclerenchyma provide easy opening of the two valves from the chamber side.

  7. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Kaiser, W.R.; Finley, R.J.


    Detailed structural mapping at several horizons in selected study areas within the Frio growth-fault trend demonstrates a pronounced variability in structural style. At Sarita in South Texas, shale mobilization produced one or more shale ridges, one of which localized a low-angle growth fault trapping a wedge of deltaic sediments. At Corpus Christi, shale mobilization produced a series of large growth faults, shale-cored domed anticlines, and shale-withdrawal basins, which become progressively younger basinward. At Blessing, major growth faults trapped sands of the Greta/Carancahua barrier system with little progradation. At Pleasant Bayou, a major early growth-fault pattern was overprinted by later salt tectonics - the intrusion of Danbury Dome and the development of a salt-withdrawal basin. At Port Arthur, low-displacement, long-lived faults formed on a sand-poor shelf margin contemporaneously with broad salt uplifts and basins. Variability in styles is related to the nature and extent of Frio sedimentation and shelf-margin progradation and to the presence or absence of salt. Structural styles that are conducive to the development of large geothermal reservoirs include blocks between widely spaced growth faults having dip reversal, salt-withdrawal basins, and shale-withdrawal basins. These styles are widespread on the Texas Gulf Coast. However, actually finding a large reservoir depends on demonstrating the existence of sufficient sandstone with adequate quality to support geopressured geothermal energy production.

  8. Seismic modeling for gas field development in offshore Niger Delta: A case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idowu, A.O. (Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., Lagos (Nigeria))


    In practice, seismic data has been used to map the geometry of events in the subsurface, mainly from reflection continuity and the character of reflection packages. Seismic modeling techniques are attempts to mathematically and geometrically represent the geology of the subsurface and to depict the interaction of the geology with a propagating seismic wave front. In the Niger delta, recent development in stratigraphic exploration has induced the examination of more subtle features of reflection, mainly polarity, amplitude, and waveform, to define the limits of seismic resolution and hence predict the geometry of the subsurface fluid and solid interfaces. The field being appraised for development in this study is located approximately 35 km offshore southeast of the Niger delta in a water depth ranging from 20 to 25 m, and the project involves a modeling evaluation of five sand units encountered at different levels in the subsurface. The sands being modeled occur within the Agbada Formation (Miocene age), an alternation sequence of transitional sands and shales characterized by high-amplitude, anomalous seismic events over the Nkop field. Structurally, the field is characterized by seaward facing, contemporaneous growth faults consisting mainly of a rollover anticline located in a regional fault couple, bounded to the north and south by a growth fault.

  9. Epidermal characteristics of toxic plants for cattle from the Salado River basin (Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracteres epidérmicos de las plantas tóxicas para el ganado de la Depresión del Salado (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire


    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty species belonging to 41 families inhabiting the Salado River Basin of the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina were previously reported to be toxic for cattle. The purpose of this study was to provide a tool to distinguish the taxa when the plant material is desintegrated. In this way, an approach to the identification of these taxa through leaf epidermal features (anticlinal epidermal cell wall patterns, cuticular ornamentation, stomata, and hair types is performed. A key to the 180 species as well as illustrations of diagnostic characters are given.Las plantas tóxicas para el ganado están representadas en la Depresión del Salado (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina por 180 especies pertenecientes a 41 familias. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar estos taxa a partir de material desintegrado, utilizando caracteres epidérmicos foliares (paredes anticlinales de las células epidérmicas, ornamentación de la cutícula, tipos de estomas y pelos. Se brinda una clave para la determinación de las especies e ilustraciones de los caracteres diagnósticos.

  10. Micromorphological studies on seeds of orobanche species from the iberian peninsula and the balearic islands, and their systematic significance. (United States)

    Plaza, L; Fernández, I; Juan, R; Pastor, J; Pujadas, A


    Previous research has made clear the intrinsic taxonomic difficulties in identifying species in the genus Orobanche. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the systematic utility of seed characteristics. Light and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the seeds of 33 taxa of Orobanche from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Characters such as size, shape and ornamentation of the seeds were not found to be very useful in differentiation of taxa; however, other characters of the epidermal seed coat cells proved to be very helpful in this respect. Ornamentation of the periclinal walls could be used to discriminate four morphological types. Other features related to the anticlinal walls of the cells, such as thickness, presence/absence of a narrow trough, or relative depth, all contributed to the characterization of a large number of species. The usefulness of micromorphological studies on seeds of Orobanche in relation to differentiating taxa is demonstrated, and a key is provided to distinguish species or groups of species.

  11. Geological and geodynamic reconstruction of the East Barents megabasin from analysis of the 4-AR regional seismic profile (United States)

    Startseva, K. F.; Nikishin, A. M.; Malyshev, N. A.; Nikishin, V. A.; Valyushcheva, A. A.


    The article considers problems related to the geological structure and geodynamic history of sedimentary basins of the Barents Sea. We analyze new seismic survey data obtained in 2005-2016 to refine the geological structure model for the study area and to render it in more detail. Based on the data of geological surveys in adjacent land (Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, and Kolguev Island), drilling, and seismic survey, we identified the following geodynamic stages of formation of the East Barents megabasin: Late Devonian rifting, the onset of postrift sinking and formation of the deep basin in Carboniferous-Permian, unique (in terms of extent) and very rapid sedimentation in the Early Triassic, continued thermal sinking with episodes of inversion vertical movements in the Middle Triassic-Early Cretaceous, folded pressure deformations that formed gently sloping anticlines in the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic, and glacial erosion in the Quaternary. We performed paleoreconstructions for key episodes in evolution of the East Barents megabasin based on the 4-AR regional profile. From the geometric modeling results, we estimated the value of total crustal extension caused by Late Devonian rifting for the existing crustal model.

  12. Cenozoic sedimentation in the Mumbai Offshore Basin: Implications for tectonic evolution of the western continental margin of India (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Pandey, Dhananjai K.


    Interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection data along the Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB) revealed the tectonic processes that led to the development of sedimentary basins during Cenozoic evolution. Structural interpretation along three selected MCS profiles from MOB revealed seven major sedimentary sequences (∼3.0 s TWT, thick) and the associated complex fault patterns. These stratigraphic sequences are interpreted to host detritus of syn- to post rift events during rift-drift process. The acoustic basement appeared to be faulted with interspaced intrusive bodies. The sections also depicted the presence of slumping of sediments, subsidence, marginal basins, rollover anticlines, mud diapirs etc accompanied by normal to thrust faults related to recent tectonics. Presence of upthrusts in the slope region marks the locations of local compression during collision. Forward gravity modeling constrained with results from seismic and drill results, revealed that the crustal structure beneath the MOB has undergone an extensional type tectonics intruded with intrusive bodies. Results from the seismo-gravity modeling in association with litholog data from drilled wells from the western continental margin of India (WCMI) are presented here.

  13. A Metagenomic Survey of Limestone Hill in Taiwan (United States)

    Hsu, Y. W.; Li, K. Y.; Chen, Y. W.; Huang, T. Y.; Chen, W. J.; Shih, Y. J.; Chen, J. S.; Fan, C. W.; Hsu, B. M.


    The limestone of Narro-Sky in Tainliao, Taiwan is of Pleistocene reef limestones interbedded in clastic layers that covered the Takangshan anticlines. Understanding how microbial relative abundance was changed in response to changes of environmental factors may contribute to better comprehension of roles that microorganisms play in altering the landscape structures. In this study, microorganisms growing on the wall of limestone, in the water dripping from the limestone wall and of soil underneath the wall were collected from different locations where the environmental factors such as daytime illumination, humidity, or pH are different. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to examine the compositions and richness of microbial community. The metagenomics were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to analyze relative abundance, diversities and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). Our results showed the soil sample has the highest alpha diversity while water sample has the lowest. Four major phyla, which are Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria, account for 80 % of total microbial biomass in all groups. Cyanobacteria were found most abundantly in limestone wall instead of water or soil of weathering limestone. The PCoA dimensional patterns of each phylum showed a trace of microbial community dynamic changes, which might be affected by environmental factors. This study provides the insights to understand how environmental factors worked together with microbial community to shape landscape structures.

  14. Combined methods for the exploration of a new deep thermal water resource. Case of Yverdon-les-bains, south foot of the Swiss Jura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.D.; Muralt, R. [Centre d`Hydrogeologie, Universite de Neuchatel (Switzerland)


    The major goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of warmer and deeper groundwater than the one presently produced at the Centre thermal of Yverdon-les-Bains. Numerous data originating from seismic lines and boreholes allowed to obtain a good understanding of the regional structural geology. However, these data are limited in the faulted zone of Pipechat-CHAMBLON-CHEVRESSY (PCC) crossing the city of Yverdon, and make difficult the detailed structural interpretation on the site of the old thermal spring and the 600 m-deep well. The latter drains the Malm limestone at about 100 m of the south fault plane, which indicates the importance on the hydraulic role played by the main fault or by network of associated faults. The results of a specific vibro-seismic survay carried out in the urban area of Yverdo, closeenough to the Centre thermal, showed the precise location of the anticline axis formed by the PCC fault zone. Individual reflectors have been deciphered and represent the thickness and the structure of the quaternary and molassic sediments, on both sides of fault zone. (orig.)

  15. Ground water conditions and the relation to uranium deposits in the Gas Hills area, Fremont and Natrona Counties, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.Y.


    As ground water apparently leaches, transports, and deposits uranium in the Gas Hills area, central Wyoming, it is important to understand its distribution, movement, and relation to geology and ore bodies. Water table maps were prepared of the Wind River Basin; the most detailed work was in the Gas Hills area. The water table in the Gas Hills area slopes downward to the northwest, ranges in depth from near the ground surface to more than 200 feet, and has seasonal fluctuation of about five feet. Perched water tables and artesian conditions occur locally. The oxidized-unoxidized rock contact is probably roughly parallel to the water table, and averages about 25 feet above it; although locally the two surfaces are considerably farther apart and the oxidized-unoxidized contact may be below the water table. In many places the gradient of the water table changes near the contact between rocks of different permeability. It is conformable with the structure at some anticlines and its gradient changes abruptly near some faults. Most above-normal concentrations of uranium occur at local water table depressions or at water table terraces where the gradient of the water table flattens. At these places, the uraniferous ground water is slowed and is in contact with the reducing agents in the rocks for a relatively long time. This may allow reduction of soluble transported uranium (U +6 ) to insoluble U +4 ) so that uranium is precipitated

  16. Analysis by neutronic activation of samples of a geologic formation of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Pena Fortes, B.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Llanes Castro, A.I.; Perez Zayas, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.; Lopez Reyes, M. C.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Molina Insfran, J.


    The analysis by neutronic activation (AAN) is an analytical non destructive technique of high accuracy and sensibility. These advantages are very utilized in the determination of geological multielemental samples. In the job 22 elements are determined in 9 geological samples pertaining to the complex of dams of acid composition that includes the graphitic micaceous schist and the quartzites of the Canada Formation, developed fundamentally in the fasteners of the anticlinal Victoria (Yac. of Wolframio Lela, Island of the Youth, Cuba) The results obtained are of great importance for the evaluation of the potentiality of these rocks as fountains or of uranium adjusting and for the geologic prognostic of the region in study. The irradiation of the samples was carried out during three campaigns, in two occasions (October 1992 and November 1994) in the reactor of investigations of the ININ of Mexico, with a flow of thermic neutrons of 10a the 13 n.s -1 cm -2 and in an occasion in the nuclear reactor of the CAB (september 1994), with a flow of thermic neutrons of 6x 10 to the 12 n.s-1. The results were processed with the program ACTAM in the CEADEN. (S. Grainger) [es

  17. Host and Non-Host roots in rice: cellular and molecular approaches reveal differential responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eFiorilli


    Full Text Available Oryza sativa, a model plant for Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, has both host and non-host roots. Large lateral (LLR and fine lateral (FLR roots display opposite responses: LLR support AM colonization, but FLR do not. Our research aimed to study the molecular, morphological and physiological aspects related to the non-host behavior of FLR. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LLR and FLR displayed divergent expression profiles, including changes in many metabolic pathways. Compared with LLR, FLR showed down-regulation of genes instrumental for AM establishment and gibberellin signaling, and a higher expression of nutrient transporters. Consistent with the transcriptomic data, FLR had higher phosphorus content. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated that, surprisingly, in the Selenio cultivar, FLR have a two-layered cortex, which is theoretically compatible with AM colonization. According to RNA-seq, a gibberellin inhibitor treatment increased anticlinal divisions leading to a higher number of cortex cells in FLR.We propose that some of the differentially regulated genes that lead to the anatomical and physiological properties of the two root types also function as genetic factors regulating fungal colonization. The rice root apparatus offers a unique tool to study AM symbiosis, allowing direct comparisons of host and non-host roots in the same individual plant.

  18. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao


    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  19. Fully anisotropic 3-D EM modelling on a Lebedev grid with a multigrid pre-conditioner (United States)

    Jaysaval, Piyoosh; Shantsev, Daniil V.; de la Kethulle de Ryhove, Sébastien; Bratteland, Tarjei


    We present a numerical algorithm for 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulations in conducting media with general electric anisotropy. The algorithm is based on the finite-difference discretization of frequency-domain Maxwell's equations on a Lebedev grid, in which all components of the electric field are collocated but half a spatial step staggered with respect to the magnetic field components, which also are collocated. This leads to a system of linear equations that is solved using a stabilized biconjugate gradient method with a multigrid preconditioner. We validate the accuracy of the numerical results for layered and 3-D tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) earth models representing typical scenarios used in the marine controlled-source EM method. It is then demonstrated that not taking into account the full anisotropy of the conductivity tensor can lead to misleading inversion results. For synthetic data corresponding to a 3-D model with a TTI anticlinal structure, a standard vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) inversion is not able to image a resistor, while for a 3-D model with a TTI synclinal structure it produces a false resistive anomaly. However, if the VTI forward solver used in the inversion is replaced by the proposed TTI solver with perfect knowledge of the strike and dip of the dipping structures, the resulting resistivity images become consistent with the true models.

  20. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickle, D.G.; Jones, C.A.; Gallagher, G.L.; Young, P.; Dubyk, W.S.


    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  1. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.


    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  2. Petrogenesis of Mount Rainier andesite: magma flux and geologic controls on the contrasting differentiation styles at stratovolcanoes of the southern Washington Cascades (United States)

    Sisson, Thomas W.; Salters, V.J.M.; Larson, P.B.


    Quaternary Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) of the Cascades magmatic arc consists of porphyritic calc-alkaline andesites and subordinate dacites, with common evidence for mingling and mixing with less evolved magmas encompassing andesites, basaltic andesites, and rarely, basalts. Basaltic andesites and amphibole andesites (spessartites) that erupted from vents at the north foot of the volcano represent some of Mount Rainier's immediate parents and overlap in composition with regional basalts and basaltic andesites. Geochemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb, O) compositions of Mount Rainier andesites and dacites are consistent with modest assimilation (typically ≤20 wt%) of evolved sediment or sediment partial melt. Sandstones and shales of the Eocene Puget Group, derived from the continental interior, are exposed in regional anticlines flanking the volcano, and probably underlie it in the middle to lower crust, accounting for their assimilation. Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous basement rocks are unsuitable as assimilants due to their high 143Nd/144Nd, diverse206Pb/204Pb, and generally high δ18O.

  3. Fracture patterns in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Kurdistan Region of Iraq (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Decker, Kurt; Grasemann, Bernhard; Peresson, Herwig


    Fracture data have been collected in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, which is a poorly accessible and unexplored area of the Zagros. Pre to early folding NE-SW striking extensional fractures and NW-SE striking contractive elements represent the older set affecting the exposed multilayer of the area. These latter structures are early syn-folding and followed by folding-related mesostructural assemblages, which include elements striking parallel to the axial trend of major folds (longitudinal fractures). Bedding perpendicular joints and veins, and extensional faults belonging to this second fracture set are located in the outer arc of exposed anticlines, whilst longitudinal reverse faults locate in the inner arcs. Consistently, these elements are associated with syn-folding tangential longitudinal strain. The younger two sets are related to E-W extension and NNE-SSW to N-S shortening, frequently displaying reactivation of the older sets. The last shortening event, which is described along the entire Zagros Belt, probably relates with the onset of N-S compression induced by the northward movement of the Arabian plate relative to the Eurasian Plate. In comparison between the inferred palaeostrain directions and the kinematics of recent GPS measurements, we conclude that the N-S compression and the partitioning into NW-SE trending folds and NW to N trending strike-slip faults likely remained unchanged throughout the Neogene tectonic history of the investigated area.

  4. The U resources inventory at Tebalungkang sector, west Kalimantan systematic prospection stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetopo, B.; Suripto; Boman; Sajiyo


    The systematic prospection at Tebalungkang sector, West Kalimantan was carried out to characterize the occurrence of U mineralization and to invent the potential U resources at the area. The investigation was done on the basis of previous results, i.e. radiometric anomalous outcrops and boulders of 1000-7000 C/s. The methods for the investigation was systematic geological mapping and radiometric measurements of soil and tranced rocks and supported by mineralogical and geochemical analyses. The results of the investigation show that this area consists of metamorphic rocks, intruded by granite quartz-diorite batholites and dike of andesite and lamprophyre. From geological structure this is 30 o plunging from anticlin NE-SW and NNW-SSE, is crossed by NE-SW and E-W normal faults and NW-SE and WNW-ESE strike slip faults. Uranium mineralization appears in quartz-schist brecciated and quachitite (lamprophyre). The radioactive minerals were thorite and monazite, associated with rutile, ilmenite, magnetite, hematite, pyrite, calcopyrite, muscovite, apatite and allanite. The U content from rock samples has been found to be 4,5-54,75 ppm U

  5. Fault-related-folding structure and reflection seismic sections. Construction of earth model using balanced cross section; Danso ga kaizaisuru shukyoku kozo no keitai to jishin tansa danmen. 1. Balanced cross section wo mochiita chika model no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Tamagawa, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Pre-stacking depth migration treatment is studied for the estimation of the fold configuration from seismic survey cross sections. The estimation of a velocity structure is necessary for the execution of such treatment, and the utilization of structural-geological knowledge is required for its interpretation. The concept of balanced cross section in relation to the fault-bend fold constructs a stratum structure model under conditions that the deformation during fold and fault formation is a planar strain, that there is no change in volume due to deformation, and that a fold is a parallel fold. In addition to the above geometric and kinetic approach, there is another fold formation process simulation model using a Newtonian fluid for study from the viewpoint of dynamics. This simulation stands on the presumption that the boundary contains a ramp that had been in presence before fold formation and that an incompressible viscous matter is mounted on the top surface. The viscous matter flows and deforms for the formation of an anticline on the ramp. Such enables the reproduction of a fault-bend fold formation process, and helpful discussion may be furthered on the dynamic aspect of this simulation. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Fault-related-folding structures and reflection seismic sections. Study by seismic modeling and balanced cross section; Danso ga kaizaisuru shukyoku kozo no keitai to jishin tansa danmen. 2. Seismic modeling oyobi balanced cross section ni yoru study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagawa, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    It occasionally happens that there exists a part where reflection near the thrust is not clearly observed in a thrust zone seismic survey cross section. For the effective interpretation of such an occurrence, the use of geological structures as well as the reflected pattern is effective. When the velocity structures for a fold structure having a listric fault caused anticline (unidirectionally inclined with a backlimb, without a forelimb) and for a fault propagation fold are involved, a wrong interpretation may be made since they look alike in reflection wave pattern despite their difference in geological structure. In the concept of balanced cross section, a check is performed, when the stratum after deformation is recovered to the time of deposition, as to whether the geologic stratum area is conserved without excess or shortage. An excess or shortage occurs if there is an error in the model, and this shows that the fault surface or fold structure is not correctly reflected. Positive application of geological knowledge is required in the processing and interpreting of data from a seismic survey. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Management of Hazardous Waste in Indonesia (United States)

    Widyatmoko, H.


    Indonesia needs to build four Treatment Centrals for 229,907 tons per year produced hazardous waste. But almost all hazardous waste treatment is managed by just one company at present, namely PT. PPLI (Prasada Pamunah Limbah Industri). This research is based on collected data which identifies payback period of 0.69 years and rate of return 85 %. PT PPLI is located within the Cileungsi District of the Bogor Regency of West Java Province. Records from nearest rainfall station at Cibinong indicate that annual average rainfall for the site is about 3,600 mm. It is situated on hilly terrain and is characterized by steep slopes as well as has a very complex geological structure. The Tertiary sequence was folded to form an assymetric anticline with axis trend in an East-West direction. Three major faults cut the middle of the site in a North-South direction with a vertical displacement of about 1.5 meters and a zone width of 1 meter. The high concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 2500 ppm in Secondary Leachate Collection System (SLCS) indicate a possible failure of the Primary Leachate Clection System (PLCS), which need correct action to prevent groundwater contamination.

  8. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay


    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

  9. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.34. Kaminoyu/Santai area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Kaminoyu/Santai area' which was carried out at Yakumo town, Yamakoshi county, and Mori town, Kayabe county, Hokkaido, from FY 1990 to FY 1992. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and gravity exploration, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids by drilling 7 boreholes, temperature/pressure log, etc. The geological structure of this area is featured by the uplift structure/caldera structure and the anticline structure. In the wide-area geothermal system, it is thought that the low-temperature seawater permeates underground by mixture with meteoric water, is heated, and forms the deep geothermal water. It is thought that the hot spring water in this area is stored in the hot spring reservoir by mixture with the surface water, and it is gushing. In the area, the region which is regarded as favorable as passage/storage place of geothermal fluid is a region of 1.5km width extending linearly in the E-W direction from the Nigorikawa basin to Kaminoyu. Further, it is thought that fractures were unfavorably developed in the Santai/Kaminoyu area. (NEDO)

  10. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.


    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  11. Modeling segregated in- situ combustion processes through a vertical displacement model applied to a Colombian field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Aristizabal, Jose Julian; Grosso Vargas, Jorge Luis


    Recently it has been proposed the incorporation of horizontal well technologies in thermal EOR processes like the in situ combustion process (ISC). This has taken to the conception of new recovery mechanisms named here as segregated in-situ combustion processes, which are conventional in-situ combustion process with a segregated flow component. Top/Down combustion, Combustion Override Split-production Horizontal-well and Toe-to-Heel Air Injection are three of these processes, which incorporate horizontal producers and gravity drainage phenomena. When applied to thick reservoirs a process of this nature could be reasonably modeled under concepts of conventional in-situ combustion and Crestal Gas injection, especially for heavy oils mobile at reservoir conditions. A process of this nature has been studied through an analytic model conceived for the particular conditions of the Castilla field, a homogeneous thick anticline structure containing high mobility heavy oil, which seems to be an excellent candidate for the application of these technologies

  12. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morea, Michael F.


    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour


    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  14. Deducing the subsurface geological conditions and structural framework of the NE Gulf of Suez area, using 2-D and 3-D seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Shaker Zahra


    Full Text Available An interpretation of the seismic data of Ras Budran and Abu Zenima oil fields, northern central Gulf of Suez, is carried out to evaluate its subsurface tectonic setting. The structural configuration, as well as the tectonic features of the concerned area is criticized through the study of 2D and 3D seismic data interpretation with the available geological data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting levels (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations are depicted. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Ras Budran area is a nearly NE–SW trending anticlinal feature, which broken into several panels by a set of NWSE and NE–SW trending faults. The Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where Ras Budran area consists of step faults down stepping to the south and southwest, which have been subjected to cross faults of NE–SW trend with lateral and vertical displacements.

  15. Geology of the Horse Range Mesa quadrangle, Colorado (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry; Withington, C.F.


    The Horse Range Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary strictures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  16. Geometry of the inverted Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin based on 2-D gravity and field data - an approach to the structure of the western Central Andes of northern Chile (United States)

    Martínez, F.; Maksymowicz, A.; Ochoa, H.; Díaz, D.


    This paper discusses an integrated approach that provides new ideas about the structural geometry of the NNE-striking, Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin located along the eastern Coastal Cordillera in the western Central Andes of northern Chile (27-28° S). The results obtained from the integration of two transverse (E-W) gravity profiles with previous geological information show that the architecture of this basin is defined by a large NNE-SSE-trending and east-vergent anticline ("Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium"), which is related to the positive reactivation of a former Cretaceous normal fault (Elisa de Bordos Master Fault). Moreover, intercalations of high and low gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients reveal a set of buried, west-tilted half-grabens associated with a synthetic normal fault pattern. These results, together with the uplift and folding style of the Cretaceous synextensional deposits recognized within the basin, suggest that its structure could be explained by an inverted fault system linked to the shortening of pre-existing Cretaceous normal fault systems. Ages of the synorogenic deposits exposed unconformably over the frontal limb of the Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium confirm a Late Cretaceous age for the Andean deformation and tectonic inversion of the basin.

  17. Contribution of the geophysical and radon techniques to characterize hydrogeological setting in the western volcanic zone of Yarmouk basin: Case study Deir El-Adas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fares, W.; Soliman, E.; Al-Ali, A.


    The aim of this study is to illustrate the geophysical and radon techniques in characterizing ''at local scale'' a hydrogeological setting in the volcanic zone of Yarmouk basin. And to employ the obtained results to understand and explain similar hydrogeological situation related to particular subsurface geologic and tectonic structure. Based on the field observations and failed wells drilled at Deir El-Adas, and the occurrence of successful well out of that zone, all these reasons, have given us the incentive to verify and provide realistic explanation of this phenomena in the basaltic outcrops of Yarmouk basin. The interpretation of the vertical electrical surveys (VES), indicates to the presence of local faulted anticline structure of Palaeogene located under the volcanic outcrops. This structure has led to complex hydrogeological conditions, represented by limited recharge in this area which occurs through fractures and secondary faults in addition to the low direct precipitation. Piezometric map indicates to water divide in the north-west of Deir El-Adas related to the tectonic setting. Meanwhile, discharge map show low reproducibility of drilled wells in Deir El-Adas and its periphery. Due to limited radon data, it was difficult to draw concrete conclusions from this technique. (author)

  18. Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Tanah Merah and Dendang Arai Sectors, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Tanah Merah and Dendang Arai sectors are one of the mineralized sectors at Kalan. Goal of this study is to understand the relationship between geology and uranium mineralization character of Tanah Merah and Dendang Arai sectors. In general geology of Tanah Merah is similar with Dendang Arai which consist of biotite quartzite, leopard quartzite, muscovite quartzite, biotite muscovite quartzite, metasilt, metapelite, and granite. The folding is anticline with axel N45F in direction. The prominent fault is NE-SW sinistral fault, NW-SE dextral fault and N-S normal faults. U mineralization fills in the area space between minerals and also as the vein that fill in the fracture system W-E to WNW-ESE in direction. The thickness of mineralization is milimetric to centrimetric. Uranium minerals are uraninite, monazite, autunite and gummite associated with feldspar, tourmaline, zircon, biotite, quartz, pyrite, pyrhotite, hematite, rutile, chalcopyrite, magnenite ilmenite and molybdenite. Radiometric value is in the range of 1.000 to 15.000 c/s and the total grade of U are 12.6 to 2661.25 ppm. U mineralization process connected with intrusion of granite and in the secondary phase. (author)

  19. Natural Fractures Characterization and In Situ Stresses Inference in a Carbonate Reservoir—An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shafiei


    Full Text Available In this paper, we characterized the natural fracture systems and inferred the state of in situ stress field through an integrated study in a very complex and heterogeneous fractured carbonate reservoir. Relative magnitudes and orientations of the in-situ principal stresses in a naturally fractured carbonate heavy oil field were estimated with a combination of available data (World Stress Map, geological and geotectonic evidence, outcrop studies and techniques (core analysis, borehole image logs and Side View Seismic Location. The estimates made here using various tools and data including routine core analysis and image logs are confirmatory to estimates made by the World Stress Map and geotectonic facts. NE-SW and NW-SE found to be the dominant orientations for maximum and minimum horizontal stresses in the study area. In addition, three dominant orientations were identified for vertical and sub-vertical fractures atop the crestal region of the anticlinal structure. Image logs found useful in recognition and delineation of natural fractures. The results implemented in a real field development and proved practical in optimal well placement, drilling and production practices. Such integrated studies can be instrumental in any E&P projects and related projects such as geological CO2 sequestration site characterization.

  20. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan) (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.


    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  1. Developmental anatomy and morphology of the ovule and seed of heliconia (heliconiaceae, zingiberales). (United States)

    Simão, D G; Scatena, V L; Bouman, F


    The developmental anatomy and morphology of the ovule and seed in several species of Heliconia were investigated as part of an embryological study of the Heliconiaceae and to provide a better understanding of their relationships with the other families of the Zingiberales. Heliconia species have an ovule primordium with an outer integument of both dermal and subdermal origin. The archesporial cell is divided into a megasporocyte and a single parietal cell, which in turn are divided only anticlinally to form a single parietal layer, disintegrating later during gametogenesis. The embryo sac was fully developed prior to anthesis. In the developing seed, the endosperm was nuclear, with wall formation in the globular stage; a nucellar pad was observed during embryo development, but later became compressed. The ripe fruit contained seeds enveloped by a lignified endocarp that formed the pyrenes, with each pyrene having an operculum at the basal end; the embryo was considered to be differentiated. Most of these characteristics are shared with other Zingiberales, although the derivation of the operculum from the funicle and the formation of the main mechanical layer by the endocarp are unique to the Heliconiaceae.

  2. Microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.D.


    Karst features are known to exist within the carbonate bedrock of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and may play an important role in groundwater flow and contaminant migration. This report discusses the results of a microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The main objective of the survey is to identify areas containing bedrock cavities. Secondary objectives included correlating the observed gravity to the geology and to variations in overburden thickness. The analysis includes 11 profile lines that are oriented perpendicular to the geologic strike and major structures throughout the K-25 Site. The profile lines are modeled in an effort to relate gravity anomalies to karst features such as concentrations of mud-filled cavities. Regolith thickness and density data provided by boreholes constrain the models. Areally distributed points are added to the profile lines to produce a gravity contour map of the site. In addition, data from the K-901 area are combined with data from previous surveys to produce a high resolution map of that site. The K-25 Site is located in an area of folded and faulted sedimentary rocks within the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province. Paleozoic age rocks of the Rome Formation, Knox Group, and Chickamauga Supergroup underlie the K-25 Site and contain structures that include the Whiteoak Mountain Fault, the K-25 Fault, a syncline, and an anticline. The mapped locations of the rock units and complex structures are currently derived from outcrop and well log analysis

  3. Deformation of marine terraces in coastal Humboldt County, California: an evaluation using GIS-based analysis of LiDAR imagery (United States)

    Padgett, J. S.; Kelsey, H. M.; Lamphear, D.


    Forming at sea level, uplifted wave-cut platforms serve as long-term geodetic markers. The spatial distribution and elevation of marine terrace sequences offer insight to regional active tectonics. Using LiDAR imagery embedded within a geospatial information system (GIS), we employ a surface classification model (SCM) developed by Bowels and Cowgill (2012) that identifies uplifted marine terraces on the basis of their micro topographical characteristics, low slope and low roughness. The LiDAR data sets were compiled utilizing several public and private sources to cover a large portion of the Humboldt County (northern California) coastline extending from Big Lagoon south to Table Bluff. We supplement LiDAR-derived elevations with elevations derived from kinematic GPS. We test the applicability of the SCM approach to identifying deformed marine terraces, and we also use other geomorphic analyses, including longitudinal profiles and distribution of knickpoints, to assess tectonic evolution and rates of landscape change along the central Humboldt County coastal region. Uplifted marine terraces record the regional patterns of uplift; these patterns both record the development of several north-northwest trending thrust faults, anticlines and synclines and chronicle Quaternary tectonic deformation and erosional histories.

  4. Blue-light-induced rapid chloroplast de-anchoring in Vallisneria epidermal cells. (United States)

    Sakai, Yuuki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Harada, Akiko; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro; Takagi, Shingo


    In the outer periclinal cytoplasm of leaf epidermal cells of an aquatic angiosperm Vallisneria, blue light induces "chloroplast de-anchoring", a rapid decline in the resistance of chloroplasts against centrifugal force. Chloroplast de-anchoring is known induced within 1 min of irradiation with high-fluence-rate blue light specifically, preceding the commencement of chloroplasts migration toward the anticlinal cytoplasm. However, its regulatory mechanism has remained elusive, although pharmacological analysis suggested that a calcium release from intracellular calcium stores is necessary for the response. In search of the responsible photoreceptors, immunoblotting analysis using antibodies against phototropins demonstrated that cross-reactive polypeptides of 120-kDa exist in the plasma-membrane fraction prepared from the leaves. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that 120-kDa polypeptides were phosphorylated by exposure to blue light in a fluence-dependent manner. The blue-light-induced phosphorylation activity was sensitive to a Ser/Thr kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, and unusually was retained at a high level for a long time in darkness. Furthermore, phototropin gene homologs (Vallisneria PHOTOTROPIN1 and PHOTOTROPIN2) expressed in leaves were isolated. We propose that calcium-regulated chloroplast de-anchoring, possibly mediated by phototropins, is an initial process of the blue-light-induced avoidance response of chloroplasts in Vallisneria. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Glutoxylon Chowdhury (Anacardiaceae): the first record of fossil wood from Bangladesh. (United States)

    Poole, I; Davies, C


    This paper documents the first record of silicified fossil wood from a previously undescribed wood-rich horizon in the Sitakund Anticline, Eastern Bangladesh. The outcrop is composed of cross-stratified, fine-medium grained sandstones with bidirectional cross stratification indicative of a tidal environment, deposited ca. 5-5.2 million years before present (Miocene/Pliocene). The wood is characterised by large solitary vessels with alternate intervascular pits, banded parenchyma, uniseriate rays, and multiseriate rays with one radial canal per ray. This character combination closely resembles the wood of extant Gluta L. of the Anacardiaceae. This specimen has been assigned to the organ genus Glutoxylon Chowdhury erected for fossil woods with anatomical similarity to Gluta (including Melanorrhoea Wall.). The excellent preservation of this mature wood specimen illustrates the potential for using fossil wood from the Sitakund locality for palaeoecological studies in terms of biodiversity and adaptational response to climate change. Moreover such investigations of fossil woods from Bangladesh will compliment studies undertaken on fossil plants in other parts of Central and Southeastern Asia which will further the understanding of plant migration routes between India and Southeast Asia during the Tertiary.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykal, I.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Motyienko, R. A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes, et Molécules, UMR CNRS 8523, Université de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cédex (France); Écija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Castaño, F. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Lesarri, A. [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Guillemin, J. C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, Allèe de Beaulieu, CS 50837, F-35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J., E-mail: [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Laboratory of Molecular Astrophysics, Department of Astrophysics, Ctra. De Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)


    Organic isocyanides have an interesting astrochemistry and some of these molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, rotational spectral data for this class of compounds are still scarce. We provide laboratory spectra of the four-carbon allyl isocyanide covering the full microwave region, thus allowing a potential astrophysical identification in the ISM. We assigned the rotational spectrum of the two cis (synperiplanar) and gauche (anticlinal) conformations of allyl isocyanide in the centimeter-wave region (4-18 GHz), resolved its {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) hyperfine structure, and extended the measurements into the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150-900 GHz) ranges for the title compound. Rotational constants for all the monosubstituted {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopologues are additionally provided. Laboratory observations are supplemented with initial radioastronomical observations. Following analysis of an extensive dataset (>11000 rotational transitions), accurate ground-state molecular parameters are reported for the cis and gauche conformations of the molecule, including rotational constants, NQC parameters, and centrifugal distortion terms up to octic contributions. Molecular parameters have also been obtained for the two first excited states of the cis conformation, with a dataset of more than 3300 lines. The isotopic data allowed determining substitution and effective structures for the title compound. We did not detect allyl isocyanide either in the IRAM 30 m line survey of Orion KL or in the PRIMOS survey toward SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided an upper limit to its column density in Orion KL.

  7. Distribution and Characteristics of Seafloor Seepage Features in the Active Margin Offshore of SW Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, T. T.; Hsu, H. H.; Liu, C. S.; Su, C. C.; Paull, C. K.; Chen, Y. H.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.


    In the active margin offshore of southwest (SW) Taiwan, west-vergent imbricated thrusts, folds and dipping strata are the main structural features. This is also the area where gas hydrates are widely distributed beneath the seafloor. Fluids from deep strata may migrate upwards along porous dipping layers or faults and then vent out to form seafloor seepage features in many of the gas hydrate prospects. A joint survey was conducted in May 2017 using MBARI mapping AUV and miniROV to investigate the seafloor seepage features. Numerous comet-shaped depressions (CSD) are mapped along flanks of several anticlinal ridges, and four carbonate mounds around CSD are observed from the ultra-high-resolution (1-m lateral resolution) bathymetry data collected by AUV. Samples of the carbonate mounds were collected by the mini-ROV, and their mineral compositions contain dolomite and ankerite. The AUV collected chirp sonar profiles and previously collected surface ship multichannel seismic reflection profiles across these seafloor features show that potential fluid migration pathways connect free gas trapped below the base of gas hydrate stability zone and the seafloor in the vicinity of these features. Our study suggests that the CSD could be an indicator of seafloor seepage and may be distribution widely in the active margin setting.

  8. Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: Examples from central Italy (United States)

    Galdenzi, S.; Menichetti, M.


    The caves of the Umbria and Marche regions in central Italy are made up of three-dimensional maze systems that display different general morphologies due to the various geological and structural contexts. At the same time, the internal morphologies of the passages, galleries, and shafts present some similarity, with solutional galleries characterized by cupolas and blind pits, anastamotic passages, roof pendants, and phreatic passages situated at different levels. Some of these caves are still active, as is the case for Frassassi Gorge, Parrano Gorge, and Acquasanta Terme, with galleries that reach the phreatic zone, where there is a rising of highly mineralized water, rich in hydrosulfydric acid, and with erosion of limestone walls and the formation of gypsum. Elsewhere there are fossil caves, such as Monte Cucco and Pozzi della Piana, where large speleothems of gypsum are present 500 m or more above the regional water table. In all of these important karst systems it is possible to recognize basal input points through fracture and intergranular porosity networks at the base of the oxidizing zone in the core of the anticline, where mineralized water rises up from the Triassic evaporitic layers in small hydrogeological circuits. Different underground morphologies can derive from the presence of a water table related to an external stream or from the confined setting of the carbonate rocks, underlying low permeable sedimentary cover, where artesian conditions can occur.

  9. Richat Structure, Mauritania (United States)


    This prominent circular feature in the Sahara desert of Mauritania has attracted attention since the earliest space missions because it forms a conspicuous bull's-eye in the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert. Described by some as looking like an outsized ammonite in the desert, the structure [which has a diameter of almost 50 kilometers (30 miles)] has become a landmark for shuttle crews. Initially interpreted as a meteorite impact structure because of its high degree of circularity, it is now thought to be merely a symmetrical uplift (circular anticline) that has been laid bare by erosion. Paleozoic quartzites form the resistant beds outlining the structure. This image was acquired on October 7, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  10. Tephra layers as correlation tools of neogene coal-bearing strata from the Kenai lowland, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinink-Smith, L.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)


    Thirty-two tephra layers, exposed in coal beds of the Miocene and Pliocene Beluga and Sterling Formations along the shores of the Kenai lowland on the northwestern Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, were studied in detail to improve the geochronology and regional correlation of the Sterling Formation and test prior correlations that were based on palynology and physical tracing of beds over short distances. Published radiogenic isotope data suggest an age span of approximately 4 m.y. for the Sterling Formation at this location but give discordant ages for individual samples depending on dating techniques. A crystal-rich tephra layer near the middle of the section was traced across the Kenai lowland as one or two ash falls based on stratigraphic position, inertinite contents of adjacent coal, geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and individual characteristics. A pumice-rich layer deposited near the top of the Sterling Formation is preserved at two localities on the northwestern and southeastern sides of the Kenai lowland. Geochemical similarities, similar glass morphologies, and an absence of opaque phases characterize this layer as a single ash fall and allow correlation. On a regional scale, these correlations concur with previous correlations and show that a shallow anticline with a northwest-southeast-trending axis extends across the Kenai lowland. 28 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Geology of the Nine Canyon Map Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Landon, R.D.


    The basalt stratigraphy and structure of a 175-square kilometer area (the Nine Canyon Map Area) along the southern margin of the Pasco Basin have been studied to help assess the feasibility of a nuclear waste terminal storage facility. Detailed mapping shows that uplift of the Horse Heaven Hills began prior to extrusion of the Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group. Both the Pomoma and the Elephant Mountain members (Saddle Mountains Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group) are wide-spread throughout the basin, but thin considerably along the Horse Heaven Hills in the vicinity of Wallula Gap. The Ice Harbor Member is present only along the northern margin of the map area and possibly occupies a paleo-channel. The Rattlesnake Hills-Wallula Gap Lineament trends north 60 degrees west and intersects the older Horse Heaven Hills anticline in Wallula Gap. Four faults of short length and small vertical displacement are located along this structure. Within the map area, the intensity of folding increases, and the style of faulting changes from normal to reverse with proximity to the Wallula Gap area. No evidence for Quaternary deformation was found

  12. Leaf blade anatomy characteristics of the genus Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangchai Sookchaloem


    Full Text Available Twenty-three species of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. were collected from several areas of Thailand between November 2008 and May 2012, and grown under greenhouse conditions with 70% sunlight. Leaf blade anatomy characteristics were studied using free hand section and epidermal peeled slides before being observed using a light transmission microscope from May 2011 to November 2013. The results showed the different anatomical characteristics of each species. The midribs in cross section were curved, or had 5, 6, 7, 8 or 12 lobes. Vascular bundles numbered 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16 or 23. The upper and lower epidermal cell walls had three subtypes—straight-sided, undulate or sinuous anticlinal. Both sides of the epidermal cell wall can be similar or can vary in each species. There were 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 subsidiary cells along both sides of paired guard cells and the stomatal type was paracytic and stomatal subtypes varied from species to species, being brachyparacytic, hemiparacytic, amphibrachyparacytic, paratetracytic or parahexacytic. The stomatal number was 16–104/mm2 of leaf area and varied with the leaf gloss and leaf texture of each species.

  13. Oil and gas potential of the Korotaikha Depression in the Timan-Pechora basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Stoupakova


    Full Text Available Prospects for the growth of hydrocarbon (HC reserves in the Timan-Pechora basin are associated with poorly explored areas, which include the Korotaikha Depression, which is a very difficult region for oil and gas exploration. Analysis and reinterpretation of both old and new seismic data made it possible to identify a number of anticlinal structures within the region, as well as to identify possible lithological HC traps, such as reefing bodies of late Devonian-Early Carboniferous age and delta sand formations of the Permian-Triassic age. The wide stratigraphic range of the sedimentary cover makes it possible to select several hydrocarbon systems in the basin of the Korotaikha Depression. Basin modeling has shown that there are all conditions for НС generation and accumulation in the Korotaikha Basin. Based on the results of the simulation, Korotaikha Basin should be considered as a potentially promising oil and gas area, where the main oil and gas accumulations are located in the side parts of the basin, and also within the inversion highs and saddles. The total booked geological resources of hydrocarbons may amount to about 1.7 billion tons standard fuel. Korotaikha Depression and its aquatorial continuation can be referred to the category of major oil-gas search regions.

  14. Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic deformation and exhumation of the Chilean Frontal Cordillera (28°-29°S), Central Andes (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Parra, Mauricio; Arriagada, César; Mora, Andrés; Bascuñan, Sebastián; Peña, Matías


    The Frontal Cordillera in northern Chile is located over the flat-slab subduction segment of the Central Andes. This tectonic province is characterized by a thick-skinned structural style showing evidence of tectonic inversion and basement-involved compressive structures. Field data, U-Pb geochronological and apatite fission track data were used to unravel partially the tectonic history of the area. Previous U-Pb ages of synorogenic deposits exposed on the flanks of basement-core anticlines indicate that Andean deformation started probably during Late Cretaceous with the tectonic inversion of Triassic and Jurassic half-grabens. New U-Pb ages of the synorogenic Quebrada Seca Formation suggest that this deformation continued during Paleocene (66-60 Ma) with the reverse faulting of pre-rift basement blocks. The analysis of new apatite fission-track data shows that a rapid and coeval cooling related to exhumation of the pre-rift basement blocks occurred during Eocene times. This exhumation event is interpreted for first time in the Chilean Frontal Cordillera and it could have occurred simultaneously with the propagation of basement-involved structures. The age of this exhumation event coincides with the Incaic orogenic phase, which is interpreted as the most important to the Central Andes in terms of shortening, uplift and exhumation.

  15. Análisis y correlación de sondeos mecánicos en los depósitos miocenos de Montjuïc (Barcelona: implicaciones estructurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvany, J. M.


    Full Text Available Cores from 190 mechanic boreholes that cut through the Miocene deposits of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona were studied. Part of these deposits are well lithified (sandstone, conglomerate while other parts are not (marl, sand and gravel. There is a significant lateral and vertical gradation between the lithified and non-lithified parts. In the eastern sector of Montjuïc, these deposits form a 100 m thick sequence made up of 7 coarsening-upward cycles of progradant deltaic origin. Below these cycles there is a massive alluvial unit that extends downward until it reaches a Paleozoic basement made up of metamorphic rocks identified in the subsoil of the Barcelona harbour. In the western sector of Montjuïc, the boreholes cut through a 80 m thick sequence made up of 4 fining-upward cycles of retrogradant alluvial origin with minor marine deposits at the top. This sequence is developed over the continental deposits of the Early Miocene (Burdigalian found in the subsoil of the western edge of Montjuïc. The deltaic sequence of the eastern sector corresponds to a higher stratigraphic position than the alluvial sequence of the western sector. Both sectors are bounded by a listric fault of NE-SO strike, which may have caused the sinking of the eastern sector and its tilting toward the NW. This fault would be related to the extensional fault system that formed the coastal Catalan margin during the Neogene period. The entire Miocene unit of Montjuïc was also folded and form a gentle anticline of NO-SE strike. This fold would have originated before the faulting and can be interpreted as a synsedimentary structure originated by a differential compaction between the early cemented alluvial and deltaic sediments that form the fold core and the unconsolidated sediments that form its limbs. Both the anticline and the fault were subsequently unconformably covered by the Quaternary deposits that cover the mountain of Montjuïc.Se han estudiado los testigos de un

  16. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin X. Kim


    Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  17. Morphometric analysis of epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays (United States)

    Moore, R.; Smith, H. S.


    Epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays was divided into six cell types based on cellular shape and cytoplasmic appearance. These six cell types are: 1) apical protoderm, located at the tip of the root pole and characterized by periclinally flattened cells; 2) cuboidal protoderm, located approximately 230 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells; 3) tabular epidermis, located approximately 450 microns from the root pole and characterized by anticlinally flattened cells; 4) cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 900 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells having numerous small vacuoles; 5) vacuolate cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 1,500 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells containing several large vacuoles; and 6) columnar epidermis, located approximately 2,200 microns from the root pole (i.e., at the beginning of the zone of elongation) and characterized by elongated cells. We also used stereology to quantify the cellular changes associated with epidermal differentiation. The quiescent center and the apical protoderm have significantly different ultrastructures. The relative volume of dictyosomes increases dramatically during the early stages of epidermal differentiation. This increase correlates inversely with the amount of coverage provided by the root cap and mucilage.

  18. Tectonic evolution, structural styles, and oil habitat in Campeche Sound, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles-Aquino, F.J.; Reyes-Nunez, J.; Quezada-Muneton, J.M.; Meneses-Rocha, J.J. [Pemex Exploracion-Produccion, Mexico City (Mexico)


    Campeche Sound is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. This area is Mexico`s most important petroleum province. The Mesozoic section includes Callovian salt deposits; Upper Jurassic sandstones, anhydrites, limestones, and shales; and Cretaceous limestones, dolomites, shales, and carbonate breccias. The Cenozoic section is formed by bentonitic shales and minor sandstones and carbonate breccias. Campeche Sound has been affected by three episodes of deformation: first extensional tectonism, then compressional tectonism, and finally extensional tectonism again. The first period of deformation extended from the middle Jurassic to late Jurassic and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. During this regime, tilted block faults trending northwest-southwest were dominant. The subsequent compressional regime occurred during the middle Miocene, and it was related to northeast tangential stresses that induced further flow of Callovian salt and gave rise to large faulted, and commonly overturned, anticlines. The last extensional regime lasted throughout the middle and late Miocene, and it is related to salt tectonics and growth faults that have a middle Miocene shaly horizon as the main detachment surface. The main source rocks are Tithonian shales and shaly limestones. Oolite bars, slope and shelf carbonates, and regressive sandstones form the main reservoirs. Evaporites and shales are the regional seals. Recent information indicates that Oxfordian shaly limestones are also important source rocks.

  19. Different periods of uranium and thorium occurrence in Madagascar (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, M.


    In Madagascar, the first typical occurrences of thorium and uranium are about 500 million years old. Previously thorium and uranium were rather concentrated in the granitic and charnockitic zones, chiefly in minerals such as monazite, apatite and zircon. At the end of the Precambrian period, metasomatic granites occur especially in the anticlinal series (Andriba orthite granite). The granitization is followed by the formation of the main pegmatitic areas in the Island with Th-U niobotantalates, uraninite and beryl. The pegmatites are well developed in the synclinal series with a poor migmatization or no migmatization at all. In the same time a large uranium and thorium province with uranothorianite deposits appears within the calcomagnesian series of the Southern part of Madagascar. Later, large amounts of monazite were carried down to the detritic Karroo sediments during tile erosion of the metamorphic precambrian rocks. Monazite has been concentrated again by frequent marine incursions, till the present time. In the medium Karroo, near Folakara, uranium minerals occur in direct relation with carbonaceous material. Finally we must note the uranium occurrence in the pleistocene carbonaceous shales of Antsirabe basin, in contact with crystalline rocks. (author) [fr


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman


    Full Text Available The study area is located in Balikpapan Bay, the connecting waters between Pancur village at the southwest and Balang Island at the northeast. The objective of study is to know the engineering properties of rock as a foundation groundwork of bridge. Result of seismic reflection interpretation profiles in the survey area indicates that the seismic sequences can be divided into two sequences, those are sequence A and B. Sequence A lies at the upper part, which is characterized by concordance, parallel, wavy and hummocky reflectors. Sequence B is characterized by mounded, chaotic and free reflectors. Sediment thickness obtained from seismic profiles show that Quaternary sediment is about 1.56 to 4.89 meters, while harder substrate thickness ranging between 7.03 and 21.60 meters. While, based on core drilling data, hard rock started to appear between 3 and 4 meters below seafloor with Standard Penetration Test (SPT between 32 and 34 blows as Tertiary sediments. Based on field observation and correlated with geological map of Balang Island, Balikpapan Sheet, the hard rock proposed for base of bridge foundation is Balang Island Formation (Middle Miocene that consist of claystone, sandstone and coal layers that have been deformated and start to form fold as anticline. The seismic record show that, the hard rock is interpreted as B sequence that underlain by Quaternary sediments.

  1. Organic geochemistry of oils and condensates in the Kekeya field, southwest depression of the Tarim Basin (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maowen Li; Snowdon, L.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Canada); Renzi Lin; Peirong Wang [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China); Yongsheng Liao; Peilong Li [Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau, Shandong (China)


    This study shows that the oils and condensates in the Kekeya Field in the Tarim Basin, NW China, belong to a single family, most likely derived from marine shale source rocks deposited under oxic-suboxic conditions with mixed terrigenous and algal-bacterial organic inputs. The maturity data clearly indicate that the paraffinic condensates were not formed by thermal cracking of oil during late catagenesis (R{sub o} > 1.2%). Both the oils and condensates were generated within the normal oil window, whereas addition of gaseous hydrocarbons from a separate source resulted in migration fractionation and hence spuriously high heptane indices. Age specific biomarkers show that the oils and condensates were not generated from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata, but from the Carboniferous-Permian sections. 1D basin modelling results are consistent with this interpretation, suggesting that the Mesozoic-Eocene strata are currently immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. Deep-seated faults may have provided routes for upward fluid migration at the time of active deformation during several pulses of the Himalayan orogeny. The favoured targets for further petroleum exploration in front of the Kunlun Mountains include the deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata for indigenous petroleum accumulations and anticlines and stratigraphic traps within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sections that are cut by deep-seated thrust faults where secondary petroleum accumulations most likely occurred. (author)

  2. Gravity inversion of deep-crust and mantle interfaces in the Three Gorges area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian


    Full Text Available To better understand the heterogeneity of deep-crust and mantle interfaces in the region of the Three Gorges, China, we used the Parker-Oldenburg iterative inversion method to invert existing Bouguer gravity data from the Three Gorges area (1 : 500000, a new gravity map of the Three Gorges Dam (1 : 200000, and the results of deep seismic soundings. The inversion results show a Moho depth of 42 km between Badong and Zigui and the depth of the B2 lower-crustal interface beneath the Jianghan Plain and surrounding areas at 21–25 km. The morphology of crustal interfaces and the surface geology present an overpass structure. The mid-crust beneath the Three Gorges Dam is approximately 9 km thick, which is the thinnest in the Three Gorges area and may be related to the shallow low-density body near the Huangling anticline. The upper crust is seismogenic, and there is a close relationship between seismicity and the deep-crust and mantle interfaces. For example, the M5. 1 Zigui earthquake occurred where the gradients of the Moho and the B2 interface are the steepest, showing that deep structure has a very important effect on regional seismicity.

  3. Fluid pressure arrival time tomography: Estimation and assessment in the presence of inequality constraints, with an application to a producing gas field at Krechba, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.


    Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.

  4. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrawus Zhigila


    Full Text Available Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4 and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3 per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum.

  5. Time domain electromagnetic method for petroleum exploration. Part 3. Case study in Yoneyama area; Sekiyu tansa ni okeru TDEM ho data shutoku to kaiseki ni tsuite. 3. Niigataken Yoneyama chiiki deno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H.; Mitsuhata, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shiga, N. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The result is reported of a TDEM method-based survey for oil exploration conducted in the Yoneyama district, Niigata Prefecture. The survey covered the southern part of the sedimentary basin in the prefecture, known for the poor quality of the seismic prospecting data that had been recorded. The purpose of the TDEM method-assisted survey was to probe the high-resistivity volcanic rock structure and low-resistivity sedimentary layer, and to know their details. The obtained data were subjected to interpretation by use of the 1D inversion method. A 4000m-deep level was subjected to interpretation, 34 data were inputted, and the early model consisted of 20 layers. As the result, it was found that there was a high-resistivity layer ranging from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 500m, that a low-resistivity layer 2500-3000m in thickness lay thereunder, and that the lowest layer had a high resistivity of approximately 100 Ohm m. By comparing these data with the geological structure, structures were disclosed corresponding to the rock bed depth, Ukawa syncline, Ishiguro anticline, and Yoneyama mountain mass. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Natural and historic heritage of the Bochnia Salt Mine (South Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Wiewiorka


    Full Text Available The Bochnia Salt Mine, presented in this paper, is situated ca. 40 km E of Cracow, in the southern part of the Neogene Carpathian Foredeep, close to the Carpathian edge. In this region the rock-salt deposits formed as a result of the Late Miocene folding and local tectonic thickening of Badenian evaporites. The Bochnia deposit, situated in the almost vertical N limb of the Bochnia Anticline, stretches ca. 7 km WE, but only 15-200 m NS. Salt mining in Bochnia began in the thirteenth c. and continued until 1990. The historic part of the mine, since 1995 operated by a company supplying health and tourism services, is an officially listed monument of historic heritage. Legal protection also comprises 27 sites of key value for the geology of the deposit. These documentation sites record the whole profile of the evaporite series and the adjacent beds, main and minor tectonic structures, as well as mineralogical curiosities, such as fibrous halite and enterolithic anhydrite. For some years, efforts have been made to enter the Bochnia Salt Mine, in 2008 visited by over 140 000 tourists, on the UNESCO World List of Cultural and Natural Heritage.

  7. Mineral resource potential map of the James River Face Wilderness, Bedford and Rockbridge counties, Virginia (United States)

    Brown, C. Erwin; Gazdik, Gertrude C.


    The rocks in the James River Face Wilderness are shales and quartzites that overlie a meta-igneous basement. They are folded into a large southwestward-plunging anticline that is cut off on the east and south by an extensive thrust fault that brings old basement rocks over the younger sedimentary rocks. Geochemical studies of stream sediments, soils, and rocks do not reveal any unusually high metal concentrations, but a large resource of metallurgical-grade quartzite and shale suitable for structural clay products and lightweight aggregate is in the wilderness. Antietam (Erwin) Quartzite has been quarried at three sites in the wilderness as raw material for silicon used in the manufacture of ferrosilicon. Other uses included crushed rock for concrete aggregate, road metal, and railroad ballast, and sand for cement and mortar. Potential uses include ganister for silica brick and specialty sands such as filter and furnace sand. Firing tests on samples of shale from the Harpers (Hampton) Formation show that it could be used for the manufacture of brick and as lightweight aggregate. Of marginal economic interest are heavy-mineral layers in the basal Unicoi (Weverton) Formation.

  8. Concentration mechanisms of uranium in the mineralized fractures of the Lower Devonian of the Belgian Ardennes - The case of the Oizy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlet, J.M.; Doremus, P.; Quinif, Y.


    During a reconnaissance survey for uranium in the Belgian Paleozoic several anomalies or U occurrences have been discovered in the Lower Devonian by a car-borne radiometric survey. These anomalies appear in relation with mobilization and reconcentration processes at the boundary of redox fronts or following alteration fronts in the detrital series of the Lower Devonian. This paper describes the Oizy anomaly which occurs in a fracturated zone of the Gedinnian formations of the Ardenne Anticline and puts it back in the general context of the U concentrations of the Lower Devonian of the Belgian Ardennes. After a lithostratigraphic, structural and radiometric study of the quarry where the U concentrations occur, a laboratory study of the surrounding rocks has been performed by various techniques (γ- and α-spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, autoradiography and low-level counting technique, analytical chemistry). One can conclude that the mineralized fractures of Oizy are due to a downward remobilization of U by subsurface processes during post-Hercynian periods. 26 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 plate; 2 tabs

  9. Early detection of injuries in leaves of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. (Clusiaceae caused by particulate deposition of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ismael Rocha


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of microscopic parameters of asymptomatic leaves of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. subjected to particulate deposition of iron (2.14 mg cm-2 day-1 for 45 consecutive days. Samples of young and expanded leaves without symptoms were collected and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The height of the epidermal cells on both surfaces of the leaf and the thickness of the hypodermis, the chlorophyll parenchyma, and the leaf blade were measured. Micromorphological injury occurred in the abaxial surface of young leaves and on both surfaces of expanded leaves. Erosion of the epicuticular wax and cuticle rupture were frequent on the adaxial surface, while on the abaxial surface of both leaves there was a loss of sinuosity on the anticlinal wall of the epidermal cells, stomatal deformity and obstruction. Micromorphometric alterations were seen in all leaf tissues except in the height of epidermic cells, probably due to the thick cuticle and prominent cuticular flanges. The highest difference in thickness of the leaf blade was seen in young leaves of plants subjected to SPMFe, indicating greater sensibility to particulate iron in comparison to the expanded leaves. The micromorphological and micromorphometric alterations in the leaf blade of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. showed the prognostic potential of these tools on the evaluation of impacts caused by the deposition of particulate matter, especially in the 'Restinga' natural vegetation, where the exposure is increasing due to the presence of iron ore industry in their surroundings.

  10. Integrated high resolution stratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the Zagros Basin (Iran): Calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifers, carbon and oxygen stable isotopes (United States)

    Javad Razmjooei, Mohammad; Thibault, Nicolas; Kani, Anoshiravan; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Shahriari, Samira; Jamali, Amir Mohammad; Cocquerez, Théophile


    The Gurpi Formation (Fm.) consists of fossiliferous, alternating marls and marly limestones, spanning the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene in the NW to central part of the Zagros Basin. This formation was deposited in deep shelf to basin margin settings. A preliminary study of the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes was already presented by Razmjooei et al. (2014) on the Shahneshin section (Shahneshin anticline) which corresponds to open marine, upper bathyal depositional environments. However this study was at a relatively low resolution and the section was not presented with a detailed sedimentology. The ca. 350 m long Gurpi Fm. of the Shahneshin section has been re-logged in detail in 2016 and a new high resolution study has been carried out, spanning the middle Coniacian to early Danian. Here, we present the result of this new investigation that integrates the biostratigraphy of calcareous nannofossils (based on 165 samples), that of planktonic foraminifers (62 samples) and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes (353 samples) along with a comprehensive panorama and detailed log of the section. A large number of carbon isotope excursions previously defined by Jarvis et al. (2006) and Thibault et al. (2016) have been identified in the section and can be correlated to the Gubbio record, which is the standard reference for the southwestern Tethys. Our new high resolution study constitutes a new reference for Late Cretaceous sediments of the eastern Tethys.

  11. Anatomy and ontogeny of Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae: Faboideae seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. T. Oliveira

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and ontogeny of Pterodon emarginatus seed using the usual techniques. The ovules are campilotropous, crassinucelate, and bitegmic. The following processes occur during integument development: anticlinal divisions and phenolic compound accumulations in the exotesta, whose cells become palisade; predominantly periclinal divisions and cell expansion in the mesotesta, where the rapheal bundle differentiates; differentiation of the hourglass-cell layer adjacent to the palisade; fusion of outer and inner integuments, which remain individualized structures only at the micropylar end; and intense pectin impregnation in the mesotesta thicker walls with lignification restricted to the xylem. At the hilar pole, the Faboideae seed characteristic structure develops, with double palisade layer, subhilar parenchyma, and tracheid bar. The younger nucellus shows thicker pectic cell walls and is consumed during seed formation. The endosperm is nuclear and, after cellularization, shows peripheral cells with dense lipid content; the seeds are albuminous. The axial embryo shows fleshy cotyledons, which accumulate lipid and protein reserves; starch is rare. Although the seed structure is characteristic of the Fabaceae, the inner integument coalesces into the outer integument without being reabsorbed.

  12. Micromorphological Studies on Seeds of Orobanche Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, and Their Systematic Significance (United States)



    • Background and Aims Previous research has made clear the intrinsic taxonomic difficulties in identifying species in the genus Orobanche. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the systematic utility of seed characteristics. • Methods Light and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the seeds of 33 taxa of Orobanche from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. • Key Results Characters such as size, shape and ornamentation of the seeds were not found to be very useful in differentiation of taxa; however, other characters of the epidermal seed coat cells proved to be very helpful in this respect. Ornamentation of the periclinal walls could be used to discriminate four morphological types. Other features related to the anticlinal walls of the cells, such as thickness, presence/absence of a narrow trough, or relative depth, all contributed to the characterization of a large number of species. • Conclusions The usefulness of micromorphological studies on seeds of Orobanche in relation to differentiating taxa is demonstrated, and a key is provided to distinguish species or groups of species. PMID:15159219

  13. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  14. How to Characterize a Potential Site for CO2 Storage with Sparse Data Coverage – a Danish Onshore Site Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Carsten Møller


    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates how a potential site for CO2 storage can be evaluated up to a sufficient level of characterization for compiling a storage permit application, even if the site is only sparsely explored. The focus of the paper is on a risk driven characterization procedure. In the initial state of a site characterization process with sparse data coverage, the regional geological and stratigraphic understanding of the area of interest can help strengthen a first model construction for predictive modeling. Static and dynamic modeling in combination with a comprehensive risk assessment can guide the different elements needed to be evaluated for fulfilling a permit application. Several essential parameters must be evaluated; the storage capacity for the site must be acceptable for the project life of the operation, the trap configuration must be efficient to secure long term containment, the injectivity must be sufficient to secure a longstanding stable operation and finally a satisfactory and operational measuring strategy must be designed. The characterization procedure is demonstrated for a deep onshore aquifer in the northern part of Denmark, the Vedsted site. The site is an anticlinal structural closure in an Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic sandstone formation at 1 800-1 900 m depth.

  15. Relative tectonic activity classification in the Kermanshah area, western Iran (United States)

    Arian, M.; Aram, Z.


    Due to the closing of the subduction zone and the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates, the High Zagros region has always been affected by a wide range of tectonic variations. In this research, the Gharasu River basin, which is located in the Kermanshah area, was selected as the study area, six geomorphic indices were calculated, and the results of each one were divided into three classes. Then, using the indices, relative tectonic activity was calculated, and their values were classified and analysed in four groups. Regions were identified as very high, high, moderate and low. In analysing the results and combining them with field observations and regional geology, the results were often associated and justified with field evidence. The highest value is located on the Dokeral anticline in the crush zone in Zagros. Most of the areas with high and moderate values of Index of Active Tectonics (IAT) are also located in the crush zone in Zagros. Crushing in this zone is because of the main fault mechanism of the Zagros region. The result in this paper confirms previous research in this region. At the eastern end of the study area, the value of Iat is high, which could be the result of the Sarab and Koh-e Sefid fault mechanisms.

  16. Relative tectonic activity classification in Kermanshah area, west Iran (United States)

    Arian, M.; Aram, Z.


    The High Zagros region because of closing to subduction zone and the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates is imposed under the most tectonic variations. In this research, Gharasu river basin that it has located in Kermanshah area was selected as the study area and 6 geomorphic indices were calculated and the results of each ones were divided in 3 classes. Then, using the indices, relative tectonic activity was calculated and the values were classified and analyzed in 4 groups. Regions were identified as very high, high, moderate and low. In analyzing the results and combining them with field observation and regional geology the results are often associated and justified with field evidences. The highest value is located on Dokeral anticline in crush zone in Zagros Most of the areas with high and moderate values of lat are located on crush zone in Zagros too. Crushing of this zone is because of main faults mechanism of Zagros region. The result of this paper confirms previous researches in this region. At the end of the eastern part of the study area, the value of Iat is high that could be the result of Sarab and Koh-e Sefid faults mechanism.

  17. Superposition method used for treating oilfield interference in Iranian water-drive reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, K. [National Iranian South Oil Company, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Water-drive oil fields that share a common aquifer are in hydrodynamic communication. Production from such fields is accompanied by pressure loss that manifests itself as pressure interference because the decline in pressure is transmitted through the aquifer to other fields even several miles away from a producing pool. In order to address the challenge of discovering new Iranian oil reserves, attention has focused on the efficient development of existing reservoirs. The Asmari reservoir consists of a high permeability sand and carbonate section in an elongated anticlinal structure. A drop in reservoir pressure was observed in field 'A' in 1974. This drop in pressure was noted one year after field 'B' in the same reservoir reached peak oil production of 1.1 MMBPD. A practical analytical method was developed to help the reservoir engineer analyze oilfield interference problems. Reservoir performance indicates that the aquifer from field 'A' has strong communication with field 'B'. The most practical method for treating oilfield interference in water-drive Iranian reservoirs was the superposition technique. It was emphasized that the impact of nearby fields should be considered in all reservoir simulations to accurately identify regional aquifer effects on flow rates and oil-water contact movement. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Miocene rifting in the Los Angeles basin: Evidence from the Puente Hills half-graben, volcanic rocks, and P-wave tomography (United States)

    Bjorklund, Tom; Burke, Kevin; Zhou, Hua-Wei; Yeats, Robert S.


    Formation of the Puente Hills half-graben in the northeastern Los Angeles basin and eruption of the Glendora and El Modeno Volcanics (16 14 Ma) help to define the timing of extension in the basin. Normal faulting on the proto-Whittier fault ca. 14 Ma established the Puente Hills half-graben, in which sedimentary strata accumulated between ca. 14 and 10 Ma and into which diabase sills intruded. North-South contraction began to invert the Puente Hills half-graben ca. 7 Ma, leading to formation of the Puente Hills anticline and the Whittier fault. Our high-resolution three-dimensional P-wave velocity model shows two anomalous higher velocity (6.63 km/s) bodies at depths between 9 and 18 km, which we attribute to dioritic plutons named here for Whittier Narrows and El Modeno. The stocklike Whittier Narrows pluton could have been a source for the Glendora Volcanics and the diabase sills in the Puente Hills half-graben. The sill-shaped El Modeno pluton was a likely source for the El Modeno Volcanics. The northwesterly alignment of the plutons may mark the location of the northeastern Los Angeles basin rift boundary, which is associated with the clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges. Three active faults, the Elysian Park blind thrust, the Puente Hills blind thrust, and the Whittier fault, converge on the Whittier Narrows pluton, which may have played a role in their location and segmentation.

  19. Role of tectonic inheritance in the instauration of Tunisian Atlassic fold-and-thrust belt: Case of Bouhedma - Boudouaou structures (United States)

    Ghanmi, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Aridhi, Sabri; Ben Salem, Mohamed Sadok; Zargouni, Fouad


    Tectonic inversion in the Bouhedma-Boudouaou Mountains was investigated through recent field work and seismic lines interpretation calibrated with petroleum well data. Located to the Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia, this area signed shortened intra-continental fold-and-thrust belts. Two dissymmetric anticlines characterize Bouhedma - Boudouaou major fold. These structures show a strong virgation respectively from E-W to NNE-SSW as a response to the interference between both tectonic inversion and tectonic inheritance. This complex geometry is driven by Mesozoic rifting, which marked an extensional inherited regime. A set of late Triassic-Early Jurassic E-W and NW-SE normal faults dipping respectively to the North and to the East seems to widely affect the overall geodynamic evolution of this domain. They result in major thickness changes across the hanging wall and the footwall blocks in response with the rifting activity. Tectonic inversion is inferred from convergence between African and European plates since late Cretaceous. During Serravalian - Tortonian event, NW-SE trending paroxysm led to: 1) folding of pre-inversion and syn-inversion strata, 2) reactivation of pre-existing normal faults to reverse ones and 3) orogeny of the main structures with NE-SW and E-W trending. The compressional feature still remains active during Quaternary event (Post-Villafranchian) with N-S trending compression. Contraction during inversion generates folding and internal deformation as well as Fault-Propagation-Fold and folding related strike.

  20. Petrographic study of evaporite deformation near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.


    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico contains about 1000 m of layered evaporites. Areas in the northern Delaware Basin, bordering the Capitan reef, have anomalous seismic reflection characteristics, such as loss in reflector continuity. Core from holes within this zone exhibits complex mesoscopic folds and extension structures. On a larger scale, anticlines and synclines are indicated by structure contours based on boreholes. The deformation is probably gravity-driven. Such a process is initiated by basin tilting during either a Mesozoic or Cenozoic period of uplift. Small-scale structures suggest that deformation was episodic with an early, syndepositional stage of isoclinal folding. Later, open-to-tight asymmetric folding is more penetrative and exhibits a sense of asymmetry opposite to that of the earlier isoclinal folding. The younger folds are associated with development of zonal crenulation cleavage and microboundinage of more competent carbonate layers. At the same time, halite beds developed dimensional fabrics and convolute folds in anhydrite stringers. Late-stage, near-vertical fractures formed in competent anhydrite layers. Microscopic textures exhibit rotated anhydrite porphyroblasts, stress shadow growth, and microboundinage. Except during late-stage deformation, anhydrite and halite recrystallized synkinematically. Drastic strength reduction in anhydrites through dynamic recrystallization occurs experimentally near 200 0 C. However, evaporites of the WIPP site never experienced temperatures > 40 0 C. Microscopic fabrics and P, T history of the evaporites suggest that pressure solution was the active mechanism during deformation of evaporites at the WIPP site

  1. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia (United States)

    Bishop, Michele G.


    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  2. Uranium occurrence at Sao Teodosio farm, Currais Novos, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favali, J.C.; Leal, J.R.L.V.


    The areas of certain radiometric anomalies discovered in Serido geosyncline were selected for intensive study because of the similarity of the geology to that of known uranium deposits in other parts of the world. The uranium mineralization at Sao Teodosio farm, near Currais Novos, RN, on the Serrinha anticline axis, occurs in alaskite similar to that at Rossing in Southwest Africa. The Rossing deposit is the best example of the model proposed by Armstrong (1974) as 'porphyry' uranium deposits. That uranium deposit presents low grade of uranium content, about 0,030% U 3 O 8 and hundred thousands tons of uranium oxide. At Sao Teodosio occurs 550 m.y. alaskitic pegmatitic granite and garnet-quartz-biotite-schists of Serido formation, Upper Precambrian. These older rocks are cut by diabases dykes of Upper Terciary age. Uranium mineralization is associated with pegmatitic granite bodies similar to dykes and sills. The most common uranium minerals are: uraninite, meta-autunite and uranophane. Oligoclase, microline and quartz are the most frequent minerals. Acessory minerals are magnetite, titanite and zircon. Uranium oxide content at Sao Teodosio is 0,023% and average thickness is 2,80 m [pt

  3. Estimating permeability from quasi-static deformation: Temporal variations and arrival time inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio


    Transient pressure variations within a reservoir can be treated as a propagating front and analyzed using an asymptotic formulation. From this perspective one can define a pressure 'arrival time' and formulate solutions along trajectories, in the manner of ray theory. We combine this methodology and a technique for mapping overburden deformation into reservoir volume change as a means to estimate reservoir flow properties, such as permeability. Given the entire 'travel time' or phase field, obtained from the deformation data, we can construct the trajectories directly, there-by linearizing the inverse problem. A numerical study indicates that, using this approach, we can infer large-scale variations in flow properties. In an application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) observations associated with a CO{sub 2} injection at the Krechba field, Algeria, we image pressure propagation to the northwest. An inversion for flow properties indicates a linear trend of high permeability. The high permeability correlates with a northwest trending fault on the flank of the anticline which defines the field.

  4. Gravity Modeling of the Cerro Goden fault zone, NW Puerto Rico (United States)

    Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Asencio, E.


    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake served as a reminder of potential earthquake hazards on upper-crustal fault systems along the northern boundary of the Carribean plate. In this study we modeled the structure of the Cerro Goden and subparallel fault zones in northwestern Puerto Rico, which cross through densely populated areas, using existing and newly collected gravity data. The fault zone had previously been mapped at the surface, but the details of the fault zone in the subsurface and the detailed structure remain poorly constrained. We used our gravity data to extend surface geologic models to greater depth. Specifically, we modeled and interpreted a north-to-south 2-D model perpendicular to the Cerro Goden fault zone. We used horizontal derivative and residual anomaly maps to emphasize edges of subsurface bodies and shallow structures of interest. Our preliminary 2D model constrains the width and depth extent of serpentinite bodies along the fault zones, the relationship of the faults with the Cerro Goden anticline in central Puerto Rico, and confirms the steep NE dip of the faults extrapolated from surface data. Additional data will be collected in the future across the Cerro Goden fault zone to laterally extend our models of subsurface structural features.

  5. Morphological, Anatomical and Palynological Studies on Endemic Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub. -Mor. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKIN


    Full Text Available In this paper, anatomical, palynological and seed micromorphological properties of an endemic plant Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor. are recorded for the first time. A description and descriptive illustrations of the species are given based on the collected specimens for morphological study. Seed surface of M. anchoniifolia is examined by scanning electron microscope. The seed of M. anchoniifolia was compressed, brownish in colour and the cells of testa were nearly 60-80 μm in diameter and ranged from isodiametric, tetragonal or pentagonal. The anticlinal walls were straight or weakly curved while the outer periclinal walls were concave to flat with smooth surface. In anatomical study, cross sections of root, stem and stem leaf are examined. The root had secondary structure. Periderm consists of 5-8 layers of cells for phellem. Cortex consists of 9-12 layered parenchymatic tissue under the periderm. Secondary phloem ring-shaped, 6-9 layered and consists of companion cells and grouped sieve tubes. Stem had primary structure when analyzed. It is circular with a few irregular ribs in cross section. Cortex is 8-12 layered and parenchymatous. Stoma cells are present on both epidermis. Leaf is isobilateral. There are unicellular and ramified hairs on both surface. Palisade parenchyma cells are 1-2 layered and spongy parenchyma cells are 5-12 layered. M. anchoniifolia has tricolpate pollen type, prolate pollen shape and reticulate exine ornamentation.

  6. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.


    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author) [pt

  7. Production development for a mature oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiral, B.; Gumrah, F.; Okandan, E. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)


    Petroleum reservoir engineers often analyze production data and forecast reserves through the decline curve analysis method which is a useful tool for extrapolating oil production in the future. The recovery of oil can be defined in terms of the oil relative permeability, the drainage volume and the pressure gradient. Problems occur in using decline curve analysis when there are changes to the relative permeability relationship or drainage occurs. This paper presented development strategies for the Mishovdag oil field in Azerbaijan. This sandstone reservoir provides 40 per cent of the total oil produced from the Sirvan oilfield region. A total of 516 wells have been drilled in the area since 1956, of which 198 are still in production. The reservoir properties were evaluated using core and well log data as well as the decline curve analysis. Two development scenarios were considered. The one which showed a production rate increase of 50 per cent within four years involved the stopping of water injection from the anticline and continuing it from other injection wells into the sands. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal : a possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooten, G.K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.


    This study addressed the issue of sources of hydrocarbons for benthic sediments in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) with particular reference to the application of forensic geology to identify end members and to explain the geologic setting and processes affecting the system. Native coals and natural seep oils have been questioned in the past decade as possible sources of background hydrocarbons because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Native coal has also been dismissed as a pollution source because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low to be consistent with GOA sediments. The authors present evidence that perhaps native coal has been prematurely dismissed as a pollution source because BRCF coals do not represent adequately the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation which have much higher PAH:TOC ratios. The patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals indicate a genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analysis of the coal suggests it is a significant source of PAH, and it was cautioned that source models that do not include this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the background hydrocarbon signature in the Gulf of Alaska. 32 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  9. The Influence of fold and fracture development on reservoir behavior of the Lisburne Group of northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen: Michael T. Whalen; Paul Atkinson; Joseph Brinton; Thang Bui; Margarete Jadamec; Alexandre Karpov; John Lorenz; Michelle M. McGee; T.M. Parris; Ryan Shackleton


    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is folded and thrust faulted where it is exposed throughout the Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. Symmetrical detachment folds characterize the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range. In contrast, Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hangingwall anticlines and footwall synclines. The Continental Divide thrust front separates these different structural styles in the Lisburne and also marks the southern boundary of the northeastern Brooks Range. Field studies were conducted for this project during 1999 to 2001 in various locations in the northeastern Brooks Range and in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, immediately south of the Continental Divide thrust front. Results are summarized below for the four main subject areas of the study.

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lawton Quadrangle, Oklahoma and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shaieb, Z.; Thomas, R.G.; Stewart, G.F.


    Uranium resources of the Lawton Quadrangle, Oklahoma and Texas, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Five areas of uranium favorability were delineated. Diagenetically altered, quartzose and sublithic, eolian and marginal-marine sandstones of the Permian Rush Springs Formation overlying the Cement Anticline are favorable for joint-controlled deposits in sandstone, non-channel-controlled peneconcordant deposits, and Texas roll-front deposits. Three areas contain lithologies favorable for channel-controlled peneconcordant deposits: arkosic sandstones and granule conglomerates of the Permian Post Oak Conglomerate south of the Wichita Mountains; subarkosic and sublithic Lower Permian fluvio-deltaic and coastal-plain sandstones of the eastern Red River Valley; and subsurface arkosic, subarkosic, and sublithic alluvial-fan and fan-delta sandstones of the Upper Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian sequence in the eastern Hollis Basin. The coarse-grained facies of the Cambrian Quanah Granite and genetically related aplite and pegmatite dikes in the Wichita Mountains are favorable for orthomagmatic and autometasomatic deposits, respectively


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ferrer Pereira


    Full Text Available The avocado (Persea americana Mill. is the most important species of Lauraceae in America due to its exploitation as food for pre-Columbian and modern cultures. It is a very important seasonal crop in Venezuela based on a perennial fruit tree management. From a selection of 76 accessions (45 cultivars of avocados cultivated at the Germplasm Bank of INIA-CENIAP, a morphoanatomical analysis was performed to identify attributes of taxonomic resolution (diagnostic characters which allow to characterize sets and / or culta. Morphological study was carried out from each accession herborized sample. Information was obtained by freehand transverse leaf sections (epidermis, mesophyll and midvein as well as paradermic preparations, and observed data was recorded in DELTA System. New morphoanatomical characters and discriminating attributes between cultivars were identified and described, especially to discriminate the Mexican group, and a close relationship within West Indian and Guatemalan cultivars was observed due to the variability identified from the latter group. Indument- related attributes were highly informative to discriminate among cultivars, along with the outline, apical angle and projections at the base of the leaf blades, stem cross section and presence of anise odor, progress and joining of the secondary nerve branches, tertiary venation pattern, abaxial contour and thickness of the sclerenchymatous sheath and compaction of the phloem in the vascular bundle, adaxial contour of the median nerve, and thickness, outline and uniformity of the anticlinal walls of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells.

  12. Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum Karst Manifestations of the Castile Formation: Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Kevin W.


    Full Text Available Permian evaporites of the Castile Formation crop out over ~1,800 km2 in the western Delaware Basin (Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA with abundant and diverse karst manifestations. Epigene karst occurs as well-developed karren on exposed bedrock, while sinkholes dominate the erosional landscape, including both solutional and collapse forms. Sinkhole analyses suggest that more than half of all sinks are the result of upward stoping of subsurface voids, while many solutional sinks are commonly the result of overprinting of collapsed forms. Epigene caves are laterally limited with rapid aperture decreases away from insurgence, with passages developed along fractures and anticline fold axes. Hypogene karst occurs as diverse manifestations, forming the deepest and longest caves within the region as well as abundant zones of brecciation. Hypogene caves exhibit a wide range of morphologies from complex maze and anastomotic patterns to simple, steeply dipping patterns, but all hypogene caves exhibit morphologic features (i.e. risers, outlet cupolas and half-tubes that provide a definitive suite of evidence of dissolution within a mixed convection (forced and free convection hydrologic system. Extensive blanket breccias, abundant breccia pipes and numerous occurrences of calcitized evaporites indicate widespread hypogene speleogenesis throughout the entire Castile Formation. Although most cave and karst development within the Castile outcrop region appears to have hypogene origins, epigene processes areactively overprinting features, creating a complex speleogenetic evolution within the Castile Formation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergimar Kennedy de Paiva PINHEIRO


    Full Text Available This study describes the colleters of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae by using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Two different developmental stages were characterized as well as the chemical composition of secretion. Colleters are secretory structures that produce mucilage protecting the meristems and leaf primordia against desiccation and/or pathogens. Although these secretory structures are common on Rubiaceae, the results reported here is to the best of our knowledge the first record of colleters on Morinda genus. Colleters are present at the stipule adaxial surface, distributed in lines. These secretory structures are standard type and have no base constriction, differently from all studied species until now. In order to better understand the colleters structure and secretion, two phases were distinguished: a secretory phase and a senescence one. On secretory phase standard type colleters were visualized between leaf primordia and stipule, emerge on secretion. They present smooth surface, however was also possible to observe the contours of secretory cells anticlinal walls. In senescent phase colleters morphology was alternated exhibiting rough surface and blunt to point tips. The surface was rough and on stipule sections was possible to observe idioblasts with raphides bundles. The secretion process of M. citrifolia colleters occurs with the disruption of cuticle and the chemical elements are mostly dominated by carbon and oxygen.

  14. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The diapir anticline microdepression of Ocna Şugatag underwent an accelerated transformation immediately after the end of salt mining (at the beginning of the 1960s. During this period of over 50 years of evolution, lake basins formed and disappeared, either naturally, in small sinkholes, or mostly due to the collapse of salt mine adits or chambers, which led to the creation of large-sized lake basins. There is an accelerated dynamics of these basins, as indicated by the sliding of part of the banks at a pace of 0.5-1.5 meters/year. The collapse of the mines is far from over, because the largest mines (Mihai and Dragoş are partly affected and the pillars supporting the ceiling of the adits have a small diameter. Given the present conditions, when the underground brine is used for bathing and treatment purposes, in short time it is possible that new lakes emerge, even larger than the already existing ones. From the point of view of the lake potential, there are important differences, according to the degree of salinity of the water and the more or less accelerated dynamics of the lake basins. The latest two years witnessed an important development of the tourism infrastructure in the analysed area, as well as arrangements of the lakes, which determined a significant increase in the number of tourists searching for outdoor bathing, especially during week-ends.

  16. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, D G; Jones, C A; Gallagher, G L; Young, P; Dubyk, W S


    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource.

  17. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins


    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  18. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage (United States)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben


    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  19. Investigation of Laramide Deformation in North-Central New Mexico and Its Role in Guiding Miocene Extension (United States)

    Freer, C. M.; Hamilton, J.; Murphy, M. A.


    North-trending Laramide age dextral faults in New Mexico help to explain shortening features along the northern margin of the Colorado Plateau. However, a palinspastic reconstruction of aeromagnetic anomalies that are cut by these dextral faults, do not explain shortening in the Tusas-Brazos uplift suggesting that the geometry of the Laramide structural system needs to be reassessed. We conducted geologic mapping and structural analysis of a series of Laramide asymmetric anticlines as well as Miocene normal faults between the Tusas-Brazos and Nacimento uplift to assess alternative models describing Laramide deformation. The kinematics of Laramide features in Northern New Mexico has been interpreted in multiple conflicting models. One model suggests that Laramide deformation in this region was characterized by several (4-6) large N-S striking faults with net dextral slip estimates ranging from ~55-170km. A second model suggests a hybrid of the two models above, suggesting a counter-clockwise rotation in the maximum shortening direction from E-W to NNE-SSW. The anticlines investigated lie between the north-trending east-vergent Tusas-Brazos uplift and the west-vergent Nacimento uplift. They form an en echelon set of km-scale folds that trend ~N40E and verge to the east and west. The estimated shortening direction from conjugate fractures and lineations are close to agreeing on an orientation of N30E, with conjugates at N10W and N50E. Fracture data throughout the specific areas are not easily explained by east-west extension during Rio Grande rifting but instead correlate to Laramide deformation. The regional fracture pattern suggests a vertically oriented σ2 advocating for a strike-slip deformation regime. Also apparent from the fracture pattern is a possible change in σ1 direction, with both E-W and NNE-SSW possible, though timing is uncertain. Mineral stretching lineations in Proterozoic rocks of the Laramide-uplifted Tusas Mountains display an average NE

  20. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.


    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  1. Along-strike structural variation and thermokinematic development of the Cenozoic Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan (United States)

    Barber, Douglas E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Koshnaw, Renas I.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Yilmaz, Ismail O.


    to latest Miocene times, followed by out-of-sequence development of the Mountain Front Flexure (Qaradagh anticline) by ~5 Ma. In contrast, initial exhumation in the northern Bitlis belt occurred by mid-Eocene time, followed by collisional deformation that propagated southward into northern Iraqi Kurdistan during the middle to late Miocene. Plio-Pleistocene deformation was partitioned into out-of-sequence reactivation of the Ora thrust along the Iraq-Turkey border, concurrent with development of the Sinjar and Abdulaziz inversion structures at the edge of the Bitlis deformation front. Overall, these data suggest the Bitlis and Zagros trends evolved relatively independently during Cretaceous and early Cenozoic times, resulting in very different structural and stratigraphic inheritance, before being affected contemporaneously by major phase of in-sequence shortening during middle to latest Miocene and out-of-sequence deformation since the Pliocene. Limited seismic sections corroborate the notion that the structural style and trend of the Bitlis fold belt is dominated by inverted Mesozoic extensional faults, whereas the Zagros structures are interpreted mostly as fault-propagation folds above a Triassic décollement. These pre-existing heterogeneities in the Bitlis contributed to the lower shortening estimates, variable anticline orientation, and irregular fold spacing and the fundamentally different orientations of the Zagros-Bitlis belt in Iraqi Kurdistan and Turkey.

  2. A Seismo-Tectonic Signal From Offshore Sedimentation: The 2010 Haiti Earthquake and Prior Events (United States)

    McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Cormier, M.; Hornbach, M.; Momplaisir, R.; Waldhauser, F.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Gulick, S.


    The Mw 7.0 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti was one of the deadliest in history. It involved multiple faults along or near the main Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). This left-lateral transform is a branch of the northern Caribbean plate boundary across southern Hispaniola. The main rupture was strike-slip but almost all aftershocks had thrust mechanisms, and surface deformation may have been concentrated on anticline forelimbs driven by blind thrust faults. Earthquake generated mass-wasting and turbidity currents were sampled from the Canal du Sud slope (~1000 m water depth), a basin at 1500 m, and the deepest part of the strait at 1700 m. The turbidites were strongly correlated by 234Th with a half-life of 24 days. In the deepest area, a turbidite-homogenite unit (T-H) extends over 50 km2 and is composed of basal sand beds 5 cm thick and 50 cm of mud above. The sedimentary structures in the sand were linked to oscillatory motions by internal seiches. The T-H units recovered from the slope and deep basin are similar in composition. The Leogane Delta, upslope from the sampling sites, is rich in this lithology that has been linked to oceanic basement rocks exposed on the southern Haitian peninsula. In contrast, the T-H unit recovered from the basin at 1500 m is perched behind a thrust anticline and has a greater concentration of Ca derived from Ca rich sources such as the Tapion Ridge on the southern peninsula. The Tapion Ridge is a compressional structure associated with a restraining bend along the EPGF. The T-H unit beneath the 2010 deposit has a 14C age of 2400 cal yrs BP, and interpreted as an earthquake triggered deposit. It is nearly identical in thickness, composition and fine structures to the 2010 T-H. Notably absent from the record are younger turbidites that could have been linked to the historic 1770 AD and other similar earthquakes expected from GPS rates across the EPGF. Two hypotheses are being considered for this long gap in T-H sedimentation

  3. A Systems Approach to Identifying Exploration and Development Opportunities in the Illinois Basin: Digital Portifolio of Plays in Underexplored Lower Paleozoic Rocks [Part 1 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyler, Beverly; Harris, David; Keith, Brian; Huff, Bryan; Lasemi, Yaghoob


    Albany Shale is regarded as the source rock for petroleum in Silurian and younger strata in the Illinois Basin and has potential as a petroleum reservoir. Field studies of reservoirs in Devonian strata such as the Geneva Dolomite, Dutch Creek Sandstone and Grassy knob Chert suggest that there is much additional potential for expanding these plays beyond their current limits. These studies also suggest the potential for the discovery of additional plays using stratigraphic concepts to develop a subcrop play on the subkaskaskia unconformity boundary that separates lower Devonian strata from middle Devonian strata in portions of the basin. The lateral transition from Geneva Dolomite to Dutch Creek Sandstone also offers an avenue for developing exploration strategies in middle Devonian strata. Study of lower Devonian strata in the Sesser Oil Field and the region surrounding the field shows opportunities for development of a subcrop play where lower Devonian strata unconformably overlie Silurian strata. Field studies of Silurian reservoirs along the Sangamon Arch show that opportunities exist for overlooked pays in areas where wells do not penetrate deep enough to test all reservoir intervals in Niagaran rocks. Mapping of Silurian reservoirs in the Mt. Auburn trend along the Sangamon Arch shows that porous reservoir rock grades laterally to non-reservoir facies and several reservoir intervals may be encountered in the Silurian with numerous exploration wells testing only the uppermost reservoir intervals. Mapping of the Ordovician Trenton and shallower strata at Centralia Field show that the crest of the anticline shifted through geologic time. This study illustrates that the axes of anticlines may shift with depth and shallow structure maps may not accurately predict structurally favorable reservoir locations at depth.

  4. Tectonic imbrication of Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan accretionary complexes in the central Pontides, Turkey (United States)

    Okay, A. I.; Tuysuz, O.; Satir, M.; Eren, R. H.


    The geology of the Sakarya Zone in the Pontides is shaped by the Paleo-Tethyan (latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic), and Neo-Tethyan (Late Cretaceous to Tertiary) subduction, accretion and collision events. In the Central Pontides these tectonics events are reflected in the two east-west trending belts, which make up the region. In the north, along the Black Sea coast there is a belt, ~35 km wide, dominated by the Cretaceous to Eocene siliciclastic turbidites, over 6 km in thickness. In the south there is a large region, the Kargi metamorphic complex, made up of Triassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks. The thick flysch sequences in the northern belt were formed during the back-arc rifting leading to the opening of the Black Sea. The main structure in this belt is a large pop-up anticline, the Cangaldag anticline, which is associated with north-vergent thrusts in the north, and south vergent thrusts in the south. The contact between the Cretaceous-Eocene flysch belt and the Kargı metamorphic complex is a major south-vergent Eocene thrust zone, over 200 km in length. Thin neritic Eocene sequences below the thrust, and unconformably overlying the metamorphic rocks constrain the age of the thrusting as mid-Eocene. The Kargi metamorphic complex consists of south-vergent thrust slices of metabasic rock, marble, phyllite, ultramafic rock and eclogite, which are believed to represent Paleo-Tethyan subduction-accretion complexes. Rare fossils in the carbonates indicate that some of these rocks were deposited during the Permian. Some of the crystalline thrust slices in the Kargi complex are unconformably overlain by thin pelagic Senonian limestones, and thick siliciclastic turbidites, which constrains the age of thrust stacking as Late Cretaceous. Within the Kargi massif a large ultramafic-eclogite body, 35 km long and 6 km thick, occurs as a thrust slice between two other thrust sheets of Permo-Triassic metabasite, marble and phyllite. This Elekdag ultramafic

  5. The structural geometry and development of the central Appalachian fold-and thrust belt across the Pennsylvania salient: The effects of syntectonic loading (United States)

    Evans, Mark


    The Pennsylvania salient is a classic arcuate fold-and-thrust belt that was deformed during the Late Paleozoic Alleghenian orogeny. 38 regional cross-sections with an along-strike spacing of 5 to 10 km were constructed, and show that the structural geometry varies significantly from the 030°-striking southwestern segment to 060°-striking northeastern segment. The primary competent lithotectonic unit is the 2 to 3 km thick Cambro-Ordovician carbonate sequence which is detached along a Cambrian clastic unit. The 5 to 7 km thick preserved Upper Paleozoic sequence is less homogeneous, and locally exhibits significant internal deformation. In the southwest part of the salient, the hinterland part of the fold belt is defined by a series of imbricated Cambro-Ordovician carbonate horses with leading-edge fault-propagation style folds that have a structural amplitude of 5 to 7 km. In the central part of the fold belt, the Broadtop synclinorium exhibits little to no imbrication of the Cambro-Ordovician unit, while in the western part of the belt toward the foreland, two additional carbonate horses with leading-edge fault-propagation style folds comprise the Wills Mt. anticlinorium. In the central and eastern parts of the salient, the structural geometry toward the foreland is defined by a duplex with 4 -5 imbricate horses of Cambro-Ordovician carbonates that transitions to an antiformal stack of two to three carbonate thrust sheets comprising the Nittany anticlinorium. Toward the hinterland, the Cambro-Ordovician carbonate sequence is faulted into broadly-spaced fault-related folds, and includes the regionally continuous (>160 km) Jacks Mt. - Berwick anticline that spans both limbs of the salient. Upon retrodeformation of the cross sections, the 060°-striking northeastern segment restoration path curves 25°-30° to the east, while the 030°-striking southwestern segment curves 20°-25° to the south. The major fault underlying the presently curved Jacks Mt. - Berwick

  6. The Quaternary uplift history of central southern England: evidence from the terraces of the Solent River system and nearby raised beaches (United States)

    Westaway, Rob; Bridgland, David; White, Mark


    Early Pleistocene and by ˜150 m since the Middle Pliocene, there being a high degree of consistency between uplift histories inferred for river terraces and marine terraces. Uplift rates increase gradually westward, such that along the River Frome at the western end of the Hampshire Basin ˜80 m of uplift since the late Early Pleistocene is indicated. This variation is interpreted as a consequence of a regional-scale variation in crustal properties. About 80 m of uplift is also indicated on this timescale by raised beaches in the Portsdown area and adjacent terraces of the River Test and Solent in the vicinity of the Portsdown anticline to the north of Southampton. We interpret this as a consequence of ˜10 m of vertical slip in the past million years on the blind reverse fault beneath this anticline. This dataset thus provides the first clear indication of measurable Quaternary structural development in crustal basement in the onshore UK. The Solent has formed more than a single terrace per 100 ka Milankovitch cycle, leading us to attribute terraces to isotopic substages, potentially improving upon the resolution available from sequences in which terraces formed once per cycle. Athough the first appearence of Levallois technique was initially considered to date from the MIS 9-8 transition, based on evidence from the Thames, we found that there was a better modelling fit if this was taken as having occurred slightly earlier, in MIS 9b, perhaps in association with the post-MIS 9e or 9c marine regression, which could have permitted immigration into a previously insular Britain of people versed in Levallois technology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Popkov


    Full Text Available The available data on well-studied areas of the Turan platform (as an example are reviewed and analyzed to reveal the role of con-sedimentation and post-sedimentation tectonic movements in formation of dislocations of the sedimentary cover. At the background of the long-term (tens and hundreds of million years quiet evolution of the territory under study, short-term intervals are distinguished, which duration amounts to the first millions of years (typically manifested in one or two stratigraphic layers; in such time intervals, tectonic movements were dramatically boosted and accompanied by land uplifting, sea regression, erosion of sediments accumulated earlier and manifestation of deformation processes.The paleotectonic reconstructions show that during such ‘revolutionary’ stages, large tectonic elements occurred along with local uplifts that added to their complexity. In the region under study, the Pre-Jurassic, Pre-Cretaceous (Late Okoma, Pre-Danish and the Pre-Middle Miocene gaps in sedimentation are studied in detail. It is shown that only during the above four periods of sedimentation gaps and accompanying erosion-denudation processes, the regional structures gained from 50 to 80% of their current amplitudes at the bottom of the cover, and the Pre-Danish and Pre-Middle Miocene washout periods were most important.Local uplift also developed impulsively and primarily due to the post-sedimentation movements. Cross-sections of anticlines studied in detail (Figures 1 to 3 are discussed as examples that clearly show the increase of erosional shearing of the sediments accumulated earlier towards domes of uplifts without any con-sedimentation decrease of their thicknesses. During these periods of the geologic history, regardless of their short duration, folded dislocation gained up to 65–90% of their current amplitudes. The periods of activation were separated by long relatively quiescent tectonic periods with the gradually slowing down

  8. Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of the Silurian in the Tazhong Uplift of Tarim Basin (United States)

    LÜ, Xiuxiang; BAI, Zhongkai; ZHAO, Fengyun

    Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift of Tarim basin is characterized by "two sources and three stages". "Two sources" means that the hydrocarbons are derived from two source rocks of the Cambrian and Middle-Upper Ordovician. "Three stages" means that asphalt and movable oil undergoes three hydrocarbon accumulation stages, i.e., Late Caledonian, Late Hercynian, and Yanshanian-Himalayan. The formation of asphalt resulted from the destruction of the hydrocarbons accumulated and migrated in the early stages. The present movable oil, mostly derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock, resulted from the hydrocarbons accumulated in the late stage. There are three types of reservoirs, i.e., anticline structural, stratigraphic lithological, and lava shield reservoirs in the Tazhong uplift. Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift is controlled by the three factors. (1) The background of uplift structure. Around the ancient uplift, the compounding of many types makes up the composite hydrocarbon accumulation areas. (2) Effective cover. The show of oil gas including asphalt, heavy crude oil, and normal oil is quite active in the Silurian. Asphalt and heavy crude oil are distributed under the red mudstone member and movable oil is distributed under the gray mudstone member. (3) High quality reservoir bed. Sandstone is distributed widely in the Tazhong area. Reservoir pore space can be divided into three types: a) secondary origin-primary origin pore space; b) primary origin-secondary origin pore space, and c) micropore space. Porosity is 3.3-17.4%, and permeability is (0.1-667.97) × 10 -3 μm 2.

  9. Morphologic evolution of the Central Andes of Peru (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Pfiffner, O. Adrian


    In this paper, we analyze the morphology of the Andes of Peru and its evolution based on the geometry of river channels, their bedrock profiles, stream gradient indices and the relation between thrust faults and morphology. The rivers of the Pacific Basin incised Mesozoic sediments of the Marañon thrust belt, Cenozoic volcanics and the granitic rocks of the Coastal Batholith. They are mainly bedrock channels with convex upward shapes and show signs of active ongoing incision. The changes in lithology do not correlate with breaks in slope of the channels (or knick points) such that the high gradient indices (K) with values between 2,000-3,000 and higher than 3,000 suggest that incision is controlled by tectonic activity. Our analysis reveals that many of the ranges of the Western Cordillera were uplifted to the actual elevations where peaks reach to 6,000 m above sea level by thrusting along steeply dipping faults. We correlate this uplift with the Quechua Phase of Neogene age documented for the Subandean thrust belt. The rivers of the Amazonas Basin have steep slopes and high gradient indices of 2,000-3,000 and locally more than 3,000 in those segments where the rivers flow over the crystalline basement of the Eastern Cordillera affected by vertical faulting. Gradient indices decrease to 1,000-2,000 within the east-vergent thrust belt of the Subandean Zone. Here a correlation between breaks in river channel slopes and location of thrust faults can be established, suggesting that the young, Quechua Phase thrust faults of the Subandean thrust belt, which involve Neogene sediments, influenced the channel geometry. In the eastern lowlands, these rivers become meandering and flow parallel to anticlines that formed in the hanging wall of Quechua Phase thrust faults, suggesting that the river courses were actively displaced outward into the foreland.

  10. The Jiuxi basin, Hexi Corridor, NW China: foreland structural features and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.M. (JAPEX Geoscience Inst. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Coward, M.P. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology)


    The Jiuxi (Western Jiuquan) Basin, located in the west of the Hexi Corridor, NW China, is a foreland basin which has been active since the Early Jurassic. It was formed as a consequence of the progressive northwards migration of the North Qilian thrusts in response to sinistral shearing along the 2,000-km long Aerjin (Altun) Fault. Sedimentary deposits in the basin are controlled not only by foreland loading and thrusting, but also by the development of listric normal faults at high angles to the thrust belt. At the junctions of these two sets of faults, thick organic-rich sediments and reservoirs have accumulated. During the Tertiary and Quaternary, thrusts propagated along the foot-wall of the North Qilian Fault, truncating earlier-formed oil pools and source-rock layers and thereby causing great difficulties for petroleum exploration. A basin development model is proposed in this paper from an integrated study of sedimentary facies, drilling and seismic data, structural analyses and cross-section reconstructions. The average northwards movement in the frontal zone of the North Qilian Mountains since the Pliocene is estimated at about 8 mm/yr. Therefore, about one-half of the Jurassic-Cretaceous oil-bearing basin could be buried beneath the Laojunmiao and North Qilian Marginal Faults and is virtually untouched by drilling. Source rocks in the basin are black, lacustrine shales of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous ages, with a maximum thickness of up to 1.2 km in the Qingxi Depression. The generation of liquid hydrocarbons began in the Late Cretaceous or mid-Oligocene: seven stratigraphical reservoirs, ranging in age from Silurian to Miocene, are described - anticlinal, fault- and ''buriedhill'' structures are the most important traps. The petroleum potential of individual depressions is discussed, and suggestions for potential regional oil prospects are made. (author)

  11. First palaeoseismological data on the Santa Marta Fault System, Northern Colombia (United States)

    Idárraga, J.


    The Santa Marta Fault System (SMFS) is a NNW-striking major structural feature that controls the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta (northern Colombia), the world's highest coastal relief. Morphotectonically, the SMFS exhibits an arrangement of parallel to subparallel fault traces. These traces are associated with a set of offset streams indicating a left-lateral component for displacement. NE-trending compressive structures as reverse faults (e.g. the Orihueca and San Pedro faults) and folds (the Fundación Anticline), and NW-trending distensive structures as normal faults are present too. These structures are consistent with a left-lateral shear zone striking NNW. An unlitified ruditic deposit with tectonic deformation crops out at the Riofrío site; this deposit consists of a series of debris slope layers linked to a deyection cone. The documented deformation in this outcrop is characterized by a tilting of the sequence to NE (against the direction of deposition) and by the presence of inverse faulting in which the coseismic displacement could have been distributed across distensive structures (normal faults and opened fractures). A magnitude (Mw) of 6.4 was calculated for the compressive event based on the displacement measured on the outcrop; this value corresponds to a minimum magnitude. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to date the deposits to constrain the tectonic events in time. The results of this research constitute the first data on the palaeoseismology of the SMFS, and are an important basis for future paleoseismic studies that allow calculating the seismic hazard of the region and giving an approximation of the Plio-Quaternary evolution of the South American northwestern corner.

  12. ) Re-evaluation of A Compartmentalised Reservoir Leads To A Better Estimation of Oil in-Place (OIP): Etim Field Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akewusola, Taye; Etim Simon Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited, Lagos


    The Etim Field is located in OML-67 offshore southeastern Niger Delta on NNOC/MPN joint venture asset operated by Mobil Producing Nigeria. It was discovered in 1968 and had its first production in 1972. Thirty-three wells have been drilled to date on a stratigraphic-faulted anticlinal feature. Water depth in the field is 110 feet.The production performance of the Etim field Biafra reservoirs had indicated that its initial reserves estimate has been overproduced. Non-uniform pressure drop and irregular water movements characterized some of the early completions in the reservoir.Updated petrophysical evaluation has been calibrated to core and indicates net-to-gross ration and porosity range of 0.10-0.88 and 0.22-0.31 respectively. This suggests potential heterogeneity of the Biafra reservoir. RFT analysis also suggests the existence of barriers/baffles across the Biafra units and different oil-water contacts for individual units as opposed to a single contact for the whole formation.A new geologic framework was built integrating 3D seismic, core description and well data. Pressure and production performance data were also incorporated in an attempt to explain why cumulative production has exceeded initial estimated reserves.Results from this work suggest that the original oil in place (OIIP) was initially under-estimated and was at least twice the initial estimates.The field is now positioned for a redevelopment program based on the opportunities identified in this study. This will provide production uplift, eliminated or reduce water cut and optimize recovery

  13. Stratigraphy of Citronelle Oil Field, AL: Perspectives from Enhanced Oil Recovery and Potential CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Hills, D. J.; Pashin, J. C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Esposito, R. A.


    The Citronelle Dome is a giant salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of south Alabama. The dome forms an elliptical structural closure containing multiple opportunities for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle Oil Field, which is on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 168 MMbbl of 42° gravity oil from marginal marine sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Donovan Sand. Recently, EOR field tests have begun in the northeastern part of the oil field. Citronelle Unit B-19-10 #2 well (Alabama State Oil and Gas Board Permit No. 3232) will serve as the CO2 injector for the first field test. CO2 will be injected into the Upper Donovan 14-1 and 16-2 sandstone units. All well logs in the 4-square-mile area surrounding the test site have been digitized and used to construct a network of nineteen stratigraphic cross sections correlating Sands 12 through 20A in the Upper Donovan. Detailed study of Citronelle cores has shown that depositional environments in the Donovan Sand differed significantly from the earlier model that has guided past development of the Citronelle Field. The cross sections demonstrate the extreme facies heterogeneity of the Upper Donovan, and this heterogeneity is well expressed within the five-spot well pattern where the field test will be conducted. Many other features bearing on the performance of the CO2 injection test have been discovered. Of particular interest is the 16-2 sand, which is interpreted as a composite of two tiers of channel fills. Pay strata are typically developed in the lower tier, and this is where CO2 will be injected. The upper tier is highly heterogeneous and is interpreted to contain sandstone fills of variable reservoir quality, as well as mudstone plugs.

  14. Citronelle Dome: A giant opportunity for multizone carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of Alabama (United States)

    Esposito, R.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Walsh, P.M.


    The Citronelle Dome is a giant, salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of southern Alabama that is located near several large-scale, stationary, carbon-emitting sources in the greater Mobile area. The dome forms an elliptical, four-way structural closure containing opportunities for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle oil field, located on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 169 million bbl of 42-46?? API gravity oil from sandstone bodies in the Lower Cretaceous Rodessa Formation. The top seal for the oil accumulation is a thick succession of shale and anhydrite, and the reservoir is underfilled such that oil-water contacts are typically elevated 30-60 m (100-200 ft) above the structural spill point. Approximately 31-34% of the original oil in place has been recovered by primary and secondary methods, and CO2-EOR has the potential to increase reserves by up to 20%. Structural contour maps of the dome demonstrate that the area of structural closure increases upward in section. Sandstone units providing prospective carbon sinks include the Massive and Pilot sands of the lower Tuscaloosa Group, as well as several sandstone units in the upper Tuscaloosa Group and the Eutaw Formation. Many of these sandstone units are characterized by high porosity and permeability with low heterogeneity. The Tuscaloosa-Eutaw interval is capped by up to 610 m (2000 ft) of chalk and marine shale that are proven reservoir seals in nearby oil fields. Therefore, the Citronelle Dome can be considered a major geologic sink where CO2 can be safely stored while realizing the economic benefits associated with CO2-EOR. Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogeologic model for the old Hanford townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Q.; Csun, C.


    The Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state produced the country's first plutonium during WW II, and production continued through the end of the cold war. This plutonium production generated significant volumes of chemical and radioactive wastes, some of which were discharged directly to the local sediments as wastewater. Artifical recharge is still the dominating influence on the uppermost and unconfined aquifer over much of the Hanford site. Groundwater from a portion of this aquifer, which is in excess of drinking water standards for tritium, discharges to the Columbia River in the vicinity of the old Hanford townsite. The Hanford site lies within the Pasco basin, which is a structural basin in the Columbia Plateau. Columbia River basalt is overlain by the fluvial and lacustrian Ringold formation. The Ringold is unconformably overlain by the informal Hanford formation. Relatively impermeable basalt outcrops and subcrops along a northwest-southeast-trending anticline across the study area. Hanford sediments include both fluvial and glacial flood deposits lying on an irregular surface of basalt and sedimentary rocks. The coarser flood deposits have very high hydraulic conductivity and probably are the most important conduit for contaminant transport within the aquifer. A finite element model (CFEST-SC) is being used to study the effect of changing river stage on baseflow to the Columbia River near the old Hanford townsite. A steady-state version of the model produces calculated head within 1 m of observed values. Transient flow and solute transport results are expected to help further define the relationship between the contaminated aquifer and the Columbia River

  16. Origin of an extensive network of non-tectonic synclines in Eocene limestones of the Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Tarabees, Elhamy A.; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.


    Satellite images of the Western Desert of Egypt display conspicuous sinuous color patterning that previous workers have interpreted as erosional flutes formed by catastrophic flooding. Our work with high resolution satellite imagery shows that the patterning is not erosional but, rather, the result of a network of thousands of narrow synclines in the Eocene bedrock capping the Limestone Plateau. Synclines form as isolated, 200-400 meter-wide downwarps in otherwise flat-lying strata. Limb dips are shallow, and doubly plunging hinges form multiple basin closures along syncline lengths. Anticlines form ;accidentally; in inter-syncline areas where two adjacent synclines lie close together. Synclines have two dominant orientations, WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE, parallel to two prominent joint and fault sets, and synclines branch, merge, and change orientation along their lengths. Synclines are all at the same scale with neither larger structures nor parasitic structures and are best described as non-tectonic sag synclines. An Egypt-wide inventory reveals that these synclines are both confined to Eocene limestones and developed, albeit it sporadically, over nearly 100,000 km2. The syncline network predates plateau gravels of the Katkut Formation, which have been interpreted as Oligocene or early Miocene in age, and the network is cut by faults related to Western Desert extension associated with Red Sea rifting. The mechanism that caused sag of overlying layers is not clear. Modern karst collapse, subsurface dissolution of evaporites, and collapse of paleokarst are all unlikely mechanisms given the timing of formation and the underlying stratigraphy. Silica diagenesis and downslope mobilization of underlying shales are possibilities, although uncertainty about the origin of silica in the limestones, plus the consistency of syncline orientations over large areas, make these models problematic. Hypogene karst, perhaps related to aggressive fluids associated with basaltic intrusions

  17. Static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area, Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.


    3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.

  18. Enhancement of thematic mapper satellite images for geological mapping of the Cho Dien area, Northern Vietnam (United States)

    Won-In, Krit; Charusiri, Punya


    Information available from the earth science image processing package (ESIPP) software program was applied to enhance the satellite image data of the Cho Dien area, northern Vietnam. The area with dense vegetation covers is dominated by several small Zn-Pb prospects in middle Paleozoic limestone units. Interpretation of satellite image data using the digital enhancement ESIPP program, forms the prime objective of this study, which is to improve the image quality and visual interpretation of regional geology, lineament and structural geology. Thematic mapper of bands 7, 5 and 4 with the false-color composites: blue, green and red, respectively, are considered to be the most appropriate for geologic interpretation. Dark pixel correction is carried out prior to other enhancement analyses which include high-pass filtering, albedo correction, image classification, principle component analysis (PCA) and band ratios. High-pass filtering enhancement is considered to be the most suitable approach for lineament analysis. Albedo is good for differentiating lithology, and image classification is also successfully used for lineament interpretation and discrimination of lithologies but is regarded not better than high-pass filtering and albedo. PCA and ratio of band enhancements are considered not good because there are many disturbed and excavated land areas such as abandoned and current open pits in the concerned area. The result of Landsat interpretation indicate that most lineament structures developed in a roughly N-trending anticlinal structure are in NE-, E- and N-trends. Minor lineaments are in roughly NW-trend, and cross-cutting the NE- and E-trends. Interpretation from enhanced Landsat information also fits very well with field evidences. The interpreted map is slightly different from those of the previous mapping works, particularly with respect to detailed lithological boundaries.

  19. Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T.


    More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

  20. Remote sensing and field analysis of the Palaeozoic structural style in NW Libya: The Qarqaf arch a paleo-transfer fault zone between the Ghadamis and Murzuq basins (United States)

    Chorowicz, Jean; Benissa, Mahmoud


    The N75°E-trending Qarqaf arch in NW Libya separates the Ghadamis and Murzuq basins. We have updated existing geological maps by remote sensing analysis and fieldwork in order to describe the tectonic style of the Palaeozoic units. We have evidenced a Bir Aishah anticline, a Wadi Ash Shabiyat graben and arrays of sedimentary and/or vein quartz dykes that relate to extension fractures or open faults some of them being filled up by on-going sedimentation. We show that continuous brittle syn-depositional deformation occurred throughout the Palaeozoic and progressively with time focused into major faults. The Qarqaf arch is a Palaeozoic right-lateral fault zone comprising main conjugate dextral N60°E and sinistral N90°E fault families. It also comprises ∼ N-striking extensional faults with related drag or fault-propagation folds. The Palaeozoic tectonic style is that of rift basins connected by a major transfer fault zone. The arch is as a consequence of strike-slip mechanism. In order to account for distinct folds affecting the Carboniferous strata we argue that partly consolidated silty Devonian and Carboniferous deposits slid in mass by places at the end of their deposition over tilting Devonian layers. Our model is alternative to the currently considered concept of major Variscan compressional orogen in this area. The regional so called 'Variscan' age disconformity actually is the Triassic early Neo-Tethyan event. These general concepts have potential impact on basin modelling of subsidence, uplift, thermal history and hydrocarbon migration. Any new structural geology study in this area is important for oil exploration.

  1. The Structural Control and Tectonic Evolution of the Campbellton Region, northern New Brunswick, Canada (United States)

    Craggs, Simon D.

    The Campbellton region is transected by a network of ENE-trending dextral transcurrent faults and NNE-trending high-angle reverse faults. A fieldwork-based study was conducted to determine the region's kinematic response to Middle Paleozoic deformation in order to assess the potential for the occurrence of a structural hydrocarbon trap. Detailed study of five major faults (the Black Lake, Squaw Cap, Sugar Loaf, Sellarsville and Sellarsville East faults) and their associated damage zones indicate that during the Middle Paleozoic the region was part of a larger dextral transpressive system that extended north into the Gaspe Peninsula. The timing and style of fault development suggest that boundary conditions present during deformation restricted lateral extension of the region, which indicates that the Middle Silurian Salinic Orogeny had only a minor effect on rocks of the study area. The Sellarsville and Sellarsville East faults are thought to have moved first, during the Acadian Orogeny, as back thrusts within a NW-propagating foreland thrust belt. This was followed by dextral transcurrent movement along the ENE-trending faults and counter-clockwise rotation of the Sellarsville block. Damage-zone assessment suggests that, in general, all the faults acted as a partial barrier to flow during deformation. Many of the essential elements for hydrocarbon-trap development are in place within the study area. While sporadic distribution of reservoir rocks of the Upper Silurian West Point Formation limits our ability to locate hydrocarbon target sites, two areas have been identified where major lineaments interact with anticlinal hinges, and potential reservoir rocks are overlain by volcanic rocks of the Lower Devonian Val d'Amour Formation.

  2. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)


    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  3. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam (United States)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan


    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat

  4. Structure and evolution of the Horse Heaven Hills in South-Central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.


    The purpose of this study is to describe the structure and evolution of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift at its abrupt structural transition. This was achieved by: (1) delineating the structure within the two trends as they approach the intersection; (2) determining the timing and location of uplift within each trend; (3) comparing and contrasting Miocene vertical growth rates along folds within both trends; and (4) imposing constraints for tectonic models that pertain to the genesis of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift. These objectives can only be fulfilled if the stratigraphy of the area is first delineated. Data from this study suggest that tectonic models that directly or indirectly pertain to the origin of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift may be constrained by: (1) the predominance of monoclinal or near-monoclinal fold geometries and reverse faults along both the northwest and northeast trends; (2) preliminary data which suggest clockwise rotation has occurred along folds of both trends; (3) folds along both trends developing simultaneously and at similar rates (at least during Wanapum and Saddle Mountains time); (4) folds along the northwest trend of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift being genetically related to and forming simultaneously with at least certain folds along the Rattlesnake-Wallula structural alignment; (5) the uplift developing simultaneously with the north-northwest-trending Hog Ranch-Naneum Ridge anticline as well as other Yakima folds during at least Columbia River Basalt Group time. It is proposed that folds of both trends of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift were generated by the same tectonic processes

  5. Fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonated and sandstone reservoirs in the fronts and fore-lands of folded chains: the Salt Range case - Poswar (Pakistan); Circulation des fluides et diagenese des reservoirs carbonates et greseux dans les fronts de chaines plissees et leur avant pays: le cas du Salt Range - Poswar (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchilla, L.


    The Salt Range-Poswar Province is located in the western foothills of the Himalayas, in northern Pakistan. It extends over 170 km from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north to the Salt Range in the south. The Salt Range itself is dominantly an ENE-trending structure, but it comprises also a NNW-trending lateral ramp which connects to the west with the Surghar Range. The Salt Range constitutes the frontal part of a detached allochthonous thrust sheet. The sedimentary cover is indeed entirely detached from its substratum along Infracambrian salt horizons. Palaeozoic to Eocene platform series are well exposed in the hanging wall, whereas Neogene molasse has been extensively under-thrust in the footwall of this large over-thrust. The North Potwar Basin is bordered by the Khari-Murat Ridge and coeval back-thrusts in the south, by the northern flank of the Soan syncline in the southeast, and by the MBT in the north. In addition to Neogene outcrops, it also comprises a number of surface anticlines and thrust fronts along which the Eocene platform carbonates are exposed. The Datta Formation is the main Jurassic oil reservoir in the Potwar Basin. It is a fluvio-deltaic deposit which comprises large porous and permeable channels associated to many-calcareous interbeds. The formations crop out well in both the Nammal and Chichali Gorges. The oil field of Toot, located in the western part of the basin, is producing from this reservoir. The petrographic observations show that diagenesis occurred mainly early and was controlled by the fluvio-deltaic environment. (author)

  6. Cenozoic Plate tectonic history of the northern Venezuela-Trinidad Area (United States)

    Erlich, Robert N.; Barrett, S. F.


    Geological and geophysical data, coupled with recent plate tectonic reconstructions, suggest that the Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Venezuela-Trinidad area has been dominated by strike-slip displacement of discrete crustal blocks. Allochthonous terranes within the area include metavolcanic rocks of the Cretaceous Villa de Cura Group and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian to Cretaceous Cordillera de la Costa. A relatively competent crustal block (Margarita Block) is defined by an outline around the metamorphic basement of Margarita Island, the Araya/Paria peninsula, the Northern Range of Trinidad, and Tobago Island. Reconstruction of the Margarita Block to its original position requires at least partial closure of the Falcon Basin, closure of the Bonaire and Cariaco basins, and restoration of about 50 km of motion on both the Oca and Bocono faults. Post middle Eocene eastward translation of the Caribbean plate caused eastward motion of the Margarita Block. A minor change in relative plate motion during the late Oligocene or early Miocene produced a right step in the Moron fault, forming the Cariaco pull-apart basin and El Pilar fault zone. Maximum offset on El Pilar fault is estimated to be no more than 125 km, though displacement along the entire fault zone may have been greater. Transpressional stresses between the Caribbean plate and northern South America caused folding of the Serrania del Interior of Venezuela and the Central Range of Trinidad. Eastward migration of transpressional stresses at the southeastern corner of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary is being accommodated by formation of oblique thrusts, transpressive anticlines, and downwarping of the crust. Bouguer gravity data suggest that Jurassic-aged Atlantic oceanic crust is being depressed as the Caribbean plate expands into the Demerara Plateau area. This study suggests that the faults and transtensional/transpressional/compressional structures identified in this study are

  7. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan (United States)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.


    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  8. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.


    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  9. Petrogenesis and origin of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous magmatism in Central High Atlas (Morocco): Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd) constraints (United States)

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Zayane, Rachid


    During an uplift phase, which lasted ca. 40 Ma, from the Late Jurassic (165 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (125 Ma), transitional to moderately alkaline magmatic series were emplaced in the Central High Atlas. The corresponding magmatic products include basaltic lava flows erupted within wide synclines and intrusive complexes composed of layered mafic intrusions and monzonitic to syenitic dykes emplaced along narrow anticlinal ridges. The igneous rock sequence within the intrusive complexes is composed of troctolites, olivine-gabbros, oxide-gabbros, monzonites and syenites. The chemical compositions of the various intrusive rocks can be accounted for by crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and post-magmatic remobilization. The evolution from the troctolites to the syenites was mainly controlled by a fractional crystallization process marked by early fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene, followed by separation of biotite, amphibole, apatite, and Ti-magnetite. Hydrothermal activity associated with emplacement of the intrusions within the Jurassic limestones modified the elemental and the Sr isotopic composition of the hydrothermally altered rocks In particular the monzonitic to syenitic dykes underwent an alkali metasomatism marked by depletion in K and Rb and enrichment in Na and Sr. As a result, their Sr isotopic composition was shifted towards higher initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7067-0.7075) with respect to the associated gabbros (0.7036-0.7046). On the contrary, the Nd isotopic compositions were preserved from isotope exchange with the limestones and vary in a similar range to those of the gabbros (+1.6 High Atlas, the Middle Atlas and the eastern High Atlas domains during a period of relative tectonic quiescence.

  10. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.


    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago

  11. Assessing the role of detrital zircon sorting on provenance interpretations in an ancient fluvial system using paleohydraulics - Permian Cutler Group, Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado (United States)

    Findlay, C. P., III; Ewing, R. C.; Perez, N. D.


    Detrital zircon age signatures used in provenance studies are assumed to be representative of entire catchments from which the sediment was derived, but the extent to which hydraulic sorting can bias provenance interpretations is poorly constrained. Sediment and mineral sorting occurs with changes in hydraulic conditions driven by both allogenic and autogenic processes. Zircon is sorted from less dense minerals due to the difference in density, and any age dependence on zircon size could potentially bias provenance interpretations. In this study, a coupled paleohydraulic and geochemical provenance approach is used to identify changes in paleohydraulic conditions and relate them to spatial variations in provenance signatures from samples collected along an approximately time-correlative source-to-sink pathway in the Permian Cutler Group of the Paradox Basin. Samples proximal to the uplift have a paleoflow direction to the southwest. In the medial basin, paleocurrent direction indicates salt movement caused fluvial pathways divert to the north and northwest on the flanks of anticlines. Channel depth, flow velocity, and discharge calculations were derived from field measurements of grain size and dune and bar cross-stratification indicate that competency of the fluvial system decreased from proximal to the medial basin by up to a factor of 12. Based upon the paleohydraulic calculations, zircon size fractionation would occur along the transect such that the larger zircons are removed from the system prior to reaching the medial basin. Analysis of the size and age distribution of zircons from the proximal and distal fluvial system of the Cutler Group tests if this hydraulic sorting affects the expected Uncompahgre Uplift age distribution.

  12. Structural Mapping and Geomorphology of Ireland's Southwest Continental Shelf Using High Resolution Sonar (United States)

    Bowden, S.; Wireman, R.


    Bathymetric surveys were conducted on the continental shelf off the southwest coast of County Cork, Ireland by the Marine Institute of Ireland, the Geological Survey of Ireland, and the INFOMAR project. Data were collected from July 2006 through September 2014 using a Kongsberg EM2040 multibeam echosounder aboard the R/Vs Celtic Voyager and Keary, and a Kongsberg EM1002 on the R/V Celtic Explorer. Sonar data were post-processed with CARIS HIPS and SIPS 9.0 to create 2D and 3D bathymetric and backscatter intensity surfaces with a resolution of 1 m. The offshore study site is part of the 286 Ma western Variscian orogenic front and has several massive outcrops, exhibiting 5 to 20 m of near-vertical relief. These outcrops were structurally mapped and relatively aged, and exhibit significant folding, rotation, tilting, and joint systems. Google Earth, ArcGIS, and previous terrestrial studies were used to further analyze how geomorphology is controlled by seafloor composition and structural features. Rock type and age were interpreted by comparing fracture analysis of the joints and fold trends to similar onshore outcrops documented previously, to determine an age of 416-299 Ma for the shelf's outcropping strata and associated structural features. The oldest features observed are regional anticlines and synclines containing Upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone and Lower Carboniferous shales. Within the shale layers are NE-SW plunging parasitic chevron folds. Jointing is observed in both sandstone and shale layers and is superimposed on chevron folding, with cross joints appearing to influence shallow current patterns. Rotation of the regional folds is the youngest structural feature, as both the parasitic folds and joint systems are warped. Our study shows that high resolution sonar is an effective tool for offshore structural mapping and is an important resource for understanding the geomorphology and geologic history of submerged outcrops on continental shelf systems.

  13. Interpretaion of synthetic seismic time-lapse monitoring data for Korea CCS project based on the acoustic-elastic coupled inversion (United States)

    Oh, J.; Min, D.; Kim, W.; Huh, C.; Kang, S.


    Recently, the CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) is one of the promising methods to reduce the CO2 emission. To evaluate the success of the CCS project, various geophysical monitoring techniques have been applied. Among them, the time-lapse seismic monitoring is one of the effective methods to investigate the migration of CO2 plume. To monitor the injected CO2 plume accurately, it is needed to interpret seismic monitoring data using not only the imaging technique but also the full waveform inversion, because subsurface material properties can be estimated through the inversion. However, previous works for interpreting seismic monitoring data are mainly based on the imaging technique. In this study, we perform the frequency-domain full waveform inversion for synthetic data obtained by the acoustic-elastic coupled modeling for the geological model made after Ulleung Basin, which is one of the CO2 storage prospects in Korea. We suppose the injection layer is located in fault-related anticlines in the Dolgorae Deformed Belt and, for more realistic situation, we contaminate the synthetic monitoring data with random noise and outliers. We perform the time-lapse full waveform inversion in two scenarios. One scenario is that the injected CO2 plume migrates within the injection layer and is stably captured. The other scenario is that the injected CO2 plume leaks through the weak part of the cap rock. Using the inverted P- and S-wave velocities and Poisson's ratio, we were able to detect the migration of the injected CO2 plume. Acknowledgment This work was financially supported by the Brain Korea 21 project of Energy Systems Engineering, the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" program funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) of Korea and the Korea CCS R&D Center (KCRC) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology) (No. 2012-0008926).

  14. Exploration applications of geochemistry in the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, W.G.; Talukdar, S.C. (DGSI, Woodlands, TX (USA)); Harmon, L. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Inc., Midland, TX (USA))


    Reservoirs, source rocks, and crude oils were studied at Pegasas field on the eastern flank of the Central Basin platform. The field is a faulted anticlinal structure and produces oil and gas from seven geologically complex reservoirs ranging from the Ordovician Ellenburger to the Permian San Andres formations. A better understanding of the petroleum systems present should lead to improved exploration and development opportunities. Good to excellent-quality, mature oil-prone source rocks occur at numerous horizons between the Permian Spraberry and Ordovician Ellenburger formations. Oil-rock correlations indicate three major petroleum systems: Ordovician sources for oil in Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian reservoirs; Mississippian to Pennsylvanian sources for Pennsylvanian reservoired oils; and Permian sources for oils in Permian reservoirs. The Ordovician to Devonian system experienced peak oil generation, extensive vertical oil migration, and in-reservoir oil maturation in Triassic time; the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian system reached peak oil generation with limited vertical oil migration in Jurassic time; and the Permian system is just reaching peak oil generation and has had little or no vertical oil migration. The total amount of oil available to charge the field is several times the oil in place, and all available traps were filled to capacity. This implies substantial accumulations remain undiscovered in subtle stratigraphic and combination traps in the Pegasus field area. The same is probably true throughout the Midland basin. Integrated studies with geological, geophysical, engineering, and geochemical input can provide valuable exploration information on local as well as regional scales. Pegasus field examples include fault-block isolation reservoir segregation and waterflood or gas cycling efficiency. Such studies may also contribute information leading to lateral and vertical field extension wells.

  15. Model identification and control of development of deeply buried paleokarst reservoir in the central Tarim Basin, northwest China (United States)

    Yu, Jingbo; Li, Zhong; Yang, Liu; Han, Yinxue


    The paleokarst reservoirs of the Ordovician Yingshan formation, rich in oil and gas, are deeply buried in the central Tarim Basin, northwest China. Dozens of imaging well-logs in this region reveal five typical paleokarst features, including solution vugs, solution-enlarged fractures, filled caves, unfilled caves and collapsed caves, as well as two typical paleokarst structures located in different paleotopographic sites, including paleokarst vadose and phreatic zones. For seismic data, the large wave impedance contrast between the paleocave system and the surrounding rocks leads to a strong seismic reflection, which is highlighted as a bead-like ‘bright spot’ in a seismic section. By quantitatively estimating the seismic resolution limits of deep seismic reflections, a single paleocave cannot be identified from a seismic profile, and the bead-like reflection represents an entire paleocave complex. The spectral decomposition technique was employed to depict the planar shape and semi-quantitatively measure the size of the paleocave complexes. The results indicate that the sizes of the paleokarst caves are all small, and most of the karst caves are nearly completely filled by clay and calcite. The small cave size and the effective support of cave fills for the overlying strata mean that some individual paleocaves in a paleocave complex are preserved at a burial depth of more than 6000 m. Paleotopography and faults strongly impact the distribution of paleokarst reservoirs. Well-developed paleokarst reservoirs are generally located in paleotopographic highlands and on slopes, and for a specific paleotopographic site, the distribution of paleokarst reservoirs is obviously controlled by NW-SE trending faults. The most favorable area for paleokarst development is the Tazhong No. 10 fault zone, a faulted anticline bounded by two NW-SE trending back thrusts.

  16. Structural Architecture of the Western Transverse Ranges and Potential for Large Earthquakes (United States)

    Levy, Y.; Rockwell, T. K.; Driscoll, N. W.; Shaw, J. H.; Kent, G. M.; Ucarkus, G.


    Understanding the subsurface structure of the Western Transverse Ranges (WTR) is critical to assess the seismic potential of large thrust faults comprising this fold-and-thrust belt. Several models have been advanced over the years, building on new data and understandings of thrust belt architecture, but none of these efforts have incorporated the full range of data, including style and rates of late Quaternary deformation in conjunction with surface geology, sub-surface well data and offshore seismic data. In our models, we suggest that the nearly continuous backbone with continuous stratigraphy of the Santa Ynez Mountains is explained by a large anticlinorium over a deep structural ramp, and that the current thrust front is defined by the southward-vergent Pitas Point-Ventura fault. The Ventura Avenue anticline and trend is an actively deforming fault propagation fold over the partially blind Pitas Point-Ventura fault. Details of how this fault is resolved to the surface are not well constrained, but any deformation model must account for the several back-thrusts that ride in the hanging wall of the thrust sheet, as well as the localized subsidence in Carpenteria and offshore Santa Barbara. Our preliminary starting model is a modification of a recently published model that invokes ramp-flat structure, with a deep ramp under the Santa Ynez Mountains, a shallower "flat" with considerable complexity in the hanging wall and a frontal ramp comprising the San Cayetano and Pitas Point thrusts. With the inferred deep ramp under the Santa Ynez Range, this model implies that large earthquakes may extend the entire length of the anticlinorium from Point Conception to eastern Ventura Basin, suggesting that the potential for a large earthquake is significantly higher then previously assumed.

  17. Crustal structure and geodynamics of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Liu, Zhendong; Zhang, Yongqian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhao, Jinhua


    A 300 km long seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLY) metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas. The objective of the survey was to establish the deep architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include (1) Tan-Lu fault appears as a subvertical thrust fault or transpression fault with its deep portion dipping toward the southeast; (2) the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out along this fault; (3) complex upper crustal deformation structures beneath the Chuquan depression include both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; (4) the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, which represents the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust associated with intra-continental subduction; (5) further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline; (6) the entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River metallogenic belt is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. The Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. The seismic reflection data suggest that lithosphere delamination and asthenosphere upwelling that may result from the Mesozoic intra-continental orogenesis is responsible for the formation of large scale magmatism and mineralization in the MLY metallogenic belt.

  18. Tritium migration at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Maxey Flats near Morehead, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.


    High values of specific conductance and tritium concentrations have been detected in ground water samples from wells along the perimeter of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Maxey Flats, near Morehead, KY. Test wells have shown that ground water flow in the shallow sedimentary rocks at the site is controlled primarily by naturally occurring joints and fractures. Ground water containing tritium concentrations (1.5 - 3.5 microcuries per milliliter) and specific conductance values (2600 - 4500 microsiemens per centimeter) is associated with a horizontal sandstone bed (about 15 feet below land surface) which probably has a higher density of open joints and fractures than the predominant overlying and underlying shales. These joints and fractures probably act as conduits for ground water flow from the topographically higher burial trenches to the downslope observation wells. Specific conductance values and tritium concentrations in ground water from wells where the sandstone bed is thin or nonexistent are much lower. Although tritium concentrations and specific conductance values from some offsite wells downslope of the burial grounds are high and water appears to be moving primarily in the fractured sandstone bed, water-quality measurements from small seeps and ephemeral streams in the outcrop area near the wells indicate that contaminated water is not reaching the land surface on the hill slope in this particular location. Plotted elevations of the fractured sandstone bed (obtained from levels) has resulted in the detection of a small anticline which may inhibit ground water flow to this outcrop area. Also, existing fractures are more likely to become plugged with colluvium and weathered shale where the sandstone is near land surface, thus further impeding flow

  19. Petrographic study of hypo-thermal and pyro-metasomatic deposits on the oriental border of Tichka mountain (Occidental High Atlas, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizard, C.; Ziegler, V.


    It describes the petrographic and metallogenic study of the oriental side of Tichka mountain (Occidental High Atlas, Morocco) which is the center of an anticlinal system, strongly folded, and approximately SW-NE oriented. The main object of this study is the description of its metallogenic activity and in particular the large variety of paragenesis which have been observed in the oriental part of Tichka mountain where the metamorphism is intense. This area presents a large abundance and diversity of deposits. The structural aspect of the oriental part of the Tichka mountain is described. The petrographic study of the complex structure of the oriental border, in particular the studies of the leucocratic complex of veins and apophyses and of the schistous and calcareous metamorphic complex, leads to make assumptions on the relationship between terminal phase of the metamorphism and the hypo-thermal paragenesis. The abundance of facies and the intensity of metamorphism also give the possibility to establish relationships between the different minerals deposits. The metallogenic study shows that mineralization are all peripheral on the Tichka mountain and increase with the number and size of the apophysis which is observed on the east side. The various hypo-thermal paragenesis are studied in the same order of the associated apophysis. The peripheral meso-thermal deposits of the north area are briefly described to complete the metallogenic aspects of the oriental border of the Tichka mountain. This study shows the nature of the two main factors which originate different types of paragenesis: one is the intrusion deep of the mineralizer, the second is the physical and chemical nature of the medium where the paragenesis occurred. (M.P.)

  20. How do salt withdrawal minibasins form? Insights from forward modelling, and implications for hydrocarbon migration (United States)

    Peel, Frank J.


    Existing models for the initiation of salt withdrawal minibasins focus on the role of triggers that exist within the minibasin, either stratigraphic (e.g. differential deposition) or tectonic (extension, translation or contraction). Existing studies tend to focus on complex settings, such as continental margins, which contain many different potential triggering mechanisms. It can be difficult in these settings to identify which process is responsible for minibasin initiation, or the influence of individual factors on their subsequent development. Salt withdrawal minibasins also exist in simpler settings, without any obvious intrinsic trigger; the region of the North German Basin used by Trusheim (1960) in the classic definition of salt withdrawal geometries was of this nature. There is no overall basal or surface slope, no major lateral movement, and there is no depositional heterogeneity. Previously recognized trigger processes for minibasin initiation do not apply in this benign setting, suggesting that other, potentially more fundamental, influences may be at work. A simple forward-modelling approach shows how, in the absence of any other mechanism, a new minibasin can develop as the consequence of salt movement driven by its neighbour, and families of withdrawal minibasins can propagate across a region from a single seed point. This new mechanism may explain how some minibasins appear to initiate before the sediment density has exceeded that of the underlying salt. The forward modelling also indicates that some minibasins begin to invert to form turtle anticlines before the underlying salt has been evacuated, so that the timing of turtle formation may not be diagnostic of weld formation. This mechanism may also give rise to salt-cored turtles that have a lens of salt trapped beneath their cores. These new findings have implications for hydrocarbon migration and trapping.

  1. Observations on the geology and petroleum potential of the Cold Bay-False Pass area, Alaska Peninsula (United States)

    McLean, Hugh James


    Upper Jurassic strata in the Black Hills area consist mainly of fossiliferous, tightly cemented, gently folded sandstone deposited in a shallow marine environment. Upper Cretaceous strata on Sanak Island are strongly deformed and show structural features of broken formations similar to those observed in the Franciscan assemblage of California. Rocks exposed on Sanak Island do not crop out on the peninsular mainland or on Unimak Island, and probably make up the acoustic and economic basement of nearby Sanak basin. Tertiary sedimentary rocks on the outermost part of the Alaska Peninsula consist of Oligocene, Miocene, and lower Pliocene volcaniclastic sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate deposited in nonmarine and very shallow marine environments. Interbedded airfall and ash-flow tuff deposits indicate active volcanism during Oligocene time. Locally, Oligocene strata are intruded by quartz diorite plutons of probable Miocene age. Reservoir properties of Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are generally poor due to alteration of chemically unstable volcanic rock fragments. Igneous intrusions have further reduced porosity and permeability by silicification of sandstone. Organic-rich source rocks for petroleum generation are not abundant in Neogene strata. Upper Jurassic rocks in the Black Hills area have total organic carbon contents of less than 0.5 percent. Deep sediment-filled basins on the Shumagin Shelf probably contain more source rocks than onshore correlatives, but reservoir quality is not likely to be better than in onshore outcrops. The absence of well-developed folds in most Tertiary rocks, both onshore and in nearby offshore basins, reduces the possibility of hydrocarbon entrapment in anticlines.

  2. Structural Evolution and Mobile Shale Deformation in the Eastern Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, R. W.; Aikhionbare, D. O. L.


    Regional cross-sections and restorations of the eastern delta constructed from 2D and 3D seismic data show the structural evolution of paired extensional contractional belts and the kinematic and geometric evolution of mobile shale. The delta consists of an updip extensional belt and downdip zones of transitional and contractional deformation linked by a regional detachment. The extensional belt is characterized by zones of N-dipping (counterregional) and S-dipping (regional) normal faults.In the regional fault trend, sediment accommodation space is created largely by lateral movement of mobile substrate due to sediment loading and gravity. The transitional belt is characterized by low relief, shale-cored detachment folds and normal faults. The contractional belt consists of 2 parts, the high relief shale-cored detachment fold belt (mobile shale) and the fold/thrust belt: In the mobile shale belt, anticlines are generally symmetric and characterized by parallel-folded cover and highly variable thickness in the underlying ductile shale zone.Palinspastic restoration of the mobile shale by area balance shows a high degree of lateral and vertical mobility. Isostatic restoration of the depositional wedge that is the precursor to the mobile shale suggests lateral movement of 10s of kms from the extensional to the contractional domain. The fold and thrust belt is characterized by a train of asymmetric fault-related folds. The zone of ductile substrate is thin in this area, which may account for the change in structural style from high relief detachment folds in the mobile shale belt to a more classic fold/thrust belt style to the south

  3. Mid-Max field: A piece of the Silurian-Devonian exploration puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entzminger, D.J.; Basham, W.L. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Midland, TX (United States)); Gonzales, E. (Maxus Energy Corp., Dallas, TX (United States))


    The Mid-Max field, Andrews County, Texas, provides an example for the exploration and development of subtle stratigraphic targets in the Permian basin. The integration of all available data, including seismic, log, core, and engineering data, is essential in this mature area as the search for hydrocarbons turns toward subtle structural and stratigraphic prospects. The Mid-Max field, on the Central basin platform, is a Silurian reef. Seismic data support the geologic interpreation of Woodford Shale thinning over a Silurian high, a Silurian to Fusselman thick, and the presence of a relatively flat Fusselman reflector beneath the Silurian high. Whole cores and rotary sidewall cores from the field contain stromatoporoids, corals, algal stromatolites, crinoidal grainstones and other reef elements. The reservoir is predominantly dolomite with porosity and permeability being variable and controlled by the presence of lime mud, fracturing, and diagenesis. The 26-29 API gravity sour crude produced at Mid-Max field is atypical of Siluria-Devonian oils, which commonly are sweet crudes of 35 to 45 API gravity. This atypical oil is explained by the mixing of two types of Woodford-sourced oils and biodegradation. Tectonism appears to have played a minor role in the formation of the Mid-Max field, unlike the conventional faulted-anticline prospects in the Silurian-Devonian of the Permian basin. Although modern common-depth-point seismic data and a dry Silurian test exited over the Mid-Max prospect prior to drilling, these illusive traps commonly are misinterpreted or overlooked, which would suggest that there might be similar subtle Silurian prospects elsewhere in the Permian basin.

  4. Characterization of a null allelic mutant of the rice NAL1 gene reveals its role in regulating cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available Leaf morphology is closely associated with cell division. In rice, mutations in Narrow leaf 1 (NAL1 show narrow leaf phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that NAL1 plays a role in regulating vein patterning and increasing grain yield in indica cultivars, but its role in leaf growth and development remains unknown. In this report, we characterized two allelic mutants of NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1, nal1-2 and nal1-3, both of which showed a 50% reduction in leaf width and length, as well as a dwarf culm. Longitudinal and transverse histological analyses of leaves and internodes revealed that cell division was suppressed in the anticlinal orientation but enhanced in the periclinal orientation in the mutants, while cell size remained unaltered. In addition to defects in cell proliferation, the mutants showed abnormal midrib in leaves. Map-based cloning revealed that nal1-2 is a null allelic mutant of NAL1 since both the whole promoter and a 404-bp fragment in the first exon of NAL1 were deleted, and that a 6-bp fragment was deleted in the mutant nal1-3. We demonstrated that NAL1 functions in the regulation of cell division as early as during leaf primordia initiation. The altered transcript level of G1- and S-phase-specific genes suggested that NAL1 affects cell cycle regulation. Heterogeneous expression of NAL1 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe further supported that NAL1 affects cell division. These results suggest that NAL1 controls leaf width and plant height through its effects on cell division.

  5. A hundred-year-old question: is the moss calyptra covered by a cuticle? A case study of Funaria hygrometrica. (United States)

    Budke, Jessica M; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S


    The maternal gametophytic calyptra is critical for moss sporophyte development and ultimately sporogenesis. The calyptra has been predicted to protect the sporophyte apex, including the undifferentiated sporogenous region and seta meristem, from desiccation. We investigate the hypothesis that this waterproofing ability is due to a waxy cuticle. The idea that moss calyptrae are covered by a cuticle has been present in the literature for over a century, but, until now, neither the presence nor the absence of a cuticle has been documented for any calyptra. The epidermis of the calyptra, leafy gametophyte and sporophyte sporangia of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thicknesses of individual cuticle layers were quantified and compared statistically. The immunochemistry antibody (LM19) specific for pectins was used to locate cell wall material within the cuticle. A multi-layered cuticle is present on the calyptra of F. hygrometrica, including layers analogous to the cuticular layer, cell wall projections, electron-lucent and electron-dense cuticle proper observed in vascular plants. The calyptra rostrum has a cuticle that is significantly thicker than the other tissues examined and differs by specialized thickenings of the cuticular layer (cuticular pegs) at the regions of the anticlinal cell walls. This is the first documentation of cuticular pegs in a moss. The calyptra and its associated cuticle represent a unique form of maternal care in embryophytes. This organ has the potential to play a critical role in preventing desiccation of immature sporophytes and thereby may have been essential for the evolution of the moss sporophyte.

  6. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field


    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  7. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J., E-mail: [Korea Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Feyzullayev, A.A.; Aliyev, C. [Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS), Baku, AZ 1143 (Azerbaijan); Matsuzaki, H. [MALT, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Jull, A.J.T. [NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for {sup 10}Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The {sup 10}Be concentrations and {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The {sup 10}Be and {sup 9}Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the {sup 10}Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low {sup 10}Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of {sup 40}K and U-Th-series radionuclides ({sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the {sup 10}Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  8. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihók Ján


    Full Text Available Carbonates in Early Paleozoic complexes appear in the upper part of the thick black phyllites forma-tion (Betliar Formation. They are present in the Holec Beds containing black metapelites with lydite and the upper carbonatic horizon with a slight admixture of basic volcanism. From the genetic point of view the stratiform and ankerite deposits of Gemericum are regarded to be f the hydrothermal - metasomatic origin. Owing to the positive results of the geological survey, the Nižná Slaná region has become the most important basis of Fe - ore in the Spiš - Gemer Ore Mts. but in Western Carpathinas as well. The potential of industrial siderite was 63 mil ton. Mano deposit surfaces on the southeren slope of Rimberg hill, where are the superficial parts of forma-tion of black phyllites with carbonatic bodies. The formation, thick to 450 m,contains carbonatic and lyditic ho-rizons with carbonates metasomatically changed to ankerite and siderite. The biggest siderite bodies have maxi-mal directional length of 300 m and thikness of 100 m.The accumulation of metasomatic siderite near obe-liarovo is located in the northern limb of anticline in Betliar Formation. Ore bodies are a typical example of the blind deposit. The average quality of economic ores is following: Fe 33,5 %, Mn 2,18 %, SiO2 8,5 %, As 0,001 – 0,2 %, Pb 0,001 - 0,03 %, Zn 0,002 - 0,009 %, S 0,5 - 1,5 %. Basicity of siderite is 1,4 - 1,7.

  10. Hydrogeochemistry and geothermometry of deep thermal water in the carbonate formation in the main urban area of Chongqing, China (United States)

    Yang, Pingheng; Cheng, Qun; Xie, Shiyou; Wang, Jianli; Chang, Longran; Yu, Qin; Zhan, Zhaojun; Chen, Feng


    Many geothermal reservoirs in Chongqing in southwestern China are located in carbonate rock aquifers and exploited through drilling. Water samples from 36 geothermal wells have been collected in the main urban area of Chongqing. Chemical types of the thermal water samples are Ca·Mg-SO4 and Ca-SO4. High contents of Ca2+ and SO42- in the thermal water samples are derived from the dissolution of evaporates. Furthermore, the HCO3- concentration is constrained by the common ion effect. Drilling depth has no effect on the physical and chemical characteristics according to the results of a t-test. The geothermal reservoir's temperature can be estimated to be 64.8-93.4 °C (average 82 °C) using quartz and improved SiO2 geothermometers. Values of δD and δ18O for the thermal water samples indicate that the thermal water resources originate from local precipitation with a recharge elevation between 838 and 1130 m and an annual air temperature between 10.4 and 13.9 °C. A conceptual model of regional scale groundwater flow for the thermal water is proposed. The thermal water mainly originates from the meteoric water recharged in the elevated areas of northeastern Tongluoshan and Huayingshan by means of percolation through exposed carbonate before becoming groundwater. The groundwater is heated at depth and moves southwest along the fault and the anticlinal core in a gravity-driven regime. The thermal water is exposed in the form of artesian hot springs in river cutting and low-elevation areas or in wells.

  11. Reinterpretation of adcoh and cocorp seismic reflection data with constraints from detailed forward modeling of potential field data - Implications for Laurentia-Peri-Gondwana suture (United States)

    Duff, Patrick D.; Kellogg, James N.


    To better constrain the structure of the Laurentian - Peri-Gondwana suture zone, maps and a 2-dimensional regional cross-section model constrained by seismic data and surface geology have been developed by forward and inverse modeling the aeromagnetic and gravity fields. The Central Piedmont Suture (CPS), the boundary between the Laurentian Inner Piedmont and the Peri-Gondwanan Carolina terrane is a low-angle thrust fault ( 30°) ramping up from an Alleghanian mid-crustal detachment at depths of about 12 km. ADCOH and COCORP seismic data image anticlinal structures in the footwalls of the Hayesville thrust and the CPS, above the Alleghanian decollement. The footwall rocks have previously been interpreted as Paleozoic shelf strata on the basis of sub-horizontal seismic reflectors; however, the high densities required to fit the observed gravity anomaly suggest that the folded footwall reflectors may need to be reinterpreted as horse blocks or duplex structures of Grenvillian basement. The Appalachian paired gravity anomaly can be explained by an increase in crustal thickness and a decrease in upper crustal density moving northwestward from the Carolina Terrane toward the Appalachian core. A change in lower crustal density is not required, so that Grenville basement rocks may extend farther to the southeast than previously thought. The 5 to 10 km of Alleghanian uplift and exhumation predicted by P-T crystallization data compiled in this paper can be easily accommodated by thrusting on four major low-angle thrust systems: Great Smoky Mountain Thrust (GSMT), Hayesville, Brevard, and CPS. Unroofing of metamorphic core complexes by normal faulting may therefore not be required to explain the observed exhumation. Alleghanian collision along the southeastern Appalachian margin was predominately orthogonal to strike consistent with the previous reconstructions that call for the counter-clockwise rotation of Gondwanan West Africa, creating head-on collision in the southern

  12. Hydrocarbon potential of a new Jurassic play, central Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, A.O.; Law, C.W.


    A largely unrecognized Jurassic Sag Basin has been identified in central Tunisia, proximal to the Permo-Carboniferous flexure delineating the northern boundary of the Saharan platform of north Africa. The northwestern margin of the Sag is delineated by an extensive region of salt-cored anticlines and localized salt diapirs extending north and west. Due to lack of deep drilling, delineation of the Sag is largely based on regional gravity data. Subsidence of the Jurassic Sag Basin is characterized by rapid expansion of Jurassic sediments from 400 m. of tidal flat and shelf carbonate at the western outcrop to over 2000 meters of tidal flat and basinal carbonate and shale within the basin center, a five-fold expansion. Rapid loading of the basin continued into Lower Cretaceous time, marked by lateral flowage of Triassic salt into pronounced structural trends. Published source rock data and interpreted subsurface well data provided the basis for GENEX 1-D hydrocarbon generation and expulsion modeling of the Sag. Middle Jurassic black source shales typically contain Type II and Type III kerogens with T.O.C.'s ranging up to 4 percent. Modeling results indicate that middle Jurassic shales are presently mature for liquid generation within portions of the Sag, with maximum generation taking place during the Tertiary. Potential hydrocarbon generation yields, based on 60 meters of mature source shale, are 20,000 BOE/acre for gas and 75,000 BOE/acre for liquids. Prospects within the region could contain an estimated potential reserve of several T.C.F. or over 1 billion barrels of oil

  13. Hydrocarbons at the toe of the Nankai Accretionary Prism- Evidence from 3d Seismic Reflection (United States)

    Heffernan, A. S.


    The toe of the Nankai accretionary prism is a dynamic hydrogeologic environment that has been intensively studied in recent years. Fluid flow plays a critical role in the prism's structural development, and strongly influences fault behavior in an example of the tectonic setting that is responsible for generating the world's largest earthquakes. Thermogenic and biogenic hydrocarbon generation and migration are part of this larger fluid flow system, and are of particular interest because hydrocarbons are the components of flow that are mostly likely to be imaged with existing geophysical tools. 3d seismic reflection data collected in 1999 contain indicators of this active hydrocarbon system, including evidence for a structurally trapped hydrocarbon accumulation, as well as possible sea-floor hydrocarbon seepage. A high amplitude, positive polarity, horizontal reflector can be observed cross-cutting folded reflectors within the hangingwall anticline above the frontal thrust. This flat spot occurs in an area with 4-way structural closure, and is interpreted as representing a gas-water contact and as a direct geophysical indicator of a shallow hydrocarbon accumulation. It is approximately 3 km southwest of ODP site 808, where log and core data confirm the presence of both thermogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons. A prominent headscarp exists on the seafloor directly above this flat spot, indicating that slope failure has occurred. As seafloor seepage is known to affect slope stability, it is possible that seepage from the shallow hydrocarbon reservoir plays a role in triggering slope failure in overlying sediments. This gas accumulation represents the first known structurally trapped hydrocarbon reservoir at the frontal fold of an accretionary prism. It indicates high fluid pressure that apparently affects surficial processes. Finally it indicates that 3D seismic data is needed to properly locate interesting geologic/hydrologic drilling targets and study them in a

  14. Geological structure of Charity Shoal crater, Lake Ontario, revealed by multibeam bathymetry (United States)

    Holcombe, Troy L.; Youngblut, Scott; Slowey, Niall


    Acoustic images of Charity Shoal in Lake Ontario, derived from a 1 × 1 m grid model of bathymetry assembled by the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 2010-2011, confirm the existence of a crater, as revealed by its surface morphology. With these higher quality data, it is possible to describe the crater in much greater detail, and arrive at a better interpretation of the geology than was possible using the earlier bathymetry of Lake Ontario. This new bathymetry of Charity Shoal reveals a continuous rim encircling an ovoid-shaped crater floor 1,200-1,500 m in diameter, with the crater floor being largely devoid of relief. Extending 3-4 km southwest of the crater is a ridge capped by a linear zone of unstratified debris that resembles a medial moraine. NE-SW erosional valleys cut across the crater rim in its southwestern sector. Apparently, glacial erosion has stripped the soil zone off stratified bedrock beneath the crater rim, exposing an intricate pattern of micro-ridges and grooves that bear the record of differential resistance to erosion of successive beds within the sequence of rock strata. Mapping of the shallow structure of the bedrock reveals a continuous ring anticline coinciding with the crater rim, with rock strata dipping gently in both directions away from the rim axis. In combination with existing evidence on the regional stratigraphy, these observations and interpretations are consistent with the Charity Shoal crater having formed in a shallow marine environment by an extraterrestrial impact event in the Middle Ordovician, followed by post-impact sedimentation, and much later, erosion during Pleistocene glaciations. Apparently, post-impact sediments infilled the crater and eventually covered the crater rim, leaving only a diminished structural expression of a crater having no more than 20 m of surface relief. Further details of crater history and origin, and a test of the hypothesis of impact, will likely come from acoustic reflection profiling and

  15. Thick deltaic sedimentation and detachment faulting delay the onset of continental rupture in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of seismic reflection profiles (United States)

    Martin, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.


    The transition from distributed continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California across the obliquely conjugate Tiburón-Upper Delfín basin segment. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) demonstrates that ~1000% extension is accommodated on a series of NNE-striking listric-normal faults that merge at depth into a detachment fault. The detachment juxtaposes a late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned continental crust and contains an intrabasinal divide due to footwall uplift. Two northwest striking, dextral-oblique faults bound both ends of the detachment and shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport. A regional unconformity in the upper 0.5 seconds (TWTT) and crest erosion of rollover anticlines above the detachment indicates inversion and footwall uplift during the lithospheric rupture in the Upper Delfin and Lower Delfin basins. The maximum length of new crust in both Delfin basins is less than 40 km based on the lack of an acoustic basement and the absence of a lower sedimentary sequence beneath a wedge shaped upper sequence that reaches >5 km in thickness. A fundamental difference exists between the Tiburón-Delfin segment and the Guaymas segment to the south in terms of presence of low angle normal faults and amount of new oceanic lithosphere, which we attribute to thermal insulation, diffuse upper-plate extension, and slip on low angle normal faults engendered by a thick sedimentary lid.

  16. Earthquakes and aseismic creep associated with growing fault-related folds (United States)

    Burke, C. C.; Johnson, K. M.


    Blind thrust faults overlain by growing anticlinal folds pose a seismic risk to many urban centers in the world. A large body of research has focused on using fold and growth strata geometry to infer the rate of slip on the causative fault and the distribution of off-fault deformation. However, because we have had few recorded large earthquakes on blind faults underlying folds, it remains unclear how much of the folding occurs during large earthquakes or during the interseismic period accommodated by aseismic creep. Numerous kinematic and mechanical models as well as field observations demonstrate that flexural slip between sedimentary layering is an important mechanism of fault-related folding. In this study, we run boundary element models of flexural-slip fault-related folding to examine the extent to which energy is released seismically or aseismically throughout the evolution of the fold and fault. We assume a fault imbedded in viscoelastic mechanical layering under frictional contact. We assign depth-dependent frictional properties and adopt a rate-state friction formulation to simulate slip over time. We find that in many cases, a large percentage (greater than 50%) of fold growth is accomplished by aseismic creep at bedding and fault contacts. The largest earthquakes tend to occur on the fault, but a significant portion of the seismicity is distributed across bedding contacts through the fold. We are currently working to quantify these results using a large number of simulations with various fold and fault geometries. Result outputs include location, duration, and magnitude of events. As more simulations are completed, these results from different fold and fault geometries will provide insight into how much folding occurs from these slip events. Generalizations from these simulations can be compared with observations of active fault-related folds and used in the future to inform seismic hazard studies.

  17. Mississippi Canyon 194, Gulf of Mexico: Development case history geological summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speice, C.B. (Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))


    Mississippi Canyon 194 field (Cognac) was discovered in 1975 by Shell Offshore Inc. and its partners. Development was completed during 1981. Production to date totals in excess of 150 MMBE. During the last five years, production has been sufficient to impact geological interpretations of the field. Recently a 3-D geophysical survey was acquired, processed, and interpreted. This total data package of production, petrophysical, geological, and geophysical information has been used in planning a 20-well redevelopment program completed in 1990. The field is an anticlinal nose that plunges north from a major salt feature south of the field. The Cognac structure is situated in the downthrown block of a major south-dipping growth fault. The I, J, and K sands contain the majority of the hydrocarbons. These sands are part of a 1500-2000-ft thick section of Pliocene mini-basin deposits along the present-day shelf edge. Geological interpretations of the field include structural mapping of the pay horizons and gross and net sand isopachous maps. Mapping, in conjunction with core data, log shapes, and other geological indicators, has aided in determining environments of deposition. This paper will demonstrate how understanding the environment of deposition of reservoir sands has led to improved seismic interpretations. Subsequently, improved geological/geophysical interpretation led to drilling outstep wells where there were no direct hydrocarbon indicators. The vertical distribution of sands is also better understood as a result of this work. It is expected that this integrated approach to better understand the reservoir will lead to improved recovery.

  18. A new petroleum system in offshore Campeche, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limon, M. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Mexico City (Mexico)


    A new petroleum system in the Sonda de Campeche of Mexico has been recently defined. This system is entirely Oxfordian in age, comprising eolian and beach sandstone reservoirs overlain by evaporates, which provide the seal, and in turn, overlain by organically rich, low energy carbonate mudstones, which are source rocks. This petroleum system was created during the late stages of opening of the Gulf of Mexico. The source rocks are composed of an algal mudstone overlying the evaporite sequence. Geochemistry, isotopic and biomarkers analyses allowed us to identify the Oxfordian source rock and also to obtain an excellent correlation with the Oxfordian oils reservoired in the discoveries. Oxfordian sandstones in the Sonda de Campeche exhibit excellent reservoir quality, ranging from 6 to 26% porosity and 2 to 2730 md permeability. The porosity is principally secondary due to the dissolution of dolomite, anhydrite and cement, but intergranular porosity can also be observed. The tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico in the Sonda de Campeche produced three types of traps (1) faulted blocks of {open_quotes}domino{close_quotes} style, developed during the extensional stage; (2) faulted anticlines formed during the Middle Miocene compressive event; and (3) traps related to diapirism of salt of the Middle Miocene-Pleistocene. The seal rocks are mainly composed by Oxfordian evaporates. Oil generation was initiated in the Middle Miocene following the compressional stage. The potential source rocks reached maturity beneath a thick Tertiary overburden in downthrown fault blocks and expelled hydrocarbons which migrated in a predominantly vertical direction. The oils do not show any diagnostic evidence of bacterial alteration.

  19. A new petroleum system in offshore Campeche, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Cruz, P.; Limon, M. [Pemex Exploracion y produccion, Mexico City (Mexico)


    A new petroleum system in the Sonda de Campeche of Mexico has been recently defined. This system is entirely Oxfordian in age, comprising eolian and beach sandstone reservoirs overlain by evaporites, which provide the seal, and in turn, overlain by organically rich, low energy carbonate mudstones, which are source rocks. This petroleum system was created during the late stages of opening of the Gulf of Mexico. The source rocks are composed of an algal mudstone overlying the evaporite sequence. Geochemistry, isotopic and biomarkers analyses allowed us to identify the Oxfordian source rock and also to obtain an excellent correlation with the oils Oxfordian reservoired in the discoveries. Oxfordian sandstones in the Sonda de Campeche exhibit excellent reservoir quality, ranging from 6 to 26% porosity and 2 to 2730 md permeability. The porosity is principally secondary due to the dissolution of dolomite anhydrite and cement but intergranular porosity can also be observed. The tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, in the Sonda de Campeche produced three types of traps (1) faulted blocks of {open_quotes}domino{close_quotes} style, developed during the extensional stage; (2) faulted anticlines formed during the Middle Miocene compressive event; and (3) traps related to diapirism of salt of the Middle Miocene-Pleistocene. The seal rocks are mainly composed by Oxfordian evaporates. Oil generation was initiated in the Middle Miocene following the compressional stage. The potential source rocks reached maturity beneath a thick Tertiary overburden in downthrown fault blocks and expelled hydrocarbons which migrated in a predominantly vertical direction. The oils do not show any diagnostic evidence of bacterial alteration.

  20. Integration of Well & Core Data of Carbonate Reservoirs with Surface Seismic in Garraf Oil Field, Southern Iraq (United States)

    Mhuder, J. J.; Muhlhl, A. A.; Basra Geologiests


    The Garraf Field is situated in Southern Iraq in Nasiriya area, is located in Mesopotamian basin. The carbonate facies are dominant in main reservoirs in Garraf field (Mishrif and Yammama Formations) which is Cretaceous in age. The structure of the reservoir in this field are low relief gentle anticlinal structure aligned in NW to SE direction, and No fault were observed and interpreted in 3D seismic section. 3D seismic survey by Iraqi Oil Exploration Company No 2 was successfully conducted on the Garraf field at 2008-2009 using recording system SERCEL 408UL and Vibrators Nomad 65. Bin size: 25*25, Fold: 36, SP Interval: 50m, Lines Interval: 300m, 3 wells were drilled Ga (1, 2, 3) and it used for seismic to well tie in Petrel. Data analysis was conducted for each reservoirs for Lithological and sedimentological studies were based on core and well data .The study showed That the Mishrif Formation deposited in a broad carbonate platform with shallowing upward regressive succession and The depositional environment is extending from outer marine to shallow middle-inner shelf settings with restricted lagoons as supported by the present of Miliolid fossils. The fragmented rudist biostromes accumulated in the middle shelf. No rudist reef is presence in the studied cores. While the Major sequences are micritic limestone of lagoonal and oolitic/peloidal grainstone sandy shoal separated by mudstone of Yamama formation. Sedimentation feature are seen on seismic attributes and it is help for understanding of sedimentation environment and suitable structure interpretation. There is good relationship between Acustic Impedance and porosity, Acustic Impedance reflects porosity or facies change of carbonate rather than fluid content. Data input used for 3D Modeling include 3D seismic and AI data, petrophysical analysis, core and thin section description. 3D structure modeling were created base on the geophysical data interpretation and Al analysis. Data analysis for Al data were

  1. Thrust duplex deformation in the volcaniclastic sequence of the Fatima fold-and-thrust belt in the west-central Arabian Shield (United States)

    El-Shafei, Mohamed K.


    In this study, we present a field-based structural analysis of the unmetamorphosed Precambrian volcaniclastic sequences of the west-central Arabian Shield. The study area is known as the Fatima fold-and-thrust belt, which is an overturned synclinorium that developed during the Neoproterozoic era. This belt is composed primarily of green mudstone, green sandstone, an andesite flow, limestone, red mudstone and pyroclastic units. This stratigraphic succession, which presents different rheological multilayers, offers significant mesoscale folding and thrust-related structures. Mechanical anisotropy and thickness contrasts have played significant roles in controlling the style of the deformation. Deformed hinge zones, a simple duplex, a domino-style duplex, and imbricated and antiformal stacks are among the thrust-related structures presented and analyzed. The domino-style duplex observed on the backlimbs of the overturned anticlines formed a unique pattern that developed during thrust propagation. The results of this study indicate that the thrust duplex developed according to a thick-skinned model, and it represents a newly recognized tectonic regime in the Arabian Shield. Comprehensive field mapping and structural analyses revealed that the zone under study area was affected by four phases of deformation (D1-D4). The D1 and D2 phases present ductile deformation that developed during the final cratonization and assembly of the Arabian Shield, and they can be recognized at both the map and outcrop scales. The D1 phase represents a progressive regime and is indicated by a NW-SE stress orientation and the formation of a series of coaxial symmetrical NE-SW-plunging folds. NNW-directed thrust-related structures progressively developed during the D2 phase. An approximately fifty-three percent tectonic shortening can be calculated based on the restored structures. D3 and D4 have a brittle nature and are indicated by shearing and normal faulting, respectively.

  2. Revised models for hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Jurassic coal measures of the Turpan basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Stasiuk, L.D. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bao Jianping [Jianghan Petroleum University, Hubei (China); Lin, R. [Petroleum University (Beijing), Changping (China); Yuan Mingsheng [PetroChina Tu-Ha Oilfield Company, Xingjiang (China)


    Whether or not the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin of NW China have generated commercial quantities of liquid petroleums is a problem of considerable importance that remains contentious as it has not yet been resolved unequivocally. This study provides evidence against the Jurassic humic coals as the only major source for the oils discovered in the Taibei depression of this basin and suggests additional significant contributions from the Upper Permian and Middle-Lower Jurassic lacustrine source rocks. The Carboniferous-Permian marine source rocks may have been important also in limited locations along the major basement faults. Molecular and petrographic data indicate that the majority of the Middle Jurassic strata are currently immature or marginally mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Within the major depocenters, the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata of the Baodaowan and Xishanyao formations has reached the conventional oil window (i.e. with vitrinite reflectance >0.7 per cent Ro). Pre-Jurassic (Upper Permian in particular) derived hydrocarbons appear to be widespread in extracts of fractured Jurassic coal and fine-grained rocks. Large differences have been observed in the absolute concentrations of biomarker compounds in rock extracts of various source intervals. Thus, 'coaly' biomarker signatures of the oils most likely resulted from mixing and migration contamination when hydrocarbons derived from mature source rocks migrated up through highly fractured coal seams along deep-seated faults. In addition to conventional exploration targets, revised petroleum generation and accumulation models predict that the focus in the Turpan basin should also include deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata and subtle, low magnitude anticlines and stratigraphic traps within thr Triassic-Jurassic sections. (author)

  3. Thrust geometries in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments around the Eupchon fault, SE Korea (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, J. H.; Shin, H. C.


    It had been considered that Korean Peninsula is located in a relatively stable continental platform. Over ten Quaternary faults have recently been discovered, however, in the south-eastern part of the Korean Peninsula. The Eupchon Fault was discovered at the construction site of a primary school, close to a nuclear power plant. In order to understand the characteristics of the Eupchon fault, we carried out two trench surveys near the first finding site. The orientations of trench sites are 150o and 170o, the widths are 1.3 m and 1.5 m, and the maximum depths are 2.8 m and 5.5 m, respectively. The trenches are in Quaternary unconsolidated marine terrace sediments, which have horizontal bedding planes, are well sorted, and range from pebbles to muds The fault system includes one main reverse fault (N20o E/40o SE) with about 4m displacement and a series of branches. Structures in the fault system include synthetic and antithetic faults, hanging wall anticlines, drag folds, back thrusts, pop-up structures, flat-ramp geometries and duplexes, i.e. very similar to thrust systems in consolidated rocks. In the upper part of the fault system, several tip damage zone patterns are observed, indicating that the fault system terminates in the upper part of the section. Pebbles along the main fault plane show preferred orientation of long axes indicating the fault trace. The orientation of the slickenside striea is E-W, indicating the movement direction. The unconformity between the Quaternary deposits and the underlying Tertiary andesites and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is displaced in a reverse sense. A normal displacement was reported lower in the section, indicating the fault had a normal displacement and was reverse reactivated during the Quaternary.

  4. 3D seismic data interpretation of Boonsville Field, Texas (United States)

    Alhakeem, Aamer Ali

    The Boonsville field is one of the largest gas fields in the US located in the Fort Worth Basin, north central Texas. The highest potential reservoirs reside in the Bend Conglomerate deposited during the Pennsylvanian. The Boonsville data set is prepared by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas, Austin, as part of the secondary gas recovery program. The Boonsville field seismic data set covers an area of 5.5 mi2. It includes 38 wells data. The Bend Conglomerate is deposited in fluvio-deltaic transaction. It is subdivided into many genetic sequences which include depositions of sandy conglomerate representing the potential reserves in the Boonsville field. The geologic structure of the Boonsville field subsurface are visualized by constructing structure maps of Caddo, Davis, Runaway, Beans Cr, Vineyard, and Wade. The mapping includes time structure, depth structure, horizon slice, velocity maps, and isopach maps. Many anticlines and folds are illustrated. Karst collapse features are indicated specially in the lower Atoka. Dipping direction of the Bend Conglomerate horizons are changing from dipping toward north at the top to dipping toward east at the bottom. Stratigraphic interpretation of the Runaway Formation and the Vineyard Formation using well logs and seismic data integration showed presence of fluvial dominated channels, point bars, and a mouth bar. RMS amplitude maps are generated and used as direct hydrocarbon indicator for the targeted formations. As a result, bright spots are indicated and used to identify potential reservoirs. Petrophysical analysis is conducted to obtain gross, net pay, NGR, water saturation, shale volume, porosity, and gas formation factor. Volumetric calculations estimated 989.44 MMSCF as the recoverable original gas in-place for a prospect in the Runaway and 3.32 BSCF for a prospect in the Vineyard Formation.

  5. Andean Basin Evolution Associated with Hybrid Thick- and Thin-Skinned Deformation in the Malargüe Fold-Thrust Belt, Western Argentina (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.


    Andean deformation and basin evolution in the Malargüe fold-thrust belt of western Argentina (34-36°S) has been dominated by basement faults influenced by pre-existing Mesozoic rift structures of the hydrocarbon-rich Neuquen basin. However, the basement structures diverge from classic inversion structures, and the associated retroarc basin system shows a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of mixed extension and contraction, along with an enigmatic early Cenozoic stratigraphic hiatus. New results from balanced structural cross sections (supported by industry seismic, well data, and surface maps), U-Pb geochronology, and foreland deposystem analyses provide improved resolution to examine the duration and kinematic evolution of Andean mixed-mode deformation. The basement structures form large anticlines with steep forelimbs and up to >5 km of structural relief. Once the propagating tips of the deeper basement faults reached cover strata, they fed slip to shallow thrust systems that were transported in piggyback fashion by newly formed basement structures, producing complex structural relationships. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages for the 5-7 km-thick basin fill succession reveal shifts in sedimentation pathways and accumulation rates consistent with (1) local basement sources during Early-Middle Jurassic back-arc extension, (2) variable cratonic and magmatic arc sources during Late Jurassic-Cretaceous postrift thermal subsidence, and (3) Andean arc and thrust-belt sources during irregular Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic shortening. Although pulses of flexural subsidence can be attributed to periods of fault reactivation (inversion) and geometrically linked thin-skinned thrusting, fully developed foreland basin conditions were only achieved in Late Cretaceous and Neogene time. Separating these two contractional episodes is an Eocene-lower Miocene (roughly 40-20 Ma) depositional hiatus within the Cenozoic succession, potentially signifying forebulge passage or neutral to

  6. Anatomia e desenvolvimento ontogenético da flor de mandioca Anatomy and development of the manioc flower

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    Antonieta Pia de Toledo


    Full Text Available É discutida a anatomia vascular da flor de mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl. O pedúnculo apresenta um cilindro contínuo de tecido vascular, do qual partem os traços das sépalas em número de dez. Cinco dêles ramificam-se alternadamente e vão constituir os feixes laterais de sépalas adjacentes. Os estames possuem um único traço vascular e cada carpelo tem três traços. Anatômicamente o ovário mostra-se formado por: uma epiderme externa, com estômatos; o parênquima. onde se ramificam os feixes vasculares, e a epiderme interna. A antera apresenta quatro sacos polínicos. No estado de maturação dos grãos de polem, cada saco polínico é envolvido por uma epiderme unisseriada e pelo endotécio.Flower development of the manioc (Manihot utilissima Pohl is acropetal. The early phases of cellular differentiation of the floral appendages are similar. All organs develop by anticlinal divisions of the surface layer, accompanied by periclinal divisions in the second tunica layer, and also in the outermost layer of the corpus, followed by the formation of an apical meristem. The carpels and sepals also originate from marginal initials. The vascular anatomy is described. The pedicel has a complete vascular cylinder from which ten bundles branch out to constitute the sepal traces. Five of these bundles bifurcate alternately to form the lateral bundles of adjacent sepals. The stamen has one single trace and each carpel has three traces. Anatomically the ovary is formed by an outer epidermis provided with stomata, a medium parenchymatous layer in which the vascular bundles develop, an inner epidermis. At maturity each anther exhibits four pollen sacs surrounded bv a uniseriate epidermis and a specialized endothecium with secondary thickness.

  7. Effectiveness of the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM for Infrastructure Development Accelerated and Geoplanology in District of Marpoyan Damai, Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riry Fatriadi


    Full Text Available Since 2007 PNPM Urban realize that poverty is a structural problem and multi-dimensional. In PNPM Urban perspective , the complexity of the various dimensions of poverty -related social , political , economic , and asset . this research aim is to know the Effectiveness of the National Program for Community Empowerment for Infrastructure Development Accelerated. In this research , the authors use an explanatory survey research methods . Selected number of samples in the analysis of the effectiveness of PNPM Urban infrastructure improvements are stakeholders involved in PNPM Urban population in the research area of all stakeholders involved in PNPM Urban in District Marpoyan Damai  , the authors take purposively respondents who meet the criteria and are associated with research. The results showed that increasing road infrastructure with the PNPM Mandiri. The average improvement of road infrastructure after the PNPM Urban amounted to 35.8 %. The average increase in the quality of infrastructure before the PNPM Urban program is only at 4.4 % per year . This indication shows that roads infrastructure and the quality of the road surface to be increased significantly in the presence of the PNPM Urban Marpoyan Damai  in the District . From interviews with relevant stakeholders PNPM Urban, respondents said PNPM Urban was very effective against the improvement of infrastructure in District Marpoyan Damai . Respondents argue that any proposed activity in infrastructure always realized by PNPM Urban . Geological condition of study consists of alluvium Sand, Gravel, Clay, Peat Swamp, Plant Remain in Quaternary age. There are two anticline in this area that is part Western and Southern and fault inferred direction Northwest-Southeast in the middle area of research so that the topography of the area of research a bit wavy and faulted that need observation on land-use planning such as drainage, airport, residential and availability of clean water..

  8. Contractile structures at the southern end of the central Nevada thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.J. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Geosciences)


    The Timpahute Range and Mt. Irish form an E-trending topographic high which is relatively unextended allowing a rare view of the contractile structures in the Mesozoic( ) Central Nevada thrust belt. Recent mapping indicates: (1) moderately to steeply W-dipping thrusts, the Mt. Irish and Lincoln thrusts; (2) long ramps; (3) structurally complicated footwalls; and 4. large open folds. The 30--50 W-dipping Mt. Irish thrust places Cambrian and Ordovician over Mississippian and Devonian units ([approximately]2,200 m of stratigraphic separation). The immediate footwall of the thrust consists of dominantly steeply-dipping horses. The hanging wall contains a large open anticline. Northward, this thrust correlates with the Golden Gate thrust (P.A. Armstong, 1990) which has similar footwall and hanging wall structures and compatible stratigraphic separation. The 30--50[degree]W-dipping Lincoln thrust crops out [approximately]15 km west of the Mt. Irish thrust. The Lincoln thrust places an open syncline containing Lower Ordovician and Cambrian over Mississippian and Devonian rocks in a duplex. The duplex contains both thrusts and tear faults. The nearest thrust along strike to the north is the Freiberg thrust (M.W. Martin, 1987). However, the Freiberg thrust places Middle Ordovician over Devonian rocks without an underlying duplex. New mapping demonstrates that additional duplex crops out along strike between the Lincoln and Freiberg thrusts. The duplex geometry accommodates changes in stratigraphic separation along a gently-dipping lateral ramp and permits correlation of the Freiberg and Lincoln thrusts. These data, interpretations and balanced cross section suggest that the southern Central Nevada thrust belt is composed of ramp-dominated thrusts. The open folds are either fault-bend or fault-growth folds. The duplex under the Lincoln thrust allows geometrical accommodation of along-strike variations in stratigraphic separation across the thrust.

  9. Imaging P- and S-wave velocity structures in hydrate bearing sediments along an OBS profile across the Yuan-An Ridge, off southwest Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Bin Cheng


    Full Text Available In order to improve our understanding of the marine slope instability of hydrate-bearing sediments in the offshore southwestern Taiwan, P- and S-waves seismic data generated by P-S conversion on reflection from airgun shots recorded from a multi-component Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS survey were used to construct two-dimensional velocity model. The investigated profile lies above a structural high of the Yuan-An ridge, proposed as a high priority drilling site for gas hydrate investigations off southwest Taiwan. The locations of the OBSs were determined with high accuracy by an inversion based on the shot traveltimes. Traveltime inversion and forward modeling of seismic data result in general trends P- and S-wave velocities of sediments. Generally, P- and S-wave velocities are high beneath topographic ridges which might represent a series of thrust-cored anticlines develop in the accretionary wedge. P-wave velocities of the sea floor are about ~1.58 km s-1, increasing to the bottom simulating reflectors (BSR, reaching values of about ~2 km s-1. Below it, a low velocity layer (1.62 - 1.74 km s-1 is observed, which indicates the presence free gas in the sedimentary layer. S-wave velocities of the sediments over the entire section range from 0.3 to ~0.6 km s-1. Significant lateral velocity variations were found beneath the eastern flank of the Yuan-An ridge, probably represents thrust faults that extend from seafloor to hydrate-bearing layer. We suggest that the BSR has been disturbed by the thrust faults and further rupture of the fault could potentially trigger failures in the study area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Tirana Depression is located in the eastern and inner part of the Periadriatic Depression.It forms an elongated NW-SE oriented structural element,60 km in length, located between the front of west -verging Dinaric structures and the east-verging Paper Rova anticline-Preze homocline alignment, which acted as a back-thrust till post-Pliocene age. Some significant stratigraphic sections were examinated mainly south of Tirana on the eastern and western limbs of a wide syncline.Physical and micropaleontological data, including marker levels,unconformities and planktonic foraminifera content were used to correlate the sections. Two Lithothamnium levels, uppermost Langhian and Serravallian, were esed markers. The generalized occurence of planktonic Foraminifera- bearing mudstones,uppermost Serravallian-Tortonian in age,is interpreted as significant.The Langhian and Serravallian uncoformities, recognizable at the base of the Lithothamnium limestone levels,are thought to be of regional importance. Continental and shallow marine sediments are largely prevailing. Deep-marine sediments are limited to the Oligocene-earliest Miocene and Serravallian-Tortonian p.p., and crop out only along the western margin of the Tirana Depression.The sequence was compared with the Langhian-Tortonian foredeep succession of the Preze homocline,which belongs to the Periadriatic Depression.The Tirana Depression differs from the Periadriatic Depression in the following developmental steps: during the late Oligocene-Aquitanian it can be considered as a narrow unstable shelf, probably forming the eastern margin of the foredeeps; during Burdigalian -early Serravallian time, it behaved as a "thrust sheet top basin", related to the front of west-vergin Dinaric thrust; during the Serravallian-Tortonian it played the role of foreland zone of the backthrust, whose ultimate enucleation is post-Pliocene in age.  

  11. High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Reelfoot Fault, New Madrid, Missouri (United States)

    Rosandich, B.; Harris, J. B.; Woolery, E. W.


    Earthquakes in the Lower Mississippi Valley are mainly concentrated in the New Madrid Seismic Zone and are associated with reactivated faults of the Reelfoot Rift. Determining the relationship between the seismogenic faults (in crystalline basement rocks) and deformation at the Earth's surface and in the shallow subsurface has remained an active research topic for decades. An integrated seismic data set, including compressional (P-) wave and shear (S-) wave seismic reflection profiles, was collected in New Madrid, Missouri, across the "New Madrid" segment of the Reelfoot Fault, whose most significant rupture produced the M 7.5, February 7, 1812, New Madrid earthquake. The seismic reflection profiles (215 m long) were centered on the updip projection of the fault, which is associated with a surface drainage feature (Des Cyprie Slough) located at the base of a prominent east-facing escarpment. The seismic reflection profiles were collected using 48-channel (P-wave) and 24-channel (S-wave) towable landsteamer acquisition equipment. Seismic energy was generated by five vertical impacts of a 1.8-kg sledgehammer on a small aluminum plate for the P-wave data and five horizontal impacts of the sledgehammer on a 10-kg steel I-beam for the S-wave data. Interpretation of the profiles shows a west-dipping reverse fault (Reelfoot Fault) that propagates upward from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks (>500 m deep) to near-surface Quaternary sediments (<10 m deep). The hanging wall of the fault is anticlinally folded, a structural setting almost identical to that imaged on the Kentucky Bend and Reelfoot Lake segments (of the Reelfoot Fault) to the south.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman


    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  13. Four-dimensional evolution of a salt-related fault network: Eugene Island Block 330 field, offshore Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, M.G. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)); Hart, B.S. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Nelson, S.; Flemings, P.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))


    The Eugene Island Block 330 field consists of two anticlinal rollovers in the hanging wall of a listric normal fault system that detaches along a deep salt weld. We use interpretation of well and 3D seismic data, 3D structural restoration, and fault analysis techniques to investigate the evolution of the three-dimensional geometry through time and its impact on hydrocarbon migration and entrapment. The master fault that currently forms the northeastern boundary of the field originated as two distinct, overlapping fault segments separated by a relay ramp. The segments linked by breaching of the ramp prior to 2.2 Ma. The resultant footwall splay continued to accommodate a significant proportion of the net slip, but became essentially inactive by 1.5 Ma. In the hanging wall of the master fault, interaction between two synthetic splays and an antithetic fault resulted in a similar, complex history of varying displacement distribution. Analysis of evolving hanging and footwall cutoff geometries on the various faults suggests that cross-fault hydrocarbon migration at sand-on-sand contacts may have contributed to reservoir filling. This scenario requires that Lentic (>2.2 Ma) sands in the footwall were connected to deeper hydrocarbon sources, which cannot be demonstrated and may be problematic because of the discontinuous nature of these sands. Moreover, the present distribution of hydrocarbons and the sealing nature of faults at some sand-on-sand contacts imply that another mechanism, such as episodic vertical migration along fault zone is required to introduce hydrocarbons into the shallow reservoirs.

  14. Four-dimensional evolution of a salt-related fault network: Eugene Island Block 330 field, offshore Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, M.G. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hart, B.S. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Nelson, S.; Flemings, P.B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    The Eugene Island Block 330 field consists of two anticlinal rollovers in the hanging wall of a listric normal fault system that detaches along a deep salt weld. We use interpretation of well and 3D seismic data, 3D structural restoration, and fault analysis techniques to investigate the evolution of the three-dimensional geometry through time and its impact on hydrocarbon migration and entrapment. The master fault that currently forms the northeastern boundary of the field originated as two distinct, overlapping fault segments separated by a relay ramp. The segments linked by breaching of the ramp prior to 2.2 Ma. The resultant footwall splay continued to accommodate a significant proportion of the net slip, but became essentially inactive by 1.5 Ma. In the hanging wall of the master fault, interaction between two synthetic splays and an antithetic fault resulted in a similar, complex history of varying displacement distribution. Analysis of evolving hanging and footwall cutoff geometries on the various faults suggests that cross-fault hydrocarbon migration at sand-on-sand contacts may have contributed to reservoir filling. This scenario requires that Lentic (>2.2 Ma) sands in the footwall were connected to deeper hydrocarbon sources, which cannot be demonstrated and may be problematic because of the discontinuous nature of these sands. Moreover, the present distribution of hydrocarbons and the sealing nature of faults at some sand-on-sand contacts imply that another mechanism, such as episodic vertical migration along fault zone is required to introduce hydrocarbons into the shallow reservoirs.

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.


    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales

  16. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao


    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  17. Structural analysis and implicit 3D modelling of Jwaneng Mine: Insights into deformation of the Transvaal Supergroup in SE Botswana (United States)

    Creus, P. K.; Basson, I. J.; Stoch, B.; Mogorosi, O.; Gabanakgosi, K.; Ramsden, F.; Gaegopolwe, P.


    Country rock at Jwaneng Diamond Mine provides a rare insight into the deformational history of the Transvaal Supergroup in southern Botswana. The ca. 235 Ma kimberlite diatremes intruded into late Archaean to Early Proterozoic, mixed, siliciclastic-carbonate sediments, that were subjected to at least three deformational events. The first deformational event (D1), caused by NW-SE directed compression, is responsible for NE-trending, open folds (F1) with associated diverging, fanning, axial planar cleavage. The second deformational event (D2) is probably progressive, involving a clockwise rotation of the principal stress to NE-SW trends. Early D2, which was N-S directed, involved left-lateral, oblique shearing along cleavage planes that developed around F1 folds, along with the development of antithetic structures. Progressive clockwise rotation of far-field forces saw the development of NW-trending folds (F2) and its associated, weak, axial planar cleavage. D3 is an extensional event in which normal faulting, along pre-existing cleavage planes, created a series of rhomboid-shaped, fault-bounded blocks. Normal faults, which bound these blocks, are the dominant structures at Jwaneng Mine. Combined with block rotation and NW-dipping bedding, a horst-like structure on the northwestern limb of a broad, gentle, NE-trending anticline is indicated. The early compressional and subsequent extensional events are consistent throughout the Jwaneng-Ramotswa-Lobatse-Thabazimbi area, suggesting that a large area records the same fault geometry and, consequently, deformational history. It is proposed that Jwaneng Mine is at or near the northernmost limit of the initial, northwards-directed compressional event.

  18. Inversion of calcite twin data for paleostress orientations and magnitudes: A new technique tested and calibrated on numerically-generated and natural data (United States)

    Parlangeau, Camille; Lacombe, Olivier; Schueller, Sylvie; Daniel, Jean-Marc


    The inversion of calcite twin data is a powerful tool to reconstruct paleostresses sustained by carbonate rocks during their geological history. Following Etchecopar's (1984) pioneering work, this study presents a new technique for the inversion of calcite twin data that reconstructs the 5 parameters of the deviatoric stress tensors from both monophase and polyphase twin datasets. The uncertainties in the parameters of the stress tensors reconstructed by this new technique are evaluated on numerically-generated datasets. The technique not only reliably defines the 5 parameters of the deviatoric stress tensor, but also reliably separates very close superimposed stress tensors (30° of difference in maximum principal stress orientation or switch between σ3 and σ2 axes). The technique is further shown to be robust to sampling bias and to slight variability in the critical resolved shear stress. Due to our still incomplete knowledge of the evolution of the critical resolved shear stress with grain size, our results show that it is recommended to analyze twin data subsets of homogeneous grain size to minimize possible errors, mainly those concerning differential stress values. The methodological uncertainty in principal stress orientations is about ± 10°; it is about ± 0.1 for the stress ratio. For differential stresses, the uncertainty is lower than ± 30%. Applying the technique to vein samples within Mesozoic limestones from the Monte Nero anticline (northern Apennines, Italy) demonstrates its ability to reliably detect and separate tectonically significant paleostress orientations and magnitudes from naturally deformed polyphase samples, hence to fingerprint the regional paleostresses of interest in tectonic studies.

  19. Geology of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands (United States)

    Rankin, Douglas W.


    The rocks of St. John, which is located near the eastern end of the Greater Antilles and near the northeastern corner of the Caribbean plate, consist of Cretaceous basalt, andesite, keratophyre, their volcaniclastic and hypabyssal intrusive equivalents, and minor calcareous rocks and chert. These rocks were intruded by Tertiary mafic dikes and tonalitic plutons. The oldest rocks formed in an extensional oceanic environment characterized by abundant keratophyre and sheeted dikes. Subduction-related volcanism of the east-west-trending marine Greater Antilles volcanic arc began on St. John near the transition between the Early and Late Cretaceous. South-directed compression, probably caused by the initial collision between the Greater Antilles arc of the Caribbean plate and the Bahama platform of the North American plate, deformed the Cretaceous strata into east-west-trending folds with axial-plane cleavage. Late Eocene tonalitic intrusions, part of the Greater Antilles arc magmatism, produced a contact aureole that is as much as two kilometers wide and that partly annealed the axial-plane cleavage. East-west compression, possibly related to the relative eastward transport of the Caribbean plate in response to the beginning of spreading at the Cayman Trough, produced long-wavelength, low-amplitude folds whose axes plunge gently north and warp the earlier folds. A broad north-plunging syncline-anticline pair occupies most of St. John. The last tectonic event affecting St. John is recorded by a series of post-late Eocene sinistral strike-slip faults related to the early stages of spreading at the Cayman Trough spreading center and sinistral strike-slip accommodation near the northern border of the Caribbean plate. Central St. John is occupied by a rhomb horst bounded by two of these sinistral faults. Unlike other parts of the Greater Antilles, evidence for recent tectonic movement has not been observed on St. John.

  20. Reservoir description and development of a mature oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiral, B.; Gumrah, F.; Okandan, E.


    The Mishovdag oil field is located in the southwest of Baku, Azerbaijan. The sandstone reservoirs consisting of five middle Pliocene age Horizons I, II, III, IV, and XII provide 40% of total oil production from the Sirvan oil field region. The reservoir trap is an anticline, and its size is approximately 15 x 5 km. Since its discovery in 1956, 516 wells had been drilled and 198 of them are still producing from successive layers of sandstone formations. This study was conducted to describe Horizon I of Block-9, prepare input data for a modeling study, and suggest development scenarios for this block. From this point of view, it was aimed to properly describe the reservoir properties with the use of core and, mainly, well log data. In this respect, these data set were evaluated to define the reservoir. According to field reports, seven producing layers were present in Horizon I of Block-9. From the results of further analysis on well logs, it was recognized that the reported seven layers were not continuous within Block-9 so, for modeling studies, these sandstone layers could be grouped under three main sand layers, namely, S1, S2, and S3, that were separated by two clay zones. The results of the modeling study showed that oil production was mainly from level S3 and level S1 was less swept by water injection. The oil saturation distribution at three levels at the end of 39 years of production indicated that there was still recoverable oil in levels S1 and S2. No free gas could be observed in any of the levels because the pressure maintenance provided by water injection caused free gas to redissolve in oil. (author)

  1. Active faulting and transpression tectonics along the plate boundary in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Meghraoui


    Full Text Available We present a synthesis of the active tectonics of the northern Atlas Mountains, and suggest a kinematic model of transpression and block rotation that illustrates the mechanics of this section of the Africa–Eurasia plate boundary. Neotectonic structures and significant shallow seismicity (with Mw >5.0 indicate that coeval E-W-trending, right-lateral faulting and NE-SW, thrust-related folding result from oblique convergence at the plate boundary, which forms a transpressional system. The strain distribution obtained from fault–fold structures and P axes of focal mechanism solutions, and the geodetic (NUVEL-1 and GPS convergence show that the shortening and convergence directions are not coaxial. The transpressional strain is partitioned along the strike and the quantitative description of the displacement field yields a compression-to-transcurrence ratio varying from 33% near Gibraltar, to 50% along the Tunisian Atlas. Shortening directions oriented NNE and NNW for the Pliocene and Quaternary, respectively, and the S shape of the Quaternary anticline axes, are in agreement with the 2.24˚/Myr to 3.9˚/Myr modeled clockwise rotation of the small tectonic blocks and with the paleomagnetic data. The convergence between Africa and Eurasia is absorbed along the Atlas Mountains at the upper crustal level, by means of thrusting above decollement systems, which are controlled by subdued transcurrent faults. The Tell Atlas of northwest Algeria, which has experienced numerous large earthquakes with respect to the other regions, is interpreted as a restraining bend that localizes the strain distribution along the plate boundary.

  2. Measurement of the stress field of a tunnel through its rock EMR (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Wang, Enyuan; Song, Dazhao; Liu, Zhentang; Shen, Rongxi; Lv, Ganggang; Xu, Zhaoyong


    In order to quantitatively study the relationship between the disturbance stress of coal mine roadways and the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of rocks, and further evaluate their internal stress distributions, we first examined the characteristics of EMR signals emitted from rock mass under uniaxial compression, analyzed the relationship between the stress inside the rock mass and its emitted EMR intensity, and put forward a new disturbance stress testing method by monitoring the EMR from the rock mass to retrieve its surrounding stress field. Then, we applied the method to monitor EMR intensity from the no.11803 rock roadway of the Nuodong coal mine, China, and inversely retrieved its stress field. Lastly, we analyzed the causes of local stress anomalies in the Nuodong area by testing the EMR intensity of its nearby areas, and we examined the geology of the whole region. The results showed that: (1) in the rock roadway and the surrounding area of the Nuodong coal mine, the disturbance stress was in the range of 4.8 ˜ 9.1 MPa, the angle between the direction of the stress field and the horizontal plane of the roadway was 35 ± 2.5°, the lateral pressure coefficient was 1.30 ˜ 1.57 (2) the Laoguishan and Yulong anticlines in the vicinity of the Nuodong coal mine caused great horizontal tectonic stress in the region, and the existence of the auxiliary roadway and F12 normal fault resulted in the formation of two high stress zones in the no.11803 rock roadway. Overall, monitoring the EMR from rock mass could ascertain the state, direction, size and distribution of disturbance stress in a roadway and further obtain the distribution of the stress field of an underground structure.

  3. Basement and cover-rock deformation during Laramide contraction in the Northern Madison Range (Montana) and its influence on Cenozoic basin formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, K.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Schmidt, C.J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Young, S.W. [Conoco, Inc., Midland, TX (United States)


    Two major Laramide fault systems converge in the northwestern Madison Range: the northwest-striking, southwest-vergent Spanish Peaks reverse fault and the north-striking, east-vergent Hilgard thrust system. Analysis of foliation attitudes in basement gneiss north and south of the Spanish Peaks fault indicates that the basement in thrusted blocks of the Hilgard thrust system has been rotated by an amount similar to that of the basement-cover contact. In most places along the Hilgard thrust system, a large basement overhang, produced by thrusting of Archean blocks above rocks as young as Late Cretaceous, overlies a tight footwall syncline. This tight folding is largely concentric and was accommodated by flexural slip, resulting in severe crowding in synclinal hinges that resulted in observed or inferred features such as bedding-plane slip, imbricate and out-of-syncline thrusting, and hinge collapse. This paired fault system (the Madison normal fault system and the Hilgard thrust system) of the northern Madison Range is strikingly similar to other paired systems in southwestern Montana along and adjacent to the western margins of the Ruby Range, Snowcrest Range, Greenhorn Range, Tobacco Root Mountains, and Bridger Range. No hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in this unique structural province. However, petroleum exploration here has focused on basement-cored anticlines, both surface and subthrust, related to the two major Laramide fault systems and on the fault-bounded blocks of Tertiary rocks within the post-Laramide extensional basins. The interplay of the two Laramide fault systems during both Laramide shortening and Tertiary extension has produced a variety of possible structural traps in the Madison Range that have not yet been thoroughly investigated.

  4. Comparative account of nectary structure in Hexisea imbricata (Lindl.) Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae). (United States)

    Stpiczyńska, M; Davies, K L; Gregg, A


    Despite the number of orchid species that are thought to be pollinated by hummingbirds, our knowledge of the nectaries of these orchids is based solely on a single species, Maxillaria coccinea (Jacq.) L.O. Williams ex Hodge. Nevertheless, it is predicted that such nectaries are likely to be very diverse and the purpose of this paper is to compare the nectary and the process of nectar secretion in Hexisea imbricata (Lindl.) Rchb.f. with that of Maxillaria coccinea so as to begin to characterize the nectaries of presumed ornithophilous Neotropical orchids. Light microscopy, transmission electronmicroscopy and histochemistry were used to examine the histology and chemical composition of nectary tissue and the process of nectar secretion in H. imbricata. The nectary of H. imbricata has a vascular supply, is bound by a single-layered epidermis with few stomata and comprises two or three layers of subepidermal secretory cells beneath which lie several layers of palisade-like parenchymatous cells, some of which contain raphides or mucilage. The secretory cells are collenchymatous and their walls have numerous pits with associated plasmodesmata. They contain the full complement of organelles characteristic of secretory cells as well as intravacuolar protein bodies but some of the secretory epidermal cells, following secretion, collapse and their anticlinal walls seem to fold. Nectar secretion is thought to be granulocrine and, following starch depletion, lipid droplets collect within the plastids. The nectar accumulates beneath the cuticle which subsequently forms swellings. Finally, nectar collects in the saccate nectary spur formed by the fusion of the margins of the labellum and the base of the column-foot. Thus, although the nectary of H. imbricata and M. coccinea have many features in common, they nevertheless display a number of important differences.

  5. The occurrence and origin of celestite in the Abolfares region, Iran: Implications for Sr-mineralization in Zagros fold belt (ZFB) (United States)

    Pourkaseb, Houshang; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Reyhaneh; Ghanavati, Fatemeh


    The major celestite deposits in Zagros Fold belt are associated with coastal marine carbonate and evaporate sediments of Oligo-Miocene Asmari and Lower Miocene Ghachsaran Formations. In the Abolfares region, celestite mineralization is extended in the western limb of Bangestan anticline in the carbonates of Early Miocene (middle part of Asmari Formation), underlying by dolomitic carbonates of Burdigalian. From bottom to top three main types of mineralization can be distinguished in the study area: (1) layer texture resulting from replacement of algal limestone by celestite minerals with some parts showing idiomorphic crystals (geodes) along the walls of the cavities, (2) celestite occurrence as irregular massive shape interconnected small crystals and nodules, and (3) celestite mineralization associated with steeply dipping veins and open space fracture fillings, resulting from late-stage epigenetic processes. Highlightly, the ore-hosting carbonate rocks were deposited in an intertidal - supratidal protected setting with hypersaline conditions, in accordance with other celestite deposits of the Zagros Fold belt. The abundance of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites, carbonate and anhydrite inclusions as confirmed by Laser Raman spectroscopy analysis, high Sr/Ba values (average; 8726.1) and strong negative correlations between SO3 vs CaO (R2 = 0.98), SrO vs CaO (R2 = 0.96) with positive correlations between Ba vs SrO (R2 = 0.54) and SO3 vs SrO (R2 = 0.98) highlight the role of high Sr late-diagenetic brines in replacement of carbonates with celestite minerals. It seems that the inception of compressional folding during or soon after the deposition of the Asmari Formation in the carbonate platform at the margin of NW-trending basin in the foreland of the Zagros orogenic belt lead to the upward refluxing of penetrated high-Sr diagenetic brines and celestite mineralization.

  6. Community-Based Rehabilitation of Critical Land at Jenar, Sragen, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharjo Suharjo


    Full Text Available The aims of the study of critical land rehabitation basing on the society in Jenar Sragen are to know: 1 the factory which cause the critical land; 2 the way to solve critical land; and 3 the role society in solving critical land. The collected date are 1 topography, 2 litologhy, 3 geomorphology, 4 soil, 5 hydrology, 6 land use, 7 the apportion of critical land, and 8 the way to solve critical land. The choice of sample uses purposive method, while the data analysis to get result uses descriptive method. The result of the study show that: 1 the distribution of critical land is in land unit of anticline hills of tuff rocks, marl, clay, and sand tuff which are denudated process by rensina soil and litosol from light to heavy which lie in dry land cultivation and forest. The factors which influence critical land are high rainfall (2178 mm, inclination slope (8 – 20%, solun soil whih is less than 20 cm and denudation process high is active; 2 the way that has been done is solving critical land rehabilitation is cooperation among the society, the forestry and commercial agricultural department and cone sugar factory of Mojo Sragen. The critical land which has been rehabilitated is state forest (266.95 ha and the dry lang cultivation of the society (772.50 ha; 3 the society has responsibility for the growth, the development and preservation of the long term plants (jati, sonokeling, mahoni. The participation of the society in that programme is about 3.117 people.

  7. Results of a paleomagnetic survey undertaken in the Damara mobile belt, South West Africa, with special reference to the magnetisation of the uraniferous pegmatitic granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; Henthorn, D.I.


    A project study, undertaken by the Geology Division of the AEB, on the correlation between airborne magnetic and radiometric data covering a portion of the Damara Mobile Belt in South West Africa, has revealed that all the known occurrences of uranium in late- to post-tectonic leucogranite (alaskite) of the Damara orogeny are associated with negative geomagnetic anomalies. Although the uranium occurrences themselves do not display marked geomagnetic anomalies, their immediate geological environment is characterised by the negative anomalies, which are semi-regional in extent. To investigate the origin of these anomalies, the Atomic Energy Board and the Geological Survey of South Africa undertook a palaeomagnetic study of the area. Oriented cores were taken from 31 sites in the mobile belt, 18 of which were selected within the negative magnetic zones, mostly in close association with known uraniferous alaskitic granites. Palaeomagnetic evidence suggests that the negative geomagnetic anomalies are associated with a remanent magnetisation, resulting from the Damara orogenic event, whose direction is removed from the earth's present field and which has affected rocks of the Nosib Group. Absence of this stable remanent direction in rocks stratigraphically overlying the Nosib Group accounts for the distinctive geomagnetic signature, in the form of negative anomalies, of the Nosib Group. It is this signature which can be used in airborne surveys to identify rocks of the Nosib Group outcropping, or of shallow suboutcrop, in anticlinal or dome-like structures. Since the uraniferous alaskites are mostly confined stratigraphically to the Nosib Group, the negative geomagnetic anomalies form an important prospecting criterion as they may be used to delineate target areas for further exploration in areas covered by sand, scree and duricrust deposits [af

  8. Tectonique et volcanisme tardi-Pan Africains (580-560 M.a.) dans l'Anti-Atlas Central (Maroc): interprétation géodynamique à l'échelle du NW de l'Afrique (United States)

    Azizi Samir, M. R.; Ferrandini, J.; Tane, J. L.

    The structural analysis of the Precambrian III (Infracambrian) volcanic formations that outcrop in the Bou Azzer-El Graara anticlinal has revealed two complementary phases: i) a NW-SE distension, ii) N100° to N120°E left-lateral strike-slip to normal faults, parallel to the Pan-African suture. Microtectonic and stratigraphic criteria establish that the tectonic activity is syn-volcanic, while the determination of the principal stress directions prove the genetic relationship between the two phases. Evidences of NW-SE oriented distension in the PIII volcanics of other areas of south Morocco show the regional extension of the tectonic setting. Our model suggests a left-lateral strike-slip between two cratonic blocks that collided during a previous B2 phase (around 600 M.a.). During this strike-slip movement, the principal stress axis sl tilted from horizontal to 50°N while the vertical plane s1 - s2 slightly rotated from N30° to N40°E. The PIII volcanic production was triggered by the extensive wrenching-distending movement and accompanied the reactivation of WNW-ESE faults of the Panafrican basement. Coeval extension along NE-SW faults is marked by the emplacement of numerous andesitic porphyritic dykes along this direction. This rift evolution is part of the global framework that includes two Proto-Atlantic or Iapetus, (2) to the east, in the Trans-Saharian range, the E-W late-Panafrican compression with N-S left-lateral strike-slip. The extension leads to thinning of the crust, existence of a gulf during the Adoudounien transgression and emplacement of alkali magmatism at the base of these transgressive series.

  9. The 2015 M_w 7.8 Gorkha earthquake: The geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust and the building of topography (United States)

    Jolivet, Romain; Elliott, John R.; Gonzàlez, Pablo J.; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Hollingsworth, James; Searle, Mike P.; Stevens, Victoria L.


    The 2015 M_w 7.8 Gorkha earthquake ruptured a significant portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the main active structure responsible for the building of the Himalayas and for most destructive earthquakes in the past. Since this structure does not slip during the interseismic period, only indirect evidences allowed to infer its geometry at depth, a crucial point for numerous questions ranging from the long-term evolution of the mountain range to the dynamics of seismic ruptures. We use all available space-based geodetic data recording surface displacements during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, including InSAR, GPS and optical imagery, to explore the space of possible geometric configurations of the MHT in the region of Kathmandu. From the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), the surface expression of the MHT, our preferred fault geometry includes a steep (30^o) ramp down to 5-km-depth, prolonged at depth by a shallow (5-8^o) thrust extending 85 km north from the MFT where it steepens to form a 20-30o mid-crustal ramp, linking the seismic portion of the MHT to its deep, aseismic, root. This geometry is consistent with earlier geophysical measurements and geological observations, such as electro-magneto-telluric data, the InDepth seismic reflection profile, the depth of relocated microseismicity, the generation of high-frequencies during rupture propagation and the broad anticlinal shape of foliation north of the Kathmandu klippe. We propose our proposed fault structure as a starting point for further modeling of the earthquake cycle in the area, including the propagation of dynamic ruptures on a complex fault plane and the long-term behavior of the MHT, controlling the growth of the Himalayas.

  10. Geochemistry of the granitoids from the Central Surguja Shear Zone, India: geological evolution and implications on uranium mineralization and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, V.P.; Murugan, C.; Sabot, H.K.; Krishnamurthy, P.


    Numerous stock-like bodies of grey granites (up to 15 km 2 across) and sheet-like bodies of pink granite (1 km to 15 km long and 0.2-0.5 km thick) have intruded along the cores of anticlines of the Central Surguja Shear Zone(CSSZ), during the Satpura Orogeny (Middle Proterozoic). Major, minor, and trace element data, critical elemental ratios, and Qz-Or-Ab normative mineralogical data indicate that the granitic melt was derived from palingenesis of crustal rocks. The pink granites represent melts equilibrated under very low pressure in a hydrous system, apparently influenced by fractionation and differentiation. The grey granites represent hydrous melts derived under pressure of about 5 kb. The pink granites are the youngest intrusives and show distinct enrichment of Rb(235-407 ppm), Y(33-356 ppm), Zr(120-533 ppm), Nb(16-161 ppm), and U(10-141 ppm). In general, the granites show high Rb/Sr and Ba/Sr, and low Ba/Rb ratios pointing to their evolved nature. Uranium mineralization at a number of places, such as at Jajawal, Dhabi, Dumhat, Pakni, and others is hosted by grey and pink granites, quartzo-feldspathic cataclasite, and chlorite-biotite schist, within the Central Surguja Shear Zone. Discriminant diagrams to infer palaeotectonic regimes using Rb, Nb, and Y indicate a within plate environment for the granites, notably for the pink types. Besides structurally controlled vein-type uranium mineralization, sedimentary rocks of the Gondwana Supergroup enveloping the Surguja Crystalline Complex (SCC) may also hold potential for sedimentary-type uranium mineralization in conducive locales. (author). 22 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen; Michael T. Whalen


    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. The Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is characteristically deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hanging wall anticlines and footwall synclines. In contrast, the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range is characterized by symmetrical detachment folds. The focus of our 2000 field studies was at the boundary between these structural styles in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The northern edge of thrust-truncated folds in Lisburne is marked by a local range front that likely represents an eastward continuation of the central Brooks Range front. This is bounded to the north by a gently dipping panel of Lisburne with local asymmetrical folds. The leading edge of the flat panel is thrust over Permian to Cretaceous rocks in a synclinal depression. These younger rocks overlie symmetrically detachment-folded Lisburne, as is extensively exposed to the north. Six partial sections were measured in the Lisburne of the flat panel and local range front. The Lisburne here is about 700 m thick and is interpreted to consist primarily of the Wachsmuth and Alapah Limestones, with only a thin veneer of Wahoo Limestone. The Wachsmuth (200 m) is gradational between the underlying Missippian Kayak Shale and the overlying Mississippian Alapah, and

  12. Analysis of Structural Styles in the High-dipping Tectonic Belts in the Eastern Sichuan area, China (United States)

    He, D.; Wu, X.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, J.


    The Eastern Sichuan area, referred to here as the eastern part of the Sichuan Basin, is receiving increasing attention from the geologists and oil finders. At present, several structural models have been proposed for interpreting the complicated structures in the Eastern Sichuan area. One model considered the Eastern Sichuan structures as a result of progressive deformation along the basement detachments from wide-spaced to box-type to trough-like structures in the NE-SW trending compression. The other model based on regional structural evolution correlated them to fold styles that were built in earlier extension, middle inversion and later compression, and another model interpreted them as the double detachment-modification structures under such a structural context. The tectonic stress fields and main stress directions that these three models were established based on do not change, but the stress-propagation direction and structural styles are different significantly. The first model shows that the anticlines became narrow upward during the progressive detachment deformation along Middle-Upper Cambrian gypsum-mudstone layers, Lower Silurian mudstone layers and Lower Triassic gypsum-mudstone layers. The second model suggests that there were abundant thrust faults formed along the duplex thrusting front, constituting multiple flower-type faults with less development upward but more dipping folds. The third model is that the Middle-Upper Cambrian gypsum-mudstone layers, Lower Silurian mudstone layers and Lower Triassic gypsum-mudstone layers were controlled by SE-trending compression in the Indosinian period (T2-J1), forming sandwich structure and deforming along the three detachments. During the late Yanshanian to Himalayan periods (K2-N2), these structures developed further in SW-trending compression. The deep gypsum layer as detachment layer began to material transition in the buckling from wing to core part of the folds, triggering the formation of the wide

  13. Main factors for large accumulations of natural gas in the marine carbonate strata of the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyou Liu


    Full Text Available The natural gas accumulation zone, where the marine carbonate rock strata are developed, was formed in the eastern Sichuan Basin under the influence of several main tectonic movements (Caledonian Movement, Indosinian Movement, Yanshanian Movement, and Himalayan Movement. Most natural gas reservoirs exhibit the structural-stratigraphic traps together with multistage accumulation, late-stage adjustment and reformation, et cetera. The natural gas accumulation zone (or so-called gas reservoir groups is controlled by the following main factors: multi-sourced and multi-formed hydrocarbons for marine source rocks (i.e. Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation, Lower Permian, Upper Permian Longtan Formation, paleo-uplift, paleoslope, and the hinge belt controlled by the steep dip structures, namely the Lower and Middle Triassic high-quality gypsum. Three sets of high-quality source rocks (i.e. S1l, P1, P2l account for the abundant hydrocarbon supply for natural gas accumulation in the eastern Sichuan area, especially in the destructed oil reservoir formed earlier. The said destructed oil reservoir not only provides the preservation space for natural gas reservoir that will take place later, but it also provides the hydrocarbon source for thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Although the gas reservoirs in the eastern part of the Sichuan Basin experienced multi-stage adjustment and reformation at later times, the thick and high-quality gypsum as well as the mudstone, as available caprocks, have offered a good preservation condition for the underlying gas reservoirs. The paleohighs (e.g. Luzhou paleohigh and Kaijiang paleohigh, the Permian platform margin slope, and the structurally transformed slope under the function of the steep dip anticline in the eastern Sichuan not only form the high-quality carbonate reservoir, but they also became favorable for oil and gas accumulation. The difference in hydrocarbon generation

  14. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.


    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain


    In the structure task, for this reporting period, the authors also edited and revised the map that displays the modified rose diagrams for the data they collected and reduced along the east side of Seneca Lake. They also revised the N-S transect that displays the frequency of ENE-striking fractures, and constructed a new N-S transect that shows the frequency of E-striking fractures. This transect compliments the earlier transect they constructed for fracture frequency of ENE-striking fractures. Significantly, the fracture frequency transect for E-W fractures shows a spike in fracture frequency in the region of the E-striking Firtree anticline that is observed on seismic reflection sections. The ENE fracture set does not exhibit an unusually high fracture frequency in this area. In contrast, the fracture frequency of the ENE-striking set is anomalously high in the region of the Trenton/Black River grabens. They have nearly completed reducing the data they collected from a NNW-SSE transect on the west side of Cayuga Lake and they have constructed modified rose diagrams for most sites. Structure contour maps and isopach maps have been revised based on additional well log analyses. Except for the Glodes Corners Field, the well spacing generally remains insufficient to identify faults or their precise locations. However, relatively sharp elevational changes east of Keuka Lake support the contention that faults occur along the east side of Keuka Lake. Similarly, a single well east of Seneca Lake shows that the Trenton there is low compared to distant wells, based on an assumed regional slope. This same area is where one of the Trenton grabens occurs. They have completed the interpretation of the reprocessed data that Quest licensed and had reprocessed. Several grabens observed in the Trenton and Black River reflectors are consistent with surface structure, soil gas, and aeromagnetic anomalies. In this report they display all four interpreted seismic lines. These data

  16. Analysis of Geologic CO2 Sequestration at Farnham Dome, Utah, USA (United States)

    Lee, S.; Han, W.; Morgan, C.; Lu, C.; Esser, R.; Thorne, D.; McPherson, B.


    The Farnham Dome in east-central Utah is an elongated, Laramide-age anticline along the northern plunge of the San Rafael uplift and the western edge of the Uinta Basin. We are helping design a proposed field demonstration of commercial-scale geologic CO2 sequestration, including injection of 2.9 million tons of CO2 over four years time. The Farnham Dome pilot site stratigraphy includes a stacked system of saline formations alternating with low-permeability units. Facilitating the potential sequestration demonstration is a natural CO2 reservoir at depth, the Jurassic-age Navajo formation, which contains an estimated 50 million tons of natural CO2. The sequestration test design includes two deep formations suitable for supercritical CO2 injection, the Jurassic-age Wingate sandstone and the Permian-age White Rim sandstone. We developed a site-specific geologic model based on available geophysical well logs and formation tops data for use with numerical simulation. The current geologic model is limited to an area of approximately 6.5x4.5 km2 and 2.5 km thick, which contains 12 stacked formations starting with the White Rim formation at the bottom (>5000 feet bgl) and extending to the Jurassic Curtis formation at the top of the model grid. With the detail of the geologic model, we are able to estimate the Farnham Dome CO2 capacity at approximately 36.5 million tones within a 5 mile radius of a single injection well. Numerical simulation of multiphase, non- isothermal CO2 injection and flow suggest that the injected CO2 plume will not intersect nearby fault zones mapped in previous geologic studies. Our simulations also examine and compare competing roles of different trapping mechanisms, including hydrostratigraphic, residual gas, solubility, and mineralization trapping. Previous studies of soil gas flux at the surface of the fault zones yield no significant evidence of CO2 leakage from the natural reservoir at Farnham Dome, and thus we use these simulations to

  17. 40Ar/39Ar thermo-chronology and lithospheric mechanisms. Methodological and applied approach: the Kunlun range (Asia) and the Afar triple junction area (East Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, C.


    A 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronological study has been carried out for two contrasted geodynamic settings: - the Eastern Kunlun range (Northern Tibet), in order to characterize the lithospheric deformation mechanisms related to the India-Asia collision; - the Afar triple junction area (East Africa), in order to constrain the timing of mantle plume-related basement uplift in Ethiopia and Yemen, which will indicate whether rifting was active or passive. In the Kunlun, the cooling event (9-15 deg.C/Ma) outlined at 30 Ma for the granitoids (Bt = 128-138 Ma; Kf = 102-147 Ma) reflects a denudation event (0.2-0.3 km/Ma), related to ramp stacking and normal faulting with associated uplift. This unroofing period is coeval with the great Asian strike-slip faults. This suggests that 30 Ma ago, the India-Asia collision was accommodated by lateral extrusion along great strike-slip faults, which might have led to local crustal thickening because of the formation of anticlines from major thrusts 'branching' from the Kunlun fault. In the Afar area the Panafrican basement (granitoids = 462-678 Ma;metamorphic rocks 505-750 Ma) has undergone a reheating event during the Cenozoic; its temperature is estimated around 138-177 deg.C over the last 50 Ma for a depth of 2 km, implying a thermal gradient of 69-88 deg./km. This reheating event results from both heat conduction, related to the mantle plume. and heat advection. because of magma transfer. However, it was not possible to define the timing of the mantle plume-related basement uplift. This study outlines the important thermal effect of continental flood basalts on the crust and suggests that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronology does not allow to characterize the denudation of the lithosphere for an extension-type geodynamic setting. Finally, some of the results suggest that diffusion in the laboratory and in nature may be different. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronological analysis thus might be tricky, especially in investigating geologic

  18. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) Applied to Karst Carbonate Aquifers: Case Study from Amdoun, Northwestern Tunisia (United States)

    Redhaounia, Belgacem; Ilondo, Batobo Ountsche; Gabtni, Hakim; Sami, Khomsi; Bédir, Mourad


    The Amdoun region is characterized by a high degree of karstification due to the climate impact (±1500 mm year-1) and the development of fracture network. Survey using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is deployed to provide a cost-effective characterization of the subsurface karst environments. A total of seven ERT profiles with lengths of 315 m were evaluated at the Béja governorate (NW Tunisia). The area represents a small syncline of Boudabbous limestone rocks (Lower Eocene), which is covered by a thin layer of clay. In this study, an ERT survey was conducted to examine the spatial distribution and shape of underground cavities in the karst area in Jebel Sabah anticline and Aïn Sallem-Zahret Medien syncline. In this study, geological, hydro-geological and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods were applied to determine the geometry of the perched aquifer in the Amdoun region (NW Tunisia). The area is characterized by fractured and karstic limestone aquifer of Late Cretaceous (Abiod Fm.) and Lower Eocene (Boudabbous Fm.). The aquifers have a karstic functioning and drain aquifers of economical interest, despite some wells exploiting them. Seven resistivity profiles were conducted along the survey area at three sites. The orientation, extension and the degree of inclination of those profiles are shown in the location map. The correct resistivity data were interpreted using Earth Imager 2D software. The results of the interpreted geo-electrical sections showed that the resistivity of the carbonate aquifer varied between 2.5 to over 5794 Ωm. The thickness of the perched aquifer ranged from 15 to 50 m, while its depth from the surface lies between 10 and 60 m. The ERT not only provided precise near surface information, but was also very useful for establishing the 3D geometry and the position of several potential cavities and karts. The results show the presence of small to large isolated cavities at various depths. The low resistivity of cavities

  19. On the effect of the 3-D regional geology on the seismic design of critical structures: the case of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (United States)

    Gatti, F.; Lopez-Caballero, F.; Clouteau, D.; Paolucci, R.


    In this study, a numerical investigation is performed on a realistic source-to-site earthquake scenario, with the aim to assess the role of complex three-dimensional (3-D) geological structures on the predicted wave-field. With this respect, the paper pointedly targets the seismic response of nuclear power plants in near-field conditions and the verification of some simplified assumptions commonly adopted for earthquake ground motion prediction and site effects analysis. To this purpose, the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (Japan) is assumed as reference case-study. In 2007, the nuclear site and its surroundings were struck by the Niigata-Ken Chūetsu-Oki seismic sequence, which caused some of the peak ground motion design limits to be largely overpassed. The dense observation network deployed at the site recorded a highly incoherent and impulsive earthquake ground motion. Many studies argued that the intricate syncline-anticline geology lying underneath the nuclear facility was highly responsible of the observed seismic response. Therefore, a physics-based numerical model of the epicentral area is built-up (≈ 60 km wide) and tested for small aftershocks, so to discount the effect of extended source on the synthetic site-response. The numerical model (based on the Spectral Element Method) reproduces the source-to-site wave propagation by embracing the effects of the surface topography along with the presence of the Japan Sea (i.e. the bathymetry, the coastline and the fluid-solid interaction). Broad-band (0-5 Hz) synthetic wave-forms are obtained for two different aftershocks, located at the two opposite sides of the nuclear facility, aiming to assess the influence of the incidence angle the radiated wave field impinges the foldings beneath it. The effect of the folding presence is assessed by comparing it to a sub-horizontally layered geology, in terms of numerical outcome, and by highlighting the differences with respect to the observations. The presence

  20. Determination of the limit of oxidation in zones of sub-outcropping Chipanga Coal Seam, Moatize Coal Basin, Mozambique (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Lopo; Chafy, Algy; Xerinda, Leonardo


    Moatize Coal Basin (MCB) in Mozambique is a graben with sediments of Karoo age with thick coal seams that are under exploration and exploitation by the Vale Moçambique company. Presently, the exploitation is as an open-pit mine and in the future the works will extend to the area where formerly underground mines were under exploitation. It is well known throughout the World that Moatize basin is a World class deposit for coking and thermal coal and therefore Vale Moçambique is developing studies to rationalize the coal resources of the area. Due to its geological and tectonic story, the general structure of the sedimentary (and coal) layers shows wide open synclines and anticlines, and, as a consequence, in many areas coal seams approach the surface or even outcrop. Therefore, the sub-outcropping/outcropping zones of the seams are subjected directly to the weathering agents, subjecting the coal to oxidation phenomena, which are considered as a factor altering negatively the coking properties of coals. The objective is to study down to which depth the oxidation zone goes, i.e., to trace the Line of Oxidation, also known as LOX. The study deals with Chipanga seam, which