WorldWideScience

Sample records for antibody-based surface plasmon

  1. Monoclonal antibody-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors for pathogen detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2007-01-01

    , that can detect and quantify specific plant pathogens and map these to defined positions within the field, would enable the farm manager to perform a precise and targeted application of pesticides and thereby reduce and optimise the use of agrochemicals. The ideal scenario for precision agriculture...... will be concentrated at few and very large farms. In order to reduce the pesticide use, it is necessary for the farm manager to have detailed knowledge of the distribution of weeds, diseases and pests within the fields. However, field-monitoring by manual inspection is time consuming and expensive. Biosensors...... species. The subtractive inhibition assay was further developed for label-free detection using a Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor. The polyclonal anti-mouse IgM was immobilised on a sensor surface and used for capture and quantification of mAb8. Optimal regeneration conditions were identified and 20 m...

  2. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  3. Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    The development of advanced dielectric photonic structures has enabled tremendous control over the propagation and manipulation of light. Structures such as waveguides, splitters, mixers, and resonators now play a central role in the telecommunications industry. This book will discuss an exciting new class of photonic devices, known as surface plasmon nanophotonic structures. Surface plasmons are easily accessible excitations in metals and semiconductors and involve a collective motion of the conduction electrons. These excitations can be exploited to manipulate electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies ("light") in new ways that are unthinkable in conventional dielectric structures. The field of plasmon nanophotonics is rapidly developing and impacting a wide range of areas including: electronics, photonics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The book will highlight several exciting new discoveries that have been made, while providing a clear discussion of the underlying physics, the nanofabrication issues...

  4. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  5. Optical Isolator Utilizing Surface Plasmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yuasa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of optical loss for surface plasmons propagating in opposite directions. Utilizing this structure, it is feasible to fabricate a competitive plasmonic isolator, which benefits from a broad wavelength operational bandwidth and a good technological compatibility for integration into the Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC. The linear dispersion relation was derived for plasmons propagating in a multilayer magneto-optical slab.

  6. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  7. Dispersion engineering of surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Isroel M; Bendoym, Igor; Jung, Young U; Golovin, Andrii B; Crouse, David T

    2013-12-30

    In this work, it is shown how the shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be engineered by manipulating the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in multilayer structures, which themselves are controlled by the free electron density in metal-like materials, such as doped semiconductors in the THz spectral range. By having a nonuniform free electron density profile, reduced relative to that in typical bulk metals, the electromagnetic fields of surface plasmons are distributed in different metallic materials that have different complex dielectric permittivities. As the in-plane component of surface plasmon's wave-vector increases, they become more confined to a particular layer of the multilayer structure and have energies that are predictable by considering the permittivity of the layer in which the fields are most concentrated. Unusual and arbitrary shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be designed, including stair steps and dovetails shapes.

  8. Electrically driven surface plasmon nanosources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer-Duchemin, Elizabeth; Wang, Tao; Le Moal, Eric; Dujardin, Gérald

    2015-03-01

    Electrical nanosources of surface plasmons will be an integral part of any future plasmonic circuits. Three different types of such nanosources (based on inelastic electron tunneling, high energy electron bombardment, and the electrical injection of a semiconductor device) are briefly described here. An example of a fundamental experiment using an electrical nanosource consisting of the tunnel junction formed between a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a metallic sample is given. In this experiment, the temporal coherence of the broadband STM-plasmon source is probed using a variant of Young's double slit experiment, and the coherence time of the broadband source is estimated to be about 5-10 fs.

  9. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepage Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A surface plasmon resonance (SPR scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The surface roughness of the substrate layer is examined for different dielectrics and deposition methods. The Au layer, on which the plasmonic modes are propagating and the biosensing occurs, is also examined. The surface roughness and dielectric values for various deposition rates of very thin Au films are measured. We also investigate an interferometric SPR setup where, due to the power flux transfer between plasmon modes, the specific choice of grating coupler can either decrease or increase the plasmon propagation length.

  10. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Dominic; Carrier, Dominic; Jiménez, Alvaro; Beauvais, Jacques; Dubowski, Jan J

    2011-05-17

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The surface roughness of the substrate layer is examined for different dielectrics and deposition methods. The Au layer, on which the plasmonic modes are propagating and the biosensing occurs, is also examined. The surface roughness and dielectric values for various deposition rates of very thin Au films are measured. We also investigate an interferometric SPR setup where, due to the power flux transfer between plasmon modes, the specific choice of grating coupler can either decrease or increase the plasmon propagation length.

  11. Complementary magnetic localized surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported on metallic structures corrugated by very long and curved grooves have been recently proposed and demonstrated on an extremely thin metallic spiral structure (MSS) in the microwave regime. However, the mode profile for the magnetic LSPs was demonstrated by measuring only the electric field, not the magnetic field.

  12. Ultrafast Surface Plasmonic Switch in Non-Plasmonic Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Bévillon, E; Recoules, V; Zhang, H; Li, C; Stoian, R

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast carrier excitation can drastically affect electronic structures and induce brief surface plasmonic response in non-plasmonic metals, potentially creating a plasmonic switch. Using first-principles molecular dynamics and Kubo-Greenwood formalism for laser-excited tungsten we show that carrier heating mobilizes d electrons into collective inter and intraband transitions leading to a sign flip in the imaginary optical conductivity, activating plasmonic properties for the initial non-plasmonic phase. The drive for the optical evolution can be visualized as an increasingly damped quasi-resonance at visible frequencies for pumping carriers across a chemical potential located in a d-band pseudo-gap with energy-dependent degree of occupation. The subsequent evolution of optical indices for the excited material is confirmed by time-resolved ultrafast ellipsometry. The large optical tunability extends the existence spectral domain of surface plasmons in ranges typically claimed in laser se...

  13. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Lepage Dominic; Carrier Dominic; Jiménez Alvaro; Beauvais Jacques; Dubowski Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral r...

  14. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  15. Surface plasmon polariton propagation in organic nanofiber based plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Jauernik, Stephan;

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic wave packet propagation is monitored in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides realized from para-hexaphenylene nanofibers deposited onto a 60 nm thick gold film. Using interferometric time resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy we are able to determine ph...

  16. Tunable Omnidirectional Surface Plasmon Resonance in Cylindrical Plasmonic Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; WANG Bing; ZHOU Zhi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ The tunable omnidirectional surface plasmon resonance in the optical range is theoretically demonstrated in a cylindrical plasmonic crystal by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis.The cylindrical plasmonic crystal consists of an infinite chain of two-dimensional cylindrical metal-dielectric-dielectric-metal structures.The dispersion relation of the cylindrical plasmonic crystal is obtained by calculating the absorptance as a function of a TM-polarized incident plane wave and its in-plane wave vector.The omnidirectional surface plasmon resonance can be tuned from UV region to visible region by adjusting the thickness of the cylindrical dielectric layers.The absorption spectrum of the infinite chain of nanocylinders is also investigated for comparison.

  17. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  18. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-01

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 μm thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  19. A phased antenna array for surface plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, D.J.W.; Korterik, J.P.; Segerink, F.B.; Herek, J.L.; Prangsma, Jord C.

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves that propagate tightly bound to metal surfaces. The concentration of the electromagnetic field at the surface as well as the short wavelength of surface plasmons enable sensitive detection methods and miniaturization of optics. We present an optic

  20. Gold nanodisk array surface plasmon resonance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xueli

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated for sensing applications over the last decade. The resonance wavelengths of the nanostructures are usually measured in the transmission or reflection spectrum for chemical and biological sensing. In this thesis, I introduce a nanoscale gap mediated surface plasmon resonance nanodisk array for displacement sensing and a super-period gold nanodisk grating enabled surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor. The super-period gold nanodisk grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD). A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  1. Direct imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-09-01

    In this Letter, we report on dark field imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic waveguiding bands formed by plasmonic coupled cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white-light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations.

  2. Localized Surface Plasmons in Vibrating Graphene Nanodisks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weihua; Mortensen, N Asger; Christensen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons are confined collective oscillations of electrons in metallic nanoparticles. When driven by light, the optical response is dictated by geometrical parameters and the dielectric environment and plasmons are therefore extremely important for sensing applications. Plasmons in graphene disks have the additional benefit to be highly tunable via electrical stimulation. Mechanical vibrations create structural deformations in ways where the excitation of localized surface plasmons can be strongly modulated. We show that the spectral shift in such a scenario is determined by a complex interplay between the symmetry and shape of the modal vibrations and the plasmonic mode pattern. Tuning confined modes of light in graphene via acoustic excitations, paves new avenues in shaping the sensitivity of plasmonic detectors, and in the enhancement of the interaction with optical emitters, such as molecules, for future nanophotonic devices.

  3. Surface plasmon lifetime in metal nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Arman S.; Stockman, Mark I.; Shahbazyan, Tigran V.

    2016-10-01

    The lifetime of localized surface plasmon plays an important role in many aspects of plasmonics and its applications. In small metal nanostructures, the dominant mechanism of plasmon decay is size-dependent Landau damping. We performed quantum-mechanical calculations of Landau damping for the bright surface plasmon mode in a metal nanoshell with dielectric core. In contrast to the conventional model based on the electron surface scattering, we found that the damping rate decreases as the nanoshell thickness is reduced. The origin of this behavior is traced to the spatial distribution of plasmon local field in the metal shell. We also found that, due to the interference of electron scattering amplitudes from the two nanoshell metal surfaces, the damping rate exhibits pronounced quantum beats with changing shell thickness.

  4. Photon tunneling via surface plasmon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, A.; Wig, A.; Lereu, A. L.; Meriaudeau, F.; Thundat, T.; Ferrell, T. L.

    2004-10-01

    The measurement of a photonic signal via plasmon-plasmon coupling in curved thin metal films is presented. In domains of subwavelength dimension, we calculate the resonant dispersion relations by modeling the curved thin film as a single sheeted hyperboloid of revolution. We show that several such surface modes are accessible optically at frequencies below the plasma frequency of the metal.

  5. A spiral plasmonic lens with directional excitation of surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingrui; Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xinhua

    2016-08-26

    Conventional plasmonic lenses are composed of curved slits carved through metallic films. Here, we propose a new plasmonic lens based on a metallic slit with an auxiliary groove. When the lens is illumined normally, only inward surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be generated and then focused into a hot spot at the center of the lens. The focusing effect is theoretically investigated by varying the groove parameters and incident polarizations. It is found that this phenomenon exists for both the circular and linear polarizations of incidence. Under optimal groove parameters, the intensity of the focal spot in our lens can be 2.5 times of that in one without grooves for both linearly and circularly polarized illuminations.

  6. Nanometrology using localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Lindstedt, Daniel N.; Laurberg, Asger V.;

    2013-01-01

    A novel optical characterization technique called localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy is presented. LSPR spectroscopy exploits light excited surface plasmons, which are collective coherent electron oscillations at a metal/dielectric interface. The LSPR can be observed in a tra......A novel optical characterization technique called localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy is presented. LSPR spectroscopy exploits light excited surface plasmons, which are collective coherent electron oscillations at a metal/dielectric interface. The LSPR can be observed...... in a transmission spectrum and it is very sensitive to the constituent materials as well as both lateral and vertical dimensions of the structures. This makes LSPR spectroscopy interesting for a number of applications including nanometrology. Like scatterometry, LSPR spectroscopy requires test structures...

  7. Spatial filtering with surface plasmon resonance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A. K.; Siddharth, V.; Bhagat, M.; Aggarwal, S.; Anurag, P.; Jain, M.

    2007-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance based sensors are most useful in measuring the refractive indices of biochemicals. In such sensors a beam of light obliquely incident at an interface of glass and metallic thin film excites resonant plasmon waves in the metal if the angle of incidence or the wavelength is selected properly. The resonance conditions are changed by the refractive indices of any material in contact with the metal film. When resonance occurs the light beam is absorbed strongly. We can easily show that the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance in such a system acts as a high quality spatial notch or band rejection filter.

  8. Imaging standing surface plasmons by photon tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, A.; Lereu, A. L.; Wig, A.; Meriaudeau, F.; Thundat, T.; Ferrell, T. L.

    2005-04-01

    We present a direct method for optically exciting and imaging delocalized standing surface plasmons in thin metal films. We show theoretically that when imaging the field of the plasmons with a photon scanning tunneling microscope, the presence of the dielectric probe has a negligible effect on the surface modes of the metal film. We demonstrate that plasmon interference can be sustained in arbitrarily large regions of the metal film in comparison to the excitation wavelength. This knowledge can be important when seeking the relative distance between two scattering centers such as the presence of micron or submicron structures.

  9. Surface plasmon polariton assisted optical pulling force

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, M I; Bogdanov, A A; Shalin, A S; Dogariu, A

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate both analytically and numerically the existence of optical pulling forces acting on particles located near plasmonic interfaces. Two main factors contribute to the appearance of this negative reaction force. The interference between the incident and reflected waves induces a rotating dipole with an asymmetric scattering pattern while the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) enhances the linear momentum of scattered light. The strongly asymmetric SPP excitation is determined by spin-orbit coupling of the rotating dipole and surface plasmon polariton. As a result of the total momentum conservation, the force acting on the particle points in a direction opposite to the incident wave propagation. We derive analytical expressions for the force acting on a dipolar particles placed in the proximity of plasmonic surfaces. Analytical expressions for this pulling force are derived within the dipole approximation and are in excellent agreement with results of electromagnetic numerica...

  10. Terahertz optoelectronics with surface plasmon polariton diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Raj K; Genov, Dentcho A

    2014-05-09

    The field of plasmonics has experience a renaissance in recent years by providing a large variety of new physical effects and applications. Surface plasmon polaritons, i.e. the collective electron oscillations at the interface of a metal/semiconductor and a dielectric, may bridge the gap between electronic and photonic devices, provided a fast switching mechanism is identified. Here, we demonstrate a surface plasmon-polariton diode (SPPD) an optoelectronic switch that can operate at exceedingly large signal modulation rates. The SPPD uses heavily doped p-n junction where surface plasmon polaritons propagate at the interface between n and p-type GaAs and can be switched by an external voltage. The devices can operate at transmission modulation higher than 98% and depending on the doping and applied voltage can achieve switching rates of up to 1 THz. The proposed switch is compatible with the current semiconductor fabrication techniques and could lead to nanoscale semiconductor-based optoelectronics.

  11. Localized Surface Plasmons in Vibrating Graphene Nanodisks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weihua; Li, Bo-Hong; Stassen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    in graphene disks have the additional benefit to be highly tunable via electrical stimulation. Mechanical vibrations create structural deformations in ways where the excitation of localized surface plasmons can be strongly modulated. We show that the spectral shift in such a scenario is determined...... by a complex interplay between the symmetry and shape of the modal vibrations and the plasmonic mode pattern. Tuning confined modes of light in graphene via acoustic excitations, paves new avenues in shaping the sensitivity of plasmonic detectors, and in the enhancement of the interaction with optical emitters...

  12. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  13. Surface plasmon polaritons in topological Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2016-06-01

    We consider theoretically surface plasmon polaritons in Weyl semimetals. These materials contain pairs of band touching points—Weyl nodes—with a chiral topological charge, which induces an optical anisotropy and anomalous transport through the chiral anomaly. We show that these effects, which are not present in ordinary metals, have a direct fundamental manifestation in the surface plasmon dispersion. The retarded Weyl surface plasmon dispersion depends on the separation of the Weyl nodes in energy and momentum space. For Weyl semimetals with broken time-reversal symmetry, the distance between the nodes acts as an effective applied magnetic field in momentum space, and the Weyl surface plasmon polariton dispersion is strikingly similar to magnetoplasmons in ordinary metals. In particular, this implies the existence of nonreciprocal surface modes. In addition, we obtain the nonretarded Weyl magnetoplasmon modes, which acquire an additional longitudinal magnetic field dependence. These predicted surface plasmon results are observable manifestations of the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals and might have technological applications.

  14. Surface plasmon polariton waveguiding in random surface nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Volkov, V. S.; Leosson, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, guiding of surface plasmon polaritons excited at a gold film surface along corrugation-free channels in regions that are covered with randomly located surface scatterers, is considered using near-field microscopy for imaging of surface plasmon polariton intensity distributions at t...... demonstrate well-defined surface plasmon polariton guiding along corrugation-free 2 micro-m wide channels in random structures and, in the wavelength range 738-774 nm, low-loss guiding around 20degrees bends having a bend radius of approx. 15 micro-m....

  15. Slowing Down Surface Plasmons on a Moiré Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Askin; Senlik, S. Seckin; Aydinli, Atilla

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated slow propagation of surface plasmons on metallic Moiré surfaces. The phase shift at the node of the Moiré surface localizes the propagating surface plasmons and adjacent nodes form weakly coupled plasmonic cavities. Group velocities around vg=0.44c at the center of the coupled cavity band and almost a zero group velocity at the band edges are observed. A tight binding model is used to understand the coupling behavior. Furthermore, the sinusoidally modified amplitude about the node suppresses the radiation losses and reveals a relatively high quality factor (Q=103).

  16. Nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Sweccha

    2017-01-01

    The testing and further development of a prototype nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor, with a focus on surface modification and detailed characterization of the biosensor chip and in-field and at-line applicability in the food industry is described. Furthermore, a simp

  17. Distributed optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxin Cao; Lenan Wu; Dayong Li

    2006-01-01

    @@ The relationships of the resonant wavelength of optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors to the modulation layer refractive index, thickness and the refractive index of the bulk medium are obtained by using theoretical calculation model of optical fiber SPR sensors under certain conditions, which indicates that resonant wavelength of the sensors is approximately linear with modulation layer thickness. Based on the linear relationship, multiple SPR sensors with different resonant wavelengths can be fabricated in a single optical fiber named as distributed optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensors (DOFSPRSs).Experimental results are presented, showing that it is practical to fabricate more than one SPR sensors in a single optical fiber.

  18. Focus Issue on surface plasmon photonics introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, Uriel; Berini, Pierre; Maier, Stefan A.;

    2015-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Surface Plasmon Photonics (SPP7) was held in Jerusalem, Israel from May 31st to June 5th, 2015. This independent series of biennial conferences is widely regarded as the premier series in the field, and the 7th edition maintained the tradition of excellence. Th...

  19. Surface Plasmon Resonance Studies on Molecular Imprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Lin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular imprinted polymer (MIP members were fabricated with the print molecule L-phenylalanine ethyl ester. The elution and adsorption procedures were investigated by surface plasmon resonance in situ. The changes of refractive angle during elution procedure suggest that the MIP is prepared on the base of the non-covalent interactions. This MIP member sensor can achieve enantioselective recognition.

  20. Subwavelength light confinement with surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.

    2009-01-01

    In free space, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the size to which light can be confined. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and a dielectric, allow the control of light on subwavelength length scales. This opens up a r

  1. Focus Issue on surface plasmon photonics introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, Uriel; Berini, Pierre; Maier, Stefan A.;

    2015-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Surface Plasmon Photonics (SPP7) was held in Jerusalem, Israel from May 31st to June 5th, 2015. This independent series of biennial conferences is widely regarded as the premier series in the field, and the 7th edition maintained the tradition of excellence...

  2. Generation and near-field imaging of Airy surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Minovich, Alexander; Janunts, Norik; Pertsch, Thomas; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the generation and near-field imaging of nondiffracting surface waves - plasmonic Airy beams, propagating on the surface of a gold metal film. The Airy plasmons are excited by an engineered nanoscale phase grating, and demonstrate significant beam bending over their propagation. We show that the observed Airy plasmons exhibit self-healing properties, suggesting novel applications in plasmonic circuitry and surface optical manipulation.

  3. Surface magneto plasmons and their applications in the infrared frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their promising properties, surface magneto plasmons have attracted great interests in the field of plasmonics recently. Apart from flexible modulation of the plasmonic properties by an external magnetic field, surface magneto plasmons also promise nonreciprocal effect and multi-bands of propagation, which can be applied into the design of integrated plasmonic devices for biosensing and telecommunication applications. In the visible frequencies, because it demands extremely strong magnetic fields for the manipulation of metallic plasmonic materials, nano-devices consisting of metals and magnetic materials based on surface magneto plasmon are difficult to be realized due to the challenges in device fabrication and high losses. In the infrared frequencies, highly-doped semiconductors can replace metals, owning to the lower incident wave frequencies and lower plasma frequencies. The required magnetic field is also low, which makes the tunable devices based on surface magneto plasmons more practically to be realized. Furthermore, a promising 2D material-graphene shows great potential in infrared magnetic plasmonics. In this paper, we review the magneto plasmonics in the infrared frequencies with a focus on device designs and applications. We investigate surface magneto plasmons propagating in different structures, including plane surface structures and slot waveguides. Based on the fundamental investigation and theoretical studies, we illustrate various magneto plasmonic micro/nano devices in the infrared, such as tunable waveguides, filters, and beam-splitters. Novel plasmonic devices such as one-way waveguides and broad-band waveguides are also introduced.

  4. Plasmonic Coupled Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupled cavity modes on Moire surfaces. An experimental study has been made of the propagation of SPPs on a thin silver surface that is textured with Moire surface pattern using interference lithography. The Moire surface contains periodic array of one dimensional cavities. The distance between the cavities can be controlled by changing the periodicities of Moire surface. When the SPP cavity separation is sufficiently small, we show splitting of strongly coupled plasmonic cavity modes through numerical simulations. Conversely, when the SPP cavity separation is sufficiently large, SPP cavity modes are found to be localized and do not show splitting of SPP cavity modes . This splitting of SPP cavity modes are well explained with a tight binding model that has been succesfully applied in photonic coupled cavities. Reflection measurements and numerical simulation of a large number of adjacent SPP cavities have shown a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) type plasmonic waveguide band formation within the band gap region of unperturbed uniform grating.

  5. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in metal-semiconductor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Arsenin, Aleksey V

    2011-06-20

    We propose a novel scheme of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) amplification that is based on a minority carrier injection in a Schottky diode. This scheme uses compact electrical pumping instead of bulky optical pumping. Compact size and a planar structure of the proposed amplifier allow one to utilize it in integrated plasmonic circuits and couple it easily to passive plasmonic devices. Moreover, this technique can be used to obtain surface plasmon lasing.

  6. Scattering of Light and Surface Plasmon Polaritons from Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    approximation for surface plasmon polaritons,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779204 (1-9)(2010). [10] J. Polanco , R.M. Fitzgerald, T.A. Leskova, and A.A. Maradudin...condition,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 013801 (1-8) (2011). [12] J. Polanco , R.M. Fitzgerald, and A.A. Maradudin, “Propagation of s-polarized surface polaritons...surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043805(1-4)(2012). [15] R.M. Fitzgerald, A.A. Maradudin, J. Polanco , and A.B. Shvartsburg, “S-polarized

  7. Polarization-Directed Surface Plasmon Polariton Launching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2017-01-05

    The relative intensities of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) simultaneously launched from opposing edges of a symmetric trench structure etched into a silver thin film may be controllably varied by tuning the linear polarization of the driving field. This is demonstrated through transient multiphoton photoemission electron microscopy measurements performed using a pair of spatially separated phase-locked femtosecond pulses. Our measurements are rationalized using finite-difference time domain simulations, which reveal that the coupling efficiency into the PSP modes is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the localized surface plasmon fields excited at the trench edges. Additional experiments on single step edges also show asymmetric PSP launching with respect to polarization, analogous to the trench results. Our combined experimental and computational results allude to the interplay between localized and propagating surface plasmon modes in the trench; strong coupling to the localized modes at the edges correlates to weak coupling to the PSP modes. Simultaneous excitation of the electric fields localized at both edges of the trench results in complex interactions between the right- and left-side PSP modes with Fabry-Perot and cylindrical modes. This results in a trench width-dependent PSP intensity ratio using otherwise identical driving fields. A systematic exploration of polarization directed PSP launching from a series of trench structures reveals an optimal PSP contrast ratio of 4.2 using a 500 nm-wide trench.

  8. Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn;

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....

  9. Analysis of cell surface antigens by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, I.; Schasfoort, R.B.M.; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is most commonly used to measure bio-molecular interactions. SPR is used significantly less frequent for measuring whole cell interactions. Here we introduce a method to measure whole cells label free using the specific binding of cell surface antigens expressed on th

  10. Harmonics radiation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D., E-mail: dazhi_li@hotmail.com [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Nakajima, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hashida, M. [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wei, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-06-03

    This letter presents an approach to extract terahertz radiation from surface plasmon polaritons excited in the surface of a uniform graphene structure by an electron beam. A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode to be close to the light line, so that some of its harmonics have chances to go above the light line and become radiative. The harmonics are considered to be excited by a train of periodic electron bunches. The physical mechanism in this scheme is analyzed with three-dimensional theory, and the harmonics excitation and radiation are demonstrated through numerical calculations. The results show that this technique could be an alternative to transform the surface plasmon polaritons into radiation. - Highlights: • An approach to extract terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons is presented. • A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode. • Harmonics of surface plasmon polaritons are possible to radiate.

  11. Surface Plasmon-Coupled Enhanced Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Djalalian-Assl, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Investigations show a strong coupling between a dipole and the surface wave occurs when a dipole is positioned within 10 nm from a metallic surface. This is in contrast to what was thought previously with surface plasmon-coupled emission where the emission of a dipole was claimed to be quenched when positioned within 10 nm from a metallic surface. In fact, the quenching distance is related to the energy transfer between the dipole that acts as a donor and the metallic surface acting as an acceptor. For distances less 10 nm away from a flat metallic surface a total energy transfer occurs, producing evanescent surface waves that are plasmonic in nature. When investigating a metallic nanohole on an optically dense substrate (such as diamond with NV-), the scattering occured preferentially from the diamond substrate towards the air for dipole distances less 10 nm from the aperture. In addition, an enhancement to the dipole's radiative decay rate was observed. The relationship between an emitter and a nearby reson...

  12. Proximity Resonance and Localized Surface Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The collective excitation of conduction electrons in subwavelength nanostructures is known as Localized Surface Plasmon(LSP)[1]. Such plasmon modes has been intensively studied using noble nanoparticles . More recently, the possibility of building terahertz metamaterials supporting such LSP modes has been explored in graphene microribbons and microdisks. Unlike Surface Plasmon Polaritons(SPPs) at metal-insulator interface, LSP can be directly excited by light illumination and holds promise for applications in ultrasensitive biosensing, nano-optical tweezers and improved photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we consider the interaction of two LSPs in the weak coupling regime and show how an effect similar to the proximity resonance in the quantum scattering theory) gives rise to an asymmetric(quadrupole) mode with increased damping rate. The existence of this asymmetric mode relies on a small phase retardation between the two LSPs. This phase retardation, though small, is key to both increased damping rate for the asymmetric mode and reduced damping rate for the symmetric mode. When this small phase retardation is removed by changing the polarization of the exciting light,we show that the asymmetric mode can not be excited and the symmetric mode shows increased damping.

  13. Intrinsic nonlinear response of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Song-Jin; Kim, Gum-Hyok

    2015-01-01

    We offer a model to describe the intrinsic nonlinear response of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Relation of the complex nonlinear coefficient of SPPs to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the metal is provided. As reported in a recent study, gold is highly lossy and simultaneously highly nonlinear due to interband absorption and interband thermo-modulation at a wavelength shorter than 700 nm. The effect of the high loss of the metal on the SPP nonlinear propagation is taken into account in our model. With the model we show difference in sign of real and imaginary parts between the nonlinear propagation coefficient and the nonlinear susceptibility of component material for the first time to our knowledge. Our model could have practical importance in studying plasmonic devices utilizing the nonlinear phase modulation and the nonlinear absorption of SPPs. For example, it allows one to extract the complex nonlinear susceptibility of gold through a measurement of SPP nonlinear propagation at the visib...

  14. Phonon-Plasmon Interaction in Metal-Insulator-Metal Localized Surface Plasmon Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mrabti, Abdelali; Nicolas, Rana; Maurer, Thomas; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and numerically the coupling between elastic and localized surface plasmon modes in a system of gold nanocylinders separated from a thin gold film by a dielectric spacer of few nanometers thickness. That system supports plasmon modes confined in between the bottom of the nanocylinder and the top of the gold film, which arise from the formation of interference patterns by short-wavelength metal-insulator-metal propagating plasmon. First we present the plasmonic properties of the system though computer-simulated extinction spectra and field maps associated to the different optical modes. Next a simple analytical model is introduced, which allows to correctly reproduce the shape and wavelengths of the plasmon modes. This model is used to investigate the efficiency of the coupling between an elastic deformation and the plasmonic modes. In the last part of the paper, we present the full numerical simulations of the phononic properties of the system, and then compute the acousto-plasmon...

  15. All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, T. J.; Hornett, S. M.; Chang, D. E.; Hendry, E.

    2016-02-01

    Surface plasmons in graphene offer a compelling route to many useful photonic technologies. As a plasmonic material, graphene offers several intriguing properties, such as excellent electro-optic tunability, crystalline stability, large optical nonlinearities and extremely high electromagnetic field concentration. As such, recent demonstrations of surface plasmon excitation in graphene using near-field scattering of infrared light have received intense interest. Here we present an all-optical plasmon coupling scheme which takes advantage of the intrinsic nonlinear optical response of graphene. Free-space, visible light pulses are used to generate surface plasmons in a planar graphene sheet using difference frequency wave mixing to match both the wavevector and energy of the surface wave. By carefully controlling the phase matching conditions, we show that one can excite surface plasmons with a defined wavevector and direction across a large frequency range, with an estimated photon efficiency in our experiments approaching 10-5.

  16. Criteria for Existence of Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Lossy Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sang-Nourpour, Nafiseh; Kheradmand, R; Rezaei, M; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    We determine bounds for the square of the complex propagation coefficient for fields at planar lossy interfaces, and we employ these bounds to determine rigorous criteria for electromagnetic susceptibilities that lead to existence of surface plasmon polaritons. Ascertaining existence or nonexistence of surface plasmon polaritons is important to check the viability of a given study or application. As an application we show that surface plasmon polaritons cannot exist for double-negative refractive index region with arbitrary values of permittivity and permeability and we employ our criteria to show that certain prior predictions of surface plasmon polaritons are not in fact correct.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance in super-periodic metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Haisheng

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated over the past decade. The periodic metal nanostructures have served as new technology platforms in fields such as biological and chemical sensing. An existing method to determine the surface plasmon resonance properties of these metal nanostructures is the measurement of the light transmission or reflection from these nanostructures. The measurement of surface plasmon resonances in either the transmission or reflection allows one to resolve the surface plasmon resonance in metal nanostructures. In this dissertation, surface plasmon resonances in a new type of metal nanostructures were investigated. The new nanostructures were created by patterning traditional periodic nanohole and nanoslit arrays into diffraction gratings. The patterned nanohole and 11anoslit arrays have two periods in the structures. The new nanostructures are called "super-periodic" nanostructures. With rigorous finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical simulations, surface plasmon resonances in super-periodic nanoslit and nanohole arrays were investigated. It was found that by creating a super-period in periodic metal nanostructures, surface plasmon radiations can be observed in the non-zero order diffractions. This discovery presents a new method of characterizing the surface plasmon resonances in metal nanostructures. Super-periodic gold nanoslit and nanohole arrays were fabricated with the electron beam lithography technique. The surface plasmon resonances were measured in the first order diffraction by using a CCD. The experimental results confirm well with the FDTD numerical simulations.

  18. Surface plasmon interference excited by tightly focused laser beams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhelier, A.; Ignatovich, F.; Bruyant, A.; Huang, C.; Colas des Francs, G.; Weeber, J.-C.; Dereux, A.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Novotny, L.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ de Bourgogne; Univ. of Rochester; Univ Technologique de Troyes

    2007-09-01

    We show that interfering surface plasmon polaritons can be excited with a focused laser beam at normal incidence to a plane metal film. No protrusions or holes are needed in this excitation scheme. Depending on the axial position of the focus, the intensity distribution on the metal surface is either dominated by interferences between counterpropagating plasmons or by a two-lobe pattern characteristic of localized surface plasmon excitation. Our experiments can be accurately explained by use of the angular spectrum representation and provide a simple means for locally exciting standing surface plasmon polaritons.

  19. Slowing surface plasmon polaritons on plasmonic coupled cavities by tuning grating grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-09-01

    We investigate slow surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic waveguiding bands formed by coupled plasmonic cavities on Moiré surfaces. We demonstrate controlling the group velocity and dispersion of the SPPs by varying the depth of the plasmonic Bragg grating groove. Changing the grating depth results in modification of coupling coefficients between the cavities and hence the SPPs group velocity is altered. Variation in the group velocity and dispersion of SPPs can be measured with polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements. Dispersion of SPPs has been calculated by finite-difference time-domain method in agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Nanoscale Surface Plasmonics Sensor With Nanofluidic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianjun; Singhal, Sameer; Waldeck, David H.; Kofke, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Conventional quantitative protein assays of bodily fluids typically involve multiple steps to obtain desired measurements. Such methods are not well suited for fast and accurate assay measurements in austere environments such as spaceflight and in the aftermath of disasters. Consequently, there is a need for a protein assay technology capable of routinely monitoring proteins in austere environments. For example, there is an immediate need for a urine protein assay to assess astronaut renal health during spaceflight. The disclosed nanoscale surface plasmonics sensor provides a core detection method that can be integrated to a lab-on-chip device that satisfies the unmet need for such a protein assay technology. Assays based upon combinations of nanoholes, nanorings, and nanoslits with transmission surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are used for assays requiring extreme sensitivity, and are capable of detecting specific analytes at concentrations as low as picomole to femtomole level in well-controlled environments. The device operates in a transmission mode configuration in which light is directed at one planar surface of the array, which functions as an optical aperture. The incident light induces surface plasmon light transmission from the opposite surface of the array. The presence of a target analyte is detected by changes in the spectrum of light transmitted by the array when a target analyte induces a change in the refractive index of the fluid within the nanochannels. This occurs, for example, when a target analyte binds to a receptor fixed to the walls of the nanochannels in the array. Independent fluid handling capability for individual nanoarrays on a nanofluidic chip containing a plurality of nanochannel arrays allows each array to be used to sense a different target analyte and/or for paired arrays to analyze control and test samples simultaneously in parallel. The present invention incorporates transmission mode nanoplasmonics and nanofluidics into a single

  1. Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in random surface nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2003-01-01

    We investigate local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at a 55-nm-thick gold layer covered with randomly located scatterers (density similar to75 mum(-2)) by using an uncoated fiber tip of a near-field optical microscope as a radiation source and detecting the radiation scattered...

  2. Enhanced Propagating Surface Plasmon Signal Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-12-21

    Overcoming the dissipative nature of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) is pre-requisite to realizing functional plasmonic circuitry, in which large bandwidth signals can be manipulated over length scales far-below the diffraction limit of light. To this end, we report on a novel PSP enhanced signal detection technique achieved in an all-metallic substrate. We take advantage of two strategically spatio-temporally separated phase-locked femtosecond laser pulses, incident onto lithographically patterned PSP coupling structures. We follow PSP propagation with joint femtosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution in a time-resolved non-linear photoemission electron microscopy scheme. Initially, a PSP signal wave packet is launched from a hole etched into the silver surface from where it propagates through an open trench structure and is decoded through the use of a timed probe pulse. FDTD calculations demonstrate that PSP signal waves may traverse open trenches in excess of 10 microns in diameter, thereby allowing remote detection even through vacuum regions. This arrangement results in a 10X enhancement in photoemission relative to readout from the bare metal surface. The enhancement is attributed to an all-optical homodyne detection technique that mixes signal and reference PSP waves in a non-linear scheme. Larger readout trenches achieve higher readout levels, however reduced transmission through the trench limits the trench size to 6 microns for maximum readout levels. However, the use of an array of trenches increases the maximum enhancement to near 30X. The attainable enhancement factor may be harnessed to achieve extended coherent PSP propagation in ultrafast plasmonic circuitry.

  3. Femtosecond tunneling response of surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Ha, Taekjip; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    1998-01-01

    We obtain femtosecond (200 fs) time resolution using a scanning tunneling microscope on surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated by two 100 fs laser beams in total internal reflection geometry. The tunneling gap dependence of the signal clearly indicates the tunneling origin of the signal...... and suggests that nanometer spatial resolution can be obtained together with femtosecond temporal resolution. This fast response, in contrast to the picosecond decay time of SPPs revealed by differential reflectivity measurements, can be attributed to a coherent superposition of SPPs rectified at the tunneling...

  4. Structured light for focusing surface plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z J; Tan, P S; Zhu, S W; Yuan, X-C

    2010-05-10

    We propose a structureless method for focusing surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a flat metal film under illumination of radially polarized cogwheel-like structured light beams. Without metal structures, the locally induced SPPs can further be propagated following the predefined patterns to form symmetric focal spots with dimensions beyond diffraction limit. Benefiting from the radial polarization, this method can be employed to pattern various center-symmetric evanescent distributions for generating SPPs reconfigurably. The SPPs will be propagating and focusing in radial directions.

  5. Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, M A; Mayy, M F; Ritzo, B A; Noginova, N; Podolskiy, V A

    2008-01-01

    We have observed laser-like emission of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) decoupled to the glass prism in an attenuated total reflection setup. SPPs were excited by optically pumped molecules in a polymeric film deposited on the top of the silver film. Stimulated emission was characterized by a distinct threshold in the input-output dependence and narrowing of the emission spectrum. The observed stimulated emission and corresponding to it compensation of the metallic absorption loss by gain enables many applications of metamaterials and nanoplasmonic devices.

  6. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Evlyukhin, A.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive...... deduced from the SPP refraction by triangular arrays. The SPP refractive index is found to decrease slightly for longer wavelengths within the wavelength range of 700-860 nm. Modeling based on the Green's tensor formalism is in a good agreement with the experimental results, opening the possibility...

  7. Surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted dissipative backaction cooling and amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani nia, Iman; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-11-01

    We evaluate a method, based on the near-field properties of surface-plasmon polaritons, to significantly enhance the dissipative optomechanical backaction mechanism. Although the large momentum of the surface-plasmon-polariton modes leads to the enhanced sensitivity of the scattering to the mechanical displacement, the overall efficiency will not improve unless an optical antenna efficiently couples the plasmonic modes to the far field. The predicted improvements in both efficiency and bandwidth make this approach uniquely suitable for many new applications.

  8. Nonlinear surface magneto-plasmonics in Kretschmann multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Razdolski, Ilya; Rasing, Theo; Makarov, Denys; Schmidt, Oliver G; Temnov, Vasily V

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear magneto-plasmonics aims to utilize plasmonic excitations to control the mechanisms and taylor the efficiencies of the non-linear light frequency conversion at the nanoscale. We investigate the mechanisms of magnetic second harmonic generation in hybrid gold-cobalt-silver multilayer structures, which support propagating surface plasmon polaritons at both fundamental and second harmonic frequencies. Using magneto-optical spectroscopy in Kretschmann geometry, we show that the huge magneto-optical modulation of the second harmonic intensity is dominated by the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at the second harmonic frequency, as shown by tuning the optical wavelength over the spectral region of strong plasmonic dispersion. Our proof-of-principle experiment highlights bright prospects of nonlinear magneto-plasmonics and contributes to the general understanding of the nonlinear optics of magnetic surfaces and interfaces.

  9. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in organic/dielectric/metal systems. We have transferred the organic p-6P nanofibers onto a thin silver film covered with a dielectric (silicon dioxide) spacer layer with varying thicknesses. Coupling is investigated by two-photon fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM......Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surface...

  10. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in organic/dielectric/metal systems. We have transferred the organic p-6P nanofibers onto a thin silver film covered with a dielectric (silicon dioxide) spacer layer with varying thicknesses. Coupling is investigated by two-photon fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM......Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surface...

  11. Tuning surface plasmon-exciton coupling via thickness dependent plasmon damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun; Ates, Simge; Karademir, Ertugrul; Salihoglu, Omer; Aydinli, Atilla

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we report experimental and theoretical investigations on tuning of the surface plasmon-exciton coupling by controlling the plasmonic mode damping, which is defined by the plasmonic layer thickness. The results reveal the formation of plasmon-exciton hybrid state characterized by a tunable Rabi splitting with energies ranging from 0 to 150 meV. Polarization-dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements were employed to probe the dispersion of the coupled system. The transfer matrix method and analytical calculations were used to model the self-assembled J-aggregate/metal multilayer structures in excellent agreement with experimental observations.

  12. Long Range Surface Plasmons in Multilayer Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Delfan, Aida

    2013-01-01

    We present a new strategy, based on a Fresnel coefficient pole analysis, for designing an asymmetric multilayer structure that supports long range surface plasmons (LRSP). We find that the electric field intensity in the metal layer of a multilayer LRSP structure can be even slightly smaller than in the metal layer of the corresponding symmetric LRSP structure, minimizing absorption losses and resulting in LRSP propagation lengths up to 2mm. With a view towards biosensing applications, we also present semi-analytic expressions for a standard surface sensing parameter in arbitrary planar resonant structures, and in particular show that for an asymmetric structure consisting of a gold film deposited on a multilayer of SiO2 and TiO2 a surface sensing parameter G = 1.28(1/nm) can be achieved.

  13. Surface plasmons in porous gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, S. P.; Stetsenko, M. O.; Krishchenko, I. M.; Maksimenko, L. S.; Kaganovich, E. B.; Serdega, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    The surface plasmon resonance effects in porous gold (por-Au) films—nanocomposite porous films containing an ensemble of disordered gold nanoparticles—have been investigated by modulation-polarization spectroscopy. Por-Au films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (using a direct particle flow from an erosion torch formed by a YAG:Nd3+ laser in argon). The spectral and angular dependences of the polarization difference ρ(λ, θ) of internal-reflection coefficients of s- and p-polarized radiation in the Kretschmann geometry and the spectral dependences of isotropic reflection angles at ρ(θ) = 0 are measured. Two types of surface plasmon resonance are found: one occurs on isolated nanoparticles (dipole and multipole modes), and the other is due to the dipole-dipole interaction of neighboring nanoparticles. The frequency of electron plasma oscillations for the nanoparticle ensemble and the frequencies and decay parameters of resonances are determined. Dispersion relations for the radiative and nonradiative modes are presented. The negative sign of the dispersion branch of nonradiative modes of dipole-dipole interaction is explained by the spatial dispersion of permittivity. The relationships between the formation conditions of the films, their structure, and established resonance parameters (determining the resonant-optical properties of films) are discussed.

  14. Near-field investigation of surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Jincy

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of light with metals contains a resonant phenomenon called the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), at which the free electrons in the metal collectively oscillate. This collective oscillation of the free electrons, called Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs), is highly sensitive to the med

  15. Nanoimprinted Long-range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Dan Mario; Boltasseva, A.; Nielsen, Theodor;

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and performance of metal stripe waveguides embedded in a polymer, capable of supporting long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) propagation.......We report on the fabrication by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and performance of metal stripe waveguides embedded in a polymer, capable of supporting long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) propagation....

  16. Electrically driven surface plasmon light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke;

    We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement.......We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement....

  17. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radko, Ilya P; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2008-03-17

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive index increases inside the array by a factor of approximately 1.08 (for the wavelength 800 nm) with respect to the SPP index at a flat surface. Observations of SPP focusing and deflection by circularly shaped areas as well as SPP waveguiding inside rectangular arrays are consistent with the SPP index increase deduced from the SPP refraction by triangular arrays. The SPP refractive index is found to decrease slightly for longer wavelengths within the wavelength range of 700-860 nm. Modeling based on the Green's tensor formalism is in a good agreement with the experimental results, opening the possibility to design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation.

  18. Landau damping of surface plasmons in metal nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantum-mechanical theory for Landau damping of surface plasmons in metal nanostructures larger that the characteristic length for nonlocal effects. We show that the electron surface scattering, which facilitates plasmon decay in small nanostructures, can be incorporated into the metal dielectric function on par with phonon and impurity scattering. The derived surface scattering rate is determined by the plasmon local field polarization relative to the metal surface, and is highly sensitive to the system geometry. We illustrate our model by providing analytical results for surface scattering rate in some common shape nanostructures.

  19. Tailorable reflection of surface plasmons in defect engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiwei; Cai, Wei; Wu, Wei; Xiang, Yinxiao; Ren, Mengxin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-12-01

    The electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of graphene can be significantly altered by defects, thus engineering the defects in graphene is promising for applications in functionalized materials and nanoscale devices. Here the propagations of surface plasmon waves near graphene defect boundaries created by ion beams are studied. Specifically, plasmon reflections are observed near the induced defect boundaries for the first time, which implies that ion-irradiation induced defects act as efficient scattering centers for the plasmonic waves, just like the native grain boundaries. Moreover, engineering the defects with varied ion doses results in tailorable plasmon reflection properties due to changed defect degrees. The controllable plasmon reflections near ion induced defect boundaries open up a new avenue for plasmon wave engineering.

  20. Toxin Detection by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Significant efforts have been invested in the past years for the development of analytical methods for fast toxin detection in food and water. Immunochemical methods like ELISA, spectroscopy and chromatography are the most used in toxin detection. Different methods have been linked, e.g. liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS, in order to detect as low concentrations as possible. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR is one of the new biophysical methods which enables rapid toxin detection. Moreover, this method was already included in portable sensors for on-site determinations. In this paper we describe some of the most common methods for toxin detection, with an emphasis on SPR.

  1. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors: advances and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, Jirí

    2009-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors represent the most advanced label-free optical affinity biosensor technology. In the last decade numerous SPR sensor platforms have been developed and applied in the life sciences and bioanalytics. This contribution reviews the state of the art in the development of SPR (bio)sensor technology and presents selected results of research into SPR biosensors at the Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Prague. The developments discussed in detail include a miniature fiber optic SPR sensor for localized measurements, a compact SPR sensor for field use and a multichannel SPR sensor for high-throughput screening. Examples of applications for the detection of analytes related to medical diagnostics (biomarkers, hormones, antibodies), environmental monitoring (endocrine disrupting compounds), and food safety (pathogens and toxins) are given.

  2. Luminescence engineering in plasmonic meta-surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Tapashree; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence is a phenomenon of significant interest due to its wide range of technological applications in plasmonics, nanolasers, spasers, lasing spasers, loss compensation and gain in metamaterials, and luminescent media. Nanostructured materials are known to have very different luminescence characteristics to bulk samples or planar films. Here we show that by engineering a nanostructured meta-surface, we can choose the position of photoluminescence absorption and emission lines of thin gold films. The nanostructuring also aids to strong enhancement of the emission from gold, by a factor of 76 in our experiments. This enhancement is determined by the relative position of the engineered absorption and emission lines to the exciting laser wavelength and the intrinsic properties of the constituent material. These luminescence-engineered materials combined with a resonant material, as in the lasing spaser, or with the power of reconfigurable metamaterials promise huge potential as tunable nanoscale light ...

  3. Excitation of a surface plasmon with an elastomeric grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, A.; Dâna, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2006-07-01

    We report on a new method to excite surface plasmon polaritons on a thin metal slab surface using an elastomeric grating which is fabricated by replica molding technique. The grating is placed on the metal surface which creates a periodic perturbation on the surface matching the momentum of the incident light to that of the surface plasmon. The conformal contact between the metal surface and the elastomeric grating changes the dielectric medium periodically and allows the observation of an effective surface plasmon polariton at the metal-air and metal-polymer interfaces of the grating. To clarify the nature of the observed plasmon, comparison of the elastomeric grating with elastomeric slabs was performed with the attenuated total reflection method.

  4. Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying...

  5. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2013-10-20

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  6. Coupling of Surface Plasmons and Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Nanophotonics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, Sriharsha V.

    The goal of this thesis is to engineer the interaction between surface plasmons and semiconductor nanocrystals for nanophotonic applications. Plasmonic metals support surface plasmon polaritons, hybrid photon and electron waves that propagate along a metal-dielectric interface. Unlike photons, surface plasmons can be confined in sub-diffraction geometries. This has two important consequences: 1) optical devices can be designed at the nanoscale, and 2) the high density of electromagnetic fields allows study of enhanced light-matter interactions. Surface plasmons have been exploited to demonstrate components of optoelectronic circuits, optical antennas, surface enhanced spectroscopy, enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores, and nanolasers. Despite the advances, surface plasmon losses limit their propagation lengths to tens of micrometers in the visible wavelengths, hindering many applications. Recently, the template-stripping approach was shown to fabricate metal films that exhibit larger grains and smoother surface, reducing the grain boundary and roughness scattering. To further improve the plasmonic properties, we investigate the importance of deposition conditions in the template-stripping approach. We provide insight and recipes to enhance the plasmonic performance of the most commonly used metals in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared. We also explore the potential of low temperatures to improve the performance of metal films, where the electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering should be reduced. This sets a limit on the minimum loss metals can exhibit. Using this knowledge, we study the optical properties of quantum-confined semiconductor nanocrystals near metal structures. Semiconductor nanocrystals have many attractive characteristics that make them suitable for solid-state lighting and solar cells among others. Specifically, CdSe nanocrystals have been heavily studied for their large absorption and emission cross-sections, size dependent

  7. All-Optical Generation of Surface Plasmons in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Constant, Thomas J; Chang, Darrick E; Hendry, Euan

    2015-01-01

    Here we present an all-optical plasmon coupling scheme, utilising the intrinsic nonlinear optical response of graphene. We demonstrate coupling of free-space, visible light pulses to the surface plasmons in a planar, un-patterned graphene sheet by using nonlinear wave mixing to match both the wavevector and energy of the surface wave. By carefully controlling the phase-matching conditions, we show that one can excite surface plasmons with a defined wavevector and direction across a large frequency range, with an estimated photon efficiency in our experiments approaching $10^{-5}$.

  8. Modulation of multiple photon energies by use of surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, A.; Lereu, A. L.; Arakawa, E. T.; Wig, A.; Thundat, T.; Ferrell, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    A form of optical modulation at low pulse rates is reported in the case of surface plasmons excited by 1.55-µm photons in a thin gold foil. Several visible-photon energies are shown to be pulsed by the action of the infrared pulses, the effect being maximized when each visible beam also excites surface plasmons. The infrared surface plasmons are implicated as the primary cause of thermally induced changes in the foil. The thermal effects dissipate in sufficiently small times so that operation up to the kilohertz range in pulse repetition frequency is obtained. Unlike direct photothermal phenomena, no phase change is necessary for the effect to be observed.

  9. Trapping and guiding surface plasmons in curved graphene landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria; Wang, Zheng; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that graphene placed on top of structured substrates offers a novel approach for trapping and guiding surface plasmons. A monolayer graphene with a spatially varying curvature exhibits an effective trapping potential for graphene plasmons near curved areas such as bumps, humps and wells. We derive the governing equation for describing such localized channel plasmons guided by curved graphene and validate our theory by the first-principle numerical simulations. The proposed confinement mechanism enables plasmon guiding by the regions of maximal curvature, and it offers a versatile platform for manipulating light in planar landscapes. In addition, isolated deformations of graphene such as bumps are shown to support localized surface modes and resonances suggesting a new way to engineer plasmonic metasurfaces.

  10. Continuous metal plasmonic frequency selective surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfa; Ou, Jun-Yu; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Chen, Yifang; Macdonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-11-07

    In the microwave part of the spectrum, where losses are minimal, metal films regularly patterned (perforated) on the sub-wavelength scale achieve spectral selectivity by balancing the transmission and reflection characteristics of the surface. Here we show for optical frequencies, where joule losses are important, that periodic structuring of a metal film without violation of continuity (i.e. without perforation) is sufficient to achieve substantial modification of reflectivity. By engineering the geometry of the structure imposed on a surface one can dramatically change the perceived color of the metal without employing any form of chemical modification, thin-film coating or diffraction effects. This novel frequency selective effect is underpinned by plasmonic Joule losses in the constituent elements of the patterns (dubbed 'intaglio' and 'bas relief' metamaterials to distinguish indented and raised structures respectively) and is specific to the optical part of the spectrum. It has the advantage of maintaining the integrity of metal surfaces and is well suited to high-throughput fabrication via techniques such as nano-imprint.

  11. Frequency-selective propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons in a graded plasmonic resonator chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Shastri, Kunal Krishnaraj; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Localized spoof surface plasmon polaritons (spoof-SPPs) in a graded spoof-plasmonic resonator chain with linearly increasing spacing are experimentally investigated at microwave frequencies. Transmission measurements and direct near-field mappings on this graded chain show that the propagation of localized spoof-SPPs can be cutoff at different positions along the graded chain under different frequencies due to the graded coupling between adjacent resonators. This mechanism can be used to guide localized spoof-SPPs in the graded chain to specific positions depending on the frequency and thereby implement a device that can work as a selective switch in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:27149656

  12. Ultraviolet surface plasmon-mediated low temperature hydrazine decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Siying; Sheldon, Matthew T.; Atwater, Harry A. [Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Liu, Wei-Guang; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Goddard, William Andrew [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    Conventional methods require elevated temperatures in order to dissociate high-energy nitrogen bonds in precursor molecules such as ammonia or hydrazine used for nitride film growth. We report enhanced photodissociation of surface-absorbed hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) molecules at low temperature by using ultraviolet surface plasmons to concentrate the exciting radiation. Plasmonic nanostructured aluminum substrates were designed to provide resonant near field concentration at λ = 248 nm (5 eV), corresponding to the maximum optical cross section for hydrogen abstraction from N{sub 2}H{sub 4}. We employed nanoimprint lithography to fabricate 1 mm × 1 mm arrays of the resonant plasmonic structures, and ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy confirmed resonant extinction at 248 nm. Hydrazine was cryogenically adsorbed to the plasmonic substrate in a low-pressure ambient, and 5 eV surface plasmons were resonantly excited using a pulsed KrF laser. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the photodissociation products and indicated a 6.2× overall enhancement in photodissociation yield for hydrazine adsorbed on plasmonic substrates compared with control substrates. The ultraviolet surface plasmon enhanced photodissociation demonstrated here may provide a valuable method to generate reactive precursors for deposition of nitride thin film materials at low temperatures.

  13. Enhanced surface plasmon polariton propagation induced by active dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasopoulos, C.; Mattheakis, M.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present numerical simulations for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in a dielectric-metal-dielectric waveguide using COMSOL multiphysics software. We show that the use of an active dielectric with gain that compensates metal absorption losses enhances substantially plasmon propagation. Furthermore, the introduction of the active material induces, for a specific gain value, a root in the imaginary part of the propagation constant leading to infinite propagation of the surface pl...

  14. Coherence and aberration effects in surface plasmon polariton imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Chartrand, Camille; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally coherent imaging of surface plasmon polaritons using either leakage radiation microscopy through a thin metal film or interference microscopy through a thick metal film. Using a rigorous modal formalism based on scalar Whittaker potentials we develop a systematic analytical and vectorial method adapted to the analysis of coherent imaging involving surface plasmon polaritons. The study includes geometrical aberrations due index mismatch which played an...

  15. Parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton add-drop filters for hybrid silicon/plasmonic optical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereux, A.; Hassan, K.; Weeber, J.-C.; Djellali, N.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Tsilipakos, O.; Pitilakis, A.; Kriezis, E.; Papaioannou, S.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.; Tekin, T.; Baus, M.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Giannoulis, G.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2011-01-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating along the surface of a conductor. Surface plasmons photonics is a promising candidate to satisfy the constraints of miniaturization of optical interconnects. This contribution reviews an experimental parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides ring resonators and add-drop filters within the perspective of the recently suggested hybrid technology merging plasmonic and silicon photonics on a single board (European FP7 project PLATON "Merging Plasmonic and Silicon Photonics Technology towards Tb/s routing in optical interconnects"). Conclusions relevant for dielectric loaded surface plasmon switches to be integrated in silicon photonic circuitry will be drawn. They rely on the opportunity offered by plasmonic circuitry to carry optical signals and electric currents through the same thin metal circuitry. The heating of the dielectric loading by the electric current enables to design low foot-print thermo-optical switches driving the optical signal flow.

  16. Plasmonic metalens based on coupled resonators for focusing of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Quan

    2016-11-29

    As an essential functionality, flexible focusing of surface plasmons (SPs) is of particular interest in nonlinear optics and highly integrated plasmonic circuitry. Here, we developed a versatile plasmonic metalens, a metasurface comprised of coupled subwavelength resonators, whose optical responses exhibit a remarkable feature of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We demonstrate numerically and experimentally how a proper spatial design of the unit elements steers SPs to arbitrary foci based on the holographic principles. More specifically, we show how to control the interaction between the constituent EIT resonators to efficiently manipulate the focusing intensity of SPs. We also demonstrated that the proposed metalens is capable of achieving frequency division multiplexing. The power and simplicity of the proposed design would offer promising opportunities for practical plasmonic devices.

  17. Plasmonic metalens based on coupled resonators for focusing of surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Li, Quan; Li, Yanfeng; Ouyang, Chunmei; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Wentao; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-11-01

    As an essential functionality, flexible focusing of surface plasmons (SPs) is of particular interest in nonlinear optics and highly integrated plasmonic circuitry. Here, we developed a versatile plasmonic metalens, a metasurface comprised of coupled subwavelength resonators, whose optical responses exhibit a remarkable feature of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We demonstrate numerically and experimentally how a proper spatial design of the unit elements steers SPs to arbitrary foci based on the holographic principles. More specifically, we show how to control the interaction between the constituent EIT resonators to efficiently manipulate the focusing intensity of SPs. We also demonstrated that the proposed metalens is capable of achieving frequency division multiplexing. The power and simplicity of the proposed design would offer promising opportunities for practical plasmonic devices.

  18. Surface plasmon enhanced effects in photonic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wu

    We have developed a novel design of multi-pass surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with differential phase interrogation based on multi-pass interferometry. This new configuration provides an intrinsic phase amplification effect of over two-fold by placing the SPR sensor head in a signal arm of the interferometer so that the interrogating optical beam will traverse the sensor surface infinite number of times. Experimental interferometers based on the Michelson and Fabry-Perot configurations have been employed to experimentally verify this amplification effect through the comparison with the Mach-Zehnder configuration. Results obtained from the salt-water mixtures, antibody-antigen, and protein-DNA binding reaction have confirmed the expected phase measurement enhancement. We have demonstrated that the sensitivity limit of intensity-based SPR biosensors can be enhanced when we combine the contributions from phase with that of amplitude instead of just detecting the amplitude or phase variation only. Experimental results indicate that an enhancement factor of as much as 20 times is achievable, yet with no compromise in measurement dynamic range. While existing SPR biosensor systems are predominantly based on the angular scheme, which relies on detecting intensity variations associated with amplitude changes only, the proposed scheme may serve as a direct system upgrade approach for these systems. In addition, a surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) has been explored. We showed that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan psi, cos Delta and ellipse orientation angle φ, can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals at the 1st and 2nd harmonics of the modulation frequency under a certain birefringence geometry. This leads to an accurate measurement of refractive index variations within the evanescent field region close to the gold sensor surface, thereby enabling

  19. Flexible, fibre-addressable surface-plasmon-resonance chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faqrul; Chau, Kenneth J.

    2012-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors exploit optical coupling to surface plasmons, light waves bound to a metal surface. In the most common configuration, a SPR sensor is used with an external light source, optical components to polarize incident light and guide light to and from a metal surface, a coupling device to convert free-space light into surface plasmons and back into free-space light, and a light detector. The light source, the optical components, and the light detector are external to the SPR device, and the coupling structure is often integrated directly with the surface-plasmon-sustaining metal surface. The requirement of several external components restricts the miniaturization of SPR devices and prohibits low-cost implementation. To address these limitations, we design, fabricate, and test a new SPR device chip that is fibre-addressable, does not require a discrete coupling structure, and integrates light delivery, light polarization control, surface plasmon coupling onto a thin, flexible substrate. Our SPR chip is constructed from a thin gold layer deposited on top of a clear plastic sheet, which is then optically connected from the bottom surface onto a plastic linear polarizer sheet. Two cleaved fibres, one to input light and the other to collect reflected light, are then optically attached to SPR device. We experimentally characterize the SPR device and find good agreement between our measurements and a theoretical model based on transfer matrix formalism.

  20. Harvesting the loss: surface plasmon-based hot electron photodetection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process within the plasmonic and metamaterial communities, hot carriers generated from nonradiative plasmon decay offer new opportunities for harnessing absorption loss. Hot carriers can be harnessed for applications ranging from chemical catalysis, photothermal heating, photovoltaics, and photodetection. Here, we present a review on the recent developments concerning photodetection based on hot electrons. The basic principles and recent progress on hot electron photodetectors are summarized. The challenges and potential future directions are also discussed.

  1. Quantum Statistics of Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Metallic Stripe Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Di Martino, Giuliana; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Tame, Mark; Özdemir, Şahin K; Kim, M S; Maier, Stefan A

    2012-01-01

    Single surface plasmon polaritons are excited using photons generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The mean excitation rates, intensity correlations and Fock state populations are studied. The observed dependence of the second order coherence in our experiment is consistent with a linear uncorrelated Markovian environment in the quantum regime. Our results provide important information about the effect of loss for assessing the potential of plasmonic waveguides for future nanophotonic circuitry in the quantum regime.

  2. Surface Plasmon Resonance Evaluation of Colloidal Metal Aerogel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging has in the past been applied to the characterization of thin films. In this study we apply the surface plasmon technique not to determine macroscopic spatial variations but rather to determine average microscopic information. Specifically, we deduce the dielectric properties of the surrounding gel matrix and information concerning the dynamics of the gelation process from the visible absorption characteristics of colloidal metal nanoparticles contained in aerogel pores. We have fabricated aerogels containing gold and silver nanoparticles. Because the dielectric constant of the metal particles is linked to that of the host matrix at the surface plasmon resonance, any change 'in the dielectric constant of the material surrounding the metal nanoparticles results in a shift in the surface plasmon wavelength. During gelation the surface plasmon resonance shifts to the red as the average or effective dielectric constant of the matrix increases. Conversely, formation of an aerogel or xerogel through supercritical extraction or evaporation of the solvent produces a blue shift in the resonance indicating a decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix. From the magnitude of this shift we deduce the average fraction of air and of silica in contact with the metal particles. The surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction may thus be determined.

  3. Surface roughness effects on aluminium-based ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of ultraviolet zinc oxide plasmonic nanolasers fabricated on aluminium films with two different degrees of surface roughness. We demonstrate that the effective dielectric functions of aluminium interfaces with distinct roughness can be analysed from reflectivity measurements. By considering the scattering losses, including Rayleigh scattering, electron scattering, and grain boundary scattering, we adopt the modified Drude-Lorentz model to describe the scattering effect caused by surface roughness and obtain the effective dielectric functions of different Al samples. The sample with higher surface roughness induces more electron scattering and light scattering for SPP modes, leading to a higher threshold gain for the plasmonic nanolaser. By considering the pumping efficiency, our theoretical analysis shows that diminishing the detrimental optical losses caused by the roughness of the metallic interface could effectively lower (~33.1%) the pumping threshold of the plasmonic nanolasers, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  4. Harmonics radiation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Hashida, M.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S.

    2016-06-01

    This letter presents an approach to extract terahertz radiation from surface plasmon polaritons excited in the surface of a uniform graphene structure by an electron beam. A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode to be close to the light line, so that some of its harmonics have chances to go above the light line and become radiative. The harmonics are considered to be excited by a train of periodic electron bunches. The physical mechanism in this scheme is analyzed with three-dimensional theory, and the harmonics excitation and radiation are demonstrated through numerical calculations. The results show that this technique could be an alternative to transform the surface plasmon polaritons into radiation.

  5. Gap plasmon resonator arrays for unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Zeyu

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and experimental realization of a kind of miniaturized devices for efficient unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Each device consists of an array of evenly spaced gap plasmon resonators with varying dimensions. Particle swarm optimization is used to achieve a theoretical two dimensional launching efficiency of about 51%, under the normal illumination of a 5-{\\mu}m waist Gaussian beam at 780 nm. By modifying the wavefront of the SPPs, unidirectional SPPs with focused, Bessel and Airy profiles are launched and imaged with leakage radiation microscopy.

  6. Perfect optical vortex enhanced surface plasmon excitation for plasmonic structured illumination microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chonglei; Min, Changjun; Du, Luping; Yuan, X.-C.

    2016-05-01

    We propose an all-optical technique for plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (PSIM) with perfect optical vortex (POV). POV can improve the efficiency of the excitation of surface plasma and reduce the background noise of the excited fluorescence. The plasmonic standing wave patterns are excited by POV with fractional topological charges for accurate phase shift of {-2π/3, 0, and 2π/3}. The imaging resolution of less than 200 nm was produced. This PSIM technique is expected to be used as a wide field, super resolution imaging technique in dynamic biological imaging.

  7. Determination of the Surface Plasmons Polaritons extraction efficiency from a self-assembled plasmonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Frederich, Hugo; Laverdant, Julien; de Marcillac, Willy Daney; Schwob, Catherine; Coolen, Laurent; Maître, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally measure and analytically describe the fluorescence enhancement obtained by depositing CdSe/CdS nanocrystals onto a gold plasmonic crystal, a two-dimensional grating of macroscopic size obtained by gold deposition on a self-assembled opal. We show evidences of nanocrystals near-field coupling to the gold Surface Plasmons Polaritons (SPP) followed by grating-induced SPP re-emission to far-field. We develop a theoretical framework and an original method in order to evaluate, from photoluminescence experiments, the SPP extraction efficiency of a grating.

  8. Engineering Plasmonic Nanopillar Arrays for Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kaiyu

    This Ph.D. thesis presents (i) an in-depth understanding of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the nanopillar arrays (NPs) for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and (ii) systematic ways of optimizing the fabrication process of NPs to improve their SERS efficiencies. Thi...

  9. Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Østergaard, John Erland; Leosson, Kristjan;

    2001-01-01

    Using near-held optical microscopy, we investigate propagation and scattering of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP's) excited in the wavelength range of 780-820 nm at nanostructured gold-film surfaces with areas of 200-nm-wide scatterers arranged in a 400-nm-period triangular lattice containing lin...

  10. Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Leosson, Kristjan;

    2001-01-01

    Using near-field optical microscopy, we investigate propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited in the wavelength range of 720-830 nm at a corrugated gold-film surface with areas of 200-nm-wide and 45-nm-high scatterers arranged in a 410-nm-period triangular lattice containing line d...

  11. Highly Stable Silver Nanoplates for Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chuanbo [University of California, Riverside; Lu, Zhenda [University of California, Riverside; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Liu, ying [University of California, Riverside; Cheng, Quan [University of California, Riverside; Yin, Yadong [University of California, Riverside

    2012-01-01

    An SPR biosensor was developed by employing highly stable Au-protected Ag nanoplates (NP) as enhancers (see picture). Superior performance was achieved by depositing a thin and uniform coating of Au on the Ag surface while minimizing disruptive galvanic replacement and retaining the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoplates.

  12. Transverse Chiral Optical Forces by Locally Excited Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Alizadeh, M H

    2015-01-01

    Recently the new concepts of transverse spin angular momentum and Belinfante spin momentum of evanescent waves have drawn considerable attention. Here, we investigate these novel physical properties of electromagnetic fields in the context of locally excited surface plasmon polaritons. We demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that locally excited surface plasmon polaritons possess transverse spin angular momentum and Belinfante momentum with rich and non-trivial characteristics. We also show that the transverse spin angular momentum of locally excited surface plasmon polaritons leads to the emergence of transverse chiral forces in opposite directions for chiral objects of different handedness. The magnitude of such a transverse force is comparable to the optical gradient force and scattering forces. This finding may pave the way for realization of optical separation of chiral biomolecules.

  13. Multi-hole Optical Fiber Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Chunying; Wang Yang; Yuan Libo, E-mail: cyguan@163.com [College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A microstructured-fiber containing six large air holes is proposed to construct the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The finite element method is used to analyze characteristics of the surface plasmon resonance sensor. The effects of the thickness of metal films, pitch between air holes, diameter of air hole, and refractive index of liquid on the resonance wavelength are elucidated. The results show that the resonance wavelength is sensitive to the thickness of metal film and refractive index of liquid, while the resonance wavelength doesn't change basically when the pitch between air holes and diameter of air holes vary. The proposed surface plasmon resonance sensor exhibits high sensitivity up to 10{sup -4}.

  14. Study of surface plasmon chirality induced by Archimedes' spiral grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Tomoki; Miyanishi, Shintaro

    2006-06-26

    A chirality of surface plasmons excited on a silver film with Archimedes' spiral grooves during incidence of a circularly polarized light is analytically and numerically studied by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling method. We found that the surface of a plasmon has selective chirality, which is given by the sum of the chiralities of the incident light and the spiral structure. The surface plasmons with the chirality lead to zero-order, first-order, and high-order evanescent Bessel beams with electric charge distributions on the film. This selectivity could be widely applied for chiral detection of the incident light and chiral excitation of several optical modes in nanophotonics.

  15. Surface plasmon enhancement of spontaneous emission in graphene waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the spontaneous emission of a single emitter placed near the graphene waveguide formed by two parallel graphene monolayers, with an insulator spacer layer. In this case, the eigenmodes supported by the structure, such as surface plasmon and wave guided modes, provide decay channels for the electric dipole placed close to the waveguide. We calculated the contribution to the decay rate of symmetric and antisymmetric eigenmodes as a function of frequency and the orientation of the emitter. Our results show that the modi?cation of the spontaneous emission due to excitation of guided modes is much lower than the corresponding decays through the excitation of symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmons, for which, the spontaneous emission is dramatically enhanced. As a consequence of the high con?nement of surface plasmons in the graphene waveguide, we found that the decay rate of the emitter with vertical orientation (with respect to graphene sheets) is twice the corresponding decay of the same...

  16. Plasmonic Purcell factor and coupling efficiency to surface plasmons. Implications for addressing and controlling optical nanosources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas des Francs, G.; Barthes, J.; Bouhelier, A.; Weeber, J. C.; Dereux, A.; Cuche, A.; Girard, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Purcell factor F p is a key quantity in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) that quantifies the coupling rate between a dipolar emitter and a cavity mode. Its simple form {F}{{p}}\\propto Q/V unravels the possible strategies to enhance and control light-matter interaction. Practically, efficient light-matter interaction is achieved thanks to either (i) high quality factor Q at the basis of cQED or (ii) low modal volume V at the basis of nanophotonics and plasmonics. In the last decade, strong efforts have been done to derive a plasmonic Purcell factor in order to transpose cQED concepts to the nanocale, in a scale-law approach. In this work, we discuss the plasmonic Purcell factor for both delocalized (SPP) and localized (LSP) surface-plasmon-polaritons and briefly summarize the expected applications for nanophotonics. On the basis of the SPP resonance shape (Lorentzian or Fano profile), we derive closed form expression for the coupling rate to delocalized plasmons. The quality factor factor and modal confinement of both SPP and LSP are quantified, demonstrating their strongly subwavelength behavior.

  17. Engineering optical gradient force from coupled surface plasmon polariton modes in nanoscale plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-11-01

    We explore the dispersion properties and optical gradient forces from mutual coupling of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at two interfaces of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic metamaterial cladding. With Maxwell’s equations and Maxwell stress tensor, we calculate and compare the dispersion relation and optical gradient force for symmetric and antisymmetric SPP modes in two kinds of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides. The numerical results show that the optical gradient force between two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides can be engineered flexibly by adjusting the waveguide structure parameters. Importantly, an alternative way to boost the optical gradient force is provided through engineering the hyperbolic metamaterial cladding of suitable orientation. These special optical properties will open the door for potential optomechanical applications, such as optical tweezers and actuators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474106) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016A030313439).

  18. Ultimate limit of field confinement by surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Khurgin, Jacob B

    2014-01-01

    We show that electric field confinement in surface plasmon polaritons propagating at the metal/dielectric interfaces enhances the loss due to Landau damping and which effectively limits the degree of confinement itself. We prove that Landau damping and associated with it surface collision damping follow directly from Lindhard formula for the dielectric constant of free electron gas Furthermore, we demonstrate that even if all the conventional loss mechanisms, caused by phonons, electron-electron, and interface roughness scattering, were eliminated, the maximum attainable degree of confinement and the loss accompanying it would not change significantly compared to the best existing plasmonic materials, such as silver.

  19. Coherence and aberration effects in surface plasmon polariton imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Chartrand, Camille; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2015-09-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally coherent imaging of surface plasmon polaritons using either leakage radiation microscopy through a thin metal film or interference microscopy through a thick metal film. Using a rigorous modal formalism based on scalar Whittaker potentials, we develop a systematic analytical and vectorial method adapted to the analysis of coherent imaging involving surface plasmon polaritons. The study includes geometrical aberrations due index mismatch which played an important role in the interpretation of recent experiments using leakage radiation microscopy. We compare our theory with experiments using classical or quantum near-field scanning optical microscopy probes and show that the approach leads to a full interpretation of the recorded optical images.

  20. Coherence and aberration effects in surface plasmon polariton imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Berthel, Martin; Chartrand, Camille; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally coherent imaging of surface plasmon polaritons using either leakage radiation microscopy through a thin metal film or interference microscopy through a thick metal film. Using a rigorous modal formalism based on scalar Whittaker potentials we develop a systematic analytical and vectorial method adapted to the analysis of coherent imaging involving surface plasmon polaritons. The study includes geometrical aberrations due index mismatch which played an important role in the interpretation of recent experiments using leakage radiation microscopy. We compare our theory with experiments using classical or quantum near-field scanning optical microscopy probes and show that the approach leads to a full interpretation of the recorded optical images.

  1. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, A. A. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Aleshkin, V. Ya. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Electronics, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-28

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  2. Subwavelength light confinement with surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, E.

    2009-12-01

    In free space, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the size to which light can be confined. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and a dielectric, allow the control of light on subwavelength length scales. This opens up a rich world of opportunities in science and technology, ranging from lighting and photovoltaics to photonic circuits and quantum optics. This thesis explores new ways to tailor the properties of SPPs such that they enable the confinement of light at nanoscale dimensions. A variety of metallodielectric geometries are used that can serve as waveguides for SPPs. We show how the SPP propagation characteristics can be controlled, and how light can be concentrated in subwavelength volumes by tapering and truncating the waveguides. In Chapter 2 we use a near-field microscope to image the fields of SPPs that are squeezed into a 50~nm thick dielectric layer between two Ag surfaces, showing that the wavelength of SPPs is significantly shortened with respect to that of light. Chapter 3 focuses on specific waveguided SPP modes that can exhibit a negative effective index of refraction. This enables negative refraction of light into the waveguide at optical frequencies. Chapters 4 and 5 show that the concentration of infrared SPPs in laterally tapered Ag stripe waveguides enhances the upconversion of infrared to visible light in Er ions in the substrate. SPPs focus at the 65 nm large taper apex. Calculations show that the observed focusing effect can only occur for SPPs at the interface between the metal stripe and the high-index substrate. The focusing in tapered waveguides is explained in terms of an adiabatic transformation of a SPP mode guided by the waveguides in Chapter 6. Tapered waveguides are used to efficiently excite SPPs on metal nanowires with diameters as small as 60 nm. Phase- and polarization-sensitive near-field microscopy allows retrieval of the propagation speed and

  3. Ultrafast Imaging of Surface Plasmons Propagating on a Gold Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Hu, Dehong; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-05-13

    We record time-resolved nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (tr-PEEM) images of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from a lithographically patterned rectangular trench on a flat gold surface. Our tr-PEEM scheme involves a pair of identical, spatially separated, and interferometrically-locked femtosecond laser pulses. Power dependent PEEM images provide experimental evidence for a sequential coherent nonlinear photoemission process, in which one laser source creates a PSP polarization state through a linear interaction, and the second subsequently probes the prepared state via two photon photoemission. The recorded time-resolved movies of a PSP allow us to directly measure various properties of the surface-bound wave packet, including its carrier wavelength (785 nm) and group velocity (0.95c). In addition, tr-PEEM in concert with finite-difference time domain simulations together allow us to set a lower limit of 75 μm for the decay length of the PSP on a 100 nm thick gold film.

  4. Spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot open resonators in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proposal and experimental realization of a spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot (FP) open resonator in a surface-wave photonic crystal. This surface-wave FP open resonator is formed by introducing a finite line defect in a surface-wave photonic crystal. The resonance frequencies of the surface-wave FP open resonator lie exactly within the forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal and the FP open resonator uses this complete forbidden band gap to concentrate surface waves within a subwavelength cavity. Due to the complete forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal, a new FP plasmonic resonance mode that exhibits monopolar features which is missing in traditional FP resonators and plasmonic resonators is demonstrated. Near-field response spectra and mode profiles are presented in the microwave regime to characterize properties of the proposed FP open resonator for spoof surface plasmons.

  5. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  6. Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Noh, Heeso; Stone, A Douglas; Cao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    We show theoretically that coherent light can be completely absorbed in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional metallic nanostructure by matching the frequency and field pattern of an incident wave to that of a localized surface plasmon resonance. This can be regarded as critical coupling to a nano-plasmonic cavity, or as an extension of the concept of time-reversed laser to the spaser. Light scattering is completely suppressed via impedance matching to the nano-objects, and the energy of incoming wave is fully transferred to surface plasmon oscillations and evanescent electromagnetic fields. Perfect coupling of light to nanostructures has potential applications to nanoscale probing as well as background-free spectroscopy and ultrasensitive detection of environmental changes.

  7. Geometry dependence of surface lattice resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, R; Törmä, P

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoarrays which support collective surface lattice resonances (SLRs) have become an exciting frontier in plasmonics. Compared with the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in individual particles, these collective modes have appealing advantages such as angle-dependent dispersions and much narrower linewidths. Here, we investigate systematically how the geometry of the lattice affects the SLRs supported by metallic nanoparticles. We present a general theoretical framework from which the various SLR modes of a given geometry can be straightforwardly obtained by a simple comparison of the diffractive order (DO) vectors and orientation of the nanoparticle dipole given by the polarization of the incident field. Our experimental measurements show that while square, hexagonal, rectangular, honeycomb and Lieb lattice arrays have similar spectra near the $\\Gamma$-point ($k=0$), they have remarkably different SLR dispersions. Furthermore, their dispersions are highly dependent on the polarization. Num...

  8. Microfluidic transmission surface plasmon resonance enhancement for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Baba, Akira; Ekgasit, Sanong; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2017-01-01

    The microfluidic transmission surface plasmon resonance (MTSPR) constructed by assembling a gold-coated grating substrate with a microchannel was employed for biosensor application. The transmission surface plasmon resonance spectrum obtained from the MTSPR sensor chip showed a strong and narrow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak located between 650 and 800 nm. The maximum SPR excitation was observed at an incident angle of 35°. The MTSPR sensor chip was employed for glucose sensor application. Gold-coated grating substrates were functionalized using 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt and subsequently functionalized using a five-bilayer poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) to facilitate the coupling/decoupling of the surface plasmon and to prepare a uniform surface for sensing. The detection limit of our developed system for glucose was 2.31 mM. This practical platform represents a high possibility of further developing several biomolecules, multiplex systems, and a point-of-care assay for practical biosensor applications.

  9. Plasmon switching: observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by selective mode excitation in a sub-wavelength slit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, S B; Gan, C H; van Dijk, T; Ea Kim, B; Schouten, H F; Ubachs, W; Lalanne, P; Visser, T D

    2012-07-02

    We report a plasmon steering method that enables us to dynamically control the direction of surface plasmons generated by a two-mode slit in a thin metal film. By varying the phase between different coherent beams that are incident on the slit, individual waveguide modes are excited. Different linear combinations of the two modes lead to different diffracted fields at the exit of the slit. As a result, the direction in which surface plasmons are launched can be controlled. Experiments confirm that it is possible to distribute an approximately constant surface plasmon intensity in any desired proportion over the two launching directions. We also find that the anti-symmetric mode generates surface plasmons more efficiently than the fundamental symmetric mode.

  10. Optimization of Pd Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors for hydrogen detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrotton, C.; Javahiraly, N.; Slaman, M.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.; Meyrueis, P.

    2011-01-01

    A design to optimize a fiber optic Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor using Palladium as a sensitive layer for hydrogen detection is presented. In this approach, the sensitive layer is deposited on the core of a multimode fiber, after removing the optical cladding. The light is injected in the f

  11. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunobiosensor for Detection of Phytophthora infestans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Frøkiær, Hanne; Hejgaard, Jørn;

    In this study we focused on the development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor for Phytophthora infestans detection. The fungus-like organism is the cause of potato late blight and is a major problem in potato growing regions of the world. Efficient control is dependent on early...

  12. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the efficiency of surface plasmon polariton excitation by a focused laser beam using gold ridges. The dependence of the efficiency on geometrical parameters of ridges and wavelength dependence are examined. The experimental measurements accomplished...... using leakage radiation microscopy. The numerical simulations are based on Green's tensor approach....

  13. Formation of Gold Microparticles by Ablation with Surface Plasmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Molian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of gold microparticles on a silicon substrate through the use of energetic surface plasmons is reported. A laser-assisted plasmonics system was assembled and tested to synthesize gold particles from gold thin film by electrical field enhancement mechanism. A mask containing an array of 200 nm diameter holes with a periodicity of 400 nm was prepared and placed on a silicon substrate. The mask was composed of 60 µm thick porous alumina membrane sputter-coated with 100 nm thin gold film. A Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength and 230 µs pulse width (free-running mode was then passed through the mask at an energy fluence of 0.35 J/cm2. The extraordinary transmission of laser light through alumina/gold micro-hole optical antenna created both extended and localized surface plasmons that caused the gold film at the bottom of the mask to fragment into microparticles and deposit on the silicon substrate that is in direct contact with the mask. The surface plasmon method is simpler, quicker, more energy efficient, and environmentally safer than existing physical and chemical methods, as well as being contamination-free, and can be extended to all types of materials that will in turn allow for new possibilities in the formation of structured surfaces.

  14. Organic nanofiber-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tavares, Luciana;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of organic nanofibers, composed of self-assembled organic molecules, as a dielectric medium for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides at near-infrared wavelengths. We successfully exploit a metallic grating coupler to excite the waveguiding mode and charact...

  15. Compact surface plasmonic waveguide component for integrated optical processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Nilima; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2015-06-01

    A compact surface plasmonic two mode interference waveguide component having silicon core and silver and GaAsInP side cladding is proposed for optical processor elements. Coupling operation is obtained by using index modulation of GaAsInP cladding with applied optical pulse.

  16. Surface plasmon enhancement of spontaneous emission in graphene waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    This work analyzes the spontaneous emission of a single emitter placed near the graphene waveguide formed by two parallel graphene monolayers, with an insulator spacer layer. In this case, the eigenmodes supported by the structure, such as surface plasmon and wave guided modes, provide decay channels for the electric dipole placed close to the waveguide. We calculated the contribution to the decay rate of symmetric and antisymmetric eigenmodes as a function of frequency and the orientation of the emitter. Our results show that the modification of the spontaneous emission due to excitation of guided modes is much lower than the corresponding decays through the excitation of symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmons, for which, the spontaneous emission is dramatically enhanced. As a consequence of the high confinement of surface plasmons in the graphene waveguide, we found that the decay rate of the emitter with vertical orientation (with respect to graphene sheets) is twice the corresponding decay of the same emitter with parallel orientation in the whole frequency range where surface plasmon modes exist. Differently from metallo-dielectric structures, where structural parameters determine the range and magnitude of this emission, our work shows that, by dynamically tuning the chemical potential of graphene, the spectral region where the decay rate is enhanced can be chosen over a wide range.

  17. Ultrathin 90-degree sharp bends for spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yihao; Chen, Hongsheng; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2015-01-01

    surface plasmons around 90-degree sharp bends on ultrathin metallic films in the microwave regime. We demonstrate that by judiciously engineering the structure, the dispersion relation can be designed to reduce the scattering. Furthermore, the reflection can be suppressed by proper structural decoration...

  18. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai B., E-mail: udaibhansingh123@gmail.com; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-15

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm{sup −1} along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  19. Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Molecular Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmi, H.; Benson, O.; Sadofev, S.; Kalusniak, S.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and molecular vibrations in an organic-inorganic plasmonic hybrid structure consisting of a ketone-based polymer deposited on top of a silver layer. Attenuated-total-reflection spectra of the hybrid reveal an anticrossing in the dispersion relation in the vicinity of the carbonyl stretch vibration of the polymer with an energy splitting of the upper and lower polariton branch up to 15 meV. The splitting is found to depend on the molecular layer thickness and saturates for micrometer-thick films. This new hybrid state holds a strong potential for application in chemistry and optoelectronics.

  20. Ferroplasmons: Intense Localized Surface Plasmons in Metal-Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachan, Ritesh [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Malasi, Abhinav [ORNL; Ge, Jingxuan [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; Yadavali, Sagar P [ORNL; Gangopadhyay, Anup [Washington University, St. Louis; Krishna, Dr. Hare [Washington University, St. Louis; Garcia, Hernando [Southern Illinois University; Duscher, Gerd J M [ORNL; Kalyanaraman, Ramki [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of photons with matter at length scales far below their wavelengths has given rise to many novel phenomena, including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, LSPR with narrow bandwidth (BW) is observed only in a select few noble metals, and ferromagnets are not among them. Here, we report the discovery of LSPR in ferromagnetic Co and CoFe alloy (8% Fe) in contact with Ag in the form of bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser dewetting. These plasmons in metal-erromagnetic nanostructures, or ferroplasmons (FP) for short, are in the visible spectrum with comparable intensity and BW to those of the LSPRs from the Ag regions. This finding was enabled by electron energy-loss mapping across individual nanoparticles in a monochromated scanning transmission electron microscope. The appearance of the FP is likely due to plasmonic interaction between the contacting Ag and Co nanoparticles. Since there is no previous evidence for materials that simultaneously show ferromagnetism and such intense LSPRs, this discovery may lead to the design of improved plasmonic materials and applications. It also demonstrates that materials with interesting plasmonic properties can be synthesized using bimetallic nanostructures in contact with each other.

  1. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, ElŻbieta K.; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek; Brewer, Jonathan; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Adam, Jost; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in organic/dielectric/metal systems. We have transferred the organic p-6P nanofibers onto a thin silver film covered with a dielectric (silicon dioxide) spacer layer with varying thicknesses. Coupling is investigated by two-photon fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and leakage radiation spectroscopy (LRS). Two-photon excitation allows us to excite the ONFs with near-infrared light and simultaneously avoids direct SPP excitation on the metal layer. We observe a strong dependence of fluorescence lifetime on the type of underlying substrate and on the morphology of the fibers. The experimental findings are complemented via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The presented results lead to a better understanding and control of hybrid-mode systems, which are crucial elements in future low-loss energy transfer devices.

  2. Strongly Confined Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons Waveguiding Enabled by Planar Staggered Plasmonic Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Longfang; Xiao, Yifan; Liu, Yanhui; Zhang, Liang; Cai, Guoxiong; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate a novel route to achieving highly efficient and strongly confined spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) waveguides at subwavelength scale enabled by planar staggered plasmonic waveguides (PSPWs). The structure of these new waveguides consists of an ultrathin metallic strip with periodic subwavelength staggered double groove arrays supported by a flexible dielectric substrate, leading to unique staggered EM coupling and waveguiding phenomenon. The spoof SPP propagation properties, including dispersion relations and near field distributions, are numerically investigated. Furthermore, broadband coplanar waveguide (CPW) to planar staggered plasmonic waveguide (PSPW) transitions are designed to achieve smooth momentum matching and highly efficient spoof SPP mode conversion. By applying these transitions, a CPW-PSPW-CPW structure is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the PSPW’s propagation performance at microwave frequencies. The investigation results show the proposed PSPWs have excellent performance of deep subwavelength spoof SPPs confinement, long propagation length and low bend loss, as well as great design flexibility to engineer the propagation properties by adjusting their geometry dimensions and material parameters. Our work opens up a new avenue for development of various advanced planar integrated plasmonic devices and circuits in microwave and terahertz regimes.

  3. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  4. Sub-micron surface plasmon resonance sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, James A. (Inventor); Amarie, Dragos (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Wearable or implantable devices combining microfluidic control of sample and reagent flow and micro-cavity surface plasmon resonance sensors functionalized with surface treatments or coatings capable of specifically binding to target analytes, ligands, or molecules in a bodily fluid are provided. The devices can be used to determine the presence and concentration of target analytes in the bodily fluids and thereby help diagnose, monitor or detect changes in disease conditions.

  5. Sub-diffraction Imaging via Surface Plasmon Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-08

    lithography to microscopy . The difficulty to improve the resolution beyond the diffraction limit stems from the inability of conventional optics to access... super - resolution has been demonstrated by utilizing conformal multi-layer structures with hyperbolic dispersion[6-9]. These structures, however, are...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Imaging Systems, Optics at Surface, Surface Plasmons REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10

  6. Relativistic surface-plasmon enhanced harmonic generation from gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Fedeli, Luca; Cantono, Giada; Macchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The role of relativistic surface plasmons (SPs) in high order harmonic emission from laser-irradiated grating targets has been investigated by means of particle-in-cell simulations. SP excitation drives a strong enhancement of the intensity of harmonics, particularly in the direction close to the surface tangent. The SP-driven enhancement overlaps with the angular separation of harmonics generated by the grating, which is beneficial for applications requiring monochromatic XUV pulses.

  7. Detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) extracted from soil using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based sensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Anita A.; Stimpson, Donald I.; Bartholomew, Dwight U.; Jenkins, Thomas F.; Elkind, Jerome L.

    1999-08-01

    An antibody-based competition assay has been developed using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor platform for the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil extract solutions. The objective of this work is to develop a sensor-based assay technology to use in the field for real- time detection of land mines. This immunoassay combines very simple bio-film attachment procedures and a low-cost SPR sensor design to detect TNT in soil extracts. The active bio-surface is a coating of bovine serum albumin that has been decorated with trinitrobenzene groups. A blind study on extracts from a large soil matrix was recently performed and result from this study will be presented. Potential interferant studied included 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4- dinitrotoluene, ammonium nitrate, and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Cross-reactivity with dinitrotoluene will be discussed. Also, plans to reach sensitivity levels of 1ppb TNT in soil will be described.

  8. Tamm-plasmon and surface-plasmon hybrid-mode based refractometry in photonic bandgap structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ritwick; Srivastava, Triranjita; Jha, Rajan

    2014-02-15

    The transverse magnetic (TM) polarized hybrid modes formed as a consequence of coupling between Tamm plasmon polariton (TM-TPP) mode and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode exhibit interesting dispersive features for realizing a highly sensitive and accurate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. We found that the TM-TPP modes, formed at the interface of distributed Bragg reflector and metal, are strongly dispersive as compared to SPP modes at optical frequencies. This causes an appreciably narrow interaction bandwidth between TM-TPP and SPP modes, which leads to highly accurate sensing. In addition, appropriate tailoring of dispersion characteristics of TM-TPP as well as SPP modes could ensure high sensitivity of a novel SPR platform. By suitably designing the Au/TiO₂/SiO₂-based geometry, we propose a TM-TPP/SPP hybrid-mode sensor and achieve a sensitivity ≥900  nm/RIU with high detection accuracy (≥30  μm⁻¹) for analyte refractive indices varying between 1.330 and 1.345 in 600-700 nm wavelength range. The possibility to achieve desired dispersive behavior in any spectral band makes the sensing configuration an extremely attractive candidate to design sensors depending on the availability of optical sources.

  9. Surface Plasmons in Coaxial Metamaterial Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2013-07-01

    Thanks to Victor Veselago for his hypothesis of negative index of refraction, meta-materials — engineered composites — can be designed to have properties difficult or impossible to find in nature: they can have both electrical permittivity (ɛ) and magnetic permeability (μ) simultaneously negative. The metamaterials — henceforth negative-index materials (NIMs) — owe their properties to subwavelength structure rather than to their chemical composition. The tailored electromagnetic response of the NIMs has had a dramatic impact on classical optics: they are becoming known to have changed many basic notions related with electromagnetism. The present article is focused on gathering and reviewing fundamental characteristics of plasmon propagation in coaxial cables fabricated of the right-handed medium (RHM) (with ɛ > 0, μ > 0) and the left-handed medium (LHM) (with ɛ < 0, μ < 0) in alternate shells starting from the innermost cable. Such structures as conceived here may pave the way to some interesting effects in relation to, for example, optical science exploiting the cylindrical symmetry of coaxial waveguides that make it possible to perform all major functions of an optical fiber communication system in which the light is born, manipulated, and transmitted without ever leaving the fiber environment, with precise control over the polarization rotation and pulse broadening. This review also covers briefly the nomenclature, classification, potential applications, and the limitations (related, for example, to the inherent losses) of the NIMs and their impact on classical electrodynamics in general, and in designing the cloaking devices in particular. A recent surge in efforts on invisibility and the cloaking devices seems to have spoiled the researchers worldwide: proposals include not only a way to hide an object without having to wrap the cloak around it, but also to replace a given object with another, thus adding to the deception even further! All this

  10. Modeling graphene based surface plasmon waveguides and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, J.; Duque-Gomez, F.; Alam, A.; Armenta, R.; Niegemann, J.; McGuire, D.; Reid, A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene is different from most optical materials in that it is a thin material layer with a thickness as small as one atom. Graphene layers can be incorporated into optical simulations using either a surface conductivity material model or a volumetric permittivity material model; however, introducing graphene through a volumetric permittivity is computationally inefficient because it requires very fine discretization grids. We have recently developed a more efficient approach that enables the use of comparatively coarse grids by formulating a discretization of Maxwell's equations (in the time or frequency domains) that combines a surface conductivity description of graphene layers with a volumetric permittivity description of other optical materials. This approach includes the full dispersion characteristics of graphene as specified by the Kubo formula. This paper demonstrates how the combined material description approach can be used to efficiently model state-of-the-art devices that take advantage of the energy confinement provided by surface plasmons. We show how to efficiently model TE and TM polarized surface plasmons, a surface plasmon waveguide switch, and an electro-optical modulator. This last example also includes electrical simulations of graphene and demonstrates how both optical and electrical simulations can be combined to produce a complete model of a graphene based device. For each example, we compare with previously published results, including experimental results.

  11. Thermally induced degradation pathways of three different antibody-based drug development candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, Anja; Winter, Jonas; Bunte, Thomas; Olbrich, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Protein-based medicinal products are prone to undergo a variety of chemical and physical degradation pathways. One of the most important exogenous stress condition to consider during manufacturing, transport and storage processes is temperature, because antibody-based therapeutics are only stable in a limited temperature range. In this study, three different formats of antibody-based molecules (IgG1, a bispecific scFv and a fab fragment) were exposed to thermal stress conditions occurring during transport and storage. For evaluation, an analytical platform was developed for the detection and characterization of relevant degradation pathways of different antibody-based therapeutics. The effect of thermal stress conditions on the stability of the three antibody-based formats was therefore investigated using visual inspection, different spectroscopic measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrophoresis, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and surface plasmon resonance technology (SPR). In summary, thermal stress led to heterogeneous chemical and physical degradation pathways of all three antibody-based formats used. In addition, identical exogenous stress conditions resulted in different kinds and levels of aggregates and fragmentation products. This knowledge is fundamental for a systematic and successful stabilization of protein-based therapeutics by the use of formulation additives.

  12. Asymmetric transmission of surface plasmon polaritons on planar gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmiak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We describe a surface structure consisting of a metal-air interface where the metallic part consists of two metallic segments with a periodic modulation of the interface between them. Such a structure possesses a different transmissivity for a surface plasmon polariton incident on it from one side of it than it has for a surface plasmon polariton incident on it from the opposite side. This asymmetric transmission of a surface plasmon polariton is based on the suppression of the zero-order Bragg beam which, for a certain value of the modulation depth, is not transmitted through the structure, while the diffraction efficiencies of the +1 and -1 Bragg beams can be modified by varying the period of grating and/or the angle of incidence. For a certain range of the incidence angle one can observe asymmetry in transmittance for the -1 mode while the +1 mode is completely suppressed. By varying the material and geometrical parameters of the diffractive structure one can control the contrast transmission that characte...

  13. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Monton, C.; Castro, G. R.; García, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10-3 to 10-5, depending on the particular experiment.

  14. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Brucoli, G.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of efficient local coupling of light into surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes is an important concern in miniaturization of plasmonic components. Here we present experimental and numerical investigations of efficiency of local SPP excitation on gold ridges of rectangular profile...... positioned on a gold film. The excitation is accomplished by illuminating the metal surface normally with a focused laser beam. Wavelength dependence and dependence of the efficiency on geometrical parameters of ridges are examined. Using leakage radiation microscopy, the efficiency of ˜20% is demonstrated...... experimentally. Numerical simulations based on Green’s tensor approach are in good agreement with the experiment and allow suggesting an optimization of parameters for improving the efficiency of SPP excitation....

  15. Research of photolithography technology based on surface plasmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hai-Hua; Chen Jian; Wang Qing-Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a new process of the photolithography technology,used to fabricate simply fine patterns,by employing surface plasmon character.The sub-wavelength periodic silica structures with uniform silver film are used as the exposure mask.According to the traditional semiconductor process,the grating structures are fabricated at exposing wavelength of 436 nm.At the same time,it provides additional and quantitative support of this technique based on the finite-difference time-domain method.The results of the research show that surface plasmon characteristics of metals can be used to increase the optical field energy distribution differences through the silica structures with silver film,which directly impact on the exposure of following photosensitive layer in different regions.

  16. Simultaneous Surface Plasmon Resonance and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, A; Collado, V; Rubio-Zuazo, J; Monton, C; Castro, G; García, M A

    2012-01-01

    We present here an experimental set-up to perform simultaneously measurements of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of X-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of X-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to detect the changes in the electronic configuration of thin films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this set-up ranges from 10-3 to 10-5, depending on the particular experiment.

  17. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez de la Fuente, O. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Castro, G. R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG Beamline at the ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Monton, C. [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Garcia, M. A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, depending on the particular experiment.

  18. Surface Plasmon Waves on noble metals at Optical Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Pratap Maity

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the variation of the propagation constant, the attenuation coefficient, penetration depth inside the metal and the dielectric has been evaluated. The propagation characteristics of Surface Plasmon Waves (SPWs which exists on noble metals like gold (Au, silver (Ag and aluminium (Al due to the formation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs, have been evaluated theoretically and simulated. It has been found that highly conducting metals Au and Ag provide a strong confinement to the SPWs than Al at optical frequencies. The comparative study reveals that metal having higher conductivity can support a more confined SPW, having a lower penetration depth than metals of lower conductivity at terahertz frequencies when its dielectric constant assumes a negative value.

  19. Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Miyu; Kato, Jun-ichi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2011-04-08

    The recently emerging three-dimensional (3D) displays in the electronic shops imitate depth illusion by overlapping two parallax 2D images through either polarized glasses that viewers are required to wear or lenticular lenses fixed directly on the display. Holography, on the other hand, provides real 3D imaging, although usually limiting colors to monochrome. The so-called rainbow holograms--mounted, for example, on credit cards--are also produced from parallax images that change color with viewing angle. We report on a holographic technique based on surface plasmons that can reconstruct true 3D color images, where the colors are reconstructed by satisfying resonance conditions of surface plasmon polaritons for individual wavelengths. Such real 3D color images can be viewed from any angle, just like the original object.

  20. Detection of Penicillin via Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; MU Ying; JIN Wei; YANG Meng-chao; ZHANG Ti-qiang; ZHOU Chao; XIE Fei; SONG Qi; REN Hao; JIN Qin-han

    2012-01-01

    A method of using Au colloid to capture the decomposed product of penicillin,penicillamine,on a surface plasmon resonance(SPR) biosensor for the quantitative determination of penicillin was developed.Based on the decomposition of penicillin to generate penicillamine and penilloaldehyde,a high seositive biosensor for detecting penicillin was also developed.In our experiment,it was penicillamine rather than penicillin that has been measured.This is because penicillamine contains a functional group that makes it self-assembling on Au colloid to increase the molecular weight so as to improve the surface plasmon resonance signal.On a UV-Vis spectrophotometer,a high concentration of penicilliamine-Au complex was determined,indicating that penicillamine was already well combined with Au colloid.The method,using the combination of Au colloid with penicillamine,proved to detect penicillin.

  1. Design of Matched Absorbing Layers for Surface Plasmon-Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de la Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a procedure for designing metal-metal boundaries for the strong attenuation of surface plasmon-polaritons without the introduction of reflections or scattering effects. Solutions associated with different sets of matching materials are found. To illustrate the results and the consequences of adopting different solutions, we present calculations based on an integral equation formulation for the scattering problem and the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition.

  2. Tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoplatelet colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Asha; Jayabalan, J; Chari, Rama [Laser Physics Applications Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Srivastava, Himanshu [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Oak, S M, E-mail: jjaya@rrcat.gov.i [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2010-08-25

    The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on silver nanoplatelet colloids is described. It is shown that irradiation with a femtosecond laser of appropriate fluence can be used to tune the localized surface plasmon resonances of triangular silver nanoplatelets by a few tens of nanometres. This peak shift is shown to be caused by the structural modifications of the particle tips. We have also shown that post-preparation addition of poly-vinyl pyrrolidone to the nanocolloid arrests the peak shift.

  3. Study on Dielectric Function Models for Surface Plasmon Resonance Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Jahanshahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common permittivity function models are compared and identifying the best model for further studies is desired. For this study, simulations using several different models and an analytical analysis on a practical surface Plasmon structure were done with an accuracy of ∼94.4% with respect to experimental data. Finite element method, combined with dielectric properties extracted from the Brendel-Bormann function model, was utilized, the latter being chosen from a comparative study on four available models.

  4. Optical properties of surface plasmon resonances of coupled metallic nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth J; Cubukcu, Ertugrul; Capasso, Federico

    2007-06-11

    We present a systematic study of optical antenna arrays, in which the effects of coupling between the antennas, as well as of the antenna length, on the reflection spectra are investigated and compared. Such arrays can be fabricated on the facet of a fiber, and we propose a photonic device, a plasmonic optical antenna fiber probe, that can potentially be used for in-situ chemical and biological detection and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

  5. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  6. Visualizing Surface Plasmons with Photons, Photoelectrons, and Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Gong, Yu; Hage, F. S.; Cottom, J.; Joly, Alan G.; Brydson, R.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-06-21

    Both photons and electrons may be used to excite surface plasmon polaritons, the collective charge density fluctuations at the surface of metal nanostructures. By virtue of their nanoscopic and dissipative nature, a detailed characterization of surface plasmon (SP) eigenmodes in real space-time ultimately requires joint sub-nanometer spatial and sub-femtosecond temporal resolution. The latter realization has driven significant developments in the past few years, aimed at interrogating both localized and propagating SP modes over the relevant length and time scales. In this mini-review, we briefly highlight different techniques we employ to visualize the enhanced electric fields associated with SPs. Specifically, we discuss recent hyperspectral optical microscopy, tip-enhanced Raman nano-spectroscopy, nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy, as well as correlated scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements targeting prototypical plasmonic nanostructures and constructs. Through selected practical examples, we examine the information content in multidimensional images recorded by taking advantage of each of the aforementioned techniques. In effect, we illustrate how SPs can be visualized at the ultimate limits of space and time.

  7. Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Based on Polymer Optical Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Sheng Zheng; Yong-Hua Lu; Zhi-Guo Xie; Jun Tao; Kai-Qun Lin; Hai Ming

    2008-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique for directly sensing in biological studies, chemical detection and environmental pollution monitoring. In this paper, we present polymer optical fiber application in SPR sensors, including wavelength interrogation surface enhanced Raman scattering SPR sensor and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe.Long-period fiber gratings are fabricated on single mode polymer optical fiber (POF) with 120 μm period and 50% duty cycle. The polarization characteristic of this kind of birefringent grating is studied. Theoretical analysis shows it will be advantageous in SPR sensing applications.

  8. Surface plasmon resonance-enabled antibacterial digital versatile discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xuan; Chung, Pei-Yu; Jiang, Peng; Dai, Jianli

    2012-02-01

    We report the achievement of effective sterilization of exemplary bacteria including Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on a digital versatile disc (DVD). The spiral arrangement of aluminum-covered pits generates strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of near-infrared light, leading to high surface temperature that could even damage the DVD plastics. Localized protein denaturation and high sterilization efficiency have been demonstrated by using a fluorescence microscope and cell cultures. Numerical simulations have also been conducted to model the SPR properties and the surface temperature distribution of DVDs under laser illumination. The theoretical predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results.

  9. The Goos-Hänchen effect for surface plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerkamp, Felix; Leskova, Tamara A; Maradudin, Alexei A; Baumeier, Björn

    2011-08-01

    By means of an impedance boundary condition and numerical solution of integral equations for the scattering amplitudes to which its use gives rise, we study as a function of its angle of incidence the reflection of a surface plasmon polariton beam propagating on a metal surface whose dielectric function is ɛ1(ω) when it is incident on a planar interface with a coplanar metal surface whose dielectric function is ɛ2(ω). When the surface of incidence is optically more dense than the surface of scattering, i.e. when |ɛ2(ω)|≫|ɛ1(ω)|, the reflected beam undergoes a lateral displacement whose magnitude is several times the wavelength of the incident beam. This displacement is the surface plasmon polariton analogue of the Goos-Hänchen effect. Since this displacement is sensitive to the dielectric properties of the surface, this effect can be exploited to sense modifications of the dielectric environment of a metal surface, e.g. due to adsorption of atomic or molecular layers on it.

  10. Broadband surface plasmon jets: direct observation of plasmon propagation for application to sensors and optical communications in microscale and nanoscale circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhelier, Alexandre; Wiederrecht, Gary P.

    2008-02-19

    A system and method for generating and using broadband surface plasmons in a metal film for characterization of analyte on or near the metal film. The surface plasmons interact with the analyte and generate leakage radiation which has spectral features which can be used to inspect, identify and characterize the analyte. The broadband plasmon excitation enables high-bandwidth photonic applications.

  11. Plasmonic space folding: focusing surface plasmons via negative refraction in complementary media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2011-09-27

    We extend designs of perfect lenses to the focusing of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating at the interface between two anisotropic media of opposite permittivity sign. We identify the role played by the components of anisotropic and heterogeneous tensors of permittivity and permeability, deduced from a coordinate transformation, in the dispersion relation governing propagation of SPPs. We illustrate our theory with three-dimensional finite element computations for focusing of SPPs by perfect flat and cylindrical lenses. Finally, we propose a design of a flat SPP lens consisting of dielectric cylinders arranged in a periodic fashion (along a hexagonal array) on a metal plate.

  12. Highly efficient singular surface plasmon generation by achiral apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Quanbo; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    We report a highly efficient generation of singular surface plasmon (SP) field by an achiral plasmonic structure consisting of $\\Lambda$-shaped apertures. Our quantitative analysis based on leakage radiation microscopy (LRM) demonstrates that the induced spin-orbit coupling can be tuned by adjusting the apex angle of the $\\Lambda$-shaped aperture. Specifically, the array of $\\Lambda$-shaped apertures with the apex angle $60^\\circ$ is shown to give rise to the directional coupling efficiency. The ring of $\\Lambda$-shaped apertures with the apex angle $60^\\circ$ realized to generate the maximum extinction ratio (ER=11) for the SP singularities between two different polarization states. This result provides a more efficient way for developing SP focusing and SP vortex in the field of nanophotonics such as optical tweezers.

  13. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.

    2016-02-19

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  14. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-02-01

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  15. Terahertz reflection and emission associated with nonequilibrium surface plasmon polaritons in n-GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, G. A.; Shalygin, V. A.; Moldavskaya, M. D.; Panevin, V. Yu; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Nykänen, H.; Riuttanen, L.; Svensk, O.; Suihkonen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are investigated in heavily doped n-GaN epitaxial layers. The grating etched on the surface of the epitaxial layer is used to convert photons into the surface plasmon polaritons and vice versa. The spectral study of reflection demonstrates the possibility of nonequilibrium surface plasmon polaritons excitation due to terahertz radiation scattering on the grating. Terahertz electroluminescence is investigated under lateral electric field. The luminescence spectrum demonstrates a significant contribution of nonequilibrium surface plasmon polariton scattering to terahertz radiation emission.

  16. Probing large area surface plasmon interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passian, A.; Wig, A.; Lereu, A.L.; Evans, P.G.; Meriaudeau, F.; Thundat, T.; Ferrell, T.L

    2004-08-15

    The interference of surface plasmons can provide important information regarding the surface features of the hosting thin metal film. We present an investigation of the interference of optically excited surface plasmons in the Kretschmann configuration in the visible spectrum. Large area surface plasmon interference regions are generated at several wavelengths and imaged with the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Furthermore, we discuss the non-retarded dispersion relations for the surface plasmons in the probe-metal system modeled as confocal hyperboloids of revolution in the spheroidal coordinate systems.

  17. Super-Period Gold Nanodisc Grating-Enabled Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrometer Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xueli; Guo, Hong; Bhatt, Ketan H; Zhao, Song Q; Wang, Yi; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor by using an e-beam-patterned super-period gold nanodisc grating on a glass substrate. The super-period gold nanodisc grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. The small subwavelength period enhances localized surface plasmon resonance, and the large diffraction grating period diffracts surface plasmon resonance radiation into different directions corresponding to different wavelengths. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) in addition to the traditional way of measurement using an external optical spectrometer in the zeroth order transmission. A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  18. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures induced by surface plasmons coupled via roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, E. L.; Gurevich, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the formation mechanisms of the femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are discussed. One of the most frequently used theories explains the structures by interference between the incident laser beam and surface plasmon-polariton waves. The latter is most commonly attributed to the coupling of the incident laser light to the surface roughness. We demonstrate that this excitation of surface plasmons contradicts the results of laser-ablation experiments. As an alternative approach to the excitation of LIPSS we analyse development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the melt layer.

  19. Plasmonic properties of metal nanoislands: surface integral equations approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, S. A.; Lipovskii, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The surface integral equations method is used to analyse the surface plasmon resonance position in a metal island film formed by non-interacting axisymmetrical prolate/oblate hemispheroids placed on a dielectric substrate. The approach is verified via the comparison of results obtained for a hemisphere on a substrate with the ones obtained using the multipole expansion method. The preference of the integral equations method is in obtaining a simple final analytical expression for a particle polarizability in which any dielectric function of a metal can be substituted. Such simple formulae for the hemispherical particle on the substrate and calculated dependences of the hemispheroid resonant wavelength on its aspect ratio are presented.

  20. Exciting Graphene Surface Plasmon Polaritons through Light and Sound Interplay

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2013-12-05

    We propose a concept that allows for efficient excitation of surface plasmon spolaritons (SPPs) on a thin graphene sheet located on a substrate by an incident electromagnetic field. Elastic vibrations of the sheet, which are generated by a flexural wave, act as a grating that enables the electromagnetic field to couple to propagating graphene SPPs. This scheme permits fast on-off switching of the SPPs and dynamic tuning of their excitation frequency by adjusting the vibration frequency (grating period). Potential applications include single molecule detection and enhanced control of SPP trajectories via surface wave patterning of graphene metasurfaces. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed concept.

  1. Plasmon-mediated chemical surface functionalization at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai; Lamouri, Aazdine; Salameh, Chrystelle; Lévi, Georges; Grand, Johan; Boubekeur-Lecaque, Leïla; Mangeney, Claire; Félidj, Nordin

    2016-04-28

    Controlling the surface grafting of species at the nanoscale remains a major challenge, likely to generate many opportunities in materials science. In this work, we propose an original strategy for chemical surface functionalization at the nanoscale, taking advantage of localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitation. The surface functionalization is demonstrated through aryl film grafting (derived from a diazonium salt), covalently bonded at the surface of gold lithographic nanostripes. The aryl film is specifically grafted in areas of maximum near field enhancement, as confirmed by numerical calculation based on the discrete dipole approximation method. The energy of the incident light and the LSP wavelength are shown to be crucial parameters to monitor the aryl film thickness of up to ∼30 nm. This robust and versatile strategy opens up exciting prospects for the nanoscale confinement of functional layers on surfaces, which should be particularly interesting for molecular sensing or nanooptics.

  2. Scattering-Type Surface-Plasmon-Resonance Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Seshadri, Suresh

    2005-01-01

    Biosensors of a proposed type would exploit scattering of light by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Related prior biosensors exploit absorption of light by SPR. Relative to the prior SPR biosensors, the proposed SPR biosensors would offer greater sensitivity in some cases, enough sensitivity to detect bioparticles having dimensions as small as nanometers. A surface plasmon wave can be described as a light-induced collective oscillation in electron density at the interface between a metal and a dielectric. At SPR, most incident photons are either absorbed or scattered at the metal/dielectric interface and, consequently, reflected light is greatly attenuated. The resonance wavelength and angle of incidence depend upon the permittivities of the metal and dielectric. An SPR sensor of the type most widely used heretofore includes a gold film coated with a ligand a substance that binds analyte molecules. The gold film is thin enough to support evanescent-wave coupling through its thickness. The change in the effective index of refraction at the surface, and thus the change in the SPR response, increases with the number of bound analyte molecules. The device is illuminated at a fixed wavelength, and the intensity of light reflected from the gold surface opposite the ligand-coated surface is measured as a function of the angle of incidence. From these measurements, the angle of minimum reflection intensity is determined

  3. Subwavelength propagation and localization of light using surface plasmons: A brief perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Pavan Kumar; Danveer Singh; Partha Pratim Patra; Arindam Dasgupta

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmons at the metal–dielectric interface have emerged as an important candidate to propagate and localize light at subwavelength scales. By tailoring the geometry and arrangement of metallic nanoarchitectures, propagating and localized surface plasmons can be obtained. In this brief perspective, we discuss: (1) how surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) can be optically excited in metallic nanoarchitectures by employing a variety of optical microscopy methods; (2) how SPPs and LSPs in plasmonic nanowires can be utilized for subwavelength polarization optics and single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on a photonic chip; and (3) how individual plasmonic nanowire can be optically manipulated using optical trapping methods.

  4. Surface integral formulations for the design of plasmonic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestiere, Carlo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Rubinacci, Guglielmo; Tamburrino, Antonello; Dal Negro, Luca; Miano, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Numerical formulations based on surface integral equations (SIEs) provide an accurate and efficient framework for the solution of the electromagnetic scattering problem by three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a unified description of SIE formulations with both singular and nonsingular kernel and we study their accuracy in solving the scattering problem by metallic nanoparticles with spherical and nonspherical shape. In fact, the accuracy of the numerical solution, especially in the near zone, is of great importance in the analysis and design of plasmonic nanostructures, whose operation critically depends on the manipulation of electromagnetic hot spots. Four formulation types are considered: the N-combined region integral equations, the T-combined region integral equations, the combined field integral equations and the null field integral equations. A detailed comparison between their numerical solutions obtained for several nanoparticle shapes is performed by examining convergence rate and accuracy in both the far and near zone of the scatterer as a function of the number of degrees of freedom. A rigorous analysis of SIE formulations and their limitations can have a high impact on the engineering of numerous nano-scale optical devices such as plasmon-enhanced light emitters, biosensors, photodetectors, and nanoantennas.

  5. A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R J; van Loon, R V A; Brunets, I; Schmitz, J; Polman, A

    2010-01-01

    After decades of process scaling driven by Moore's law, the silicon microelectronics world is now defined by length scales that are many times smaller than the dimensions of typical micro-optical components. This size mismatch poses an important challenge for those working to integrate photonics with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics technology. One promising solution is to fabricate optical systems at metal/dielectric interfaces, where electromagnetic modes called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) offer unique opportunities to confine and control light at length scales below 100 nm (refs 1, 2). Research groups working in the rapidly developing field of plasmonics have now demonstrated many passive components that suggest the potential of SPPs for applications in sensing and optical communication. Recently, active plasmonic devices based on III-V materials and organic materials have been reported. An electrical source of SPPs was recently demonstrated using organic semiconductors by Koller and colleagues. Here we show that a silicon-based electrical source for SPPs can be fabricated using established low-temperature microtechnology processes that are compatible with back-end CMOS technology.

  6. Quantum interference of highly-dispersive surface plasmons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokpanov, Yury S.; Fakonas, James S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Previous experiments have shown that surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) preserve their entangled state and do not cause measurable decoherence. However, essentially all of them were done using SPPs whose dispersion was in the linear "photon-like" regime. We report in this presentation on experiments showing how transition to "true-plasmon" non-linear dispersion regime, which occurs near SPP resonance frequency, will affect quantum coherent properties of light. To generate a polarization-entangled state we utilize type-I parametric down-conversion, occurring in a pair of non-linear crystals (BiBO), glued together and rotated by 90 degrees with respect to each other. For state projection measurements, we use a pair of polarizers and single-photon avalanche diode coincidence count detectors. We interpose a plasmonic hole array in the path of down-converted light before the polarizer. Without the hole array, we measure visibility V=99-100% and Bell's number S=2.81±0.03. To study geometrical effects we fabricated plasmonic hole arrays (gold on optically polished glass) with elliptical holes (axes are 190nm and 240nm) using focused ion beam. When we put this sample in our system we measured the reduction of visibility V=86±5% using entangled light. However, measurement using classical light gave exactly the same visibility; hence, this reduction is caused only by the difference in transmission coefficients of different polarizations. As samples with non-linear dispersion we fabricated two-layer (a-Si - Au) and three-layer (a-Si - Au - a-Si) structures on optically polished glass with different pitches and circular holes. The results of measurements with these samples will be discussed along with the theoretical investigations.

  7. Coalescence and anti-coalescence of surface plasmons on a lossy beamsplitter

    CERN Document Server

    Vest, Benjamin; Devaux, Éloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Baron, Alexandre; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasma waves are collective oscillations of electrons that propagate along a metal-dielectric interface. In the last ten years, several groups have reproduced fundamental quantum optics experiments with surface plasmons. Observation of single-plasmon states, waveparticle duality, preservation of entanglement of photons in plasmon-assisted transmission, and more recently, two-plasmon interference have been reported. While losses are detrimental for the observation of squeezed states, they can be seen as a new degree of freedom in the design of plasmonic devices, thus revealing new quantum interference scenarios. Here we report the observation of two-plasmon quantum interference between two freely-propagating, non-guided SPPs interfering on lossy plasmonic beamsplitters. As discussed in the article "Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters" by Barnett et al. (Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998)) , the presence of losses (scattering or absorption) relaxes constraints on the reflection and transmission factors of ...

  8. Polarization switching from plasmonic lattice mode to multipolar localized surface plasmon resonances in arrays of large nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Gutha, Rithvik R.

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally investigate plasmonic lattice modes of gold nanoantenna arrays that occur in asymmetric structures containing a silica substrate and either air or a thin layer of a high-index dielectric. Very distinct polarization switching is observed in the nanoantenna arrays wherein by rotating the incident light polarization by ninety degrees, the array can exhibit either a plasmonic lattice mode or a multipolar localized surface plasmon resonance of varying nature. A large range of nanoantenna lengths are studied, and since the length of the nanoantennas dictates the multipolar localized surface plasmon resonance, we find that the characteristics of the polarization switching are affected accordingly. We also investigate how the thin layer of the high-index dielectric on top of the nanoantenna arrays, in conjunction with varying nanoantenna length, impacts the generation of plasmonic lattice modes and the polarization switching in the arrays. The high-index dielectric is found to assist in the generation and optical coupling of the plasmonic lattice modes. By altering the angle of incidence, the polarization switching can become very large, and the arrays can be made to selectively transmit light of certain wavelengths.

  9. Coupling light to a localized surface plasmon-polariton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agio, Mario; Zumofen, Gert; Mojarad, Nassiredin M.; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the interaction of focused Gaussian and radially-polarized beams with a silver nanosphere, with emphasis on the coupling to localized surface plasmon-polaritons. We discuss the overall efficiency, including the effect of the entrance pupil and of absorption in the nanosphere, showing that a Gaussian beam performs better than a radially-polarized beam, when focused by an aplanatic system. We find that more than 50% of the photons in the incident beam can be reflected using realistic focusing parameters.

  10. SNOM Observations of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Metal Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KITAZAWA Tazuko; MIYANISHI Shintaro; MURAKAMI Yoshiteru; KOJIMA Kunio; TAKAHASHI Akira

    2007-01-01

    We observe surface plasmon polariton (SPP) refraction on a metal heterostructured sample with a scattered-type scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The sample consists of Al and Au in-plane whose boundary is smooth enough with proper etching time. SPPs excited on the Al film travel to the boundary and a portion of SPPs propagates into the Au film. In addition, interference fringes appear in the SNOM image bent at the boundary. The result is analysed with effective index method and the refracted angle is explained by Snell's law.

  11. Surface plasmon resonance in nanocrystalline gold-copper alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S; Datta, Subhadeep; Roy, R K; Pal, A K

    2007-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Au(x)Cu(1-x) films were synthesized by depositing Cu/Au/Cu multilayer in nanocrystalline thin film form with requisite thickness of individual layers onto fused silica substrates by high pressure sputtering technique. The absorbance spectra showed only one surface plasmon peak for all the compositions with the exception that the peak position did not indicate gradual shift as gold concentration was increased. Peak position for the two compositions corresponding to the two superlattice structures, AuCu3 and AuCu, deviated significantly from linear variation. The experimental results have been discussed in light of the existing Mie theory and the Core-shell model.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliarik, Marek; Párová, Lucie; Vaisocherová, Hana; Homola, Jiří

    2009-05-01

    We report a novel high-throughput surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for rapid and parallelized detection of protein biomarkers. The biosensor is based on a high-performance SPR imaging sensor with polarization contrast and internal referencing which yields a considerably higher sensitivity and resolution than conventional SPR imaging systems (refractive index resolution 2 × 10-7 RIU). We combined the SPR imaging biosensor with microspotting to create an array of antibodies. DNA-directed protein immobilization was utilized for the spatially resolved attachment of antibodies. Using Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) as model protein biomarker, we demonstrated the potential for simultaneous detection of proteins in up to 100 channels.

  13. Optical cavity coupled surface plasmon resonance sensing for enhanced sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zheng; Xin Zhao; Jinsong Zhu; Jim Diamond

    2008-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing system based on the optical cavity enhanced detection tech-nique is experimentally demonstrated. A fiber-optic laser cavity is built with a SPR sensor inside. By measuring the laser output power when the cavity is biased near the threshold point, the sensitivity, defined as the dependence of the output optical intensity on the sample variations, can be increased by about one order of magnitude compared to that of the SPR sensor alone under the intensity interrogation scheme. This could facilitate ultra-high sensitivity SPR biosensing applications. Further system miniaturization is possible by using integrated optical components and waveguide SPR sensors.

  14. Surface plasmon polariton modulator with optimized active layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A multilayered waveguide, which supports surface plasmon polaritons, is considered as an absorption modulator. The waveguide core consists of a silicon nitride layer and ultrathin layer with the varied carrier density embedded between two silver plates, which also serve as electrodes. Under...... package CST Microwave Studio in the frequency domain. We explore different permittivities of the ITO layer, which can be achieved by utilizing different anneal conditions. To increase transmittance and enhance modulation depth or efficiency, we propose to pattern the continuous active layer. Dependence...

  15. Optical mode control of surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, V.; Bahriz, M.; Palomo, J.; Wilson, L. R.; Krysa, A. B.; Sirtori, C.; Austin, D. A.; Cockburn, J. W.; Roberts, J. S.; Colombelli, R.

    2007-04-01

    Surface-plasmon waveguides based on metallic strips can provide a two dimensional optical confinement. This concept has been successfully applied to quantum cascade lasers, processed as ridge waveguides, to demonstrate that the lateral extension of the optical mode can be influenced solely by the width of the device top contact. For devices operating at a wavelength of λ ≈7.5 μm, the room-temperature threshold current density was reduced from 6.3 kA/cm2 to 4.4 kA/cm2 with respect to larger devices with full top metallization.

  16. Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the focusing of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) beams with parabolic chains of gold nanoparticles fabricated on thin gold films. SPP focusing with different parabolic chains is investigated in the wavelength range of 700–860 nm, both experimentally and theoretically. Mapping of SPP...... fields is accomplished by making use of leakage radiation microscopy, demonstrating robust and efficient SPP focusing into submicron spots. Numerical simulations based on the Green’s tensor formalism show very good agreement with the experimental results, suggesting the usage of elliptical corrections...

  17. Directional Nanoslit-Bump Coupler for Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Liang; ZHAO De-Yin; ZHOU Chuan-Hong; JIANG Xun-Ya

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a p-polarized plane wave transmitted through a metallic slit-bump nanostructure using the finite difference time domain simulation.It is found that narrow bumps with suitable separation can diffract surface plasmons into highly directional collimating beams,The number and directionality of the beams can be controlled by adjusting the geometry parameters of the nanostructure.The structure with optimized parameters may be interesting for practical applications as directional nanoslit SPP-light coupler in integrated photonic devices.

  18. Nanobiosensors Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biomarker Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoochan Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR is induced by incident light when it interacts with noble metal nanoparticles that have smaller sizes than the wavelength of the incident light. Recently, LSPR-based nanobiosensors were developed as tools for highly sensitive, label-free, and flexible sensing techniques for the detection of biomolecular interactions. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of LSPR-based nanobiosensing techniques and LSPR sensor system for biomolecule sensing. We also discuss the challenges using LSPR nanobiosensors for detection of biomolecules as a biomarker.

  19. Localized spoof surface plasmon resonances at terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Xu, Mengjian; Zang, Xiaofei; Peng, Yan; Zhu, Yiming

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the inner disk radius r, the filling ratio α, numbers of sectors N, and the gap g on transmission response for corrugated metallic disk (CMD) with single C-shaped resonator(CSR) has been fully studied. The results indicate that varying parameters r can efficiently excite the higher order spoof localized surface plasmon modes in corrugated metallic disk. The relationship between the bright dipole and dark multipolar resonances presents the possibility of high Q dark resonances excitation. All results may be of great interest for diverse applications.

  20. Surface plasmons in metallic nanoparticles: fundamentals and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M A, E-mail: magarcia@icv.csic.es [Department of Electroceramics, Institute for Ceramic and Glass, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain) and IMDEA Nanociencia, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2011-07-20

    The excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic nanoparticles (NPs) induces optical properties hardly achievable in other optical materials, yielding a wide range of applications in many fields. This review presents an overview of SPs in metallic NPs. The concept of SPs in NPs is qualitatively described using a comparison with simple linear oscillators. The mathematical models to carry on calculations on SPs are presented as well as the most common approximations. The different parameters governing the features of SPs and their effect on the optical properties of the materials are reviewed. Finally, applications of SPs in different fields such as biomedicine, energy, environment protection and information technology are revised. (topical review)

  1. Giant Surface-Plasmon-Induced Drag Effect in Metal Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia; Stockman, Mark I.

    2009-10-01

    Here, for the first time we predict a giant surface-plasmon-induced drag-effect rectification (SPIDER), which exists under conditions of the extreme nanoplasmonic confinement. In nanowires, this giant SPIDER generates rectified THz potential differences up to 10 V and extremely strong electric fields up to ˜105-106V/cm. The giant SPIDER is an ultrafast effect whose bandwidth for nanometric wires is ˜20THz. It opens up a new field of ultraintense THz nanooptics with wide potential applications in nanotechnology and nanoscience, including microelectronics, nanoplasmonics, and biomedicine.

  2. Giant surface plasmon induced drag effect (SPIDEr) in metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia; Stockman, Mark I.

    2009-08-01

    Here, for the first time we predict a giant surface plasmon-induced drag effect (SPIDEr), which exists under conditions of the extreme nanoplasmonic confinement. Under realistic conditions, in nanowires, this giant SPIDEr generates rectified THz potential differences up to 10 V and extremely strong electric fields up to ~ 105 ~ 106 V/cm. The SPIDEr is an ultrafast effect whose bandwidth for nanometric wires is ~ 20 THz. The giant SPIDEr opens up a new field of ultraintense THz nanooptics with wide potential applications in nanotechnology and nanoscience, including microelectronics, nanoplasmonics, and biomedicine.

  3. Modulation of surface plasmon coupling-in by one-dimensional surface corrugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Tejeira, F; Rodrigo, Sergio G; Martin-Moreno, L [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencas-ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia-Vidal, F J [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Devaux, E; Dintinger, J; Ebbesen, T W [Laboratoire de Nanostructures, ISIS, Universite Louis Pasteur, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Krenn, J R [Institute of Physics, Karl Franzens University, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Radko, I P; Bozhevolnyi, S I [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Gonzalez, M U; Weeber, J C; Dereux, A [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5027, F-21078 Dijon (France)], E-mail: lmm@unizar.es

    2008-03-15

    Surface plasmon-polaritons have recently attracted renewed interest in the scientific community for their potential in sub-wavelength optics, light generation and non-destructive sensing. Given that they cannot be directly excited by freely propagating light due to their intrinsic binding to the metal surface, the light-plasmon coupling efficiency becomes of crucial importance for the success of any plasmonic device. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the modulation (enhancement or suppression) of such a coupling efficiency by means of one-dimensional surface corrugation. Our approach is based on simple wave interference and enables us to make quantitative predictions which have been experimentally confirmed at both the near-infrared and telecom ranges.

  4. Demonstration of quadrature-squeezed surface plasmons in a gold waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Alexander; Smolka, Stephan; Lodahl, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    We report on the efficient generation, propagation and reemission of squeezed long-range surface-plasmon polaritons in a gold waveguide. Squeezed light is used to excite the nonclassical surface-plasmon polaritons, and the reemitted quantum state is fully characterized by complete quantum...... tomographic reconstruction of the density matrix. We find that the plasmon-assisted transmission of nonclassical light in metallic waveguides can be described by a beam splitter relation. This result is explained theoretically....

  5. Label-free surface plasmon sensing towards cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Goutham

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a conventional, home-built SPR bio-sensor to demonstrate bio-sensing applications. This emphasizes the understanding of basic concepts of Surface Plasmon Resonance and various interrogation techniques. Intensity Modulation was opted to perform the label-free SPR bio-sensing experiments due to its cost-efficient and compact setup. Later, label-free surface plasmon sensing was carried out to study and understand the bio-molecular interactions between (1). BSA and Anti BSA molecules and (2). Exosome/Liposome on thin metal (Au) films. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles present in bodily fluids like blood, saliva, urine, epididymal fluid containing miRNAs, RNA, proteins, etc., at stable quantities during normal health conditions. The exosomes comprise varied constituents based on their cell origin from where they are secreted and is specific to that particular origin. However an exacerbated release is observed during tumor or cancer conditions. This increased level of exosomes present in the sample, can be detected using the SPR bio-sensor demonstrated in this thesis and effective thickness of adsorption on Au surface can be estimated. Also, chemically synthesized liposome particles were studied to determine if they can generate an equivalent sensor response to that of exosomes to consider them as an alternate. Finally a 10ppb Mercury (Hg) sensing was performed as part of Environment Monitoring application and results have been tabulated and compared.

  6. Electron acceleration and high harmonic generation by relativistic surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantono, Giada; Luca Fedeli Team; Andrea Sgattoni Team; Andrea Macchi Team; Tiberio Ceccotti Team

    2016-10-01

    Intense, short laser pulses with ultra-high contrast allow resonant surface plasmons (SPs) excitation on solid wavelength-scale grating targets, opening the way to the extension of Plasmonics in the relativistic regime and the manipulation of intense electromagnetic fields to develop new short, energetic, laser-synchronized radiation sources. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have explored the role of SP excitation in increasing the laser-target coupling and enhancing ion acceleration, high-order harmonic generation and surface electron acceleration. Here we present our results on SP driven electron acceleration from grating targets at ultra-high laser intensities (I = 5 ×1019 W/cm2, τ = 25 fs). When the resonant condition for SP excitation is fulfilled, electrons are emitted in a narrow cone along the target surface, with a total charge of about 100 pC and energy spectra peaked around 5 MeV. Distinguishing features of the resonant process were investigated by varying the incidence angle, grating type and with the support of 3D PIC simulations, which closely reproduced the experimental data. Open challenges and further measurements on high-order harmonic generation in presence of a relativistic SP will also be discussed.

  7. Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Tejeira, F.; Garcia-Vidal, F. J.; L. Martin-Moreno

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the scattering of surface plasmons by a finite periodic array of one-dimensional grooves is theoretically analyzed by means of a modal expansion technique. We have found that the geometrical parameters of the array can be properly tuned to achieve optimal performance of the structure either as a Bragg reflector or as a converter of surface plasmons into light. In this last case, the emitted light is collimated within a few degrees cone. Importantly, we also show that a small num...

  8. Nano Sensing and Energy Conversion Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltai (Isaac Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanophotonic technique has been attracting much attention in applications of nano-bio-chemical sensing and energy conversion of solar energy harvesting and enhanced energy transfer. One approach for nano-bio-chemical sensing is surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging, which can detect the material properties, such as density, ion concentration, temperature, and effective refractive index in high sensitivity, label-free, and real-time under ambient conditions. Recent study shows that SPR can successfully detect the concentration variation of nanofluids during evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Spoof surface plasmon resonance based on multilayer metallo-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate SPR dispersion control, which can be combined with SPR imaging, to characterize high refractive index materials because of its exotic optical properties. Furthermore, nano-biophotonics could enable innovative energy conversion such as the increase of absorption and emission efficiency and the perfect absorption. Localized SPR using metal nanoparticles show highly enhanced absorption in solar energy harvesting. Three-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial cavity nanostructure shows enhanced spontaneous emission. Recently ultrathin film perfect absorber is demonstrated with the film thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating wavelength using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ phenomena at the wavelength close to SPR. It is expected to provide a breakthrough in sensing and energy conversion applications using the exotic optical properties based on the nanophotonic technique.

  9. Opto-electro-fluidics and tip coax conical surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloh, Touvia

    2016-08-01

    The concept of electromagnetic energy enhancement and nanofocusing phenomena near the tip of a metaconical conducting tip by means of a surface plasmon-polaritons mechanism is discussed theoretically. In particular, we consider conical metallic structures with small apex angles and derive the corresponding dispersion relation under optimal (maximal field enhancement) operating conditions. It is demonstrated analytically that the aforementioned conditions can induce large dielectrophoretic forces near the conical tip, which can be harnessed for sorting and controlling nanoparticles in a manner similar to optical tweezers. Similarly, by considering Joule heating effects in the metal and heat conduction in the surrounding solute, it is shown that a considerable (dc) flow convection and mixing can be generated in the aqueous phase near the tip by such ac incited optical means (including common low-input lasers operating in the visible and near-infrared spectrum ranges). Analytic near-field expressions are also obtained for the opto-electro-thermo-induced flow and vorticity distributions in the electrolyte exhibiting a singular behavior near the rounded tip. Using a coax conical metastructure composed of two noble metals, surface-plasmon field enhancement is a technique for the optimal manipulation of dielectric and polarizable nanoparticles as well as for inducing indirect mixing in the liquid around the tip by generating microvortices.

  10. Capacitive-coupled Series Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Ren, Jian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-04-01

    A novel method to realize stopband within the operating frequency of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is presented. The stopband is introduced by a new kind of capacitive-coupled series spoof SPPs. Two conventional H-shaped unit cells are proposed to construct a new unit cell, and every two new unit cells are separated by a gap with certain distance, which is designed to implement capacitive coupling. The original surface impedance matching is disturbed by the capacitive coupling, leading to the stopband during the transmission of SPPs. The proposed method is verified by both numerical simulations and experiments, and the simulated and measured results have good agreements. It is shown that the proposed structure exhibits a stopband in 9-9.5 GHz while the band-pass feature maintains in 5-9 GHz and 9.5-11 GHz. In the passband, the reflection coefficient is less than -10 dB, and the transmission loss is around 3 dB in the stopband, the reflection coefficient is -2 dB, and the transmission coefficient is less than -30 dB. The compact size, easy fabrication and good band-pass and band-stop features make the proposed structure a promising plasmonic device in SPP communication systems.

  11. Tunable Dipole Surface Plasmon Resonances of Silver Nanoparticles by Cladding Dielectric Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaotong; Li, Dabing; Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhiming; Song, Hang; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Yiren

    2015-07-28

    The tunability of surface plasmon resonance can enable the highest degree of localised surface plasmon enhancement to be achieved, based on the emitting or absorbing wavelength. In this article, tunable dipole surface plasmon resonances of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are realized by modification of the SiO2 dielectric layer thicknesses. SiO2 layers both beneath and over the Ag NPs affected the resonance wavelengths of local surface plasmons (LSPs). By adjusting the SiO2 thickness beneath the Ag NPs from 5 nm to 20 nm, the dipole surface plasmon resonances shifted from 470 nm to 410 nm. Meanwhile, after sandwiching the Ag NPs by growing SiO2 before NPs fabrication and then overcoating the NPs with various SiO2 thicknesses from 5 nm to 20 nm, the dipole surface plasmon resonances changed from 450 nm to 490 nm. The SiO2 cladding dielectric layer can tune the Ag NP surface charge, leading to a change in the effective permittivity of the surrounding medium, and thus to a blueshift or redshift of the resonance wavelength. Also, the quadrupole plasmon resonances were suppressed by the SiO2 cladding layer because the dielectric SiO2 can suppress level splitting of surface plasmon resonances caused by the Ag NP coupling effect.

  12. Spatio-temporal second-order quantum correlations of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental methodology to observe spatio-temporal second-order quantum coherence of surface plasmon polaritons which are emitted by nitrogen vacancy color centers attached at the apex of an optical tip. The approach relies on leakage radiation microscopy in the Fourier space and we use this approach to test wave-particle duality for surface plasmon polaritons.

  13. Tunable Surface Plasmon and Phonon Polariton Interactions for Moderately Doped Semiconductor Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janipour, Mohsen; Misirlioglu, Ibrahim Burc; Sendur, Kursat

    2016-10-01

    Spatial charge distribution for biased semiconductors fundamentally differs from metals since they can allow inhomogeneous charge distributions due to penetration of the electric field, as observed in the classical Schottky junctions. Similarly, the electrostatics of the dielectric/semiconductor interface can lead to a carrier depletion or accumulation in the semiconductor side when under applied bias. In this study, we demonstrate that the inhomogeneous carrier accumulation in a moderately p-doped GaAs-dielectric interface can be tailored for tunable plasmonics by an external voltage. Solving Maxwell’s equations in the doped GaAs-dielectric stack, we investigate the tunability of the surface plasmon and phonon polaritons’ interaction via an external bias. The plasmonic mode analysis of such an interface reveals interesting dispersion curves for surface plasmon and phonon polariton interactions that are not possible in metals. We show that the plasmon dispersion curve can be engineered through an external bias using the inherent properties of the p-doped GaAs- dielectric interface.

  14. Tunable Surface Plasmon and Phonon Polariton Interactions for Moderately Doped Semiconductor Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janipour, Mohsen; Misirlioglu, Ibrahim Burc; Sendur, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Spatial charge distribution for biased semiconductors fundamentally differs from metals since they can allow inhomogeneous charge distributions due to penetration of the electric field, as observed in the classical Schottky junctions. Similarly, the electrostatics of the dielectric/semiconductor interface can lead to a carrier depletion or accumulation in the semiconductor side when under applied bias. In this study, we demonstrate that the inhomogeneous carrier accumulation in a moderately p-doped GaAs–dielectric interface can be tailored for tunable plasmonics by an external voltage. Solving Maxwell’s equations in the doped GaAs-dielectric stack, we investigate the tunability of the surface plasmon and phonon polaritons’ interaction via an external bias. The plasmonic mode analysis of such an interface reveals interesting dispersion curves for surface plasmon and phonon polariton interactions that are not possible in metals. We show that the plasmon dispersion curve can be engineered through an external bias using the inherent properties of the p-doped GaAs– dielectric interface.

  15. Surface Plasmon Resonance for Cell-Based Clinical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhki Yanase

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real-time observations and the evaluation of living cell conditions and functions are increasingly demanded in life sciences. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors detect the refractive index (RI changes on the surface of sensor chips in label-free and on a real-time basis. Using SPR sensors, we and other groups have developed techniques to evaluate living cells’ reactions in response to stimuli without any labeling in a real-time manner. The SPR imaging (SPRI system for living cells may visualize single cell reactions and has the potential to expand application of SPR cell sensing for clinical diagnosis, such as multi-array cell diagnostic systems and detection of malignant cells among normal cells in combination with rapid cell isolation techniques.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance scattered by a dielectric sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Yin, Xuejie

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that when total internal reflection occurs at the interface between high to low refractive index, evanescent field will go into the media with low refractive index. This field can be scattered by a small dielectric particle on the surface. In this paper, with the aim to enhance the scattering field we introduced a thin gold film, the filed modified by the metallic film was theoretically calculated by FDTD solver. Further a polystyrene bead at the diameter of 200nm and 800nm was employed to test the model. Theoretical and experimental results agree well with each other that the locally excitated surface plasmon play a dominant role in the field enhancement scattered by the sphere.

  17. Local Surface-Plasmons in Nonspherical Metal Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun-Chong; LU Yong-Hua; WANG Pei; MING Hai

    2007-01-01

    When a small metallic nanoparticleis irradiated by incident light, the oscillating electric field can cause the conduction electrons to oscillate coherently, which excites the local surface plasmons (LSPs). As is well known,excited LSPs can gather the energy of incident light to the surface of metallic nanoparticle. Recently, some nonspherical particles, e.g. tetrahedron, are suggested to obtain stronger localized electric field. We employ the discrete dipole approximation method to calculate the optical response of the tetrahedron nanoparticle, including the extinction and distribution of the electric field around the particle. The influences of some parameters,including the nanoparticle size, incident direction and polarization, are investigated to analyse the response modes and to obtain stronger localized electric field.

  18. Hyperbolic Metamaterials and Coupled Surface Plasmon Polaritons: comparative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tengfei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of sub-wavelength layered metal/dielectric structures, also known as hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), using exact analytical Kronig Penney (KP) model. We show that hyperbolic isofrequency surfaces exist for all combinations of layer permittivities and thicknesses, and the largest Purcell enhancements (PE) of spontaneous radiation are achieved away from the nominally hyperbolic region. Detailed comparison of field distributions, dispersion curves, and Purcell factors (PF) between the HMMs and Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) guided modes in metal/dielectric waveguides demonstrates that HMMs are nothing but weakly coupled gap or slab SPPs modes. Broadband PE is not specific to the HMMs and can be easily attained in single thin metallic layers. Furthermore, large wavevectors and PE are always combined with high loss, short propagation distances and large impedances; hence PE in HMMs is essentially a direct coupling of the energy into the free electron motion in the metal, o...

  19. Optofluidic cellular immunofunctional analysis by localized surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oh, Bo-Ram

    2014-08-01

    Cytokine secretion assays provide the means to quantify intercellular-signaling proteins secreted by blood immune cells. These assays allow researchers and clinicians to obtain valuable information on the immune status of the donor. Previous studies have demonstrated that localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects enable label-free, real-time biosensing on a nanostructured metallic surface with simple optics and sensing tunability. However, limited sensitivity coupled with a lack of sample handling capability makes it challenging to implement LSPR biosensing in cellular functional immunoanalysis based on cytokine secretion assay. This paper describes our recent progress towards full development of a label-free LSPR biosensing technique to detect cell-secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines in clinical blood samples. We integrate LSPR bionanosensors in an optofluidic platform capable of handling target immune cells in a microfluidic chamber while readily permitting optical access for cytokine detection.

  20. Chemically-doped graphene with improved surface plasmon characteristics: an optical near-field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zebo; Wang, Weiliang; Ma, Teng; Deng, Zexiang; Ke, Yanlin; Zhan, Runze; Zou, Qionghui; Ren, Wencai; Chen, Jun; She, Juncong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Huanjun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2016-10-01

    One of the most fascinating and important merits of graphene plasmonics is their tunability over a wide range. While chemical doping has proven to be a facile and effective way to create graphene plasmons, most of the previous studies focused on the macroscopic behaviors of the plasmons in chemically-doped graphene and little was known about their nanoscale responses and related mechanisms. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first experimental near-field optical study on chemically-doped graphene with improved surface plasmon characteristics. By using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM), we managed to show that the graphene plasmons can be tuned and improved using a facile chemical doping method. Specifically, the plasmon interference patterns near the edge of the monolayer graphene were substantially enhanced via nitric acid (HNO3) exposure. The plasmon-related characteristics can be deduced by analyzing such plasmonic fringes, which exhibited a longer plasmon wavelength and reduced plasmon damping rate. In addition, the local carrier density and therefore the Fermi energy level (EF) of graphene can be obtained from the plasmonic nano-imaging, which indicated that the enhanced plasmon oscillation originated from the injection of free holes into graphene by HNO3. These findings were further corroborated by theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT). We believe that our findings provide a clear nanoscale picture on improving graphene plasmonics by chemical doping, which will be helpful for optimizing graphene plasmonics and for elucidating the mechanisms of two-dimensional light confinement by atomically thick materials.

  1. Conventional and acoustic surface plasmons on noble metal surfaces: a time-dependent density functional theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2012-01-01

    First-principles calculations of the conventional and acoustic surface plasmons (CSPs and ASPs) on the (111) surfaces of Cu, Ag, and Au are presented. The effect of s-d interband transitions on both types of plasmons is investigated by comparing results from the local density approximation...

  2. Atomically precise gold nanocrystal molecules with surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Huifeng; Zhu, Yan; Jin, Rongchao

    2012-01-17

    Since Faraday's pioneering work on gold colloids, tremendous scientific research on plasmonic gold nanoparticles has been carried out, but no atomically precise Au nanocrystals have been achieved. This work reports the first example of gold nanocrystal molecules. Mass spectrometry analysis has determined its formula to be Au(333)(SR)(79) (R = CH(2)CH(2)Ph). This magic sized nanocrystal molecule exhibits fcc-crystallinity and surface plasmon resonance at approximately 520 nm, hence, a metallic nanomolecule. Simulations have revealed that atomic shell closing largely contributes to the particular robustness of Au(333)(SR)(79), albeit the number of free electrons (i.e., 333 - 79 = 254) is also consistent with electron shell closing based on calculations using a confined free electron model. Guided by the atomic shell closing growth mode, we have also found the next larger size of extraordinarily stability to be Au(~530)(SR)(~100) after a size-focusing selection--which selects the robust size available in the starting polydisperse nanoparticles. This work clearly demonstrates that atomically precise nanocrystal molecules are achievable and that the factor of atomic shell closing contributes to their extraordinary stability compared to other sizes. Overall, this work opens up new opportunities for investigating many fundamental issues of nanocrystals, such as the formation of metallic state, and will have potential impact on condensed matter physics, nanochemistry, and catalysis as well.

  3. Synthesis and tuning of gold nanorods with surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Daryush; Bahari, Ali; Gill, Pooria; Mohseni, Mojtaba

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanostructures in general and gold nanorods in particular due to their plasmon resonance has been employed for many applications, such as biosensors. For the biosensors uses, gold nanorods remain popular and reproducibility of them is the most important and critical. In the present work we used six different CTAB (Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) products and one BDAC (Benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride) with varying silver nitrate concentration in the seed-mediated growth of gold nanostructures. We synthesized gold nanorods with varying aspect ratio up to 5.5 with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak from 670 to 950 nm. We obtained excellent rod-shape gold nanostructures witch were reliable and reproducible with our method based on common seed-mediated growth. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Here, we report our method in more detail as a user-friendly guide for the production of gold nanorods and tuning of their aspect ratios.

  4. Development and Application of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Optical Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs along the interface between a metal and a dielectric has attracted significant attention due to its unique optical properties, which has inspired a plethora of fascinating applications in photonics and optoelectronics. However, SPPs suffer from large attenuation because of the ohmic losses in the metal layer. It has become the main bottom-neck problem for the development of high performance plasmonic devices. This limitation can be overcome by providing the material adjacent to the metal with optical gain. In this paper, a review of gain compensation to SPPs is presented. We focus on the spontaneous radiation amplification and simulated radiation amplification. The ohmic loss of metal was greatly improved by introducing optical gain. Then we introduce several gain mediums of dye doped, quantum dots, erbium ion, and semiconductor to compensate optical loss of SPPs. Using gain medium mentioned above can compensate losses and achieve many potential applications, for example, laser, amplifier, and LRSPP discussed.

  5. Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPolin, Cillian P. T.; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien; Vilain, Sebastien; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Dickson, Wayne; O'Connor, Daniel; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Justice, John; Corbett, Brian; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-08-01

    Integrated plasmonic sources and detectors are imperative in the practical development of plasmonic circuitry for bio- and chemical sensing, nanoscale optical information processing, as well as transducers for high-density optical data storage. Here we show that vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be employed as an on-chip, electrically pumped source or detector of plasmonic signals, when operated in forward or reverse bias, respectively. To this end, we experimentally demonstrate surface plasmon polariton excitation, waveguiding, frequency conversion and detection on a VCSEL-based plasmonic platform. The coupling efficiency of the VCSEL emission to waveguided surface plasmon polariton modes has been optimized using asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures. The plasmonic VCSEL platform validated here is a viable solution for practical realizations of plasmonic functionalities for various applications, such as those requiring sub-wavelength field confinement, refractive index sensitivity or optical near-field transduction with electrically driven sources, thus enabling the realization of on-chip optical communication and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  6. Anomalous microwave reflection from a metal surface induced by spoof surface plasmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liang; Cao Jin-Xiang; Lü You; Liu Lei; Du Yin-Chang; Wang Jian

    2012-01-01

    The reflection of X-band microwaves (8-12 GHz) from a metallic aluminum (Al) surface with groove grating corrugations was investigated experimentally.It was shown that the reflection of p-polarization is much less than the microwave reflected from the corresponding area of an unruled Al surface,with selective wavelength.The experimental results demonstrated that the anomalous microwave reflection is strongly associated with the excitation of spoof surface plasmons at the Al-air interface by the surface grating coupler. This near-total absence of reflected microwaves is similar to the famous Wood's anomaly in the optical regime and is of fundamental importance to the applications of spoof surface plasmons in the microwave regime.

  7. Microcontact imprinted surface plasmon resonance sensor for myoglobin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Bilgen [Uludag University, Department of Chemistry, Bursa (Turkey); Uzun, Lokman [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Beşirli, Necati [Uludag University, Department of Chemistry, Bursa (Turkey); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we prepared surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor using the molecular imprinting technique for myoglobin detection in human serum. For this purpose, we synthesized myoglobin imprinted poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-tryptophan methyl ester) [poly(HEMA-MATrp)] nanofilm on the surface of SPR sensor. We also synthesized non-imprinted poly(HEMA-MATrp) nanofilm without myoglobin for the control experiments. The SPR sensor was characterized with contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. We investigated the effectiveness of the sensor using the SPR system. We evaluated the ability of SPR sensor to sense myoglobin with myoglobin solutions (pH 7.4, phosphate buffer) in different concentration range and in the serum taken from a patient with acute myocardial infarction. We found that the Langmuir adsorption model was the most suitable for the sensor system. The detection limit was 87.6 ng/mL. In order to show the selectivity of the SPR sensor, we investigated the competitive detection of myoglobin, lysozyme, cytochrome c and bovine serum albumin. The results showed that the SPR sensor has high selectivity and sensitivity for myoglobin. - Highlights: • Micro-contact imprinted surface plasmon resonance sensor. • Real-time myoglobin detection in the serum taken from a patient with acute myocardial infarction • Reproducible results for consecutive myoglobin solution supplement • LOD and LOQ values of the SPR sensor were determined to be 26.3 and 87.6 ng/mL. • The SPR sensor has potential for myoglobin sensing during acute MI cases.

  8. Tapered dielectric structure in metal as a wavelength-selective surface plasmon polariton focuser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yang; Zhao Qing; Liao Zhi-Min; Yu Da-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Symmetric tapered dielectric structures in metal have demonstrated applications such as the nanofocusing of surface plasmon polaxitons, as well as the waveguiding of V-channel polaxitons. Yet the fabrication of smooth-surfaced tapered structure remains an obstacle to most researchers. We have successfully developed a handy method to fabricate metal-sandwiched tapered nanostructures simply with electron beam lithography. Though these structures are slightly different from conventional symmetric V-shaped structures, systematic simulations show that similar functionality of surface plasmon polaxiton nanofocusing can still be achieved, When parameters are properly selected, wavelengthselective nanofocusing of surface plasmon polaritons can be obtained.

  9. Surface Plasmon Polaritons of Two-Dimensional Three-Order Dendritic Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏凤; 周鲁卫

    2011-01-01

    We study surface plasmon polaritons excited on two-dimensional three-order dendritic structures. Previous studies show that split ring resonators (SRRs) can be used to obtain magnetic resonance, thus sustairdng surface waves behaving like surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). In this paper, we obtain detailed results on surface plasmon polaritons of several different grating structures and theoretically prove that this kind of structures can sustain SPPs. Besides, since dendritic structures can be fabricated by double template-assisted electrochemical deposition, it is worth noting that fabrication of SPP-based materials might be much easier.

  10. On the influence of surface plasmon-polariton waves on pattern formation upon laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, E.L., E-mail: gurevich@lat.rub.de [Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Here we analyze whether the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), which appear on solid surfaces exposed to single-pulse femtosecond laser radiation, can be explained by excitation of surface plasmon-polariton waves. We demonstrate that excitation of the surface plasmons is impossible in the laser-ablation experiments, since the excitation conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, properties and morphology of the observed periodic patterns contradict to the theory of the plasmonic nature of the LIPSS. The results are illustrated with experimental examples.

  11. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Ulrich [Interdisciplinary Center for the Analytics on the Nanoscale (ICAN) and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nienhaus, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.nienhaus@uni-due.de [Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Lotharstr. 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  12. Calibration of Surface Plasmon Resonance Imager for Biochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ktari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Surface Plasmon Resonance imager (SPRi based on immobilized T4-phage for bacteria detection. First, we present the sensitivity of the SPR imager towards refractive index variation for biosensor application. The SPR imager can be calibrated versus different percentage of triethylene glycol mixture in ultrapure water. The system can be used as a refractometer with sensitivity below 5×10−5 in the range of 1.33300–1.34360. Second, bacteriophage (T4-phage can be physisorbed on gold microarray spots for bacteria detection. The kinetic physisorption of different concentrations of T4-phages can be observed in real time. Finally, two types of bacteria such as E. coli (gram negative and Lactobacillus (gram positive were used for positive and negative tests. The results show a selectivity of T4-phage toward E. coli with a detection limit below 104 CFU/mL and with good reproducibility.

  13. Erbium luminescence imaging of infrared surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, E.; Tchebotareva, A. L.; Polman, A.

    2006-03-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to spatially map the propagation and damping of infrared surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on metal films using optically active erbium ions as a probe of the SPP field. The bound SPP mode propagating along the Ag/glass interface of a 96nm thick Ag film on glass is excited by illuminating a subwavelength hole array in the metal with 1.49μm light. By imaging the 1.53μm photoluminescence of Er ions positioned in the glass at a distance of 60nm from the Ag/glass interface in a confocal microscope, a SPP beam was observed to propagate along a broad stripe waveguide, with a characteristic propagation length of 76μm. This technique provides a useful tool to study the characteristics of SPP modes at metal-dielectric interfaces in a wide range of geometries.

  14. Probing topological protection using a designer surface plasmon structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Zhen; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Lu, Ling; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological photonic states, inspired by robust chiral edge states in topological insulators, have recently been demonstrated in a few photonic systems, including an array of coupled on-chip ring resonators at communication wavelengths. However, the intrinsic difference between electrons and photons determines that the ‘topological protection' in time-reversal-invariant photonic systems does not share the same robustness as its counterpart in electronic topological insulators. Here in a designer surface plasmon platform consisting of tunable metallic sub-wavelength structures, we construct photonic topological edge states and probe their robustness against a variety of defect classes, including some common time-reversal-invariant photonic defects that can break the topological protection, but do not exist in electronic topological insulators. This is also an experimental realization of anomalous Floquet topological edge states, whose topological phase cannot be predicted by the usual Chern number topological invariants. PMID:27197877

  15. Robust subwavelength focusing of surface plasmons on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yang; Zhang, Zhengren; Su, Xiaopeng

    2016-11-01

    Graphene plays a substantial role in nano-scale optical engineering and miniature information signal processing systems gradually. In this letter, we propose a pipe-like substrate scheme to achieve the properly designed inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity distribution on a single sheet of graphene. The transverse-magnetic surface plasmon polariton wave supported by graphene will oscillate like water running in an inclined pipe and focus onto one point in a deep-subwavelength scale in the graphene sheet. Importantly, we find that this focusing behavior is robust and insensitive to the variance of background Fermi energy and incident frequency based on the analytic analysis. We verify our scheme by exploiting Hamiltonian optics and numerical calculation. This nano-scale optical manipulation will lead to the development of miniature optical system integration on a 1-atom-thick structure.

  16. Excitation of surface plasmons at the boundary of overdense plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liang; Cao Jin-Xiang; Wang Yan; Niu Tian-Ye; Liu Lei; Lü You

    2008-01-01

    The excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) with a strip grating at the boundary of an unmagnetized overdense plasma has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. An incident electromagnetic radiation was p-polarized at the frequency of 5 GHz. Experiments showed that when the plasma density was four times higher than the critical density with the grating present, and the SPs could be excited at the boundary of the overdense plasma. Contribution of the glass layer in the formation of the SP dispersion relation was examined. When the incident electromagnetic radiation was coupled into SPs the coupling order with the effective permittivity was simulated qualitatively. We find that the existence of SPs at the boundary of overdense plasma indicates that the reflection coefficient of the incident electromagnetic radiation reaches its minimum and even becomes total absorption. In this work the plasma density was diagnosed by a Langmuir double probe.

  17. Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Temnov, Vasily V; Nelson, Keith A; Thomay, Tim; Knittel, Vanessa; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Makarov, Denys; Albrecht, Manfred; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental interactions induced by lattice vibrations on ultrafast time scales become increasingly important for modern nanoscience and technology. Experimental access to the physical properties of acoustic phonons in the THz frequency range and over the entire Brillouin zone is crucial for understanding electric and thermal transport in solids and their compounds. Here, we report on the generation and nonlinear propagation of giant (1 percent) acoustic strain pulses in hybrid gold/cobalt bilayer structures probed with ultrafast surface plasmon interferometry. This new technique allows for unambiguous characterization of arbitrary ultrafast acoustic transients. The giant acoustic pulses experience substantial nonlinear reshaping already after a propagation distance of 100 nm in a crystalline gold layer. Excellent agreement with the Korteveg-de Vries model points to future quantitative nonlinear femtosecond THz-ultrasonics at the nano-scale in metals at room temperature.

  18. On-chip photonic Fourier transform with surface plasmon polaritons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Shan Kou; Guanghui Yuan; Qian wang; Luping Du; Eugeniu Balaur; Daohua Zhang; Dingyuan Tang

    2016-01-01

    The Fourier transform (FT),a cornerstone of optical processing,enables rapid evaluation of fundamental mathematical operations,such as derivatives and integrals.Conventionally,a converging lens performs an optical FT in free space when light passes through it.The speed of the transformation is limited by the thickness and the focal length of the lens.By usingthe wave nature of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs),here we demonstrate that the FT can be implemented in a planar configuration with a minimal propagation distance of around 10 μm,resulting in an increase of speed by four to five orders of magnitude.The photonic FT was tested by synthesizing intricate SPP waves with their Fourier components.The reduced dimensionality in the minuscule device allows the future development of an ultrafast on-chip photonic information processing platform for large-scale optical computing.

  19. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermo Bazan; Alexander Mikhailovsky

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop the fundamental understanding and practical techniques for enhancement of Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) performance by utilizing radiative decay control technology. Briefly, the main technical goal is the acceleration of radiative recombination rate in organometallic triplet emitters by using the interaction with surface plasmon resonances in noble metal nanostructures. Increased photonic output will enable one to eliminate constraints imposed on PhOLED efficiency by triplet-triplet annihilation, triplet-polaron annihilation, and saturation of chromophores with long radiative decay times. Surface plasmon enhanced (SPE) PhOLEDs will operate more efficiently at high injection current densities and will be less prone to degradation mechanisms. Additionally, introduction of metal nanostructures into PhOLEDs may improve their performance due to the improvement of the charge transport through organic layers via multiple possible mechanisms ('electrical bridging' effects, doping-like phenomena, etc.). SPE PhOLED technology is particularly beneficial for solution-fabricated electrophosphorescent devices. Small transition moment of triplet emitters allows achieving a significant enhancement of the emission rate while keeping undesirable quenching processes introduced by the metal nanostructures at a reasonably low level. Plasmonic structures can be introduced easily into solution-fabricated PhOLEDs by blending and spin coating techniques and can be used for enhancement of performance in existing device architectures. This constitutes a significant benefit for a large scale fabrication of PhOLEDs, e.g. by roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Besides multieexciton annihilation, the power efficacy of PhOLEDs is often limited by high operational bias voltages required for overcoming built-in potential barriers to injection and transport of electrical charges through a device. This problem is

  20. Surface plasmon polaritons on soft-boundary graphene nanoribbons and their application as voltage controlled plasmonic switches and frequency demultiplexers

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    A graphene sheet gated with a ridged ground plane, creating a soft-boundary (SB) graphene nanoribbon, is considered. By adjusting the ridge parameters and bias voltage a channel can be created on the graphene which can guide TM surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). Two types of modes are found; fundemental and higher-order modes with no apparent cutoff frequency and with energy distributed over the created channel, and edge modes with energy concen-trated at the soft-boundary edge. Dispersion curves, electric near-field patterns, and current distributions of these modes are determined. Since the location where energy is concentrated in the edge modes can be easily controlled electronically by the bias voltage and frequency, the edge-mode phenomena is used to propose a novel voltage controlled plasmonic switch and a plasmonic frequency demultiplexer.

  1. Controlling Surface-plasmon-polariton Launching with Hot Spot Cylindrical Waves in a Metallic Slit Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Wenjie; Chen, Jianjun; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures, which are used to generate surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs), always involve sharp corners where the charges can accumulate. This can result in strong localized electromagnetic fields at the metallic corners, forming hot spots. The influence of the hot spots on the propagating SPPs are investigated theoretically and experimentally in a metallic slit structure. It is found that the electromagnetic fields radiated from the hot spots, termed as the hot spot cylindrical wave (HSCW), can greatly manipulate the SPP launching in the slit structure. The physical mechanism behind the manipulation of the SPP launching with the HSCW is explicated by a semi-analytic model. By using the HSCW, unidirectional SPP launching is experimentally realized in an ultra-small metallic step-slit structure. The HSCW bridges the localized surface plasmons and the propagating surface plasmons in an integrated platform and thus may pave a new route to the design of plasmonic devices and circuits.

  2. Electrical excitation of waveguided surface plasmons by a light-emitting tunneling optical gap antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazier, N; Buret, M; Uskov, A V; Markey, L; Arocas, J; Colas Des Francs, G; Bouhelier, A

    2016-02-22

    We introduce a new type of electroplasmonic interfacing component to electrically generate surface plasmons. Specifically, an electron-fed optical tunneling gap antenna is integrated on a plasmonic waveguiding platform. When electrical charges are injected in the tunneling barrier of the gap antenna, a broad-band radiation is emitted from the feed area by a process identified as a thermal emission of hot electrons. Part of the emitted photons couples to surface plasmon modes sustained by the waveguide geometry. The transducing optical antenna is thus acting as a localized electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons. The integration of electrically-activated optical antennas into a plasmonic architecture mitigates the need for complex coupling scheme and proposes a solution for realizing nanoscale units at the interface between nano-electronics and photonics.

  3. A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X; Zhang, Y.; Pan, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel design for a photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmonic resonance sensor. The sensor consists of selectively metal-coated air holes containing analyte channels, which enhance the phase matching between the plasmonic mode and the core-guided mode. Good refractive index sensi...

  4. Time-resolved detection of surface plasmon polaritons with a scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Ha, T.; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    1998-01-01

    We present the time-resolved detection of surface plasmon polaritons with an STM. The results indicate that the time resolved signal is due to rectification of coherently superimposed plasmon voltages. The comparison with differential reflectivity measurements shows that the tip itself influences...

  5. Effect of phonon-plasmon and surface plasmon polaritons on photoluminescence in quantum emitter and graphene deposited on polar crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Brzozowski, Marek J.; Apter, Boris

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the light-matter interaction in a quantum emitter and metallic graphene flake (MGF) hybrid system deposited on a polar material. The coupling of surface plasmons in graphene and optical phonons in the polar material produces phonon-plasmon polaritons (PPPs). Similarly, couplings of photons with surface plasmons of graphene produce surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using the second quantized formulation for SPPs and PPPs interactions and density matrix method, we have calculated photoluminescence of the quantum emitters. It is found that when the exciton energy of the quantum emitter is in resonant with SPP and PPP energies, the photoluminescence in the quantum emitter are enhanced in the terahertz range. The enhancement is due to the transfer of SPP and PPP energies from the graphene flake to the quantum emitter. The energy transfer from graphene to the quantum emitter can be controlled by applying external pump lasers or stress and strain fields. These are interesting findings which can be used to fabricate switches and sensors.

  6. Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance enhanced ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nooke, Alida

    2012-11-01

    This thesis investigated gas sensing by means of surface plasmon resonance enhanced ellipsometry. Surface plasmons were excited in a 40 - 50 nm gold layer by a He-Ne-laser using the Kretschmann configuration, which was arranged on a self-made copper measuring cell. A fixed angle of incidence and the ellipsometric parameter {Delta} as the measured value were used to monitor changes in the gas phase. Different types of gases were investigated: flammable (hydrocarbons and hydrogen), oxidising (oxygen and ozone), toxic (carbon monoxide) and inert (helium and nitrogen). The gas types can be distinguished by their refractive indices, whereas the sensor responds instantly relative to the reference gas with an increase or a decrease in {Delta}. Diluting the analyte gas with a reference gas (nitrogen or air) allowed the detection limits to be determined, these lay in the low % range. The sensor stability was also enhanced as well as the sensitivity by modifying the gold layers with a 3-10 nm additional layer. These additional layers consisted of the inorganic materials TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, MgF{sub 2} and Fe: SnO{sub 2} which were deposited by different coating processes. Surface investigations were made of every utilised layer: scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope measurements for surface topology and spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping to determine the optical constants and the layer thicknesses. All applied materials protected the gold layer from contaminations and thus prolonged the life span of the sensor. Furthermore, the detection limits were reduced significantly, to the low ppm range. The material Fe: SnO{sub 2} demonstrates a special behaviour in reaction with the toxic gas carbon monoxide: Due to the iron doping, the response to carbon monoxide is extraordinary and concentrations below 1 ppm were detected. In order to approach a future application in industry, the sensor system was adapted to a stainless steel tube. With this measuring

  7. Estimation of Plasma Density by Surface Plasmons for Surface-Wave Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhao-Quan; LIU Ming-Hai; LAN Chao-Hui; CHEN Wei; LUO Zhi-Qing; HU Xi-Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ An estimation method of plasma density based on surface plasmons theory for surface-wave plasmas is proposed. The number of standing-wave is obtained directly from the discharge image, and the propagation constant is calculated with the trim size of the apparatus in this method, then plasma density can be determined with the value of 9.1 × 1017 m-3. Plasma density is measured using a Langmuir probe, the value is 8.1 × 1017 m-3 which is very close to the predicted value of surface plasmons theory. Numerical simulation is used to check the number of standing-wave by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method also. All results are compatible both of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement.

  8. Features of electromagnetic waves in a complex plasma due to surface plasmon resonances on macroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric properties of complex plasma containing either metal or dielectric spherical inclusions (macroparticles, dust) are investigated. We focus on surface plasmon resonances on the macroparticle surfaces and their effect on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is demonstrated that the presence of surface plasmon oscillations significantly modifies plasma electromagnetic properties by resonances and cutoffs in the effective permittivity. This leads to related branches of electromagnetic waves and to the wave band gaps. The results are discussed in the context of dusty plasma experiments.

  9. Gallium arsenide based surface plasmon resonance for glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Harshada; Sane, Vani; Sriram, G.; Indumathi, T. S; Sharan, Preeta

    2015-07-01

    The recent trends in the semiconductor and microwave industries has enabled the development of scalable microfabrication technology which produces a superior set of performance as against its counterparts. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based biosensors are a special class of optical sensors that become affected by electromagnetic waves. It is found that bio-molecular recognition element immobilized on the SPR sensor surface layer reveals a characteristic interaction with various sample solutions during the passage of light. The present work revolves around developing painless glucose monitoring systems using fluids containing glucose like saliva, urine, sweat or tears instead of blood samples. Non-invasive glucose monitoring has long been simulated using label free detection mechanisms and the same concept is adapted. In label-free detection, target molecules are not labeled or altered, and are detected in their natural forms. Label-free detection mechanisms involves the measurement of refractive index (RI) change induced by molecular interactions. These interactions relates the sample concentration or surface density, instead of total sample mass. After simulation it has been observed that the result obtained is highly accurate and sensitive. The structure used here is SPR sensor based on channel waveguide. The tools used for simulation are RSOFT FULLWAVE, MEEP and MATLAB etc.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: Achieving a quantitative optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alexander W.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.; Elliott, John T.

    2016-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging allows real-time label-free imaging based on index of refraction and changes in index of refraction at an interface. Optical parameter analysis is achieved by application of the Fresnel model to SPR data typically taken by an instrument in a prism based figuration. We carry out SPR imaging on a microscope by launching light into a sample and collecting reflected light through a high numerical aperture microscope objective. The SPR microscope enables spatial resolution that approaches the diffraction limit and has a dynamic range that allows detection of subnanometer to submicrometer changes in thickness of biological material at a surface. However, unambiguous quantitative interpretation of SPR changes using the microscope system could not be achieved using the Fresnel model because of polarization dependent attenuation and optical aberration that occurs in the high numerical aperture objective. To overcome this problem, we demonstrate a model to correct for polarization diattenuation and optical aberrations in the SPR data and develop a procedure to calibrate reflectivity to index of refraction values. The calibration and correction strategy for quantitative analysis was validated by comparing the known indices of refraction of bulk materials with corrected SPR data interpreted with the Fresnel model. Subsequently, we applied our SPR microscopy method to evaluate the index of refraction for a series of polymer microspheres in aqueous media and validated the quality of the measurement with quantitative phase microscopy.

  11. Surface plasmon resonance characterization of calspermin-calmodulin binding kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew J; Kemp, Fred; Love, John

    2008-05-01

    We cloned, expressed, and purified a chimeric fusion between a soluble green fluorescent protein (smGFP) and the calmodulin binding protein calspermin. We have shown that the fusion protein, labeled smGN, has a K(i) in the calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity assay of 1.97 nM, i.e., 3800 times smaller than that of the commonly used calmodulin inhibitor W7. Association and dissociation rate constants (k(a) and k(d)) and the dissociation equilibrium constant (K(D)) of smGN for calmodulin were determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The k(a)=1.24 x 10(6)M(-1)s(-1), the k(d)=5.49 x 10(-3)s(-1), and the K(D)=4.42 x 10(-9)M. We also found that the GFP moiety was important for successfully binding calspermin to the surface of the CM5 flow cell at a sufficiently high concentration for SPR, and that this procedure may be used for SPR analysis of other acidic polypeptides, whose pIliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, indicating a high level of specificity. We conclude that the high affinity and specific binding between smGN and calmodulin make it an easily localized recombinant alternative to chemical calmodulin inhibitors.

  12. Polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreja, Paula; Cristea, Dana; Kusko, Mihai; Dinescu, Adrian

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a design and low-cost techniques for polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. To obtain a polymer chip with a prism, microchannels and a chamber at microscale dimensions, replication techniques in polymers with controlled refractive index have been developed. Photoresist, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and epoxy resin were used. Silicon dioxide/silicon-based molds have been obtained by anisotropic etching of silicon, and glass prisms were used as masters for replication. The photoresist molds were obtained by optical lithography and were used to obtain the microchannels and the chamber. A liquid prepolymer (PDMS, Sylgard 184) with curing agent at a ratio of 10:1 was used, and a special technique was developed in order to fabricate the components of the structure at the same time. For the deposition and direct patterning of the metallic layers onto the polymer surface, different methods were experimented with, including sputtering. The materials and techniques used to achieve SPR sensors are presented, and the possibilities and limitations of the technology are discussed.

  13. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for enzymatic detection of small analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massumi Miyazaki, Celina; Makoto Shimizu, Flávio; Mejía-Salazar, J. R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Ferreira, Marystela

    2017-04-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing is based on the detection of small changes in the refractive index on a gold surface modified with molecular recognition materials, thus being mostly limited to detecting large molecules. In this paper, we report on a SPR biosensing platform suitable to detect small molecules by making use of the mediator-type enzyme microperoxidase-11 (MP11) in layer-by-layer films. By depositing a top layer of glucose oxidase or uricase, we were able to detect glucose or uric acid with limits of detection of 3.4 and 0.27 μmol l‑1, respectively. Measurable SPR signals could be achieved because of the changes in polarizability of MP11, as it is oxidized upon interaction with the analyte. Confirmation of this hypothesis was obtained with finite difference time domain simulations, which also allowed us to discard the possible effects from film roughness changes observed in atomic force microscopy images. The main advantage of this mediator-type enzyme approach is in the simplicity of the experimental method that does not require an external potential, unlike similar approaches for SPR biosensing of small molecules. The detection limits reported here were achieved without optimizing the film architecture, and therefore the performance can in principle be further enhanced, while the proposed SPR platform may be extended to any system where hydrogen peroxide is generated in enzymatic reactions.

  14. Surface plasmon enhanced quantum transport in a hybrid metal nanoparticle array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lin; Nan, Yali; Xu, Shang; Zhang, Sishi; Han, Min, E-mail: sjhanmin@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-18

    Hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle arrays composed of randomly distributed Pd nanoparticles in dense packing and a small number of dispersed Ag nanoparticles were fabricated with controlled coverage. Photo-enhanced conductance was observed in the nanoparticle arrays. Largest enhancement, which can be higher than 20 folds, was obtained with 450 nm light illumination. This wavelength was found to correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles. Electron transport measurements showed there were significant Coulomb blockade in the nanoparticle arrays and the blockade could be overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field of Ag nanoparticles induced by light illumination. - Highlights: • We study photo-enhanced electron conductance of a hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle array. • The light-induced conductance enhancement is as high as 20 folds at 10 K. • The enhancement is correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. • Coulomb blockades is overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field.

  15. Enhancement of Smith-Purcell radiation with surface-plasmon excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ping; Zhang Ya-Xin; Zhou Jun; Liu Wei-Hao; Zhong Ren-Bin; Liu Sheng-Gang

    2012-01-01

    With the aid of a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code simulation,the enhancement of Smith-Purcell radiation with a surface-plasmon mode excited by a single electron bunch and by a premodulated electron beam is considered in the paper.In the simulation,the model is a grating covered by Ag film.The results demonstrate that when the surface-plasmon mode is excited by a single electron bunch,the maximum radiation occurs at an observation angle depending on the surface-plasmon frequency,and the radiation power can be enhanced more than ten times.And for pre-bunched electron beam excitation,when one of the harmonics of the bunching frequency is resonant with that of the surface-plasmon mode,the radiation power is twenty times more than that from a perfectly conducting grating excited by the same premodulated electron beam.

  16. Tension induced surface plasmon-polaritons at graphene-based structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalandi, G.; Namdar, A.; Entezar, S. Roshan

    2017-02-01

    Dispersion properties and field distributions of TM (or p-polarized) surface plasmon-polaritons have been investigated in the system that a strained graphene sheet cladded by two dielectrics. The outcomes show that graphene TM surface plasmon-polaritons are bound confined modes, and the field components penetrate into the dielectric layers in the rang that is very smaller than the wavelength in the free space. At low photon energies, when the tension is along the zigzag (armchair) direction and parallel (perpendicular) to the tangential electric field, the wavelength, propagation length and penetration depth of TM surface plasmon-polaritons increase (decrease) with increasing the strain. Changing the angle between the tension direction and tangential electric field at cases with the constant strain, cause to existence of TM surface plasmon-polaritons in the wider range of frequency.

  17. Photocurrent Enhancement of Graphene Photodetectors by Photon Tunneling of Light into Surface Plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Maleki, Alireza; Gu, Min; Downes, James E; Coutts, David W; Dawes, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that surface plasmon resonances excited by photon tunneling through an adjacent dielectric medium enhance photocurrent detected by a graphene photodetector. The device is created by overlaying a graphene sheet over an etched gap in a gold film deposited on glass. The detected photocurrents are compared for five different excitation wavelengths, ranging from nm to nm. The photocurrent excited with incident p-polarized light (the case for resonant surface plasmon excitation) is significantly amplified in comparison with that for s-polarized light (without surface plasmon resonances). We observe that the photocurrent is greater for shorter wavelengths (for both s and p-polarizations) due to the increased photothermal current resulting from higher damping of surface plasmons at shorter wavelength excitation. Position-dependent Raman spectroscopic analysis of the optically-excited graphene photodetector indicates the presence of charge carriers near the metallic edge. In addition, we show that the p...

  18. Anisotropy-assisted non-scattering coherent absorption of surface plasmon-polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatov, Anton I; Baranov, Denis G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to control propagation of electromagnetic guided modes lies at the heart of integrated nanophotonics. Surface plasmon-polaritons are a class of guided modes which can be employed in integrated optical systems. Here, we present a theoretical design of a coherent surface plasmon absorber which can perfectly harvest energy of coherently incident surface plasmons without parasitic scattering into free space modes. Excitation of free space modes which usually accompanies scattering of a surface plasmon by an interface boundary is avoided due to specially tailored anisotropy of the absorber. The concept of coherent SPP absorber is analyzed numerically for spatially non-uniform and finite-size structures. We believe that our results will be important for the development of integrated nanoplasmonic systems.

  19. Generation of Bessel Surface Plasmon Polaritons in a Finite-Thickness Metal Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kurilkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of generation of low- and high-index Bessel surface plasmon polaritons and their superposition in a metal film of a finite thickness is developed. Correct analytical expressions are obtained for the field of two families of Bessel surface plasmon polariton modes formed inside and outside the metal layer. The intensity distribution near the boundary of the layer has been calculated and analyzed. A scheme for the experimental realization of a superposition of Bessel surface plasmon polaritons is suggested. Our study demonstrates that it is feasible to use the superposition of Bessel surface plasmon polaritons as a virtual tip for near-field optical microscopy with a nanoscale resolution.

  20. Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungho Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bio-chemical sensing devices has been greatly improved by the development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR based sensors. Advancements in micro- and nano-fabrication technologies have led to a variety of structures in SPR sensing systems being proposed. In this review, SPR sensors (from typical Kretschmann prism configurations to fiber sensor schemes with micro- or nano-structures for local light field enhancement, extraordinary optical transmission, interference of surface plasmon waves, plasmonic cavities, etc. are discussed. We summarize and compare their performances and present guidelines for the design of SPR sensors.

  1. Efficient Coupling and Transport of a Surface Plasmon at 780 nm in a Gold Nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-08-28

    We studied plasmonic nanostructures in single-crystal gold with scanning electron and femtosecond photoemission electron microscopies. We designed an integrated laser coupling and nanowire waveguide structure by focused ion beam lithography in single-crystal gold flakes. The photoemission results show that the laser field is efficiently coupled into a propagating surface plasmon by a simple hole structure and propagates efficiently in an adjacent nano-bar waveguide. A strong local field is created by the propagating surface plasmon at the nano-bar tip. A similar structure, with a decreased waveguide width and thickness, displayed significantly more intense photoemission indicating enhanced local electric field at the sharper tip.

  2. Grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance in conical mounting with polarization modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffato, G; Romanato, F

    2012-07-01

    A grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GCSPR) technique based on polarization modulation in conical mounting is presented. A metallic grating is azimuthally rotated to support double-surface plasmon polariton excitation and exploit the consequent sensitivity enhancement. Corresponding to the resonance polar angle, a polarization scan of incident light is performed, and reflectivity data are collected before and after functionalization with a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The output signal exhibits a harmonic dependence on polarization, and the phase term is used as a parameter for sensing. This technique offers the possibility of designing extremely compact, fast, and cheap high-resolution plasmonic sensors based on GCSPR.

  3. Sensitivity Dependence of Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors on Prism Refractive Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that refractive index of the prism used toload metal film has significant influence on sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance based sensors. Theprism with lower refractive index gives the sensors a higher sensitivity in detecting refractive index varia-tions of a sample. We attribute this effect to the fact that a prism with low refractive index will increasecoupling distance between surface plasmons and the medium under investigation.

  4. Surface plasmons in a metal nanowire coupled to colloidal quantum dots: Scattering properties and quantum entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We investigate coherent single surface-plasmon transport in a metal nanowire strongly coupled to two colloidal quantum dots. Analytical expressions are obtained for the transmission and reflection coefficients by solving the corresponding eigenvalue equation. Remote entanglement of the wave functions of the two quantum dots can be created if the inter-dot distance is equal to a multiple half-wavelength of the surface plasmon. Furthermore, by applying classical laser pulses to the quantum dots...

  5. Coupling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots to surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lykke; Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe;

    2008-01-01

    InAs quantum dots have been placed at different distances to a silver mirror. We extract the coupling of quantum dots to surface plasmon polaritons as a function of the distance by time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements.......InAs quantum dots have been placed at different distances to a silver mirror. We extract the coupling of quantum dots to surface plasmon polaritons as a function of the distance by time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements....

  6. Color changing plasmonic surfaces utilizing liquid crystal (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis

    2016-09-01

    Plasmonic structural color has recently garnered significant interest as an alternative to the organic dyes standard in print media and liquid crystal displays. These nanostructured metallic systems can produce diffraction limited images, be made polarization dependent, and exhibit resistance to color bleaching. Perhaps even more advantageous, their optical characteristics can also be tuned, post-fabrication, by altering the surrounding media's refractive index parallel to the local plasmonic fields. A common material with which to achieve this is liquid crystal. By reorienting the liquid crystal molecules through external electric fields, the optical resonances of the plasmonic filters can be dynamically controlled. Demonstrations of this phenomenon, however, have been limited to modest shifts in plasmon resonance. Here, we report a liquid crystal-plasmonic system with an enhanced tuning range through the use of a shallow array of nano-wells and high birefringent liquid crystal. The continuous metallic nanostructure maximizes the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal while also allowing full reorientation of the liquid crystal upon an applied electric field. Sweeping over structural dimensions and voltages results in a color palette for these dynamic reflective pixels that can further be exploited to create color tunable images. These advances make plasmonic-liquid crystal systems more attractive candidates for filter, display, and other tunable optical technologies.

  7. Enhancement and tunability of near-field radiative heat transfer mediated by surface plasmon polaritons in thin plasmonic films

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Jiawei; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (...

  8. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul Kalam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hou - Tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of {approx}10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor holes. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stopband to a passband and up to {pi}/2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz plasmonics.

  9. Complex frequencies and field distributions of localized surface plasmon modes in graphene-coated subwavelength wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Mauro; Riso, Máximo A.; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study the modal characteristics of localized surface plasmons in graphene-coated, circular cross-section wires. Localized surface plasmons are represented in terms of cylindrical multipole partial waves characterized by discrete, complex frequencies that depend on the size of the wire and can be dynamically tuned via a gate voltage. We consider both intrinsically nonplasmonic wires and intrinsically plasmonic wires. In the first case the localized surface plasmons are introduced by the graphene coating, whereas in the second case the localized eigenmodes of the graphene coating are expected to hybridize those already existing in the bare wire. We show that the approach presented here, valid for particle sizes where the retardation effects can be significant, is in good agreement with analytical expressions obtained in the limit when particle size is very small compared to the wavelength of the eigenmode and with results indirectly determined from scattering cross-section spectra.

  10. La force de Casimir et les plasmons de surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, F.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    La présence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreux effets bien connus, dont l'archétype est la force de Casimir apparaîssant entre deux miroirs placés dans le vide par suite de la pression de radiation du vide. Elle a été récemment mesurée avec une précision de l'ordre du %. De nombreux travaux sont consacrés à l'évaluation théorique de cette force en visant une précision du même ordre. Ici nous étudions la force de Casimir dans la configuration de deux miroirs métalliques plans parallèles à température nulle. En supposant les miroirs décrits par un modèle plasma nous interprétons la force de Casimir comme le résultat de l'interaction entre les plasmons de surface des deux miroirs.

  11. Multiplexed polymer surface plasmon sensor with integrated optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Hyeon-Bong; Park, Se Ho; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Choi, Chang Auck

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel multiplexed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor which is made of cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs, TOPAS TM). This material has excellent chemical resistance, low water uptake (multiplexed detection of DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). To evaluate the sensitivity of COC-SPR sensor, we first patterned MgF II on gold-coated COC-SPR sensor and observed the shift of minimum reflectivity (SPR dip) in pixel address. As incident light source we used an expanded, collimated, rectangular shaped He-Ne laser, with a diffuser for beam homogenization. With expanded laser beam we varied incident angle so that the angular shift is expressed as the darkest pixel shift on CCD. For optimized SPR characteristics and sensor configuration, analytical calculations (Fresnel equation) were performed, and the best SPR conditions were found to be d Au~48 nm at wavelength λ=633 nm with respected resonance angle at θ SPR =44.2° for COC-SPR sensor.

  12. Immunosensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance for Antigen Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance(SPR)has been developed for the recognition of antigen.The sensor was designed on the basis of the fixed angle of incidence and measuring the reflected intensities in a wavelength range of 430-750 nm in real-time. An ultra-bright white light-emitting diode(LED)was used as the light source. Molecular self-assembling in solution was used to form the sensing membrane on gold substrate. It has been seen that the sensitivity of the SPR sensor with 3-mercaptopropionic acid(MPA)/protein A(SPA) sensing membrane is considerably higher than that with MPA or SPA modified Sensing membrane. The kinetic processes on the sensing membrane were studied. The human B factor(Bf), an activator of complement 3(C3), was recognized among the other antigens. This sensor can also be used for other antigen/antibody or adaptor/receptor recognition. Under optimized experimental conditions, the sensor has good selectivity, repeatability, and reversibility.

  13. Counterintuitive dispersion effect near surface plasmon resonances in Otto structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Li-Gang; Ye, Lin-Hua; Al-Amri, M.; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the counterintuitive dispersion effect associated with the poles and zeros of reflection and transmission functions in an Otto configuration when a surface plasmon resonance is excited. We show that the zeros and/or poles in the reflection and transmission functions may move into the upper-half complex-frequency plane (CFP), and these locations of the zeros and poles determine the dispersion properties of the whole structures (i.e., the frequency-dependent change of both reflected and transmitted phases). Meanwhile, we demonstrate various dispersion effects (both normal and abnormal) related to the changes of the poles and zeros in both reflection and transmission functions when considering the properties of metal substrates. For a realistic metal substrate in an Otto structure, there are the optimal thickness and incident angle, which correspond to the transitions of the zeros in the reflection function from the upper-half to lower-half CFP. These properties may be helpful to manipulate light propagation in optical devices.

  14. Fibre optic surface plasmon resonance sensor system designed for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Kort; Roth, Bernhard

    2015-06-29

    A fibre optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system for smartphones is reported, for the first time. The sensor was fabricated by using an easy-to-implement silver coating technique and by polishing both ends of a 400 µm optical fibre to obtain 45° end-faces. For excitation and interrogation of the SPR sensor system the flash-light and camera at the back side of the smartphone were employed, respectively. Consequently, no external electrical components are required for the operation of the sensor system developed. In a first application example a refractive index sensor was realised. The performance of the SPR sensor system was demonstrated by using different volume concentrations of glycerol solution. A sensitivity of 5.96·10(-4) refractive index units (RIU)/pixel was obtained for a refractive index (RI) range from 1.33 to 1.36. In future implementations the reported sensor system could be integrated in a cover of a smartphone or used as a low-cost, portable point-of-care diagnostic platform. Consequently it offers the potential of monitoring a large variety of environmental or point-of-care parameters in combination with smartphones.

  15. Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical fiber.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Rumpf, Arthur Norman; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

    2009-10-01

    Fiber-optic gas phase surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of several contaminant gases of interest to state-of-health monitoring in high-consequence sealed systems has been demonstrated. These contaminant gases include H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and moisture using a single-ended optical fiber mode. Data demonstrate that results can be obtained and sensitivity is adequate in a dosimetric mode that allows periodic monitoring of system atmospheres. Modeling studies were performed to direct the design of the sensor probe for optimized dimensions and to allow simultaneous monitoring of several constituents with a single sensor fiber. Testing of the system demonstrates the ability to detect 70mTorr partial pressures of H{sub 2} using this technique and <280 {micro}Torr partial pressures of H{sub 2}S. In addition, a multiple sensor fiber has been demonstrated that allows a single fiber to measure H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}O without changing the fiber or the analytical system.

  16. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone’s LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone’s camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  17. Optimization of immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles for cell surface receptor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekell, Kevin; Price, Hillel; Marinakos, Stella; Wax, Adam

    2012-02-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles hold great potential as optical contrast agents due to a unique feature, known as the plasmon resonance, which produces enhanced scattering and absorption at specific frequencies. The plasmon resonance also provides a spectral tunability that is not often found in organic fluorophores or other labeling methods. The ability to functionalize these nanoparticles with antibodies has led to their development as contrast agents for molecular optical imaging. In this review article, we present methods for optimizing the spectral agility of these labels. We discuss synthesis of gold nanorods, a plasmonic nanoparticle in which the plasmonic resonance can be tuned during synthesis to provide imaging within the spectral window commonly utilized in biomedical applications. We describe recent advances in our group to functionalize gold and silver nanoparticles using distinct antibodies, including EGFR, HER-2 and IGF-1, selected for their relevance to tumor imaging. Finally, we present characterization of these nanoparticle labels to verify their spectral properties and molecular specificity.

  18. Optical Sensing and Trapping Based on Localized Surface Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhiwen

    This project involves the study of novel plasmonic nanodevices that provide unique functionality in optical sensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and optical trapping. The first design is based on a coupling system involving double-layered metal nano-strips arrays. This system has the advantages of simple geometry and direct integration with microfluidic chips. The intense optical localization due to field coupling within the system can enhance detection sensitivity of target molecules, especially by virtue of the optical trapping of plasmonic nanoparticles. The optical resonant condition is obtained theoretically through analyzing the SPs modes. Numerical modeling based on two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is consistent with the theoretical analysis and demonstrates the feasibility of using this system for optical sensing and trapping. In the second design, a gold nano-ring structure is demonstrated to be an effective approach for plasmonic nano-optical tweezers (PNOTs) for trapping metallic nanoparticles. In our demonstration example, we have optimized a device for SERS operation at the wavelength of 785 nm. Three-dimensional (3D) FDTD techniques have been employed to calculate the optical response, and the optical force distribution have been derived using the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) method. Simulation results indicate that the nano-ring produces a maximum trapping potential well of ~32 kBT on a 20 nm gold nanoparticle. The existence of multiple potential well results in a very large active trapping volume of ~106 nm3 for the target particles. Furthermore, the trapped gold nanoparticles further lead to the formation of nano-gaps that offer a near-field enhancement of ~160 times, resulting in an achievable EF of 108 for SERS. In the third design, we propose a concept of all-optical nano-manipulation. We show that target molecules, after being trapped, can be transferred between the trapping sites within a linear array of

  19. Angle-tunable enhanced infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy via grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petefish, Joseph W; Hillier, Andrew C

    2014-03-04

    Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy is an attractive method for increasing the prominence of vibrational modes in infrared spectroscopy. To date, the majority of reports associated with SEIRA utilize localized surface plasmon resonance from metal nanoparticles to enhance electromagnetic fields in the region of analytes. Limited work has been performed using propagating surface plasmons as a method for SEIRA excitation. In this report, we demonstrate angle-tunable enhancement of vibrational stretching modes associated with a thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film that is coupled to a silver-coated diffraction grating. Gratings are fabricated using laser interference lithography to achieve precise surface periodicities, which can be used to generate surface plasmons that overlap with specific vibrational modes in the polymer film. Infrared reflection absorption spectra are presented for both bare silver and PMMA-coated silver gratings at a range of angles and polarization states. In addition, spectra were obtained with the grating direction oriented perpendicular and parallel to the infrared source in order to isolate plasmon enhancement effects. Optical simulations using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method were used to identify the origin of the plasmon-induced enhancement. Angle-dependent absorption measurements achieved signal enhancements of more than 10-times the signal in the absence of the plasmon.

  20. Multipitched Diffraction Gratings for Surface Plasmon Resonance-Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petefish, Joseph W; Hillier, Andrew C

    2015-11-03

    We demonstrate the application of metal-coated diffraction gratings possessing multiple simultaneous pitch values for surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy. SEIRA increases the magnitude of vibrational signals in infrared measurements by one of several mechanisms, most frequently involving the enhanced electric field associated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR). While the majority of SEIRA applications to date have employed nanoparticle-based plasmonic systems, recent advances have shown how various metals and structures lead to similar signal enhancement. Recently, diffraction grating couplers have been demonstrated as a highly tunable platform for SEIRA. Indeed, gratings are an experimentally advantageous platform due to the inherently tunable nature of surface plasmon excitation at these surfaces since both the grating pitch and incident angle can be used to modify the spectral location of the plasmon resonance. In this work, we use laser interference lithography (LIL) to fabricate gratings possessing multiple pitch values by subjecting photoresist-coated glass slides to repetitive exposures at varying orientations. After metal coating, these gratings produced multiple, simultaneous plasmon peaks associated with the multipitched surface, as identified by infrared reflectance measurements. These plasmon peaks could then be coupled to vibrational modes in thin films to provide localized enhancement of infrared signals. We demonstrate the flexibility and tunability of this platform for signal enhancement. It is anticipated that, with further refinement, this approach might be used as a general platform for broadband enhancement of infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Performance analysis of nitride alternative plasmonic materials for localized surface plasmon applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, U.; Naik, G. V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    . Titanium nitride and zirconium nitride, which were recently suggested as alternative plasmonic materials in the visible and near-infrared ranges, are compared to the performance of gold. In contrast to the results from quasistatic methods, both nitride materials are very good alternatives to the usual...

  2. Ultrafast dynamics of surface plasmons in InAs by time-resolved infrared nanospectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; McLeod, Alexander S; Maddox, Scott J; Fei, Zhe; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D; Fogler, Michael M; Bank, Seth R; Keilmann, Fritz; Basov, D N

    2014-08-13

    We report on time-resolved mid-infrared (mid-IR) near-field spectroscopy of the narrow bandgap semiconductor InAs. The dominant effect we observed pertains to the dynamics of photoexcited carriers and associated surface plasmons. A novel combination of pump-probe techniques and near-field nanospectroscopy accesses high momentum plasmons and demonstrates efficient, subpicosecond photomodulation of the surface plasmon dispersion with subsequent tens of picoseconds decay under ambient conditions. The photoinduced change of the probe intensity due to plasmons in InAs is found to exceed that of other mid-IR or near-IR media by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Remarkably, the required control pulse fluence is as low as 60 μJ/cm(2), much smaller than fluences of ∼ 1-10 mJ/cm(2) previously utilized in ultrafast control of near-IR plasmonics. These low excitation densities are easily attained with a standard 1.56 μm fiber laser. Thus, InAs--a common semiconductor with favorable plasmonic properties such as a low effective mass--has the potential to become an important building block of optically controlled plasmonic devices operating at infrared frequencies.

  3. Coupling Solar Energy into Reactions: Materials Design for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ran; Li, Yu; Song, Li; Xiong, Yujie

    2015-08-26

    Enabled by surface plasmons, noble metal nanostructures can interact with and harvest incident light. As such, they may serve as unique media to generate heat, supply energetic electrons, and provide strong local electromagnetic fields for chemical reactions through different mechanisms. This solar-to-chemical pathway provides a new approach to solar energy utilization, alternative to conventional semiconductor-based photocatalysis. To provide readers with a clear picture of this newly recognized process, this review presents coupling solar energy into chemical reactions through plasmonic nanostructures. It starts with a brief introduction of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures, followed by a demonstration of tuning plasmonic features by tailoring their physical parameters. Owing to their tunable plasmonic properties, metallic materials offer a platform to trigger and drive chemical reactions at the nanoscale, as systematically overviewed in this article. The design rules for plasmonic materials for catalytic applications are further outlined based on existing examples. At the end of this article, the challenges and opportunities for further development of plasmonic-mediated catalysis toward energy and environmental applications are discussed.

  4. Graphene surface plasmon polaritons with opposite in-plane electron oscillations along its two surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Huawei; Ruan, Shuangchen, E-mail: scruan@szu.edu.cn; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong; Li, Irene Ling [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Laser Engineering, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We predict the existence of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode that can be guided by a graphene monolayer, regardless of the sign of the imaginary part of its conductivity. In this mode, in-plane electron oscillations along two surfaces of graphene are of opposite directions, which is very different from conventional SPPs on graphene. Significantly, coating graphene with dielectric films yields a way to guide the SPPs with both sub-wavelength mode widths and ultra-long propagation distances. In particular, the mode characteristics are very sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene, so the graphene-based waveguide can find applications in many optoelectronic devices.

  5. Molecular Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Willets, Katherine A.

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  6. Compact surface plasmon amplifier in nonlinear hybrid waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-shu, Wang; Dan-qing, Wang; Xiao-peng, Hu; Tao, Li; Shi-ning, Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP), a sub-wavelength surface wave promising for photonic integration, always suffers from the large metallic loss that seriously restricts its practical application. Here, we propose a compact SPP amplifier based on a nonlinear hybrid waveguide (a combination of silver, LiNbO3, and SiO2), where a couple of Bragg gratings are introduced in the waveguide to construct a cavity. This special waveguide is demonstrated to support a highly localized SPP-like hybrid mode and a low loss waveguide-like hybrid mode. To provide a large nonlinear gain, a pumping wave input from the LiNbO3 waveguide is designed to resonate inside the cavity and satisfy the cavity phase matching to fulfill the optical parametric amplification (OPA) of the SPP signal. Proper periods of gratings and the cavity length are chosen to satisfy the impedance matching condition to ensure the high input efficiency of the pump wave from the outside into the cavity. In theoretical calculations, this device demonstrates a high performance in a very compact scheme (∼ 3.32 μm) and a much lower pumping power for OPA compared with single-pass pumping. To obtain a comprehensive insight into this cavity OPA, the influences of the pumping power, cavity length, and the initial phase are discussed in detail. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11322439, 11274165, 11321063, and 91321312), the Dengfeng Project B of Nanjing University, China, and the PAPD of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  7. Nonlocal propagation and tunnelling of surface plasmons in metallic hourglass waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Aeneas; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I; Pendry, J B; Horsfield, Andrew P; Maier, Stefan A

    2013-11-04

    The nanofocusing performance of hourglass plasmonic waveguides is studied analytically and numerically. Nonlocal effects in the linearly tapered metal-air-metal stack that makes up the device are taken into account within a hydrodynamical approach. Using this hourglass waveguide as a model structure, we show that spatial dispersion drastically modifies the propagation of surface plasmons in metal voids, such as those generated between touching particles. Specifically, we investigate how nonlocal corrections limit the enormous field enhancements predicted by local electromagnetic treatments of geometric singularities. Finally, our results also indicate the emergence of nonlocality assisted tunnelling of plasmonic modes across hourglass contacts as thick as 0.5 nm.

  8. Surface plasmon engineering in graphene functionalized with organic molecules: a multiscale theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jierong; Wang, Wei Li; Mosallaei, Hossein; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2014-01-08

    Graphene was recently shown to support deep subwavelength surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies characterized by low energy loss and strong field localization, both highly desirable. The properties of graphene can be locally tuned by applying an external gate voltage or by the adsorption of organic molecules that lead to doping through charge transfer. Local tuning of the electronic features of graphene opens the possibility to realize any desired gradient index profile and thus brings large flexibility to control and manipulate the propagation of surface plasmons. Here, we explore this possibility created by functionalizing graphene with organic molecules. We employ a multiscale theoretical approach that combines first-principles electronic structure calculations and finite-difference time-domain simulations coupled by surface conductivity. We show that by patterning two types of organic molecules on graphene, a plasmonic metasurface can be realized with any gradient effective refractive index profile to manipulate surface plasmon beams as desired. The special properties of such devices based on functionalized graphene are compared to the similar metamaterials based on metallic films on top of a gradient index dielectric substrate. Using this idea, we design and analyze an ultrathin broadband THz plasmonic lens as proof-of-concept, while more sophisticated index profiles can also be realized and various plasmonic applications are readily accessible.

  9. Low-cost, high performance surface plasmon resonance-compatible films characterized by the surface plasmon resonance technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Song-Quan; Ye Hong-An; Liu Chun-Yu; Dou Yin-Feng; Huang Yan

    2013-01-01

    A new analytical method based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is presented,with which SPR curves for both wavelength and angular modulations can be obtained simultaneously via only a single scan of the incident angle.Using this method,the SPR responses of TiO2-coated Cu films are characterized in the wavelength range from 600 nm to 900 nm.For the first time,we determine the effective optical constants and the thicknesses of TiO2-coated Cu films using the SPR curves of wavelength modulation.The sensitivities of prism-based SPR refractive index sensors using TiO2-coated Cu films are investigated theoretically for both wavelength and angular modulations,the results show that in the case of sensitivity with wavelength modulation,TiO2-coated Cu films are not as good as the Au film,however,they are more suitable than the Au film for SPR refractive index sensors with angular modulation because a higher sensitivity can be achieved.

  10. An ultrafast nanotip electron gun triggered by grating-coupled surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Benjamin; Sivis, Murat; Bormann, Reiner; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate multiphoton photoelectron emission from gold nanotips induced by nanofocusing surface plasmons, resonantly excited on the tip shaft by a grating coupler. The tip is integrated into an electron gun assembly, which facilitates control over the spatial emission sites and allows us to disentangle direct grating emission from plasmon-triggered apex emission. The nanoscale source size of this electron gun concept enables highly coherent electron pulses with applications in ultrafast electron imaging and diffraction.

  11. An ultrafast nanotip electron gun triggered by grating-coupled surface plasmons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Benjamin; Sivis, Murat; Bormann, Reiner; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus, E-mail: cropers@gwdg.de [4th Physical Institute - Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate multiphoton photoelectron emission from gold nanotips induced by nanofocusing surface plasmons, resonantly excited on the tip shaft by a grating coupler. The tip is integrated into an electron gun assembly, which facilitates control over the spatial emission sites and allows us to disentangle direct grating emission from plasmon-triggered apex emission. The nanoscale source size of this electron gun concept enables highly coherent electron pulses with applications in ultrafast electron imaging and diffraction.

  12. Tuneable and robust long range surface plasmon resonance for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjard, Régis; Dostálek, Jakub; Huang, Chun-Jen; Griesser, Hans; Thierry, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    A multilayered biosensing architecture based on long range surface plasmons (LRSPs) is reported. LRSPs originate from the coupling of surface plasmons on the opposite sides of a thin metal film embedded in a symmetrical refractive index environment. With respect to regular SPs, LRSPs are characterized by extended electromagnetic field profiles and lower losses, making them of high interest in biosensing, especially for large biological entities. LRSPs-supporting layer structures are typically prepared by using fluoropolymers with refractive indices close to that of water. Unfortunately, fluoropolymers have low surface energies which can translate into poor adhesion to substrates and sub-optimal properties of coatings with surface plasmon resonance-active metal layers such as gold. In this work, a multilayered fluoropolymer structure with tuneable average refractive index is described and used to adjust the penetration depth of LRSP from the sensor surface. The proposed methodology also provides a simple solution to increase the adhesion of LRSP-supporting structures to glass substrates. Towards taking full advantage of long range surface plasmon resonance sensors, a novel approach based on the plasma-polymerization of allylamine is also described to improve the quality of gold layers on fluoropolymers such as Teflon AF. Through these advancements, long range surface plasmon resonance sensors were fabricated with figures of merit as high as 466 RIU-1. The remarkable performance of these sensors combined with their high stability is expected to foster applications of LRSPR in biosensing.

  13. Localized surface plasmon of quasi-one-dimensional metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingzhao

    2007-05-01

    The plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles provides interesting optical properties in the visible and near-infrared region, and is highly tunable by varying the shape and the composition of the nanoparticles. The rod-like gold nanostructures can be synthesized by a seed-mediated method in aqueous surfactant solutions. Starting from different types of gold seeds, either single crystalline gold nanorods or penta-fold twinned gold bipyramids can be synthesized in decent yield with silver(I) added into the growth solution. These nanostructures have pronounced plasmon resonance varying in the 1˜2 eV range. The bipyramids are strikingly monodisperse in shape, which leads to the sharpest ensemble longitudinal plasmon resonance reported so far for metal colloid solutions. A mechanism based on the underpotential deposition of silver was thus suggested to explain the essential role of Ag(I) in the growth process. The optical spectra of the gold colloids were simulated with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show excellent agreement with recent experimental optical spectra. The local field enhancement (|E|/|E0|) was studied at the plasmon resonance. Sharper structural features produce more significant enhancement and the largest enhancement of more than a factor of 200 is seen around the poles of the bipyramid. A large internal field enhancement by more than a factor of 30 is found for the bipyramids, which suggests that they will exhibit very strong optical nonlinearities. The plasmon can be further tuned by introducing the core/shell nanostructures such as metal/metal or metal/semiconductor nanorods. Following a simple procedure, a homogeneous layer of silver with 1-4 nm thickness can be plated onto the gold nanorods, which shifts the longitudinal plasmon mode of the nanorods toward blue. The silver layer can be converted to semiconductors silver sulfide or selenide, with the longitudinal plasmon resonance tuned toward red. The metal

  14. Particle-Film Plasmons on Periodic Silver Film over Nanosphere (AgFON): A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanoarchitecture for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Zhang, Qianpeng; Park, Seungyoung; Choe, Ayoung; Fan, Zhiyong; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2016-01-13

    Plasmonic systems based on particle-film plasmonic couplings have recently attracted great attention because of the significantly enhanced electric field at the particle-film gaps. Here, we introduce a hybrid plasmonic architecture utilizing combined plasmonic effects of particle-film gap plasmons and silver film over nanosphere (AgFON) substrates. When gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are assembled on AgFON substrates with controllable particle-film gap distances, the AuNP-AgFON system supports multiple plasmonic couplings from interparticle, particle-film, and crevice gaps, resulting in a huge surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect. We show that the periodicity of AgFON substrates and the particle-film gaps greatly affects the surface plasmon resonances, and thus, the SERS effects due to the interplay between multiple plasmonic couplings. The optimally designed AuNP-AgFON substrate shows a SERS enhancement of 233 times compared to the bare AgFON substrate. The ultrasensitive SERS sensing capability is also demonstrated by detecting glutathione, a neurochemical molecule that is an important antioxidant, down to the 10 pM level.

  15. Integration of Faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy into a scalable surface plasmon biosensor for in tandem detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Brandon; Sun, Alexander; Pang, Lin; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-11-16

    We present an integrated label-free biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (f-EIS) sensing modalities, for the simultaneous detection of biological analytes. Analyte detection is based on the angular spectroscopy of surface plasmon resonance and the extraction of charge transfer resistance values from reduction-oxidation reactions at the gold surface, as responses to functionalized surface binding events. To collocate the measurement areas and fully integrate the modalities, holographically exposed thin-film gold SPR-transducer gratings are patterned into coplanar electrodes for tandem impedance sensing. Mutual non-interference between plasmonic and electrochemical measurement processes is shown, and using our scalable and compact detection system, we experimentally demonstrate biotinylated surface capture of neutravidin concentrations as low as 10 nM detection, with a 5.5 nM limit of detection.

  16. Plasmonic Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Ryan T.

    2014-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and ...

  17. Compact surface structures for the efficient excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz, S.; Mendez, E.R. [Division de Fisica Applicada, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Ensenada 22860, BC (Mexico); Macias, D.; Salas-Montiel, R.; Adam, P.M. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP-2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2012-06-15

    We present calculations of the efficiency of excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) with surface structures illuminated by focussed beams. First, it is shown that the low reflectivity observed with broad highly directional beams and periodic gratings does not necessarily imply an efficient coupling to SPPs. We then consider the coupling through surface features like steps, grooves and angled steps, and calculate efficiency maps for these structures as functions of the parameters that define them. Finally, we explore the possibilities of improving the coupling efficiency using periodic structures consisting of a small number of rectangular grooves. We find that a surface section with a length of about four wavelengths can couple as much as 45% of the incident light into a directional SPP. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. A method for reduction of propagation loss of surface plasmons. Experimental demonstration of the loss reduction for Fe/MgO/AlGaAs plasmonic structure integrated with AlGaAs/GaAs optical waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Zayets, V; Ando, K; Yuasa, S

    2015-01-01

    A method for the substantial reduction of propagation loss of surface plasmons was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The method is based on the fact that the propagation loss of the surface plasmons depends significantly on the optical confinement of the plasmon. A plasmonic structure, which contains a metal and two dielectric layers of different refractive indexes, is proposed in order to optimize optical confinement and to reduce propagation loss of the surface plasmons. A low propagation loss of 0.17 dB/um for a surface plasmon in a Fe/MgO/AlGaAs plasmonic structure was achieved. A good coupling efficiency of 2.2 dB/facet between a surface plasmon in Fe/MgO/AlGaAs and a waveguide mode in AlGaAs/GaAs optical waveguide was demonstrated.

  19. Influence of nanoparticle-graphene separation on the localized surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Saadabad, Reza Masoudian; Shirdel-Havar, Amir Hushang; Havar, Majid Shirdel

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory to model the interaction of graphene substrate with localized plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles. The influence of a graphene substrate on the surface plasmon resonances is described using an effective background permittivity that is derived from a pseudoparticle concept using the electrostatic method. For this purpose, the interaction of metal nanoparticle with graphene sheet is studied to obtain the optical spectrum of gold nanoparticles deposited on a graphene substrate. Then, we introduce a factor based on dipole approximation to predict the influence of the separation of nanoparticles and graphene on the spectral position of the localized plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles. We applied the theory for a 4 nm radius gold nanosphere placed near 1.5 nm graphene layer. It is shown that a blue shift is emerged in the position of plasmon resonance when the nanoparticle moves away from graphene.

  20. Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon of a gold nanorod

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, Peter; Orrit, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Current optical detection schemes for single molecules require light absorption, either to produce fluorescence or direct absorption signals. This severely limits the range of molecules that can be detected, because most molecules are purely refractive. Metal nanoparticles or dielectric resonators detect non-absorbing molecules by a resonance shift in response to a local perturbation of the refractive index, but neither has reached single-protein sensitivity. The most sensitive plasmon sensors to date detect single molecules only when the plasmon shift is amplified by a highly polarizable label or by a localized precipitation reaction on the particle's surface. Without amplification, the sensitivity only allows for the statistical detection of single molecules. Here we demonstrate plasmonic detection of single molecules in realtime, without the need for labeling or amplification. We monitor the plasmon resonance of a single gold nanorod with a sensitive photothermal assay and achieve a ~ 700-fold increase in ...

  1. Nanowires-assisted excitation and propagation of mid-infrared surface plasmon polaritons in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Zhao, Jianlin; Gu, Min

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the excitation and propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in a novel graphene hybrid photonic nanostructure, which consists of a graphene sheet and a dielectric layer with partly etched nanowires coated on the silicon substrate. The simulation and analytical results show that the mid-infrared plasmonic wave can be generated in the graphene sheet by normally incident light due to the satisfaction of the wavevector matching condition. Especially, we find that the plasmonic wavelength and spectral width are determined by the width, pitch, and refractive index of the dielectric nanowires, as well as the layer number and the Fermi level of graphene sheet. The analytical calculations agree well with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. These results would provide an new avenue toward the excitation of graphene plasmonics for the manipulation of mid-infrared light at nanoscale.

  2. An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Albert; Fu, Sze-Ming; Chung, Yen-Kai; Lai, Shih-Yun; Tseng, Chi-Wei

    2013-01-14

    Surface plasmon enhancement has been proposed as a way to achieve higher absorption for thin-film photovoltaics, where surface plasmon polariton(SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) are shown to provide dense near field and far field light scattering. Here it is shown that controlled far-field light scattering can be achieved using successive coupling between surface plasmonic (SP) nano-particles. Through genetic algorithm (GA) optimization, energy transfer between discrete nano-particles (ETDNP) is identified, which enhances solar cell efficiency. The optimized energy transfer structure acts like lumped-element transmission line and can properly alter the direction of photon flow. Increased in-plane component of wavevector is thus achieved and photon path length is extended. In addition, Wood-Rayleigh anomaly, at which transmission minimum occurs, is avoided through GA optimization. Optimized energy transfer structure provides 46.95% improvement over baseline planar cell. It achieves larger angular scattering capability compared to conventional surface plasmon polariton back reflector structure and index-guided structure due to SP energy transfer through mode coupling. Via SP mediated energy transfer, an alternative way to control the light flow inside thin-film is proposed, which can be more efficient than conventional index-guided mode using total internal reflection (TIR).

  3. Propagation properties of a modified surface plasmonic waveguide with an arc slot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Wen-Rui; Guo Ya-Nan; Zhang Wen-Mei

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a modified surface plasmonic waveguide with an arc slot. The dependences of distribution of energy flux density, effective index, propagation length and mode area of the symmetric mode supported by this waveguide on geometrical parameters and working wavelength are analysed by using the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD)method. Results show that the energy flux density distributes mainly in four corners which are formed by two arcs, and the closer to the corners it is, the stronger the energy flux density will be. The effective index, the propagation length and the mode area are influenced by geometrical parameters, including the width, the thickness and the arc radius of the surface plasmonic waveguide, as well as the working wavelength. It has been shown that the surface plasmonic waveguide with an arc slot has better propagation properties than the surface plasmonic waveguide with a straight slot.This work may be helpful for applying the slot surface plasmonic waveguide to integrated photonics.

  4. Surface plasmon microscopy with low-cost metallic nanostructures for biosensing I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Nathan; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Otto, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    The field of plasmonics aims to manipulate light over dimensions smaller than the optical wavelength by exploiting surface plasmon resonances in metallic films. Typically, surface plasmons are excited by illuminating metallic nanostructures. For meaningful research in this exciting area, the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures is critical, and in an undergraduate setting, low-cost methods are desirable. Careful optical characterization of the metallic nanostructures is also required. Here, we present the use of novel, inexpensive nanofabrication techniques and the development of a customized surface plasmon microscopy setup for interdisciplinary undergraduate experiments in biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and surface plasmon imaging. A Bethel undergraduate student performs the nanofabrication in collaboration with the University of Minnesota. The rewards of mentoring undergraduate students in cooperation with a large research university are numerous, exposing them to a wide variety of opportunities. This research also interacts with upper-level, open-ended laboratory projects, summer research, a semester-long senior research experience, and will enable a large range of experiments into the future.

  5. Surface plasmon on topological insulator/dielectric interface enhanced ZnO ultraviolet photoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Liao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been predicted that the surface plasmons are allowed to exist on the interface between a topological insulator and vacuum. Surface plasmons can be employed to enhance the optical emission from various illuminants. Here, we study the photoluminescence properties of the ZnO/Bi2Te3 hybrid structures. Thin flakes of Bi2Te3, a typical three-dimensional topological insulator, were prepared on ZnO crystal surface by mechanical exfoliation method. The ultraviolet emission from ZnO was found to be enhanced by the Bi2Te3 thin flakes, which was attributed to the surface plasmon – photon coupling at the Bi2Te3/ZnO interface.

  6. Design of Highly Sensitive Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Using Planar Metallic Films Closely Coupled to Nanogratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Yan; XIE Wen-Chong; LIU De-Ming

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance(SPR)sensors using planar metallic films closely coupled to nanogratings.The strong coupling between localized surface plasmon resonances(LSPRs)presenting in metallic nanostructures and surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)propagating at the metallic film surface leads to changes of resonance reflection properties,resulting in enhanced sensitivity of SPR sensors.The effects of thickness of the metallic films,grating period and metal materials on the refractive index sensitivity of the device are investigated.The refractive index sensitivity of nanograting-based SPR sensors is predicted to be about 543 nm/RIU(refractive index unit)using optimized structure parameters.Our study on SPR sensors using planar metallic films closely coupled to nanogratings demonstrates the potential for significant improvement in refractive index sensitivity.

  7. The complex dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at gold/para-hexaphenylene interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Christoph; Leißner, Till; Klick, Alwin;

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates the capab......Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates...... the capability of the presented experimental approach. A systematic 2P-PEEM study on the dispersion relation of dielectric-loaded gold surfaces shows how effective the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at a gold/para-hexaphenylene interface can be tuned by adjustment of the dielectric film thickness...

  8. Plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, V V

    2007-01-01

    The proposed paradigm of plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules allows one to describe and predict the strongly localized plasmonic oscillations in the clusters of nanoparticles and some other nanostructures in uniform way. Strongly localized plasmonic molecules near the contacting surfaces might become the fundamental elements (by analogy with Lego bricks) for a construction of fully integrated opto-electronic nanodevices of any complexity and scale of integration.

  9. Plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, V. V.; Guzatov, D. V.

    2007-11-01

    The proposed paradigm of plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules allows one to describe and predict the strongly localized plasmonic oscillations in the clusters of nanoparticles and some other nanostructures in uniform way. Strongly localized plasmonic molecules near the contacting surfaces might become the fundamental elements (by analogy with Lego bricks) for the construction of fully integrated opto-electronic nanodevices of any complexity and scale of integration.

  10. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Si:Er Infrared Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    molecule Raman spectroscopy, and photothermal cancer therapy . Plasmons also affect the spontaneous emission dynamics of optical emitters positioned...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of

  11. Towards On-site Pathogen Detection Using Antibody-based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the recent progress within biosensors for plant pathogen detection will be reviewed. Bio-recognition layers on sensors can be designed in various ways, however the most popular approach is to immobilise antibodies for specific capture of analytes. Focus will be put on antibody surface......-immobilisation strategies as well as the use of antibodies in the widely used sensors, quartz crystal microbalance, surface plasmon resonance and cantilevers. We will describe the available data on antibody-based plant pathogen detection and furthermore use examples from detection of the pathogens Salmonella, Listeria...... monocytogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli. We will touch upon optimal assay design and further discuss the strengths and limitations of current sensor technologies for detection of viruses, bacteria and fungi....

  12. Simultaneous surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance measurements: Electrodeposition and biological interactions monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Francis, L.; Reekmans, G.; De Palma, R.; Campitelli, A.; Sleytr, U. B.

    2004-02-01

    We present results from an instrument combining surface acoustic wave propagation and surface plasmon resonance measurements. The objective is to use two independent methods, the former based on adsorbed mass change measurements and the latter on surface dielectric properties variations, to identify physical properties of protein layers, and more specifically their water content. We display mass sensitivity calibration curves using electrodeposition of copper leading to a sensitivity in liquid of 150±15 cm2/g for the Love mode device used here, and the application to monitoring biological processes. The extraction of protein layer thickness and protein to water content ratio is also presented for S-layer proteins under investigation. We obtain, respectively, 4.7±0.7 nm and 75±15%.

  13. High-conductivity silicon based spectrally selective plasmonic surfaces for sensing in the infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgulu, K.; Gok, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic perfect absorbers have found a wide range of applications in imaging, sensing, and light harvesting and emitting devices. Traditionally, metals are used to implement plasmonic structures. For sensing applications, it is desirable to integrate nanophotonic active surfaces with biasing and amplification circuitry to achieve monolithic low cost solutions. Commonly used plasmonic metals such as Au and Ag are not compatible with standard silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Here we demonstrate plasmonic perfect absorbers based on high conductivity silicon. Standard optical lithography and reactive ion etching techniques were used for the patterning of the samples. We present computational and experimental results of surface plasmon resonances excited on a silicon surface at normal and oblique incidences. We experimentally demonstrate our absorbers as ultra-low cost, CMOS-compatible and efficient refractive index sensing surfaces. The experimental results reveal that the structure exhibits a sensitivity of around 11 000 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of up to 2.5. We also show that the sensing performance of the structure can be improved by increasing doping density.

  14. Coupling of surface plasmons and excited optical modes in metal/dielectric grating stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Qi, Dong-Xiang; Hu, Qing; Qin, Ling; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the coupling of surface plasmons and excited optical modes in metal/dielectric grating stacks theoretically and experimentally. We have observed three kinds of modes in these structures: the cavity mode, the propagated surface plasmon (PSP) mode and the localized surface plasmon (LSP) mode, which can enhance the optical transmission. Firstly, it is shown that the cavity mode is excited in the grating stacks. And the cavity mode has redshift if we enhance the thickness of metal layers, while it has blueshift when we increase the thickness of dielectric layers. The redshift of the cavity mode also occurs when the number of repeating layers is increased. Secondly, the PSP mode is also excited, which can be described by the effective permittivity method. It is found that the PSP modes are coupled with each other, which leads to a modified dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). The theoretical analysis is in good agreement with the observed transmission enhancement in the grating stacks. And the coupling of PSPs also leads to a blueshift when the number of metal layers is increased. Thirdly, the LSP mode, generated in single metal strip, can also enhance the optical transmission of the grating stacks. Yet the transmission intensity induced by LSP decreases rapidly with increasing the number of metal layers. The investigations here may have potential applications in designing plasmonic metamaterials and subwavelength optical devices.

  15. Numerical analysis of surface plasmons excited on a thin metal grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OKUNO Yoichi; SUYAMA Taikei

    2006-01-01

    The authors numerically investigated the characteristics of surface plasmons excited on a thin metal grating placed in planer or conical mounting. After formulating the problem, the solution method, Yasuura's method (a modal expansion approach with least-squares boundary matching) was described. Although the grating is periodic in one direction, coupling between TE and TM waves occurs because arbitrary incidence is assumed. This requires the employment of both TE and TM vector modal functions in the analysis. Numerical computations showed: (1) the excitation of surface plasmons with total or partial absorption of incident light; (2) the resonance character of the coefficient of an evanescent order that couples the plasmon surface wave; (3) the field profile and Poynting's vector. The plasmons excited on the surfaces of a thin metal grating are classified into three types:SISP, SRSP, and LRSP, different from each other in the feature of field profile and energy flow. In addition, the eigenvalue of a plasmon mode was obtained by solving a sequence of diffraction problems with complex-valued angles of incidence and using thequasi-Newton algorithm to predict the real angle of incidence at which the absorption occurs.

  16. A surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detecting a dioxin precursor using a gold binding polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soh, N; Tokuda, T.; Watanabe, T.;

    2003-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor was developed for monitoring 2,4-dichlorophenol, a known dioxin precursor, using an indirect competitive immunoassay. The SPR sensor was fabricated by immobilizing a gold-thin layer on the surface of an SPR sensor chip with an anti-(2,4-dichloroph...

  17. Nanopatterned submicron pores as a shield for nonspecific binding in surface plasmon resonance-based sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, Sabina Rebe; Marchesini, Gerardo R.; Bremer, Maria G. E. G.; Colpo, Pascal; Garcia, Cesar Pascual; Guidetti, Guido; Norde, Willem; Rossi, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach to tackle the most common drawback of using surface plasmon resonance for analyte screening in complex biological matrices - the nonspecific binding to the sensor chip surface. By using a perforated membrane supported by a polymeric gel structure at the evanescent wave pe

  18. Generation of Graphene Surface Plasmons and Their Applications in Beam Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel concept that uses mechanical and electronic properties of graphene to efficiently couple light to surface plasmon polaritons. A graphene-based infrared beam-former based on the concept of surface leaky-wave is also discussed. © OSA 2015.

  19. Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon.

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Emmanuel; Laroche, Marine; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this letter, we revisit the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near-field heat transfer. We also analyse the flux and find that there is a doping level that maximizes the heat flux.

  20. Excitation of surface and volume plasmons in metal nanocluster by fast electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gildenburg, V B; Pavlichenko, I A

    2015-01-01

    Surface and volume plasmons excited in a metal cluster by moving electron and corresponding inelastic scattering spectra are studied based on the hydrodynamic approach. Along with the bulk losses traditionally taken into account, the surface and radiative ones are also considered as the physical mechanisms responsible for the plasmon damping. The second and third mechanisms are found to be essential for the surface plasmons and depend very differently on the multipole mode order. The differential equations are obtained which describe the temporal evolution of every particular mode as that one of a linear oscillator excited by the given external force, and the electron energy loss spectra are calculated. The changes in spectrum shape with the impact parameter and with the electron passage time are analyzed and found to be in good enough agreement with the data of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) experiments. It is shown that, in the general case, a pronounced contribution to the formation of th...

  1. Band-edge Bilayer Plasmonic Nanostructure for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, S Hamed Shams; Atabaki, Amir H; Adibi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of large biomolecules is critical in a number of applications, including medical diagnostics and label-free biosensing. Recently, it has been shown that Raman spectroscopy of proteins can be used to diagnose some diseases, including a few types of cancer. These experiments have however been performed using traditional Raman spectroscopy and the development of the Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) assays suitable for large biomolecules could lead to a substantial decrease in the amount of specimen necessary for these experiments. We present a new method to achieve high local field enhancement in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy through the simultaneous adjustment of the lattice plasmons and localized surface plasmon polaritons, in a periodic bilayer nanoantenna array resulting in a high enhancement factor over the sensing area, with relatively high uniformity. The proposed plasmonic nanostructure is comprised of two interacting nanoantenna layers, providing a sharp band-edge ...

  2. Surface plasmon polariton assisted red shift in excitonic emission of semiconductor microflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Chithra; Warrier, Anita R.; Bingi, Jayachandra; Vijayan, C.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the study of metal nanoparticle-semiconductor hybrid system composed of β-indium sulfide (β-In2S3) and gold (Au) nanoparticles. β-In2S3 micron sized flower like structures (˜1 μm) and Au nanoparticles (˜10 nm) were synthesized by chemical route. These Au nanoparticles have surface plasmon resonance at ˜ 520 nm. We study the influence of Au surface plasmon polaritons on the radiative properties of the β-In2S3 microflowers. As a result of the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons and the excitons there is a red shift ˜ 50 nm in emission spectrum of hybrid β-In2S3-Au system. Such hybrid systems provide scope for a control on the optical properties of semiconductor microstructures, thus rendering them suitable for specific device applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics.

  3. Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Laser based on an Open-Cavity Fabry-Perot Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Wenqi; Agrawal, Amit; Lezec, Henri J

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the development of small-footprint lasers for potential applications in small-volume sensing and on-chip optical communications. Surface-plasmons, electromagnetic modes evanescently confined to metal-dielectric interfaces, offer an effective route to achieving lasing at nanometer-scale dimensions when resonantly amplified in contact with a gain-medium. Here, we achieve visible frequency ultra-narrow linewidth lasing at room-temperature by leveraging surface plasmons propagating in an open Fabry-Perot cavity formed by a flat metal surface coated with a subwavelength-thick layer of optically-pumped gain medium and orthogonally bound by a pair of flat metal sidewalls. Low perturbation transmission-configuration sampling of the lasing plasmon mode is achieved via an evanescently coupled recessed nanoslit, opening the way to high-figure-of-merit refractive-index sensing of analytes interacting with the open cavity.

  4. Localized surface plasmons selectively coupled to resonant light in tubular microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yin; Böttner, Stefan; Yuan, Feifei; Giudicatti, Silvia; Naz, Ehsan Saei Ghareh; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-01

    Vertical gold-nanogaps are created on microtubular cavities to explore the coupling between resonant light supported by the microcavities and surface plasmons localized at the nanogaps. Selective coupling of optical axial modes and localized surface plasmons critically depends on the exact location of the gold-nanogap on the microcavities which is conveniently achieved by rolling-up specially designed thin dielectric films into three dimensional microtube ring resonators. The coupling phenomenon is explained by a modified quasi-potential model based on perturbation theory. Our work reveals the coupling of surface plasmon resonances localized at the nanoscale to optical resonances confined in microtubular cavities at the microscale, implying a promising strategy for the investigation of light-matter interactions.

  5. Localized Surface Plasmons Enhanced Light Transmission into c-Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Premkumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the light incoupling into c-Si solar cells due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances in periodic metallic nanoparticles by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. A significant enhancement of AM1.5G solar radiation transmission has been demonstrated by depositing nanoparticles of various metals on the upper surface of a semi-infinite Si substrate. Plasmonic nanostructures located close to the cell surface can scatter incident light efficiently into the cell. Al nanoparticles were found to be superior to Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles due to the improved transmission of light over almost the entire solar spectrum and, thus, can be a potential low-cost plasmonic metal for large-scale implementation of solar cells.

  6. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  7. Observation of Hot Electrons in Surface-Wave Plasmas Excited by Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ye-Lin; CHEN Zhao-Quan; LIU Ming-Hai; HONG Ling-Li; LI Ping; ZHENG Xiao-Liang; XIA Guang-Qing; HU Xi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) are studied in the planar-type surface-wave plasma (SWP)caused by resonant excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) using a single cylindrical probe.Sustained plasma characteristics can be considered as a bi-Maxwellian EEDF,which correspond to a superposition of the bulk low-temperature electron and the high-energy electron beam-like part.The beam component energy is pronounced at about 10eV but the bulk part is lower than 3.5eV.The hot electrons included in the proposed plasmas play a significant role in plasma heating and further affect the discharge chemistry.During the past several years,in the fabrication ofamorphous or crystalline silicon films,diamond film synthesis and carbon nanotube growth,the large-area overdense plasma source has been useful.In electronic device fabrication techniques such as etching,ashing or plasma chemical vapor deposition,overdense electrons and radicals are required,especially hot electrons.Among the various plasma devices,the planar-type surface-wave plasma (SWP) source is an advanced plasma source,which is a type of promising plasma source satisfying the above rigorous requirements for large-area plasma processing.%The electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) are studied in the planar-type surface-wave plasma (SWP) caused by resonant excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) using a single cylindrical probe. Sustained plasma characteristics can be considered as a bi-Maxwellian EEDF, which correspond to a superposition of the bulk low-temperature electron and the high-energy electron beam-like part. The beam component energy is pronounced at about 10 eV but the bulk part is lower than 3.5 eV. The hot electrons included in the proposed plasmas play a significant role in plasma heating and further affect the discharge chemistry.

  8. Adsorbate-metal bond effect on empirical determination of surface plasmon penetration depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Laurel L; Menegazzo, Nicola; Booksh, Karl S

    2013-05-21

    The penetration depth of surface plasmons is commonly determined empirically from the observed response for adsorbate loading on gold surface plasmon resonance (SPR) substrates. However, changes in the SPR spectrum may originate from both changes in the effective refractive index near the metal surface and changes in the metal permittivity following covalent binding of the adsorbate layer. Herein, the significance of incorporating an additional adsorbate-metal bonding effect in the calculation is demonstrated in theory and in practice. The bonding effect is determined from the nonzero intercept of a SPR shift versus adsorbate thickness calibration and incorporated into the calculation of penetration depth at various excitation wavelengths. Determinations of plasmon penetration depth with and without the bonding response for alkanethiolate-gold are compared and are shown to be significantly different for a thiol monolayer adsorbate system. Additionally, plasmon penetration depth evaluated with bonding effect compensation shows greater consistency over different adsorbate thicknesses and better agreement with theory derived from Maxwell's equation, particularly for adsorbate thicknesses that are much smaller (<5%) than the plasmon penetration depth. The method is also extended to a more practically applicable polyelectrolyte multilayer adsorbate system.

  9. Analysis of surface plasmon waves in metaldielectric- metal structures and the criterion for negative refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2009-01-19

    Surface plasmon waves in metal-dielectric-metal structures have been theoretically examined. Because of the existence of evanescent waves that can have comparable or smaller decay rates than the propagating waves, the sign of dispersion does not necessarily indicate the sign of effective refractive index for these structures. By using the direction of energy decay to distinguish the sign of index, we have obtained different results and insights from previous reports. We also propose an approach to increase the bandwidth and decrease the loss of negative index surface Plasmon propagation in the MDM structure, by simply changing the properties of its dielectric layer.

  10. Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons using nitrogen-vacancy centers

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are locally excited at silver surfaces using (~100) nm-sized nanodiamonds (NDs) with multiple nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers (~400). The fluorescence from an externally illuminated (at 532 nm) ND and from nearby NDs, which are not illuminated but produce out-of-plane scattering of SPPs excited by the illuminated ND, exhibit distinctly different wavelength spectra, showing short-wavelength filtering due to the SPP propagation loss. The results indicate that NDs with multiple NV centers can be used as efficient sub-wavelength SPP sources in planar integrated plasmonics for various applications.

  11. Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedendahl, Mikael; Chen, Si; Dmitriev, Alexandre; Käll, Mikael

    2009-12-01

    We present a direct experimental comparison between the refractive index sensing capabilities of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in gold nanodisks and propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) on 50 nm gold films. The comparison is made using identical experimental conditions, and for the same resonance wavelength, lambda(SP) congruent with 700 nm. Biosensing experiments with biotin-avidin coupling reveal that the two sensing platforms have very similar performance, despite a superior bulk refractive index sensing figure of merit for the SPR sensor. The results demonstrate that LSPR sensing based on simple transmission or reflection measurements is a highly competitive technique compared to the traditional SPR sensor.

  12. The Roles of Substrate vs Nonlocal Optical Nonlinearities in the Excitation of Surface Plasmons in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Constant, Thomas J; Hendry, Euan; Chang, Darrick E

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that difference frequency mixing (DFM) can generate surface plasmons in graphene [1]. Here, we present detailed calculations comparing the contributions to this effect from substrate and from graphene nonlinearities. Our calculations show that the substrate (quartz) nonlinearity gives rise to a surface plasmon intensity that is around twelve orders of magnitude smaller than that arising from the intrinsic graphene response. This surprisingly efficient intrinsic process, given the centrosymmetric structure of graphene, arises almost entirely due to non-local contributions to the second order optical nonlinearity of graphene.

  13. Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in sub-wavelength microdisk lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Perahia, R; Safavi-Naeini, A; Painter, O

    2009-01-01

    Hybridization of surface-plasmon and dielectric waveguide whispering-gallery modes are demonstrated in a semiconductor microdisk laser cavity of sub-wavelength proportions. A metal layer is deposited on top of the semiconductor microdisk, the radius of which is systematically varied to enable mode hybridization between surface-plasmon and dielectric modes. The anti-crossing behavior of the two cavity mode types is experimentally observed via photoluminescence spectroscopy and optically pumped lasing action at a wavelength of 1.3 micron is achieved at room temperature.

  14. Live cell imaging based on surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence microscopy using random nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngjin; Lee, Wonju; Son, Taehwang; Kim, Sook Young; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Donghyun

    2014-02-01

    Localized surface plasmon enhanced microscopy based on nanoislands of random spatial distribution was demonstrated for imaging live cells and molecular interactions. Nanoislands were produced without lithography by high temperature annealing under various processing conditions. The localization of near-field distribution that is associated with localized surface plasmon on metallic random nanoislands was analyzed theoretically and experimentally in comparison with periodic nanostructures. For experimental validation in live cell imaging, mouse macrophage-like cell line stained with Alexa Fluor 488 was prepared on nanoislands. The results suggest the possibility of attaining the imaging resolution on the order of 80 nm.

  15. Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: An electron energy loss study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Olivia; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2011-01-01

    We present an electron energy loss study using energy filtered TEM of spatially resolved surface plasmon excitations on a silver nanorod of aspect ratio 14.2 resting on a 30 nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Our results show that the excitation is quantized as resonant modes whose intensity maxima...... vary along the nanorod's length and whose wavelength becomes compressed towards the ends of the nanorod. Theoretical calculations modelling the surface plasmon response of the silver nanorodsilicon nitride system show the importance of including retardation and substrate effects in order to describe...

  16. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  17. Polarization-sensitive surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Ho, Ho Pui; Wu, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is reported. We show that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan , cos and ellipse orientation angle , can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals at the f......A surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is reported. We show that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan , cos and ellipse orientation angle , can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals...

  18. Investigation of Real-Time Photorepair Activity on DNA via Surface Plasmon Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    4/24/2014 PLOS ONE: Investigation of Real-Time Photorepair Activity on DNA via Surface Plasmon Resonance http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0044392 1/9 Published: August 29, 2012 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044392 Investigation of Real-Time Photorepair Activity on DNA via Surface Plasmon Resonance Rıza Kizilel , Enis Demir, Selimcan Azizoglu, Hande Asımgi, Ibrahim Halil Kavakli , Seda Kizilel Corrections 25 Oct 2012: Kizilel R, Demir E, Aziz...

  19. Surface plasmon resonance optical sensor and antibacterial activities of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2014-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles were prepared using aqueous fruit extract of Ananas comosus as reducing agent. These silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon peak at 439 nm. They were monodispersed and spherical in shape with an average particle size of 10 nm. The crystallinity of these nanoparticles was evident from clear lattice fringes in the HRTEM images and bright circular spots in the SAED pattern. The antibacterial activities of prepared nanoparticles were found to be size-dependent, the smaller nanoparticles showing more bactericidal effect. Aqueous Zn2+ and Cu4+ selectivity and sensitivity study of this green synthesized nanoparticle was performed by optical sensor based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at room temperature.

  20. Surface Plasmons and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectra of Aggregated and Alloyed Gold-Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fleger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of size, morphology, and composition of gold and silver nanoparticles on surface plasmon resonance (SPR and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS are studied with the purpose of optimizing SERS substrates. Various gold and silver films made by evaporation and subsequent annealing give different morphologies and compositions of nanoparticles and thus different position of the SPR peak. SERS measurements of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid obtained from these films reveal that the proximity of the SPR peak to the exciting laser wavelength is not the only factor leading to the highest Raman enhancement. Silver nanoparticles evaporated on top of larger gold nanoparticles show higher SERS than gold-silver alloyed nanoparticles, in spite of the fact that the SPR peak of alloyed nanoparticles is narrower and closer to the excitation wavelength. The highest Raman enhancement was obtained for substrates with a two-peak particle size distribution for excitation wavelengths close to the SPR.

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency metamaterial based on spoof localized surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhen; Liu, Shuo; Ma, Hui Feng; Li, Chun; Jin, Biaobing; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-06-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic metamaterial whose unit cell is composed of an ultrathin metallic disk and four ultrathin metallic spiral arms at terahertz frequencies, which supports both spoof electric and magnetic localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances. We show that the resonant wavelength is much larger than the size of the unit particle, and further find that the resonant wavelength is very sensitive to the particle’s geometrical dimensions and arrangements. It is clearly illustrated that the magnetic LSP resonance exhibits strong dependence to the incidence angle of terahertz wave, which enables the design of metamaterials to achieve an electromagnetically induced transparency effect in the terahertz frequencies. This work opens up the possibility to apply for the surface plasmons in functional devices in the terahertz band.

  2. Scattering properties of vein induced localized surface plasmon resonances on a gold disk

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    It is demonstrated via simulations that a gold nano-disk with a non-concentric cavity supports localized surface plasmon resonances over a frequency band that includes the visible and the near-infrared parts of the spectrum. The charge distribution on the disk indicates that the two distinct peaks in the scattering cross section are due to the (hybridized) higher-order plasmon modes; plasmon hybridization that involves the dipole modes of the disk and the cavity enforces the "coupling" of the plane-wave excitation to the originally-dark higher-order modes. It is further demonstrated that the resonance frequencies can be tuned by varying the radius of the embedded non-concentric cavity. The near-field enhancement observed at these two tunable resonance frequencies suggests that the proposed structure can be used as a substrate in surface enhanced spectroscopy applications. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. An Electric Field Volume Integral Equation Approach to Simulate Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Remis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an electric field volume integral equation approach to simulate surface plasmon propagation along metal/dielectric interfaces. Metallic objects embedded in homogeneous dielectric media are considered. Starting point is a so-called weak-form of the electric field integral equation. This form is discretized on a uniform tensor-product grid resulting in a system matrix whose action on a vector can be computed via the fast Fourier transform. The GMRES iterative solver is used to solve the discretized set of equations and numerical examples, illustrating surface plasmon propagation, are presented. The convergence rate of GMRES is discussed in terms of the spectrum of the system matrix and through numerical experiments we show how the eigenvalues of the discretized volume scattering operator are related to plasmon propagation and the medium parameters of a metallic object.

  4. Surface Plasmon States in Inhomogeneous Media at Critical and Subcritical Metal Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyayani Seal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Semicontinuous metal-dielectric films are composed of a wide range of metal clusters of various geometries—sizes as well as structures. This ensures that at any given wavelength of incident radiation, clusters exist in the film that will respond resonantly, akin to resonating nanoantennas, resulting in the broad optical response (absorption that is a characteristic of semicontinuous films. The physics of the surface plasmon states that are supported by such systems is complex and can involve both localized and propagating plasmons. This chapter describes near-field experimental and numerical studies of the surface plasmon states in semicontinuous films at critical and subcritical metal concentrations and evaluates the local field intensity statistics to discuss the interplay between various eigenmodes.

  5. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application.

  6. Magneto-optical response of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructure under surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, S.; Moradi, M.; Mohseni, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental studies about the surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructures as a function of layers thickness and light incident angle. Device fabrication was done by an oblique deposition technique with RF magnetron sputtering to carefully cover fine step thickness variation of all constituted layers. Angular dependent transverse Kerr response of samples was measured in the Kretschmann configuration at a fixed wavelength of 632 nm. At an optimum layer thickness and incident angle, significant amplification of the transverse Kerr effect was observed. Enhancement in the transverse Kerr effect can be realized by hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance in the plasmonic nanostructure. Experimental results were in qualitative agreement with modeling based on the 4×4 transfer matrix formalism.

  7. Bimetallic structure fabricated by laser interference lithography for tuning surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Hong, M H; Cheung, H W; Zhang, F; Huang, Z Q; Tan, L S; Hor, T S A

    2008-07-07

    Tuning of surface plasmon resonance by gold and silver bimetallic thin film and bimetallic dot array is investigated. Laser interference lithography is applied to fabricate the nanostructures. A bimetallic dot structure is obtained by a lift-off procedure after gold and silver thin film deposition by an electron beam evaporator. Surface plasmon behaviors of these films and nanostructures are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is observed that for gold thin film on quartz substrate, the optical spectral peak is blue shifted when a silver thin film is coated over it. Compared to the plasmon band in single metal gold dot array, the bimetallic nanodot array shows a similar blue shift in its spectral peak. These shifts are both attributed to the interaction between gold and silver atoms. Electromagnetic interaction between gold and silver nanostructures is discussed using a simplified spring model.

  8. Breaking the challenge of signal integrity using time-domain spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Fan, Yifeng; Fu, Xiaojian

    2015-01-01

    In modern integrated circuits and wireless communication systems/devices, three key features need to be solved simultaneously to reach higher performance and more compact size: signal integrity, interference suppression, and miniaturization. However, the above-mentioned requests are almost contradictory using the traditional techniques. To overcome this challenge, here we propose time-domain spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) as the carrier of signals. By designing a special plasmonic waveguide constructed by printing two narrow corrugated metallic strips on the top and bottom surfaces of a dielectric substrate with mirror symmetry, we show that spoof SPPs are supported from very low frequency to the cutoff frequency with strong subwavelength effects, which can be converted to the time-domain SPPs. When two such plasmonic waveguides are tightly packed with deep-subwavelength separation, which commonly happens in the integrated circuits and wireless communications due to limited space, we demonstrate theo...

  9. Utilizing an Automated Home-Built Surface Plasmon Resonance Apparatus to Investigate How Water Interacts with a Hydrophobic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Adele

    2011-03-01

    By definition hydrophobic substances hate water. Water placed on a hydrophobic surface will form a drop in order to minimize its contact area. What happens when water is forced into contact with a hydrophobic surface? One theory is that an ultra-thin low- density region forms near the surface. We have employed an automated home-built Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) apparatus to investigate this boundary.

  10. Multicolor surface plasmon resonance imaging of ink jet-printed protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin K; Hillier, Andrew C

    2007-07-15

    We report a technique that utilizes surface plasmon resonance dispersion as a mechanism to provide multicolor contrast for imaging thin molecular films. Illumination of gold surfaces with p-polarized white light in the Kretschmann configuration produces distinct reflected colors due to excitation of surface plasmons and the resulting absorption of specific wavelengths from the source light. In addition, these colors transform in response to the formation of thin molecular films. This process represents a simple detection method for distinguishing between films of varying thickness in sensor applications. As an example, we interrogated a protein microarray formed by a commercial drop-on-demand chemical ink jet printer. Submonolayer films of a test protein (bovine serum albumin) were readily detected by this method. Analysis of the dispersion relations and absorbance sensitivities illustrate the performance and characteristics of this system. Higher detection sensitivity was achieved at angles where red wavelengths coupled to surface plasmons. However, improved contrast and spatial resolution occurred when the angle of incidence was such that shorter wavelengths coupled to the surface plasmons. Simplified optics combined with the robust microarray printing platform are used to demonstrate the applicability of this technique as a rapid and versatile, high-throughput tool for label-free detection of adsorbed films and macromolecules.

  11. Amplification of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Due to Substrate-Mediated Localized Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2017-03-28

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ubiquitous in chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and identification. Maximizing SERS enhancement is a continuous effort focused on the design of appropriate SERS substrates. Here we show that significant improvement in a SERS signal can be achieved with substrates combining localized surface plasmon resonances and a nonresonant plasmonic substrate. By introducing a continuous gold (Au) film underneath Au nanodimers antenna arrays, an over 10-fold increase in SERS enhancement is demonstrated. Triangular, rectangle and disc dimers were studied, with bowtie antenna providing highest SERS enhancement. Simulations of electromagnetic field distributions of the Au nanodimers on the Au film support the observed enhancement dependences. The hybridization of localized plasmonic modes with the image modes in a metal film provides a straightforward way to improve SERS enhancement in designer SERS substrate.

  12. Combined surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance measurement of collagen and fibrinogen layer physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Friedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We use an instrument combining optical (surface plasmon resonance and acoustic (Love mode surface acoustic wave device real-time measurements on a same surface for the identification of water content in collagen and fibrinogen protein layers. After calibration of the surface acoustic wave device sensitivity by copper electrodeposition and surfactant adsorption, the bound mass and its physical properties – density and optical index – are extracted from the complementary measurement techniques and lead to thickness and water ratio values compatible with the observed signal shifts. Such results are especially usefully for protein layers with a high water content as shown here for collagen on an hydrophobic surface. We obtain the following results: collagen layers include 70±20% water and are 16±3 to 19±3 nm thick for bulk concentrations ranging from 30 to 300 μg/ml. Fibrinogen layers include 50±10% water for layer thicknesses in the 6±1.5 to 13±2 nm range when the bulk concentration is in the 46 to 460 μg/ml range.

  13. Surface-plasmon-polariton-induced suppressed transmission through ultrathin metal disk arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    We report surface-plasmon-polariton-induced suppressed transmission through two-dimensional arrays of isolated metal disks with a thickness comparable to optical skin depth of the metal. A transmittance dip of −17:5 dB is achieved at the resonant wavelength of 1524 nm, compared to −12 dB for closed...

  14. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Bilayers of Silver-Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fouad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors have been widely adopted with various fields such as physics, chemistry, biology and biochemistry. SPR sensor has many advantages like the less number of sensing samples required, freedom of electromagnetic interference and higher sensitivity. This research investigates the phase interrogation technique of a surface plasmon resonance sensor based on silver and thin film dielectric material of Barium titanate layers. Barium titanate (BaTiO3 layer is adopted due to its excellent dielectric properties such as high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. The numerical results demonstrate that the fusion of the proposed material BaTiO3 layer into surface plasmon resonance sensor yields a higher sensitivity of 280 degree/RIU in comparison with surface plasmon resonance sensor without BaTiO3 layer which shows only a sensitivity of 120 degree/RIU. As the thickness of this layer increases from 5 nm to 10 nm, the sensitivity is enhanced from 160 degree/RIU to 280 degree/RIU for a fixed metal layer of silver with a thickness of (70 nm.

  15. Topology optimization of grating couplers for the efficient excitation of surface plasmons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole; Nishiwaki, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    We propose a methodology for a systematic design of grating couplers for efficient excitation of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The methodology is based on a two-dimensional topology optimization formulation based on the H-polarized scalar Helmholtz equation and finite-element m...

  16. Elliptically polarized modes for the unidirectional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaijen, Paul J.; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by a metal nanoparticle antenna, based on the elliptical polarization of the normal modes of the antenna when it is in close proximity to a metallic substrate. The proposed theoretical model allows for the full char

  17. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for Detection of urediniospores from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Hearty, Stephen; Frøkiær, Hanne;

    2006-01-01

    This study describes a generic biosensing principle for detection of fungal spores using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The approach involves the use of a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a SPR sensor for label-free detection of the model organism Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst). We...

  18. Multiplex surface plasmon resonance imaging platform for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellae are among the leading causes of foodborne outbreaks in the United States, and more rapid and efficient detection methods are needed. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an emerging optical technique, which allows for rapid and label-free screening of multiple targets simultaneous...

  19. Rapid Determination of Phytophthora infestans sporangia Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2007-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight disease in potato and is an economically important pathogen worldwide. Early disease detection is important to implement disease control measures. In this study a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for detection of P. infestans sporangia...

  20. Quantifying protein-protein interactions in the ubiquitin pathway by surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2005-01-01

    The commercial availability of instruments, such as Biacore, that are capable of monitoring surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has greatly simplified the quantification of protein-protein interactions. Already, this technique has been used for some studies of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here we...

  1. Development of a biosensor microarray towards food screening, using imaging surface plasmon resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, Sabina Rebe; Bremer, Maria G. E. G.; Giesbers, Marcel; Norde, Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the possibilities of implementing direct and competitive immunoassay formats for small and large molecule detection on a microarray, using IBIS imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) system. First, IBIS iSPR optics performance was evaluated. Using a glycerol calibration c

  2. Improvement of the Specificity of Surface Plasmon Resonance with BSA-modified Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A chip was modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA), then interaction between glutathione (GSH) immobilized on the top of BSA and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was examined, using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The SPR results showed that BSA-modified chip was effective not only in binding the target proteins but also in suppressing the nonspecific binding (NSB) of proteins.

  3. Long-range surface plasmon polaritons at THz frequencies in thin semiconductor layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yichen Zhang; Audrey Berrier; Jaime Gómez Rivas

    2011-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves coupled to the free charge carriers at the interface between a metal and a dielectric[1].These waves propagate along the interface,while decaying evanescently away from it.The propagation length of SPPs is mainly limited by Ohmic losses in the metal.A possible way to lower these losses is to reduce the penetration of the electromagnetic field inside the metal,which can be achieved by coupling the SPPs at the opposite sides of a thin metallic film.These coupled SPPs are known as long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LRSPPs) and have been thoroughly investigated at optical frequencies in thin layers of noble metals[2].%We present a theoretical investigation of THz long-range surface plasmon polaritons propagating on thin layers of InSb. The metallic behavior of doped semiconductors at THz frequencies allows the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons with propagation and confinement lengths that can be actively controlled. This control is achieved by acting on the free carrier density, which can be realized by changing the temperature of InSb.

  4. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanostructures: The Role of Surface Photoemission and Transition Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh;

    2015-01-01

    We study mechanisms of photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoparticles. We analyze the contribution of "transition absorption", i.e., loss of energy of electrons passing through the boundary between different materials, to the surface mechanism of photoemission. We calculate photoemis...

  5. Data transmission in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharitonov, S.; Kiselev, R.; Kumar, Ashwani;

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the data transmission of 10 Gbit/s on-off keying modulated 1550 nm signal through a long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide structure with negligible signal degradation. In the experiment the bit error rate penalties do not exceed 0.6 dB over the 15 nm...

  6. Rapid Determination of Phytophthora infestans sporangia Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2007-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight disease in potato and is an economically important pathogen worldwide. Early disease detection is important to implement disease control measures. In this study a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for detection of P. infestans sporangi...

  7. First-principles study of surface plasmons on Ag(111) and H/Ag(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Linear-response time-dependent density functional theory is used to investigate the relation between molecular bonding and surface plasmons for the model system H/Ag(111). We employ an orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functional to obtain a correct description of the Ag 3d band, which is cr...

  8. Metal-loaded graphene surface plasmon waveguides working in the terahertz regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Qin, Kang; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2015-01-01

    A metal-loaded graphene surface plasmon waveguide composed of a thin silica layer sandwiched between a graphene layer and a metal stripe is proposed and the waveguiding properties in the THz regime are numerically investigated. The results show that the fundamental mode of the proposed waveguide ...

  9. Development of a biosensor microarray towards food screening using imaging surface plasmon resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebe, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Giesbers, M.; Norde, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the possibilities of implementing direct and competitive immunoassay formats for small and large molecule detection on a microarray, using IBIS imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) system. First, IBIS iSPR optics performance was evaluated. Using a glycerol calibration c

  10. Using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor for rapid detection of salmonella typhimurium in chicken carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken is one of the most popular meat products in the world. Salmonella Typhimurium is a common foodborne pathogens associated with the processing of poultry. An optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor was sensitive to the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken carcass. The Spr...

  11. Detection of benzimidazole carbamates and amino metabolites in liver by surface plasmon resonance-biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor screening assays were developed and validated to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamate (BZT) and four amino-benzimidazole veterinary drug residues in liver tissue. The assays used polyclonal antibodies, raised in sheep, to detect BZTs and amino-benzimidazole...

  12. Detection of egg yolk antibodies reflecting Salmonella enteritidis infections using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, M.E.; Bouma, A.; Eerden, van E.; Landman, W.J.M.; Knapen, van F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Bergwerff, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assay was developed on the basis of a lipopolysaccharide antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (S. enterica serovar enteritidis) to detect egg yolk antibodies against S. enterica serovar enteritidis. This biosensor assay was compared to two co

  13. Propagation of surface plasmon polariton in the single interface of gallium lanthanum sulfide and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Saber, Md. Ghulam; Amin, Md. Ruhul

    2014-03-01

    The propagation characteristics of the surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) mode in the single interface of silver (Ag) and gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) have been studied both analytically and numerically. The obtained numerical results show an excellent agreement with the analytical ones. The locations of the spatial resonance point along the direction of propagation were determined for the dielectric and the metal.

  14. Detection of mycotoxins using imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect mycotoxins. One technology that has been extensively tested is surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In 2003 a multi-toxin method was reported that detected aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 ...

  15. Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance chemical sensor based on Goos-Hanchen effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaobo; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2006-08-01

    The resonance enhanced Goos-Hanchen shifts at attenuated total internal reflection enables the possibility for highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensor. The observed giant displacements result from the singular phase retardation at the resonance where the phase is continuous but changes dramatically. The phenomenon is proposed for chemical sensing and the superior sensitivity is demonstrated.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An automated and rapid method for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) is needed. A sandwich assay was developed using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) at subpicomolar concentration. Assay conditions were optimized for capturing...

  17. Studies on Interactions of Antibiotics with Serum Albumin by Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Characterizing how chemical compounds binding to serum albumin is essential in evaluating drug candidates and is the focus of this study. A surface plasmon resonance biosensor developed in this laboratory was used to determine the binding constants of antibiotics with serum albumin. The binding constants of five antibiotics(azithromycin, spectinomycin, gentamycin, metacycline and kanamycin) with serum albumins were obtained.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance: concept and applications for nano-sensors and optical active devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    In report is made the synthesis of the surface plasmon polariton propagation phenomenon. Methods such as Maxwell equations, Drude model used to describe the light confinement at the interface between two media are analyzed. Simulation techniques such as the transfer matrix formalism and the dispersion equation are examined. Finally are presented the results of our own investigations aiming plasmonic structure containing a film of amorphous chalcogenide material. It is shown the structure is very sensitive to the modifications of the refractive index that may be used for the design of the optical memory.

  19. Phase effects in guided mode resonances II: measuring the angular phase of a surface plasmon polariton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, M. J.; Brown, T. G.

    2015-02-01

    We show how the phase of a resonant interaction between a focused beam and a guided mode can be directly observed in a pupil imaging experiment, in which the irradiance leaving the pupil of a standard microscope is relayed to an image sensor through a combination Wollaston prism, calcite beam splitter and polarizer. We apply the method to the observation of a surface plasmon polariton resonance excited in a corrugated silver film fabricated using electron beam lithography. We discuss how this particular imaging configuration could be adapted for applications in plasmonic optical sensing.

  20. Tunable surface plasmon-polaritons in a gyroelectric slab sandwiched between two graphene layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoding; Cao, Ming; Liu, Chang; Sun, Jian; Pan, Tao

    2016-05-01

    We study numerically the properties of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) in a gyroelectric slab sandwiched between two graphene layers, where the external static magnetic field is applied in the Voigt geometry. It is shown that the dispersion characteristics and propagation lenghts of the SPPs for both the optical and the acoustic branches can be tuned flexibly by the external magnetic field and graphene's chemical potential, and that the nonreciprocal properties of the SPPs caused by the external magnetic field are rather obvious. The results provide a method for adjusting and improving the dispersion and propagation properties of the SPPs, which might be helpful for the design of the related plasmonic devices.

  1. Forty-Four Pass Fibre Optic Loop for Improving the Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Chin B

    2007-01-01

    A forty-four pass fibre optic surface plasmon resonance sensor that enhances detection sensitivity according to the number of passes is demonstrated for the first time. The technique employs a fibre optic recirculation loop that passes the detection spot forty- four times, thus enhancing sensitivity by a factor of forty-four. Presently, the total number of passes is limited by the onset of lasing action of the recirculation loop. This technique offers a significant sensitivity improvement for various types of plasmon resonance sensors that may be used in chemical and biomolecule detections.

  2. Tunable narrow band source via the strong coupling between optical emitter and nanowire surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Niu, Y P; Qi, Y H; Zhou, F X; Gong, S Q

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum width can be narrowed to a certain degree by decreasing the coupling strength for the two-level emitter coupled to the propagating surface plasmon. But the width can not be narrowed any further because of the loss of the photon out of system by spontaneous emission from the emitter. Here we propose a new scheme to construct a narrow-band source via a one-dimensional waveguide coupling with a three-level emitter. It is shown that the reflective spectrum width can be narrowed avoiding the impact of the loss. This approach opens up the possibility of plasmonic ultranarrow single-photon source.

  3. Novel piezoelectric effect and surface plasmon resonance-based elements for MEMS applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponelyte, Sigita; Palevicius, Arvydas

    2014-04-17

    This paper covers research on novel thin films with periodical microstructure--optical elements, exhibiting a combination of piezoelectric and surface plasmon resonance effects. The research results showed that incorporation of Ag nanoparticles in novel piezoelectric--plasmonic elements shift a dominating peak in the visible light spectrum. This optical window is essential in the design of optical elements for sensing systems. Novel optical elements can be tunable under defined bias and change its main grating parameters (depth and width) influencing the response of diffraction efficiencies. These elements allow opening new avenues in the design of more sensitive and multifunctional microdevices.

  4. Surface plasmon-assisted optical bistability in the quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengjun; Qi, Yihong; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigated optical bistability (OB) of a coupled excition-plasmon hybrid system in a unidirectional ring cavity. It is found that the threshold and the region of OB can be tuned by adjusting the center-center distance between the quantum dot and metal nanoparticle (MNP), the Rabi frequency of the control field and the radius of the MNP. Due to the significantly enhanced optical nonlinearity by the surface plasmon effect, the threshold of OB can be decreased greatly when the probe field is parallel to the major axis of the hybrid system. The enhanced OB may have promising applications in optical switching and optical storage.

  5. Surface Plasmon mediated near-field imaging and optical addressing in nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Drezet, A; Krenn, J R; Brun, M; Huant, S

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of recent progress in plasmonics. We focus our study on the observation and excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with optical near-field microscopy. We discuss in particular recent applications of photon scanning tunnelling microscope (PSTM) for imaging of SPP propagating in metal and dielectric wave guides. We show how near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) can be used to optically and actively address remotely nano-objects such as quantum dots. Additionally we compare results obtained with near-field microscopy to those obtained with other optical far-field methods of analysis such as leakage radiation microscopy (LRM).

  6. Suppression of surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles upon transition to the liquid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, V S; Ershov, A E; Gavrilyuk, A P; Karpov, S V; Ågren, H; Polyutov, S P

    2016-11-14

    Significant suppression of resonant properties of single gold nanoparticles at the surface plasmon frequency during heating and subsequent transition to the liquid state has been demonstrated experimentally and explained for the first time. The results for plasmonic absorption of the nanoparticles have been analyzed by means of Mie theory using experimental values of the optical constants for the liquid and solid metal. The good qualitative agreement between calculated and experimental spectra support the idea that the process of melting is accompanied by an abrupt increase of the relaxation constants, which depends, beside electron-phonon coupling, on electron scattering at a rising number of lattice defects in a particle upon growth of its temperature, and subsequent melting as a major cause for the observed plasmonic suppression. It is emphasized that observed effect is fully reversible and may underlie nonlinear optical responses of nanocolloids and composite materials containing plasmonic nanoparticles and their aggregates in conditions of local heating and in general, manifest itself in a wide range of plasmonics phenomena associated with strong heating of nanoparticles.

  7. Diffuse Surface Scattering in the Plasmonic Resonances of Ultra-Low Electron Density Nanospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Monreal, R Carmina; Apell, S Peter

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) have recently been identified in extremely diluted electron systems obtained by doping semiconductor quantum dots. Here we investigate the role that different surface effects, namely electronic spill-out and diffuse surface scattering, play in the optical properties of these ultra-low electron density nanosystems. Diffuse scattering originates from imperfections or roughness at a microscopic scale on the surface. Using an electromagnetic theory that describes this mechanism in conjunction with a dielectric function including the quantum size effect, we find that the LSPRs show an oscillatory behavior both in position and width for large particles and a strong blueshift in energy and an increased width for smaller radii, consistent with recent experimental results for photodoped ZnO nanocrystals. We thus show that the commonly ignored process of diffuse surface scattering is a more important mechanism affecting the plasmonic properties of ultra-low electron density ...

  8. Photoelectron emission from plasmonic nanoparticles: Comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects

    CERN Document Server

    Uskov, Alexander V; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh; Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Lavrinenko, Andrey V; OReilly, Eoin P; Xu, Hongxing

    2013-01-01

    We study emission of photoelectrons from plasmonic nanoparticles into surrounding matrix. We consider two mechanisms of the photoelectric effect from nanoparticles - surface and volume ones, and use models of these two effects which allow us to obtain analytical results for the photoelectron emission rates from nanoparticle. Calculations have been done for the step potential at surface of spherical nanoparticle, and the simple model for the hot electron cooling have been used. We highlight the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary in the surface mechanism, which leads to substantial (by 5 times) increase of photoelectron emission rate from nanoparticle compared to the case when such discontinuity is absent. For plasmonic nanoparticle, a comparison of two mechanisms of the photoeffect was done for the first time and showed that surface photoeffect, at least, does not concede the volume one, which agrees with results for the flat metal surface first formulated b...

  9. The effect of hot electrons and surface plasmons on heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Si Woo; Moon, Song Yi; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-01

    Hot electrons and surface-plasmon-driven chemistry are amongst the most actively studied research subjects because they are deeply associated with energy dissipation and the conversion processes at the surface and interfaces, which are still open questions and key issues in the surface science community. In this topical review, we give an overview of the concept of hot electrons or surface-plasmon-mediated hot electrons generated under various structural schemes (i.e. metals, metal-semiconductor, and metal-insulator-metal) and their role affecting catalytic activity in chemical reactions. We highlight recent studies on the relation between hot electrons and catalytic activity on metallic surfaces. We discuss possible mechanisms for how hot electrons participate in chemical reactions. We also introduce controlled chemistry to describe specific pathways for selectivity control in catalysis on metal nanoparticles.

  10. Surface Plasmonic Lattice Solitons in Semi-infinite Graphene Sheet Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhouqing; Long, Hua; Wang, Kai; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the surface plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) in semi-infinite graphene sheet arrays. The surface soliton is formed as the SPPs tunneling is inhibited by the graphene nonlinearity, and meanwhile the incident power should be above a threshold value. Thanks to the strong confinement of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on graphene, the effective width of surface PLSs can be squeezed into deep-subwavelength scale of ~ 0.001{\\lambda}. Based on the stable propagation of surface PLSs, we find that the light propagation can be switched from the array boundary to the inner graphene sheets by reducing the incident power or increasing the chemical potential of graphene. The study may find promising application in optical switches on deep-subwavelength scale.

  11. Plasmonics of opalic surface: a combined near-and far-field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lethiec, Clotilde; Popescu, Trajan; Frederich, Hugo; Ngoc, Phan; Yraola, Eduardo; Schwob, Catherine; Charra, Fabrice; Coolen, Laurent; Douillard, Ludovic; Maître, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    An opalic plasmonic sample, constituted by a hexagonal arrangement of metallized silica spheres, presents remarkable optical properties due to the mixing of periodic arrangement and singularities at the sphere touching points. It is therefore an interesting candidate for exploiting the excitation of both localized and propagating surface plasmons. Several channels of excitation based on these properties or exploiting a certain level of disorder are evidenced, opening new routes for the efficient excitation of plasmons on a wide spectral range. The versatility of such hybrid system is evidenced in the context of two complementary experiments: specular reflective spectrometry and photoemission electron microscopy. Both techniques offer different points of view on the same physical phenomenon and the link between them is discussed. Such experiments evidence the opportunities offered by these 2D hybrid materials in the context of nanophotonics.

  12. Coupling-induced excitation of a forbidden surface plasmon mode of a gold nanorod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO HaoMin; LI Zhi; GONG QiHuang

    2009-01-01

    Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we simulate the coupling between a gold nanorod and gold nanoparticles with different plasmonic resonant frequencies/volumes as well as that between the nanorod and a dielectric nanosphere. The influences of coupling with different nanoparti-cles on the excitation of a forbidden longitudinal surface plasmon mode of the nanorod under normal incidence are investigated. It is found that the cause of this excitation is the broken symmetry of the local electric field experienced by the nanorod resulting from the charge pileup on the other nanopar-ticle. This result is valuable for understanding the near-field optical characterization of plasmonic metal nanoparticles.

  13. Coupling-induced excitation of a forbidden surface plasmon mode of a gold nanorod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD) method,we simulate the coupling between a gold nanorod and gold nanoparticles with different plasmonic resonant frequencies/volumes as well as that between the nanorod and a dielectric nanosphere.The influences of coupling with different nanoparticles on the excitation of a forbidden longitudinal surface plasmon mode of the nanorod under normal incidence are investigated.It is found that the cause of this excitation is the broken symmetry of the local electric field experienced by the nanorod resulting from the charge pileup on the other nanoparticle.This result is valuable for understanding the near-field optical characterization of plasmonic metal nanoparticles.

  14. Properties of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on lossy materials: Lifetimes, periods and excitation conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Derrien, Thibault J -Y; Bonse, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to excite Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) at the interface between two media depends on the optical properties of both media and geometrical aspects. Specific conditions allowing the coupling of light with a plasmon-active interface must be satisfied. Plasmonic effects are well described in noble metals where the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity is often neglected ("perfect medium approximation"). However, some systems exist for which such approximation cannot be applied, hence requiring a refinement of the common SPP theory. In this context, several properties of SPPs such as excitation conditions, period of the electromagnetic field modulation and SPP lifetime then may strongly deviate from that of the perfect medium approximation. In this paper, calculations taking into account the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivities are presented. The model identifies analytical terms which should not be neglected in the mathematical description of SPPs on lossy materials. These ...

  15. Directional and singular surface plasmon generation in chiral and achiral nanostructures demonstrated by Leakage Radiation Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Quanbo; Berthel, Martin; Huant, Serge; Bellessa, Joel; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of leakage radiation microscopy (LRM) to probe the chirality of plasmonic nanostructures. We demonstrate experimentally spin-driven directional coupling as well as vortex generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by nanostructures built with T-shaped and $\\Lambda$- shaped apertures. Using this far-field method, quantitative inspections, including directivity and extinction ratio measurements, are achieved via polarization analysis in both image and Fourier planes. To support our experimental findings, we develop an analytical model based on a multidipolar representation of $\\Lambda$- and T-shaped aperture plasmonic coupler allowing a theoretical explanation of both directionality and singular SPP formation. Furthermore, the roles of symmetry breaking and phases are emphasized in this work. This quantitative characterization of spin-orbit interactions paves the way for developing new directional couplers for subwavelength routing.

  16. Beam filter and splitter based on surface plasmon propagation in ring metal heterowaveguide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaige Zheng; Linhua Xu; Yunyun Chen; Wei Su; Yuzhu Liu

    2014-12-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) beam filter (BF) and beam splitter (BS) constructed using metal heterostructures are proposed and demonstrated numerically. Both structures have a ring metal heterowaveguide, which is constructed by a metal cylinder and a ring dielectric cladding. The two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) method is employed to study the properties of the proposed BF and BS, and the results show that SPPs can effectively propagate on bended plasmonic waveguides with dielectric claddings. By introducing dielectric and plasmonic waveguides on both sides of the resonant ring, SPPs can be efficiently excited at the output of the waveguide ring resonator (WRR) through mode coupling. The planar metal heterostructures provide a way for constructing various nanoscale counterparts of conventional planar integrated devices such as filters, splitters, resonators, sensors, optical switches, and so on.

  17. Sensing (un)binding events via surface plasmons: effects of resonator geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Claudio, Virginia; Käll, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    The resonance conditions of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) can be perturbed in any number ways making plasmon nanoresonators viable tools in detection of e.g. phase changes, pH, gasses, and single molecules. Precise measurement via LSPR of molecular concentrations hinge on the ability to confidently count the number of molecules attached to a metal resonator and ideally to track binding and unbinding events in real-time. These two requirements make it necessary to rigorously quantify relations between the number of bound molecules and response of plasmonic sensors. This endeavor is hindered on the one hand by a spatially varying response of a given plasmonic nanosensor. On the other hand movement of molecules is determined by stochastic effects (Brownian motion) as well as deterministic flow, if present, in microfluidic channels. The combination of molecular dynamics and the electromagnetic response of the LSPR yield an uncertainty which is little understood and whose effect is often disregarded in quantitative sensing experiments. Using a combination of electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the plasmon resonance peak shift of various metal nanosensors (disk, cone, rod, dimer) and stochastic diffusion-reaction simulations of biomolecular interactions on a sensor surface we clarify the interplay between position dependent binding probability and inhomogeneous sensitivity distribution. We show, how the statistical characteristics of the total signal upon molecular binding are determined. The proposed methodology is, in general, applicable to any sensor and any transduction mechanism, although the specifics of implementation will vary depending on circumstances. In this work we focus on elucidating how the interplay between electromagnetic and stochastic effects impacts the feasibility of employing particular shapes of plasmonic sensors for real-time monitoring of individual binding reactions or sensing low concentrations

  18. Manipulating surface plasmon waves by transformation optics: Design examples of a beam squeezer, bend,and omnidirectional absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhen-Zhong; Feng Yi-Jun; Wang Zheng-Bin; Zhao Jun-Ming; Jiang Tian

    2013-01-01

    We present several design examples of how to apply transformation optics and curved space under coordinate transformarion to manipulating the surface plasmon waves in a controlled manner.We demonstrate in detail the design procedure of the plasmonic wave squeezer,in-plane bend and omnidirectional absorber.We show that the approximation method of modifying only the dielectric material of a dielectric-metal surface of the plasmonic device could lead to acceptable performance,which facilitates the fabrication of the device.The functionality of the proposed plasmonic device is verified using three-dimensional full-wave electromagnetic simulations.Aiming at practical realization,we also show the design of a plasmonic in-plane bend and omnidirectional absorber by an alternative transformation scheme,which results in a simple device structure with a tapered isotropic dielectric cladding layer on the top of the metal surface that can be fabricated with existing nanotechnology.

  19. Effective Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Graphene-Protected Single-Crystalline Silver Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Young; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2017-02-08

    Silver (Ag) is a promising material for manipulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), due to its optical and electrical properties; however, the intrinsic properties are easily degraded by surface corrosion under atmospheric conditions, restricting its applications in plasmonics. Here, we address this issue via single-crystalline Ag films protected with graphene layers and demonstrate effective propagation of SPPs on the graphene-protected Ag films. Single-crystalline Ag films with atomically flat surfaces are prepared by epitaxial growth; graphene layers are then transferred onto the Ag films. The propagation lengths of SPPs on the graphene-protected Ag films are measured, and their variations under corrosive conditions are investigated. The initial SPP propagation lengths for the bare Ag films are very long (about 50 μm in the wavelength range 550-700 nm). However, the values decrease significantly (11-13 μm) under corrosive conditions. On the contrary, the double-layer-graphene-protected Ag films exhibit SPP propagation lengths of about 23 μm and retain over 90% (21-23 μm) of the propagation lengths even after exposure to corrosive conditions, guaranteeing the reliability of Ag plasmonic devices. This approach can encourage extending the application of the graphene-metal hybrid structure and thus developing Ag plasmonic devices.

  20. Porous silicon photoluminescence modification by colloidal gold nanoparticles: Plasmonic, surface and porosity roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.B. de la; Bornacelli, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Nava, R. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Zanella, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Reyes-Esqueda, J.A., E-mail: betarina@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2014-02-15

    Metal nanoparticles on semiconductors are of interest because of the tunable effect of the surface plasmon resonance on the physical properties of the semiconductor. In this work, colloidal gold nanoparticles obtained by two different methods, with an average size of 6.1±2.0 nm and 5.0±2.0 nm, were added to luminescent porous silicon by drop casting. The gold nanoparticles interact with porous silicon by modifying its optical properties such as photoluminescence. That being said, plasmon effects are not the only to be taken into account; as shown in this work, surface chemical modification and porosity also play a key role in the final performance of photoluminescence of a porous silicon–gold nanoparticle hybrid system. -- Highlights: • A hybrid material consisting of porous silicon and gold nanoparticles was fabricated. • Porous silicon/gold nanoparticle hybrid material was made by drop casting. • Influence of plasmonics, surface chemical modification and porosity on the optical behavior of our material was analyzed. • Porosity is proposed as a parameter control to obtain the best effects on luminescence of the hybrid plasmonic material.

  1. Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis of Histidine-Tagged F1-ATPase Surface Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jenifer K.; Richter, Mark L.; Berrie, Cindy L.

    2015-11-01

    Studies of the rotational activity of the enzymatic core (α3β3γ) of the F1-ATPase motor protein have relied on binding the enzyme to NTA-coated glass surfaces via polyhistidine tags engineered into the C-termini of each of the three α or β subunits. Those studies revealed the rotational motion of the central γ subunit by monitoring the motion of attached micron-long actin filaments or spherical nanoparticles. However, only a small percentage of the attached filaments or particles were observed to rotate, likely due, at least in part, to non-uniform surface attachment of the motor proteins. In this study, we have applied surface plasmon resonance to monitor the kinetics and affinity of binding of the His-tagged motor protein to NTA-coated gold sensor surfaces. The binding data, when fit to a heterogeneous binding model, exhibit two sets of adsorption-desorption rate constants with two dissociation constants of 4.0 × 10-9 M and 8.6 × 10-11 M for 6His-α3β3γ binding to the nickel ion-activated NTA surface. The data are consistent with mixed attachment of the protein via two (bimodal) and three (trimodal) NTA/Ni2+-His-tag interactions, respectively, with the less stable bimodal interaction dominating. The results provide a partial explanation for the low number of surface-attached F1 motors previously observed in rotation studies and suggest alternative approaches to uniform F1 motor surface attachment for future fabrication of motor-based nanobiodevices and materials.

  2. Interaction of surface plasmon polaritons in heavily doped GaN microstructures with terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentev, G. A.; Shalygin, V. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Firsov, D. A.; Riuttanen, L.; Suihkonen, S.; Korotyeyev, V. V.; Lyaschuk, Yu. M.; Kochelap, V. A.; Poroshin, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the surface plasmon polariton excitations in heavily doped GaN epitaxial layers. Reflection and emission of radiation in the frequency range of 2-20 THz including the Reststrahlen band were investigated for samples with grating etched on the sample surface, as well as for samples with flat surface. The reflectivity spectrum for p-polarized radiation measured for the sample with the surface-relief grating demonstrates a set of resonances associated with excitations of different surface plasmon polariton modes. Spectral peculiarities due to the diffraction effect have been also revealed. The characteristic features of the reflectivity spectrum, namely, frequencies, amplitudes, and widths of the resonance dips, are well described theoretically by a modified technique of rigorous coupled-wave analysis of Maxwell equations. The emissivity spectra of the samples were measured under epilayer temperature modulation by pulsed electric field. The emissivity spectrum of the sample with surface-relief grating shows emission peaks in the frequency ranges corresponding to the decay of the surface plasmon polariton modes. Theoretical analysis based on the blackbody-like radiation theory well describes the main peculiarities of the observed THz emission.

  3. Chemically sensitive surface plasmon devices employing a self-assembled monolayer composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePriest, J. C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Oden, Patrick I.; Downey, Todd R.; Passian, A.; Wig, A. G.; Ferrell, Trinidad L.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the results of detecting volatile organic compounds (VOC) employing surface plasmon-based sensors are presented. The initial step in preparing the sensing elements herein requires depositing Au degree(s) on a quartz slide. The sensing elements are based on either (1) freshly deposited Au degree(s) or (2) growth of a self assembled monolayer composite film (SAM) on to a freshly deposited Au degree(s) surface. The desired SAM is either (1) acid terminated using (omega) -mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA-COOH) or (2) Cu2+ metal ion terminated yielding (omega) - mercaptoundecanoic acid-Cu2+ (MUA-Cu2+). The experimental apparatus shown here measures the reflectivity of the Au degree(s) surface as a function of time at a given angle. The response of this surface plasmon device to various VOC's is correlated to the composition of the SAM film.

  4. Surface Plasmon Polariton Excitation in Metallic Layer Via Surface Relief Gratings in Photoactive Polymer Studied by the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Pawel; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    We performed numerical investigations of surface plasmon excitation and propagation in structures made of a photochromic polymer layer deposited over a metal surface using the finite-difference time-domain method. We investigated the process of light coupling into surface plasmon polariton excitation using surface relief gratings formed on the top of a polymer layer and compared it with the coupling via rectangular ridges grating made directly in the metal layer. We also performed preliminary studies on the influence of refractive index change of photochromic polymer on surface plasmon polariton propagation conditions.

  5. Surface plasmonic lightening characteristics through liquid crystal microlens arrays controlled electrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingle

    2015-12-01

    An approach for representing and evaluating surface plasmonic lightening through cylindrical liquid crystal microlens arrays (CLCMAs) of 128×128, is proposed. The CLCMAs are typical sandwiched structures, in which the LC materials with a thickness of ~20μm is fully filled into a preshaped microcavity with a pair of parallel electrodes fabricated by silica wafers coated by an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film. The top electrode is patterned using an arrayed micro-rectangle-hole with a size of 200×60μm2 and a minimum spacing of 50μm. The surface plasmonic radiation is excited and further participates the focusing of incident beams in the visible range. The output light fields involving the plasmonic radiation are investigated. Rising the voltage signal from ~1.4 to ~5.5VRMS, the excited plasmonic radiation will sequentially present typical states including the beam converging state, focusing together with partial incident beams, and lightening mainly along the edge of individual ITO micro-rectangle-hole.

  6. Tapered Optical Fiber Probe Assembled with Plasmonic Nanostructures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhulin; Lei, Xing; Liu, Ye; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Zhaoming; Mao, Qinghe; Meng, Guowen

    2015-08-12

    Optical fiber-Raman devices integrated with plasmonic nanostructures have promising potentials for in situ probing remote liquid samples and biological samples. In this system, the fiber probe is required to simultaneously demonstrate stable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals and high sensitivity toward the target species. Here we demonstrate a generic approach to integrate presynthesized plasmonic nanostructures with tapered fiber probes that are prepared by a dipping-etching method, through reversed electrostatic attraction between the silane couple agent modified silica fiber probe and the nanostructures. Using this approach, both negatively and positively charged plasmonic nanostructures with various morphologies (such as Au nanosphere, Ag nanocube, Au nanorod, Au@Ag core-shell nanorod) can be stably assembled on the tapered silica fiber probes. Attributed to the electrostatic force between the plasmonic units and the fiber surface, the nanostructures do not disperse in liquid samples easily, making the relative standard deviation of SERS signals as low as 2% in analyte solution. Importantly, the detection sensitivity of the system can be optimized by adjusting the cone angle (from 3.6° to 22°) and the morphology of nanostructures assembled on the fiber. Thus, the nanostructures-sensitized optical fiber-Raman probes show great potentials in the applications of SERS-based environmental detection of liquid samples.

  7. Diffuse Surface Scattering and Quantum Size Effects in the Surface Plasmon Resonances of Low Carrier Density Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Monreal, R Carmina; Apell, S Peter

    2016-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the physical parameters that determine Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) is essential to develop new applications for plasmonics. A relatively new area of research has been opened by the identification of LSPRs in low carrier density systems obtained by doping semiconductor quantum dots. We investigate theoretically how diffuse surface scattering of electrons in combination with the effect of quantization due to size (QSE) impact the evolution of the LSPRs with the size of these nanosystems. Two key parameters are the length $R_0$ giving the strength of the QSE and the velocity $\\beta_T$ of the electronic excitations entering in the length scale for diffuse surface scattering. While the QSE itself only produces a blueshift in energy of the LSPRs, the diffuse surface scattering mechanism gives to both energy and linewidth an oscillatory-damped behavior as a function of size, with characteristic lengths that depend on material parameters. Thus, the evolution of the LSPRs...

  8. Self-assembled large-area annular cavity arrays with tunable cylindrical surface plasmons for sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming; Shen, Tianyi; Zhou, Jing

    2015-02-24

    Surface plasmons that propagate along cylindrical metal/dielectric interfaces in annular apertures in metal films, called cylindrical surface plasmons (CSPs), exhibit attractive optical characteristics. However, it is challenging to fabricate these nanocoaxial structures. Here, we demonstrate a practical low-cost route to manufacture highly ordered, large-area annular cavity arrays (ACAs) that can support CSPs with great tunability. By employing a sol-gel coassembly method, reactive ion etching and metal sputtering techniques, regular, highly ordered ACAs in square-centimeter-scale with a gap width tunable in the range of several to hundreds of nanometers have been produced with good reproducibility. Ag ACAs with a gap width of 12 nm and a gap height of 635 nm are demonstrated. By finite-difference time-domain simulation, we confirm that the pronounced dips in the reflectance spectra of ACAs are attributable to CSP resonances excited in the annular gaps. By adjusting etching time and Ag film thickness, the CSP dips can be tuned to sweep the entire optical range of 360 to 1800 nm without changing sphere size, which makes them a promising candidate for forming integrated plasmonic sensing arrays. The high tunability of the CSP resonant frequencies together with strong electric field enhancement in the cavities make the ACAs promising candidates for surface plasmon sensors and SERS substrates, as, for example, they have been used in liquid refractive index (RI) sensing, demonstrating a sensitivity of 1505 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of 9. One of the CSP dips of ACAs with a certain geometry size is angle- (0-70 degrees) and polarization-independent and can be used as a narrow-band absorber. Furthermore, the nano annular cavity arrays can be used to construct solar cells, nanolasers and nanoparticle plasmonic tweezers.

  9. Plasmonically Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water: The Critical Role of Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonance from Gold-Silver Nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Hung; Li, Min-Chih; Liu, Si-Ping; Jamison, Andrew C; Lee, Dahye; Lee, T Randall; Lee, Tai-Chou

    2016-04-13

    Gold-silver nanoshells (GS-NSs) having a tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) were employed to facilitate charge separation of photoexcited carriers in the photocalytic production of hydrogen from water. Zinc indium sulfide (ZnIn2S4; ZIS), a visible-light-active photocatalyst, where the band gap varies with the [Zn]/[In] ratio, was used as a model ZIS system (E(g) = 2.25 eV) to investigate the mechanisms of plasmonic enhancement associated with the nanoshells. Three types of GS-NS cores with intense absorptions centered roughly at 500, 700, and 900 nm were used as seeds for preparing GS-NS@ZIS core-shell structures via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction, yielding core-shell particles with composite diameters of ∼200 nm. Notably, an interlayer of dielectric silica (SiO2) between the GS-NSs and the ZIS photocatalyst provided another parameter to enhance the production of hydrogen and to distinguish the charge-transfer mechanisms. In particular, the direct transfer of hot electrons from the GS-NSs to the ZIS photocatalyst was blocked by this layer. Of the 10 particle samples examined in this study, the greatest hydrogen gas evolution rate was observed for GS-NSs having a SiO2 interlayer thickness of ∼17 nm and an SPR absorption centered at ∼700 nm, yielding a rate 2.6 times higher than that of the ZIS without GS-NSs. The apparent quantum efficiencies for these core-shell particles were recorded and compared to the absorption spectra. Analyses of the charge-transfer mechanisms were evaluated and are discussed based on the experimental findings.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor based on metallic grating with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaiqun; Lu, Yonghua; Chen, Junxue; Zheng, Rongsheng; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai

    2008-11-10

    High sensitivity is obtained at larger resonant incident angle if negative diffraction order of metallic grating is used to excite the surface plasmon. A highly sensitive grating-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is designed for the hydrogen detection. A thin palladium (Pd) film deposited on the grating surface is used as transducer. The influences of grating period and the thickness of Pd on the performance of sensor are investigated using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method. The sensitivity as well as the width of the SPR curves and reflective amplitude is considered simultaneously for designing the grating-based SPR hydrogen sensor, and a set of optimized structural parameters is presented. The performance of grating-based SPR sensor is also compared with that of conventional prism-based SPR sensor.

  11. Surface scattering contribution to the plasmon width in embedded Ag nanospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Monreal, R Carmina; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J

    2014-01-01

    Nanometer-sized metal particles exhibit broadening of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in comparison to its value predicted by the classical Mie theory. Using our model for the LSPR dependence on non-local surface screening and size quantization, we quantitatively relate the observed plasmon width to the nanoparticle radius $R$ and the permittivity of the surrounding medium $\\epsilon_m$. For Ag nanospheres larger than 8 nm only the non-local dynamical effects occurring at the surface are important and, up to a diameter of 25 nm, dominate over the bulk scattering mechanism. Qualitatively, the LSPR width is inversely proportional to the particle size and has a nonmonotonic dependence on the permittivity of the host medium, exhibiting for Ag a maximum at $\\epsilon_m\\approx2.5$. Our calculated LSPR width is compared with recent experimental data.

  12. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  13. Digital Plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Gjonaj, Bergin; Johnson, Patrick M; Mosk, Allard P; Kuipers, Kobus; Lagendijk, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The field of plasmonics offers a route to control light fields with metallic nanostructures through the excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs). These surface waves, bound to a metal dielectric interface, tightly confine electromagnetic energy. Active control over SPPs has potential for applications in sensing, photovoltaics, quantum communication, nano circuitry, metamaterials and super-resolution microscopy. We achieve here a new level of control of plasmonic fields using a digital spatial light modulator. Optimizing the plasmonic phases via feedback we focus SPPs at a freely pre-chosen point on the surface of a nanohole array with high resolution. Digital addressing and scanning of SPPs without mechanical motion will enable novel interdisciplinary applications of advanced plasmonic devices in cell microscopy, optical data storage and sensing.

  14. Tunable plasmonic nanostructures: From fundamental nanoscale optics to surface-enhanced spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui

    In this thesis, I demonstrate the rational design and controllable fabrication of a series of novel plasmonic nanostructures with judiciously tailored optical properties including perfect nanoshells, roughened subwavelength particles, prolate nanoshells known as nanorice, and non-concentric nanoshells known as nanoeggs. All of these nanostructures are very important subwavelength nanoscale optical components that can be utilized to manipulate light in unique ways. The most striking feature of these nanoparticles is their geometrically tunable plasmon resonances, which can be harnessed for widespread applications. I have also utilized these nanostructures as the building blocks to construct self-assembled multinanoparticle systems, such as nanoshell heterodimers, nanosphere arrays and nanoshell arrays. I have further developed multifunctional molecular sensing platforms using these nanoengineered plasmonic structures as substrates for surface-enhanced spectroscopies, realizing integrated analytical chemistry lab-on-a-chip. Applying the Plasmon Hybridization model as design principles to experimentally realizable nanostructures results in a thorough understanding of the origin of the geometry-dependent optical properties observed in these nanosystems. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method also provides a powerful platform for the numerical simulation of local- and far-field optical properties of these nanostructures.

  15. Surface and volume photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.;

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically compare surface- and volume-based photoelectron emission from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expressions for the emission rate in both mechanisms. We show that the surface mechanism prevails, being unaffected by detrimental hot electron collisions....

  16. Underpotential deposition of a copper monolayer on a gold film sensed by integrated optical surface plasmon resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Abanulo, J.C.; Harris, R.D.; Bartlett, P.N.; Wilkinson, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated optical surface plasmon resonance sensor combined with electrochemical control is used to monitor the underpotential deposition of a copper monolayer onto a gold film from 1 mM Cu2+ in 0.1 M perchloric acid.

  17. Experimental demonstration of CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zektzer, R.; Desiatov, B.; Mazurski, N.;

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs) that are compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The demonstrated waveguide configuration represents...

  18. Localized surface plasmon enhanced photothermal conversion in Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhi, Jia; Peng, Wang; Yanbang, Zhang; Kai, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Localized surface plasmons (LSP), the confined collective excitations of electrons in noble metal and doped semiconductor nanostructures, enhance greatly local electric field near the surface of the nanostructures and result in strong optical response. LSPs of ordinary massive electrons have been investigated for a long time and were used as basic ingredient of plasmonics and metamaterials. LSPs of massless Dirac electrons, which could result in novel tunable plasmonic metamaterials in the terahertz and infrared frequency regime, are relatively unexplored. Here we report for first time the observation of LSPs in Bi2Se3 topological insulator hierarchical nanoflowers, which are consisted of a large number of Bi2Se3 nanocrystals. The existence of LSPs can be demonstrated by surface enhanced Raman scattering and absorbance spectra ranging from ultraviolet to near-infrared. LSPs produce an enhanced photothermal effect stimulated by near-infrared laser. The excellent photothermal conversion effect can be ascribed to the existence of topological surface states, and provides us a new way for practical application of topological insulators in nanoscale heat source and cancer therapy.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of antibiotics using imprinted boronic acid-functionalized Au nanoparticle composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasconi, Marco; Tel-Vered, Ran; Riskin, Michael; Willner, Itamar

    2010-03-15

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) are functionalized with thioaniline electropolymerizable groups and (mercaptophenyl)boronic acid. The antibiotic substrates neomycin (NE), kanamycin (KA), and streptomycin (ST) include vicinal diol functionalities and, thus, bind to the boronic acid ligands. The electropolymerization of the functionalized Au NPs in the presence of NE, KA, or ST onto Au surfaces yields bisaniline-cross-linked Au NP composites that, after removal of the ligated antibiotics, provide molecularly imprinted matrixes which reveal high sensitivities toward the sensing of the imprinted antibiotic analytes (detection limits for analyzing NE, KA, and ST correspond to 2.00 +/- 0.21 pM, 1.00 +/- 0.10 pM, and 200 +/- 30 fM, respectively). The antibiotics are sensed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, where the coupling between the localized plasmon of the NPs and the surface plasmon wave associated with the Au surface is implemented to amplify the SPR responses. The imprinted Au NP composites are, then, used to analyze the antibiotics in milk samples.

  20. Colorimetric determination of Timolol concentration based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Bagheri, Mozhgan; Heydari, Mojgan; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a rapid and simple colorimetric method based on the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed for the detection of the drug Timolol. The method used is based on the interaction of Timolol with the surface of the as-synthesized AgNPs, which promotes aggregation of the nanoparticles. This aggregation exploits the surface plasmon resonance through the electric dipole-dipole interaction and coupling among the agglomerated particles, hence bringing forth distinctive changes in the spectra as well as the color of colloidal silver. UV-vis spectrophotometery was used to monitor the changes of the localized surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at wavelengths of 400 and 550 nm. The developed colorimetric sensor has a wide dynamic range of 1.0 × 10-7 M-1.0 × 10-3 M for detection of Timolol with a low detection limit of 1.2 × 10-6 M. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Timolol concentration in ophthalmic eye-drop solution with a response time lower than 40 s.

  1. Surface plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer and resonance Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman studies of cytochrome C mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Junwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    Surface plasmon resonance was utilized to enhance the electron transfer at silver/solution interfaces. Photoelectrochemical reductions of nitrite, nitrate, and CO2 were studied on electrochemically roughened silver electrode surfaces. The dependence of the photocurrent on photon energy, applied potential and concentration of nitrite demonstrates that the photoelectrochemical reduction proceeds via photoemission process followed by the capture of hydrated electrons. The excitation of plasmon resonances in nanosized metal structures resulted in the enhancement of the photoemission process. In the case of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO2, large photoelectrocatalytic effect for the reduction of CO2 was observed in the presence of surface adsorbed methylviologen, which functions as a mediator for the photoexcited electron transfer from silver metal to CO2 in solution. Photoinduced reduction of microperoxidase-11 adsorbed on roughened silver electrode was also observed and attributed to the direct photoejection of free electrons of silver metal. Surface plasmon assisted electron transfer at nanostructured silver particle surfaces was further determined by EPR method.

  2. Surface plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer and resonance Raman, surface-enhanced resonance Raman studies of cytochrome C mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Junwei

    1999-11-08

    Surface plasmon resonance was utilized to enhance the electron transfer at silver/solution interfaces. Photoelectrochemical reductions of nitrite, nitrate, and CO{sub 2} were studied on electrochemically roughened silver electrode surfaces. The dependence of the photocurrent on photon energy, applied potential and concentration of nitrite demonstrates that the photoelectrochemical reduction proceeds via photoemission process followed by the capture of hydrated electrons. The excitation of plasmon resonances in nanosized metal structures resulted in the enhancement of the photoemission process. In the case of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2}, large photoelectrocatalytic effect for the reduction of CO{sub 2} was observed in the presence of surface adsorbed methylviologen, which functions as a mediator for the photoexcited electron transfer from silver metal to CO{sub 2} in solution. Photoinduced reduction of microperoxidase-11 adsorbed on roughened silver electrode was also observed and attributed to the direct photoejection of free electrons of silver metal. Surface plasmon assisted electron transfer at nanostructured silver particle surfaces was further determined by EPR method.

  3. Spontaneous down conversion of surface plasmon polaritons: strong-field consideration

    CERN Document Server

    Hizhnyakov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A non-perturbative theory of the spontaneous down conversion (SDC) of surface plasmon polaritons at a metal-dielectric interface is presented. It is shown that the process is resonantly enhanced for the characteristic power of excitation, typically of the order of tens of watts. At a stronger excitation the yield of SDC decreases rapidly. At a stronger excitation the yield of SDC decreases rapidly. The reason for this decrease is the high rate of the change of surface plasmon polaritons by the laser field, exceeding the rate of the zero-point fluctuations responsible for the SDC process. The obtained results may help one to construct miniature sources of entangled photons for quantum communication.

  4. Plasmonic Nano-Gap Tilings: Light-Concentrating Surfaces for Low-Loss Photonic Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Paul M Z; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Maier, Stefan A; Hess, Ortwin

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their ability to concentrate light on nanometer scales, plasmonic surface structures are ideally suited for on-chip functionalization with nonlinear or gain materials. However, achieving a high effective quantum yield across a surface not only requires strong light localization but also control over losses. Here, we report on a particular class of tunable low-loss metasurfaces featuring dense arrangements of nanometer sized focal points on a photonic chip with an underlying waveguide channel. Guided within the plane, the photonic wave evanescently couples to the nano-gaps, concentrating light in a lattice of hot-spots. In studying the energy transfer between photonic and plasmonic channels of single trimer molecules and triangular nano-gap tilings in dependence on element size, we identify different regimes of operation. We show that the product of field enhancement, propagation length and element size is close-to-constant in both the radiative and subwavelength regimes, opening pathways for device d...

  5. Profile Prediction and Fabrication of Wet-Etched Gold Nanostructures for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispersed nanosphere lithography can be employed to fabricate gold nanostructures for localized surface plasmon resonance, in which the gold film evaporated on the nanospheres is anisotropically dry etched to obtain gold nanostructures. This paper reports that by wet etching of the gold film, various kinds of gold nanostructures can be fabricated in a cost-effective way. The shape of the nanostructures is predicted by profile simulation, and the localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum is observed to be shifting its extinction peak with the etching time. (See supplementary material 1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9486-4 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Click here for file

  6. Variable Optical Attenuator Based on Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Multimode Interference Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and characterization of a thermal variable optical attenuator based on long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP waveguide with multimode interference architecture were investigated. The surface morphology and waveguide configuration of Au stripe were studied by atomic force microscopy. The fluctuation of refractive index of poly(methyl-methacrylate-glycidyl-methacrylate polymer cladding was confirmed to be less than 3×10-4 within 8 h curing at 120°C. The end-fire excitation of LRSPP mode guiding at 1550 nm along Au stripe indicated that the extinction ratio of attenuator was about 12 dB at a driving power of 69 mW. The measured optical rise time and fall time are 0.57 and 0.87 ms, respectively. These favorable properties promise potentials of this plasmonic device in the application of optical interconnection.

  7. Utilization of hybrid plasmonic modes to investigate surface interactions between nanocubes and polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, Michael; Bottomley, Adam; Ianoul, Anatoli

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanocube monolayers deposited on polymer films were heated past the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Surface interactions between the cubes and substrate dictate the depth and rate of incorporation into the polymer. Silver nanocubes support hybrid plasmonic modes that are spatially separated when there is anisotropy in the local refractive index. Using this measure, it becomes possible to monitor the position of the cubes relative to the surface and tune spectral features in the visible spectrum. These spatially resolved plasmonic modes were used to probe the local glass transition temperature of polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the glass transition temperature of PS, PMMA, PVC were 103 ± 2, 122 ± 12, 81 ± 2 °C, respectively.

  8. Detection of biomolecules and bioconjugates by monitoring rotated grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Aniko; Somogyi, Aniko; Szenes, Andras; Banhelyi, Balazs; Csapo, Edit; Dekany, Imre; Csendes, Tibor; Csete, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic biosensing chips were prepared by fabricating wavelength-scaled dielectric-metal interfacial gratings on thin polycarbonate films covered bimetal layers via two-beam interference laser lithography. Lysozyme (LYZ) biomolecules and gold nanoparticle (AuNP-LYZ) bioconjugates with 1:5 mass ratio were seeded onto the biochip surfaces. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was performed before and after biomolecule seeding in a modified Kretschmann-arrangement by varying the azimuthal and polar angles to optimize the conditions for rotated grating-coupling. The shift of secondary and primary resonance peaks originating from rotated grating-coupling phenomenon was monitored to detect the biomolecule and bioconjugate adherence. Numerical calculations were performed to reproduce the measured reflectance spectra and the resonance peak shifts caused by different biocoverings. Comparison of measurements and calculations proved that monitoring the narrower secondary peaks under optimal rotated-grating coupling ...

  9. Research of the applications of ITO in microwave-range surface plasmon waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senfeng; Wu, Wen; Gu, Wenhua

    2016-09-01

    Because of the electromagnetic field enhancement effect in subwavelength scale, the surface plasmon wave (SPW) has been widely used in beam forming, bio-prospecting, and subwavelength structure design. But most research work is in the visible light or terahertz frequency band, and the surface plasmonic material (SPM) is usually limited to metals. In the microwave band, complex structures have to be used to achieve the desired subwavelength effects, making use of both metal and dielectric materials. In this paper, we propose the excitation of SPW in the microwave range using a simple structure and the material of indium tin oxide (ITO). By measuring the electric field profile during the propagation process, the excitation of SPW in ITO was verified. At the same time, frequency dependence was seen during the propagation process. Therefore, ITO can be a good SPM in the microwave band, just like metals in the visible light band. Considering the transparent characteristics of ITO, it can have many interesting applications.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance sensors a materials guide to design and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Leiva Casemiro; Thirstrup, Carsten; Neff, Helmut Franz

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the important physical phenomenon of Surface Plasmon Resonance or Surface Plasmon Polaritons in thin metal films, a phenomenon which is exploited in the design of a large variety of physico-chemical optical sensors. In this treatment, crucial materials aspects for design and optimization of SPR sensors are investigated and outlined in detail. The text covers the selection of nanometer thin metal films, ranging from free-electron to the platinum type conductors, along with their combination with a large variety of dielectric substrate materials, and associated individual layer and opto-geometric arrangements. Furthermore, as-yet hardly explored SPR features of selected metal–metal and metal–dielectric super lattices are included in this report. An in-depth multilayer Fresnel evaluation provides the mathematical tool for this optical analysis, which otherwise relies solely on experimentally determined electro-optical materials parameters.

  11. Green's function surface-integral method for nonlocal response of plasmonic nanowires in arbitrary dielectric environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We develop a nonlocal-response generalization to the Green's function surface-integral method (GSIM), also known as the boundary-element method. This numerically efficient method can accurately describe the linear hydrodynamic nonlocal response of arbitrarily shaped plasmonic nanowires in arbitrary...... dielectric backgrounds. All previous general-purpose methods for nonlocal response are bulk methods. We also expand the possible geometries to which the usual local-response GSIM can be applied, by showing how to regularize singularities that occur in the surface integrals when the nanoparticles touch...... close to and on top of planar dielectric substrates. Especially for the latter geometry, considerable differences in extinction cross sections are found for local as compared to nonlocal response, similar to what is found for plasmonic dimer structures....

  12. Spoof surface plasmon-based stripe antennas with extreme field enhancement in the terahertz regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhanghua; Zhang, Yusheng; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2015-06-01

    Retardation-based stripe antennas due to the excitation of spoof surface plasmons on a corrugated metal stripe are proposed and numerically studied in the terahertz regime, revealing sharp Fabry-Perot resonances in scattering cross-section spectra with strongly enhanced local fields. The order of the resonance exhibiting the sharpest scattering cross section and strongest field enhancements (FEs) is found to coincide with the number of grooves, due to the hybridization of the antenna resonance with the individual groove resonance. The proposed (spoof surface plasmon-based) antennas with narrow resonances and large FE open up new possibilities for metamaterial design and seem very promising for sensing applications in the terahertz frequencies.

  13. Microfluidic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: From Principles to Point-of-Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Shin; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2016-07-27

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free, highly-sensitive, and real-time sensing technique. Conventional SPR sensors, which involve a planar thin gold film, have been widely exploited in biosensing; various miniaturized formats have been devised for portability purposes. Another type of SPR sensor which utilizes localized SPR (LSPR), is based on metal nanostructures with surface plasmon modes at the structural interface. The resonance condition is sensitive to the refractive index change of the local medium. The principles of these two types of SPR sensors are reviewed and their integration with microfluidic platforms is described. Further applications of microfluidic SPR sensors to point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are discussed.

  14. Unified theory of surface-plasmonic enhancement and extinction of light transmission through metallic nanoslit arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Jun Hyung; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-07-14

    Metallic nanostructures are of immense scientific interest owing to unexpectedly strong interaction with light in deep subwavelength scales. Resonant excitations of surface and cavity plasmonic modes mediate strong light localization in nanoscale objects. Nevertheless, the role of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPP) in light transmission through a simple one-dimensional system with metallic nanoslits has been the subject of longstanding debates. Here, we propose a unified theory that consistently explains the controversial effects of SPPs in metallic nanoslit arrays. We show that the SPPs excited on the entrance and exit interfaces induce near-total internal reflection and abrupt phase change of the slit-guided mode. These fundamental effects quantitatively describe positive and negative effects of SPP excitation in a self-consistent manner. Importantly, the theory shows excellent agreement with rigorous numerical calculations while providing profound physical insight into the properties of nanoplasmonic systems.

  15. Design optimization of highly sensitive LSPR enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors with nanoholes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Qingkang Wang

    2008-01-01

    For breaking through the sensitivity limitation of conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, novel highly sensitive SPR biosensors with Au nanoparticles and nanogratings enhancement have been proposed recently.But in practice, these structures have obvious disadvantages.In this study, a nanohole based sensitivity enhancement SPR biosensor is proposed and the influence of different structural parameters on the performance is investigated by using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA).Electromagnetic field distributions around the nanohole are also given out to directly explain the performance difference for various structural parameters.The results indicate that significant sensitivity increase is associated with localized surface plasmons (LSPs) excitation mediated by nanoholes.Except to outcome the weakness of other LSP based biosensors, larger resonance angle shift, reflectance amplitude, and sharper SPR curves' width are obtained simultaneously under optimized structural parameters.

  16. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanuprs@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  17. Hafnium dioxide as a dielectric for highly-sensitive waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Tiwari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hafnium dioxide has been recognized as an excellent dielectric for microelectronics. However, its usefulness for the surface plasmon based sensors has not yet been tested. Here we investigate its usefulness for waveguide-coupled bi-metallic surface plasmon resonance sensors. Several Ag/HfO2/Au multilayer structure sensors were fabricated and evaluated by optical measurements and computer simulations. The resulting data establish correlations between the growth parameters and sensor performance. The sensor sensitivity to refractive index of analytes is determined to be S n = ∂ θ SPR ∂ n ≥ 4 7 0 . The sensitivity data are supported by simulations, which also predict 314 nm for the evanescent field decay length in air.

  18. Observation of a nonradiative flat band for spoof surface plasmons in a metallic Lieb lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kajiwara, Sho; Nakata, Yosuke; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a nonradiative flat band for spoof surface plasmon polaritons bounded on a structured surface with Lieb lattice symmetry in the terahertz regime. First, we theoretically derive the dispersion relation of spoof plasmons in a metallic Lieb lattice based on the electrical circuit model. We obtain three bands, one of which is independent of wave vector. To confirm the theoretical result, we numerically and experimentally observe the flat band in transmission and attenuated total reflection configurations. We reveal that the quality factor of the nonradiative flat-band mode decoupled from the propagating wave is higher than that of the radiative flat-band mode. This indicates that the nonradiative flat-band mode is three-dimensionally confined in the lattice.

  19. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  20. Controlling multipolar surface plasmon excitation through the azimuthal phase structure of electron vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Daniel; Ducati, Caterina

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically studied how the azimuthal phase structure of an electron vortex beam excites surface plasmons on metal particles of different geometries as observed in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We have developed a semiclassical approximation combining a ring-shaped beam and the dielectric formalism. Our results indicate that for the case of total orbital angular momentum transfer, we can manipulate surface plasmon multipole excitation and even attain an enhancement factor of several orders of magnitude. Since electron vortex beams interact with particles mostly through effects due to azimuthal symmetry, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the electron beam, anisotropy information (longitudinal and transversal) of the sample may be derived in EELS studies by comparing nonvortex and vortex beam measurements.

  1. Molecular resonant dissociation of surface-adsorbed molecules by plasmonic nanoscissors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenglong; Sheng, Shaoxiang; Zheng, Hairong; Xu, Hongxing; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-04-01

    The ability to break individual bonds or specific modes in chemical reactions is an ardently sought goal by chemists and physicists. While photochemistry based methodologies are very successful in controlling e.g. photocatalysis, photosynthesis and the degradation of plastic, it is hard to break individual molecular bonds for those molecules adsorbed on the surface because of the weak light-absorption in molecules and the redistribution of the resulting vibrational energy both inside the molecule and to its surrounding environment. Here we show how to overcome these obstacles with a plasmonic hot-electron mediated process and demonstrate a new method that allows the sensitive control of resonant dissociation of surface-adsorbed molecules by `plasmonic' scissors. To that end, we used a high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) setup to dissociate resonantly excited NC2H6 fragments from Malachite green. The surface plasmons (SPs) excited at the sharp metal tip not only enhance the local electric field to harvest the light incident from the laser, but crucially supply `hot electrons' whose energy can be transferred to individual bonds. These processes are resonant Raman, which result in some active chemical bonds and then weaken these bonds, followed by dumping in lots of indiscriminant energy and breaking the weakest bond. The method allows for sensitive control of both the rate and probability of dissociation through their dependence on the density of hot electrons, which can be manipulated by tuning the laser intensity or tunneling current/bias voltage in the HV-TERS setup, respectively. The concepts of plasmonic scissors open up new versatile avenues for the deep understanding of in situ surface-catalyzed chemistry.The ability to break individual bonds or specific modes in chemical reactions is an ardently sought goal by chemists and physicists. While photochemistry based methodologies are very successful in controlling e.g. photocatalysis

  2. Cavitands: Container Molecules for Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-Based Chemical Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    spin coated onto surface plasmon resonance substrates (50-nm thick gold-coated cover glass). Spin coating was performed at 4000 rpm for 60 s at...room temperature. Th e spin coating parameters gave a fi lm thickness (confi rmed using spectroscopic ellipsometry) of nearly 4 nm. For targets, a...fact that the polymer fi lms were about twice as thick as the cavitand fi lms obtained under identical spin - coating conditions. Th is clearly

  3. Silver-poly(vinylidene flouride-trifluoroethylene) nanocomposites with tunable surface-plasmonic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Tonino; Wegener, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles exhibit tunable optical properties due to surface-plasmon resonances, which depend on the distribution, size and shape of the metallic nanoparticles. In order to handle the nanoparticles they have to be embedded e. g. into a polymer matrix. Here, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles within the polymer matrix is performed by thermal as well as photochemical decomposition of a silver precursor. This in situ synthesis offers the possibility to perform the particle formation before, during or after drying of the soluble polymer matrix. In detail, we focus on the particle generation after processing blends of the polymer and the silver precursor as thin films. A very broad range of mass fractions of nanoparticulate silver from 0.001 up to 0.3 was realized, which allows the adjustment of the surface-plasmon resonance. For low silver nanoparticle contents up to 1 wt.% the surface-plasmon resonance peak is typically observed in the blue spectral region, whereas higher silver amounts cause a high extinction in the visible and near infrared spectral range. As polymeric matrix poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) was chosen und prepared in a thin-film geometry. On the long range the prepared nanocomposites represent multifunctional materials due to the expected ferroelectric properties of the polymer and the surface-plasmon resonance properties of the silver nanoparticles. In addition to the optical properties, the influence of the particle synthesis on the polymer matrix and morphology is studied. As a result, any degradation of the polymer is excluded.

  4. Performance Improvement of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface-Energy-Induced Dual Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengnan; Shen, Ping; Liu, Yan; Chen, Boyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang

    2016-03-09

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is effectively applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs) to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, universality of the reported results mainly focused on utilizing single type of MNPs to enhance light absorption only in specific narrow wavelength range. Herein, a surface-energy-induced dual MNP plasmon resonance by thermally evaporating method was presented to achieve the absorption enhancement in wider range. The differences of surface energy between silver (Ag), gold (Au), and tungsten trioxide (WO3) compared by contact angle images enable Ag and Au prefer to respectively aggregate into isolated islands rather than films at the initial stage of the evaporation process, which was clearly demonstrated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. The sum of plasmon-enhanced wavelength range induced by both Ag NPs (350-450 nm) and Au NPs (450-600 nm) almost cover the whole absorption spectra of active layers, which compatibly contribute a significant efficiency improvement from 4.57 ± 0.16 to 6.55 ± 0.12% compared to the one without MNPs. Besides, steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide strong evidence that the SPR induced by the Ag-Au NPs increase the intensity of light absorption. Finally, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) reveals that doping Au and Ag causes upper shift of both the work function and valence band of WO3, which is directly related to hole collection ability. We believe the surface-energy-induced dual plasmon resonance enhancement by simple thermally evaporating technique might pave the way toward higher-efficiency PSCs.

  5. Current Approach in Surface Plasmons for Thin Film and Wire Array Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Keya Zhou; Zhongyi Guo; Shutian Liu; Jung-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmons, which exist along the interface of a metal and a dielectric, have been proposed as an efficient alternative method for light trapping in solar cells during the past ten years. With unique properties such as superior light scattering, optical trapping, guide mode coupling, near field concentration, and hot-electron generation, metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures can be tailored to a certain geometric design to enhance solar cell conversion efficiency and to reduce the ma...

  6. Enhanced Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Interference for Nanolithography by a Micro-Cylinder-Lens Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hui-Min; WANG Jing-Quan; FAN Feng; QIN Ai-Li; ZHANG Chun-Yuan; CHENG Hui

    2010-01-01

    @@ A practical interference lithography scheme based on surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) is suggested.In this scheme,a micro-cylinder-lens array is employed to generate the evanescent wave (EW) carrying much energy.When the top of the cylinder lenses are in dose contact with a metal film coated on a resist,the energy of EW will launch strong SPPs and form enhanced interference nanopatterns in the resist.

  7. Unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons by a single right-angled trapezoid metallic nanoslit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuefeng; Wang, Jun; Hann Lim, Xiao; Xu, Zhengji; Teng, Jinghua; Zhang, Dao Hua

    2017-02-01

    We report theoretical and experimental investigation on a single right-angled trapezoid metallic nanoslit for efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) under normal incidence. The propagated SPPs intensity ratio in two directions is sensitive to the taper angle and metal thickness. Significant intensity ratio at the same propagation distances from the respective slit edges in opposite directions is demonstrated. We believe that the proposed compact unidirectional SPPs generator has high potential for applications in nanolithography and photonic integration.

  8. Influence of localized surface plasmons on Pauli blocking and optical limiting in graphene under femtosecond pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem B.; Namboodiri, Raman C. K.; Nayak, Pranati; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Kelly, Thomas J.; Fallon, Colm; Costello, John T.

    2014-08-01

    The Pauli blocking limit and optical limiting threshold have been found to be modified following silver-nanoparticle decoration of functionalized hydrogen induced exfoliated graphene. Femtosecond Z-scan experiments have been used to measure the Pauli blocking range, optical limiting threshold, and the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values. The observed results have been explained by modified band structure of graphene in the presence of silver nanoparticles and their localized surface plasmon resonances.

  9. Long-wave approximation for hybridization modeling of local surface plasmonic resonance in nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben Q; Liu, Changhong

    2011-01-15

    A hybridization model for the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanoshell is developed within the framework of long-wave approximation. Compared with the existing hybridization model derived from the hydrodynamic simulation of free electron gas, this approach is much simpler and gives identical results for a concentric nanoshell. Also, with this approach, the limitations associated with the original hybridization model are succinctly stated. Extension of this approach to hybridization modeling of more complicated structures such as multiplayered nanoshells is straightforward.

  10. Surface plasmon effect in nanocrystalline copper/DLC composite films by electrodeposition technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Hussain; A K Pal

    2006-11-01

    Composite films of nanocrystalline copper embedded in DLC matrix prepared by electrodeposition technique were studied for their optical properties. Particle size and metal volume fractions were tailored by varying the amount of copper containing salt in the electrolyte. Blue-shift of the surface plasmon resonance peak in the absorbance spectra of the films was observed with the reduction in size and volume fraction of metal particles. Mie theory was found to describe the experimental spectra quite well.

  11. Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioi, Masahiko, E-mail: shioi.masahiko@jp.panasonic.com [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Jans, Hilde [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lodewijks, Kristof [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kawamura, Tatsuro [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

  12. Three-dimensional cavity nanoantennas with resonant-enhanced surface plasmons as dynamic color-tuning reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J R; Wu, W G; Chen, Z J; Zhu, J; Li, J

    2017-03-09

    As plasmonic antennas for surface-plasmon-assisted control of optical fields at specific frequencies, metallic nanostructures have recently emerged as crucial optical components for fascinating plasmonic color engineering. Particularly, plasmonic resonant nanocavities can concentrate lightwave energy to strongly enhance light-matter interactions, making them ideal candidates as optical elements for fine-tuning color displays. Inspired by the color mixing effect found on butterfly wings, a new type of plasmonic, multiresonant, narrow-band (the minimum is about 45 nm), high-reflectance (the maximum is about 95%), and dynamic color-tuning reflector is developed. This is achieved from periodic patterns of plasmonic resonant nanocavities in free-standing capped-pillar nanostructure arrays. Such cavity-coupling structures exhibit multiple narrow-band selective and continuously tunable reflections via plasmon standing-wave resonances. Consequently, they can produce a variety of dark-field vibrant reflective colors with good quality, strong color signal and fine tonal variation at the optical diffraction limit. This proposed multicolor scheme provides an elegant strategy for realizing personalized and customized applications in ultracompact photonic data storage and steganography, colorimetric sensing, 3D holograms and other plasmon-assisted photonic devices.

  13. Synthesis of gold nanorods with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of around 1250 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Nhat Hang; Le Trinh Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Tuyen Luong, Thi; Thang Nguyen, Canh Minh; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Phong

    2016-03-01

    We prepared gold nanorods and joined them to chemicals such as tetrachloauric (III) acid trihydrate, silver nitrate, hydroquinone, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride using the seed-mediated method. The combination of hydroquinone, with or without salicylic acid, influences the size of the gold nanorods, and this is demonstrated by the results of TEM images, UV-vis spectra and the value of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak with respect to the UV-vis spectra. By changing the Ag+ ion and hydroquinone concentration and the combination of hydroquinone and salicylic acid, the size of the gold nanorods can be controlled and this is manifested by longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks forming between 875 and 1278 nm. In particular, sample E2 achieved a longitudinal surface plasmon peak at 1273 nm and an aspect ratio of more than 10 by modifying the hydroquinone to 2.5 mM and salicylic acid to 0.5 mM concentration in the growth solution.

  14. New surface plasmon polariton waveguide based on GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xu, Zhengjie; Xu, Wenju; Fu, Deli; Song, Shuxiang

    Lasers are nowadays widely used in industry, in hospitals and in many devices that we have at home. Random laser development is challenging given its high threshold and low integration. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) can improve random laser characteristics because of its ability to control diffraction. In this study, we establish a random laser structural model with silicon-based parcel GaN nanowires. The GaN nanowire gain and enhanced surface plasmon increase population inversion level. Our laser model is based on random particle scattering feedback mechanism, nanowire use, and surface plasmon enhancement effect, which causes stochastic laser emergence. Analysis shows that the SPP mode and nanowire waveguides coupled in the dielectric layer of low refractive index can store light energy like a capacitor under low refractive index clearance. The waveguide mode field area and limiting factors show that the modeled laser can achieve sub-wavelength constraints of the output light field. We also investigate emergent laser performance for a more limited light field capacity and lower threshold.

  15. The fabrication of flip-covered plasmonic nanostructure surfaces with enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Yun; Sung, Sang-Keun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Cheon, So-Hui; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Eungsug

    2017-01-01

    Exposed nanostructure surfaces often suffer from external dynamic wear, particularly when used in human interaction, resulting in surface defects and the degradation of plasmonic resonance properties particularly in terms of transmittance extinction rate and peak-to-valley slope. In this work, a method for the fabrication of flip-covered silver nanostructure-arrayed surfaces is shown to enhance wear resistance. Selectively transferred silver dot and silver webbed-trench exposed reference samples were fabricated by metal nanoimprint, and flip-covered samples were created by flipping and bonding reference samples onto a PET film coated with an adhesive layer. The samples' spectral transmittance was measured before and after a dynamic wear test. Some spectral shift was observed due to the change in refractive index of the surrounding media, but this was not as significant as the effects of the other chosen geometry factors. It was found that dynamic wear had a greater effect on the plasmonic resonance behavior of the exposed samples than in those that had been flip-covered. This suggests that flip-covering may be an effective strategy for the protection of plasmonic resonators against dynamic wear. It is expected that the slight variations in spectral transmittance could be compensated through proper tuning of the sample geometry.

  16. Annealing Effects on the Surface Plasmon of MgO Implanted with Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, A.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. -S.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zhu, Jane G.; Wang, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Gold ion implantation was carried out with the energy of 1.1 MeV into (100) oriented MgO single crystal. Implanted doses are 1, 3, 6, 10 x 10(exp 16) ions/sq cm. The gold irradiation results in the formation of gold ion implanted layer with a thickness of 0.2 microns and defect formation. In order to form gold colloids from the as-implanted samples, we annealed the gold implanted MgO samples in three kinds of atmospheres: (1)Ar only, (2)H2 and Ar, and (3)O2 and Ar. The annealing over 1200 C enhanced the gold colloid formation which shows surface plasmon resonance band of gold. The surface plasmon bands of samples annealed in three kinds of atmospheres were found to be at 535 nm (Ar only), 524 nm(H2+Ar), and 560 nm (02+Ar), The band positions of surface plasmon can be reversibly changed by an additional annealing.

  17. Fabrication of discrete array of metallodielectric nanoshells and their surface plasmonic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shuhei; Yamamura, Kazuya [Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Zettsu, Nobuyuki, E-mail: zettsu@upst.eng.osaka-u.ac.j [Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-04-30

    In this paper we describe the fabrication of two-dimensionally periodic non-close-packed nanoshell arrays, consisting of a spherical polystyrene core coated with a thin gold shell, as well as their surface plasmonic properties. The principle of this procedure relies on stepwise integration of spin-coat-assisted colloidal self-assembly of the single layer of close-packed polystyrene nanoparticle, atmospheric pressure plasma-induced isotropic etching, and deposition of gold thin film by thermal evaporation. The plasma process converted the close-packed nanoparticle array into non-close-packed arrangement without changing their original spherical shape and periodicity. Both experimental and theoretical studies revealed that the densely packed nanoshell array with a 160 nm inner core diameter and a 20 nm thick shell strongly scattered and absorbed near infrared light, due to the interaction between primitive plasmon modes associated with the surface of the nanoparticle. Furthermore, the resultant nanoshell array was utilized for near infrared light responsible localized surface plasmon resonance based sensor. The bulk refractive index sensitivity was 220 nm RIU{sup -1}.

  18. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, S A; García-Vidal, F J; Martín-Moreno, L; Andrews, Steve R.; Maier, Stefan A.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter we show how the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating along a perfectly conducting wire can be tailored by corrugating its surface with a periodic array of radial grooves. In this way, highly localized SPPs can be sustained in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Importantly, the propagation characteristics of these spoof SPPs can be controlled by the surface geometry, opening the way to important applications such as energy concentration on cylindrical wires and superfocusing using conical structures.

  19. Thiolene-based microfluidic flow cells for surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Gareth; Oseki, Takao; Baba, Akira; Patton, Derek; Kaneko, Futao; Mao, Leidong; Locklin, Jason

    2011-06-01

    Thiolene-based microfluidic devices have been coupled with surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) to provide an integrated platform to study interfacial interactions in both aqueous and organic solutions. In this work, we develop a photolithographic method that interfaces commercially available thiolene resin to gold and glass substrates to generate microfluidic channels with excellent adhesion that leave the underlying sensor surface free from contamination and readily available for surface modification through self-assembly. These devices can sustain high flow rates and have excellent solvent compatibility even with several organic solvents. To demonstrate the versatility of these devices, we have conducted nanomolar detection of streptavidin-biotin interactions using in situ SPRI.

  20. Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Ae; Jang, Sung Min; Kim, Sung June [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyung Min [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyujung; Kim, Donghyun [Program of Nanomedical Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Kyungjae; Oh, Youngjin [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Guk [College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Shuler, Michael L, E-mail: kmbyun@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    We demonstrated enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing based on subwavelength gold nanoarrays built on a thin gold film. Arrays of nanogratings (1D) and nanoholes (2D) with a period of 200 nm were fabricated by electron-beam lithography and used for the detection of avian influenza DNA hybridization. Experimental results showed that both nanoarrays provided significant sensitivity improvement and, especially, 1D nanogratings exhibited higher SPR signal amplification compared with 2D nanohole arrays. The sensitivity enhancement is associated with changes in surface-limited reaction area and strong interactions between bound molecules and localized plasmon fields. Our approach is expected to improve both the sensitivity and sensing resolution and can be applicable to label-free detection of DNA without amplification by polymerase chain reaction.

  1. Internal photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles: comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Protsenko, Igor E; Ikhsanov, Renat S; Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Lavrinenko, Andrei V; O'Reilly, Eoin P; Xu, Hongxing

    2014-05-01

    We study the emission of photoelectrons from plasmonic nanoparticles into a surrounding matrix. We consider two mechanisms of electron emission from the nanoparticles--surface and volume ones--and use models for these two mechanisms which allow us to obtain analytical results for the photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle. Calculations have been carried out for a step potential at the surface of a spherical nanoparticle, and a simple model for the hot electron cooling has been used. We highlight the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary in the surface mechanism, which leads to a substantial (by ∼5 times) increase of the internal photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle compared to the case when such a discontinuity is absent. For a plasmonic nanoparticle, a comparison of the two photoeffect mechanisms was undertaken for the first time which showed that the surface photoeffect can in the general case be larger than the volume one, which agrees with the results obtained for a flat metal surface first formulated by Tamm and Schubin in their pioneering development of a quantum-mechanical theory of photoeffect in 1931. In accordance with our calculations, this possible predominance of the surface effect is based on two factors: (i) effective cooling of hot carriers during their propagation from the volume of the nanoparticle to its surface in the scenario of the volume mechanism and (ii) strengthening of the surface mechanism through the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary. The latter is stronger at relatively lower photon energies and correspondingly is more substantial for internal photoemission than for an external one. We show that in the general case, it is essential to take both mechanisms into account in the development of devices based on the photoelectric effect and when considering hot electron emission from a plasmonic nanoantenna.

  2. Effective approach to strengthen plasmon resonance localized on top surfaces of Ag nanoparticles and application in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhibing; Xu, Rui; Zheng, Xianzheng; Fu, Qun; Wu, Minghong; Lei, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The spatial distribution of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) plays a key role in many plasmonic applications. Based on the thermal stability of alumina templates, this work reports a novel approach to manipulate the distribution of LSPR and exhibits its significance for an important plasmonic application, the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A suitable thermal annealing sharpens the edges in top surfaces (far from the substrates) of Ag nanoparticles, which significantly strengthens the distal mode (DM) with the LSPR excited on the top surfaces. Because the top surface is the major place to adsorb probe molecules, this manipulation greatly improves the detection sensitivity of SERS. Our research provides a new way to improve the sensitivity of SERS, which also indicates that great care has to be taken on special LSPR mode which is largely responsible for a certain plasmonic application (e.g., the DM for SERS although it is not the major mode).

  3. Surface Plasmon Scattering in Exposed Core Optical Fiber for Enhanced Resolution Refractive Index Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klantsataya, Elizaveta; François, Alexandre; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M.

    2015-01-01

    Refractometric sensors based on optical excitation of surface plasmons on the side of an optical fiber is an established sensing architecture that has enabled laboratory demonstrations of cost effective portable devices for biological and chemical applications. Here we report a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) configuration realized in an Exposed Core Microstructured Optical Fiber (ECF) capable of optimizing both sensitivity and resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of fabrication of a rough metal coating suitable for spectral interrogation of scattered plasmonic wave using chemical electroless plating technique on a 10 μm diameter exposed core of the ECF. Performance of the sensor in terms of its refractive index sensitivity and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of SPR response is compared to that achieved with an unstructured bare core fiber with 140 μm core diameter. The experimental improvement in FWHM, and therefore the detection limit, is found to be a factor of two (75 nm for ECF in comparison to 150 nm for the large core fiber). Refractive index sensitivity of 1800 nm/RIU was achieved for both fibers in the sensing range of aqueous environment (1.33–1.37) suitable for biosensing applications. PMID:26426022

  4. Electrically tunable surface plasmon for THz emission, detection, and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Jed; Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Buchwald, Walter; Woods, Charles

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we present a design for a widely tunable solid-state optically and electrically pumped THz laser based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. In the free-electron laser, an energetic electron beam pumps a metallic grating to generate surface plasmons. Our solid-state optically pumped design consists of a thin layer of dielectic, such as SiNx, sandwiched between a corrugated structure and a thin metal or semiconductor layer. The lower layer is for current streaming, and replaces the electron beam in the original design. The upper layer consists of one micro-grating for coupling the electromagnetic field in, another for coupling out, and a nano-grating for coupling with the current in the lower layer for electromagnetic field generation. The surface plasmon waves generated from the upper layer by an external electromagnetic field, and the lower layer by the applied current, are coupled. Emission enhancement occurs when the plasmonic waves in both layers are resonantly coupled.

  5. Surface Plasmon Scattering in Exposed Core Optical Fiber for Enhanced Resolution Refractive Index Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Klantsataya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refractometric sensors based on optical excitation of surface plasmons on the side of an optical fiber is an established sensing architecture that has enabled laboratory demonstrations of cost effective portable devices for biological and chemical applications. Here we report a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR configuration realized in an Exposed Core Microstructured Optical Fiber (ECF capable of optimizing both sensitivity and resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of fabrication of a rough metal coating suitable for spectral interrogation of scattered plasmonic wave using chemical electroless plating technique on a 10 μm diameter exposed core of the ECF. Performance of the sensor in terms of its refractive index sensitivity and full width at half maximum (FWHM of SPR response is compared to that achieved with an unstructured bare core fiber with 140 μm core diameter. The experimental improvement in FWHM, and therefore the detection limit, is found to be a factor of two (75 nm for ECF in comparison to 150 nm for the large core fiber. Refractive index sensitivity of 1800 nm/RIU was achieved for both fibers in the sensing range of aqueous environment (1.33–1.37 suitable for biosensing applications.

  6. Interaction of light and surface plasmon polaritons in Ag Islands studied by nonlinear photoemission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckanie, N.M.; Kirschbaum, P.; Sindermann, S.; Heringdorf, F.-J. Meyer zu, E-mail: meyerzh@uni-due.de

    2013-07-15

    Two photon photoemission microscopy was used to study the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with Ag islands prepared using different strategies on Si(111) and SiO{sub 2}. The femtosecond laser pulses initiate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves at the edges of the island. The superposition of the electrical fields of the femtosecond laser pulses with the electrical fields of the SPP results in a moiré pattern that is comparable despite the rather different methods of preparation and that gives access to the wavelength and direction of the SPP waves. If the SPPs reach edges of the Ag islands, they can be converted back into light waves. The incident and refracted light waves result in an interference pattern that can again be described with a moiré pattern, demonstrating that Ag islands can be used as plasmonic beam deflectors for light. - Highlights: • Surface plasmon polaritons were studied on Ag islands in two photon photoemission microscopy. • Ag islands were prepared using self-assembly, electron beam lithography, and a focused ion beam. • The SPP pattern on Ag islands can be described with a simple moiré concept. • SPP output coupling results in a pattern that can again be described by the moiré effect.

  7. Enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance dependence of silver nanoparticles on the stoichiometric ratio of citrate stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Felicia A.; Gaye-Campbell, Shauna; Hai Ting, Andy Yuen; Mitchell, James W.

    2013-02-01

    A stoichiometric approach to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with appreciable enhancements in the localized surface plasmon resonance is presented. Microwave irradiation afforded AgNPs, optimized to a thermodynamic equilibrium by varying the silver to trisodium citrate (Ag0/citrate3-) stoichiometric ratio from 1:1 to 1:10, and ranging in size from 32 to 65 nm (±1-9 nm, hydrodynamic diameter). The concentration-dependent plasmonic enhancements were monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry, showing absorption maxima typical of AgNPs, at 440-450 nm. A linear accession in plasmon absorbance intensity, approaching 1:5 (Ag0/citrate3-), followed by a linear depletion, at larger stoichiometries (1:6-1:10), was observed. Size distribution measurements, using dynamic light scattering, showed the highest polydispersity index, 0.547, for 1:10 suspensions and the lowest, 0.305, for the thermodynamic maximum, determined to occur at 1:5. Surface charge measurements approaching 0 mV confirm the destabilizing effect of high concentrations of citrate, leading to greater instances of aggregation and large hydrodynamic diameters. Reaction kinetics data suggests an increased preference for Ag n + -citrate, metal/ligand complexation, at 1:10, diminishing nanoparticle production.

  8. Ultrathin metasurface with topological transition for manipulating spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yihao; Jing, Liqiao; Shao, Zheping; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, with intrinsically planar nature and subwavelength thickness, provide us unconventional methodologies to not only mold the flow of propagating waves but also manipulate near-field waves. Plasmonic metasurfaces with topological transition for controlling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) recently have been experimentally demonstrated, which, however, are limited to optical frequencies. In this work, we proposed and experimentally characterized an ultrathin metasurface with the topological transition for manipulating spoof SPPs at low frequency. We demonstrated rich interesting phenomena based on this metasurface, including frequency-dependent spatial localization, non-diffraction propagation, negative refraction, and dispersion-dependent spin-momentum locking of spoof SPPs. Comparing with traditional three-dimensional metamaterials, our metasurface exhibits low propagation loss and compatibility with the photonic integrated circuit, which may find plenty of applications in spatial multiplexers, f...

  9. Directional Local Density of States of Classical and Quantum Propagating Surface Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Pham, Aline; Bellessa, Joel; Genet, Cyriaque; Huant, Serge; Drezet, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally introduce the concept of the local density of states (LDOS) associated with propagative surface plasmons (PSPs) launched along a structured thin gold film (a concept we call PSP LDOS). The alternative method couples a near-field optical microscope, in either the classical or the quantum regime of excitation, to a far-field leakage-radiation microscope. This method allows for selecting and collecting a very narrow portion of the directional SP wave vectors, thereby offering sufficient resolution to probe the collimation efficiency of a SP beam for a source near the focal point of a Bragg parabolic reflector. We are able to build and image the PSP LDOS in a fully integrated quantum SP launcher by depositing a diamond nanocrystal hosting nitrogen-vacancy centers at the focal point of the mirror. Our demonstration of the PSP LDOS with quantized SPs offers alternative prospects in the field of quantum plasmonics.

  10. Fabrication and optical characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides in the NIR

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Markus; Boehm, Florian; Fischer, Peter; Kraus, Marion; Tashima, Toshiyuki; Liebermeister, Lars; Altpeter, Philipp; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the propagation of long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in a nobel metal stripe waveguide at an optical wavelength of 780 nm. To minimize propagation damping the lithographically structured waveguide is produced from a thin gold stripe embedded in a dielectric polymer. Our waveguide geometry supports a symmetric fundamental and anti-symmetric first order mode. For the fundamental mode we measure a propagation loss of $(6.12^{+0.66} _{-0.54})$ dB/mm, in good agreement with numerical simulations using a vectorial eigenmode solver. Our results are a promising starting point for coupling fluorescence of individual solid state quantum emitters to integrated plasmonic waveguide structures.

  11. Surface plasmon assisted optical nonlinearities of uniformly oriented metal nano-ellipsoids in glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sabitha; Lange, Jens; Graener, Heinrich; Seifert, Gerhard

    2012-12-17

    The nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites consisting of non-spherical silver nanoparticles in glass matrix have been studied using the femtosecond Z-scan technique. The spheroidal nanoparticles were uniformly oriented along a common direction. By polarization sensitive studies, longitudinal and transverse plasmon resonances can be addressed separately. A sign reversal in optical nonlinearity from negative to positive is observed while switching the light interaction from near to non-resonant regime, which can be done by simply rotating the light polarization by 90°. Studying samples with different aspect ratio, we obtained the dispersion of third-order nonlinearity in the near-resonant regime, showing an enhancement of the nonlinear processes by more than two orders of magnitude due to the electric field enhancement at the surface plasmon resonance.

  12. Chemically Tuning the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances of Gold Nanostructure Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-04-30

    We report on chemical etching of ordered Au nanostructure arrays to continuously tune their localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR). Real-time extinction spectra were recorded from both Au nanodisks and nanospheres immobilized on glass substrates when immersed in Au etchant. The time-dependent LSPR frequencies, intensities, and bandwidths were studied theoretically with discrete dipole approximations and the Mie solution, and they were correlated with the evolution of the etched Au nanostructures\\' morphology (as examined by atomic force microscopy). Since this chemical etching method can conveniently and accurately tune LSPR, it offers precise control of plasmonic properties and can be useful in applications such as surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy and molecular resonance spectroscopy. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. High-order spoof localized surface plasmons supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that multiple high-order spoof localized surface plasmons (spoof-LSPs) modes can be supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure, which were absent in the previously reported spoof-LSPs modes. Through exact numerical simulations and near-field imaging experiments, we directly observe these high-order spoof-LSPs modes at microwave frequencies. We also show that these higher-order spoof-LSPs modes exhibit larger frequency shifts caused by the local environmental refractive index change than the previously reported low-order spoof-LSPs modes. Hence the complementary MSS may find potential applications as plasmonic sensor in the microwave and terahertz frequencies. PMID:27079658

  14. Slanted gold mushroom array: a switchable bi/tridirectional surface plasmon polariton splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Fang, Guisheng; Cerjan, Alexander; Chi, Zhenguo; Fan, Shanhui; Jin, Chongjun

    2016-08-25

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) show great promise in providing an ultracompact platform for integrated photonic circuits. However, challenges remain in easily and efficiently coupling light into and subsequently routing SPPs. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a switchable bi/tridirectional beam splitter which can simultaneously perform both tasks. The photonic device consists of a periodic array of slanted gold 'mushrooms' composed of angled dielectric pillars with gold caps extruding from a periodic array of perforations in a gold film. The unidirectional coupling results from the interference of the in-plane guided modes scattered by a pair of dislocated gold gratings, while the output channel is determined by the polarization of the incident beam. This device, in combination with dynamic polarization modulation techniques, has the potential to serve as a router or switch in plasmonic integrated circuits.

  15. Mid-infrared surface plasmon coupled emitters utilizing intersublevel transitions in InAs quantum dots.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Stephen A. (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ); Chow, Weng Wah; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Ribaudo, Troy (University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA); Adams, David (University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA); Wasserman, Daniel (University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA); Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate mid-infrared electroluminescence from intersublevel transitions in self-assembled InAs quantum dots coupled to surface plasmon modes on metal hole arrays. Subwavelength metal hole arrays with different periodicity are patterned into the top contact of the broadband (9-15 {micro}m) quantum dot material and the measured electroluminescence is compared to devices without a metal hole array. The resulting normally directed emission is narrowed and a splitting in the spectral structure is observed. By applying a coupled quantum electrodynamic model and using reasonable values for quantum dot distributions and plasmon linewidths we are able to reproduce the experimentally measured spectral characteristics of device emission when using strong coupling parameters.

  16. Comparison of iterative solvers for electromagnetic analysis of plasmonic nanostructures using multiple surface integral equation formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Sousa, Hipolito; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose Angel

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic behavior of plasmonic structures can be predicted after discretizing and solving a linear system of equations, derived from a continuous surface integral equation (SIE) and the appropriate boundary conditions, using a method of moments (MoM) methodology. In realistic large-scale optical problems, a direct inversion of the SIE-MoM matrix cannot be performed due to its large size, and an iterative solver must be used instead. This paper investigates the performance of four iterative solvers (GMRES, TFQMR, CGS, and BICGSTAB) for five different SIE-MoM formulations (PMCHWT, JMCFIE, CTF, CNF, and MNMF). Moreover, under this plasmonic context, a set of suggested guidelines are provided to choose a suitable SIE formulation and iterative solver depending on the desired simulation error and available runtime resources.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on large size square-lattice photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Pibin; Li, Zhongyang; Yuan, Sheng; Yao, Jianquan; Lu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on large size square-lattice photonic crystal fiber has been designed and simulated by finite element method. The square-lattice airholes are first coated with a calcium fluoride layer to provide mode confinement, then a nanoscale gold layer is deposited to excite the plasmon mode, and finally, the sample is infiltrated into the holes. The numerical results reveal that the resonance properties are easily affected by many parameters. The refractive index resolution of corresponding sensor can reach 4.3 × 10-6 RIU when the optimum parameters are set as the radius of curvature of the airhole r = 2 μm, the thickness of the core struts c = 200 nm, the auxiliary dielectric layer s = 1 μm, and the gold film d = 40 nm. In addition, the effective area and nonlinear coefficient are calculated.

  18. Long-range surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Nikolajsen, T.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2006-01-01

    We report an experimental study of long-range surface plasmon polaritons propagating along metallic wires of sub-micrometer rectangular cross-sections (nanowires) embedded in a dielectric. At telecom wavelengths, optical signals are shown to propagate up to several millimeters along such nanowires....... As the wires approach a square cross-section, the guided mode becomes more symmetric and can, for example, be tuned to match closely the mode of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Furthermore, symmetric nanowires are shown to guide both TM and TE polarizations. In order to illustrate the applicability...... of plasmonic nanowire waveguides to optical circuits, we demonstrate a compact variable optical attenuator consisting of a single nanowire that simultaneously carries light and electrical current....

  19. Nonreciprocal propagation of surface plasmon mode guided through graphene layer on magnetized semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyaraj, C.; Mathew, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the nonreciprocal effect induced by magnetized semiconductor substrate on surface plasmon mode guided through monolayer graphene. Dispersion relation for the fundamental antisymmetric mode is derived analytically. Nonreciprocal propagation characteristics of fundamental mode is studied as a function of wavelength, graphene layer chemical potential and biasing magnetic field. Fundamental mode exhibits appreciable nonreciprocal dispersion for transversal magnetization of semiconductor substrate in midinfrared and terahertz frequencies. Cutoff wavelength for backward propagating mode is observed above 2.5 T of external biasing field. Cutoff wavelength is found to be decreasing with increase in the biasing magnetic field and cladding index, also identified to be independent of graphene layer chemical potential. Proposed waveguide structure suggests the possibility of realizing one way propagating plasmonic waveguides with widely tunable guiding characteristics and related functional devices such as isolators, modulators, phase shifters and switches for integrated photonic circuits.

  20. Interaction of light and surface plasmon polaritons in Ag islands studied by nonlinear photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckanie, N M; Kirschbaum, P; Sindermann, S; Meyer zu Heringdorf, F-J

    2013-07-01

    Two photon photoemission microscopy was used to study the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with Ag islands prepared using different strategies on Si(111) and SiO₂. The femtosecond laser pulses initiate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves at the edges of the island. The superposition of the electrical fields of the femtosecond laser pulses with the electrical fields of the SPP results in a moiré pattern that is comparable despite the rather different methods of preparation and that gives access to the wavelength and direction of the SPP waves. If the SPPs reach edges of the Ag islands, they can be converted back into light waves. The incident and refracted light waves result in an interference pattern that can again be described with a moiré pattern, demonstrating that Ag islands can be used as plasmonic beam deflectors for light.

  1. A Multithread Nested Neural Network Architecture to Model Surface Plasmon Polaritons Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Capizzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface Plasmon Polaritons are collective oscillations of electrons occurring at the interface between a metal and a dielectric. The propagation phenomena in plasmonic nanostructures is not fully understood and the interdependence between propagation and metal thickness requires further investigation. We propose an ad-hoc neural network topology assisting the study of the said propagation when several parameters, such as wavelengths, propagation length and metal thickness are considered. This approach is novel and can be considered a first attempt at fully automating such a numerical computation. For the proposed neural network topology, an advanced training procedure has been devised in order to shun the possibility of accumulating errors. The provided results can be useful, e.g., to improve the efficiency of photocells, for photon harvesting, and for improving the accuracy of models for solid state devices.

  2. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-03-19

    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  3. Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, J.; Kuipers, L.; Gersen, H.; Polman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Er3+ ions located 100 nm beneath the surface of silica glass show an enhanced photoluminescence decay rate when the glass is covered with Ag. Correcting for concentration quenching effects, the decay rate is enhanced by 70%, compared to the case without Ag. The data are in agreement with a model th

  4. Experimental studies of surface plasmon polariton band gap effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Leosson, K.;

    2003-01-01

    the dependence of the SPP band gap (SPPBG) effect manifested via the SPP reflection and guiding (along line defects) on the parameters of the surface structures (period, filling factor and lattice orientation). We find that the SPPBG effect is stronger along &ggr;K direction for all investigated periodic...

  5. Surface plasmon polariton excitation by second harmonic generation in single organic nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simesen, Paw; Søndergaard, Thomas; Skovsen, Esben; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-06-15

    Coherent local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by second-harmonic generation (SHG) in individual aligned crystalline organic functionalized para-phenylene nanofibers deposited on a thin silver film is demonstrated. The SH-SPP generation is considered theoretically and investigated experimentally with angular-resolved leakage radiation spectroscopy for normal incidence of the excitation beam. Both measurements and simulations show asymmetric excitation of left- and right-propagating SH-SPPs, which is explained as an effect of fiber molecules being oriented at an angle relative to the silver film surface.

  6. Cherenkov terahertz surface plasmon excitation by an electron beam over an ultrathin metal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Rajeev; Rajouria, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of Cherenkov excitation of terahertz (THz) surface plasma wave (SPW), by a relativistic electron beam propagating over an ultrathin metal film deposited on glass, is investigated. The SPW field falls off exponentially in vacuum as well as glass, while the surface plasmon resonant frequency is lowered by the reduction of film thickness. The SPW field causes density bunching of the beam leading to current modulation and generation of THz radiation via the Cherenkov interaction. The frequency of the THz decreases with the energy of the beam, whereas the growth rate increases.

  7. Surface Plasmon-Induced Band Gap in the Photocurrent Response of Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribal Georges Sabat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 260 nm layer of organic bulk heterojunction blend of the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and the fullerene [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric (PCBM was spin-coated in between aluminum and gold electrodes, respectively, on top of a laser inscribed azo polymer surface-relief diffraction grating. Angle-dependent surface plasmons (SPs with a large band gap were observed in the normalized photocurrent by the P3HT-PCBM layer as a function of wavelength. The SP-induced photocurrents were also investigated as a function of the grating depth and spacing.

  8. Electronic detection of surface plasmon polaritons by metal-oxide-silicon capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Peale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An electronic detector of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs is reported. SPPs optically excited on a metal surface using a prism coupler are detected by using a close-coupled metal-oxide-silicon (MOS capacitor. Incidence-angle dependence is explained by Fresnel transmittance calculations, which also are used to investigate the dependence of photo-response on structure dimensions. Electrodynamic simulations agree with theory and experiment and additionally provide spatial intensity distributions on and off the SPP excitation resonance. Experimental dependence of the photoresponse on substrate carrier type, carrier concentration, and back-contact biasing is qualitatively explained by simple theory of MOS capacitors.

  9. Electronic detection of surface plasmon polaritons by metal-oxide-silicon capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peale, Robert E.; Smith, Evan; Smith, Christian W.; Khalilzadeh-Rezaie, Farnood; Ishigami, Masa; Nader, Nima; Vangala, Shiva; Cleary, Justin W.

    2016-09-01

    An electronic detector of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is reported. SPPs optically excited on a metal surface using a prism coupler are detected by using a close-coupled metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor. Incidence-angle dependence is explained by Fresnel transmittance calculations, which also are used to investigate the dependence of photo-response on structure dimensions. Electrodynamic simulations agree with theory and experiment and additionally provide spatial intensity distributions on and off the SPP excitation resonance. Experimental dependence of the photoresponse on substrate carrier type, carrier concentration, and back-contact biasing is qualitatively explained by simple theory of MOS capacitors.

  10. Localization of surface plasmon polaritons in hexagonal arrays of Moiré cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-01-01

    In view of the progress on the confinement of light, we report on the dispersion characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on two-dimensional Moiré surfaces in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements show omnidirectional confinement of SPPs. The resonance wavelength of SPP cavity modes can be adjusted by tuning the propagation direction of SPPs. The results may have an impact on the control of spontaneous emission and absorption with applications in light emitting diodes and solar cells, as well as in quantum electrodynamics experiments.

  11. Dissipative Josephson junction of an optical soliton and a surface plasmon

    OpenAIRE

    Ekşioğlu, Yasa; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.; Güven, Kaan

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 023823 (2013) Dissipative Josephson junction of an optical soliton and a surface plasmon Yasa Eks¸iog˘lu,* O¨ zgu¨r E. Mu¨stecaplıog˘lu, and Kaan Gu¨ven Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Istanbul 34450, Turkey (Received 4 October 2012; published 20 February 2013) We examine the dynamics of a dissipative photonic Josephson junction formed by the weak coupling of an optical soliton in a nonlinear dielectric waveguide and a co-propagating surface pla...

  12. Surface plasmon resonance based fibre optic chemical sensor for the detection of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. Hien; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2016-05-01

    A surface plasmon based fibre-optic chemical sensor for the detection of cocaine has been developed using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film with embedded gold nanoparticles as the recognition element. The MIP was formed on the layer of gold thin film which was deposited on the surface of a fibre core. The sensing was based on swelling of the MIP film induced by analyte binding that shifted the resonance spectrum toward a shorter wavelength. The sensor exhibited a response to cocaine in the concentration range of 0 - 400 μM in aqueous acetonitrile mixtures. Selectivity for cocaine over other drugs has also been demonstrated.

  13. Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Laurel L; Boyne, Devon; Booksh, Karl S

    2014-04-01

    Nanohole arrays exhibit unique surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics according to hole periodicity, diameter, and excitation wavelength (λ(SPR)). This contribution investigates the SPR characteristics and surface sensitivity of various nanohole arrays with the aim of tuning the parameters for optimal sensing capability. Both the Bragg surface plasmons (SPs) arising from diffraction by the periodic holes and the traditional propagating SPs are characterized with emphasis on sensing capability of the propagating SPs. Several trends in bulk sensitivity and penetration depth were established, and the surface sensitivity was calculated from bulk sensitivity and penetration depth of the SPs for different analyte thicknesses. Increased accuracy and precision in penetration depth values were achieved by incorporating adsorbate effects on substrate permittivity. The optimal nanohole array conditions for highest surface sensitivity were determined (820 nm periodicity, 0.27 diameter/periodicity, and λ(SPR) = 1550 nm), which demonstrated an increase in surface sensitivity for the 10 nm analyte over continuous gold films at their optimal λ(SPR) (1300 nm) and conventional visible λ(SPR) (700 nm).

  14. Localized surface plasmon resonance induced structure-property relationships of metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilayurganapathy, Subramanian

    The confluence of nanotechnology and plasmonics has led to new and interesting phenomena. The industrial need for fast, efficient and miniature devices which constantly push the boundaries on device performance tap into the happy marriage between these diverse fields. Designing devices for real life application that give superior performance when compared with existing ones are enabled by a better understanding of their structure-property relationships. Among all the design constraints, without doubt, the shape and size of the nanostructure along with the dielectric medium surrounding it has the maximum influence on the response and thereby the performance of the device. Hence a careful study of the above mentioned parameters is of utmost importance in designing efficient devices. In this dissertation, we synthesize and study the optical properties of nanostructures of different shapes and size. In particular, we estimated the plasmonic near field enhancement via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and 2-photon Photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM). We synthesized the nanostructures using four different techniques. One synthesis technique, the thermal growth method was employed to grow interesting Ag and Au nanostructures on Si. The absence of toxic chemicals during nanostructure synthesis via the thermal growth technique opens up myriad possibilities for applications in the fields of biomedical science, bioengineering, drug delivery among others along with the huge advantage of being environment friendly. The other three synthesis techniques (ion implantation, Electrodeposition and FIB lithography) were chosen with the specific goal of designing novel plasmonic metal, metal hybrid nanostructures as photocathode materials in next generation light sources. The synthesis techniques for these novel nanostructures were dictated by the requirement of high quantum efficiency, robustness under constant irradiation and coherent unidirectional electron emission

  15. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  16. STEM-EELS analysis of multipole surface plasmon modes in symmetry-broken AuAg nanowire dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Ina; Sigle, Wilfried; van Aken, Peter A.; Trautmann, Christina; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia

    2015-03-01

    Surface plasmon coupling in nanowires separated by small gaps generates high field enhancements at the position of the gap and is thus of great interest for sensing applications. It is known that the nanowire dimensions and in particular the symmetry of the structures has strong influence on the plasmonic properties of the dimer structure. Here, we report on multipole surface plasmon coupling in symmetry-broken AuAg nanowire dimers. Our dimers, consisting of two nanowires with different lengths and separated by gaps of only 10 to 30 nm, were synthesized by pulsed electrochemical deposition in ion track-etched polymer templates. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy allows us to resolve up to nine multipole order surface plasmon modes of these dimers spectrally separated from each other. The spectra evidence plasmon coupling between resonances of different multipole order, resulting in the generation of additional plasmonic modes. Since such complex structures require elaborated synthesis techniques, dimer structures with complex composition, morphology and shape are created. We demonstrate that finite element simulations on pure Au dimers can predict the generated resonances in the fabricated structures. The excellent agreement of our experiment on AuAg dimers with finite integration simulations using CST microwave studio manifests great potential to design complex structures for sensing applications.

  17. Internal photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles: comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.;

    2014-01-01

    We study the emission of photoelectrons from plasmonic nanoparticles into a surrounding matrix. We consider two mechanisms of electron emission from the nanoparticles - surface and volume ones and use models for these two mechanisms which allow us to obtain analytical results for the photoelectro...... to take both mechanisms into account in the development of devices based on the photoelectric effect and when considering hot electron emission from a plasmonic nanoantenna....... emission rate from a nanoparticle. Calculations have been carried out for a step potential at the surface of a spherical nanoparticle, and a simple model for the hot electron cooling has been used. We highlight the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary....... In accordance with our calculations, this possible predominance of the surface effect is based on two factors: (i) effective cooling of hot carriers during their propagation from the volume of the nanoparticle to its surface in the scenario of the volume mechanism and (ii) strengthening of the surface mechanism...

  18. Tuned longitudinal surface plasmon resonance and third-order nonlinear optical properties of gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Yushi; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Kawamura, Go; Nogami, Masayuki

    2011-07-08

    In order to elucidate the relationship for third-order nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic metal nanoparticles between the incident laser wavelength and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength, gold nanorods (GNRs) with a tuned longitudinal SPR mode in frequency were prepared by seed-mediated methods with two different surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and benzyldimethylammonium chloride (BDAC). The real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ(3) were examined by near-infrared (800 nm) femtosecond Z-scan and I-scan techniques for various gold sols with SPR wavelengths of 530 nm (spheres), 800 nm (nanorods) and 1000 nm (nanorods), named as 530GNSs, 800GNRs and 1000GNRs, respectively. All the samples showed intrinsically third-order nonlinear optical refractive responses. However, as for the real part of χ(3) for one particle, 800GNRs whose plasmon peak was tuned to the incident laser wavelength exhibited a Reχ(3) value 45 times stronger than 530GNSs. More interestingly, the imaginary part of χ(3) was more greatly influenced at the tuned SPR wavelength. Here we first demonstrate that 800GNRs showed plasmon-enhanced saturable absorption (SA) due to a longitudinal SPR tuned to the incident laser wavelength.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single bowtie nano-antennas using a differential reflectivity method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniber, M; Schraml, K; Regler, A; Bartl, J; Glashagen, G; Flassig, F; Wierzbowski, J; Finley, J J

    2016-03-23

    We report on the structural and optical properties of individual bowtie nanoantennas both on glass and semiconducting GaAs substrates. The antennas on glass (GaAs) are shown to be of excellent quality and high uniformity reflected by narrow size distributions with standard deviations for the triangle and gap size of = 4.5 nm = 2.6 nm and = 5.4 nm = 3.8 nm, respectively. The corresponding optical properties of individual nanoantennas studied by differential reflection spectroscopy show a strong reduction of the localised surface plasmon polariton resonance linewidth from 0.21 eV to 0.07 eV upon reducing the antenna size from 150 nm to 100 nm. This is attributed to the absence of inhomogeneous broadening as compared to optical measurements on nanoantenna ensembles. The inter-particle coupling of an individual bowtie nanoantenna, which gives rise to strongly localised and enhanced electromagnetic hotspots, is demonstrated using polarization-resolved spectroscopy, yielding a large degree of linear polarization of ρmax ~ 80%. The combination of highly reproducible nanofabrication and fast, non-destructive and non-contaminating optical spectroscopy paves the route towards future semiconductor-based nano-plasmonic circuits, consisting of multiple photonic and plasmonic entities.

  20. Active control of surface plasmon resonance in MoS2-Ag hybrid nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zu, Shuai; Gong, Yongji; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Fang, Zheyu

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers have attracted much attention for their novel optical properties and efficient light-matter interactions. When excited by incident laser, the optical response of MoS2 monolayers was effectively modified by elementary photo-excited excitons owing to their large exciton binding energy, which can be facilitated for the optical-controllable exciton-plasmon interactions. Inspired by this concept, we experimentally investigated active light control of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in MoS2-Ag hybrid nanostructures. The white light spectra of SPR were gradually red-shifted by increasing laser power, which was distinctly different from the one of bare Ag nanostructure. This spectroscopic tunability can be further controlled by near-field coupling strength and polarization state of light, and selectively applied to the control of plasmonic dark mode. An analytical Lorentz model for photo-excited excitons induced modulation of MoS2 dielectric function was developed to explain the...