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Sample records for antibody preliminary evaluation

  1. A new automatic system for Cytomegalovirus antibodies screening: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Angelis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the automated enhanced-chemiluminescence VITROS EciQ (Ortho system compared to the EIA ALISEI (Radim system for the first level detection of CMV IgG and IgM antibodies. Samples derived from 95 immunocompetent patients were examined. Both systems showed similar results for CMV IgG: 63 samples were positive, 28 negative and 4 samples were weakly positive. The four weakly positive samples were subsequently confirmed with the LIAISON (DiaSorin system. Agreement was 91% concerning CMV IgM detection: 79 samples were negative, 7 positive and 9 samples releved discrepancy between the two systems.When these 9 cases were tested with LIAISON system for CMV IgM and IgG and the CMV IgG avidity test, data revealed complete agreement between VITROS EciQ and LIAISON systems.VITROS EciQ system seems to be a valuable system for the first level diagnosis of CMV infection.

  2. Preliminary studies of Technetium-99m-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody: development of radiopharmaceutical for cardiac evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz de Castro; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Muramoto, Emiko; Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: glcarval@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    In the acute myocardium infarction, the myocytes cell membrane loses its integrity, allowing the influx of extracellular macromolecules such as circulating antibody into the damaged cell. Specific antibodies to cardiac myosin can therefore bind to the acutely necrotic myocyte, allowing the noninvasive localization and dimension of myocardial infarction. Because of its favorable physical characteristics, low cost, and ready availability, technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) is the radionuclide of choice for scintigraphy. The purpose of this work was to study the labeling of the antimyosin monoclonal antibody with ({sup 99m}Tc for development of a radiopharmaceutical with high sensitivity and specificity used in the diagnostic of the myocardial infarction. The intact monoclonal antibody (IgG{sub 1}) was reduced by treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT) with the consequent generation of free thiol groups (- SH), responsible for the labeling of the antibody with ({sup 99m}Tc. The radiochemical yield was determined using Sephadex G-25 column (PD-10). The percentage of ({sup 99m}Tc-antibody was 90,06% and after purification procedure the radiochemical yield was > 98%. The biodistribution studies showed low uptake in the stomach and thyroid at different times (1, 4 e 24 hours) representing a small amount of unbounded ({sup 99m}Tc and a good stability of the purified ({sup 99m}Tc-antibody. The uptake in the normal heart was relatively low as expected. Based on these results, we concluded that the direct labeling procedure applied to the antimyosin monoclonal antibody allowed the easy preparation of the radiopharmaceutical with good stability to be used in the noninvasive diagnostic of the myocardial infarction. (author)

  3. Preliminary studies on the purification of a monoclonal antibody by affinity precipitation with Eudragit S-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipa, M A; Kaul, R; Mattiasson, B; Cabral, J M

    1998-01-01

    A simple procedure for the purification of an IgG-type monoclonal antibody by affinity precipitation using Eudragit S-100 is presented. The ligand, a microbial lipase previously used as antigen, was coupled to the polymer at a concentration of 40 mg lipase/g Eudragit. This macroligand was reversibly precipitated by manipulating the pH at values higher and lower than 4.8. The effects of polymer concentration and dilution of hybridoma culture supernatant on the overall precipitation process were evaluated. The best purification factor was achieved with a polymer concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and a supernatant dilution of 1:3. The preliminary studies reported here enabled the purification of a monoclonal antibody in one step with an activity yield (by ELISA) of 50%-55% and a purification factor of ca 6.

  4. Development and evaluation of Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to develop and evaluate an Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody Test (IHAT) for the serological diagnosis of Cysticercus bovis in live animals. IHAT was set-up in-house and used to test serum samples of cattle against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) coated with crude extracts of C. bovis cyst. Serum ...

  5. Detection of thrombophlebitis with 111In-labeled anti-fibrin antibody: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, A.; Gupta, N.; Palevsky, H.I.; Kelley, M.A.; Jatlow, A.D.; Byar, A.A.; Berger, H.J. (Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Deep venous thrombosis remains a major medical problem, affecting a large segment of the population and resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. Current techniques available for detecting deep venous thrombosis present limitations that may mitigate their potential benefit to the patient. Invasive techniques, such as ascending contrast venography, carry risks to the patient with regard to complications such as an allergic reaction to an iodine dye, adverse effects to renal functions, and clot formation in a normal vein. Noninvasive techniques, such as Doppler ultrasound and impedance plethysmography, evaluate only a limited segment of the venous bed. The need remains for a diagnostic technique that is safe, accurate, and widely accessible. A readily available noninvasive scintigraphic technique utilizing radiolabeled monoclonal anti-fibrin antibody may overcome some of these shortcomings. This imaging examination is quite effective in detecting clots in the lower extremities. Compared to contrast venography, {sup 111}In-labeled anti-fibrin antibody imaging appears to be as sensitive in identifying acute venous thrombosis. In addition, the preliminary data indicate that anticoagulation with heparin may interfere with adequate visualization of the clots with this technique.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties of Soils in the New Yenagoa Town, Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta. ... Therefore, adequate attention should be given to the likely physical environmental degradation of river bank failure and liquefaction condition that may evolve as a result of ...

  7. A comparison of the recruitment of antibody forming cells in the nose and lung: Preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Herbert, A.P.; Bice, D.E.; Harkema, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Instillation of a particulate antigen into a selected lung lobe leads to an accumulation of antibody forming cells in the exposed lung lobe. Our goal in this preliminary study was to determine if an immune response could be elicited in the nasal mucosa of Beagle dogs exposed to a particulate antigen, and if so, to compare this immune response with that of the lungs when the nasal mucosa and the lungs are each immunized with a different particulate antigen. An Immune response was observed when the nasal mucosa was exposed to particulate antigen, but numbers of antibody-forming cells and levels of antibody in the nose were much lower than observed in an immunized lung lobe. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the World Health Organisation' antibody-testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the World Health Organisation. (WHO) antibody testing strategy for the individual patient diagnosis of HIV infection (strategy Ill). Design. Evaluation of a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELlSAs) for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. The WHO strategy.

  9. Evaluation of an Antigen-Antibody

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    1. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Development of “combination” assays detecting in parallel, within a single test,. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antigens and antibodies, not ... considered above threshold of detection for antigen proteins suggested a lack of sensitivity by this assay ..... Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (sinusoidal.

  10. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  11. National uranium resource evaluation, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The results of the initial phase of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) are reported. NURE is a comprehensive nationwide program to evaluate uranium resources and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. Part I presents estimates of uranium ore reserves and potential resources available at costs (not prices) of $10, $15, and $30 per pound U 3 O 8 (uranium oxide). These estimates comprise the national uranium resource position. They are, however, preliminary because limitations of time and available geologic data prevented adequate assessment of some areas that may be favorable for potential resources. Part II presents the potential uranium resources for each of 13 regions, whose boundaries have been drawn chiefly on geologic considerations. The general geology is summarized, and the types of uranium deposits are described. Although limited geologic reconnaissance was done in various parts of the country, the report is based primarily on the compilation and evaluation of data in ERDA files. Mining companies furnished a substantial amount of information on exploration results, development, production, and future plans. Published, manuscript, and open-file reports by government agencies, universities, and research organizations were reviewed. In addition, many individuals affiliated with universities and with state and federal agencies provided supplemental geologic information. This was particularly helpful in the eastern and central states and in Alaska, where information on uranium occurrences is limited

  12. Evaluation of HIV antigen /antibody combination ELISAs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Enzygnost HIV Integral II antigen/antibody combination ELISAs in order to formulate HIV ELISA testing algorithms for the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Tanzania. Methods: this was a laboratory-based evaluation of Enzygnost HIV Integral ...

  13. In vitro characterization of 177Lu-radiolabelled chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and a preliminary dosimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrer, Flavio; Mueller-Brand, Jan; Chen, Jianhua; Fani, Melpomeni; Powell, Pia; Maecke, Helmut R.; Lohri, Andreas; Moldenhauer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    131 I- and 90 Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibodies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of low-grade, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, the most appropriate radionuclide in terms of high efficiency and low toxicity has not yet been established. In this study we evaluated an immunoconjugate formed by the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab and the chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). DOTA-rituximab was prepared as a kit formulation and can be labelled in a short time ( 177 Lu or 90 Y. Immunoconjugates with different numbers of DOTA molecules per rituximab were prepared using p-SCN-Bz-DOTA. In vitro immunoreactivity and stability were tested and preliminary dosimetric results were acquired in two patients. The immunological binding properties of DOTA-rituximab to the CD20 antigen were found to be retained after conjugation with up to four chelators. The labelled product was stable against a 10 5 times excess of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 37 C, 7 days). Two patients with relapsed NHL were treated with 740 MBq/m 2 body surface 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab. Scintigraphic images showed specific uptake at tumour sites and acceptable dosimetric results. The mean whole-body dose was found to be 314 mGy. The administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab was tolerated well. Our results show that DOTA-rituximab (4:1) can be labelled with 177 Lu with sufficient stability while the immunoconjugate retains its immunoreactivity. 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab is an interesting, well-tolerated radiolabelled antibody with clinical activity in a low dose range, and provides an approach to the efficient treatment with few side effects for patients with relapsed NHL. (orig.)

  14. A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation Mark Edwards, Alistair Furnell...Jemma Coleman and Sheena Davis Land Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TR-3006 ABSTRACT Anthropometry is the...Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Defence Force Army Equipment Evaluation Executive Summary Anthropometry is the

  15. Identification and evaluation of nextgeneration PTM-specific antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Nina Emilia

    selectionprocess needs to exclude cross-reactive or suboptimal binders at an early stage to avoid problemsin the downstream evaluation process.In this thesis, a microarray screening assay is described. This assay combines an antibody and anantigen microarray for high content screening of multiple single......-chain fragment variable (scFv)clones. Two different analyses are performed on the same microarray. There is no need for anypurification or enrichment before screening. In the first analysis, the ability of the individualscFv clone to bind to the soluble form of the antigens is evaluated. Favouring selection.......In subsequent project, a new antibody library was constructed from the heavy chain variabledomain of G2-D11 and random light chains domains from immunized mice. Using this antibodylibrary and our screening assay, we could select a number of antibodies specific for the Tnantigenon a peptide from the CD43 protein...

  16. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A (H5N1) strain neuraminidase expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. Murugan Subathra Ponsekaran Santhakumar Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu Syed Sultan Beevi Sunil K Lal. Articles Volume 39 ...

  17. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl. The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA. The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%. No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  19. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  20. Evaluation of Salivary Antibodies to Detect Infection with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Loeb

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. Infection with this bacterium stimulates the production of immunoglobulin (Ig G antibody. Salivary IgG antibody tests to detect H pylori infection offer a convenient and noninvasive method of diagnosis. To evaluate an IgG salivary antibody kit, saliva was collected from 157 out-patients with dyspepsia referred for endoscopy to a tertiary centre. A salivary IgG ELISA antibody assay was performed using the Helisal Helicobacter pylori (IgG assay kit, and at least four gastric biopsies were obtained. H pylori infection was confirmed by demonstration of the organism on Warthin-Starry silver stain (sensitivity 85%, specificity 55%. The prevalence of infection with H pylori was 30%. When the analysis was redone, excluding those treated with eradication therapy, the results were similar (sensitivity 86%, specificity 58%. The positive predictive value of the assay was 45% and the negative predictive value was 90%. Despite the ease of sampling, the assay used has limited diagnostic utility, lacking the predictive value to indicate which patients referred with dyspeptic symptoms to a tertiary care setting are infected with H pylori.

  1. Preliminary economic evaluation of the Alkox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.J.; Lilga, M.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Snowden, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    A new chemical process has been invented at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for converting alkanes to alcohols. This new chemistry has been named the ''Alkox Process.'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared a preliminary economic analysis for converting cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, which may be one of the most attractive applications of the Alkox process. A process flow scheme and a material balance were prepared to support rough equipment sizing and costing. The results from the economic analysis are presented in the non-proprietary section of this report. The process details, including the flow diagram and material balance, are contained in separate section of this report that is proprietary to Battelle. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Evaluation of oriented lysozyme immobilized with monoclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoka; Okada, Keigo; Shigyo, Ayako; Man, Naoki; Karen, Akiya

    2008-12-01

    The orientation of a lysozyme immobilized with a monoclonal antibody was evaluated based on determination of the uppermost surface structure using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Specific peaks of the oriented lysozyme immobilized with monoclonal anti-lysozyme antibody were obtained in comparison with reference samples, non-oriented immobilized lysozyme and immobilized anti-lysozyme antibody. All samples were freeze-dried before TOF-SIMS measurement, and then each sample was measured using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source. TOF-SIMS spectra were analyzed to select peaks specific to the oriented immobilized lysozyme as well as to identify their chemical formula and ensemble of amino acids. The possible chemical formulae of the lysozyme fragments were then investigated with an element matching program and a residue matching program. The results from TOF-SIMS spectra analysis were compared to the amino acid sequence of the lysozyme and its three-dimensional structure registered in the protein data bank. Finally, the fragment-ion-generating regions of the oriented immobilized lysozyme were determined based on the suggested residues and the three-dimensional structure.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Various Additives on the Specific Reactivity of Anti- rHBsAg Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Yaghoub; Mohammadi, Saeed; Yousefi, Mehdi; Shokri, Fazel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibodies have a wide application in diagnosis and treatment. In order to maintain optimal stability of various functional parts of antibodies such as antigen binding sites, several approaches have been suggested. Using additives such as polysaccharides and polyols is one of the main methods in protecting antibodies against aggregation or degradation in the formulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of various additives on the specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) epitopes. Methods: To estimate the protective effect of different additives on the stability of antibody against conformational epitopes (S3 antibody) and linear epitopes (S7 and S11 antibodies) of rHBsAg, heat shock at 37°C was performed in liquid and solid phases. Environmental factors were considered to be constant. The specific reactivity of antibodies was evaluated using ELISA method. The data were analyzed using SPSS software by Mann-Whitney nonparametric test with the confidence interval of 95%. Results: Our results showed that 0.25 M sucrose, 0.04 M trehalose and 0.5% BSA had the most protective effect on maintaining the reactivity of mAbs (S3) against conformational epitopes of rHBsAg. Results obtained from S7 and S11 mAbs against linear characteristics showed minor differences. The most efficient protective additives were 0.04 M trehalose and 1 M sucrose. Conclusion: Nowadays, application of appropriate additives is important for increasing the stability of antibodies. It was concluded that sucrose, trehalose and BSA have considerable effects on the specific reactivity of anti rHBsAg mAbs during long storage. PMID:26605008

  4. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ripfel, H.C.F.; Rainey, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study

  5. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  6. Preliminary characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe, with stage-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cell-culture-derived clones of eight Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe were characterised in IFAT with a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Each clone had been established from a single murine brain cyst. The antibodies were bradyzoite-specific (4.3), tachyzoite-specific (4.25, 5...

  7. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-labeled antibody test for the rapid detection of hog cholera antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microtechnique for the screening of swine for hog cholera antibodies was developed and evaluated with a blind study, using a 640-sample hog cholera serum bank. The total time to run a group of 22 samples was approximately 1 hour. The ELA test results correlated >99% with hog cholera serum-neutralization test results on the same serums. Test results also indicated that the ELA test shares with the hog cholera serum-neutralization test the problem of cross reactions between the antibodies of hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the BIODOSE computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, N.A.; Ng, Y.C.

    1979-09-01

    The BIODOSE computer program simulates the environmental transport of radionuclides released to surface water and predicts the dosage to humans. We have evaluated the program for its suitability to the needs of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Waste Management Program. In particular, it is an evaluation to determine whether BIODOSE models account for the significant pathways and mechanisms resulting in radiological doses to man. In general, BIODOSE is a satisfactory code for converting radionuclide releases to the aqueous environment into doses to man

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Qualitative Traits of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Evaluation of Some Qualitative Traits of Sugarcane Germplasm of. North-Western Nigeria. *1L. Abubakar, 2A. ... yield identification than the stable characters. (qualitative characters) such as shape of vegetative ..... characteristics of Saccharum pontaneun clones in culture at Houma Lousiana. International.

  10. Evaluations on the R Wave in asymptomatic subjects: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary cross-sectional survey on the R wave of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was undertaken to evaluate the normal R wave duration and amplitude of the young adult Nigerian from Jos; to ascertain significant correlation coefficients for R wave duration and amplitude, age and anthropometric ...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a Neutron Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Talysson S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Sanches, Matias P.; Mitake, Malvina B.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2013-07-01

    In the past few years, Brazil and several other countries in Latin America have experimented a great demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, mainly due to the increase in oil prospection and extraction. The only laboratory for calibration of neutron detectors in Brazil is localized at the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, which is part of the IAEA SSDL network. This laboratory is the national standard laboratory in Brazil. With the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for another calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new calibration laboratory for neutron detectors. In this work, the ambient equivalent dose rate (H⁎(10)) was evaluated in several positions inside and around this laboratory, using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5 code), in order to verify the adequateness of the shielding. The obtained results showed that the shielding is effective, and that this is a low-cost methodology to improve the safety of the workers and evaluate the total staff workload. (author)

  12. Holmium:YAG laser stapedotomy: preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubig, Ingrid M.; Reder, Paul A.; Facer, G. W.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the use of a pulsed Holmium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) laser- fiber microsurgical system for laser stapedotomy. This system ablates human stapes bones effectively with minimal thermal damage. The study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the Ho:YAG laser (Schwartz Electro Optics, Inc., Orlando, FL) for stapedotomy and to evaluate temperature changes within the cochlea during the ablation process. Human cadaveric temporal bones were obtained and the stapes portion of the ossicular chain was removed. A 200 micrometers diameter low OH quartz fiber was used to irradiate these stapes bones in an air environment. The laser was pulsed at 2 Hz, 250 microsecond(s) ec pulse width and an irradiance range of 100 - 240 J/cm2 was used to ablate holes in the stapes footplate. The resultant stapedotomies created had smooth 300 micrometers diameter holes with a minimum of circumferential charring. Animal studies in-vivo were carried out in chinchillas to determine the caloric spread within the cochlea. A 0.075 mm Type T thermocouple was placed in the round window. Average temperature change during irradiation of the stapes footplate recorded in the round window was 3.6 degree(s)C. The data suggest that stapedotomy using the Ho:YAG laser can result in a controlled ablation of the stapes footplate with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding stapes. Optical coupling using fiberoptic silica fibers is an ideal method for delivering laser energy to the stapes during stapedotomy.

  13. [Preparation and preliminary application of rabbit anti-human PON2 antibodies(paraoxonase-2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Yang, Jin-Ju; Li, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Gao, Jian-En; Sun, Qi-Hong

    2008-07-01

    To preparation and characterize the rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 (paraoxonase-2). A fragment of human PON2 gene which was of low homology with rabbits but of higher hydrophilicity and immunogenicity was selected for recombinant expression in prokaryotic expression system. The rabbits were immunized with the purified GST fusion protein 3 times. The specificity and sensitivity of the anti-human PON2 polyclonal antibodies were detected by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence. The GST-PON2 fusion protein was highly expressed in Ecoli with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. Western blot analysis proved the rabbit polyclonal antibodies could specifically recognize 39 kDa native PON2 protein expressed in several cells and tissues, such as HeLa cells, U937 cells, and human liver tissue. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PON2 protein was located in the cytoplasm of SY5Y cells. The rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 can specifically recognize natural protein expressed in human cells and tissues, Which can be used for further study and clinical detection of human PON2.

  14. Lymphocyte antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test for evaluation of clinical role of monoclonal anti-D-antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovnikova, N I; Belkina, E V; Nikolaeva, T L; Miterev, G Yu; Chertkov, I L

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to D antigen were studied in the reaction of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity for evaluation of the possibility of using these antibodies for preventing rhesus sensitization. High hemolytic activity of four anti-D-monoclonal antibodies in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test, mediated by their interaction with FcgammaRI, and the capacity to accelerate elimination of D+ erythrocytes from circulation did not provide the immunosuppressive effect. It was hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization should interact with FcgammaRIII on lymphocytes. These monoclonal antibodies are extremely rare: only 4 of 125 studied antibodies mediated hemolysis in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test with lymphocytes, while all polyclonal anti-D-preparations exhibited this activity.

  15. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  16. {sup 99m} Tc labelled monoclonal antibodies: preclinical and clinical evaluation of anti granulocyte monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janoki, Gyozo A. [National FJC Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The {sup 99} {sup m} Tc-anti-NCA-95 Mo Ab could be used to image bone marrow or inflammatory processes. In our experiment M Ab 47 was reduced with 2-mercaptoethanol and thereafter purified on Sephadex G-50 column. Protein fractions were polled. Samples containing 1 mg of reduce M Ab 47, stannous-pyrophosphate and filling materials were frozen and lyophilized. The number of free S H group by Ellman`s reagent were determined. Structural integrity and labelling efficiency were determined by non-reduced PAGE and size exclusion HPLC Serum stability and cysteine challenge assay were performed also. The in vitro immunoreactivity of {sup 99m} Tc-M ab 47 was evaluation in cell binding assay when human granulocytes and H T-29 adenocarcinoma (CEA+) cells were used. The number of endogenous sulfhydryl groups generated were 6.3 S H group/antibody molecule. Stannous-salt added prior freeze-drying prevented the rearrangement of Sh groups. The amount of 2- mercaptoethanol (M E) survived the gel filtration was 0.4%/mg M Ab 47 as determined by {sup 14} C-M E. The results of HPLC experiments showed, that after purification of reduced M Ab 47 only one component seen on HPLC which has retention time identical with starting Mo Ab. The ratio HPLC analysis of {sup 99m} Tc-M Ab 47 shows two radioactive peak. Non reduced PAGE experiments showed three major component with signification tailing activity.From the results of TLC and ITLC experiments can be seen that the amount of free pertechnetate + radiocolloid are low less than 10%. The results of cysteine challenge assay showed that significant amount of activity dissociated from protein molecule as determined by the followed paper chromatography. Serum stability was 90% at 1 h and 85% at 4 h. In vitro immunoreactivity retained ranged between 80-85% (granulocytes) and 75-90% (CEA+cells). Biodistribution of {sup 99m} Tc-M Ab 47 in normal mice showed high activity in blood pool and well perfused organs. Experiments using tumor

  17. In vitro characterization of {sup 177}Lu-radiolabelled chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and a preliminary dosimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrer, Flavio; Mueller-Brand, Jan [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Chen, Jianhua; Fani, Melpomeni; Powell, Pia; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Lohri, Andreas [Basel University Medical Clinic, Liestal (Switzerland); Moldenhauer, Gerhard [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Molecular Immunology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    {sup 131}I- and {sup 90}Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibodies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of low-grade, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, the most appropriate radionuclide in terms of high efficiency and low toxicity has not yet been established. In this study we evaluated an immunoconjugate formed by the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab and the chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). DOTA-rituximab was prepared as a kit formulation and can be labelled in a short time (<20 min) with either {sup 177}Lu or {sup 90}Y. Immunoconjugates with different numbers of DOTA molecules per rituximab were prepared using p-SCN-Bz-DOTA. In vitro immunoreactivity and stability were tested and preliminary dosimetric results were acquired in two patients. The immunological binding properties of DOTA-rituximab to the CD20 antigen were found to be retained after conjugation with up to four chelators. The labelled product was stable against a 10{sup 5} times excess of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 37 C, 7 days). Two patients with relapsed NHL were treated with 740 MBq/m{sup 2} body surface {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab. Scintigraphic images showed specific uptake at tumour sites and acceptable dosimetric results. The mean whole-body dose was found to be 314 mGy. The administration of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab was tolerated well. Our results show that DOTA-rituximab (4:1) can be labelled with {sup 177}Lu with sufficient stability while the immunoconjugate retains its immunoreactivity. {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab is an interesting, well-tolerated radiolabelled antibody with clinical activity in a low dose range, and provides an approach to the efficient treatment with few side effects for patients with relapsed NHL. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of a preliminary safety concept for the HPLWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Bittermann, D. [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Marsault, Ph.; Antoni, O. [Commisssariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA (France); Kereszturi, A. [Atomic Energy Research Inst. KFKI (Hungary); Schlagenhaufer, M. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., KIT (Germany); Manera, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst., PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Seppala, M.; Kurki, J. [VTT Tech. Research Centre (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The main safety functions considered in the preliminary concept for the HPLWR have been evaluated by means of a comprehensive set of analyses, which have been performed using system and coupled codes. The investigated scenarios addressed a variety of initiating events, including anticipated transients as well as accidents. The simulations performed show that for each class of transients at least one of the computational tools used in this project is adequate for preliminary assessment of the safety concept of the HPLWR. The analyses have shown that the proposed systems can be expected to be capable to provide all the safety functions. The open issues that remain to be addressed in future projects are also discussed. (author)

  19. Preliminary clinical application of radioimmunoimaging with 111In labelled anti-colon carcinoma monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing

    1992-01-01

    2C 10 is an anti-colorectal carcinoma monoclonal antibody which cross reacts with gastric and ovarian carcinomas. The antibody has shown good tumor location in nude mice after labelling with 111 In. 15 patients have been clinically tested with 111 In-2C 10 , in whom 11 were colorectal carcinomas,2 gastric and 2 ovarian carcinomas. Most of the cases were adenocarcinoma. 10 cases were confirmed surgically and pathologically. The largest tumor was 10 x 8 x 7 cm 3 (ovarian carcinoma) and the smallest ones were 3 x 3 x 2 cm 3 (gastric carcinoma)and 3 x 3 x 5 cm 3 (rectal carcinoma). The other 5 cases were proven by fibre endoscopy, B-ultrasonography and X-ray. Routine blood and urine test and examinations on liver and renal functions as well as measurement of serum CEA level were also performed. The antibody, which had been proven bacteria and pyrogen free, was labelled with 111 In under sterile conditions. 2-3 mCi 111 In -2C 10 (1 mg) diluted in 100 ml normal saline was administered by intravenous drip. Most of the patients were gamma scanned 72 hours after injection. Tumor specimens were also imaged. The radioactivities in tumors and tissues on cutting edges were measured. Positive results were obtained in 10/11 of the colorectal cancer patients. Two ovarian cancers were positive while the two gastric carcinomas showed negative images. One ovarian cancer metastasis to colon and one recurrent colon cancer were detected only by RII. The results have confirmed the advantages of RII over CT and ultrasonography. The high radioactivity in liver, however, is a conspicuous problem to be resolved

  20. Preliminary study of experimental tumor radioimmunoimagination in animals by CA-50 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen zhizhou

    1988-01-01

    The 125 I labelling of CA-50 monoclonal antibody, the distribution of radioactivity in experimental lung cancer 739 bearing mice, and tumor radioimmunoimagination were studied. At 24 hrs after the i.v. administrations of 5.55∼8.14 MBq 125 I-CA50, the relative values of radioactivity in different tissues were: muscle 1, blood 4.1, heart 1.4, liver 6.7, spleen 2.2, lung 2.8, kidney 5.3, tumor 14.5. Radioimmunoimagination showed clearly the locatization of the tumor

  1. Breast cancer imaging with In-111 human IgM monoclonal antibodies: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K P; Dillman, R O; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; Beauregard, J; Hagan, P L; Amox, D G; Clutter, M L; Burnett, K G; Rulot, C M

    1988-04-01

    Detection of specific tumor sites was studied with scintigraphy and radiolabeled human IgM monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). Ten patients with metastatic breast cancer received an infusion of one of three indium-111-labeled anti-breast carcinoma MoAbs. The time of infusion ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours. Three patients received YBB-190 at total doses of 2, 4.25, or 11 mg, four patients received YBM-209 at total doses of 1 mg (n = 1) or 20 mg (n = 3), and three patients each received 22 mg of YBY-088. Imaging was performed immediately after infusion and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 144 hours. Many presumed sites of metastatic disease were imaged in three of the four patients who received 20 mg of YBM-209 and in two of the three patients who received YBY-088. Tumor was not detected in any of the patients who received YBB-190, in the patient who received a 1-mg dose of YBM-209, or in the patient who received YBY-088 and in whom a biopsy of tumor tissue failed to demonstrate target antigen. The authors conclude that In-111-labeled human IgM MoAbs can target human breast cancer, but antigen expression and antibody dose determine successful immunoscintigraphy.

  2. An evaluation of Wb123 antibody elisa in individuals treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of antibody testing for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is intended to enhance the monitoring and evaluation activities of the Global Program for the Elimination of LF. This is due to the fact that antibody tests are expected to be the most sensitive at detecting exposure to LF compared to antigen that ...

  3. AVIDITY EVALUATION OF LOCAL IgA ANTIBODIES IN PERSONS IMMUNIZED WITH LIVE INFLUENZA VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Donina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. At present, immunogenicity evaluation of influenza vaccines is performed by quantitative assessment of increased serum antibodies. It was, however, shown that the degree of human defense against influenza is mostly related to their qualitative characteristics, i.e., avidity (functional activity. Leading role of local immunity is demonstrated in protection against influenza. Such immunity is mediated by IgA antibodies from mucosal airways. Meanwhile, the avidity issues for local antibodies still remain open.In present study, an attempt was undertaken to evaluate post-vaccination local immunological memory for influenza A virus, according to IgA antibodies from upper respiratory secretions. Two techniques were used to evaluate antibody avidity, that were previously applied for studying this phenomenon with serum imunoglobulins, i.e., a dynamic test (measurement of antigen-antibody reaction rates, and a test with urea, a chaotropic agent (avidity is determined as a strength of antigen-antibody complex. A total of 202 persons (18 to 20 years old were enrolled into the study.With both tests, a broad range of individual avidity values was observed for the antibodies. A significant cohort (up to 30 per cent of persons immunized with live influenza vaccine, showed sharply increased avidity of secretory IgA antibodies by both methods, along with accumulation of these immunoglobulins after vaccination. A reverse relationship is revealed between avidity levels of these antibodies before vaccination, and increase of this parameter post-immunization. The data present convincing arguments for specific renewal of local humoral immunological memory, as induced by live influenza vaccine. The study substantiates a necessity for application of the both tests in parallel, when determining avidity of secretory IgA antibodies. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 423-430.

  4. Evaluation of antibody response by dogs vaccinated with low egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve dogs were immunized with live attenuated flury strain antirabies vaccine using single, double and triple inoculation sites of the recommended dose, but in divided doses for the double and triple sites. All the dogs were screened for neutralizing antibodies against rabies before immunization, while sera were collected ...

  5. Performance management in the Slovak higher education system: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Nemec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is a preliminary evaluation of the introduction of performance management and performance financing arrangements in the Slovak higher education system – accreditation and formula based performance financing. This evaluation will be mainly based on the assessment of short-term impacts of the above mentioned instruments and is expected to invite further professional discussion. We feel that the data and brief analysis included are sufficient enough to show that the Slovak system represents a typical example of the potential of performance management and performance financing being significantly limited, if not destroyed. Not only because of improperly defined indicators, which are too much input and quantity orientated, but very much also due to a lack of resources (the ratio of public expenditures for higher education to the GDP in Slovakia is significantly below EU average, as well as the politicization of the system.

  6. Evaluation of Vaccine-induced Antibody Responses: Impact of New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaro, Daniel J.; Wagener, Diane K.; Whisnant, Carol C.; Staats, Herman F.

    2013-01-01

    Host response to vaccination has historically been evaluated based on a change in antibody titer that compares the post-vaccination titer to the pre-vaccination titer. A four-fold or greater increase in antigen-specific antibody has been interpreted to indicate an increase in antibody production in response to vaccination. New technologies, such as the bead-based assays, provide investigators and clinicians with precise antibody levels (reported as concentration per mL) in ranges below and above those previously available through standard assays such as ELISA. Evaluations of bead assay data to determine host response to vaccination using fold change and absolute change, witha general linear models used to calculate adjusted statistics, present very different pictures of the antibody response when pre-vaccination antibody levels are low. Absolute changes in bead assay values, although not a standard computation, appears to more accurately reflect the host response to vaccination for those individuals with extremely low pre-vaccination antibody levels. Conversely, for these same individuals, fold change may be very high while post-vaccination antibodies do not achieve seroprotective levels. Absolute change provides an alternate method to characterize host response to vaccination, especially when pre-vaccination levels are very low, and may be useful in studies designed to determine associations between host genotypes and response to vaccination. PMID:23583812

  7. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody able to detect live Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølve, Marianne; Boel, Jeppe; Nørrung, Birgit

    2000-01-01

    A monoclonal Listeria antibody, designated B4, was evaluated. The ability of the antibody to bind to viable bacteria belonging to Listeria spp, compared to bacteria of the same species killed by beat treatment, acid or base treatment, sanitizers, and irradiation was examined. The antibody was found...... to react with viable L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, but not with heat-killed (72 degrees C, 5 min) strains of these organisms. When L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were killed by methods other than heat treatment, it was ambiguous whether the antibody detected the organism or not. It was concluded...... that the B4 antibody has potential to be used in an immune capture step to capture live L, monocytogenes and L. innocua from foods prior to identification of L. monocytogenes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)....

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS

  9. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormont, J C

    1988-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A Serious Games Platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation with Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Paula Alexandra; Rocha, Rui; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Reis, Luís Paulo; Moreira, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Serious Games have evolved substantially, solving problems in diverse areas. In particular, in Cognitive Rehabilitation, Serious Games assume a relevant role. Traditional cognitive therapies are often considered repetitive and discouraging for patients and Serious Games can be used to create more dynamic rehabilitation processes, holding patients' attention throughout the process and motivating them during their road to recovery. This paper reviews Serious Games and user interfaces in rehabilitation area and details a Serious Games platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation that includes a set of features such as: natural and multimodal user interfaces and social features (competition, collaboration, and handicapping) which can contribute to augment the motivation of patients during the rehabilitation process. The web platform was tested with healthy subjects. Results of this preliminary evaluation show the motivation and the interest of the participants by playing the games.

  11. Tritium removal: a preliminary evaluation of several getters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, C.W.; West, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    The removal of hydrogen isotopes from flowing gas streams is an important aspect of CTR technology for both decontamination and tritium recovery from plasma exhausts. Several getters have been evaluated for their tritium scrubbing potential at the parts per billion level. Measurements of total capacity and dynamic response have been made for barium, erbium, palladium dispersed on molecular sieve, General Electric H-36 (zirconium alloy), Union Carbide Y-993 (PdMnO 2 ), Societa Apparecchi Electtrici e Scientifici Getters ST101 (Zr--Al), ST171, and ST181, and a Sandia developed organic material, dimerized phenyl propargyl ether (DPPE). Preliminary flow studies were conducted by passing mixtures of either hydrogen or deuterium diluted with argon through packed beds containing the getter and periodically sampling the effluent with a gas chromatograph sensitive to 500 ppB H 2 . The results of this work, similar flow experiments using tritium and total capacity measurements are presented in the text

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard at Cernavoda NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Serban, V.; Androne, M.

    2001-01-01

    The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a methodology by which one evaluates the probability of exceeding different parameters of the ground motions (the maximum ground acceleration - PGA and the ground response spectrum - SA) as effect of the seismic action, on a given site at a future time moment. Due to the large uncertainties in the geological, geophysical, seismological input data, as well as, in the models utilised, various interpretation schemes are applied in the PSHA analyses. This interpretation schemes lead to opinion discrepancies among specialists which finally lead to disagreements in estimating the values of the seismic design for a given site. In order to re-evaluate the methodology and to improve the PSHA result stability, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored a project for defining methodological guides of performing PSHA analyses. The project was implemented by a panel of 7 experts, the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee - SSHAC. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard for the Cernavoda NPP site by application of the methodology mentioned, by taking into account the possible sources which could affect the site (the Vrancea focus, Galati - Tulcea fault, Sabla - Dulovo fault and local earthquakes)

  14. Preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sands terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    The cost of oil sands projects varies significantly. While costs have escalated considerably over the past few years, oil prices have gone significantly higher. This report provided an economic evaluation of the current fiscal terms applicable to Alberta oil sands. The analysis was done to evaluate the profitability of oil sand projects to investors under current conditions based on the generic royalty regime based on bitumen values. The objective of the royalty review was to determine whether Albertans received a fair share from their oil and gas resources. It discussed the wide variety of oil sands projects in Alberta using five case studies as examples. Cases involving steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations were assessed for both the Athabasca Mine and Cold Lake. The report provided a discussion of the economic assumptions including economic cases as well as production, costs and price data. It then provided the preliminary results of the economic-fiscal evaluation from the investor perspective including profitability indicators; international comparisons; internal rate of return; and net present value. The government perspective was also discussed with reference to attractiveness indicators; royalties as a percentage of bitumen values; and non-discounted and discounted government take. A royalty and tax feature analysis was also provided. Several issues for possible further review were also presented. tabs

  15. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Treponemal Antibody Test Comparing the Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Han; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Min-Geol; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2015-09-01

    In addition to conventional tests, several methods for detection of treponema-specific antibodies in clinical settings have been recently introduced. We aim to comparatively evaluate a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for Treponema pallidum specific antibody (SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0) and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. In all, 132 serum samples from 78 syphilis patients and 54 syphilis-negative controls were analyzed. SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 test (Standard Diagnostic, Inc., Yongin, Korea) was evaluated and compared to Serodia TPPA assay (Fujirebio, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). All discrepant results between the two assays were repeatedly tested and evaluated by the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) assay. Test reproducibility and 95% limit of detection of SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 were determined across three different lots for seven consecutive days in triplicate. Interference due to autoantibodies and pregnancy was also tested. Percent agreement between SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 and TPPA assays was 99.2%. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%, respectively. In TPPA assay, test-to-test, day-to-day, and lot-to-lot variations were not identified until 1:320 titer (eightfold dilutions). There was no interference due to the presence of antinuclear antibodies or samples or pregnancy. Percent agreement of SD Syphilis 3.0 and TPPA was very good. Sensitivity and specificity were appropriate for T. pallidum antibody detection. Thus, a rapid ICT could be suitable for syphilis antibody detection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  17. Evaluation of a malaria antibody enzyme immunoassay for use in blood screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Seo Oh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion-transmitted malaria is rare, but it may produce severe problem in the safety of blood transfusion due to the lack of reliable procedure to evaluate donors potentially exposed to malaria. Here, we evaluated a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay malaria antibody test (ELISA malaria antibody test, DiaMed, Switzerland to detect antibodies to Plasmodium vivax (the indigenous malaria in the blood samples in the Republic of Korea (ROK. Blood samples of four groups were obtained and analyzed; 100 samples from P.vivax infected patients, 35 from recovery patients, 366 from normal healthy individuals, and 325 from domestic travelers of non-endemic areas residents to risky areas of ROK. P.vivax antibody levels by ELISA were then compared to the results from microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. As a result, the ELISA malaria antibody test had a clinical sensitivity of 53.0% and a clinical specificity of 94.0% for P.vivax. Twenty out of 325 domestic travelers (6.2% were reactive and 28 cases (8.6% were doubtful. Of the reactive and doubtful cases, only two were confirmed as acute malaria by both microscopy and PCR test. Thus we found that the ELISA malaria antibody test was insufficiently sensitive for blood screening of P.vivax in ROK.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of FY98 KALIMER shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Kang, Chang Mu; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the shielding design of FY98 KALIMER. The KALIMER shielding design includes the Inner Fixed Shield of a stainless cylinder located inside the support barrel; the Radial PSDRS Shields which are three B{sub 4}C cylinders located outside the support barrel at core level; the Lower IHX shield of a cylindrical B{sub 4}C plate located above the flow guide; and Inner and Outer IHX shields of B{sub 4}C cylinders located inside and outside of the support barrel, respectively. The DORT3.1 two-dimensional transport code was used to evaluate the KALIMER shielding design. The reactor system was represented by four axial zones, each of which was modeled in the R-Z geometry. The KAFAX-F22 library was used in the analyses, which was generated from the JEF-2.2 of OECD/NEA files for LMR applications by KAERI. The performance of the KALIMER shielding design is compared against the shielding design criteria. The results indicate that the support barrel, upper grid plate, and other reactor structures meet the maximum neutron fluence and DPA limits established in the shielding design criteria. Activities of the air effluent in the PSDRS were also evaluated and are shown to satisfy the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) limits in 10 CFR Part 20. In the future, the validation of the DORT model by a detailed three dimensional calculation such as MCNP and the justification of the current shielding design limits are needed. (author). 13 refs., 23 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  20. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  1. Impact of immunization technology and assay application on antibody performance--a systematic comparative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Brown

    Full Text Available Antibodies are quintessential affinity reagents for the investigation and determination of a protein's expression patterns, localization, quantitation, modifications, purification, and functional understanding. Antibodies are typically used in techniques such as Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, among others. The methods employed to generate antibodies can have a profound impact on their success in any of these applications. We raised antibodies against 10 serum proteins using 3 immunization methods: peptide antigens (3 per protein, DNA prime/protein fragment-boost ("DNA immunization"; 3 per protein, and full length protein. Antibodies thus generated were systematically evaluated using several different assay technologies (ELISA, IHC, and Western blot. Antibodies raised against peptides worked predominantly in applications where the target protein was denatured (57% success in Western blot, 66% success in immunohistochemistry, although 37% of the antibodies thus generated did not work in any of these applications. In contrast, antibodies produced by DNA immunization performed well against both denatured and native targets with a high level of success: 93% success in Western blots, 100% success in immunohistochemistry, and 79% success in ELISA. Importantly, success in one assay method was not predictive of success in another. Immunization with full length protein consistently yielded the best results; however, this method is not typically available for new targets, due to the difficulty of generating full length protein. We conclude that DNA immunization strategies which are not encumbered by the limitations of efficacy (peptides or requirements for full length proteins can be quite successful, particularly when multiple constructs for each protein are used.

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  4. Status and Preliminary Evaluation for Chinese Re-Analysis Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin, zhao; chunxiang, shi; tianbao, zhao; dong, si; jingwei, liu

    2016-04-01

    Based on operational T639L60 spectral model, combined with Hybird_GSI assimilation system by using meteorological observations including radiosondes, buoyes, satellites el al., a set of Chinese Re-Analysis (CRA) datasets is developing by Chinese National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) of Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA). The datasets are run at 30km (0.28°latitude / longitude) resolution which holds higher resolution than most of the existing reanalysis dataset. The reanalysis is done in an effort to enhance the accuracy of historical synoptic analysis and aid to find out detailed investigation of various weather and climate systems. The current status of reanalysis is in a stage of preliminary experimental analysis. One-year forecast data during Jun 2013 and May 2014 has been simulated and used in synoptic and climate evaluation. We first examine the model prediction ability with the new assimilation system, and find out that it represents significant improvement in Northern and Southern hemisphere, due to addition of new satellite data, compared with operational T639L60 model, the effect of upper-level prediction is improved obviously and overall prediction stability is enhanced. In climatological analysis, compared with ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE reanalyses, the results show that surface temperature simulates a bit lower in land and higher over ocean, 850-hPa specific humidity reflects weakened anomaly and the zonal wind value anomaly is focus on equatorial tropics. Meanwhile, the reanalysis dataset shows good ability for various climate index, such as subtropical high index, ESMI (East-Asia subtropical Summer Monsoon Index) et al., especially for the Indian and western North Pacific monsoon index. Latter we will further improve the assimilation system and dynamical simulating performance, and obtain 40-years (1979-2018) reanalysis datasets. It will provide a more comprehensive analysis for synoptic and climate diagnosis.

  5. Field evaluation of a fast anti-Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, A.; Schoone, G. J.; Diro, E.; Tesfaye, A.; Techane, Y.; Tefera, T.; Assefa, Y.; Genetu, A.; Kebede, Y.; Kebede, T.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2006-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with

  6. Evaluation of six immunoassays for detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M and G antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); P. Koraka (Penelope); J. Velzing (Jans); C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe performance of six commercially available immunoassay systems for the detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in serum was evaluated. These included two IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassays (EIA) from MRL Laboratories and PanBio, a rapid

  7. Blended Chitosan Paste for Infection Prevention: Preliminary and Preclinical Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Joel M; Jennings, Jessica A; Courtney, Harry S; Beenken, Karen E; Smeltzer, Mark S; Haggard, Warren O

    2017-07-01

    Local drug delivery devices offer a promising method for delivering vancomycin and amikacin for musculoskeletal wounds. However, current local delivery devices such as beads and sponges do not necessarily allow for full coverage of a wound surface with eluted antibiotics and do not address the need for reducing the antibiotic diffusion distance to help prevent contamination by bacteria or other microorganisms. We blended chitosan/polyethylene glycol (PEG) pastes/sponges to increase biocompatibility and improve antibiotic coverage within the wound. (1) Are blended chitosan/PEG pastes biodegradable? (2) Are the blended pastes biocompatible? (3) How much force does paste require for placement by injection? (4) Will the pastes elute active antibiotics to inhibit bacteria in vitro? (5) Can the pastes prevent infection in a preclinical model with hardware? Our blended paste/sponge formulations (0.5% acidic, 1% acidic, and acidic/neutral) along with a control neutral 1% chitosan sponge were tested in vitro for degradability, cytocompatibility, injectability tested by determining the amount of force needed to inject the pastes, elution of antibiotics, and activity tested using zone of inhibition studies. Along with these studies, in vivo models for biocompatibility and infection prevention were tested using a rodent model and an infected mouse model with hardware, respectively. By evaluating these characteristics, an improved local drug delivery device can be determined. All three of the paste formulations evaluated were almost fully degraded and with 6 days of degradation, the percent remaining being was less than that of the control sponge (percent remaining: control 99.251% ± 1.0%; 0.5% acidic 1.6% ± 2.1%, p = 0.002; 1% acidic 1.7% ± 1.6%, p = 0.002; acidic/neutral 2.3% ± 1.7%, p = 0.010). There was good biocompatibility because cell viability in vitro was high (control 100.0 ± 14.3; 0.5% acidic formulation at 79.4 ± 12.6, p blended chitosan/PEG pastes with

  8. Anti-Ku antibodies in connective tissue diseases: clinical and serological evaluation of 14 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Franco; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Generali, Daniele; Quinzanini, Marzia; Viardi, Luigi; Ghirardello, Anna; Doria, Andrea; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2002-07-01

    To assess the clinical and serological associations of anti-Ku antibodies. Fourteen patients with anti-Ku antibody detected by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and immunoblot (IB) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients (13 women, one man) had a mean age of 60.3 years (range 19-83). Seven patients had overlap syndromes: 5 polymyositis/scleroderma (PM/SSc), one systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)/SSc/PM, and one SLE/PM. Three additional patients had undifferentiated connective tissue disease, 2 primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), one psoriatic arthritis, and one SSc. The clinical manifestations most frequently recorded were arthralgias (86%), myositis (50%) and Raynaud's phenomenon (78.6%). Five patients had esophageal dysmotility, while 6 showed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (4 of them with reduced DLCO). No case of pulmonary hypertension was observed. All patients had very high titer of ANA with speckled and nucleolar pattern. All the sera were positive for anti-Ku antibodies by CIE: all but one were confirmed by IB. Eight sera contained isolated antibodies to Ku proteins: both subunits were recognized in 7 cases, while isolate reactivity to the 70 kDa protein was detected in one case. Five sera contained additional antibody specificities: anti-Ro 60 kDa in 4 cases, and anti-La/SSB, anti-SL, and anti-PM-Scl in one case each. Anti-Ku antibody is found in a wide spectrum of connective tissue diseases including overlap syndromes with SSc and myositis. Raynaud's phenomenon and muscular and joint involvement are the most frequent clinical features associated with anti-Ku antibodies, which are frequently detected in association with anti-Ro/SSA and/or other antinuclear specificities.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of advanced air bag field performance using event data recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-31

    This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the field performance of occupant restraint systems designed with advanced air bag features including those specified in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 for advanced air bags, throug...

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    guide surgical treatment. The TTTG measures tibial tuberosity position relative to the axis of the femoral trochlea. A preliminary investigation of TTTG measurement was performed using the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers as a morphologically similar and homogenous substitute for dog cadavers. CT...

  11. Evaluation Of Algorithms Of Anti- HIV Antibody Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranjape R.S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Can alternate algorithms be used in place of conventional algorithm for epidemiological studies of HIV infection with less expenses? Objective: To compare the results of HIV sero- prevalence as determined by test algorithms combining three kits with conventional test algorithm. Study design: Cross â€" sectional. Participants: 282 truck drivers. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity and specificity analysis and predictive values. Results: Three different algorithms that do not include Western Blot (WB were compared with the conventional algorithm, in a truck driver population with 5.6% prevalence of HIV â€"I infection. Algorithms with one EIA (Genetic Systems or Biotest and a rapid test (immunocomb or with two EIAs showed 100% positive predictive value in relation to the conventional algorithm. Using an algorithm with EIA as screening test and a rapid test as a confirmatory test was 50 to 70% less expensive than the conventional algorithm per positive scrum sample. These algorithms obviate the interpretation of indeterminate results and also give differential diagnosis of HIV-2 infection. Alternate algorithms are ideally suited for community based control programme in developing countries. Application of these algorithms in population with low prevalence should also be studied in order to evaluate universal applicability.

  12. Evaluation of a technique for the intraoperative detection of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, W.A.; Todd-Pokropek, A.; Short, M.D.; Davidson, B.R.; Boulos, P.B.; Middlesex Hospital, London

    1991-01-01

    Occult tumour deposits may be localised at operation with a radiation detecting probe following the administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognising a tumour-associated antigen. We have recently evaluated the clinical usefulness of this technique in detecting primary colorectal tumours targetted with an indium-111 MoAb. In the present study the physical characteristics of the two detector systems used were investigated; a sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintilation detector and a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor probe. Limitations of the technique in use have been examined by testing the statistical significance of tumour detecting using an abdominal phantom based on the currently available clinical biodistribution data for tumour uptake of radiolabelled MoAbs. The effect of tumour volume, antibody uptake, collimation and counting conditions was examined. Results indicate that tumours of 10-ml volume may be detected with the NaI(Tl) probe at the lowest levels of radiolabelled antibody uptake currently reported in the literature but that at higher published levels, lesions as small as 1 ml may be identified with both detector systems. Detector sensitivity and limited antibody specificity restrict the usefulness of the technique, although moderate improvements in tumour uptake may allow the detection of tumour deposits not clinically apparent. The statistical significance criterion used for this study could be an accurate and reliable indicator for tumour detection in vivo. (orig.)

  13. An improved microtiter assay for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yunyun

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay is widely used in AIDS vaccine research and other experimental and clinical studies. The vital dye staining method applied in the detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody has been used in many laboratories. However, the unknown factor(s in sera or plasma affected cell growth and caused protection when the tested sera or plasma was continuously maintained in cell culture. In addition, the poor solubility of neutral red in medium (such as RPMI-1640 also limited the use of this assay. Methods In this study, human T cell line C8166 was used as host cells, and 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT instead of neutral red was used as vital dye. In order to avoid the effect of the unknown factor(s, the tested sera or plasma was removed by a washout procedure after initial 3–6 h culture in the assay. Result This new assay eliminated the effect of the tested sera or plasma on cell growth, improved the reliability of detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody, and showed excellent agreement with the p24 antigen method. Conclusion The results suggest that the improved assay is relatively simple, highly duplicable, cost-effective, and well reliable for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma.

  14. Lumbar disc ultrasonography for evaluation of chemonucleolysis: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Park, Hyung Chun; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Oh, Seong Hoon [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    There has been no reported change of ultrasonographic findings of nucleus pulposus in chemonucleolysis. We have found that the particle of herniated nucleus pulposus are highly echogenic and change to low echogenic after chemonucleolysis. On an in vitro experimental study, ultrasonography of the surgical specimen of the herniated nucleus pulposus was highly echogenic. After soaking the chymopapain into the surgical specimen of the herniated nucleus pulposus, the echogenicity was progressively lowered as time passed from 3 minutes to 12 hours. Our preliminary results are divided as two folds; 1. High echogenic shadows of outside of annulus fibrosus on ultrasonography of herniated lumbar disc will be important indicator of selection of patients for good therapeutic results of chemonucleolysis. 2. Progressively lowered echogenicity of high echogenic shadow after chemouncleolysis suggests good reaction of chymopapain with herniated nucleus pulposus.

  15. Preliminary Structural Evaluation of the SMFR Core Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi

    2008-01-01

    The advanced reactor concepts are needed to meet the waste management, further enhanced safety, nonproliferation, and resource challenges that must accompany the deployment of increasing numbers of nuclear power plants. The SMFR(Small Modular Fast Reactor) was developed jointly by an international collaborative effort to achieve technical consensus. The SMFR has the design features of a pool-type arrangement, sodium coolant, 60 years plant life, 30 years core life, top reactor support and so on. In this study, the preliminary structural integrity for the SMFR core support structure including the inlet plenum and reactor vessel(RV) bottom head is investigated by using the ASME-NG rules for a normal operating condition

  16. [An evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody test reagents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X W; Zhu, D

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody screening test reagents, including the IF and IE reagents prepared by the Institute of Virology, CAPM, the ELISA reagent prepared by the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products. Based on the results, the sensitivities of the IF and IE are from 91.2% to 96.9%; the specificities, from 94.6% to 97.3%. Due to the low HIV prevalence in China, the predictive values of negative of these reagents are up to 100%; but the predictive values of positive are very low. It is suggested that these reagents can be used for HIV antibody screen testing in China. The package of some reagents should be improved, the price of some reagents should be decreased.

  17. Evaluation of CSFV Antibody ELISAs for the differentiation of infected from vacci-nated animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Sabine; Blome, Sandra; Koenen, Frank

    of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA) is not possible. Newly developed modified live marker vaccines allow a DIVA strategy based on the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSF virus (CSFV) Antibody ELISAs, com-mercially available in Europe......, for their diagnostic sensitivity as well as for their potential in differentiating between infected and marker vaccinated animals. Two newly available ELISAs were included into the tests, the Priocheck® CSFV Erns ELISA, a special DIVA test, and the LDL Pigtype® CSFV Antibody ELISA. An inter-laboratory comparison test...... countries and out-breaks occurred recently e.g. in Germany, France, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Slovak Republic. Preventive vaccination is prohibited within the EU, but emergency vaccination can be part of the strategy in case of a contingency. Using conventional vaccines, differentiation...

  18. Preliminary study on the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV antibodies in pigs and wild boars in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263. Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.

  19. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  20. Anti-CD antibody microarray for human leukocyte morphology examination allows analyzing rare cell populations and suggesting preliminary diagnosis in leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvastunova, Alina N; Kuznetsova, Sofya A; Al-Radi, Liubov S; Vylegzhanina, Alexandra V; Zakirova, Anna O; Fedyanina, Olga S; Filatov, Alexander V; Vorobjev, Ivan A; Ataullakhanov, Fazly

    2015-07-27

    We describe a method for leukocyte sorting by a microarray of anti-cluster-of-differentiation (anti-CD) antibodies and for preparation of the bound cells for morphological or cytochemical examination. The procedure results in a "sorted" smear with cells positive for certain surface antigens localised in predefined areas. The morphology and cytochemistry of the microarray-captured normal and neoplastic peripheral blood mononuclear cells are identical to the same characteristics in a smear. The microarray permits to determine the proportions of cells positive for the CD antigens on the microarray panel with high correlation with flow cytometry. Using the anti-CD microarray we show that normal granular lymphocytes and lymphocytes with radial segmentation of the nuclei are positive for CD3, CD8, CD16 or CD56 but not for CD4 or CD19. We also show that the described technique permits to obtain a pure leukemic cell population or to separate two leukemic cell populations on different antibody spots and to study their morphology or cytochemistry directly on the microarray. In cases of leukemias/lymphomas when circulating neoplastic cells are morphologically distinct, preliminary diagnosis can be suggested from full analysis of cell morphology, cytochemistry and their binding pattern on the microarray.

  1. Development of a candidate secondary reference procedure (immunoassay based measurement procedure of higher metrological order) for cardiac troponin I: I. Antibody characterization and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, James E; Bunk, David M; Christenson, Robert H; Cole, Kenneth D; He, Hua-Jun; Katrukha, Alexei G; Panteghini, Mauro; Porter, Robert A; Schimmel, Heinz; Tate, Jillian R; Wang, Lili

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the first steps in the development of a secondary reference measurement procedure (RMP) 'higher metrological order measurement procedure' to support the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) standardization initiative is described. The RMP should be used to assign values to serum-based secondary reference materials (RMs) without analytical artifacts causing bias. A multiplexed bead-based assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to identify the optimum monoclonal antibody pair (clones 560 and 19C7) for the RMP. Using these antibodies, an ELISA-based procedure was developed to accurately measure the main cTnI forms present in blood. The proposed RMP appears to show no bias when tested on samples containing various troponin complexes, phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms, and heparin. The candidate assay displayed suitable linearity and sensitivity (limit of detection, 0.052 μg/L) for the measurement of the proposed cTnI secondary RMs. Preliminary comparison data on patient samples with a commercial cTnI assay are also provided to support the suitability of RMP for value assignment to RMs. Full validation and final assessment of the RMP will be performed through transferability and inter-comparison studies.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of DOE-NEPA monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to perform a preliminary investigation of the problems involved in designing a Department of Energy-National Environmental Policy Act (DOE-NEPA) compliance monitoring system. The requirement for such a system arose from the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ-NEPA regulation effective July 30, 1979. The CEQ regulation uses the term monitoring to denote any method by which the lead agency can assure implementation of Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD) environmental mitigation commitments. Monitoring is required for mitigation measures in important cases and may be carried out at agency discretion for all other cases. No definition of important is given in the regulation. The NEPA intent is that all environmental information and planning be incorporated into the decision process as early as possible. In keeping with this concept, any monitoring or enforcement program for a mitigation measure is expected to be adopted and briefly and concisely described in the ROD. Information is presented in four chapters entitled: federal and state compliance monitoring surveys; EIS information analysis; enforcement mechanisms; and administrative practice

  3. Radioimmunolocalization of tumours by external scintigraphy after administration of 131I antibody to human chorionic gonadotrophin: preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begent, R.H.J.; Stanway, G.; Jones, B.E.; Bagshawe, K.D.; Searle, F.; Jewkes, R.F.; Vernon, P.

    1980-01-01

    131 Iodine labelled antibody directed against human chorionic gonadatrophin (hCG) was given on 21 occasions to 18 patients with hCG-producing neoplasms. Tumours were localized by external scintigraphy in 13 of 21 investigations. Positive results were obtained reliably when serum hCG exceeded 500 miu/ml and in some cases sensitivity was comparable to that of computerized tomography. A positive result probably implies viability in the tumour and this was of practical value in discriminating between necrotic deposits and living tumour before surgery. (author)

  4. Performance Evaluation of CLIA for Treponema Pallidum Specific Antibodies Detection in Comparison with ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Cai, Bei; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-05-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the performance effects of chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) for Treponema pallidum specific antibodies detection, and to compare T. pallidum specific antibodies detection accuracy between CLIA and ELISA with TPPA (T. pallidum particle agglutination assay) as a confirmatory test. A total of 865 samples from suspected syphilis patients and preoperative patients were included, in which T. pallidum specific antibodies were simultaneously detected by CLIA and ELISA. Among them, 457 samples were determined by TPPA. All coefficients of variation (CVs) of ELISA in high-, median-, and low-level samples were more than 5% and the maximum CV was 54.39% in the low-level sample. CVs of CLIA in different-level samples were all below 5%. Among the three assays the Spearman correlation and Kappa coefficients were 0.771 (P ≤ 0.001) and 0.854 (P ≤ 0.001, CLIA vs. ELISA), 0.806 (P ≤ 0.001) and 0.897 (P ≤ 0.001, ELISA vs. TPPA), 0.937 (P ≤ 0.001) and 0.967 (P ≤ 0.001, CLIA vs. TPPA), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of CLIA was higher than that of ELISA (0.994 vs. 0.989) with TPPA as the confirmatory test. In 18 discrepant samples the consistency rate between CLIA and TPPA was elevated compared with that between ELISA and TPPA (72.22% vs. 27.78%, P = 0.008). In gray zone, the consistency rate of CLIA with TPPA was higher than that of ELISA with TPPA (90.91% vs. 41.67%, P = 0.027). Compared with ELISA, CLIA is more reliable, sensitive and accurate to detect serum T. pallidum specific antibodies. In the future it may be an alternative test with higher sensitivity to ELISA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of {sup 111}In labeled antibodies for SPECT imaging of mesothelin expressing tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misri, Ripen; Saatchi, Katayoun [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ng, Sylvia S.W. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Advanced Therapeutics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver BC V5Z 1G1 (Canada); Kumar, Ujendra [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Haefeli, Urs O., E-mail: uhafeli@interchange.ubc.ca [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: Mesothelin is expressed in many cancers, especially in mesothelioma and lung, pancreatic and ovarian cancers. In the present study, we evaluate {sup 111}In labeled antimesothelin antibodies as an imaging bioprobe for the SPECT imaging of mesothelin-expressing tumors. Methods: We radiolabeled the antimesothelin antibodies mAbMB and mAbK1 with {sup 111}In using the p-SCN-bn-DTPA chelator. The immunoreactivity, affinity (K{sub d}) and internalization properties of the resulting two {sup 111}In labeled antibodies were evaluated in vitro using mesothelin-expressing A431K5 cells. The biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging studies with {sup 111}In labeled antibodies were performed in mice bearing both mesothelin positive (A431K5) and mesothelin negative (A431) tumors. Results: In vitro studies demonstrated that {sup 111}In-mAbMB bound with a higher affinity (K{sub d}=3.6{+-}1.7 nM) to the mesothelin-expressing A431K5 cells than did the {sup 111}In-mAbK1 (K{sub d}=29.3{+-}2.3 nM). {sup 111}In-mAbMB was also internalized at a greater rate and extent into the A431K5 cells than was the {sup 111}In-mAbK1. Biodistribution studies showed that {sup 111}In-mAbMB was preferentially localized in A431K5 tumors when compared to A431 tumors. At the low dose, the peak A431K5 tumor uptake of 9.65{+-}2.65% ID/g (injected dose per gram) occurred at 48 h, while at high dose tumor uptake peaked with 14.29{+-}6.18% ID/g at 72 h. Non-specific localization of {sup 111}In-mAbMB was mainly observed in spleen.{sup 111}In-mAbK1 also showed superior localization in A431K5 tumors than in A431 tumors, but the peak uptake was only 3.04{+-}0.68% ID/g at 24 h. MicroSPECT/CT studies confirmed better visualization of A431K5 tumors with {sup 111}In-mAbMB, than with {sup 111}In-mAbK1. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of mesothelin expressing tumors was demonstrated successfully. Our findings indicate that the antimesothelin antibody mAbMB has the potential to be developed into a diagnostic agent

  6. Evaluation of an immunoassay for human-specific quantitation of therapeutic antibodies in serum samples from non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Wessels, Uwe; Lenz, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic characterization of therapeutic antibodies plays an important role during preclinical and clinical development. However, accurate pharmacokinetic evaluation of therapeutic antibodies in serum samples from non-human primates is often complicated by insufficient specificity of the assays to measure drug levels. The present paper describes the use of a murine monoclonal antibody in an immunoassay format to specifically and quantitatively measure human therapeutic antibodies in serum from non-human primates. This murine antibody is directed against a unique epitope on the constant region CH2 domain of all isotypes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). The antibody, designated anti-human Fcgamma-pan: R10Z8E9, does not cross-react with serum from mouse, rat, and the non-human primates marmoset, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey and baboon when using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or surface plasmon resonance technology (Biacore) format for measurement of the therapeutic antibody. Use of the antibody anti-human Fcgamma-pan: R10Z8E9 as capturing and detection reagent allowed human-specific quantitation of total therapeutic antibody anti-IGF-1R in spiked cynomolgus monkey serum via a Sandwich ELISA format. In contrast, a commercially available polyclonal antibody (PAB) directed to the Fcgamma fragment of human IgG only specifically measured the therapeutic antibody in buffer samples, but not in serum from cynomolgus monkeys. This generic human IgG assay was already applied in several pharmacokinetic studies in cynomolgus monkeys to determine serum levels of different therapeutic antibodies, including the anti-IGF-1R. Validation of the assay for a humanized IgG1 therapeutic antibody against a membrane protein revealed a lower limit of quantitation of 8 ng/mL in undiluted serum. Intra-assay and inter-assay precision was characterized by a coefficient of variation of less than 10% and accuracy was within 15%. Dilutional linearity was evidenced by a

  7. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Current status of clinical image evaluation of mammograms: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Yeon Joo; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Hui Joong; Ryeom, Hun Kyu

    2008-01-01

    To survey the current overall quality of mammograms and to improve Korean standards in comparison to the American College of Radiology (ACR) standards for clinical image evaluations. A total of 104 mammograms, collected from 63 hospitals and clinics, were examined following the revised new Korean standards and ACR standards for clinical image evaluation. The pass and failure rates of the mammogram were evaluated according to each of the standards compared. The pass threshold for the Korean standards was analyzed using the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve in associated with the ACR standards. The categories of the Korean standards were evaluated in association with failure of the ACR standards. Among the 104 mammograms, 99.0% passed the Korean standards, whereas 86.5% passed the ACR standards. A score of 75.5 was the pass threshold for the Korean standards. Moreover, the Korean standards categories associated with the failure of ACR standards included positioning, compression, and contrast/exposure (ρ < 0.05). The pass rate of the image evaluation for each mammogram following the Korean standards was 99%, compared to 86.5% for the ACR standards. Hence, the Korean standards were not as stringent. Consequently, stricter regulations are suggested for improvement in the quality of mammograms

  9. A Preliminary Evaluation of Fast ForWord-Language as an Adjuvant Treatment in Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc E.; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Popescu, Mihai; Lewine, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) is designed to enhance children's processing of auditory-verbal signals and, thus, their ability to learn language. As a preliminary evaluation of this claim, we examined the effects of a 5-week course of FFW-L as an adjuvant treatment with a subsequent 5-week conventional narrative-based language…

  10. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...

  11. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T.E.M.; Kollmeier, B.; Vormann, M.; Lijzenga, J.; Houtgast, T.; Hallgren, M.; Larsby, B.; Athalye, S.P.; Lutman, M.E.; Dreschler, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported

  12. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Thamar E. M.; Kollmeier, Birger; Vormann, Matthias; Lyzenga, Johannes; Houtgast, Tammo; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Athalye, Sheetal P.; Lutman, Mark E.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported disability

  13. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  14. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  15. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  16. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has previously been investigated and compared to traditional imaging techniques in simulations and phantom studies. However, a full in-vivo study evaluating its clinical potential has yet to be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary in-vivo study of...

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of the Wound Healing Effect of Vitex Doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitex doniana is traditionally used in Togo to treat various diseases including wounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Vitex doniana on cutaneous wound healing. Wounds were induced in ICR mice divided into four groups as following: Group I received carbopol 974P NF empty gel, Groups II and III ...

  18. Preliminary evaluation of some forest trees for cocoa cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. campanulata would therefore be a suitable shade tree species for establishing young cocoa farms. Further evaluation of the growth pattern, shade provision and mineralization of the litter from the species continues. JOURNAL OF THE GHANA SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Volume 1 Number 1, July (1998) pp. 141-150 ...

  19. Preliminary Studies on the Development and Evaluation of Instant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the sensory attributes [colour, flavour, taste, textural quality (strecthability, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, smoothness) and general acceptability] of the flours. The two instant poundo yam samples were further compared with a commercial poundo yam in terms of the sensory ...

  20. [Detection of anti-Leptospira antibodies in sera of patients in the latex agglutination test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volina, E G; Sarukhanova, L E; Iashina, N V; Prokopov, N I; Shkarlat, P E; Barysheva, I V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed diagnostic test based on the determination of genus-specific antibodies to leptospires in the latex agglutination test, are presented. This test makes it possible to detect anti-Leptospira antibodies of any serogroup. The advantages of the developed test have been determined.

  1. Improving eating disorders mental health literacy: a preliminary evaluation of the "Should I say something?" workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Bentley, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A repeated measures, uncontrolled, preliminary evaluation of a single 3-hour workshop-"Should I Say Something?"-aimed at improving eating disorders mental health literacy, was conducted in a sample of 177 university undergraduates. Following participation in the workshop, significant increases in eating disorder recognition and knowledge, and significant decreases in stigmatizing attitudes, were reported by participants. Moreover, 85% of participants reported that they provided assistance to someone whom they suspected had a mental health condition, including an eating disorder, during the 3-month follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that "Should I Say Something?" may be effective in improving the mental health literacy of young people.

  2. A preliminary study on semen collection, evaluation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was evaluated based on volume, mass motility, live-dead-ratio and sperm concentration, which were; 0.195 + 0.010mls (Tom 1) and 0.205 + 0.024mls (Tom 2), (+++) for both toms, 70% (for Tom 1) and 75% (for Tom 2) approximately and 6.150 ± 0.329 x109/ml and 6.295 ± 0.161 x109/ml for Tom1 and Tom 2 respectively.

  3. Product meaning, affective use evaluation, and transfer : a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Helfenstein, Sacha

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a) the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b) the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Althou...

  4. [Results evaluation in cervical vertigo kinesitherapy--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielińska, Marzena; Olszewski, Jurek

    2009-09-01

    The work aimed at analyzing results of kinesitherapeutic procedures in patients with cervical vertigo as well as evaluating a mobility range of the cervical spine. The study was conducted on 23 people, including 17 women and 6 men suffering from cervical vertigo, at the age of 23-73 (the average age of 49.5). All the patients had an individually selected cycle of kinesitherapeutic exercises through the period of 2 months. The objective efficiency evaluation of the applied therapy was made on the grounds of the videonystagmographic examination (VNG). Additionally, the range of active mobility of the cervical spine was analyzed and the evaluation of vertigo according to Silvoniemi's criteria was performed. After a 2-month therapy 4 patients (17.4%) out of the examined material showed a total lack of vertigo, 15 patients (65.2%) demonstrated a meaningful decrease in the vertigo intensity, also in the frequency of their occurrence in 14 cases (60.8%). Only 3 patients did not show any decrease in vertigo whereas in 1 patient a slight increase in the intensity was indicated. On the basis of a subjective evaluation of the vertigo increase according to the 5-stage Silvoniemi's scale it was proved that a mean point assessment claimed by the patients at the beginning of the therapy amounts to 3.0 points whereas after the therapy it was as follows: 1.43 pt after 2 weeks, 1.17 pt after 1 month and 1.13 pt after 2 months of kinesitherapy. It is extremely difficult to fully eliminate the symptoms of cervical vertigo (in the studied material in 4 cases--17.3%) because the causes of their occurrence, which are connected with excessive tension and degeneration in the cervical spine, cannot usually be eradicated. Additionally, as a diagnostic means, the videonystagmographic examination (VNG) accompanied by the positioning tests and the cervical rotation test facilitates precise and objective monitoring of the progress in treatment and rehabilitation of vertigo.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Raboral V-RG® Oral Rabies Vaccine in Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, Erich; Ritter, Don; Swor, Rhonda; Dunbar, Mike; Hueffer, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We tested the Raboral V-RG® recombinant oral rabies vaccine for its response in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus), the reservoir of rabies virus in the circumpolar North. The vaccine, which is currently the only licensed oral rabies vaccine in the United States, induced a strong antibody response and protected foxes against a challenge of 500,000 mouse intracerebral lethal dose 50% of an Arctic rabies virus variant. However, one unvaccinated control fox survived challenge with rabies virus, either indicating a high resistance of Arctic foxes to rabies infection or a previous exposure that induced immunity. This preliminary study suggested that Raboral V-RG vaccine may be efficacious in Arctic foxes. PMID:22102679

  6. Antiprothrombin Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Žigon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the presence of a group of pathogenic autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies causes thrombosis and pregnancy complications. The most frequent antigenic target of antiphospholipid antibodies are phospholipid bound β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI and prothrombin. The international classification criteria for APS connect the occurrence of thrombosis and/or obstetric complications together with the persistence of lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL and antibodies against β2GPI (anti-β2GPI into APS. Current trends for the diagnostic evaluation of APS patients propose determination of multiple antiphospholipid antibodies, among them also anti-prothrombin antibodies, to gain a common score which estimates the risk for thrombosis in APS patients. Antiprothrombin antibodies are common in APS patients and are sometimes the only antiphospholipid antibodies being elevated. Methods for their determination differ and have not yet been standardized. Many novel studies confirmed method using phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT ELISA as an antigen on solid phase encompass higher diagnostic accuracy compared to method using prothrombin alone (aPT ELISA. Our research group developed an in-house aPS/PT ELISA with increased analytical sensitivity which enables the determination of all clinically relevant antiprothrombin antibodies. aPS/PT exhibited the highest percentage of lupus anticoagulant activity compared to aCL and anti-β2GPI. aPS/PT antibodies measured with the in-house method associated with venous thrombosis and presented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications among all tested antiphospholipid antibodies

  7. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.

  8. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  9. Synthesis, Computational Studies and Preliminary Pharmacological Evaluation of New Arylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel arylpiperazines were synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced climbing behavior (D2 antagonism, 5-HTP induced head twitches (5-HT2A antagonism and catalepsy studies in albino mice. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drugs clozapine, ketanserine and risperidone was assessed by calculating from a set of physiochemical properties using software programs. The test compounds (3a-j demonstrated good similarity values with respect to the standard drugs. Among them, compound 3d has emerged as an important lead compound showing potential atypical antipsychotic like profile.

  10. Evaluation of methods for large scale preparation of antibody ligand conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Chuanchu; Gansow, Otto A.; Brechbiel, Martin W. E-mail: martinwb@box-m.nih.gov

    1999-04-01

    A rapid, single vessel method for preparation of clinical grade monoclonal antibody-chelating agent conjugates has been evaluated. By use of diafiltration methodology, currently employed dialysis step(s) that are normally used for the production of immunoconjugates may be eliminated. This technique has the advantage of eliminating the use of large amounts of buffer and the several days of time associated with purification of the product conjugate from unreacted ligand by dialysis, reduced risk of metal, pyrogen, and bacterial contamination, all coupled with the ability to produce multi-hundred milligram amounts of product suitable for vialing under GMP conditions for clinical applications. Evaluation of the product by this method indicates a superior quality of purity as compared with immunoconjugates prepared by the established methods.

  11. Preliminary sensory evaluation of edible flowers from wild Allium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antuono, L Filippo; Manco, Manuela Agata

    2013-11-01

    The use of edible flowers as an aesthetic and flavour component of specific dishes is gaining popularity, and their production is becoming an interesting niche market activity for growers. Allium is an important genus of flowering plants, also including traditional wild food species. The combination of tradition with the new uses of flowers is appealing, requiring, however, explorative acceptance assays for its exploitation. The flowers of the native Mediterranean species Allium neapolitanum, A. roseum and A. triquetrum were subject to hedonic visual, smell and flavour evaluation. Panellists also indicated specific flavour notes and their opinion about the more suitable uses. All the species were positively rated. A. roseum was preferred for all respects; A. triquetrum obtained the lowest visual rating, whereas A. neapolitanum had the lowest flavour rating. A spicy note was the main determinant of high flavour ratings. Dishes retaining the visual appearance of flowers were indicated as more suitable to combine with Allium flowers. This is the first attempt at sensory evaluation of Allium flowers. Nutritional and health promotion properties and toxicity risks do not represent major issues for these products, because of potentially low consumption levels. The main constraint for a wider use of Allium flowers is represented by the absence of a consolidated consumption habit and regular supply. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been added, weatherization approaches tailored to the unique construction characteristics of mobile homes have been developed, the weatherization of large multifamily buildings has expanded and become more sophisticated, the flexibility to improve 'energy-related' health and safety has been provided, and leveraging with utilities, other state programs, and owners of large multifamily buildings has increased considerably. The Department of Energy tasked ORNL with planning the new evaluation in light of its experience in conducting the previous national evaluation and the metaevaluations. This preliminary evaluation plan, developed by ORNL, documents how the new national evaluation will be performed. In the remaining portion of this section, the purpose and fundamental questions the evaluation will address are identified and how these questions were derived is discussed.

  13. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  14. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of Nonlinear Effects on TCA Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Alan E.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Baker, Myles L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nonlinear aerodynamics, especially at high angles-of-attack with leading-edge separation, on the TCA flutter properties at transonic speeds. In order to achieve that objective, flutter simulations with Navier-Stokes CFD must be performed. To this end, time-marching Navier-Stokes solutions are computed for the TCA wing/body configuration at high angles-of-attack in transonic flight regimes. The approach is to perform non-linear flutter calculations on the TCA at two angles-of-attack, the first one being a case with attached flow (a=2.8 degrees) and the second one being a high angle-of-attack case with a wing leading edge vortex (a=12.11 degrees). Comparisons of the resulting histories and frequency damping information for both angles-of-attack will evaluate the impact of high-alpha aerodynamics on flutter.

  16. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of a reusable digital sterilization indicator prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaiah, R; Griggs, J; D'Onofrio, M

    2014-09-01

    Sterilization of critical and semicritical instruments used in patient care must undergo a terminal process of sterilization. Use of chemical and physical indicators are important in providing information on the sterilizer's performance during each cycle. Regular and periodic monitoring of sterilizers using biological indicators is necessary in periodically validating performance of sterilizers. Data loggers or independent digital parametric indicators are innovative devices that provide more information than various classes chemical indicators. In this study we evaluated a prototype of an independent digital parametric indicator's use in autoclaves. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an independent digital indicator/data logger prototype (DS1922F) that could be used for multiple cycles within an autoclave.MG Materials and methods: Three batches of the DS1922F (150 samples) were used in this study that was conducted in a series. The first batch was challenged with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and the data loggers evaluated to study failures and the reason for failure, make corrections and improve the prototype design. After changes made based on studying the first batch, the second batch of the prototype (150 samples) were challenged once again with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and failure studied again in further improvement of the prototype. The final batch (3rd batch) of the prototype (150 samples) was challenged again but with 600 cycles to see how long they would last. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis analyses of all three batches was conducted (α = 0.05) and failed samples qualitatively studied in understanding the variables involved in the failure of the prototype, and in improving quality. Each tested batch provided crucial information on device failure and helped in improvement of the prototype. Mean lifetime survival of the final batch (Batch 3) of prototype was 498 (480, 516) sterilization cycles

  18. Evaluating fatigue in lupus-prone mice: preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Allison; Larson, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating condition suffered by many as the result of chronic disease, yet relatively little is known about its biological basis or how to effectively manage its effects. This study sought to evaluate chronic fatigue by using lupus-prone mice and testing them at three different time periods. Lupus-prone mice were chosen because fatigue affects over half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Eleven MLR⁺/(+) (genetic controls) and twelve MLR/MpJ-Fas/J (MRL/lpr; lupus-prone) mice were tested three times: once at 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age. All mice were subjected to a variety of behavioral tests including: forced swim, post-swim grooming, running wheel, and sucrose consumption; five of the MLR⁺/(+) and five of the MLR/lpr mice were also tested on a fixed ratio-25 operant conditioning task. MRL/lpr mice showed more peripheral symptoms of lupus than controls, particularly lymphadenopathy and proteinuria. Lupus mice spent more time floating during the forced swim test and traveled less distance in the running wheel at each testing period. There were no differences between groups in post-swim grooming or in number of reinforcers earned in the operant conditioning task indicating the behavioral changes were not likely due simply to muscle weakness or motivation. Correlations between performance in the running wheel, forced swim test and sucrose consumption were conducted and distance traveled in the running wheel was consistently negatively correlated with time spent floating. Based on these data, we conclude that the lupus-prone mice were experiencing chronic fatigue and that running wheel activity and floating during a forced swim test can be used to evaluate fatigue, although these data cannot rule out the possibility that both fatigue and a depressive-like state were mediating these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of anti-podoplanin rat monoclonal antibody NZ-1 for targeting malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yukinari; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Srivastava, Nidhi; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Pegram, Charles; Keir, Stephen T.; Kuan, C.-T.; Bigner, Darell D.; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Podoplanin/aggrus is a mucin-like sialoglycoprotein that is highly expressed in malignant gliomas. Podoplanin has been reported to be a novel marker to enrich tumor-initiating cells, which are thought to resist conventional therapies and to be responsible for cancer relapse. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an anti-podoplanin antibody is suitable to target radionuclides to malignant gliomas. Methods: The binding affinity of an anti-podoplanin antibody, NZ-1 (rat IgG 2a ), was determined by surface plasmon resonance and Scatchard analysis. NZ-1 was radioiodinated with 125 I using Iodogen [ 125 I-NZ-1(Iodogen)] or N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl 3-[ 131 I]iodobenzoate ([ 131 I]SGMIB-NZ-1), and paired-label internalization assays of NZ-1 were performed. The tissue distribution of 125 I-NZ-1(Iodogen) and that of [ 131 I]SGMIB-NZ-1 were then compared in athymic mice bearing glioblastoma xenografts. Results: The dissociation constant (K D ) of NZ-1 was determined to be 1.2x10 -10 M by surface plasmon resonance and 9.8x10 -10 M for D397MG glioblastoma cells by Scatchard analysis. Paired-label internalization assays in LN319 glioblastoma cells indicated that [ 131 I]SGMIB-NZ-1 resulted in higher intracellular retention of radioactivity (26.3±0.8% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h) compared to that from the 125 I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (10.0±0.1% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h). Likewise, tumor uptake of [ 131 I]SGMIB-NZ-1 (39.9±8.8 %ID/g at 24 h) in athymic mice bearing D2159MG xenografts in vivo was significantly higher than that of 125 I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (29.7±6.1 %ID/g at 24 h). Conclusions: The overall results suggest that an anti-podoplanin antibody NZ-1 warrants further evaluation for antibody-based therapy against glioblastoma.

  20. Evaluation of anti-podoplanin rat monoclonal antibody NZ-1 for targeting malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukinari, E-mail: yukinari-k@bea.hi-ho.ne.j [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oncology Research Center, Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Kaneko, Mika Kato [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oncology Research Center, Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Mishima, Kazuhiko [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center 1397-1 Yamane Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Srivastava, Nidhi; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Pegram, Charles [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Keir, Stephen T. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Kuan, C.-T.; Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Introduction: Podoplanin/aggrus is a mucin-like sialoglycoprotein that is highly expressed in malignant gliomas. Podoplanin has been reported to be a novel marker to enrich tumor-initiating cells, which are thought to resist conventional therapies and to be responsible for cancer relapse. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an anti-podoplanin antibody is suitable to target radionuclides to malignant gliomas. Methods: The binding affinity of an anti-podoplanin antibody, NZ-1 (rat IgG{sub 2a}), was determined by surface plasmon resonance and Scatchard analysis. NZ-1 was radioiodinated with {sup 125}I using Iodogen [{sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen)] or N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl 3-[{sup 131}I]iodobenzoate ([{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1), and paired-label internalization assays of NZ-1 were performed. The tissue distribution of {sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen) and that of [{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1 were then compared in athymic mice bearing glioblastoma xenografts. Results: The dissociation constant (K{sub D}) of NZ-1 was determined to be 1.2x10{sup -10} M by surface plasmon resonance and 9.8x10{sup -10} M for D397MG glioblastoma cells by Scatchard analysis. Paired-label internalization assays in LN319 glioblastoma cells indicated that [{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1 resulted in higher intracellular retention of radioactivity (26.3{+-}0.8% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h) compared to that from the {sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (10.0{+-}0.1% of initially bound radioactivity at 8 h). Likewise, tumor uptake of [{sup 131}I]SGMIB-NZ-1 (39.9{+-}8.8 %ID/g at 24 h) in athymic mice bearing D2159MG xenografts in vivo was significantly higher than that of {sup 125}I-NZ-1(Iodogen) (29.7{+-}6.1 %ID/g at 24 h). Conclusions: The overall results suggest that an anti-podoplanin antibody NZ-1 warrants further evaluation for antibody-based therapy against glioblastoma.

  1. Evaluation of the Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant Assay to Detect Active Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Sariko

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS assay as a biomarker to diagnose tuberculosis among adults from Tanzania with and without HIV.Adults admitted with suspicion for tuberculosis had sputa obtained for GeneXpert MTB/RIF, acid-fast bacilli smear and mycobacterial culture; blood was obtained prior to treatment initiation and after 4 weeks. Adults hospitalized with non-infectious conditions served as controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured unstimulated for 72 hours. Anti-mycobacterial antibodies were measured from culture supernatants by ELISA, using BCG vaccine as the coating antigen. Median ALS responses were compared between cases and controls at baseline and between cases over time.Of 97 TB cases, 85 were microbiologically confirmed and 12 were clinically diagnosed. Median ALS responses from TB cases (0.366 OD from confirmed cases and 0.285 from clinical cases were higher compared to controls (0.085, p<0.001. ALS responses did not differ based on HIV status, CD4 count or sputum smear status. Over time, the median ALS values declined significantly (0.357 at baseline; 0.198 after 4-weeks, p<0.001.Robust ALS responses were mounted by patients with TB regardless of HIV status, CD4 count, or low sputum bacillary burden, potentially conferring a unique niche for this immunologic biomarker for TB.

  2. Evaluation of 125I-estradiol radioimmunoassay system with double antibody method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurano, Akihiko; Nakamura, Genichi; Kusuda, Masahiko; Taki, Ichiro

    1978-01-01

    The basic and clinical evaluation of a new radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit for estradiol (E 2 ) using 125 I-estradiol was performed. This system was double antibody method of RIA with 125 I-labeled E 2 , antiserum against E 2 -6-oxime-BSA and second antibody. The lowest detectable amount was 3.1 pg/tube, the water blank was 3.2 +- 3.15 pg (N=11), and the recovery rate through procedure was 92.6 +- 4.55%. The coefficient of variation was 4.3 - 5.1% for intraassay and the correlation between E 2 values in I-assay and those in II-assay was good (N=30, γ=0.9870, p 3 H-RIA method, there was a high correlation between this method and 3 H-RIA method in E 2 values (N=31, γ=0.9754, p 2 values obtained by this method were slightly higher than those obtained by 3 H-RIA method. Serum E 2 values in normal cycle, short luteal phase, amenorrhea, castrated women, normal men and cases of induced ovulation were measured with this RIA kit, the results were very satisfactory. From these results, it is suggested that this RIA kit can be qualified for clinical application, because this kit is the system without chromatography and many clinical samples can be measured within one day. (auth.)

  3. Thermodynamic and kinetic approaches for evaluation of monoclonal antibody - Lipoprotein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multia, Evgen; Sirén, Heli; Andersson, Karl; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Forssén, Patrik; Fornstedt, Torgny; Öörni, Katariina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2017-02-01

    Two complementary instrumental techniques were used, and the data generated was processed with advanced numerical tools to investigate the interactions between anti-human apoB-100 monoclonal antibody (anti-apoB-100 Mab) and apoB-100 containing lipoproteins. Partial Filling Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis (PF-ACE) combined with Adsorption Energy Distribution (AED) calculations provided information on the heterogeneity of the interactions without any a priori model assumptions. The AED calculations evidenced a homogenous binding site distribution for the interactions. Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) studies were used to evaluate thermodynamics and kinetics of the Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and anti-apoB-100 Mab interactions. High affinity and selectivity were observed, and the emerging data sets were analysed with so called Interaction Maps. In thermodynamic studies, the interaction between LDL and anti-apoB-100 Mab was found to be predominantly enthalpy driven. Both techniques were also used to study antibody interactions with Intermediate-Density (IDL) and Very Low-Density (VLDL) Lipoproteins. By screening affinity constants for IDL-VLDL sample in a single injection we were able to distinguish affinity constants for both subpopulations using the numerical Interaction Map tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preclinical evaluation of VIS513, a therapeutic antibody against dengue virus, in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Eugenia Z; Budigi, Yadunanda; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Robinson, Luke N; Rowley, Kirk J; Winnett, Alexander; Hobbie, Sven; Shriver, Zachary; Babcock, Gregory J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2017-08-01

    Despite useful in vivo activity, no therapeutic against dengue virus (DENV) has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. Herein, we explored dosing and virological endpoints to guide the design of human trials of VIS513, a pan-serotype anti-DENV IgG1 antibody, in non-human primates (NHPs). Dosing VIS513 pre- or post-peak viremia in NHPs neutralized infectious DENV although RNAemia remained detectable post-treatment; differential interaction of human IgGs with macaque Fc-gamma receptors may delay clearance of neutralized DENV. Our findings suggest useful antiviral utility of VIS513 and highlight an important consideration when evaluating virological endpoints of trials for anti-DENV biologics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for screening of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; Bøtner, Anette; Madsen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa was sens......A blocking Elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus with a view to satisfying the need for examination of blood samples on a large scale. The test was evaluated in comparison with an indirect Elisa and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The blocking Elisa...

  6. Analysis for preliminary evaluation of discrete fracture flow and large-scale permeability in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Lai, C.H.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-05-01

    Conceptual models for sedimentary rock settings that could be used in future evaluation and suitability studies are being examined through the DOE Repository Technology Program. One area of concern for the hydrologic aspects of these models is discrete fracture flow analysis as related to the estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume, evaluation of the appropriateness of continuum assumptions and estimation of the large-scale permeabilities of sedimentary rocks. A basis for preliminary analysis of flow in fracture systems of the types that might be expected to occur in low permeability sedimentary rocks is presented. The approach used involves numerical modeling of discrete fracture flow for the configuration of a large-scale hydrologic field test directed at estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume and large-scale permeability. Analysis of fracture data on the basis of this configuration is expected to provide a preliminary indication of the scale at which continuum assumptions can be made

  7. [Evaluation of serum levels of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus antibodies after administration of FSME inject vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancewicz, Sławomir A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the changes of anti-TBE virus antibodies serum concentration 3 months after administration of FSME Inject vaccine. The detection of IgG antibodies against TBE virus was performed in sera of 106 forest workers aged mean = 41.5. These sera were examined twice before and after vaccine administration using FSME Kombi-Kit. According to producer's information the "safe" concentration, which protects from TBE virus infection, is over 11VE. In examination 126 (24.5%) sera showed concentration of examined antibodies lower than 11 VE but in 80 (75.5%) sera antibodies concentration was from 12 to 47 VE (mean = 24.15 VE). In the examination 2 significant increase of antibodies concentration was stated. In all sera the concentration ranged from 9 to 62 VE (mean = 39.83 VE). The administration of TBE vaccine booster causes quick increase of antibodies against TBE virus to the level which is considered to be protective against TBE virus infection.

  8. The influence of evaluation recommendations on instrumental and conceptual uses: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Whynot, Jane

    2018-02-10

    Evaluation recommendations are sometimes included in evaluation reports to highlight specific actions to be taken to improve a program or to make other changes to its operational context. This preliminary study sought to examine evaluation recommendations drawn from 25 evaluation reports published by Canadian federal government departments and agencies, in order to examine the evaluation issues covered and the focus of the recommendations. Our results show that in keeping with policy requirements, the evaluation recommendations focused on program relevance, effectiveness and efficiency and economy. Furthermore, a significant number of recommendations also focused on the implementation of more rigorous performance measurement strategies. The focus of the recommendations did not vary by publication date, recommendation type, and organizational sector. The findings also show that for the most part, the management responses produced as part of the broader evaluation process support the recommendations included in the report and identify specific timelines for implementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conjugation effects on antibody-drug conjugates: evaluation of interaction kinetics in real time on living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondza, Sina; Stenberg, Jonas; Nestor, Marika; Andersson, Karl; Björkelund, Hanna

    2014-11-03

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) have shown promising effects in cancer therapy by combining the target specificity of an antibody with the toxicity of a chemotherapeutic drug. As the number of therapeutic antibodies is significantly larger than those used as ADCs, there is unused potential for more effective therapies. However, the conjugation of an additional molecule to an antibody may affect the interaction with its target, altering association rate, dissociation rate, or both. Any changes of the binding kinetics can have subsequent effects on the efficacy of the ADCs, thus the kinetics are important to monitor during ADC development and production. This paper describes a method for the analysis of conjugation effects on antibody binding to its antigen, using the instrument LigandTracer and a fluorescent monovalent anti-IgG binder denoted FIBA, which did not affect the interaction. All measurements were done in real time using living cells which naturally expressed the antigens. With this method the binding profiles of different conjugations of the therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab and the anti-CD44v6 antibody fragment AbD15171 were evaluated and compared. Even comparatively small modifications of cetuximab altered the interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In contrast, no impact on the AbD15171-CD44v6 interaction was observed upon conjugation. This illustrates the importance to study the binding profile for each ADC combination, as it is difficult to draw any general conclusion about conjugation effects. The modification of interaction kinetics through conjugation opens up new possibilities when optimizing an antibody or an ADC, since the conjugations can be used to create a binding profile more apt for a specific clinical need.

  10. PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE LEAVES OF XIMENIA AMERICANA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Shantha T R; Shiddamallayya N; Ramarao V; Venkateshwarlu G

    2012-01-01

    The Present communication deals with the various pharmacognostic evaluation on the leaves of Ximenia americana include morphological, microscopical characters, powder microscopy and physicochemical characters like ash values and loss on drying, TLC studies etc.The preliminary phytochemical screening is also carried out and it is revealed that, the presence of Alkaloids, Sterpoids, Sugars, Saponins,Tannins, and Terpenoides in methanol extract. Steroids in traces and absence of Terpenoides in e...

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. ...

  12. Economic evaluation of monoclonal antibody in the management of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezat SW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine the cost of colorectal cancer (CRC management and compare the cost effectiveness of cetuximab and bevacizumab in the management of CRC. Method: This economic evaluation study from a societal perspective involves collecting resource utilization data based on the clinical pathway of colorectal cancer management. The cost calculated includes drugs, human resources, administrative, investigations as well as capital cost. Patient’s cost was also calculated based on an interview with colorectal cancer patients. Effectiveness estimates for monoclonal antibody (cetuximab and bevacizumab treatment were modeled from study respondents based on references from other studies. Results: Cost of treating a case of colorectal cancer in stage I is RM13,623 (RM12,467-RM14,777, stage II RM19,753 (RM16,734-RM23,520, stage III RM24,972 (RM20,291-RM29,654 and stage IV RM27, 163 (RM23, 192-RM31,133. Cost of CRC management increase with the increasing stage of the disease (Kruskal Wallis, X2=106, p<0.001. Based on estimates of 2671 new cases of CRC, the incremental cost of cetuximab is RM20, 556 480 and bevacizumab is RM7,557,953 at 50% stage III and IV as compared to the conventional chemotherapy. The incremental cost per quality adjusted life years gained for cetuximab is RM38,869 and RM14,290 for bevacizumab. Although both types of monoclonal antibody are considered cost effective (based on WHO guidelines of less than three times of GDP, bevacizumab is considered more cost effective than cetuximab. Cost effectiveness was sensitive to the percentage of late stages of CRC. Conclusions: Cost of treating late stage of CRC is high and bevacizumab are more cost effective compared to cetuximab in the management of the late stage of CRC.

  13. Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Risk of Subsequent Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Johansson, Mattias; Waterboer, Tim; Kaaks, Rudolf; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Drogen, Dagmar; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; González, Carlos A.; Sánchez, Maria José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Travis, Ruth C.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Laurell, Göran; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Ekström, Johanna; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Hildesheim, Allan; Boeing, Heiner; Pawlita, Michael; Brennan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera. Methods We identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers. PMID:23775966

  14. Evaluation of selectivity in homologous multimodal chromatographic systems using in silico designed antibody fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Woo, James; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-12-24

    This study describes the in silico design, surface property analyses, production and chromatographic evaluations of a diverse set of antibody Fab fragment variants. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) constitute important binding sites for multimodal chromatographic ligands. Given that antibodies are highly diversified molecules and in particular the CDRs, we set out to examine the generality of this result. For this purpose, four different Fab fragments with different CDRs and/or framework regions of the variable domains were identified and related variants were designed in silico. The four Fab variant libraries were subsequently generated by site-directed mutagenesis and produced by recombinant expression and affinity purification to enable examination of their chromatographic retention behavior. The effects of geometric re-arrangement of the functional moieties on the multimodal resin ligands were also investigated with respect to Fab variant retention profiles by comparing two commercially available multimodal cation-exchange ligands, Capto MMC and Nuvia cPrime, and two novel multimodal ligand prototypes. Interestingly, the chromatographic data demonstrated distinct selectivity trends between the four Fab variant libraries. For three of the Fab libraries, the CDR regions appeared as major binding sites for all multimodal ligands. In contrast, the fourth Fab library displayed a distinctly different chromatographic behavior, where Nuvia cPrime and related multimodal ligand prototypes provided markedly improved selectivity over Capto MMC. Clearly, the results illustrate that the discriminating power of multimodal ligands differs between different Fab fragments. The results are promising indications that multimodal chromatography using the appropriate multimodal ligands can be employed in downstream bioprocessing for challenging selective separation of product related variants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  15. HER2 evaluation using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody SP3 and CISH in tissue microarrays of invasive breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Sara Alexandra Vinhas; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carvalho, Sílvia Teresa; Leitão, Dina Raquel Aguilera; Schmitt, Fernando Carlos Lander

    2007-09-01

    Laboratory methods for HER2 assessment currently include immunohistochemical (IHC) methods (measuring protein overexpression) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (measuring gene amplification). The measure of HER2 protein by IHC is usually assessed by the mouse monoclonal antibody CB11, and polyclonal antibodies (Herceptest) directed against the internal portion of the receptor. Recently, chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), in which HER2 is detected by a peroxidase reaction and the gene amplification can be determined by regular bright-field microscopy, has emerged as an alternative to FISH. To evaluate the status of HER2 in tissue microarrays (TMAs) of invasive breast cancer using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody SP3 directed against the external portion of HER2, and correlate the results with CB11 and CISH. IHC was performed with two antibodies (CB11 and SP3) and CISH for HER2 in 10 TMA blocks with 190 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases of invasive breast carcinomas. The correlation between SP3 and CB11 was significant (pCISH (pCISH, shows that this novel antibody is a reliable candidate to evaluate the expression of HER2 in breast cancer.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation and optimization of amplicon library preparation methods for high-throughput antibody sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Ulrike; Greiff, Victor; Khan, Tarik A; Haessler, Ulrike; Hellmann, Ina; Friedensohn, Simon; Cook, Skylar C; Pogson, Mark; Reddy, Sai T

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of antibody repertoire libraries has become a powerful tool in the field of systems immunology. However, numerous sources of bias in HTS workflows may affect the obtained antibody repertoire data. A crucial step in antibody library preparation is the addition of short platform-specific nucleotide adapter sequences. As of yet, the impact of the method of adapter addition on experimental library preparation and the resulting antibody repertoire HTS datasets has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we compared three standard library preparation methods by performing Illumina HTS on antibody variable heavy genes from murine antibody-secreting cells. Clonal overlap and rank statistics demonstrated that the investigated methods produced equivalent HTS datasets. PCR-based methods were experimentally superior to ligation with respect to speed, efficiency, and practicality. Finally, using a two-step PCR based method we established a protocol for antibody repertoire library generation, beginning from inputs as low as 1 ng of total RNA. In summary, this study represents a major advance towards a standardized experimental framework for antibody HTS, thus opening up the potential for systems-based, cross-experiment meta-analyses of antibody repertoires.

  17. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  18. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10 22 n/m 2 , E > 0.1 MeV, and 4.9 x 10 23 n/m 2 thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated

  19. Radiolabelling of antibodies with technetium-99m and their clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvarigou, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Our study referred mainly to the comparative evaluation of two different methods, one direct and the other indirect, for the labelling of MoAbs with 99 Tc m . With the direct method, disulphide bridges were cleaved by the sue of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), as reductant, while with the indirect method, the antibody was coupled to 2-iminothiolane (2-IM). The latter reacts with the amine groups of the protein's lysine molecules, thus creating free thiol groups, capable of binding reduced 99 Tc m . In both cases a preformed intermediate chelate was used for the 99 Tc m exchange. The 99 Tc m labelled species were analyzed by Instant Thin Layer Chromatography (ITLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). We investigated the influence of the labelling systems on MoAbs' integrity, as well as the ability of the labelled species to tag on human cancer cells. The biodistribution of the labelled derivatives was comparatively evaluated in normal male Swiss mice and the stability of labelling was measured by cysteine challenge. The in vitro stability was comparatively studied at different temperatures and by incubation with human serum for 24 h

  20. Development and evaluation of an anti-rabies virus phosphoprotein-specific monoclonal antibody for detection of rabies neutralizing antibodies using RFFIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jihye; Chun, Byung Chul; Lee, Yeong Seon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Yang, Dong-Kun; Park, Jun-Sun; Kim, Su Yeon

    2017-12-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem with a fatality rate close to 100%; however, complete prevention can be achieved through pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis. The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) is one of the recommended testing methods to determine the production of neutralizing antibodies after vaccination. Here, we report the development of a new monoclonal antibody (mAb) designed to react specifically with Rabies virus (RABV) phosphoprotein (P protein), and the evaluation of its applicability to the RFFIT and its effectiveness as a diagnostic reagent for human rabies. The mAb KGH P 16B8 was produced to target the P protein of the Korean KGH RABV strain. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was conducted to detect various strains of RABV in various cell lines. Alexa-conjugated KGH P 16B8 (16B8-Alexa) was developed for the RFFIT. The IFA test could detect RABV up to a 1:2,500 dilution, with a detection limit comparable to that of a commercial diagnostic reagent. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the RFFIT using 16B8-Alexa in 414 clinical specimens were 98.67%, 99.47%, 99.55%, and 98.42%, respectively. The results of the RFFIT with 16B8-Alexa were strongly correlated with those obtained using an existing commercial diagnostic reagent (r = 0.995, prabies neutralizing antibody titer and establish a diagnosis in human. Thus, 16B8-Alexa is expected to serve as an alternative diagnostic reagent that is widely accessible, with potentially broad applications beyond those of the RFFIT in Korea. Further studies with 16B8-Alexa should provide insight into the immunological mechanism of the P protein of Korean RABV.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl Ak; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the (111)In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X ((111)In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the (111)In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.

  2. Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

  3. In vitro and in vivo studies evaluating antisemen antibodies as a potential spermicidal agent in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Yu; Liu, Li-Min; Xie, Qing-Dong; Xu, Lan; Huang, Tian-Hua

    2009-09-01

    To determine the spermicidal activity of antisemen antibodies in the hamster model. Prospective, controlled study. Advanced preclinical sciences center. Subgroups of 10 and 14 golden hamsters. Ex vitro and in vivo treatment of sperm with antisemen antibodies or normal rabbit serum. The EC(50) value of antisemen antibodies, the time required for 50% motility loss of progressively motile spermatozoa exposed to antisemen antibodies, the average sperm mitochondrion fluorescence intensity, the rate of fertilization, and the scoring of histologic changes in the hamster vaginal tissue. The EC(50) value of antisemen antibodies was found 70 microg/mL, and the time required for 50% motility loss of progressively motile spermatozoa exposed to antisemen antibodies (at 70 microg/mL) was 5 minutes; for the experimental and control groups, the average fluorescence intensities of sperm mitochondria were respectively 180.28 +/- 82.24 and 309.74 +/- 148.37, the fertilization rates in vitro were 0.09% and 45%, the rates of fertilization with intrauterine sperm injection were 0 and 15.0%. There was a significant difference between two groups. None of the four hamsters that received antisemen antibodies in gel-polyoxyl-40-stearate had epithelial disruption characteristic of inflammation. Antisemen antibodies possess appreciable spermicidal potential, which may be explored as an effective constituent of spermicide.

  4. Evaluation of classical swine fever virus antibody detection assays with an emphasis on the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, S.; von Rosen, Tanya; Blome, S.

    2012-01-01

    vaccinated animals (DIVA). The Chekit* CSF-Sero and the HerdChek* CSFV Ab, both of which detect antibodies against the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), had the highest sensitivity. Both tests were practicable and showed good reproducibility. Comparable sensitivity was shown by the Chekit......The aim of this study was to evaluate the general characteristics of commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect antibody against classical swine fever (CSF), as well as to assess their potential use as accompanying marker tests able to differentiate infected from......* CSF-Marker, an Erns ELISA. However, this test does not allow differentiation between antibodies directed against ruminant pestiviruses and those against CSFV. Therefore, it is not suitable for use with the chimeric marker vaccines tested. The PrioCHECK® CSFV Erns was the only ELISA suitable for use...

  5. Development and evaluation of single domain antibodies for vaccinia and the L1 antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available There is ongoing interest to develop high affinity, thermal stable recognition elements to replace conventional antibodies in biothreat detection assays. As part of this effort, single domain antibodies that target vaccinia virus were developed. Two llamas were immunized with killed viral particles followed by boosts with the recombinant membrane protein, L1, to stimulate the immune response for envelope and membrane proteins of the virus. The variable domains of the induced heavy chain antibodies were selected from M13 phage display libraries developed from isolated RNA. Selection via biopanning on the L1 antigen produced single domain antibodies that were specific and had affinities ranging from 4×10(-9 M to 7.0×10(-10 M, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Several showed good ability to refold after heat denaturation. These L1-binding single domain antibodies, however, failed to recognize the killed vaccinia antigen. Useful vaccinia binding single domain antibodies were isolated by a second selection using the killed virus as the target. The virus binding single domain antibodies were incorporated in sandwich assays as both capture and tracer using the MAGPIX system yielding limits of detection down to 4×10(5 pfu/ml, a four-fold improvement over the limit obtained using conventional antibodies. This work demonstrates the development of anti-vaccinia single domain antibodies and their incorporation into sandwich assays for viral detection. It also highlights the properties of high affinity and thermal stability that are hallmarks of single domain antibodies.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed......In a previous study, three crosstalk cancellation techniques were evaluated and compared under different conditions. Least square approximations in frequency and time domain were evaluated along with a method based on minimum-phase approximation and a frequency independent delay. In general......, the least square methods outperformed the method based on minimum-phase approximation. However, the evaluation was only done for the best-case scenario, where the transfer functions used to design the filters correspond to the listener's transfer functions and his/her location and orientation relative...

  7. Evaluation of Antithyroid Antibodies in Aborting People from Obstetrics Clinic of Mahdieh Hospital at Shaheed Beheshti University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Spontaneous pregnancy loss is the most common complication of pregnancy. However, after a thorough evaluation the potential cause remains unexplained in about half of the cases. Autoimmune disorders appear to play a prominent role among multiple factors implicated in pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcome, including thyroid antibodies .The purpose of this study is determination of antithyroid antibodies titer on the outcome of recent pregnancy that aborted or continued until delivery.Materials & Methods: This study was descriptive cross sectional research .The information of 80 pregnant women being between 20 to 40 years old with gestational age of below 20 weeks were gathered for this study. 40 of these women aborted within 20 weeks and others, their pregnancies continued until delivery. All samples with known causes of abortion were waived. With written consents , blood of each pregnant woman was taken for the examination of antithyroid antibodies , FBS and TFT. If the two latters results were normal , the antithyroid antibodies were considered to be valid and the information was registered in prepared questionnaires. The values more than 75 u/ml for anti Tpo and 100 u/ml for anti TG were abnormal. Afterwards , using excel program the data were gathered , and the results were analyzed with t-test , 2 and spss software . Results: 8 out of 80 women , had abnormal antibody results ; 6 women had abnormal anti TG while 3 women had abnormal anti Tpo , and in one case both of them were abnormal . 7 out of 8 women who had abnormal antibody were in the group aborted and one of them was in the group who delivered her baby. The results show that the differences of anti thyroid antibodies between the 2 groups were statistically meaningful.Conclusion: The results show that the differences of antithyroid antibodies between the two groups were statistically significant. Furthermore , significant levels of these antibodies were

  8. Radioimmunotherapy in medullary thyroid cancer using bispecific antibody and iodine 131-labeled bivalent hapten: preliminary results of a phase I/II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Bardet, S; Hoefnagel, C A; Vieira, M R; Vuillez, J P; Murat, A; Ferreira, T C; Bardiès, M; Ferrer, L; Resche, I; Gautherot, E; Rouvier, E; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of escalating doses of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen x anti-N alpha-(diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N''-tetraacetic acid)-In bispecific monoclonal antibody (F6-734) and iodine 131-labeled bivalent hapten were determined in a Phase I/II trial. A total of 26 patients with recurrences of medullary thyroid cancer documented by imaging and a rise in serum thyrocalcitonin were enrolled. Twenty to 50 mg of F6-734 and 40-100 mCi of 131I-hapten were injected 4 days apart. Quantitative scintigraphy was performed after the second injection for dosimetry estimations in eight cases. Clinical, biological, and morphological follow-up was carried out for 1 year after treatment. The mean percentage of injected activity per gram of tumor at the time of maximum uptake was 0.08% (range, 0.003-0.26%). The tumor biological half-life ranged from 3 to 95 days, and tumor doses ranged from 2.91 to 184 cGy/mCi. The estimated tumor-to-nontumor dose ratios were 43.8 x 53.4, 29.6 x 35.3, 10.9 x 13.6, and 8.4 x 10.0 for total body, red marrow, liver, and kidney, respectively. Grade III/IV hematological toxicity was observed in seven patients, most of them with bone metastases. Among the 17 evaluable patients, 4 pain reliefs, 5 minor tumor responses, and 4 biological responses with decrease of thyrocalcitonin were observed. Nine patients developed human anti-mouse antibody. Dose-limiting toxicity was hematological, and maximum tolerated activity was 48 mCi/m2 in this group of patients, most of whom had suspected bone marrow involvement. The therapeutic responses observed in patients mainly with a small tumor burden are encouraging for the performance of a Phase II trial with minimal residual disease.

  9. Parametric study and preliminary evaluation of reverse osmosis for seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueckstern, P.; Reed, S.A.; Wilson, J.V.

    1976-11-01

    A parametric study of one- and two-stage reverse osmosis (RO) systems for seawater desalination was made with the aid of a recently developed computer program for optimization of RO systems. Membrane manufacturer's performance data and predicted cost data were applied. Based on these data and other equipment and operating costs considered, a preliminary evaluation of the economics of RO for seawater desalination was made. Plant capacities in the range of 1 to 12.5 Mgd were considered and compared economically with the current most common multistage flash distillation process at different energy price levels.

  10. 242Pu: Preliminary evaluation with consideration of 240Pu, and some sensitivity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jary, J.; Lagrange, C.; Philis, C.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of 242 Pu nuclear data is presented for the neutron energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV. The fission cross section is based upon recent experimental measurements on 242 Pu. The remaining cross sections have been calculated using various nuclear models with parameters obtained mainly by both fits on 240 Pu experimental data and general reflexions on the actinides. Particular care has been taken of the direct interactions. The laws of secondary neutron energy spectra and the average number of neutrons produced per fission have been evaluated. The results have been placed in ENDF/BIV format and combined with the low energy region of ENDF/BIV MAT = 1161 data to make complete the evaluation over the whole energy range 10 -5 eV - 20 MeV. Finally, the sensitivities of some of these nuclear data available for reactor calculations are given in terms of the variation of the calculated critical masses

  11. A successful trial utilizing the Leuzinger-Bohleber methodology for evaluation of psychoanalytic treatment: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón, Socorro Ramonet; Corona, Pablo Cuevas; Lartigue, Teresa; Rios, Josefina Mendoza; Garza, David López

    2005-10-01

    Utilizing audio-recorded psychoanalytic interviews of both patients and their analysts, group discussions of these interviews, and the application of questionnaires commonly used in psychotherapy research, the authors investigate the potential use of the Leuzinger-Bohleber methodology as an objective evaluative instrument to assess the quality of psychoanalytic treatment. Preliminary study results were obtained through interviews conducted with seven analysts and their respective patients, three of whom were treated with psychoanalysis (three or more sessions per week, for a duration of no less than one year) and four with psychotherapy (one or two sessions per week, for a duration of no less than one year). Patients were found to be eager to participate, and no adverse experiences were reported by analysts, patients or the research team. In addition to the interviews, further data were obtained through review of mailed-in questionnaires completed by 21 patients. The authors present both preliminary observations regarding the methodology as a whole, as well as the detailed results of one specific case subject treated with psychotherapy. Review of study findings supports the utilization of this methodology as an evaluative instrument which may ultimately advance current knowledge of the process and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment.

  12. A Multimedia Interactive Education System for Prostate Cancer Patients: Development and Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Brian P

    2004-01-01

    Background A cancer diagnosis is highly distressing. Yet, to make informed treatment choices patients have to learn complicated disease and treatment information that is often fraught with medical and statistical terminology. Thus, patients need accurate and easy-to-understand information. Objective To introduce the development and preliminary evaluation through focus groups of a novel highly-interactive multimedia-education software program for patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Methods The prostate interactive education system uses the metaphor of rooms in a virtual health center (ie, reception area, a library, physician offices, group meeting room) to organize information. Text information contained in the library is tailored to a person's information-seeking preference (ie, high versus low information seeker). We conducted a preliminary evaluation through 5 separate focus groups with prostate cancer survivors (N = 18) and their spouses (N = 15). Results Focus group results point to the timeliness and high acceptability of the software among the target audience. Results also underscore the importance of a guide or tutor who assists in navigating the program and who responds to queries to facilitate information retrieval. Conclusions Focus groups have established the validity of our approach and point to new directions to further enhance the user interface. PMID:15111269

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Method to Monitor Landfills Resilience against Methane Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusna, Noor Amalia; Maryono, Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Methane emission from landfill sites contribute to global warming and un-proper methane treatment can pose an explosion hazard. Stakeholder and government in the cities in Indonesia been found significant difficulties to monitor the resilience of landfill from methane emission. Moreover, the management of methane gas has always been a challenging issue for long waste management service and operations. Landfills are a significant contributor to anthropogenic methane emissions. This study conducted preliminary evaluation of method to manage methane gas emission by assessing LandGem and IPCC method. From the preliminary evaluation, this study found that the IPCC method is based on the availability of current and historical country specific data regarding the waste disposed of in landfills while from the LandGEM method is an automated tool for estimating emission rates for total landfill gas this method account total gas of methane, carbon dioxide and other. The method can be used either with specific data to estimate emissions in the site or default parameters if no site-specific data are available. Both of method could be utilize to monitor the methane emission from landfill site in cities of Central Java.

  14. Cloning of Single-Chain Antibody Variants by Overlap-Extension PCR for Evaluation of Antibody Expression in Transient Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Patrick; Kunert, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Single-chain fragment variable-fragment crystallizable antibody constructs (scFv-Fc) are homodimeric proteins representing valuable alternatives to heterotetrameric full-length IgG molecules to study protein properties and product-dependent cellular behavior. In contrast to naturally occurring antibodies, these artificial molecules are assembled from functional antibody domains to reduce molecule complexity and enhance antibody expression levels. The scFv-Fc format retains critical antibody functions such as antigen binding affinity and antibody effector functions. Here, we present a protocol to convert the full-length anti-HIV-1 IgG1 antibody 2F5 into a scFv-Fc construct. Variable and constant regions are amplified by conventional PCR reactions and assembled by a single overlap-extension PCR reaction. The amplified product is then cloned into a mammalian expression vector suitable for high-titer transient gene expression. This workflow can be applied to any antibody sequence by adapting the specific primer sequences to the antibody of choice.

  15. Labelled antibody assays for measuring free triiodothyronine: evaluation and comparison with a labelled analog method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, R.; Gasser, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chambron, J.

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated analytically and clinically two new one-step labelled antibody assays for measuring free triiodothyronine (FT3): the first, radiolabelled with 125 I, Amerlex-MAB (MAB) from Kodak diagnostic, and the second, labelled with peroxidase, Enzymum-test FT3 (BM) from Boehringer Mannheim adapted for the Boehringer ES 600 analyzer. The clinical results were compared with those obtained with a radiolabelled analog tracer kit, Amerlex-M (M) from Kodak diagnostic. The latter kit is known to give low FT3 results in sera with low albumin concentrations. Analytical performances of the automated method (BM) were better than those obtained with the manual method (MAB): intra-assay reproducibility (CV<3% vs CV about 5%), inter-assay reproducibility (CV<4% vs CV between 4 and 8%) and mean drift (+1.25% vs -4.3%). The detection limit was low for both kits (<1 pmol/l). In the euthyroid reference group (n = 98) we observed a significant difference between outpatient and hospitalized patient FT3 concentrations as measured with the M kit only. Clinical sensitivity for hyperthyroidism (n = 38) was better for the MAB (92%) than for the BM kit (76%). Specificity in euthyroid L-thyroxine (T4) treated patients (n = 26) was good for both kits (MAB: 92%; BM: 88%) . Hypoalbuminemia (n = 8) decreased FT3 results as follows: M, very significantly; BM, significantly; MAB, only slightly. In patients treated with amiodarone (n = 5), a drug known to lower the metabolic conversion of T4 to T3, the increase of the MAB FT3 results contrasted with the decrease of the BM and M results. In conclusion, results of the two new kits were not strongly influenced by hypoalbuminemia. The MAB results showing lack of decrease in patients with non-thyroidal illness without hypoalbuminemia and in amiodarone-treated patients were unexpected

  16. Evaluation of the Chagas Stat-Paktm Assay for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies in Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    An immunochromatographic assay (Chagas Stat-Pak™) was evaluated for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 4 species of wildlife reservoirs. Antibodies to T. cruzi were detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor) (naturally and experimentally infected) and degus (Octodon degu) (experimentally-infected) using the Chagas Stat-Pak. In naturally exposed wild raccoons, the Chagas Stat-Pak had a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7–80.0% and 96.3%, respectively. Compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay results, serocon-version as determined by Chagas Stat-Pak was delayed for experimentally infected raccoons, but occurred sooner in experimentally infected degus. The Chagas Stat-Pak did not detect antibodies in naturally or experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) or in experimentally infected short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). These data suggest that the Chagas Stat-Pak might be useful in field studies of raccoons and degus when samples would not be available for more-conventional serologic assays. Because this assay did not work on either species of marsupial, the applicability of the assay should be examined before it is used in other wild species. PMID:19016578

  17. Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFA in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Fesharki R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to evaluate antibody positive titer in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle using schizont infected myeloid cells as an antigen. The result was compared with indirect fluorescent antibody level in the same animals. For this study 116 milking cows, 95 vaccinated and 21 non-vaccinated, were bleeded in order to prepare sera. They were tested with both ELISA and IFA tests. 94 sera had positive antibody titer and 22 sera were negative through ELISA test but, with IFA test, only 89 sera showed positive antibody titer and 27 were negative. Thereby, it was concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test in comparison with IFA test was 95.5 % and 66.6 % respectively. This study generally indicated that ELISA could be an effective test for seroepidemiological investigations of bovine tropical theileriosis, and it is considered to be valid as an additional test to distinguish the vaccinated from the non vaccinated cattle in order to schedule vaccination programs.

  18. Multicentric Evaluation of New Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays for the Detection of Immunoglobulin M and Total Antibodies against Hepatitis A Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeletti, M. C.; Dussaix, E.; Ferraglia, F.; Roque-Afonso, A. M.; Graube, A.; Chezzi, C.

    2011-01-01

    A multicentric clinical study was conducted on representative sera from 1,738 European and U.S. subjects for the evaluation of new anti-hepatitis A virus enzyme immunoassays from Bio-Rad Laboratories. Comparison with reference DiaSorin S.p.A. tests confirmed the good performance of Bio-Rad assays (99.85% and 99.47% overall agreement in detecting total antibodies and IgM, respectively). PMID:21653739

  19. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design

  1. Preparation and biological evaluation of radiolabelled antibodies with selected carbohydrate modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, P.; Koganty, R.R.; Selvaraj, S.

    1993-01-01

    Two carbohydrates, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and galactose-β-1,3-GalNAc have been attached to human IgG (hIgG) by a novel linking reagent, hexafluoroglutaric acid dimethyl ester. Fluorine-19 NMR signals were used for the determination of the conjugation ratio. A third carbohydrate, sialic acid, was conjugated via reductive amination and the conjugation ratio determined by a resorcinol assay. The biological behaviour of these radiodinated antibodies with carbohydrate modification in normal mice indicates an enhanced liver uptake at 15 min post-injection with an associated change in circulating blood levels occurs for the galactose-based hIgG preparations. However, no significant differences in the biodistribution were observed for the sialic acid conjugate. These studies confirm the potential of carbohydrate-antibody conjugation for modifying the behaviour of antibodies in immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  2. Preliminary Experience with Yttrium-90-labelled Rituximab (Chimeric Anti CD-20 Antibody) in Patients with Relapsed and Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Parul; Singla, Suhas; Vashist, Atul; Yadav, Madhav P; Gupta, Santosh K; Tyagi, Jaya S; Sharma, Atul; Bal, Chandra S; Snehlata, EmptyYN Y; Malhotra, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Yttrium- 90 radiolabelled chimeric anti CD20 antibody-Rituximab in the treatment of patients with relapsed/ refractory B cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL). Twenty patients with relapsed/refractory CD20+ NHL in progressive state were included in the study. These patients had undergone a median of 2 (range 2-5) prior standard chemotherapy ± immunotherapy regimens. All the patients received rituximab 250 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8, and either 14 MBq/kg (0.4 mCi/kg) or 11 MBq/kg (0.3 mCi/kg) of Y-90 Rituximab on day 8 (maximum dose, 32 mCi) depending upon their platelet count. The patients were observed for systemic toxicity and response for at least 12 weeks after therapy. No acute adverse effects were observed after the administration of 90Y-Rituximab. Overall response rate (ORR) was 45% of which complete response (CR) was observed in 2 patients, stable disease in 1 patient and partial response in 6 patients. The therapy was well tolerated with grade IV thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and anemia observed in 3, 4 and 2 patients respectively. 90Y-Rituximab therapy is safe and well tolerated in high risk extensively pretreated NHL patients. Toxicity is primarily hematologic, transient and reversible.

  3. A simplified suite of methods to evaluate chelator conjugation of antibodies: effects on hydrodynamic radius and biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ejeh, Fares; Darby, Jocelyn M.; Thierry, Benjamin; Brown, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Antibodies covalently conjugated with chelators such as 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) are required for radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy, which are of growing importance in cancer medicine. Method: Here, we report a suite of simple methods that provide a preclinical assessment package for evaluating the effects of DOTA conjugation on the in vitro and in vivo performance of monoclonal antibodies. We exemplify the use of these methods by investigating the effects of DOTA conjugation on the biochemical properties of the DAB4 clone of the La/SSB-specific murine monoclonal autoantibody, APOMAB (registered) , which is a novel malignant cell death ligand. Results: We have developed a 96-well microtiter-plate assay to measure directly the concentration of DOTA and other chelators in antibody-chelator conjugate solutions. Coupled with a commercial assay for measuring protein concentration, the dual microtiter-plate method can rapidly determine chelator/antibody ratios in the same plate. The biochemical properties of DAB4 immunoconjugates were altered as the DOTA/Ab ratio increased so that: (i) mass/charge ratio decreased; (ii) hydrodynamic radius increased; (iii) antibody immunoactivity decreased; (iv) rate of chelation of metal ions and specific radioactivity both increased and in vivo, (v) tumor uptake decreased as nonspecific uptake by liver and spleen increased. Conclusion: This simplified suite of methods readily identifies biochemical characteristics of the DOTA-immunoconjugates such as hydrodynamic diameter and decreased mass/charge ratio associated with compromised immunotargeting efficiency and, thus, may prove useful for optimizing conjugation procedures in order to maximize immunoconjugate-mediated radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy.

  4. Evaluation of commercial ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against bovine atypical pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse

    A group of emerging bovine pestiviruses becomes a possible threat to Bovine Viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control and eradication programs in the countries of their origin and in the new continents due to the lack of validated detection methods. The use of ELISA kits may be acheaper, time saving...... on the level of antibodies with some tests enabling detection of specific antibodies against atypical pestivirus a week earlier than with other assays. Despite significant antigenic differences between atypical pestivirus and BVDV-1, the use of some tests may be recommended while no specific methods...

  5. Integrative medical education: educational strategies and preliminary evaluation of the Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Cysarz, Dirk; Heusser, Peter; Edelhäuser, Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    the development and preliminary evaluation of a new medical program aimed at educating students in patient-centered integrative care and developing appropriate educational strategies. The Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM) was developed with modules on anthroposophic medicine integrated into the full 6 years of the regular medical curriculum. The educational strategy is the ESPRI(2)T approach, combining Exploratory learning, Supported participation, Patient-based learning, Reflective practice, Integrated learning, an Integrative approach and Team-based learning. The student participation, assessed based on the number of credit points earned per year (ctp/year) through the ICURAM (1 ctp=30 h workload), served as a preliminary indicator of student interest. Of the 412 55%medical students participated in the program: 16% full participation (≥ 4 ctp/year), 18% partial participation (1-3.99 ctp/year) and 22% occasional participation (0.25-0.99 ctp/year). The amount of additional workload taken on by students was between 7.8h/year for occasional participants, 33 h/year for partial participants and 84 h/year for full participants. More than half of medical students were willing to invest a significant amount of additional time in the optional program. An integrative medical curriculum with a student-centered educational strategy seems to be of interest to most medical students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  7. Biomechanical evaluation and preliminary clinical experience with an expansive pedicle screw design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S D; Salkeld, S L; Whitecloud, T S; Barbera, J

    2000-06-01

    The advantages of pedicle screw fixation depend on their ability to retain bony purchase until the fusion mass is stable. Osteoporotic bone and removal and replacement of pedicle screws in revision procedures substantially reduce screw mechanical fixation strength and can lead to clinical failure. The objective of this study was to determine if an expansive pedicle screw design could be used to improve biomechanical fixation in bone of compromised quality. Axial mechanical pullout testing was performed on paired expansive and conventional pedicle screws placed in fresh, unembalmed cadaveric vertebrae. Bone mineral density measurements (made using a dual-energy X-ray absorption meter) were used to characterize bone quality. A preliminary clinical and radiographic evaluation of 14 patients was also performed at a minimum 2-year follow-up. The mean axial pullout force in bone of all qualities was increased 30% when the expansive pedicle screw design was used. This included an appropriate 50% increase in pullout force in bone of poor quality (low bone mineral density). The preliminary clinical and radiographic results were supportive of the biomechanical design rationale and mechanical testing. The results were similar to those expected for spinal instrumentation using pedicle screws, even though compromised bone was present in two thirds of the cases in which the expansive screw was used.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, T.D.; Lommers, L.J.; Tangirala, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    A qualitative comparison between the safety characteristics of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) and those of the steam cycle shows that the two designs achieve equivalent levels of overall safety performance. This comparison is obtained by applying the scaling laws to detailed steam-cycle computations as well as the conclusions obtained from preliminary GT-MHR model simulations. The gas turbine design is predicted to be superior for some event categories, while the steam cycle design is better for others. From a safety perspective, the GT-MHR has a modest advantage for pressurized conduction cooldown events. Recent computational simulations of 102 column, 550 MW(t) GT-MHR during a depressurized conduction cooldown show that peak fuel temperatures are within the limits. The GT-MHR has a significantly lower risk due to water ingress events under operating conditions. Two additional scenarios, namely loss of load event and turbine deblading event that are specific to the GT-MHR design are discussed. Preliminary evaluation of the GT-MHR's safety characteristics indicate that the GT-MHR can be expected to satisfy or exceed its safety requirements

  9. Evaluating outcomes of palliative photodynamic therapy: instrument development and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Teresa T.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2002-06-01

    Background: Subjective measures are considered the gold standard in palliative care evaluation, but no studies have evaluated palliative photodynamic therapy (PDT) subjectively. If PDT is to be accepted as a palliative therapy for later-stage obstructing esophageal and lung cancer, evidence of its effectiveness and acceptability to patients must be made known. Study Design/Materials and Methods: This ongoing study's major aim is to evaluate subjective outcomes of PDT in patients with obstructing esophageal and lung cancer. Existing measures of health status, dysphagia and performance status were supplemented with an instrument developed to evaluate PDT symptom relief and side effect burden, the PDT Side Effects Survey (PSES). Results: PDT patients treated with porfimer sodium (Photofrin) and 630-nm light experienced reduced dysphagia grade and stable performance status for at least one month after PDT (N= 10-17), but these effects did not necessarily persist at three months. Fatigue, appetite and quality of life may be the most burdensome issues for these patients. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that the PSES is an acceptable and valid tool for measuring subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. This study is the first attempt to systematically evaluate subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. Multi-center outcomes research is needed to draw generalizable conclusions that will establish PDT's effectiveness in actual clinical practice and enhance the wider adoption of PDT as a cancer symptom relief modality.

  10. Evaluation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit for the detection of Babesia bovis antibodies in cattle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echaide, S.; Echaide, I.E.; Mangold, A.J.; Lugaresi, C.I.; Guglielmone, A.A.; Gaido, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis was evaluated by using sera of 874 cattle carrying B. bovis antibodies, 700 sera of uninfected cattle, and 357 sera from calves from 16 herds subjected to different B. bovis inoculation rates. The seropositive/ seronegative cut-off point set as double the mean percent positivity of negative cattle sera (= 16%). The sensitivity of the ELISA (four trials) ranged from 97.1% to 100% and the specificity (three trials) varied from 92.0% to 97.0%. The agreement between ELISA and immunofluorescent antibody test was ≥ 90.0% in 18 of 23 evaluations and it ranged from 86.0% to 88.0% in the remainder. The correlation coefficient between percentage of sera positive to ELISA and IFA test in 16 herds was 0.9958 (P<0.001). The ELISA has the advantages of a high sensitivity, objectivity and capacity to test large number of samples in short period of time and could replace the IFA test specially for epidemiological studies. (author)

  11. Evaluation of an Antigen-Antibody “Combination” Enzyme Linked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We conclude that although this assay depicts high sensitivity and specificity in detecting antibodies to HCV, it seems not to add further benefit in our study population to detect HCV infections by enhanced sensitivity due the potential contingency to trace viral capsid antigens. Keywords: Ag-Ab Combination assay ...

  12. Evaluation of the specificity of antibodies raised against cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the mouse retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cécyre, Bruno; Thomas, Sébastien; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    because it would mean that in addition to its effects on the peripheral pain pathway, CB2R could also mediate some central effects of cannabinoids. In an attempt to clarify the debate over CB2R expression in the CNS, we tested several commercially or academically produced CB2R antibodies using Western...

  13. Production and evaluation of chicken antibodies against a synthetic peptide from glial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizzola, Ornella; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Zerpa, Noraida; Malavé, Caridad

    2013-09-01

    Neuregulins (NRG) are proteins that belong to the family of epidermal growth factors. It is well established that these factors are essential for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Due to the difficulty of purifying enough quantities of these factors and the lack of specificity from commercially available antibodies, the aim of this work was to produce antibodies against a synthetic peptide capable to detect and identify neuregulin GGFbeta isoforms. To accomplish this goal, polyclonal antibodies were raised in hens against a synthetic peptide designed from the GGFbeta1 extracellular sequence. The sequence analysis was made using different epitope-predicting programs. Our results showed that the peptide sequence selected was immunogenic because it was capable of inducing a specific type B immune response in the experimental animal model. These antibodies were also capable of recognizing a recombinant GGF protein and GGF isoforms present in different samples. Our results suggest that the development of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) using synthetic peptides represents, a valuable tool for neuroscience research.

  14. Evaluation of a rapid test for HIV antibodies in saliva and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To test whole blood and saliva for HIV antibodies (anti-HIV) using a rapid test strip capillary flow . immunoassay, and to correlate the test strip results with blood specimen results obtained from routine diagnostic antiHIV assays. Design. A prospective pilot study of selected HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals ...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process

  16. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Poliana de Oliveira; Silva-Fernandes, André Tavares da; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Borges, Iara Apolinário; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Braga, Erika Martins; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV). We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132) with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks.

  17. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV. We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132 with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks.

  18. Prospective evaluation of antibody response to Streptococcus gallolyticus and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Julia; Jenab, Mazda; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Severi, Gianluca; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; la Vecchia, Carlo; Karakatsani, Anna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, Maria-José; Bonet Bonet, Catalina; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Bradbury, Kathryn; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Riboli, Elio; Tsilidis, Kostas; Aune, Dagfinn; Waterboer, Tim; Hughes, David J

    2018-01-29

    The gut microbiome is increasingly implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with CRC show high antibody responses to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG). However, it is unclear whether the association is also present pre-diagnostically. We assessed the association of antibody responses to SGG proteins in pre-diagnostic serum samples with CRC risk in a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort. Pre-diagnostic serum samples from 485 first incident CRC cases (mean time between blood draw and diagnosis 3.4 years) and 485 matched controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study were analyzed for antibody responses to 11 SGG proteins using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Antibody positivity for any of the 11 SGG proteins was significantly associated with CRC risk with 56% positive controls compared to 63% positive cases (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.77). Positivity for two or more proteins of a previously identified SGG 6-marker panel with greater CRC-specificity was also observed among 9% of controls compared to 17% of CRC cases, corresponding to a significantly increased CRC risk (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44-3.27). In this prospective nested case-control study, we observed a positive association between antibody responses to SGG and CRC development in serum samples taken before evident disease onset. Further work is required to establish the possibly etiological significance of these observations and whether SGG serology may be applicable for CRC risk stratification. © 2018 UICC.

  19. Improving the Output Power Stability of a High Concentration Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitors: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV system is very sensitive to fluctuating tracking errors and weather patterns. To help compensate this shortcoming, supercapacitors have been successfully incorporated into photovoltaic systems to improve their output power stability. This study examined the output power stability improvement of an HCPV module with a supercapacitor integrated into its circuit. Furthermore, the equivalent model of the experimental circuit is presented and analyzed. Experimental results suggest that integrating a supercapacitor into an HCPV module could improve its output power stability and further extend its acceptance angle. This paper provides preliminary data of the improvement and its evaluation method, which could be utilized for further improvements to an HCPV system.

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-10-18

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue.

  1. [A preliminary clinical safety evaluation of parvovirus H-1 on cancer therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W; Ling, W; Guo, L

    1999-12-01

    To make a preliminary evaluation of parvovirus H-1 for its safety in clinical use. In this study, clinical safety of H-1 in cancer therapy was examined using the Ames test, the mammalian cell chromosome aberration test, the micronucleus calculation of mouse bone marrow cells, the allergy test and the pyrogenicity test. Negative results were observed in all the tests. The mouse tolerance test showed that the tolerance limit was at least 5 x 10(11) plaque-forming units/kg weight, which was 2500 times higher than the supposed clinical dose. The H-1 host NB-324K cells were also tested using the anchorage-independent assay and the tumour formation in nude mice. Both of the assays gave negative results. All these results preliminarily showed that the H-1 was safe in cancer therapy.

  2. Evaluation methodology for flood damage reduction by preliminary water release from hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, T.; Kawasaki, A.; Koike, T.

    2017-12-01

    IPCC AR5 (2014) reported that rainfall in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been increasing since 1901, and it is claimed that warmer climate will increase the risk of floods. In contrast, world water demand is forecasted to exceed a sustainable supply by 40 percent by 2030. In order to avoid this expectable water shortage, securing new water resources has become an utmost challenge. However, flood risk prevention and the secure of water resources are contradictory. To solve this problem, we can use existing hydroelectric dams not only as energy resources but also for flood control. However, in case of Japan, hydroelectric dams take no responsibility for it, and benefits have not been discussed accrued by controlling flood by hydroelectric dams, namely by using preliminary water release from them. Therefore, our paper proposes methodology for assessing those benefits. This methodology has three stages as shown in Fig. 1. First, RRI model is used to model flood events, taking account of the probability of rainfall. Second, flood damage is calculated using assets in inundation areas multiplied by the inundation depths generated by that RRI model. Third, the losses stemming from preliminary water release are calculated, and adding them to flood damage, overall losses are calculated. We can evaluate the benefits by changing the volume of preliminary release. As a result, shown in Fig. 2, the use of hydroelectric dams to control flooding creates 20 billion Yen benefits, in the probability of three-day-ahead rainfall prediction of the assumed maximum rainfall in Oi River, in the Shizuoka Pref. of Japan. As the third priority in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, `investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience - public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures' was adopted. The accuracy of rainfall prediction is the key factor in maximizing the benefits

  3. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  4. Preliminary application of radioimmunoscintigraphy with 99Tcm labelled anti-fibrin monoclonal antibody (SZ-63) in experimental steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Huang Lixin; Dong Tianhua; Yuan Changgeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of radioimmunoscintigraphy of steroid-induced osteonecrosis with 99 Tc m labelled monoclonal antibody against human fibrin (SZ-63) and to explore the mechanisms postulated in the pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis. Methods: Experimental steroid-induced osteonecrosis was produced by intravenous horse serum combined with intraperitoneal high-dose of dexamethasone in 14 healthy adult rabbits, and then radioimmunoscintigraphy with 99 Tc m -SZ-63 was performed. The acquired images were analyzed in comparison with histopathological findings. The other 5 healthy adult rabbits received injection of normal saline instead of horse serum or steroids were used as control. Results: The histopathological observation showed that 10 of 14 model rabbits (71.43%) had osteonecrosis in the femoral head (osteonecrosis group) and no osteonecrosis signs were found in the remaining 4 model rabbits (28.57%, non-osteonecrosis group) and either in the control group. In the osteonecrosis group, the radioactivity uptake increased markedly in both ends of the femur, especially in the femoral head 4 h after injection of 99 Tc m -SZ-63. No abnormal signs were observed in both the non-osteonecrosis group and the control group. The radioactivity ratios of femoral head to trunk were 2.16 +- 0.35, 1.68 +- 0.29 and 1.57 +- 0.12 in osteonecrosis group, non-osteonecrosis group and control group, respectively. There was statistical difference between the former two groups (P 0.05). Conclusions: Steroid-induced osteonecrosis is correlative to thrombosis. Radioimmunoscintigraphy with 99 Tc m -SZ-63 could specifically detect in vivo thrombosis of the steroid-induced osteonecrosis in the rabbit models, and it may provide a great potential of early noninvasive diagnosis of osteonecrosis and screening high-risk group of steroid-induced osteonecrosis

  5. Evaluation of IgE Antibodies to Omalizumab (Xolair®) and Their Potential Correlation to Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dana L; Nakamura, Gerald R; Lowman, Henry B; Fischer, Saloumeh Kadkhodayan

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab (Xolair®) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to human immunoglobulin E (IgE). Omalizumab is used to treat IgE-mediated diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and moderate to severe allergic asthma. In pre-marketing clinical trials in patients with asthma, anaphylaxis was reported in 3 of 3,507 (0.1%) patients. In post-marketing spontaneous reports, the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to omalizumab use was estimated to be at least 0.2% of patients based on an estimated exposure of about 57,300 patients from June 2003 through December 2006. To better understand the risk of anaphylaxis in patients with allergic asthma receiving omalizumab, a post-marketing pharmacosurveillance study was initiated in 2009. As part of this study, an assay was developed to detect antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Serum samples from patients in the study were evaluated using this assay. Our results indicated that there was no observable correlation between either anaphylaxis or skin test reactivity and the presence of antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Here, we discuss the development of this assay as well as the results of the immunogenicity assessment.

  6. Immunosafety of recombinant human C1-inhibitor in hereditary angioedema: evaluation of ige antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, C Erik; Relan, Anurag; Baboeram, Aartie; Oortwijn, Beatrijs; Versteeg, Serge; van Ree, Ronald; Pijpstra, Rienk

    2013-04-01

    Recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) purified from milk of transgenic rabbits is used for the treatment of acute attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. The objective was to investigate the risk of rhC1INH inducing IgE antibodies or eliciting anaphylactic reactions. In subjects treated with rhC1INH, we retrospectively analysed the frequency and clinical relevance of pre-exposure and potentially newly induced IgE antibodies against rabbit and other animal allergens including cow's milk by the ImmunoCAP(®) Specific IgE blood test system. 130 HAE patients and 14 healthy subjects received 300 administrations of rhC1INH, 65 subjects (47.4 %) on one occasion; 72 (52.6 %) on at least two occasions (range 2-12; median 2). Five subjects had pre-existing anti-rabbit epithelium IgE; the subject with the highest levels and a previously undisclosed rabbit allergy developed an anaphylactic reaction upon first exposure to rhC1INH, whereas the other four subjects with lower pre-existing IgE levels (Class 1-3), did not. No other anaphylactic reactions were identified in any of the subjects exposed to rhC1INH. Analysis of post-exposure samples revealed that the risk of inducing new or boosting existing IgE responses to rabbit or cow's milk allergens was negligible. The propensity of rhC1INH to induce IgE antibodies following repeated administration of rhC1INH is low. Subjects with substantially elevated anti-rabbit epithelium IgE antibodies and/or clinical allergy to rabbits may have an increased risk for an allergic reaction. No other risk factors for allergic reactions to rhC1INH have been identified.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  8. Design and evaluation of bi- and trispecific antibodies targeting multiple filovirus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Zak, Samantha E; Wec, Anna Z; Hofmann, Daniel; Shulenin, Sergey; Bakken, Russell R; Aman, M Javad; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M; Lai, Jonathan R

    2018-03-02

    Filoviruses (family Filoviridae ) include five ebolaviruses and Marburg virus. These pathogens cause a rapidly progressing and severe viral disease with high mortality rates (generally 30%-90%). Outbreaks of filovirus disease are sporadic and, until recently, were limited to less than 500 cases. However, the 2013-2016 epidemic in western Africa, caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), illustrated the potential of filovirus outbreaks to escalate to a much larger scale (over 28,000 suspected cases). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the envelope glycoprotein represent a promising therapeutic platform for managing filovirus infections. However, mAbs that exhibit neutralization or protective properties against multiple filoviruses are rare. Here, we examined a panel of engineered bi- and trispecific antibodies, whereby variable fragments of mAbs that target epitopes from multiple filoviruses were combined, for their capacity to neutralize viral infection across filovirus species. We found that bispecific combinations targeting EBOV and Sudan virus (SUDV, another ebolavirus), provide potent cross-neutralization and protection in mice. Furthermore, trispecific combinations, targeting EBOV, SUDV, and MARV, exhibited strong neutralization potential against all three viruses. These results provide important insight into multispecific antibody engineering against filoviruses and will inform future immunotherapeutic discovery. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of antibody response against recombinant domain III proteins of dengue virus type 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh K Tripathi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito borne viral disease caused by dengue virus has emerged as a major health problem during the last few decades. The envelope domain III (DIII protein of dengue virus is highly immunogenic and capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies against wild-type dengue virus. The envelope domain III protein is a potential subunit vaccine candidate as well as a diagnostic reagent for dengue. This report describes the high yield production and immunogenicity of recombinant DIII proteins of dengue virus type 1 and 2. The subunit DIII proteins were produced in Escherichia coli using batch and fed-batch fermentation process. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography was used to capture DIII proteins of dengue virus type 1 and 2. The purified proteins were refolded by diafiltration to achieve biologically active proteins. After fed-batch fermentation, the recombinant E. coli resulted in purified DIII proteins of about 10.06 mg and 47.70 mg per gram of dry cell weight for recombinant dengue virus type 1 and 2 respectively with more than 95% purity. Biological function of the purified DIII proteins were confirmed by their ability to generate DIII specific antibodies in mice. The DIII antigens in combination with adjuvant resulted antibody endpoint titers of 1:64,000 and 1:1,28,000 for recombinant dengue virus type 1 and 2 respectively. These findings establish that the DIII proteins in combination with adjuvant are immunogenic, which suggests that refolded and purified DIII proteins can be a potential vaccine candidates.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  11. 242Pu: preliminary evaluation with consideration of 240Pu, and some sensitivity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jary, J.; Lagrange, C.; Philis, C.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of 242 Pu nuclear data is presented for the neutron energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV. The fission cross section is based upon recent experimental measurements on 242 Pu. The remaining cross sections were calculated by use of various nuclear models with parameters obtained mainly by both fits on 240 Pu experimental data and general reflexions on the actinides. Particular care was taken of the direct interactions. The laws of secondary neutron energy spectra and the average number of neutrons produced per fission were evaluated. The results were put in ENDF/B-IV format and combined with the low-energy region of ENDF/B-IV MAT = 1161 data to make complete the evaluation over the whole energy range 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. Finally, the sensitivities of some of these nuclear data available for reactor calculations are given in terms of the variation of the calculated critical masses. 21 figures, 4 tables

  12. Novel modular 2-DOF microsurgical forceps for transoral laser microsurgeries: Ergonomic design and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manish; Barresi, Giacinto; Deshpande, Nikhil; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2016-08-01

    Transoral Laser Microsurgeries (TLM) demand a great level of control and precision in intraoperative tissue manipulation. The optimal eradication of the diseased tissue is possible only with coordinated control of the laser aiming for incision and the microsurgical tools for orienting and stretching the tissue. However, the traditional microsurgical tools are long, single purpose, one degree-of-freedom (DOF), rigid tools with small range of motion and a normal grasping handle inducing non-ergonomic usage. This paper presents a novel, modular microsurgical tool to overcome the challenges of the traditional tools and improve the surgeon-tool usage experience. The novel design adds a rotational DOF to expand the reach and functionality of the tool. The device is provided with an ergonomic grasping handle that avoids extreme wrist excursions and is capable of adapting to the variety of tools used in TLM within the same design. The performance of the new microsurgical tool was evaluated through a subjective assessment with both medical students and expert surgeons. The evaluation demonstrated a general acceptance of the new forceps tool, with the expert surgeons providing positive appraisals for the improved functionality and user experience with the tool, which indicates towards the potential suitability of the device for TLM. The parameters assessed in the preliminary evaluation not only provide a sense of the advantages of the novel design, but also guide future evolution of the tool design.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft 2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft 2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  14. Engineering and functional evaluation of a single-chain antibody against HIV-1 external glycoprotein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H W; Cole, D; Jiang, W Z; Jin, H T; Fu, N; Chen, Z L; Jin, N Y

    2005-07-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein surface subunit gp120 is an attractive target for molecular intervention. This is because anti-HIV-1 gp120 neutralizing antibodies display the potential ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The present investigation describes the construction of a genetically engineered single chain antibody (scFv102) against HIV-1 gp120, its expression and functional evaluation. The parental hybridoma cell line (102) produces an immunoglobulin directed against the conserved CD4-binding region of gp120. cDNAs encoding the variable regions of the heavy (V(H)) and light (V(L)) chains were prepared by reverse transcription PCR and linked together with an oligonucleotide encoding a linker peptide (Gly(4)Ser)(3) to produce a single chain antibody gene. The resulting DNA construct was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector (pET28) and recombinant scFv102 was expressed in Eserichia coli as an insoluble protein. The denatured scFv102 was refolded and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Purified scFv102 had the same specificity as the intact IgG in immuno-blotting assays and immuno-fluorescence (IF) detection, but ELISA analyses demonstrated the affinity of scFv102 to be 5-fold lower than that of the parental monoclonal antibody. In neutralization assays, scFv102 at concentrations lower than 40 microg/ml exhibited efficient interference with viral replication and inhibition of viral infection (90%) across a range of primary isolates of subtype B HIV-1. These results suggest that the constructed anti-HIV-1 gp120 scFv102 has good biological activity and can potentially be used for in vitro diagnostic and in vivo therapeutic applications.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of PMMA-co-EHA bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, T.; Leite Ferreira, B.J.M.; Loureiro, J.; Correia, R.N.; Santos, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports a preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of new poly (methyl methacrylate)-co-ethyl hexylacrylate (PMMA-co-EHA) bone cement by evaluating the effect of its leachables on the viability of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63 line) and their progression through the cell cycle. MG63 cells were exposed to 72 h-extract dilutions of PMMA-co-EHA and their viability was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Also, putative changes in the progression of cells through the cell cycle were monitored using flow cytometry. For that the relative nuclear DNA content and the ratio of cells at G 1 :S:G 2 stages of the cell cycle were measured after three exposure periods (24, 48 and 72 h). The obtained results revealed a dose-dependent influence of the cement extract in MG63 cell metabolism when compared to cells cultivated in a culture medium only. The MTT assay showed that a moderate number of cells died after exposure to the most concentrated extract. The cell cycle analysis revealed that leachables of PMMA-co-EHA led to significant changes in cellular proliferation, with cells exposed for 48 h to the most concentrated extract being arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. However, despite the initial period of cytotoxicity, the obtained results suggest that after 72 h of exposure, the surviving cells are able to recover from this arresting condition and continue to proliferate. Therefore, this preliminary study indicates that, at the biological level, PMMA-co-EHA may have potential of being used as a bone cement matrix. However, a more detailed research work is needed to fully understand the factors responsible for the initial cytotoxicity observed.

  16. Preliminary safety evaluation, based on initial site investigation data. Planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-12-01

    This report is a planning document for the preliminary safety evaluations (PSE) to be carried out at the end of the initial stage of SKBs ongoing site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The main purposes of the evaluations are to determine whether earlier judgements of the suitability of the candidate area for a deep repository with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of borehole data and to provide feed-back to continued site investigations and site specific repository design. The preliminary safety evaluations will be carried out by a safety assessment group, based on a site model, being part of a site description, provided by a site modelling group and a repository layout within that model suggested by a repository engineering group. The site model contains the geometric features of the site as well as properties of the host rock. Several alternative interpretations of the site data will likely be suggested. Also the biosphere is included in the site model. A first task for the PSE will be to compare the rock properties described in the site model to previously established criteria for a suitable host rock. This report gives an example of such a comparison. In order to provide more detailed feedback, a number of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical analyses of the site will also be included in the evaluation. The selection of analyses is derived from the set of geosphere and biosphere analyses preliminarily planned for the comprehensive safety assessment named SR-SITE, which will be based on a complete site investigation. The selection is dictated primarily by the expected feedback to continued site investigations and by the availability of data after the PSE. The repository engineering group will consider several safety related factors in suggesting a repository layout: Thermal calculations will be made to determine a minimum distance between canisters avoiding canister surface temperatures above 100 deg C

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of the SMAP Radiometer Soil Moisture Product over China Using In Situ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP satellite makes coincident global measurements of soil moisture using an L-band radar instrument and an L-band radiometer. It is crucial to evaluate the errors in the newest L-band SMAP satellite-derived soil moisture products, before they are routinely used in scientific research and applications. This study represents the first evaluation of the SMAP radiometer soil moisture product over China. In this paper, a preliminary evaluation was performed using sparse in situ measurements from 655 China Meteorological Administration (CMA monitoring stations between 1 April 2015 and 31 August 2016. The SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product was evaluated against two schemes of original soil moisture and the soil moisture anomaly in different geographical zones and land cover types. Four performance metrics, i.e., bias, root mean square error (RMSE, unbiased root mean square error (ubRMSE, and the correlation coefficient (R, were used in the accuracy evaluation. The results indicated that the SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product agreed relatively well with the in situ measurements, with ubRMSE values of 0.058 cm3·cm−3 and 0.039 cm3·cm−3 based on original data and anomaly data, respectively. The values of the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture product were overestimated in wet areas, especially in the Southwest China, South China, Southeast China, East China, and Central China zones. The accuracies over croplands and in Northeast China were the worst. Soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation are crucial factors contributing to the error in the soil moisture product. Moreover, radio frequency interference contributes to the overestimation over the northern portion of the East China zone. This study provides guidelines for the application of the SMAP-derived soil moisture product in China and acts as a reference for improving the retrieval algorithm.

  18. Properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx cast steel modified with niobium; evaluation methodology and experimental preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzczynski, E.F.; Chatterjee, S.; Mueller, Arno

    1982-01-01

    The experimental methodology to evaluate the mechanical properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx steels modified with NB in the as cast and heat treated conditions and the first preliminary results obtained in a laboratory scale, are presented. (Author) [pt

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packing Materials for Flight Medication Dispenser (FMD) Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B.; Daniels, V.; Crady, C.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews preliminary results of the program to evaluate Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) packaging materials for pharmaceutical stability. The need for improved packaging is due to possible changes in chemical and/or physical properties of the drugs, which cause reported reduced potency and/or altered bioavailability and decreased efficacy.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  1. Preliminary Evaluation Methodology of ECCS Performance for Design Basis LOCA Redefinition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Seul, Kwang Won

    2010-01-01

    To improve their existing regulations, the USNRC has made efforts to develop the risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) approaches. As a part of these efforts, the rule revision of 10CFR50.46 (ECCS Acceptance Criteria) is underway, considering some options for 4 categories of spectrum of break sizes, ECCS functional reliability, ECCS evaluation model, and ECCS acceptance criteria. Since the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from design basis LOCA redefinition is high relative to other options, the USNRC is proceeding with the rulemaking for design basis LOCA redefinition. An instantaneous break with a flow rate equivalent to a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) of the largest primary piping system in the plant is widely recognized as an extremely unlikely event, while redefinition of design basis LOCA can affect the existing regulatory practices and approaches. In this study, the status of the design basis LOCA redefinition and OECD/NEA SMAP (Safety Margin Action Plan) methodology are introduced. Preliminary evaluation methodology of ECCS performance for LOCA is developed and discussed for design basis LOCA redefinition

  2. Assessing Mental Imagery to Evaluate Topographical Disorientation: Group Study and Preliminary Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Virginie; Maurer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no specific neuropsychological test assessing spatial orientation abilities, despite the fact that navigational deficits are heavily incapacitating in daily life. This lack of a specific test is probably due to theoretical vagueness of concepts in this field and important interindividual differences in spatial cognition. Here we propose a new standardized test assessing a fundamental component of spatial orientation-namely, mental imagery: Adequate mental visualization of the environment is indeed a necessary step in finding one's way. Two conditions of mental imagery were proposed to a group of 58 patients with a right cerebral lesion and to a control group (N = 117). The 1st condition assessed global, categorical imagery; the 2nd evaluated precise, metric imagery. We evaluated performance of the 2 groups in the 2 conditions and the impact of sociodemographic variables (age, gender, education). Results show that the right-lesioned patients presented difficulties in mental imagery, especially in the metric condition. Moreover, the data indicate a global impact of age and a milder effect of education on mental imagery abilities. Although sample sizes are sometimes small, preliminary normative data are given; already in the present form, they are usable and informative in assessing mental imagery, and more generally, spatial orientation, in a clinical practice.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the profitability indexes of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.

    2010-10-01

    The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant of the Federal Commission of Electricity has an installed capacity of 1,350 MW and unit 1 started commercial operation in 1990 and unit 2 in 1995. This paper is a synthesis of the results of a preliminary evaluation of the expected profitability indexes of the power plant during an economic lifetime of 40 years. The following data was used as input to the evaluation model prescribed by the Finance and Public Credit Secretary for public investment projects. Unit investment cost: 3,500 US D/k W; Fixed operation and maintenance cost: 54. 45 US D/year-k W; Variable operation and maintenance cost: 0. 38 US D/M Wh; Nuclear fuel cycle cost: 10. 28 US D/M Wh; Lifetime capacity factor: 85%; Discount rate: 12.0% per year; Sale price of electricity to the interconnected electric system: 80. 75 US D/M Wh. The output of the evaluation model is the following: Cost of electricity generated: 60. 2 1 US D/M Wh; fixed cost 49. 55 US D/M Wh; variable cost 10. 66 US D/M Wh; Internal rate of return (Irr): 18.0%; Benefit to cost quotient (B/C): 1.341. A very systematic sensitivity analysis was done, that shows that the cost is very sensitive to the capacity factor and to the investment cost, but is very insensitive to the fixed operation and maintenance cost and to the nuclear fuel cost. Finally, a comparison was made to the evaluation of the profitability indexes of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for the determination of anti-native DNA antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanet, C.; Soulie, E.; Absalon, Y.B.; Ocwieja, T.; Abuaf, N.

    1991-01-01

    The anti-native DNA antibodies were measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) type Farr assay in the sera from 648 patients: 108 with active or inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 181 with clinical symptoms of another connective tissue disease, 171 with liver diseases, 29 with different pathology and 159 normal sera were obtained from a blood bank. The anti-DNA kit has been calibrated against the first international units/ml. This assay has proved to be sensitive and specific, and appears to be reliable for the diagnosis and follow-up of SLE patients. The authors propose a new reference cut-off level higher than producer's one [fr

  5. Evaluation of the expression of sperm proteins in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men using monoclonal antibodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Jana; Kubátová, Alena; Děd, Lukáš; Teplá, O.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2016), s. 108-113 ISSN 1008-682X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : asthenozoospermia * flow cytometry * fluorescence microscopy * monoclonal antibodies * sperm proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2016 http://www.ajandrology.com/article.asp?issn=1008-682X;year=2016;volume=18;issue=1;spage=108;epage=113;aulast=Capkova

  6. Evaluation of a bovine antibody test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tacjana; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. Methods: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria......, corresponding to a sensitivity of 100% (54–100), specificity of 66% (60–72), a positive predictive value of 6% (2–13), and negative predictive value of 100% (98–100). Conclusion: While not suited for direct diagnosis of M. avium complex due to a high number of false positive subjects, the assay proved useful...

  7. Cryptosporidium infection in Bedouin infants assessed by prospective evaluation of anticryptosporidial antibodies and stool examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, G; Fraser, D; Orr, N; Sela, T; Slepon, R; Ambar, R; Dagan, R; Le Blancq, S; Deckelbaum, R J; Cohen, D

    2001-01-15

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system using oocyst lysate as antigen was used to detect serum- specific antibody responses to Cryptosporidium parvum between 1989 and 1994 in consecutive sera obtained at birth, and at the age of 6, 12, and 23 months, from 52 infants living in a Bedouin town located in the south of Israel. The serologic tests revealed high levels of immunoglobulin G anti-Cryptosporidium at birth that dropped significantly by the age of 6 months and then rose continuously to a geometric mean titer of 481 at age 23 months. The serum immunoglobulin M Cryptosporidium antibodies rose continuously from nearly undetectable levels at birth to a geometric mean titer of 471 (157-fold increase) at age 23 months. All the subjects already showed at 6 months a significant rise in immunoglobulin M. A significant rise in immunoglobulin A titers was detected in 48% and 91% of subjects at 6 and 23 months, respectively. By monthly surveillance, microscopy using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method and confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay detected Cryptosporidium antigens in only 11% at age 6 months and 48% at age 23 months. The extent of exposure to Cryptosporidium immediately after birth as detected by serology is much higher than that predicted by frequent prospective assessment of stool samples.

  8. Evaluation of anti-tuberculosis antibodies in healthy contact and non-contacts persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N; Bukhari, M.H; Muneer, M; Tayyab, M; Chaudhry, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to see the presence of the antimycobacterial antibodies in healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients and healthy normal subjects who have never been in contact with tuberculosis patients. A total of 200 subjects, 120 with history of household contact and 80 without such history were included in the study. Routine Haematological investigations were performed and all the sera of 200 subjects were tested who 19M, 19G and IgA anti tuberculosis antibodies using ELISA technique. There was no difference in the average age of the household contacts and non-contacts. The complaints of pyrexia, night sweats and loss of weight was more in house hold contacts as compared to non-contacts. The awareness about BCG vaccination was equal among the household contacts and non-contacts. The combined serological positivity of the household contacts was 65.8% and the combined serological positivity for non-contacts was 34.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of 19M among household contacts as compared to non-contacts. However both IgG and 19A were present in significantly higher number of household contacts as compared to non contacts. This study concludes that the persons living in the house with a patient suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis (household contact) have more chances of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as compared to the healthy non-contacts. (author)

  9. Evaluation of tumor targeting with radiolabeled F(ab2 fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Babaei MH

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Humanized monoclonal antibody U36 and its F(ab'2 fragment, radio labeled with 125I, were tested for tumor localization in nude mice bearing a squamous cell carcinoma xenograft line derived from a head and neck carcinoma. Monoclonal antibody IgG or F(ab'2 fragment were injected in parallel and at days 1, 2 and 3, mice were dissected for determination of isotope biodistribution. IgG as well as F(ab'2 showed highly specific localization in tumor tissue. The mean tumor uptake (n=3 is expressed as the percentage of the injected dose per gram of tumor tissue (%ID/g. %ID/g of IgG was 11.7% at day 1 and decreased to 10.9% at day 3 whereas %ID/g of F(ab'2 was 2.9% at day 1 and decreased on following days. Tumor to blood ratios (T/B at day 1 were 0.86 for IgG and 1.32 for F(ab'2 and reached a maximum at day 3 with values of 4.41 and 1.84 respectively. These findings suggest that the superior tumor to non-tumor ratios in the day of 1 render the F(ab'2 fragment more qualified for specific targeting radioisotopes to tumor xenografts in this exprimental setting.

  10. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Eperythrozoon suis antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F S; Liu, M C; Chou, S M; Zachary, J F; Smith, A R

    1992-03-01

    An ELISA was developed and tested to detect antibodies to Eperythrozoon suis in swine. Results were compared with those of the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Antigen isolated from swine heavily infected with E suis was used for both tests. Comparison of the ELISA with the IHA test revealed a significant (P less than 0.001) correlation between results. Of 114 samples obtained from 9 swine infected with E suis, 87.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 200) via the ELISA, and 80.7% were seropositive (titer greater than or equal to 20) via the IHA test. The sensitivity of the ELISA was greater than that of the IHA test. All blood samples obtained from specific-pathogen-free swine tested negative for E suis antibody. Cross-reactions were not observed between E suis antigen and antisera against various swine and cattle disease agents using ELISA. We concluded that the ELISA may be used for rapid and effective diagnosis of infection with E suis in swine.

  11. A preliminary evaluation of self-made nanobubble in contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfang; Wu, Kaizhi; Li, Jing; Liu, Haijuan; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale bubbles (nanobubbles) have been reported to improve contrast in tumor-targeted ultrasound imaging due to the enhanced permeation and retention effects at tumor vascular leaks. In this work, a self-made nanobubble ultrasound contrast agent was preliminarily characterized and evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Fundamental properties such as morphology appearance, size distribution, zeta potential, bubble concentration (bubble numbers per milliliter contrast agent suspension) and the stability of nanobubbles were assessed by light microscope and particle sizing analysis. Then the concentration intensity curve and time intensity curves (TICs) were acquired by ultrasound imaging experiment in-vitro. Finally, the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed on rat to investigate the procedure of liver perfusion. The results showed that the nanobubbles had good shape and uniform distribution with the average diameter of 507.9 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.527, and zeta potential of -19.17 mV. Significant contrast enhancement was observed in in-vitro ultrasound imaging, demonstrating that the self-made nanobubbles can enhance the contrast effect of ultrasound imaging efficiently in-vitro. Slightly contrast enhancement was observed in in-vivo ultrasound imaging, indicating that the nanobubbles are not stable enough in-vivo. Future work will be focused on improving the ultrasonic imaging performance, stability, and antibody binding of the nanoscale ultrasound contrast agent.

  12. Evaluation of Serum Specific Antibody against Recombinant ESAT-6 Antigen in Patients with Tuberculosis and Comparing to Normal Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Izadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Tuberculosis (TB is a zoonotic disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because of common structural and secretory antigens between pathogen and nonpathogenic mycobacterium, the specific diagnosis of TB is difficult. Therefore, it is very important to find a new method with high specificity and sensitivity for accurate and rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. In this study, the serodiagnostic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant ESAT-6 in TB infected patients was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Materials & Methods: 55 TB patients with active disease and 28 healthy controls have been collected and evaluated in different dilutions in ELISA methods for the presence of specific anti-ESAT-6 antibody. The specificity and the sensitivity of this method was compared with the culture test. Results: TB patients have high levels of specific antibody against ESAT-6 antigens. The specificity and the sensitivity of this method was calculated as 80.90% and 85.45%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings provide useful information on the importance of ESAT-6 protein and suggested this serologic test as a good alternative method for rapid and prefect diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  13. Evaluation of the Potency, Neutralizing Antibody Response, and Stability of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine for Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, E; HogenEsch, H; Dunham, A; Morefield, G

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Despite the increasing burden on global health caused by GAS, there is currently no licensed vaccine available. In this study, we evaluated immunogenicity, induction of neutralizing antibodies, and stability of a new recombinant fusion protein vaccine that targets infections from GAS. The recombinant fusion protein (SpeAB) combines inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). The SpeAB vaccine evaluated in this study was adsorbed to an aluminum adjuvant and demonstrated robust immunogenicity, eliciting production of specific neutralizing antibodies against SpeA and SpeB, two major virulence factors of S. pyogenes. Stability studies suggest that the vaccine will retain immunogenicity for at least 2 years when stored at refrigerated temperatures. This novel vaccine shows great potential to provide protection against GAS infections and to reduce the burden of GAS disease globally.

  14. Evaluation of the Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against DOG1 as a Diagnostic Marker for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hadi, M.; Hamam, S.M.; Bessa, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. With the growing effectiveness and availability of first and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs, the accurate diagnosis of GIST has become imperative. The problem is that some GISTs with KIT or Alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) mutations may have low KIT expression by immunohistochemistry yet will still benefit from TKI drugs. Molecular analysis is a costly and laborious process. Therefore the emergence of a new sensitive immunohistochemical marker for GISTs would be ideal. Recently antibodies against D iscovered on GIST-1 ( DOG1) have been generated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monoclonal DOG1.1 antibody as a diagnostic marker for GISTs and to compare immunohistochemical staining and diagnostic efficacy of DOG1.1 with that of KIT in GISTs. Materials and Methods: Forty seven paraffin embedded GISTs were immuno stained with both Kit and DOG1.1 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was graded semiquantitatively from 0 to 4. Some other mesenchymal tumors were included in the study and stained for both markers to test for their specificity. Results: Out of the 47 GISTs, 44 were immunoreactive for both KIT and DOG1.1 antibodies (93.62%). Two cases (4.25%) were KIT-positive DOG-negative and the remaining case was DOG-positive KIT-negative (2.13%). A statistically significant concordance was found between KIT and DOG1.1 immunoreactivity (p=0.004), with moderate agreement between immunostaining scores (kappa =0.379). As regards tumor site, a statistically significant association was found between high DOG1.1 scores and gastric GIST (p=0.008). High KIT and DOG1.1 immunostaining scores were significantly associated with high risk tumors (p=0.002 and p=0.002 respectively). DOG1.1 immunoreactivity was focal in more than half of the cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of DOG1.1 was 96.5%, with a specificity and

  15. Development and preliminary evaluation of the transsexual voice questionnaire for male-to-female transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacakis, Georgia; Davies, Shelagh; Oates, Jennifer M; Douglas, Jacinta M; Johnston, Judith R

    2013-05-01

    This study reports on the preliminary psychometric evaluation of the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire for Male-to-Female Transsexuals (MtF)-TVQ(MtF), a tool designed to measure the perceptions of MtF transsexuals regarding their voice. The TVQ(MtF) evolved from an extensive review of the existing Transgender Self-evaluation Questionnaire (TSEQ). This study was conducted in two phases. In phase I, the TSEQ was reviewed. In phase II, classical test theory was applied to examine two psychometric properties (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) of the TVQ(MtF). In phase I, two speech pathologists and two MtF individuals reviewed the TSEQ, and a comparison was made with the results of a thematic analysis of 137 voice-related extracts from the transcripts of in-depth interviews with 14 MtF individuals. In phase II, 29 Australian and six Canadian MtF transsexuals completed the new tool, the TVQ(MtF) twice with an interim period of 4-6 weeks to enable psychometric evaluation. Phase I led to substantial changes to the content and structure of the original measure, the TSEQ, and the subsequent development of the TVQ(MtF). In phase II, internal consistency of the TVQ(MtF) was found to be high (time 1 Cronbach's α=.964; time 2 α=.974). Excellent test-retest reliability was demonstrated (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.979; 95% confidence interval=0.968-0.988). This study provides psychometric evidence of the reliability of the TVQ(MtF). The MtF participants in this study reported a wide range of vocal functioning and voice-related difficulties. Voice pitch was reported as the most problematic aspect of vocal functioning, and psychosocial issues were the most frequently reported voice-related impacts. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Beary, M.M.; Gallagher, S.A.; Higley, B.A.; Johnston, R.G.; Jungfleisch, F.M.; Kupfer, M.J.; Palmer, R.A.; Watrous, R.A.; Wolf, G.A.

    1980-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of solid waste forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive defense wastes is presented. Nineteen different waste forms were evaluated and compared to determine their applicability and suitability for immobilization of Hanford salt cake, sludge, and residual liquid. This assessment was structured to address waste forms/processes for several different leave-retrieve long-term Hanford waste management alternatives which give rise to four different generic fractions: (1) sludge plus long-lived radionuclide concentrate from salt cake and residual liquid; (2) blended wastes (salt cake plus sludge plus residual liquid); (3) residual liquid; and (4) radionuclide concentrate from residual liquid. Waste forms were evaluated and ranked on the basis of weighted ratings of seven waste form and seven process characteristics. Borosilicate Glass waste forms, as marbles or monoliths, rank among the first three choices for fixation of all Hanford high-level wastes (HLW). Supergrout Concrete (akin to Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hydrofracture Process concrete) and Bitumen, low-temperature waste forms, rate high for bulk disposal immobilization of high-sodium blended wastes and residual liquid. Certain multi-barrier (e.g., Coated Ceramic) and ceramic (SYNROC Ceramic, Tailored Ceramics, and Supercalcine Ceramic) waste forms, along with Borosilicate Glass, are rated as the most satisfactory forms in which to incorporate sludges and associated radionuclide concentrates. The Sol-Gel process appears superior to other processes for manufacture of a generic ceramic waste form for fixation of Hanford sludge. Appropriate recommendations for further research and development work on top ranking waste forms are made

  17. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the applicability of F, V and AEsignals in diagnosis of ADI machining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myszka D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a preliminary evaluation was made of the applicability of the signals of the cutting forces, vibration and acoustic emission in diagnosis of the hardness and microstructure of ausferritic ductile iron and tool edge wear rate during its machining. Tests were performed on pearlitic-ferritic ductile iron and on three types of ausferritic ductile iron obtained by austempering at 400, 370 and 320°C for 180 minutes. Signals of the cutting forces (F, vibration (V and acoustic emission (AE were registered while milling each type of the cast iron with a milling cutter at different degrees of wear. Based on individual signals from all the sensors, numerous measures were determined such as e.g. the average or maximum signal value. It was found that different measures from all the sensors tested depended on the microstructure and hardness of the examined material, and on the tool condition. Knowing hardness of the material and the cutting tool edge condition, it is possible to determine the structure of the material .Simultaneous diagnosis of microstructure, hardness, and the tool condition is probably feasible, but it would require the application of a diagnostic strategy based on the integration of numerous measures, e.g. using neural networks.

  19. Evaluation of Podoplanin Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using RNAscope and Immunohistochemistry - A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioca, Andreea; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Ceausu, Raluca Amalia; Tarlui, Valeria; Toma, Alina; Marin, Irina; Raica, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in a variety of human cancer types, and contributes to tumor progression. Our goal was to evaluate PDPN expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNAscope in situ hybridization. Twenty patients with HCC who underwent partial hepatectomy with curative intent were retrospectively analyzed. IHC gave positive results in 11 cases, while RNAscope assay for PDPN detected amplification in 16 cases. A significant association was noted between PDPN protein expression and histological tumor grade (p=0.036). Four cases that had negative PDPN results by RNAscope were also negative by IHC, while the remaining five cases with negative results by IHC were positive by RNAscope. A positive relationship was found between PDPN mRNA protein expression (p<0.001). Our preliminary results suggest that PDPN contributes to the malignant potential of HCC. RNAscope proved to be a more sensitive and reliable method than IHC in PDPN detection. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik

    2016-01-01

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of 40 K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept

  2. A preliminary ocean ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) guide for climatic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.M.

    1990-07-01

    This guide was made to assist in the task of selecting sites for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) study. It is a preliminary attempt to provide mean annual and seasonal meteorological data that might be useful in initial climatic evaluations. It is not a finished product and will be added to in time to give other important information on parameters such as standard deviations, % of means and times, and other variances. In order to cover the spectrum of climatic factors to be considered, this generalized climatic guide was established from various publications to provide a diversified set of basic meteorological data that exists. To comply with other site selection restrictions, namely, synergism with other programs and scientific and logistical viability, this guide covers only the United States, except for the material at the end on Koppens World Climate Classification. It is anticipated that a similar guide will be made to cover the world's climate at a later date. 3 refs., 63 figs.

  3. Development and preliminary evaluation of a decision aid for disclosure of mental illness to employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohan, Elaine; Henderson, Claire; Slade, Mike; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-02-01

    Many mental health service users delay disclosing to employers or never do so due to previous experience of, or anticipation of discrimination. However, non-disclosure precludes requesting 'reasonable workplace adjustments'. Service users may experience conflicting needs and values in deciding whether to disclose. No evidence-based interventions exist to support this decision. A decision aid (CORAL, or COnceal or ReveAL) to support mental health service users in reaching disclosure decisions was developed and subjected to preliminary evaluation (n=15). The majority found the decision aid quick (60%) and relevant (60%) and would recommend it (80%). Eighty percent reported that they would definitely or probably use it in making disclosure decisions. Forty percent each were positive or neutral on its ease of use. Semi-structured interviews revealed a demand for more information on the legal implications of disclosure. The mean level of 'decisional conflict' regarding disclosure reduced from 52.0 to 35.5 and mean Stage of Decision-making Scale score from 4.6 to 4.3. The results suggest that the CORAL decision aid is feasible, relevant and valuable in supporting decisions about disclosing a mental illness to an employer. The decision aid could be deployed in routine care without significant resource implications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, Thamar E M; Kollmeier, Birger; Vormann, Matthias; Lyzenga, Johannes; Houtgast, Tammo; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Athalye, Sheetal P; Lutman, Mark E; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported disability and handicap, and cognition. Clinical applicability and comparability across different centres are investigated. Headphone tests were conducted in five centres divided over four countries. Effects of test-retest, ear, and centre were investigated. Results for normally-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners are presented. Thirty NH listeners aged 19-39 years, and 72 HI listeners aged 22-91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included. Test-retest reliability was generally good and there were very few right/left ear effects. Results of all tests were comparable across centres for NH listeners after baseline correction to account for necessary differences between test materials. For HI listeners, results were comparable across centres for the language-independent tests. The auditory profile forms a clinical test battery that is applicable in four different languages. Even after baseline correction, differences between test materials have to be taken into account when interpreting results of language-dependent tests in HI listeners.

  5. Preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of geological units from the Mesa de los Santos, Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Eliana Jimena; Contreras, Nathalia Maria; Pinto, Jorge Eduardo; Velandia, Francisco; Morales, Carlos Julio; Hincapie, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper present a preliminary hydrogeological evaluation of La Mesa de Los Santos' lithostratigraphic formations, based on the geological mapping, stratigraphy and inventory of water points. All this is supplemented with the analysis of primary porosity by means of the petrographic study and the secondary porosity related statistically with the quantity of fractures of each formation, as well as opening, interconnection and dip. It is made an approach to hydrogeological potential of the geologic outcropping formations in La Mesa de Los Santos, Department of Santander, from the stratigraphic and petrographic analysis and the structural features of these formations. The Upper Member of Los Santos Formation presents the highest potential because of rock's fracturing, continued by the Lower Member with low primary porosity and half fracturing. Silgara Formation, Granito de Pescadero, Jordan Formation and some sections of the sandy levels of the Rosablanca Formation presents a lowest potential due to its low porosity and low grade of fracturing. Low permeability is presented in the Middle Member of the Los Santos Formation, Paja and Tablazo formations, as well as in sectors of the fore mentioned formations and in the Quaternary deposits.

  6. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%. All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products.

  8. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  9. A preliminary clinical evaluation of external snehan and asanas in the patients of sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower back pain radiating to either on one leg or both legs along the course of sciatic nerve is a common ailment in the clinical practice, this type of peculiar symptomatology is termed as "Sciatica" in modern medicine. The medical treatment is unsatisfactory for both the patient and the neurosurgeons, as the surgical treatment has its own hazards and the cost of the surgical procedure and medical treatment is prohibitory to most of the Indian patients. Hence, most of the patients present themselves to the practitioners of Indian medicines like Ayurveda and yoga. This study was designed to evaluate the preliminary clinical effects of Bahya Snehan and Asanas in the patients of sciatica. This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Sciatica between 18 and 65 years of age were randomly assigned to receive Ayurvedic or Yogic measure. One group received Snehan (external with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana while another group received Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 4 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Katishool (pain, tenderness, Stambha (rigidity, difficulty in walking, pain on bending forward were graded and interpreted at the end of the trail Significant improvement was observed in both groups before and after external Snehan with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana and in another group Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Conclusions: Both groups, one with Snehan with asanas and the second with asanas only showed significant improvement in the patients of sciatica (Gridhrasi.

  10. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Kesterson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  11. A preliminary evaluation of hydroxyurea for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, L S; Thalji, K; Whitman, K; Albert, D A

    1995-09-01

    To obtain preliminary evidence on the safety and efficacy of low dose hydroxyurea as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Five patients with active RA unresponsive to conventional therapy were entered into a 12 week, open label trial of hydroxyurea followed by a one month postdrug evaluation. Three of the 4 patients completing the study had a decrease in morning stiffness and number of swollen and tender joints. All 4 patients had a decrease in pain and an increase in function as measured by a modified health assessment questionnaire. No patient had improvement in sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, or subjective measures of global well being. However, 3 of the 4 patients had disease flare after the drug was withdrawn, demonstrated by increased number of swollen and tender joints. Low dose hydroxyurea may be effective in the treatment of RA, but confirmation will require further testing by a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of patients with a broader spectrum of disease severity over a longer period of therapeutic intervention.

  12. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering, and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0–72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg TCC in the soap used. The TCC N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC′s major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study however failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  13. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Sardinian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%). All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of nickel/cadmium cells for a totally implantable ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhi Xin; Aiken, Peter A.; MacLean, Gregory K.; Adams, William A.

    A preliminary evaluation on the performance characteristics of three types of Ni/Cd cells was carried out in order to determine their potential usefulness in the internal (implantable) battery for the electrohydraulic ventricular assist device (EVAD) being developed at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute and University of Utah. The parameters studied at 37 °C were memory effect, discharge rate capability, self-discharge, surface temperature increase during charge and discharge and cycle life under the average power drain of the EVAD. Standard cells (designated 'S'), which were designed for room temperature use, suffered from a memory effect and had a low cycle life (114 cycles) and were, therefore, rejected for use in the EVAD. Two other types of cells (designated 'P' and 'H'), which were designed for higher temperature use, were comparable in their overall performance showing little or no memory effect and good cycle life (514 and 358 cycles, respectively). These latter two types of cells could be potential candidates for use in EVAD's internal battery.

  15. Prospective Preliminary In Vitro Investigation of a Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Conjugated with Ligand CD80 and VEGF Antibody As a Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Induction of Cell Death in Rodent Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Kay Kovach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80 for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA. The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80. Combined, these proteins have the ability to target OSA cells and induce apoptosis. The proposed system was tested on a cancerous rodent osteoblast cell line (ATCCTMNPO CRL-2836 at four different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/mL of ligand CD80 alone, VEGF antibody alone, and a combination thereof (CD80+VEGF. Systems were implemented every 24 h over different sequential treatment timelines: 24, 48, and 72 h, to find the optimal protein concentration required for a reduction in cell proliferation. Results demonstrated that a combination of ligand CD80 and VEGF antibody was consistently most effective at reducing aberrant osteoblastic proliferation for both the 24- and 72-h timelines. At 48 h, however, an increase in cell proliferation was documented for the 0.1 and 1 μg/mL groups. For the 24- and 72-h tests, concentrations of 1.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF and 0.1 μg/mL of VEGF antibody were most effective. Concentrations of 10.0 and 100.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF reduced cell proliferation, but not as remarkably as the 1.0 μg/mL concentration. In addition, cell proliferation data showed that multiple treatments (72-h test induced cell death in the osteoblasts better than a single treatment. Future targeted drug delivery system research includes trials in OSA cell lines from greater phylum

  16. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  17. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  18. Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei

    2014-12-01

    An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of three commercial rapid tests for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Baki, A; Kamarudin, R

    2003-08-01

    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.

  20. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  1. A new double-antibody sandwich ELISA targeting Plasmodium falciparum aldolase to evaluate anti-malarial drug sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Reto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard in vitro test to assess anti-malarial activity of chemical compounds is the [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay. It is a radioactivity-based method to measure DNA replication of Plasmodium in red blood cells. The method is highly reproducible, however, the handling of radioactive material is costly, hazardous and requires the availability of appropriate technology and trained staff. Several other ways to evaluate in vitro anti-malarial activity do exist, all with their own assets and limitations. Methods The newly developed double-antibody sandwich ELISA described here is based on the properties of a non-overlapping pair of monoclonal antibodies directed against Plasmodium falciparum aldolase. This glycolytic enzyme possesses some unique nucleotide sequences compared to the human isoenzymes and has been highly conserved through evolution. Out of twenty possibilities, the most sensitive antibody pair was selected and used to quantitatively detect parasite aldolase in infected blood lysates. Results A total of 34 compounds with anti-malarial activity were tested side-by-side by ELISA and the [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay. The novel ELISA provided IC50s closely paralleling those from the radioactivity-based assay (R = 0.99, p Conclusion The newly developed ELISA presents several advantages over the comparative method, the [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay. The assay is highly reproducible, less hazardous (involves no radioactivity and requires little and cheap technical equipment. Relatively unskilled personnel can conduct this user-friendly assay. All this makes it attractive to be employed in resource-poor laboratories.

  2. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Eran; Lachmi, Bat-El; Keren, Adi; Barnea, Ada; Marcus, Hadar; Cohen, Shoshana; David, Alon Ben; Zichel, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc) of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  3. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Diamant

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  4. Evaluation of Anti-TBGL Antibody in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Patients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingge Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous glycolipid (TBGL is a component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall, and anti-TBGL antibodies are used for serodiagnosis of tuberculosis. Anti-TBGL IgG and IgA levels were measured in 45 pulmonary TB patients (PTB, 26 extra-pulmonary TB patients (ETB, 16 AIDS-TB patients, and 58 healthy controls (HC including 39 health care workers (HW and 19 newly enrolled students (ST. Anti-TBGL IgG measurements yielded 68.9% and 46.2% sensitivity in PTB and ETB, respectively, and 81.0% specificity. However, anti-TBGL IgA measurements were significantly less sensitive in detecting ETB than PTB (15.4% versus 46.7% sensitivity but showed up to 89.7% specificity. Samples from AIDS-TB patients exhibited low reaction of anti-TBGL IgG and IgA with 6.3% and 12.5% sensitivity, respectively. Unlike anti-lipoarabinomannan (LAM IgG that was found to elevate in sputum smearpositive subjects, anti-TBGL IgG and IgA elevated in those with cavitation and bronchiectasis, respectively. Anti-TBGL IgG in cavitary TB yielded 78.2% sensitivity compared to 57.1% in those otherwise. Meanwhile, higher anti-TBGL IgA titers were observed in HW than in ST, and increasing anti-TBGL IgG titers were observed in HW on follow-up. Therefore, higher anti-TBGL antibody titers are present in patients presenting cavities and bronchiectasis and subjects under TB exposure risk.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay device for screening urine samples for the presence of sulphamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, M; Crabbe, P; Salden, M; Wichers, J; Van Peteghem, C; Kohen, F; Pieraccini, G; Moneti, G

    2003-07-01

    A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) device was developed and applied to testing urine samples for residues of the antimicrobial sulphamethazine (SMZ). This report describes the preparation of a rat monoclonal antibody to SMZ and its characterisation in an ELISA format. Apart from SMZ, the antibody showed high (> or =50%) cross-reactivity to N4-acetyl-sulphamethazine (55%), sulphamerazine (59%) and sulphisoxazole (50%) and lower cross-reactivity of 18% to sulphachlorpyridazine and sulphadiazine. The LFIA device consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with SMZ-ovalbumin and goat anti-mouse antibody as capture line and control line, respectively. Mouse anti-rat IgG F(ab')2 fragment specific antibody, adsorbed to colloidal carbon, was used as the detection ligand in the LFIA. The LFIA device had a cut-off value of 6.3 ng/ml in diluted (1/10) urine. Urine samples from SMZ-treated pigs, and bovine and porcine urine samples fortified with SMZ were used for a blind, four-laboratory evaluation of the performance of the LFIA device. Concentrations of SMZ in the test samples (n=29), as determined by LC-MS/MS, ranged from 0 (LFIA device showed an overall sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 71%, and positive and negative prediction values of 73% and 100%, respectively. The LFIA device has been fabricated as a test kit for determining SMZ residues in animals produced for slaughter.

  6. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico: a country example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosillo, Vera Heriberto; Quintero, Luengas Elisa; Guerrero, Namihira Delia; Suárez, Díaz Dante Sergio; Hernández, Muñúzuri Jorge Alejandro; Holmgren, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes.

  7. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico - a country example

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERMOSILLO, Vera Heriberto; QUINTERO, Luengas Elisa; GUERRERO, Namihira Delia; SUÁREZ, Díaz Dante Sergio; HERNÁNDEZ, Muñúzuri Jorge Alejandro; HOLMGREN, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. Results: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. Conclusion: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes. PMID:21499665

  8. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico: a country example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Heriberto Hermosillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. RESULTS: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. CONCLUSION: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes.

  9. Evaluation of additive effects of hydrolyzed jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) esters and glycerol: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jaimi; Marshall, Brooke; Gacula, Maximo; Rheins, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations. Additional mechanistic studies are underway.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for behavioral effects in feral horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D M

    1999-01-01

    Successful management of captive populations of wild animals requires effective control of reproduction. Contraception is one tool for controlling reproduction of animals in zoos; however, the options available to the animal manager are limited. Contraceptives vary in efficacy, reversibility, and side effects, and thus may not be suitable for widespread use. One consideration when selecting a contraceptive is its potential for side effects on behavior, especially given the fact that reproduction plays such a prominent role in the biology of any species. To date, there have been few evaluations of contraceptives for behavioral effects, and those that have been conducted have focused on hormone-based contraceptives. This study sought to evaluate a novel method of population control, immunocontraception, for behavioral effects in a population of feral horses. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception prevents fertilization of ova and does not alter normal hormone secretion patterns. It therefore should leave the animal behaviorally intact in terms of reproductive behavior. The study examined the behavior of 43 sexually mature mares on Assateague Island during the 1997 breeding season and, with help from Earthwatch volunteers, collected observations over a 3-month period. The study found no significant differences between treated and untreated mares in general activity budget, aggression given or received, and spatial relationships relative to the stallion. These preliminary findings indicate that PZP contraception seems to have no acute behavioral effects on the behavior of individuals. The study findings also suggest that PZP could be a desirable and effective management tool for captive species in which social behavior plays an integral role in group dynamics. Analyses of group level effects and population level effects are continuing.

  11. Stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks: A preliminary study evaluating alcohol and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W

    2017-06-01

    The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e.g., demand). The overall goal of the present study was to evaluate the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks. Participants were sampled from the Amazon.com's crowdsourcing platform Mechanical Turk. Participants completed either alcohol and soda purchase tasks (Experiment 1; N = 139) or cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks (Experiment 2; N = 46), and demand metrics were compared to self-reported use behaviors. Demand metrics for alcohol and soda were closely associated with commodity-similar (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly alcohol use) but not commodity-different (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly soda use) variables. A similar pattern was observed for cigarette and chocolate demand, but selectivity was not as consistent as for alcohol and soda. Collectively, we observed robust selectivity for alcohol and soda purchase tasks and modest selectivity for cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks. These preliminary outcomes suggest that demand metrics adequately reflect the specific commodity under study and support the continued use of purchase tasks in substance use research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Immunoscintigraphy of septic loosening of knee endoprosthesis: a retrospective evaluation of the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, Rigobert; Khalisi, Alexander; Puille, Maximillian; Steiner, Dagmar; Bauer, Richard [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Giessen, Friedrichstrasse 25, 35385, Giessen (Germany); Kordelle, Jens [Orthopedic Clinic, University Hospital Giessen (Germany); Stahl, Ulrich [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Giessen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Immunoscintigraphy with the use of the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183 is a reliable method for detecting infection, especially in septic loosening of hip prostheses, for which purpose quantitative interpretation of the time-activity course is employed. Therefore, we retrospectively studied whether similar results could be achieved in knee prostheses. We verified 28 scintigraphic examinations in 26 patients by histology. Scintigraphy was performed during an early (4-6 h post injection) and a late phase (23-25 h post injection). Infection was diagnosed when activity around the knee prosthesis increased by more than 10% compared with bone marrow. We found a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 100%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 81% and an accuracy of 89%. Specificity and accuracy are lower than in the evaluation of hip prostheses; however, in comparison to other scintigraphic modalities, scintigraphy with the antigranulocyte antibody BW 250/183 is superior in excluding infection and has better specificity and accuracy. Therefore, as in the case of hip prostheses, the described methodology appears to be the scintigraphic modality of choice for knee prostheses. (orig.)

  13. Recent advances in the characterization of HIV-1 neutralization assays for standardized evaluation of the antibody response to infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonis, Victoria R; Brown, Bruce K; Rosa Borges, Andrew; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Barnett, Susan W; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fenyö, Eva-Maria; Montefiori, David C; McCutchan, Francine E; Michael, Nelson L

    2008-06-05

    In AIDS vaccine development the pendulum has swung towards a renewed emphasis on the potential role for neutralizing antibodies in a successful global vaccine. It is recognized that vaccine-induced antibody performance, as assessed in the available neutralization assays, may well serve as a "gatekeeper" for HIV-1 subunit vaccine prioritization and advancement. As a result, development of a standardized platform for reproducible measurement of neutralizing antibodies has received considerable attention. Here we review current advancements in our knowledge of the performance of different types of antibodies in a traditional primary cell neutralization assay and the newer, more standardized TZM-bl reporter cell line assay. In light of recently revealed differences (see accompanying article) in the results obtained in these two neutralization formats, parallel evaluation with both platforms should be contemplated as an interim solution until a better understanding of immune correlates of protection is achieved.

  14. In depth evaluation of the prognostic and predictive utility of PTEN immunohistochemistry in colorectal carcinomas: performance of three antibodies with emphasis on intracellular and intratumoral heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágoston, Emese Irma; Micsik, Tamás; Ács, Balázs; Fekete, Krisztina; Hahn, Oszkár; Baranyai, Zsolt; Dede, Kristóf; Bodoky, György; Bursics, Attila; Kulka, Janina; Krenács, Tibor; Győrffy, Balázs; Harsányi, László; Szász, A Marcell

    2016-07-08

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome 10 (PTEN) loss of function is frequently detected in advanced colorectal cancer. Its detection is thought to have prognostic significance and it is being considered to predict responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapy. Unfortunately, while immunohistochemical assessment of PTEN expression is widespread, it lacks standardization and the results are hardly comparable across the available publications. Retrospectively collected, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded colorectal tumor tissue samples from 55 patients were combined into tissue microarray (TMA) blocks. We used three different PTEN antibodies to determine the frequency, intensity and intracellular pattern of PTEN immunohistochemical labeling: Neomarkers, Dako and CellSignaling. We evaluated the aforementioned parameters in selected regions of colorectal cancers and in their lymph node metastases by using three scoring methods that take into consideration both staining frequency and intensity (H1-H3-score). We also evaluated intracellular localization. The Dako and CellSignaling antibodies stained predominantly cytoplasms, while the Neomarkers antibody specifically stained cell nuclei. PTEN H-scores were significantly lower in all tumor areas as compared to the normal colonic mucosa based on staining with the DAKO and CellSignaling antibodies. Intratumoral regional differences or differences between matching tumors and metastases were not detected with any of the antibodies. Neither Dako, neither CellSignaling, nor the Neomarkers antibodies revealed a significant correlation between PTEN expression and pT, Dukes/MAC and clinical stage. KRAS status, histological grade correlated with PTEN H-scores based on staining with the Neomarkers antibody. PTEN H-scores did not correlate with MMR status. PTEN H-scores did not show any correlation with relapse-free survival based on staining with either antibody. While PTEN expression decreased in colorectal cancer according

  15. Immunohistochemical evaluation of podoplanin in odontogenic tumours & cysts using anti-human podoplanin antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Namrata; Khanduri, Nitin; Kurup, Deepak; Gupta, Brijesh; Mitra, Pranjan; Chawla, Roshani

    2017-01-01

    Odontogenic Cysts & tumors originate through some aberration from the normal pattern of odontogenesis. Ameloblastoma is one of the most frequent intraosseous odontogenic tumors. However it is no longer appropriate to use the diagnosis of ameloblastoma without specifying the type. Varied-clinical entities of ameloblastoma differ in their biologic behaviour. Odontogenic cysts like dentigerous and radicular cysts are less aggressive in nature than odontogenic tumors. Recently, podoplanin commonly used as a lymphatic endothelial marker in cancers has recently been found to play a possible role in odontogenic tumorigenesis also. Therefore the purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically analyse the expression of podoplanin in ameloblastomas, KCOTs, dentigerous cysts, radicular cysts & dental follicles. Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 15 Ameloblastomas (7 follicular, 6 unicystic, 2 desmoplastic),10KCOTs, 5 dentigerous cysts, 5 radicular cysts & 5 dental follicles were immunohistochemically examined using antibody against podoplanin. All ameloblastomas displayed podoplanin expression in ameloblast-like cells of the epithelial islands while the stellate-reticulum like cells exhibited no or weak immunostaining. Expression of podoplanin in KCOTs was strongly positive in the cells of the basal and suprabasal layers & odontogenic epithelial nests. Positive immunoreaction for podoplanin was observed in the inflammatory radicular cysts and inflamed dentigerous cyst only and negative or weak expression in the lining epithelium of uninflamed dentigerous cysts and dental follicles. Our results suggest that podoplanin can be used as a potential proliferative marker to observe the aggressive behaviour of ameloblastomas and KCOTs.

  16. Performance evaluation of phage-displayed synthetic human single-domain antibody libraries: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A; Tanha, Jamshid

    2018-05-01

    Fully human synthetic single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are desirable therapeutic molecules but their development is a considerable challenge. Here, using a retrospective analysis of in-house historical data, we examined the parameters that impact the outcome of screening phage-displayed synthetic human sdAb libraries to discover antigen-specific binders. We found no evidence for a differential effect of domain type (V H or V L ), library randomization strategy, incorporation of a stabilizing disulfide linkage or sdAb display format (monovalent vs. multivalent) on the probability of obtaining any antigen-binding human sdAbs, instead finding that the success of library screens was primarily related to properties of target antigens, especially molecular mass. The solubility and binding affinity of sdAbs isolated from successful screens depended both on properties of the sdAb libraries (primarily domain type) and the target antigens. Taking attrition of sdAbs with major manufacturability concerns (aggregation; low expression) and sdAbs that do not recognize native cell-surface antigens as independent probabilities, we calculate the overall likelihood of obtaining ≥1 antigen-binding human sdAb from a single library-target screen as ~24%. Successful library-target screens should be expected to yield ~1.3 human sdAbs on average, each with average binding affinity of ~2 μM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of insulin by the double antibody method. Evaluation of the technique in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojckikowski, C.; Zakoslki, W.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simplified procedure for the radioimmunoassay of insulin by the double antibody method. Anti-insulin serum was obtained by immunizing guinea pigs with porcine insulin suspended in Freund's incomplete adjuvant supplemented with Hemophilus pertussis vaccine. After two injections, sera from four guinea pigs diluted 1:10,000 bound more than 70% of the 125 I-insulin added. Under the conditions of the method, the insulin binding reagent bound 43%+-5% (n=94) of added 125 I-insulin. Accuracy of the method in simultaneous series for insulin concentrations of 27 μU/ml and 49 μU/ml was +-5% and +-7% respectively; and in a nonsimultaneous series of determinations for insulin concentrations of 21 μU/ml and 77 μU/ml, +-11% and +-8%. Recovery of insulin added to human plasma was 104%. Concentrations of insulin in the plasma of healthy fasting subjects ranged from 5-22 μU/ml (m=13+-5 μU/ml; n=21). The results were in complete agreement with results obtained by the use of the Amersham radioimmunoassay insulin kit. (author)

  18. Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Lindsay; Kirby, Miranda; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David G.; Parraga, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ( 3 He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for 3 He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, 1 H MRI and hyperpolarized 3 He MRI at 3.0 T. 3 He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from 3 He static ventilation images and 1 H thoracic images and the 3 He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant 3 He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for 3 He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  19. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bas, Ahmet, E-mail: dr.ahmetbas@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Gulsen, Fatih, E-mail: drfgulsen@yahoo.com; Cantasdemir, Murat, E-mail: cantasdemir@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kabasakal, Levent, E-mail: lkabasakal@tsnm.org [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kantarci, Fatih, E-mail: fatihkan@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Numan, Furuzan, E-mail: f.numan@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE.

  20. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopka, Klaus; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [ 123 I]NaI or [ 125 I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [ 123 I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[ 123 I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo

  1. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions. Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively. Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions. Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences. Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson

  2. ELISA test for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies detection evaluated by a computer screen photo-assisted technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, D; Tejle, K; Lundström, I

    2005-08-15

    The computer screen photo-assisted technique (CSPT), a method for substance classification based on spectral fingerprinting, which involves just a computer screen and a web camera as measuring platform is used here for the evaluation of a prospective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA-ELISA) test, typically used for diagnosing patients suffering from chronic inflammatory disorders in the skin, joints, blood vessels and other tissues is comparatively tested with a standard microplate reader and CSPT, yielding equivalent results at a fraction of the instrumental costs. The CSPT approach is discussed as a distributed measuring platform allowing decentralized measurements in routine applications, whereas keeping centralized information management due to its natural network embedded operation.

  3. On the use of {sup 76}Br-labelled monoclonal antibodies for PET : Preclinical evaluation of halogenated antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Johanna

    2002-07-01

    Radioactive substances are used in vivo to localize and characterize malignant tumours, generally by scintigraphic methods. In this context positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may provide a sensitive and specific method for detection of cancer. Individual dose calculations, based on such PET measurements, may be carried out to predict the possible use of mAbs labelled with therapeutic nuclides. The positron emitter {sup 76}Br, with a half-life of 16 h, is a well-suited candidate for radiolabelling and PET imaging. One drawback of radio bromine is that bromide, the ultimate catabolite after degradation of brominated mAb, is only tardily excreted from the body and is evenly distributed throughout the extracellular space, thereby increasing the background radioactivity. The aim of this work was to produce {sup 76}Br-mAb preparations with high accumulation and retention in tumour tissue together with a quick clearance of {sup 76}Br-labelled catabolites. Furthermore, the possibility to use brominated or iodinated mAbs in combination with PET to predict {sup 211}At-mAb dosimetry was evaluated. Monoclonal Abs directed against colorectal cancer were labelled with {sup 76}Br using the direct Chloramine-T-method or indirectly by labelling the precursor molecule N-succinimidyl para-(tri-methylstannyl) benzoate with {sup 76}Br, which was subsequently conjugated to the mAbs. Monoclonal Ab A33 labelled with {sup 76}Br using the two labelling protocols was characterized in vitro and in vivo in a rat tumour xenograft model. The mAb A33 was also labelled with 125I for comparison. In addition, mAb A33 was labelled with {sup 211}At, 125I and {sup 76}Br using the indirect labelling protocol and the mAb pharmacokinetics was studied in normal rats in order to estimate if data from brominated or iodinated mAb could be used for dosimetry of {sup 211}At in healthy organs and tissue. In conclusion, both direct and indirect

  4. Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

    2012-06-01

    Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27, a commercial ELISA, and Western blot Tsol-p27/TsolHSP36, and compared them with a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) that we regarded as the gold standard method. The analyzed serum samples were obtained from 160 patients: 94 epileptics suspected of NCC, six individuals confirmed NCC-positive, and 60 with positive (30) or negative (30) serology for Chagas diseases. Of the 100 serum samples from epileptic patients, 13 were positive and 87 negative by EITB. Compared to Western blot Tsol-p27, immunodot blot Tsol-p27 offered similar specificity (97.8% vs. 95.6%) but better sensitivity (86.7% vs. 76.4%). The ELISA was similar to the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 regarding both sensitivity and specificity. Western blot TsolHSP36 provided the lowest sensitivity (61.9%) and specificity (86.1%). None of the antibodies in the serum samples from the Chagas control groups were recognized by immunodot blot Tsol-p27. Our results indicate that the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 provides good sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, considering the simplicity and low cost of this test, it might be preferable as a diagnostic method in poorly equipped laboratories in endemic countries.

  5. Preliminary Studies on the Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Mycelia of Ganoderma boninense, the Causal Pathogen of Basal Stem Rot of Oil Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to raise specific MAbs against G. boninense, the causal pathogen of basal stem rot (BSR of oil palm. Crude mycelium extract of G. boninense was used as immunogen to generate MAbs. Mycelium was harvested from liquid culture and freeze-dried followed by re-suspension in phosphate buffer saline (PBS. Two 10-week old BALB-C mice were immunized with the mycelial extract. The mice were boosted once before harvesting their spleens for fusion. The MAbs were fused with myeloma cells from BALB-C mice. Initial screening was carried out using plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA with mycelial immunogen of G. boninense. The MAbs with positive signals were verified via secondary screening and cloned for cross-reactivity test. Cross-reactivity testing was carried out with 2 other fungi namely; Trichoderma and Botrytis along with 2 different species of Ganoderma commonly found in oil palm plantations namely; G. zonatum, and G. miniatocinctum. This study found that the MAbs raised against G. boninense were not specific as the MAbs gave positive signals through the cross-reactivity test with all fungi tested in the cross-reactivity. Future work would be using these MAbs in a co-immunization program whereby the generated Ganoderma sp generic monoclonal antibody will be pre-mixed with the G. boninense mycelium immunogen to allow reduction in the potential cross-reactivity of newly generated antibodies with Ganoderma sp. Our efforts are also currently directed at optimizing the immunogen preparation for the production of MAbs specific to G. boninense.

  6. Preliminary development of flaw evaluation procedures for delayed hydride cracking initiation under hydride non-ratcheting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)

  7. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced

  8. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-02-15

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.

  9. Evaluation of three commercial bovine ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against Alphaherpesviruses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoccoz Nigel G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus (family Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a group of viruses genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 among which cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2 can be of importance in reindeer. These viruses are known to be responsible for different diseases in both wild and domestic animals. Reindeer are a keystone in the indigenous Saami culture and previous studies have reported the presence of antibodies against alphaherpesviruses in semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Norway. Mortality rates, especially in calves, can be very high in some herds and the abortion potential of alphaherpesvirus in reindeer, unlike in bovines, remains unknown. ELISA kits are the most used screening method in domestic ruminants and given the close genetic relationship between viruses within this genus, it might be possible to use such kits to screen cervids for different alphaherpesviruses. We have compared three different commercial ELISA kits in order to validate its use for reindeer and CvHV-2. Methods Three commercial bovine ELISA kits (A, B and C, using either indirect (A or blocking (B and C ELISA techniques to detect antibodies against BoHV-1 were tested with sera from 154 reindeer in order to detect antibodies against CvHV-2. A Spearman's rank-based coefficient of correlation (ρ was calculated. A dilution trial was performed for all kits. A virus neutralization test using both BoHV-1 and CvHV-2 was carried out. Results Seroprevalence was almost the same with all kits (40–41%. Despite a similar qualitative score, quantitatively kits classified samples differently and a strong correlation was only identified between Kits B and C. Blocking kits performed better in both repeatability and in the dilution trial. The virus neutralization results confirmed the ELISA results to a very high degree. Neutralizing titres ranged from 1:2 to 1:256 and from 0 to 1:16 against CvHV-2 and Bo

  10. Evaluation of an In-house indirect ELISA for detection of antibody against haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankaew, Pallop; Singh-La, Thawatchai; Titaram, Chatchote; Punyapornwittaya, Veerasak; Vongchan, Preeyanat; Sawada, Takuo; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2017-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes haemorrhagic septicemia in livestock and wild animals, including elephants. The disease has been reported in Asian elephants in India and Sri Lanka, but to date there have been no reported cases in Thailand. ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays (IHA) have been demonstrated to be able to detect the antibody against the disease in cattle, but no data are available for elephants. The present study reports a novel in-house indirect ELISA for antibody detection of haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian elephants, and evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of the method using a Bayesian approach. The characteristics of ELISA and IHA were analyzed using a one population Bayesian model assuming conditional dependence between these two diagnostic tests. The IHA was performed as recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) manual for haemorrhagic septicemia. An in-house indirect ELISA was developed with a heat extract antigen of P. multocida strain M-1404 (serovar B:2) as a coating antigen and rabbit anti-immunoglobulin G conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (eIgG-HRP). The checkerboard titration method was done using elephant sera immunized with P. multocida bacterin and negative sera from colostrum-deprived elephant calves. The concentrations of heat extract antigen (160μg/ml), sample serum (1:100), and eIgG-HRP (1:1000) were optimal for the assay. The calculated cut-off value was 0.103. Of the elephant sera, 50.59% (43/85) were considered seropositive by ELISA. The sensitivity of the ELISA test was higher than that of the IHA test [median=86.5%, 95% posterior probability interval (PPI)=52.5-98.9%] while the specificity was lower (median=54.1%, PPI=43.6-64.7%). The median sensitivity and specificity of IHA were 80.5% (PPI=43.8-98.0%) and 78.4% (PPI=69.0-87.0%), respectively. These findings suggest that our in-house indirect ELISA can be used as a tool to detect the antibody against haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian

  11. Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, E L; Liebes, L; Wasserheit, C; Noz, M E; Blank, E W; Zabalegui, A; Melamed, J; Furmanski, P; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate radiometal-labeled humanized BrE-3 (huBrE-3) monoclonal antibody as a radioimmunolocalization and therapeutic agent in breast cancer patients, tumor localization, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, and immunogenicity of (111)In-labeled combined 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 3-methyl- and 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 4-methyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (MX-DTPA) huBrE-3 were studied. Seven women with BrE-3 antigen-positive, metastatic breast carcinoma underwent (111)In huBrE-3 infusion (5 mCi; 50 mg), followed by serial gamma camera imaging and plasma sampling. Region of interest analysis of images was used to make radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3. Data were extrapolated to 90Y huBrE-3. Human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response was measured in serum samples obtained up to 3 months after infusion. Patients tolerated infusions well. Seventy-six percent of 105 known sites of disease were identified on planar and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. For six of seven patients, a biexponential model fit the plasma time-activity curve best with an average T1/2alpha=10.6+/-8.5 (SD) h and average T1/2beta=114.2+/-39.2 h. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3 for whole body averaged 0.53+/-.08 rads/mCi. Dose estimates for 90Y huBrE-3 for marrow averaged 8.4+/-11.9 rads/mCi, and for tumors, 70+/-31.5 rads/mCi. Liver radioactivity uptake averaged 19.7+/-8.8% injected dose at 24 h after infusion, translating into an average radiation absorbed dose 21.1+/-12 rads/90Y mCi administered. Only one of seven patients demonstrated a low level of HAHA response. Although the plasma half-lives are longer and marrow dose higher for radiolabeled huBrE-3 compared with the murine construct, the excellent tumor localization, good tumor dosimetry, and low immunogenicity support the use of 90Y-huBrE-3 antibody for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer.

  12. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  13. Evaluation of the clinical relevance of anti-annexin-A5 antibodies in Chinese patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wu, Ziyan; Li, Jing; Wen, Xiaoting; Li, Liubing; Zhang, Wen; Zhao, Jiuliang; Zhang, Fengchun; Li, Yongzhe

    2017-02-01

    A hallmark feature of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). Few studies have addressed the clinical relevance of anti-annexin A5 antibodies (aANXA5) in Chinese patients with APS. In this study, we evaluated the clinical performance of aANXA5 in the diagnosis of APS. Sera from 313 subjects were tested, including 170 samples from patients with APS, 104 samples from patients with non-APS diseases as disease controls (DC), and 39 healthy controls (HC). Serum IgG and IgM aANXA5 were determined by ELISA. Overall, the levels of both IgG and IgM aANXA5 were significantly increased in patients with primary APS (PAPS) and APS associated to other diseases (APSAOD) compared with DC and HC. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for IgG and IgM aANXA5 in the diagnosis of APS were 33.5 and 15.3, 99.0 and 99.0, 98.3 and 96.3, and 47.7 and 41.7%, respectively. Significant associations between IgG aANXA5 and arterial thrombotic events (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.44-4.71) and between IgG aANXA5 and venous thrombotic events (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.55-5.06) were identified. No correlations were identified between IgG or IgM aANXA5 and obstetric complications. Our data suggest that aANXA5 could serve as a diagnosis biomarker for patients with APS. More importantly, our data highlighted a potential role of IgG aANXA5 in identifying APS patients with high risk of thrombosis.

  14. Preliminary seismic evaluation and ranking of bridges on and over the parkways in Western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Five parkways in Western Kentucky are located in the region that is greatly influenced by the New Madrid and Wabash Valley Seismic Zones. This report executes a preliminary screening process, known also as the Seismic Rating System, for bridges on an...

  15. Experimental study of sodium droplet burning in free fall. Evaluation of preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shinya; Ara, Kuniaki

    1998-08-01

    To study a sodium leak and combustion behavior phenomenologically and to construct the mechanistic evaluation method, an experimental series of a sodium droplet burning in free fall is under way. In this study, the accuracy of measurement technique used in the preliminary test was assessed and the modified technique was proposed for the next test series. Analytical study of the test results was also conducted to deduce dominant parameters and important measurement items which would play an important role in the droplet combustion behavior. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Assessment of measurement accuracy and modified technique proposed for the next test series. a) Control accuracy of sodium supply system using β-alumina solid electrolyte was sufficient for generation of objective size of single droplet. However, it is necessary to calibrate the correlation between the quantity of electric charge for sodium supply system and that of supplied sodium. b) Measurement accuracy of falling velocity using high-speed video was ±0.33 m/s at an upper part and ±0.48 m/s at a lower part of the measurement. To reduce the error, a high-speed stroboscopic method is recommended to measure the falling velocity of droplet. (2) Results of analytical study and deduced dominant parameters and important measurement items. a) The falling behavior of a burning droplet was described solving the equation of free falling motion for a rigid sphere. In the case of higher falling height, it is necessary to study the burning effects on the falling behavior. b) The mass burned of a falling droplet was calculated using the combustion model according to 'D 2 ' law during the full burning phase. It is necessary to study the dominant chemical reaction in the burning flame because the mass burned depends on the composition of the reaction products. c) The mass burned was calculated using surface oxidation model for preignition phase together with above model. However, it is

  16. Evaluation of a novel noninvasive ICP monitoring device in patients undergoing invasive ICP monitoring: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganslandt, Oliver; Mourtzoukos, Stylianos; Stadlbauer, Andreas; Sommer, Björn; Rammensee, Rudolf

    2017-08-08

    OBJECTIVE There is no established method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (NI-ICP) monitoring that can serve as an alternative to the gold standards of invasive monitoring with external ventricular drainage or intraparenchymal monitoring. In this study a new method of NI-ICP monitoring performed using algorithms to determine ICP based on acoustic properties of the brain was applied in patients undergoing invasive ICP (I-ICP) monitoring, and the results were analyzed. METHODS In patients with traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage who were undergoing treatment in a neurocritical intensive care unit, the authors recorded ICP using the gold standard method of invasive external ventricular drainage or intraparenchymal monitoring. In addition, the authors simultaneously measured the ICP noninvasively with a device (the HS-1000) that uses advanced signal analysis algorithms for acoustic signals propagating through the cranium. To assess the accuracy of the NI-ICP method, data obtained using both I-ICP and NI-ICP monitoring methods were analyzed with MATLAB to determine the statistical significance of the differences between the ICP measurements obtained using NI-ICP and I-ICP monitoring. RESULTS Data were collected in 14 patients, yielding 2543 data points of continuous parallel ICP values in recordings obtained from I-ICP and NI-ICP. Each of the 2 methods yielded the same number of data points. For measurements at the ≥ 17-mm Hg cutoff, which was arbitrarily chosen for this preliminary analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for the NI-ICP monitoring were found to be 0.7541 and 0.8887, respectively. Linear regression analysis indicated that there was a strong positive relationship between the measurements. Differential pressure between NI-ICP and I-ICP was within ± 3 mm Hg in 63% of data-paired readings and within ± 5 mm Hg in 85% of data-paired readings. The receiver operating characteristic-area under the curve analysis revealed that the area

  17. Phytochemical constituents and preliminary toxicity evaluation of leaves from Rourea induta Planch. (Connaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kalegari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most active plants are toxic at high doses and it is therefore important to investigate the preliminary toxicity of plant extracts. The Rourea induta species is a potential drug with no phytochemical or biological studies registered in the literature. Thus, a phytochemical study and a toxicity analysis of the ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae, was run. A long chain hydrocarbon, n-tetracosane, and four flavonoids were identified: quercetin, and three glycosylated derivates, quercetin-3-O-α-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-xyloside and quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside. This is the first time these have been isolated in this species. The structures were elucidated by 13C NMR, ¹H NMR, UV and IR spectroscopy. The toxicity evaluation of extracts was performed by the brine shrimp method and determination of hemolytic activity. The samples demonstrated no toxic potential by the analyzed methods.A maioria das plantas ativas é tóxica em doses elevadas, portanto, é importante a investigação da toxicidade preliminar dos extratos das plantas. A espécie Rourea induta é uma droga potencial que não apresenta estudo fitoquímico ou biológico descrito na literatura. Assim, um estudo fitoquímico e análises toxicológicas foram realizados com o extrato etanólico obtido das folhas de Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae. Foram obtidos um hidrocarboneto de cadeia longa, n-tetracosano, e quatro flavonóides, quercetina e três derivados glicosilados, quercetina-3-O-α-arabinofuranosideo, quercetina-3-O-β-xilosideo e quercetina-3-O-β-galactosideo. Esta é a primeira vez que estes compostos são isolados nesta espécie. As estruturas foram elucidadas por espectroscopia de RMN-13C, RMN-¹H, ultravioleta e infravermelho. A avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi analisada pelo método da Artemia salina e atividade hemolítica. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentou um potencial tóxico pelos m

  18. Preliminary evaluation of rechargeable lithium cells for a totally-implantable ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Gregory K.; Xin Shu, Zhi; Aiken, Peter A.; Eng, Isaac I.; Adams, William A.

    A preliminary evaluation of the performance characteristics for three types of rechargeable, 'AA' size, lithium cell chemistries, namely Li/TiS 2 (two different manufacturers), Li/MoS 2 and Li/MnO 2, was carried out in order to determine their potential usefulness in the internal (implanted) battery for the electrohydraulic ventricular assist device (EVAD) being developed. The major parameters studied at 37 °C were discharge rate capability, self-discharge and cycle life. The cycle life of the lithium cells above the minimum 30 min discharge time specified for EVAD were short, with the Li/MoS 2, Li/MnO 2 and two Li/TiS 2 cells giving 80, ˜ 11, 37 and 101 cycles, respectively, under pulsed discharge conditions. The 24 H, self-discharge study of all the cells at 37 °C showed < 1.2% decrease in capacity. Discharge rate studies showed that the Li/TiS 2 cells from both manufacturers offered higher observed specific energies (85 and 133 W h/kg) and energy densities (203 and 273 W h/l), lower internal resistances (155 and 84 mΩ) and larger observed capacities (0.83 and 1.00 A h) when compared to the Li/MoS 2 (49 W h/kg, 126 W h/l, 153 mΩ and 0.58 A h, respectively) and Li/MnO 2 (56 W h/kg, 131 W h/l, 350 mΩ and 0.39 A h, respectively) cells operating under average EVAD load conditions. The cycle life and operating times of cells that were pulse discharged to mimic actual EVAD operating conditions were shorter than those that underwent cycling with an average EVAD load. When compared to other energy sources and the EVAD design specification, it was concluded that none of these prototype lithium cells were currently suitable for use in the EVAD due to their low cycle life.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells for an implantable battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, G.K. [Cardiovascular Devices Div., Univ. Ottawa, Heart Inst., ON (Canada); Aiken, P.A. [Cardiovascular Devices Div., Univ. Ottawa, Heart Inst., ON (Canada); Adams, W.A. [Electrochemical Science and Technology Centre, Univ. Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mussivand, T. [Cardiovascular Devices Div., Univ. Ottawa, Heart Inst., ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the performance characteristics of 1.08 Ah lithium-ion cells was undertaken utilizing operating conditions similar to that required for an implanted medical device, such as a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart, in order to determine their potential usefulness for this application. The major parameters studied at 22 or 37 C were discharge-rate capability, specific energy and energy density, surface temperature, self-discharge and cycle life. The discharge loads used in the cycle-life study were either constant or pulsatile, with the constant discharge load being equivalent to the average of the pulsatile load. The lithium-ion cells showed high discharge-rate capability up to 1.5 A at 37 C, with over 74% of their rated capacity being obtained and a midpoint voltage of over 3.3 V (>72% of rated capacity and >3.3 V for up to 1.0 A discharges at 22 C), before the first indication of cell polarization was noticed. The specific energy and energy density of cells discharged at 0.88 A to 2.5 V at 37 C was 73 Wh/kg and 190 Wh/l, respectively (64 Wh/kg and 167 Wh/l at 22 C). The internal resistance of the cells was calculated to be 198 m{Omega} at 37 C (316 m{Omega} at 22 C), which resulted in a relatively high, 8.0 C, increase in surface temperature under a 0.88 A discharge load. The self-discharge of the cells at 37 C was relatively low, with only a 1.3% loss in capacity being observed after 24 h. The lithium-ion cells yielded longer cycle lives at 37 C (2 239 cycles) compared with 22 C operation (1 539 cycles) under similar 0.88 A discharge loads. The cells peformed slightly better under constant discharge loads than under pulsatile loads of equivalent average current (0.83 A average) with cycles lives of 2 279 cycles versus 1941 cycles and operating times were 1.6{+-}1.1 min (mean) longer. (orig./MM)

  20. A preliminary evaluation of unprotected loss-of-flow accident for a prototype fast-breeder reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Suzuki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the original licensing application for the prototype fast-breeder reactor, MONJU, the event progression during an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF, which is one of the technically inconceivable events postulated beyond design basis, was evaluated. Through this evaluation, it was confirmed that radiological consequences could be suitably limited even if mechanical energy was released. Following the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, a new nuclear safety regulation has become effective in Japan. The conformity of MONJU to this new regulation should hence be investigated. The objectives of the present study are to conduct a preliminary evaluation of ULOF for MONJU, reflecting the knowledge obtained after the original licensing application through CABRI experiments and EAGLE projects, and to gain the prospect of in-vessel retention for the conformity of MONJU to the new regulation. The preliminary evaluation in the present study showed that no significant mechanical energy release would take place, and that thermal failure of the reactor vessel could be avoided by the stable cooling of disrupted-core materials. This result suggests that the prospect of in-vessel retention against ULOF, which lies within the bounds of the original licensing evaluation and conforms to the new nuclear safety regulation, will be gained.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  3. Finite-element model evaluation of barrier configurations to reduce infiltration into waste-disposal structures: preliminary results and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.; Phillips, S.J.; Adams, M.R.

    1982-09-01

    Barriers to reduce infiltration into waste burial disposal structures (trenches, pits, etc.) may be required to provide adequate waste confinement. The preliminary engineering design of these barriers should consider interrelated barrier performance factors. This paper summarizes preliminary computer simulation activities to further engineering barrier design efforts. Several barrier configurations were conceived and evaluated. Models were simulated for each barrier configuration using a finite element computer code. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that barrier configurations, depending on their morphology and materials, may significantly influence infiltration, flux, drainage, and storage of water through and within waste disposal structures. 9 figures

  4. An EGP-2/Ep-CAM-expressing transgenic rat model to evaluate antibody-mediated immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, PMJ; Kroesen, BJ; Dokter, WHA; van der Molen, H; de Groot, M; Brinker, MGL; Kok, K; Ruiters, MHJ; Buys, CHCM; de Leij, LFMH

    The human pancarcinoma-associated epithelial glycoprotein-2 (EGP-2), also known as 17-1A or EpCAM, is a 38-kDa transmembrane antigen, commonly used for targeted immunotherapy of carcinomas. Although strongly expressed by most carcinomas, EGP-2 is also expressed in most simple epithelia. To evaluate

  5. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  6. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys.

  7. Evaluation of two immunofluorescence assays with monoclonal antibodies for typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Swierkosz, E M; Arens, M Q; Schmidt, R R; Armstrong, T

    1985-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence assay and a direct immunofluorescence assay were evaluated for typing clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV). The indirect immunofluorescence assay (Electro-Nucleonics, Inc.) correctly identified 16 HSV type 2 (HSV-2) isolates, but failed to identify 4 of 14 HSV-1 isolates because of background fluorescence and instability of reagents. Forty-nine HSV-1 isolates were correctly typed by direct immunofluorescence assay (Kallestad Laboratories, Inc.), but 1...

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of Raboral V-RG® Oral Rabies Vaccine in Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus)

    OpenAIRE

    Follmann, Erich; Ritter, Don; Swor, Rhonda; Dunbar, Mike; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    We tested the Raboral V-RG® recombinant oral rabies vaccine for its response in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus), the reservoir of rabies virus in the circumpolar North. The vaccine, which is currently the only licensed oral rabies vaccine in the United States, induced a strong antibody response and protected foxes against a challenge of 500,000 mouse intracerebral lethal dose 50% of an Arctic rabies virus variant. However, one unvaccinated control fox survived challenge with rabies virus, eithe...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel for Echinococcus granulosus vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Saleh; Pernthaner, Anton; Deng, Qing; Gibson, Blake; Hook, Sarah; Heath, David

    2017-03-15

    The EG95 vaccine is effective in protecting grazing animals from infection with Echinococcus granulosus. Six male lambs were used in the study, two were each vaccinated subcutaneously with 50μg EG95/1mg Quil-A, two animals were each vaccinated with 50μg EG95/1mg Quil-A in 1% chitosan thermolabile gel subcutaneously, and two animals served as non-vaccinated controls. Two vaccinations were given at a 7 week interval. Two vaccinations induced a significantly higher antibody titre in the chitosan group compared with the Quil-A only group. The chitosan vaccine group also had a significantly higher antibody titre compared with a positive control sera from vaccinated and challenged sheep. Incorporating the EG95/Quil-A vaccine in a thermo-responsive chitosan sol-gel stimulated, after the second injection, a high level of antibody absorbance which remained high for at least one year. This response was significantly greater than the response to vaccine without the gel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  11. Nanocapsule-based probe for evaluating the orientation of antibodies immobilized on a solid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés Daniel; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2013-06-21

    The orientation of sensing molecules on solid phase biosensors has to be optimized to facilitate efficient binding of analytes. Since conventional observation methods (e.g., electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) require exaggerated machines and possess insufficient resolution for single molecule analyses, functional assays based on the reactivity to analytes have thus far been used for this optimization. However, it is not clear whether these assays can judge whether sensing molecules are fixed in an oriented-immobilization manner or not. Here, we describe that bio-nanocapsules of about 30 nm diameter, displaying approximately 120 molecules of a tandem form of the immunoglobulin (Ig) G Fc-binding Z domain (ZZ-BNCs), can discriminate between the Fc regions of IgGs fixed in an oriented-immobilization manner and those fixed randomly, thus facilitating the evaluation of the orientation of IgGs in immunosensors. Furthermore, in sandwich immunoassays, ZZ-BNCs can bind specifically to detection-IgGs fixed in an oriented-immobilization manner by antigen-capture IgG complexes, rather than to capture-IgGs fixed randomly onto a solid phase, allowing the simultaneous use of the same IgG as capture- and detection-IgGs. Thus, we demonstrate that ZZ-BNCs are a unique probe for evaluating the orientation of IgGs on a solid phase.

  12. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a compound library of triazolylcyclitols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Gonzalo; Drewes, Carine C; Shimada, Ana Lúcia B; Bertucci, Ana; Farsky, Sandra H P; Stefani, Helio A; Gonzalez, David

    2013-07-15

    A small library of compounds was prepared by a combination of toluene dioxygenase (TDO)-catalyzed enzymatic dihydroxylation and copper(I)-catalyzed Hüisgen cycloaddition. Some compounds were obtained by coupling an alkyne and a conduritol derivative, while more complex structures were obtained by a double Hüisgen reaction of a dialkyne and two molecules of the cyclitol. The compounds were fully characterized and subjected to preliminary biological screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of HNA-expressing cell line-based antigen capture systems and a solid-phase system for detecting HNA-1a antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakishi, Etsuko; Irie, Yoriko; Nishizawa, Kanae; Kamada, Hiromi; Nakajima, Fumiaki; Matsuyama, Nobuki; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Matsukura, Harumichi; Yasui, Kazuta; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-04-01

    Granulocyte immunofluorescence and granulocyte agglutination tests are standard methods for detecting human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies (Abs); however, these require a typed panel of neutrophils, which can be time-consuming to develop, and it remains difficult to determine antibody specificity in some cases. We established and evaluated four detection systems for HNA-1a Abs based on an HNA-1a-expressing cell line (KY cells) and antigen capture. We additionally evaluated a commercial solid-phase system. Eleven HNA-1a antibody-positive samples, including the World Health Organization Reference Reagent, and 40 serum samples derived from male blood donors were used as positive and negative control samples, respectively. Although specificity was >0.90 in all systems evaluated, the sensitivity varied among the systems. The KY cell-based monoclonal antibody specific immobilisation of granulocyte antigens (KY-MAIGA) system using certain, but not all, monoclonal Abs, and the solid-phase system revealed higher sensitivity than other systems. In conclusion, the KY-MAIGA and commercial solid-phase systems were superior in terms of specific and sensitive detection of HNA-1a Abs.

  14. Performance Evaluation of a Novel Chemiluminescence Assay Detecting Treponema Pallidum Antibody as a Syphilis Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qixia; An, Jingna; Rao, Chenli; Wang, Tingting; Li, Dongdong; Feng, Shu; Tao, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a major concern to global public health with increasing incidence. So its screening test should have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay detection for syphilis screening and compared it with the InTec ELISA test kit for TP, which is widely used. Samples of several patient groups including 133 clinical and serologically characterized syphilitic sera, 175 samples containing potentially interfering agents, and 2290 unselected samples submitted for routine screening were detected by both the Lumipulse G TP-N assay and the InTec ELISA test kit for TP. Inconsistent samples were confirmed by RecomLine Treponema IgG, IgM immunoblot. Coefficient of variations of the Lumipulseo G TP-N assay at both levels were below 5% and of the InTec ELISA test kit for TP both over 5%. The sensitivity of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay and the InTec ELISA test kit for TP were 100% for all stages of syphilis. The two methods had consistent analytical specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.21 - 100.00), while the clinical specificity was 100% (95% CI: 99.79 - 100.00) and 99.82% (95% CI: 99.51 - 99.94), respectively. Between them, Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.455 and kappa value was 0.986. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was higher than the InTec ELISA test kit for TP (sensitivity: 100.0 versus 99.5, specificity: 100.0 versus 99.8). The automated Lumipulse G TP-N assay demonstrated excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when evaluated as a screening test for syphilis. Thus, it can be an alternative to the treponemal screening test.

  15. Evaluation of serological tests for detecting tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Christine; Beer, Martin; Saier, Regine; Schubert, Harald; Bischoff, Sabine; Süss, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in animals is not well understood yet. TBE virus (TBEV) serology in several host species could be valuable for epidemiological analyses in the field as well as for the detection of clinical cases. However, performance and suitability of the available test systems are not well assessed. Therefore, we evaluated two commercial TBEV-ELISA kits in a pilot study and compared them for their suitability in veterinary applications. For this purpose, we tested 163 field collected goat sera and evaluated the results by serum neutralization test (SNT) as "gold standard". Twenty-eight SNT positive sera (17.2%) were detected. The best suited ELISA kit was used for determination of a species-specific cutoff for horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys with defined sera from animals without known or with improbable contact to TBEV. The level of non-specific ELISA results does not only differ between animal species but may also be influenced by the age of the tested animals. The number of sera which tested false positive by ELISA was higher in older than in young sheep. In order to obtain defined polyclonal sera as references, two dogs, cattle, goats, sheep, rabbits and pigs each, as well as one horse and 90 mice were immunized four times with a commercially available TBEV vaccine. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that commercial TBEV-ELISA kits are suitable for application in veterinary medicine for both, verification of clinical TBE cases and epidemiological screening. However, positive ELISA results should be verified by SNT. Only a very low number of false negative ELISA-results were found.

  16. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  17. Evaluation of the enzyme test for the detection of clinically significant red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrić-Haspl, Z; Juraković-Loncar, N; Grgicević, D

    1999-01-01

    In the Croatian transfusion medicine, no general agreement has yet been achieved whether red blood cell (RBC) Rhesus (Rh) antibodies detected during pregnancy only by enzyme tests can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Results of the detection of clinically significant RBC antibodies by low-ionic-strength additive solution antiglobulin test (LISS-IAT) and trypsin enzyme test in 22,947 pregnant women are presented. All pregnant women in whom clinically significant RBC antibodies (RBC-CSA) were detected by LISS-IAT and/or enzyme tests were followed and observed during pregnancy. The women who had enzyme-only anti-D antibodies in their serum were followed up during subsequent pregnancies. Out of 302 positive results obtained by both techniques, irregular clinically significant enzyme-only antibodies (anti-RhD and anti-RhE specificity) were detected in 14 (4.6%) pregnant women. None of 11 RhD positive newborns whose mothers had enzyme-only anti-D antibodies, had signs of HDN after delivery. In these 11 women, anti-D antibodies were detected by LISS-IAT in the first trimenon of subsequent pregnancy. Nine infants born from subsequent pregnancies to women who had previously had enzyme-only anti-D, had clinical signs of HDN. The authors concluded that there is no need for enzyme tests in prenatal testing because enzyme tests are not reliable in the prediction of HDN.

  18. Performance Evaluation of the Elecsys Syphilis Assay for the Detection of Total Antibodies to Treponema pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Martin; Hunjet, Andrea; Gleich, Michael; Imdahl, Roland; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Schennach, Harald; Chaiwong, Kriangsak; Sakuldamrongpanich, Tasanee; Turhan, Ajda; Sertöz, Rüchan; Wolf, Eva; Mayer, Wolfgang; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lan Lan; Semprini, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard, and diagnosis therefore usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the treponemal Elecsys syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples, i.e., when syphilis is suspected or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay were compared head to head with those of other treponemal assays used in routine clinical practice and were assessed in potentially cross-reactive samples from patients with Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, and Lyme disease. In a total of 8,063 syphilis-negative samples collected from routine diagnostic requests and blood donations, the Elecsys syphilis assay had a specificity of 99.88%. In 928 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 99.57 to 100% (the result is presented as a range depending on whether four initially indeterminate samples are included in the assessment). The specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay in patients with other infections was 100%; no false-positive samples were identified. PMID:25355799

  19. Evaluation of radioimmunoassays using mono- and polyclonal antibodies for the quantitation of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heip, J.; Devroey, P.; Naaktgeboren, N.; Van Steirteghem, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Five commercial kits for the quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were evaluated for use in an In Vitro Fertilization program. We focused on practicability, precision, sensitivity and the early detection of pregnancy. The IRE method uses purified antiserum against complete hCG and requires overnight incubation. Precision is poor but hCG results agree closely with the other assays. Three other kits use a β-subunit specific antiserum (Amersham, Becton-Dickinson, Clinical Assays). All these assays have acceptable precision especially in their mid-range. The Amersham assay has the shortest assay time, while the Clinical Assays method requires the least manipulation. The Becton Dickinson assay is precise, less sensitive and has the highest frequency of slightly elevated hCG levels in males and non pregnant females. The Hybritech kit is an immunoradiometric assay based on two monoclonal antibodies. It was tested with a two-step incubation procedure needing a longer assay time than the β-subunit specific assays but it has the best precision at low hCG levels and is the most sensitive test with the least interference in samples obtained from males and non-pregnant females. For the early detection of pregnancy all assays performed equally well

  20. [Evaluation of the immunoblotting for the detection of immunoglobulin G Toxoplasma antibodies in immunocompetent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammari, I; Saghrouni, F; Bougmiza, I; Gheith, S; Ben Abdejlil, J; Yaacoub, A; Boukadida, J; Babba, H; Ben Saïd, M

    2012-06-01

    The serological tests commonly used for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis raise the problem of the interpretation of the borderline immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and discordant results between various tests. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the contribution of the immunoblotting in the detection of specific IgG in acquired toxoplasmosis of immunocompetent patients especially when levels are equivocal or discordant in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) and indirect fluorescent antigen test (IFAT). [corrected] We tested three groups of sera. The first included 87 positive sera, the second 33 negative sera, and the last one 29 equivocal sera. Results obtained with the first and the second group of sera led us to identify the bands 30kDa and 32kDa as markers of the toxoplasmic infection. The simultaneous presence of both bands showed a sensitivity of 91.5%, a specificity of 96.9%, a VPP of 98.7%, a VPN of 74.4% and a Youden's index of 0.88. Our findings suggest that the presence of these two bands is a reliable criterion for the confirmation of the presence of anti-toxoplasmic IgG in the corresponding serum. The immunoblot allowed us to ascertain serological status of 27 (93.1%) patients from the third group in which results were discrepant or equivocal in Elisa and/or in IFAT. Immunoblot is a useful serological test for detection of very low or equivocal titers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluations of Fluorescent or 149Promethium Labeled Trastuzumab-Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fitzsimmons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radioimmunotherapy utilize a targeting antibody coupled to a therapeutic isotope to target and treat a tumor or disease. In this study we examine the synthesis and cell binding of a polymer scaffold containing a radiotherapeutic isotope and a targeting antibody. Methods: The multistep synthesis of a fluorescent or 149Promethium-labeled Trastuzumab-polyethyleneimine (PEI, Trastuzumab, or PEI is described. In vitro uptake, internalization and/or the binding affinity to the Her2/neu expressing human breast adenocarcinoma SKBr3 cells was investigated with the labeled compounds. Results: Fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab-PEI was internalized more into cells at 2 and 18 h than fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab or PEI. The fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab was concentrated on the cell surface at 2 and 18 h and the labeled PEI had minimal uptake. DOTA-PEI was prepared and contained an average of 16 chelates per PEI; the compound was radio-labeled with 149Promethium and conjugated to Trastuzumab. The purified 149Pm-DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab had a radiochemical purity of 96.7% and a specific activity of 0.118 TBq/g. The compound demonstrated a dissociation constant for the Her2/neu receptor of 20.30 ± 6.91 nM. Conclusion: The results indicate the DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab compound has potential as a targeted therapeutic carrier, and future in vivo studies should be performed.

  2. Evaluation of an immunoblot methodology for the detection of relevant Entamoeba histolytica antigens by antibodies induced in human amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello-García, R; Sánchez-Guillén, M C; Garduño, G; Valadez-Salazar, A; Martínez-García, M C; Muñoz, O; Ortega-Pierres, M G

    1990-01-01

    The complexity of the clinical spectrum in human amebiasis and the high variability in laboratory methods used to detect Entamoeba histolytica infections have impeded the collection and evaluation of reliable epidemiological data. Thus, more sensitive, specific and standardized methods are needed in order to accurately identify infections with this parasite. An important step in the development of serological diagnostic methods is the identification and isolation of specific parasite antigens which are immunogenic in the host. In this work, we have standardized an electroimmunotransfer blot technique to characterize E. histolytica antigens recognized by antibodies present during human amebic infections. An important aspect was an investigation of technical variations in the preparation of cell lysates including the use of different protease inhibitors and solubilizing agents. The highest yield of protein was achieved by homogenization of trophozoites in the presence of 10 mM p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (pHMB) as a protease inhibitor and by lysis using Triton X-100 and a mixture of protease inhibitors. Recovery of degraded vs non-degraded proteins in the cell extracts was evaluated by gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both quantitative and qualitative differences were noted between the different methods of preparing soluble cell extracts. A more complete set of antigenic components was obtained by homogenization and use of pHMB. Thus parasite extracts prepared by this method were selected for protein transfer. In this, the optimal protein concentration was of 120 micrograms of protein per cm of gel width and efficient transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets was achieved at 100 V for 2 hrs and at 4 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. A Dutch nationwide evaluation of serological assays for detection of Borrelia antibodies in clinically well-defined patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, C.W.; Brandenburg, A.H.; Van Burgel, Nathalie D.; Bijlmer, Henk A; Herremans, T.; Stelma, Foekje F.; Verduyn Lunel, FM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345898028; van Dam, Alje P

    2015-01-01

    Numerous tests for the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi are commercially available. Manufacturer-derived data invariably report a high sensitivity and specificity, but comparative studies demonstrate large differences in clinical practice, especially with regard to specificity.

  4. A preliminary PET evaluation of the new dopamine D2 receptor agonist [11C]MNPA in cynomolgus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnema, Sjoerd J.; Seneca, Nicholas; Farde, Lars; Shchukin, Evgeny; Sovago, Judit; Gulyas, Balazs; Wikstroem, Hakan V.; Innis, Robert B.; Neumeyer, John L.; Halldin, Christer

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the preliminary positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of a dopamine D 2 -like receptor agonist (R)-2- 11 CH 3 O-N-n-propylnorapomorphine ([ 11 C]MNPA), as a potential new radioligand for in vivo imaging of the high-affinity state of the dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R). MNPA is a selective D 2 -like receptor agonist with a high affinity (K i =0.17 nM). [ 11 C]MNPA was successfully synthesized by direct O-methylation of (R)-2-hydroxy-NPA using [ 11 C]methyl iodide and was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys. This study included baseline PET experiments and a pretreatment study using unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg). High uptake of radioactivity was seen in regions known to contain high D 2 R, with a maximum striatum-to-cerebellum ratio of 2.23±0.21 at 78 min and a maximum thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio of 1.37±0.06 at 72 min. The pretreatment study demonstrated high specific binding to D 2 R by reducing the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio to 1.26 at 78 min. This preliminary study indicates that the dopamine agonist [ 11 C]MNPA has potential as an agonist radioligand for the D 2 -like receptor and has potential for examination of the high-affinity state of the D 2 R in human subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders

  5. Evaluation of a Community's Risk for Canine Parvovirus and Distemper Using Antibody Testing and GIS Mapping of Animal Shelter Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Miranda E; Krecic, Matthew R; Slater, Margaret R; Vigil, Nicole

    2018-03-20

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions. Dogs were excluded if trained personnel were concerned health would be compromised by phlebotomy. Blood samples were collected within 24 hours of entry. Four hundred and twenty-seven (40%) dogs had positive antibody test results for both viruses, 422 (40%) were positive for CPV, 37 (4%) were positive for CDV, and 170 (16%) were negative for both. Mapping revealed geographic patterns for dogs with negative antibody tests. This shelter admitted dogs with negative CPV and/or CDV antibody tests from defined community areas. Targeting vaccination efforts in communities to areas where dogs with negative antibody tests originate could be an effective wellness strategy.

  6. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D.; Lawrence-Brown, M.

    2007-01-01

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of PGSFR DHR Heat Exchangers Performance Using STELLA-1 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jonggan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Yeom, Sujin; Lee, Jewhan; Kim, Tae-Joon; Hwang, Inkoo; Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Cho, Youngil; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    The STELLA program for PGSFR decay heat removal (DHR) performance demonstration is in progress at KAERI. As the first phase of the program, the STELLA-1 facility has been constructed and separate effect tests for heat exchangers of DHRS have been conducted. Two kinds of heat exchangers including a shell-and-tube type sodium-to-sodium heat exchanger (DHX) and a helical-tube type sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) were tested for design codes V-V, e.g. SHXSA and AHXSA. In this paper, firstly, overall characteristics of the STELLA-1 facility are described briefly. Secondly, the performance tests of the DHX and AHX rely on a steady-state result of a heat transfer experiment. Thus experimental procedures to obtain the steady-state result are described and steady-state conditions for the heat exchanger performance test are clearly defined. Lastly, experimental results and calculation results obtained from the design codes are also compared as a preliminary work for the design code V-V. The PGSFR DHR heat exchangers performance was experimentally demonstrated using the STELLA-1 facility, and the experimental results and the prediction of the design code were compared as a preliminary work for the design code V-V. The experimental results of the DHX and AHX were in good agreement with the estimation of the SHXSA and AHXSA codes, respectively

  8. 90Nb: potential radionuclide for application in immuno-PET. Development of appropriate production strategy and first in vivo evaluation of 90Nb-labeled monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a modern and highly effective tool for the detection and treatment of oncological disease. Molecular imaging based on radiotracers includes single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which provide non-invasive tumor visualization on nano- and picomolar level, respectively. Currently, many novel tracers for more precise discovery of small tumors and metastases have been introduced and are under investigation. Many of them are protein-based biomolecules which nature herself produces as antigens for the eradication of tumor cells. Antibodies and antibody fragments play an important role in tumor diagnostics and treatment. PET imaging with antibodies and antibody fragments is called immuno-PET. The main issue that needs to be addressed is that appropriate radiotracers with half-lives related to the half-lives of biomolecules are needed. The development of novel radiotracers is a multistep, complicated task. This task includes the evaluation of production, separation and labeling strategy for chosen radionuclide. Finally, the biomolecule-radionuclide complex should be stable in time. An equally important factor is the economic suitability of the production strategy, which will lead to a key decision for future application of the developed radionuclide. In recent work, 90 Nb has been proposed as a potential candidate for application in immuno-PET. Its half-life of 14.6 hours is suitable for application with antibody fragments and some intact antibodies. 90 Nb has a relatively high positron branching of 53% and an optimal energy of β + emission of 0.35 MeV that can provide high quality of imaging with low dose of used radionuclide. First proof-of-principle studies have shown that 90 Nb: (i) can be produced in sufficient amount and purity by proton bombardment of natural zirconium target (ii) can be isolated from target material with appropriate radiochemical purity (iii) may be used for labeling of monoclonal

  9. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  10. Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, E T; Ijaopo, O K; Okonko, I O

    2016-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P dogs, breeds, post-vaccination period, and the level of immunity. In conclusion, this study has further confirmed the presence of IgG antibodies against canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value of using the immunoblot ELISA assay

  11. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Fully Automated Elecsys®Syphilis Assay for the Detection of Antibodies of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; An, Jingna; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-11-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to the public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum (TP) remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. The performance of the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay, a brand new electrochemiluminescene immunoassay (ECLIA), was assessed by large amounts of samples in this study. In comparison with InTec assay, the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay was evaluated in 146 preselected samples from patients with syphilis, 1803 clinical routine samples, and 175 preselected samples from specific populations with reportedly increased rates of false-positive syphilis test results. Discrepancy samples must be investigated by Mikrogen Syphilis recomline assay. There was an overall agreement of 99.58% between two assays (Kappa = 0.975). The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay were 100.0% (95% CI, 96.8-100.0%) and 99.8% (95% CI, 99.5-100.0%), respectively. The Elecsys syphilis assay displays better sensitivity (100%), specificity (99.8%), PPV (98.7%), and NPV (100%) in 2124 samples enrolled, compared with the InTec assay. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its superior sensitivity, especially in primary syphilis, the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay could represent an outstanding choice for screening of syphilis in high-volume laboratories. However, more attention was still needed, or the results must be confirmed by other treponemal immunoassays. The new Elecsys ® Syphilis assay is applied to patients with malignant neoplasm or HIV infection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of a new biotin-DOTA conjugate for pretargeted antibody-guided radioimmunotherapy (PAGRIT {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano, Nicoletta; Papi, Stefano; Paganelli, Giovanni; Chinol, Marco [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Ginanneschi, Mauro [University of Florence and CNR-ICOM, Polo Scientifico, Laboratory of Peptides and Proteins, Chemistry and Biology, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); De Santis, Rita; Pace, Silvia; Lindstedt, Ragnar; Ferrari, Liliana [Sigma Tau SpA R and D, Pomezia, Rome (Italy); Choi, Sun Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2007-01-15

    A novel biotin-DOTA conjugate (r-BHD: reduced biotinamidohexylamine-DOTA) was investigated in order to provide an efficient pretargeted antibody-guided radioimmunotherapy (PAGRIT {sup registered}) application. Preclinical and clinical results are described. {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu were used to label r-BHD. The effect of pH and a wide range of specific activities were studied. Radiolabelled r-BHD was tested for affinity towards avidin and for stability in saline or in human serum with and without ascorbic acid. Pharmacokinetic data were collected and organ biodistribution evaluated in a tumour-bearing pretargeted animal model. A pilot study was performed in a metastatic melanoma patient and dosimetry was estimated. High radiochemical purity (>99%) was routinely achieved with {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu in sodium acetate buffer (1.0 M, pH 5.0) at a specific activity of 2.6 MBq/nmol. Both {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-r-BHD were also prepared at higher specific activities. Radiolabelled r-BHD was stable up to 96 h in human serum and saline with the addition of ascorbic acid. The structural modifications proposed for the r-BHD stabilised it against enzymatic degradation while retaining high binding affinity for avidin. Renal clearance appeared to be the main route of excretion in animals, and high tumour uptake was observed in the pretargeted animals. The patient study showed a total body clearance of {proportional_to}85% in 24 h, with a kidney absorbed dose of 1.5 mGy/MBq. Tumour uptake was rapid and the calculated dose to a 10-mm tumour lesion was {proportional_to}12 mGy/MBq. These results indicate that the new biotin-DOTA conjugate may be a suitable candidate for pretargeting trials. (orig.)

  14. Labelling, quality control and clinical evaluation of monoclonal antibodies for scintigraphy. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1991-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Realizing the potential of labelled monoclonal antibodies for in vivo diagnosis and therapy and the interest in many developing Member States for acquiring expertise in this field the IAEA initiated a co-ordinated research programme in 1991 focusing on 99 Tc m labelling of antibodies, their quality control and scintigraphic evaluation. Twelve laboratories from Asia, Latin America, Europe and North America participated in this programme which was concluded in 1996. During this programme the participants investigated the 99 Tc m labelling of a murine anti-CEA antibody using the method of chelating 99 Tc m with the free sulfhydryl groups generated by reaction with reducing agents such as mercapto ethanol. During the later part of the programme this method was also extended to 99 Tc m labelling of hIgG. All the participating laboratories could gain valuable experience in 99 Tc m antibody labelling techniques and formulation of kits. Many of them have been use in patients by collaborating nuclear medicine specialists with satisfactory results. This report is a compilation of the detailed results obtained by the participating laboratories and includes a summary and assessment of the achievement of the CRP

  15. Pharmacological evaluation and preliminary pharmacokinetics studies of a new diclofenac prodrug without gastric ulceration effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jean Leandro Dos; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-11-19

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE(2) levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy.

  16. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Man Chin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenylindolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE2 levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Alana; Tucker, Alison; Ferrari, Madeleine; Rogers, Jeffrey M

    2016-02-01

    Mental health professionals are particularly susceptible to occupational stress; however, there are limited formal programmes to address the problem. This paper discusses the preliminary results of a brief mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for practising professionals in a public hospital mental health unit. A mixed-group of nine mental health professionals participated in eight weeks of daily 15-minute MBSR training interspersed with three 30-minute education sessions developed by the authors (AD and AT). Levels of psychological distress and mindfulness skill were measured before and immediately after participation. Following the brief MBSR programme, quantitative and qualitative participant feedback revealed a perceived reduction in psychological distress. A brief MBSR programme can be incorporated into the full-time workloads of practicing mental health professionals, potentially addressing a significant unmet workplace need. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Beary, M.M.; Gallagher, S.A.; Higley, B.A.; Johnston, R.G.; Kupfer, M.J.; Palmer, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Borosilicate Glass Marbles and/or monoliths were rated among the top three waste forms for immobilization of all types of Hanford high-level waste. Supergrout Concrete and Bitumen, low temperature processes, are judged to be particularly suitable for immobilization and bulk disposal of high sodium blended wastes and/or residual liquid. This preliminary assessment indicates that certain ceramic waste forms (e.g., Tailored Ceramics, Supercalcine Ceramic, and SYNROC Ceramic) are equal to or superior to Borosilicate Glass waste forms for immobilization of Hanford sludges and radionuclides removed from salt cake and residual liquid. These ceramic waste forms can be made by the Sol Gel process. Some multibarrier waste forms (e.g., Coated Ceramics, Ceramic Pellets in Metal Matrix, and Glass in Metal Matrix) are judged to be superior waste forms for immobilization of Hanford sludges and/or radionuclide concentrate

  19. Evaluating the NOx Storage Catalysts (NSC Aging: A Preliminary Analytical Study with Electronic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda Bellebuono

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an expeditious and reliable method for determining the thermal effects in a static condition of commercial NOx storage catalysts (NSCs using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM/EDS. It is worth remarking that possible changes in the morphology and in the elemental composition of the catalyst may be considered as the most important causes of the lower conversion of NOx. The information attained in this work indicates that Pt nanoparticle sintering is strongly increased by the oxygen exposure, and this can be considered a very useful preliminary investigation for the studies already present in the literature on the efficiency of NSCs.

  20. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION ON THE PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN PIG REARED AND SALUGHTERED IN UMBRIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piergili Fioretti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common disease of warm-blooded animals including man that can be trasmitted by meat containing tissue cysts. Recent findings lead to the conclusion that human toxoplasmosis has health sequelae also in the general public, in addition to congenital infections or immunosuppressive conditions. A risk based approach is therefore necessary to reduce the possibility of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in food. Due to the difficulty of revealing the infection in meats at slaughterhouse level, a reduction of the infection in the pre-harvest phase can be recommended. Few data are available on the real prevalence of the infection in Italian pig herds. A preliminary investigation on the seroprevalence in pigs reared and slaughtered in Umbria is reported. Blood samples of 288 animals were collected in three different slughterhouses and were representative of about 17% of the pigs reared in the Umbria Region. A seroprevalence of 14.58% was detected.

  1. Preliminary in Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Spadaccio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-L-lactide/poly-8-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  3. Next Generation Munitions Handler: Human-Machine Interface and Preliminary Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Jansen, J.F.; Pin, F.G.; Rowe, J.C.

    1999-04-25

    The Next Generation Munitions Handler/Advanced Technology Demonstrator (NGMI-VATTD) is a technology demonstrator for the application of an advanced robotic device for re-arming U.S. Air Force (USAF) and U.S. Navy (USN) tactical fighters. It comprises two key hardware components: a heavy-lift dexterous manipulator (HDM) and a nonholonomic mobility platform. The NGMWATTD is capable of lifting weapons up to 4400 kg (2000 lb) and placing them on any weapons rack on existing fighters (including the F-22 Raptor). This report describes the NGMH mission with particular reference to human-machine interfaces. It also describes preliminary testing to garner feedback about the heavy-lift manipulator arm from experienced fighter load crewmen. The purpose of the testing was to provide preliminary information about control system parameters and to gather feed- back from users about manipulator arm functionality. To that end, the Air Force load crewmen interacted with the NGMWATTD in an informal testing session and provided feedback about the performance of the system. Certain con- trol system parameters were changed during the course of the testing and feedback from the participants was used to make a rough estimate of "good" initial operating parameters. Later, formal testing will concentrate within this range to identify optimal operating parameters. User reactions to the HDM were generally positive, All of the USAF personnel were favorably impressed with the capabilities of the system. Fine-tuning operating parameters created a system even more favorably regarded by the load crews. Further adjustment to control system parameters will result in a system that is operationally efficient, easy to use, and well accepted by users.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1995-06-01

    The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis

  5. Preliminary Efficacy of the Anti-Insulin–Like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor Antibody Figitumumab in Patients With Refractory Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Heribert; Daw, Najat C.; Geoerger, Birgit; Ferrari, Stefano; Villarroel, Milena; Aerts, Isabelle; Whelan, Jeremy; Dirksen, Uta; Hixon, Mary L.; Yin, Donghua; Wang, Tao; Green, Stephanie; Paccagnella, Luisa; Gualberto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) with metastases and those who relapse fare poorly and receive therapies that carry significant toxicity. This phase 1/2 study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of figitumumab in advanced ES. Patients and Methods Patients with sarcoma 10 to 18 years old were enrolled in two dose escalation cohorts (20 and 30 mg/Kg intravenously every 4 weeks) in the phase 1 portion of the study. Patients with ES 10 years old or older were enrolled in the phase 2 portion of the study. The primary phase 2 objective was objective response rate (ORR). Results Thirty-one patients with ES (n = 16), osteosarcoma (n = 11), or other sarcomas (n = 4) were enrolled in the phase 1 portion of the study. Dose escalation proceeded to 30 mg/kg every 4 weeks with no dose-limiting toxicity identified. In the phase 2 portion of the study, 107 patients with ES received figitumumab at 30 mg/kg every 4 weeks for a median of 2 cycles (range, 1 to 16). Sixty three percent of phase 2 patients had received at least three prior treatment regimens. Of 106 evaluable patients, 15 had a partial response (ORR, 14.2%) and 25 had stable disease. Median overall survival was 8.9 months. Importantly, patients with a pretreatment circulating free insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 lower than 0.65 ng/mL (n = 14) had a median OS of 3.6 months, whereas those with a baseline free IGF-1 ≥ 0.65 ng/mL (n = 84) had a median OS of 10.4 months (P < .001). Conclusion Figitumumab had modest activity as single agent in advanced ES. A strong association between pretreatment serum IGF-1 and survival benefit was identified. PMID:22025154

  6. Country report: Germany. Preclinical evaluation of Y-90 labelled Rituximab and ERIC-1, two antibodies for tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomäcker, Klaus; Fischer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This project focuses on harnessing the great potential of radionuclide therapy, using various different vehicles to transport radionuclides into tumor tissues. A central aim of the project will be to manufacture specific vehicle molecules whose tumor affinity and suitability for radioactive coupling have already been proven through laboratory trials on animals and cell cultures at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Cologne and to label it with Y- 90. The vectors to be used to transport radionuclides into tumor tissue for treatment are antibodies against lymphomas and neuroblastomas. The technology applied for coupling Y-90 to various antibodies has been developed to a high level in Cologne and is now ready to be transferred and adapted to GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) conditions. The antibody against NHL can be acquired commercially and must then be modified for binding to the therapeutically active nuclide Y-90. Similarly, the antibody against neuroblastoma must also be modified to bind to Y-90 but is produced in Cologne. To improve the therapeutic value of antibodies we tried to introduce the pretargeting method

  7. A preliminary evaluation of the ability of from-reactor casks to geometrically accommodate commercial LWR spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andress, D. (Andress (David) and Associates, Inc., Kensington, MD (USA)); Joy, D.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); McLeod, N.B. (Johnson (E.R.) Associates, Inc., Oakton, VA (USA)); Peterson, R.W. (Bentz (E.J.) and Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (USA)); Rahimi, M. (Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of cask design efforts to define several transportation casks to accommodate the various assemblies expected to be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System. At this time, three preliminary cask designs have been selected for the final design--the GA-4 and GA-9 truck casks and the BR-100 rail cask. In total, this assessment indicates that the current Initiative I cask designs can be expected to dimensionally accommodate 100% of the PWR fuel assemblies (other than the extra-long South Texas Fuel) with control elements removed, and >90% of the assemblies having the control elements as an integral part of the fuel assembly. For BWR assemblies, >99% of the assemblies can be accommodated with fuel channels removed. This paper summarizes preliminary results of one part of that evaluation related to the ability of the From-Reactor Initiative I casks to accommodate the physical and radiological characteristics of the Spent Nuclear Fuel projected to be accepted into the Federal Waste Management System. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of the validity and reliability of a revised illness perception questionnaire for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Seher; Van den Zegel, Anke; Van Rillaer, Maity; Moons, Philip; Vandenberghe, Joris; De Langhe, Ellen; Westhovens, René

    2016-01-01

    Diverging perceptions between individual patients with somatic diseases and their healthcare professionals might cause problems in communication and decision-making. To date, no measurement tool is available to compare the illness perceptions between these two groups. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) is a validated, widely used instrument in many patient populations with somatic conditions. The aim of this study was to adapt the IPQ-R to a healthcare professional's version (IPQ-R HP) and to perform a preliminary evaluation of its validity and reliability. After adaptation of the IPQ-R HP, 17 doctors from 3 general hospitals and 9 head nurses from a university hospital evaluated the face and content validity of the IPQ-R HP. The results were quantified using the content validity index (CVI) and a modified kappa index (k*). For the reliability measurements a group of nurses from 4 nursing wards participated at 2 time points with an interval of 4 weeks. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated. Twenty-eight of the 38 items demonstrated excellent content validity and four items showed good content validity. Four items had a sufficient k* and two items had a low CVI. The average CVI of the 7 dimensions ranged from 0.66 to 0.89. The Cronbach's alpha scores for the seven dimensions, intraclass coefficients and effect size estimates were acceptable. This preliminary evaluation of the IPQ-R HP shows an acceptable to good validity and reliability. Further exploration of the psychometric properties of this questionnaire in a large cohort of healthcare professionals is warranted.

  9. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  10. Elisa evaluation of the levels of antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus in laying hens using egg yolk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Rauber

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to compare Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibody titers in serum and egg yolk samples from laying hens. Sixty paired blood and egg samples were collected from laying hens of two farms. Serum samples were frozen, while egg yolk samples were diluted (1:500 before freezing. Serum and yolk samples were tested for the presence of IBV antibodies by indirect ELISA (commercial kit and titers were compared by a correlation test (alpha=0.05. There was a high correlation (r=0.62 between the two kinds of samples, which means that titers of IBV antibodies in the egg yolk and in serum samples are quite the same. Considering that blood collection causes deep stress that leads to economic losses, and since eggs are collected daily on the farm, results reported here are of importance to poultry production.

  11. Development and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies as probes to assess the differences between two tomato pectin methylesterase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevenne, Evelien; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Duvetter, Thomas; Brouwers, Els; Declerck, Paul J; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann; Gils, Ann

    2009-09-30

    The enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME) was purified from red ripe tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and through affinity chromatography two isoenzymes were fractionated (t1PME and t2PME). Further analysis of these two isoenzymes, both having a molar mass of 34.5kDa, revealed a difference in the N-terminal sequence and in amino acid composition. t1PME was identified as the major isoenzyme of PME in tomato fruit. In this study the aim was to develop a toolbox, consisting of monoclonal antibodies, that allows to gain insight into the in situ localization of PME in plant based food systems like tomatoes. A panel of six interesting monoclonal antibodies was raised against both isoenzymes, designated MA-TOM1-12E11, MA-TOM1-41B2, MA-TOM2-9H8, MA-TOM2-20G7, MA-TOM2-31H1 and MA-TOM2-38A11. The differences in epitopes between these monoclonal antibodies were determined using affinity tests towards denatured PME, cross-reactivity tests and inhibition tests. Characterization of these antibodies indicated an immunological difference between t1PME and t2PME, also revealing a conserved epitope on t2PME, carrot PME and strawberry PME. Different epitopes are recognized by the generated antibodies making them excellent probes for immunolocalization of PME by tissue printing. In tomato, t1PME and t2PME showed a pronounced co-localization, especially in the pericarp and the radial arms of the pericarp. Three of the generated antibodies could be used for immunolocalization of PME in carrots (Daucus carota L.), which was only present in the cortex and not in the vascular cylinder of carrots.

  12. Multiplexed evaluation of a cell-based assay for the detection of antidrug neutralizing antibodies to panitumumab in human serum using automated fluorescent microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennucci, Jason; Swanson, Steve; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Gupta, Shalini

    2010-07-01

    The method described here employs a high-content cell-based assay format for the detection of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to panitumumab, a fully human monoclonal antagonistic antibody to the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in human serum (screening assay). A specificity assay was also developed and qualified to confirm that the neutralizing activity was attributable to the presence of NAbs and not due to serum interference (serum interference assay). The ArrayScan IV HCS reader was used for the measurement of tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and STAT-1 redistribution between the cytoplasm and nucleus in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. Assay conditions were developed by (1) optimizing the response of the A431 cells to recombinant human EGF in pooled human serum, (2) evaluating the ability of panitumumab to inhibit the EGF response, and (3) assessing the assay's sensitivity for detecting a positive control affinity purified rabbit polyclonal anti-panitumumab antibody. Panitumumab dose-dependently inhibited 4 ng/mL EGF, and the positive control antibody showed a dose-dependent neutralization of 50 ng/mL panitumumab. The experiments indicated that in comparison to STAT-1 translocation, EGFR phosphorylation was the optimal endpoint for the screening and serum interference assays. Assay cut points were derived for the screening and serum interference assays by obtaining normalized ratios of mean fluorescence intensity values obtained with EGFR phosphorylation by testing sera from healthy human donor sera. The assay sensitivity was determined to be 0.125 microg/mL for the positive control antibody.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of a self-report tool for Learned Helplessness and Mastery Orientation in Italian students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learned helplessness (LH is defined as a passive behavior characterized by an inability to learn that may affect the academic success of students. Conversely, students who show good motivation skills, optimism and perseverance are more focused on tasks and ‘mastery oriented’ (derived from Mastery Orientation, MO. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measurement of LH and MO - the Learned Helplessness Questionnaire (LHQ - for the Italian scholastic context. We translated and adapted a student self-evaluation register, the Student behaviour checklist, and administered the questionnaire to Italian students in order to provide a preliminary factor structure. Exploratory factor analyses conducted support a two-factor model and acceptable internal reliability of the Italian LHQ.The results encourage the conduction of further analysis to assess the psychometric characteristics of the LHQ in depth.

  14. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  15. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation critera plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. The evaluation and selection process involves the following functions: (1) determining if a configuration can satisfy basic STME requirements (yes/no); (2) defining the evaluation criteria; (3) selecting the criteria relative importance or weighting; (4) determining the weighting sensitivities; and (5) establishing a baseline for engine evaluation. The criteria weighting and sensitivities are cost related and are based on mission models and vehicle requirements. The evaluation process is used as a coarse screen to determine the candidate engines for the parametric studies and as a fine screen to determine concept(s) for conceptual design. The criteria used for the coarse and fine screen evaluation process is shown. The coarse screen process involves verifying that the candidate engines can meet the yes/no screening requirements and a semi-subjective quantitative evaluation. The fine screen engines have to meet all of the yes/no screening gates and are then subjected to a detailed evaluation or assessment using the quantitative cost evaluation processes. The option exists for re-cycling a concept through the quantitative portion of the screening and allows for some degree of optimization. The basic vehicle is a two stage LOX/HC, LOX/LH2 parallel burn vehicle capable of placing 150,000 lbs in low Earth orbit (LEO).

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling system at the 296-S-18 stack, 242-S evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-04-01

    This evaluation of the 296-S-18 stack sampling system is part of a larger study, sponsored by ARHCO and conducted by Battelle-Northwest, of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. It is the fourth and last in a series of evaluations of tank farm stack sampling systems. The objectives of this study are: Evaluate the compliance of the existing effluent particulate sampling system with ARHCO's Interim Criteria for such systems by using sampling theory and radioactivity counting statistics; and make recommendations for corrective action which will lead to a particulate sampling system in compliance with the Interim Criteria. This study is considered preliminary because no experiments have been conducted to verify the sampling system's performance. The following report includes a brief summary, a detailed description and evaluation of the sampling system, conclusions about satisfactory or deficient areas of the sampling system and recommendations for corrective action. The appendices contain a copy of the Interim Criteria and the applicable ARHCO Emergency Procedure for radioactive gaseous discharges.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling system at the 296-S-18 stack, 242-S evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-04-01

    This evaluation of the 296-S-18 stack sampling system is part of a larger study, sponsored by ARHCO and conducted by Battelle-Northwest, of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. It is the fourth and last in a series of evaluations of tank farm stack sampling systems. The objectives of this study are: Evaluate the compliance of the existing effluent particulate sampling system with ARHCO`s Interim Criteria for such systems by using sampling theory and radioactivity counting statistics; and make recommendations for corrective action which will lead to a particulate sampling system in compliance with the Interim Criteria. This study is considered preliminary because no experiments have been conducted to verify the sampling system`s performance. The following report includes a brief summary, a detailed description and evaluation of the sampling system, conclusions about satisfactory or deficient areas of the sampling system and recommendations for corrective action. The appendices contain a copy of the Interim Criteria and the applicable ARHCO Emergency Procedure for radioactive gaseous discharges.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of lung doses for dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Hadley, R.T.; Park, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A group of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 is being followed for life-span effects. This paper reports preliminary lung dose estimates and dose-response relationships for incidence of lung tumors and radiation pneumonitis which have been observed to date. Doses were estimated by using both conventional dose-averaging and microdosimetric techniques. Cascade impactor sampling data were used to reconstruct the original plutonium aerosol size distributions unique to each of about 120 individual dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Data providing the initial plutonium lung burden and lifetime lung retention-clearance functions of plutonium for each dog were used for calculating average dose rates, cumulative absorbed doses, and specific energy distributions. A linear dose-response relationship for lung tumor induction was estimated on the basis of cumulative lung dose. Average time to death was estimated as a function of average dose rate. Conclusions regarding the potential value of microdosimetry in the interpretation of such dose-response relationships are discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Preliminary evaluation of an observational measure of group cohesion for group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D; McLeod, Bryce D; Mikami, Amori Y

    2013-03-01

    Group psychotherapy research would benefit from an observational measure of group cohesion to complement existing self-report measures. This study introduces the Therapy Process Observational Coding System-Group Cohesion scale (TPOCS-GC), which observationally assesses cohesion between each member and the group. In total 27 parents participated in a group parent-training social competency intervention for children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Independent coders double-coded group cohesion and the alliance in 144 client-sessions. Parents, teachers, and children completed cognitive, behavioral, and therapy participation measures. The TPOCS-GC demonstrated modest to strong item-level interrater reliability and acceptable internal consistency. Group cohesion evidenced moderate stability over the course of treatment. Relations between TPOCS-GC and theoretically linked and unrelated variables provided some evidence for construct and predictive validity. This preliminary study suggests that the TPOCS-GC is a reliable instrument that may help fill an instrumentation gap in the field. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the preservation of industrial juices of energy cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    José Martí Pérez, Avenida de los Mártires No. 360 entre Bartolomé Masó y Brigadier Reeve, Sancti Spíritus (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Centro de Estudios de Energéticos y Procesos Industriales. Universidad de Sancti Spíritus José Martí Pérez, Avenida de los Mártires No. 360 entre Bartolomé Masó y Brigadier Reeve, Sancti Spíritus (Cuba))" >Obregón-Luna, Joaquín de J.; Faildes López, Amilkar; Hernández-León, Rolando A.

    2017-01-01

    The installation of 19 biopower plants for the electricity cogeneration during the whole year has begun in Cuban sugar mills. As biomass fuel they will use the bagasse produced during the sugar harvest, and to complete the rest of the year they will use marabou and energy cane. The latter will originate juices not suitable for sugar production, but good as source of carbon for alcoholic fermentation. Nevertheless, not all these mills have an annexed alcohol distillery, what encouraged looking for solutions to their preservation. To this aim, face to face interviews were carried out, the available experimental data on preservation of industrial juices of energy cane were used and processed with the DataFit 9.0.59 software to obtain mathematical prediction models for the behavior in time of the preserved juices, with the restriction variables Brix > 70%, Acidity < 1,5% and UfcT/g < 160 000. It was determined that the simple technology uses the existent industrial equipment, the preservation during 180 days is feasible and contribute with $ 9,57 CUP/t in a preliminary way to the economic feasibility. It is suggested to use this new raw material for alcohol production as soon as possible, to reduce storage costs. (author)

  1. Preliminary Mission Results and Project Evaluation of the Delfi-C3 Nano-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Aalbers, G. T.; Ubbels, W. J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper discusses preliminary mission results of Delfi-C3 up till the early operations phase. The first section will discuss the design philosophy of Delfi-C3. To reduce operational risks, Delfi-C3 followed the KISS principle and is designed to be Single-Point-of-Failure- free. A balance is made between adoption of professional space engineering customs and standards on one hand and the limitations of small satellites, financial budgets and limited human resources on the other hand. The second section of the paper discusses the project planning and management of Delfi-C3. Addressed are reasonable timelines for the development of a nano-satellite, how to deal with a launch slip and the occasional conflicts between the interest of the students and the interest of the project. The third section of the paper will present the results of the early operations of Delfi-C3. Discussed are the performance of the payloads, the bus and the ground network of the satellite. Finally, an early statement of the mission success will be given.

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Physiological Mechanisms of Action for Sleep Restriction Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Vallières

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the physiological mechanisms involved in the sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Sleep of five participants suffering from insomnia was assessed throughout the experimentation by sleep diaries and actigraphy. Ten nights of polysomnography were conducted over five occasions. The first two-night assessment served to screen for sleep disorders and to establish a baseline for dependent measures. Three assessments were undertaken across the treatment interval, with the fifth and last one coming at follow-up. Daily cortisol assays were obtained. Sleep restriction therapy was applied in-lab for the first two nights of treatment and was subsequently supervised weekly. Interrupted time series analyses were computed on sleep diary data and showed a significantly decreased wake time, increased sleep efficiency, and decreased total sleep time. Sleepiness at night seems positively related to sleep variables, polysomnography data suggest objective changes mainly for stage 2, and power spectral analysis shows a decrease in beta-1 and -2 powers for the second night of treatment. Cortisol levels seem to be lower during treatment. These preliminary results confirm part of the proposed physiological mechanisms and suggest that sleep restriction contributes to a rapid decrease in hyperarousal insomnia.

  3. Biosorption of {sup 241}Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ning E-mail: 5416507@mail.sc.cninfo.net; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali; Hua Xifeng

    2002-08-01

    The biosorption of {sup 241}Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of {sup 241}Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total {sup 241}Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from {sup 241}Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 {mu}g/l) (C{sub 0}), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 {mu}g/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in {sup 241}Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au{sup 3+} or Ag{sup +}, even 2000 times above {sup 241}Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of {sup 241}Am indicated that the {sup 241}Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation.

  4. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic Evaluation of Co-Occurrence of Acanthamoeba and Fungi in Keratitis: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Anita; Baidwal, Shaffie; Vijayaraghavan, Prabhu; Rajeswari, Sakthi; Rajaraman, Revathi; Venkatapathy, Narendran; Menon, Sunitha; Rammohan, Ram

    2018-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the coexistence of Acanthamoeba with other forms of microbial keratitis, especially fungal keratitis (FK), is more prevalent than suspected. A prospective diagnostic study whereby patients presenting with stromal keratitis were additionally tested for Acanthamoeba, irrespective of the initial diagnosis. In addition to the routine workup with Gram stain, KOH mount, and cultures on blood agar and potato dextrose agar, nonnutrient agar was included. Confocal microscopy was performed where feasible. Samples for polymerase chain reaction studies were also obtained. We present the preliminary report of the first 100 culture-positive cases. The primary outcome measured was the number of coexistent Acanthamoeba and FK. The secondary outcomes were the total number of Acanthamoeba cases detected and the correlation between clinical diagnosis and microbiological observations. Of the first 100 cases, 22 were culture positive for Acanthamoeba, of which 9 were associated with concurrent FK, 5 with bacterial keratitis, and 8 in isolation. However, only 2 cases were diagnosed clinically as Acanthamoeba, whereas 5 were Acanthamoeba suspects. An additional 4 cases of fungal/Acanthamoeba coexistence in keratitis were revealed purely by confocal microscopy. Acanthamoeba can coexist with other forms of microbial keratitis. The frequency of infection coexistent or otherwise is higher than reported, and the possibility of coinfection must be considered especially in unresponsive cases. Including nonnutrient agar and confocal microscopy in all cases of keratitis would perhaps translate into better treatment strategies and outcomes.

  6. Preliminary study of the emergency planning zone evaluation for the nuclear power plant in Taiwan by using MACCS2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Chung-Kung; Chen, Ing-Jane; Huang, Yu-Hao; Chou, Yuan-Ching

    2000-01-01

    According to government regulation, the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) must be designated before operation. The related emergency response planning (ERP) in EPZ must be planned to guarantee all necessary resources are available under the postulated accidents of NPP. Thus the pre-planned necessary actions will be helpful to protect population from the damage during the possible accident. The purpose of this preliminary study is to perform the evaluation of EPZ for a NPP by using MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2) code which was developed by SNL for estimating the radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from postulated accidental releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere. The specific meteorological data used in this study was collected during July 1997 to June 1998 at the planned site and the population distribution was reinvestigated in April 1999. The source term data including inventory, sensible heat content, timing, duration, the fraction of inventory released with each segment etc. are based on a preliminary design result of the NPP. The effective dose equivalent and thyroid dose together with the related individual risk, social risk for each category of accidents are evaluated by MACCS2 code. An interface program has been developed to summarize the dose and risk results from all the accident categories. By comparing the results of individual risk, societal risk, whole body dose, and thyroid dose vs. distance to the Protection Action Guide and the NUREG-0396 report related criteria, a reasonably conservative EPZ is proposed. (author)

  7. CLINICAL-EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED ELISA, USING PHOTOBIOTINYLATED DNA, FOR THE DETECTION OF ANTI-DNA ANTIBODIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HYLKEMA, MN; HUYGEN, H; KRAMERS, C; VANDERWAL, TJ; DEJONG, J; VANBRUGGEN, MCJ; SWAAK, AJG; BERDEN, JHM; SMEENK, RJT; Hylkema, Machteld

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of anti-dsDNA antibodies is important for the diagnosis and the follow-up of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For routine detection of anti-dsDNA, the Farr assay and the immunofluorescence technique (IFT) on Crithidia luciliae proved to be very useful. The anti-dsDNA

  8. Evaluation of antibody response to Plasmodium falciparum in children according to exposure of Anopheles gambiae s.l or Anopheles funestus vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiam Cheikh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan areas, malaria transmission was mainly ensured by Anopheles. gambiae s.l. and Anopheles. funestus vectors. The immune response status to Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in children living in two villages where malaria transmission was ensured by dissimilar species of Anopheles vectors (An. funestus vs An. gambiae s.l.. Methods A multi-disciplinary study was performed in villages located in Northern Senegal. Two villages were selected: Mboula village where transmission is strictly ensured by An. gambiae s.l. and Gankette Balla village which is exposed to several Anopheles species but where An. funestus is the only infected vector found. In each village, a cohort of 150 children aged from one to nine years was followed during one year and IgG response directed to schizont extract was determined by ELISA. Results Similar results of specific IgG responses according to age and P. falciparum infection were observed in both villages. Specific IgG response increased progressively from one-year to 5-year old children and then stayed high in children from five to nine years old. The children with P. falciparum infection had higher specific antibody responses compared to negative infection children, suggesting a strong relationship between production of specific antibodies and malaria transmission, rather than protective immunity. In contrast, higher variation of antibody levels according to malaria transmission periods were found in Mboula compared to Gankette Balla. In Mboula, the peak of malaria transmission was followed by a considerable increase in antibody levels, whereas low and constant anti-malaria IgG response was observed throughout the year in Gankette Balla. Conclusion This study shows that the development of anti-malaria antibody response was profoundly different according to areas where malaria exposure is dependent with different Anopheles species. These results are discussed according to i the use of

  9. First international collaborative study to evaluate rabies antibody detection method for use in monitoring the effectiveness of oral vaccination programmes in fox and raccoon dog in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasniewski, M; Almeida, I; Baur, A

    2016-01-01

    The most effective and sustainable method to control and eliminate rabies in wildlife is the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of target species, namely foxes and raccoon dogs in Europe. According to WHO and OIE, the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns should be regularly assessed via disease...... surveillance and ORV antibody monitoring. Rabies antibodies are generally screened for in field animal cadavers, whose body fluids are often of poor quality. Therefore, the use of alternative methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed to improve reliability of serological...... results obtained on wildlife samples. We undertook an international collaborative study to determine if the commercial BioPro ELISA Rabies Ab kit is a reliable and reproducible tool for rabies serological testing. Our results reveal that the overall specificity evaluated on naive samples reached 96...

  10. Evaluation of (131I-anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor monoclonal antibody as a reporter for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Hao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Finding a specific agent is useful for early detection of tumor. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R was reported to be elevated in a variety of tumors and participate in tumor progression. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether (131I-anti-AT1R monoclonal antibody (mAb is an efficient imaging reporter for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AT1R mAb or isotype IgG was radioiodinated with (131I and the radiochemical purity and stability of the two imaging agents and the affinity of (131I-anti-AT1R mAb against AT1R were measured. 3.7 MBq (131I-anti-AT1R mAb or isotype (131I-IgG was intravenously injected to mice with hepatocellular carcinoma through tail vein, and then the whole-body autoradiography and biodistribution of the two imaging agents and the pharmacokinetics of (131I-anti-AT1R mAb were studied. (131I-anti-AT1R mAb and (131I-IgG were successfully radioiodinated and both maintained more stable in serum than in saline. The (131I-anti-AT1R mAb group showed much clearer whole-body images for observing hepatocellular carcinoma than the (131I-IgG group. The biodistributions of the two imaging agents suggested that hepatocellular carcinoma tissue uptook more (131I-anti-AT1R mAb than other tissues (%ID/g = 1.82±0.40 and T/NT ratio = 7.67±0.64 at 48 h, whereas hepatocellular carcinoma tissue did not selectively uptake (131I-IgG (%ID/g = 0.42±0.06 and T/NT ratio = 1.33±0.08 at 48 h. The pharmacokinetics of (131I-anti-AT1R mAb was in accordance with the two-compartment model, with a rapid distribution phase and a slow decline phase. These results were further verified by real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining and Western blot. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: (131I-anti-AT1R mAb may be a potential target for early detection of tumor.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of effects of best management practices in the Black Earth Creek, Wisconsin, priority watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Olem, H.

    1993-01-01

    Nonpoint-source contamination accounts for a substantial part of the water quality problems in many watersheds. The Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program provides matching money for voluntary implementation of various best management practices (BMPs). The effectiveness of BMPs on a drainage-basin scale has not been adequately assessed in Wisconsin by use of data collected before and after BMP implementation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, monitored water quality in the Black Earth Creek watershed in southern Wisconsin from October 1984 through September 1986 (pre-BMP conditions). BMP implementation began during the summer of 1989 and is planned to continue through 1993. Data collection resumed in fall 1989 and is intended to provide information during the transitional period of BMP implementation (1990-93) and 2 years of post-BMP conditions (1994-95). Preliminary results presented for two subbasins in toe Black Earth Creek watershed (Brewery and Garfoot Creeks) are based on data collected during pre-BMP conditions and the first 3 years of the transitional period. The analysis includes the use of regressions to control for natural variability in the data and, hence, enhance the ability to detect changes. Data collected to date (1992) indicate statistically significant differences in storm mass transport of suspended sediment and ammonia nitrogen at Brewery Creek. The central tendency of the regression residuals has decreased with the implementation of BMPs; hence, the improvement in water quality in the Brewery Creek watershed is likely a result of BMP implementation. Differences in storm mass transport at Garfoot Creek were not detected, primarily because of an insufficient number of storms in the transitional period. As practice implementation continues, the additional data will be used to determine the level of management which results in significant improvements in water

  12. Open-label, dose escalation phase I study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of a human monoclonal antibody to Clostridium difficile toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Claribel P; Tummala, Sanjeev; Molrine, Deborah; Davidson, Lisa; Farrell, Richard J; Lembo, Anthony; Hibberd, Patricia L; Lowy, Israel; Kelly, Ciaran P

    2008-06-25

    Recent data suggest that Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is becoming more severe and difficult to treat. Antibody responses to C. difficile toxin A are protective against symptomatic disease and recurrence. We examined the safety and pharmacokinetics (pk) of a novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin A (CDA1) in healthy adults. Five cohorts with 6 subjects each received a single intravenous infusion of CDA1 at escalating doses of 0.3, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. Safety evaluations took place on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 post-infusion. Samples for pk analysis were obtained before and after infusion, and at each safety evaluation. Serum CDA1 antibody concentrations and human anti-human antibody (HAHA) titers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A noncompartmental model was used for pk analysis. Thirty subjects were enrolled. The median age was 27.5 yrs. There were no serious adverse events (AE) related to CDA1. Twenty-one of the 48 reported non-serious adverse events were possibly related to CDA1, and included transient blood pressure changes requiring no treatment, nasal congestion, headache, abdominal cramps, nausea, and self-limited diarrhea. Serum CDA1 concentrations increased with escalating doses: mean C(max) ranged from 6.82 microg/ml for the 0.3 mg/kg cohort to 511 microg/ml for the 20 mg/kg cohort. The geometric mean values of the half-life of CDA1 ranged between 25.3 and 31.8 days, and the volume of distribution approximated serum. No subject formed detectable HAHA titers. Administration of CDA1 as a single intravenous infusion was safe and well tolerated. C(max) increased proportionally with increasing doses. A randomized study of CDA1 in patients with C. difficile associated diarrhea is underway.

  13. The sagittal pelvic tilt index as a criterion in the evaluation of spondylolisthesis. Preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, F J; Farcy, J P; Roye, D P

    1997-07-15

    Radiographic analysis of a pediatric population with spondylolisthesis was performed to examine sagittal plane pelvic rotation and degree of slip over time. To determine whether the degree of standing sagittal offset of L5 with respect to the acetabulum correlated with slip progression and symptoms. The natural history of isthmic spondylolisthesis remains unclear. Attempts to predict slip progression in the clinical setting, and thus the possible need for eventual surgical intervention, remain imprecise. Predicting slip progression based on sagittal alignment of the L5 vertebra with respect to the acetabulum has been proposed by some investigators. Fifty-two children and adolescents were followed clinically and radiographically for an average of 5.6 years. Serial lateral standing radiographs that included the hips and lumbar spine were measured to compute a sagittal pelvic tilt index. The latter value is a ratio of relative distances from the center of S2 to the projection of L5 and the center of the femoral heads on the horizontal. Of the 52 patients studied, 38 have remained asymptomatic without significant slip progression or change in sagittal pelvic tilt index ratio. Of the original group, 13 patients had significant symptoms and revealed a decrease in the sagittal pelvic tilt index over time. Eight of the 13 stabilized at the end of adolescence, whereas 5 had continued decrease in the sagittal pelvic tilt index ratio. These five required operative treatment for pain and progressive slip. The sagittal pelvic tilt index gives the examiner an objective measure of the stability of the lumbosacral junction by quantifying the relationship between S2, the center of the hip, and L5. A decreasing sagittal pelvic tilt index ratio in this preliminary series correlated with slip progression and risk of conservative treatment failure, whereas those patients with a stable sagittal pelvic tilt index did not progress and remained clinically asymptomatic.

  14. Design and preliminary evaluation of a self-steering, pneumatically driven colonoscopy robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Hossein; Welch, C Ross; Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Dasgupta, Prithviraj; Terry, Benjamin S

    2017-04-01

    Colonoscopy is a diagnostic procedure to detect pre-cancerous polyps and tumours in the colon, and is performed by inserting a long tube equipped with a camera and biopsy tools. Despite the medical benefits, patients undergoing this procedure often complain about the associated pain and discomfort. This discomfort is mostly due to the rough handling of the tube and the creation of loops during the insertion. The overall goal of this work is to minimise the invasiveness of traditional colonoscopy. In pursuit of this goal, this work presents the development of a semi-autonomous colonoscopic robot with minimally invasive locomotion. The proposed robotic approach allows physicians to concentrate mainly on the diagnosis rather than the mechanics of the procedure. In this paper, an innovative locomotion approach for robotic colonoscopy is addressed. Our locomotion approach takes advantage of longitudinal expansion of a latex tube to propel the robot's tip along the colon. This soft and compliant propulsion mechanism, in contrast to minimally invasive mechanisms used in, for example, inchworm-like robots, has shown promising potential. In the preliminary ex vivo experiments, the robot successfully advanced 1.5 metres inside an excised curvilinear porcine colon with average speed of 28 mm/s, and was capable of traversing bends up to 150 degrees. The robot creates less than 6 N of normal force at its tip when it is pressurised with 90 kPa. This maximum force generates pressure of 44.17 mmHg at the tip, which is significantly lower than safe intraluminal human colonic pressure of 80 mmHg. The robot design inherently prevents loop formation in the colon, which is recognised as the main cause of post procedural pain in patients. Overall, the robot has shown great promise in an ex vivo experimental setup. The design of an autonomous control system and in vivo experiments are left as future work.

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  16. Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Jose Luiz; Pereira, Gleber; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo

    2015-09-01

    The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error. The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1). TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

  17. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of the Computer-Based Tactics Certification Course--Principles of War Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pleban, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a portion of the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Infantry Forces Research Unit's work in the formative evaluation of the computer based Tactics Certification Course (TCC...

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  1. Comparative evaluation of (1, 3-β-D-glucan, mannan and anti-mannan antibodies, and Candida species-specific snPCR in patients with candidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zia U

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidemia is a major infectious complication of seriously immunocompromised patients. In the absence of specific signs and symptoms, there is a need to evolve an appropriate diagnostic approach. A number of methods based on the detection of Candida mannan, nucleic acid and (1,3-beta- D- glucan (BDG have been used with varying specificities and sensitivities. In this retrospective study, attention has been focused to evaluate the usefulness of two or more disease markers in the diagnosis of candidemia. Methods Diagnostic usefulness of Platelia Candida Ag for the detection of mannan, Platelia Candida Ab for the detection of anti-mannan antibodies, Fungitell for the detection of BDG, and of a semi-nested PCR (snPCR for the detection Candida species-specific DNA have been retrospectively evaluated using 32 sera from 27 patients with culture-proven candidemia, 51 sera from 39 patients with clinically suspected candidemia, sera of 10 women with C. albicans vaginitis, and sera of 16 healthy controls. Results Using cut-off values recommended by the manufacturers, the sensitivity of the assays for candidemia patients were as follows: Candida snPCR 88%, BDG 47%, mannan 41%, anti-mannan antibodies 47%, respectively. snPCR detected 5 patients who had candidemia due to more than one Candida species. The sensitivities of the combined tests were as follows: Candida mannan and anti-mannan antibodies 75%, and Candida mannan and BDG 56%. Addition of snPCR data improved the sensitivity further to 88%, thus adding 10 sera that were negative by BDG and/or mannan. In clinically suspected, blood culture negative patients; the positivities of the tests were as follows: Candida DNA was positive in 53%, BDG in 29%, mannan in 16%, and anti-mannan antibodies in 29%. The combined detection of mannan and BDG, and mannan, BDG and Candida DNA enhanced the positivity to 36% and 54%, respectively. None of the sera from Candida vaginitis patients and healthy

  2. Comparative evaluation of (1, 3)-beta-D-glucan, mannan and anti-mannan antibodies, and Candida species-specific snPCR in patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fasahat F; Mustafa, Abu S; Khan, Zia U

    2007-09-04

    Candidemia is a major infectious complication of seriously immunocompromised patients. In the absence of specific signs and symptoms, there is a need to evolve an appropriate diagnostic approach. A number of methods based on the detection of Candida mannan, nucleic acid and (1,3)-beta- D- glucan (BDG) have been used with varying specificities and sensitivities. In this retrospective study, attention has been focused to evaluate the usefulness of two or more disease markers in the diagnosis of candidemia. Diagnostic usefulness of Platelia Candida Ag for the detection of mannan, Platelia Candida Ab for the detection of anti-mannan antibodies, Fungitell for the detection of BDG, and of a semi-nested PCR (snPCR) for the detection Candida species-specific DNA have been retrospectively evaluated using 32 sera from 27 patients with culture-proven candidemia, 51 sera from 39 patients with clinically suspected candidemia, sera of 10 women with C. albicans vaginitis, and sera of 16 healthy controls. Using cut-off values recommended by the manufacturers, the sensitivity of the assays for candidemia patients were as follows: Candida snPCR 88%, BDG 47%, mannan 41%, anti-mannan antibodies 47%, respectively. snPCR detected 5 patients who had candidemia due to more than one Candida species. The sensitivities of the combined tests were as follows: Candida mannan and anti-mannan antibodies 75%, and Candida mannan and BDG 56%. Addition of snPCR data improved the sensitivity further to 88%, thus adding 10 sera that were negative by BDG and/or mannan. In clinically suspected, blood culture negative patients; the positivities of the tests were as follows: Candida DNA was positive in 53%, BDG in 29%, mannan in 16%, and anti-mannan antibodies in 29%. The combined detection of mannan and BDG, and mannan, BDG and Candida DNA enhanced the positivity to 36% and 54%, respectively. None of the sera from Candida vaginitis patients and healthy subjects were positive for Candida DNA and mannan

  3. Hyperacuity test to evaluate vision through dense cataracts: research preliminary to a clinical study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.; Giraldez, Maria J.; Huang, Doahua; Hirose, Hiroshi; Knowles, Richard A.; Namperumalsamy, P.; LaBree, Lauri; Azen, Stanley P.

    1995-03-01

    Using high luminance point-of-light stimuli, Vernier judgments can be made in the presence of markedly degraded retinal imagery. Without coaching, observers perform center-of-gravity assessments of relative locations of degraded point images. We seek to defined, presurgery, individuals who will derive the most benefit from advanced cataract removal (a form of triage), and to determine which of two cataractous eyes has the better postsurgical visual prognosis. There are incredible and growing backlogs of patients with severe cataracts (and other dense media opacities) in the developing world, and generally, limited resources are available for provision of health care. Postcataract surgical failure rates for good visual function are often high, and only one eye is operated on in over 95% of indigent patients treated. Prior to initiating advanced studies in the developing world, at Berkeley we conducted preliminary research on Vernier acuity test techniques on normal adult subjects. We sought to determine the number of repeat trials necessary; to compare a two-point and a three-point Vernier display; to determine the shape of the measured response function at large gap separations between test points (required when testing advanced cataract patients); to assess the effect(s) of a broad range of uncorrected refractive errors on outcomes; and to consider means to minimize refraction-based errors. From these and prior data and analyses, we defined a protocol for use in the developing world. Using a newly designed and rugged precision instrument, these tests were repeated on an advanced cataract population at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Although we had much prior experience in India, the initial protocol required major revision on site. Necessary changes in test methods and analytical approaches were made, and next stages in this program were planned. And a new and simple gap `visual acuity' (gap `VA') test was added to the protocol, which greatly facilitated

  4. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care-Patient's Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Yuriy; Timm, Jürgen; Heinze, Martin; Indefrey, Sonja; von Peter, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate and examine an instrument that integrates relevant aspects of cross-sectoral (in- and outpatients) mental health care, is simply to use and shows satisfactory psychometric properties. The development of the scale comprised literature research, held 14 focus groups and 12 interviews with patients and health care providers, item-pool generation, content validation by a scientific expert panel, and face validation by 90 patients. The preliminary scale was tested on 385 patients across seven German hospitals with cross-sectoral mental health care (CSMHC) as part of their treatment program. Psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated using genuine and transformed data scoring. To check reliability and postdictive validity of the scale, Cronbach's α coefficient and multivariable linear regression were used. This development process led to the development of an 18-item scale called the "Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care (SEPICC)" with a two-point and five-point response options. The scale consists of two sections. The first section assesses the presence or absence of patients' experiences with various CSMHC' relevant components such as home treatment, flexibility of treatments' switching, case management, continuity of care, cross-sectoral therapeutic groups, and multidisciplinary teams. The second section evaluates the patients' opinions about these relevant components. Using raw and transformed scoring resulted into comparable results. However, data distribution using transformed scoring showed a smaller deviation from normality. For the overall scale, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.82. Self-reported experiences with relevant components of the CSMHC were positively associated with the patients approval of these components. In conclusion, the new scale provides a good starting point for further validation. It can be used as a tool to evaluate CSMHC. Methodologically, using transformed data

  5. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care—Patient’s Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Ignatyev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate and examine an instrument that integrates relevant aspects of cross-sectoral (in- and outpatients mental health care, is simply to use and shows satisfactory psychometric properties. The development of the scale comprised literature research, held 14 focus groups and 12 interviews with patients and health care providers, item-pool generation, content validation by a scientific expert panel, and face validation by 90 patients. The preliminary scale was tested on 385 patients across seven German hospitals with cross-sectoral mental health care (CSMHC as part of their treatment program. Psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated using genuine and transformed data scoring. To check reliability and postdictive validity of the scale, Cronbach’s α coefficient and multivariable linear regression were used. This development process led to the development of an 18-item scale called the “Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care (SEPICC” with a two-point and five-point response options. The scale consists of two sections. The first section assesses the presence or absence of patients’ experiences with various CSMHC’ relevant components such as home treatment, flexibility of treatments’ switching, case management, continuity of care, cross-sectoral therapeutic groups, and multidisciplinary teams. The second section evaluates the patients’ opinions about these relevant components. Using raw and transformed scoring resulted into comparable results. However, data distribution using transformed scoring showed a smaller deviation from normality. For the overall scale, the Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.82. Self-reported experiences with relevant components of the CSMHC were positively associated with the patients approval of these components. In conclusion, the new scale provides a good starting point for further validation. It can be used as a tool to evaluate CSMHC

  6. Design and evaluation of a patient website to reduce crowding in emergency departments: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Jessica; Marcilly, Romaric; Leroy, Nicolas; Wawrzyniak, Clément; Martinot, Alain; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to identify the information useful to support a patients' EDs' choice in order to design a patient Web-based system. For that purpose, a focus group and a formative user test have been performed. The results show that five types of information can be relevant. The spontaneous favored information is the "distance" to EDs. The "Wait time", that is sanctified in literature, is only used in a second time. A larger summative evaluation should be planned to evaluate and validate the befits of this kind of tool.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1979-12-01

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay device for screening urine samples for the presence of sulphamethazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, M.; Crabbe, P.; Salden, M.; Wichers, J.; Peteghem, van C.; Kohen, F.; Pieraccini, G.

    2003-01-01

    A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) device was developed and applied to testing urine samples for residues of the antimicrobial sulphamethazine (SMZ). This report describes the preparation of a rat monoclonal antibody to SMZ and its characterisation in an ELISA format. Apart from SMZ, the antibody

  9. Description and Preliminary Evaluation of a Curriculum for Teaching Conversational Skills to Children with High-Functioning Autism and Other Social Cognition Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Cannon, Lynn R.; Kornblum, Courtney; Clark, Jonna; Powers, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to provide (a) a detailed description of a school-based intervention designed to teach children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASDs) and other social cognition challenges both the "how" and the "why" of conversation and (b) a preliminary evaluation of…

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the air and fuel specific-impulse characteristics of several potential ram-jet fuels IV : hydrogen, a-methylnaphthalene, and carbon / Benson E. Gammon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Benson E

    1951-01-01

    A preliminary analytical evaluation of the air and fuel specific-impulse characteristics of hydrogen, a-methylnapthalene, and graphite carbon has been made. Adiabatic constant-pressure combustion flame temperatures for each fuel at several equivalence ratios were calculated for an initial air temperature of 560 degrees R and a pressure of 2 atmospheres.

  11. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps...... elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity...... of the humanization experiment protocol....

  12. The evaluation of a nucleoprotein ELISA for the detection of equine influenza antibodies and the differentiation of infected from vaccinated horses (DIVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Pamela; Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2013-12-01

    Antibodies against equine influenza virus (EIV) are traditionally quantified by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) or single radial haemolysis (SRH). To evaluate an ELISA for the detection of antibodies against influenza nucleoprotein in the diagnosis and surveillance of equine influenza (EI). The ELISA was compared with the SRH and HI tests. Serial serum samples from 203 naturally and 14 experimentally infected horses, from 60 weanlings following primary vaccination with five different vaccines (two whole inactivated vaccines, two ISCOM-based subunit vaccines and a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine) and from 44 adult horses following annual booster vaccination with six different vaccines were analysed. Fewer seroconversions were detected in clinical samples by ELISA than by SRH or HI but ELISA was more sensitive than SRH in naïve foals post-experimental infection. The ELISA did not detect the antibody response to vaccination with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine confirming the usefulness of the combination of this kit and vaccine to differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated horses, that is, DIVA. No DIVA capacity was evident with the other vaccines. The results suggest that this ELISA is a useful supplementary test for the diagnosis of EI although less sensitive than HI or SRH. It is an appropriate test for EI surveillance in a naïve population and may be combined with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine but not with other commercially available subunit vaccines, in a DIVA strategy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Comparative evaluations of the detection of antinuclear antibodies by means of various immunofluorescence techniques and by means of a radioimmunoassay under particular consideration of disseminated Lupus erythematodus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemuend, R.

    1980-01-01

    On a group of 146 test persons (in 50 cases desseminated lupus erythematodus had been confirmed), for the first time comparative evaluations were made with four methods (A to D) under the application of a repurified fluorescinisothiocyanat FITC) serum, in order to detect antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The ANA detection was obtained by immunofluorescence (IFL) on frozen sections of mouse livers; by IFL on chicken erythrocytes smears, previously treated with hydrochloric acid; by IFL on ethanol-fixed flagellates Crithidia luciliae; and by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) of a test kit with reference sera. These two tests served to detect antibodies - with respect to negative DNA - which are of particular importance in lupous nephritis. A good correlation of both methods was proved by means of various statistic methods and by follow-up observations and examinations of the reference sera. Possible reasons responsible for the deviations, which were found between the two tests, are described. Of all 4 tests, RIA and IFL on Crithida resulted to be the most closely ones to the relevant laboratory values and reflect very evidently the activity of the desseminated lupus erethematodus. The particularly well correlation with the blood sedimentation rate, proteinuria and with the complement level becomes very obvious. The advantages and disadvantages of the applied methods are discussed and it is emphasized that at present the method of choice for the detection of DNA antibodies is the combined examination of the patient serum, both, in the IFL on Crithidia and in the RIA. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Evaluation of single whole inclusion serum test for IgG antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, M P; Amortegui, A J

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibody titres against Chlamydia trachomatis were measured using a whole inclusion assay (Electro-Nucleonics Laboratories, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) in single serum samples of patients who presented for termination of pregnancy with evidence of infection with this organism (case group) and of 30 women with no evidence of infection (control group). Case and control patients were matched for age, race, marital status, history of sexually transmitted diseases, number of lifetime sexual partn...

  15. Evaluation of Hollow Fiber And Miniperm Bioreactors as An Alternative to Murine Ascites for Small Scale Monoclonal Antibody Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedalla, O. M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare monoclonal antibody production in hollow fiber, miniPERM bioreactor systems and murine ascites to determine the feasibility of the bioreactor system as a potential alternative to the use of mice. One hybridoma cell line was grown in hollow fiber, miniPERM bioreactor systems and in groups of 5 mice. Mice were primed with 0.5 ml pristane intraperitoneally 14 days prior to inoculation of 1X10 7 hybridoma cells. Each mouse was tapped a maximum of three times for collection of ascites. Bioreactors were harvested three times weekly for 30 days and were monitored by cell counts, cell viability and media consumption. Time and materials logs were maintained. The total quantity of monoclonal antibody produced in 5 mice versus the total production for the two different bioreactors (hollow fiber and miniPERM) in 30 days was as follows: cell line 2AC10E6C7 produce 158 mg vs.97.5 mg; vs 21.54 mg respectively. Mean monoclonal antibody concentration ranged from 4.07 to 8.37 mg/ml in murine ascites, from 0.71 to 3.8 mg/ml in hollow fiber bioreactor system, and from 0.035 to 1.06 in miniPERM. Although time and material costs were generally greater for the bioreactors, these results suggest that hollow fiber and miniPERM bioreactor systems merit further investigations as potentially viable in vitro alternatives to the use of mice for small scale (< 1 g) monoclonal antibody production.

  16. Evaluation of a glycoengineered monoclonal antibody via LC-MS analysis in combination with multiple enzymatic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renpeng; Giddens, John; McClung, Colleen M.; Magnelli, Paula E.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Guthrie, Ellen P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycosylation affects the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics properties of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and glycoengineering is now being used to produce mAbs with improved efficacy. In this work, a glycoengineered version of rituximab was produced by chemoenzymatic modification to generate human-like N-glycosylation with α 2,6 linked sialic acid. This modified rituximab was comprehensively characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to commercially available rituximab. As anticipated, the majority of N-glycans were converted to α 2,6 linked sialic acid, in contrast to CHO-produced rituximab, which only contains α 2,3 linked sialic acid. Typical posttranslational modifications, such as pyro-glutamic acid formation at the N-terminus, oxidation at methionine, deamidation at asparagine, and disulfide linkages were also characterized in both the commercial and glycoengineered mAbs using multiple enzymatic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The comparative study reveals that the glycoengineering approach does not cause any additional posttranslational modifications in the antibody except the specific transformation of the glycoforms, demonstrating the mildness and efficiency of the chemoenzymatic approach for glycoengineering of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:26514686

  17. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-09-09

    Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied geographic location (321/411, 78

  18. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. Objective This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. Methods For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. Results There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied

  19. Preliminary evaluation of daylily cultivars for rust resistance in a landscaping setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large, established landscape collection of 575 newer cultivars was evaluated for daylily rust which had not been sprayed with fungicides to prevent infection during 2013. The warm, damp summer of 2013 was ideal for spread of daylily rust. A total of 119 of the 575 cultivars received a median ratin...

  20. Teacher Aides, Class Size and Academic Achievement: A Preliminary Evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Daytner, Katrina M.; Kelly, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.

    This large-scale evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time, a funding mechanism designed to reduce class size or pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) in grades K-3 examined the academic performance of nearly 11,000 randomly selected third graders on the state mandated standardized achievement test as a function of class size, PTR, and presence of an instructional…

  1. The development and evaluation of content validity of the Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure: Preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Mweshi

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The new functional measure with an acceptable level of content validity titled Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure (ZSBFM was developed. It was designed to evaluate effectiveness of interventions given to children with SB from the age of 6 months to 5 years. Psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity were tested and are reported in another study.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the anti-inflamatory activity of extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of Vernonia amygdalina (V.A) was investigated. Inflammatory response was induced by topical application of croton oil dissolved in suitable vehicle on the rat ear. After 6hrs, the ear was exised, weighed and the increase in weight relative to controls evaluated. Extract of V.A. when ...

  3. DOD and VA. Preliminary Observations on Efforts to Improve Care Management and Disability Evaluations for Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-27

    including hiring medical taff in a competitive market, replacing temporarily borrowed personnel with ermanent staff, and getting eligible...servicemembers into the units. To help ervicemembers navigate the disability evaluation process, the Army is ncreasing staff in several areas, but gaps and...remain, including hiring medical staff in a competitive market, replacing temporarily borrowed personnel with permanent staff, and getting eligible

  4. Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2009-05-01

    A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

  5. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  6. Preliminary evaluation of working conditions of in a module of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merayo Rodriguez, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, N.; Hernandez Perez, A.

    1998-01-01

    The assessment of radiological protection conditions is carried out in a hospital from the eastern part of Cuba. The work employed a method simulating operations carried out by technicians. Those making the largest contribution to dose are shown. Besides their main causes are also given while evaluating

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Instructional Effectiveness of Online Training Implemented at a Government Agency in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanakorn-Davila, Supawan; Bolliger, Doris U.

    2012-01-01

    Online training has become popular in the professional development of government employees in Thailand. One large government agency developed an online program to provide training to its employees across the country using two systems: an Internet and Intranet-based system. With the new program implemented, the evaluation of the instructional…

  9. Conceptual Designs for the Performance Improvement of APR1400 SIT and Preliminary Performance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In-Cheol; Kwon, Tae-Soon; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Some evolutionary type PWRs such as APR1400 and APWR adopt advanced safety injection tank (SIT). The SIT of APR1400 has a fluidic device (FD) which passively controls ECC water injection flow rate into reactor coolant system during refill and reflood phases of LB-LOCA (i.e., a high injection flow rate during the refill phase and a low injection flow rate during the reflood phase). The benefit of the FD is the elimination of the function of low pressure safety injection pump from the safety injection system. The flow controlling performance of the APR1400 FD was evaluated using a prototypical full-scale test facility, called VAPER (Valve Performance Evaluation Rig). Even though the performance of the APR1400 FD satisfied major design and licensing requirements, further improvement of the performance is expected such as the extension of total injection period, the delay of nitrogen gas discharge. Several conceptual designs have been being drawn out in order to improve the performance of the APR1400 SIT. The performance of some designs was evaluated using a small scale SIT test rig. The present paper introduces some of the conceptual designs and shows the performance evaluation experimental results

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  11. Battalion Evaluation of the Combat Vehicle Command and Control System in Distributed Interactive Simulation. Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-30

    Unit at Fort Knox, Kentucky S~ai Barbara A. Black, Chief - Training Systems Research Division - Jack H. Hiller , Director U.S. Army Research...This manning structure was shaped by the evaluation’s focus on the C3 interactions among battalion and company leaders, battalion TOC eva luation

  12. [Preliminary evaluation of clinical effect of computer aided design and computer aided manufacture zirconia crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-guang; Xing, Yan-xi; Sun, Yu-chun; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Lü, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate clinical effects of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milled zirconia crown in three aspects: aesthetic, contact wear and fracture. Sixty patients were divided into two groups.In one group, 35 full contour CAD/CAM zirconia crown were made on molars of 30 patients. The manufacturing process of zirconia crown was as follow. First, the three dimensional(3-D) data of working models, antagonist impression and check records were acquired by 3-D laser scanning Dental wings S50. Then full contour zirconia crowns, which had functional occlusal contacts with antagonistic teeth, and appropriate contact with adjacent teeth were designed with Zeno-CAD(V4.2.5.5.12919) software. ZENOSTAR Zr pure zirconia material was milled in digital controlled machine WIELAND 4030 M1.In the end, the zirconia crown were completed with the method of second sintering and polishing. After clinical try-in, the crown was cemented.In the control group, thirty gold alloy full crown were made and cemented on molars of 30 patients. According to the modified U S Public Health Service Criteria(USPHS) evaluation standard, all crowns were evaluated on the same day, at three months, half a year, one year and two years following delivery. There were three aspects we were focusing on in the evaluation: aesthetic, contact wear(restoration and antagonist), and fracture. In all the prosthesis we evaluated during the 24 months, no fracture was found. Contact wear of crowns varies according to different antagonist teeth. The zirconia crowns show privilege in aesthesis, toughness and anti-wearing.However, there is contact wear on antagonistic natural teeth. Thus it is a good choice when full zirconia crowns are indicated on two antagonistic teeth in both jaws.

  13. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  14. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurin, MichaL [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 30/34 CheLmska Street, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: mmaurin@il.waw.pl; Garnuszek, Piotr [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 30/34 CheLmska Street, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    concentration in blood and in liver was observed for the Pt(II)(IT-[{sup 125}I]Carnosine) complex; however, at the same time the lowest concentration in kidneys was noted. Preliminary studies in the rat's tumor model indicated for this complex a favorable tumor to muscle ratio. In the case of Pt(IV)(IT-[*I]Carnosine) apart from ca. 12-times decrease of the liver accumulation, additional 4-times decrease of an accumulation in kidneys was observed in comparison to the Pt(IV)([*I]Hist){sub 2} complex. Our study showed that the short peptides can be efficiently substituted to the platinum core via the reactive sulfhydryl group introduced by SATA or 2-IT. The new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine possess favorable biodistribution schemes, which make them potential candidates for radio-chemotherapeutical agents.

  15. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurin, MichaL; Garnuszek, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Pt(II)(IT-[ 125 I]Carnosine) complex; however, at the same time the lowest concentration in kidneys was noted. Preliminary studies in the rat's tumor model indicated for this complex a favorable tumor to muscle ratio. In the case of Pt(IV)(IT-[*I]Carnosine) apart from ca. 12-times decrease of the liver accumulation, additional 4-times decrease of an accumulation in kidneys was observed in comparison to the Pt(IV)([*I]Hist) 2 complex. Our study showed that the short peptides can be efficiently substituted to the platinum core via the reactive sulfhydryl group introduced by SATA or 2-IT. The new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine possess favorable biodistribution schemes, which make them potential candidates for radio-chemotherapeutical agents.

  16. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of culturally sensitive CBT for depression in Pakistan: findings from Developing Culturally-sensitive CBT Project (DCCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Waheed, Waquas; Gobbi, Mary; Ayub, Muhammad; Kingdon, David

    2011-03-01

    There is sufficient research evidence in favour of cognitive therapy in western world. However, only limited research has been carried out on its effectiveness in other countries. It is suggested that adaptations in content, format and delivery are needed before CBT can be employed in non-western cultures. We describe a preliminary evaluation of culturally adapted CBT for depression in Pakistan. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this culturally adapted CBT using a therapist manual. In a randomized controlled trial we compared combination of CBT and antidepressants with antidepressants alone (treatment as usual) in primary care. Referred patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of depression were invited to participate and randomized to the intervention and control groups. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI) were used to measure changes in depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms. Seventeen patients each were randomized to each arms of the trial. Except for financial status there were no differences between the two groups on various demographic variables. Patients receiving CBT showed statistically significant improvement on measures of depression (p CBT was effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety in Pakistan.

  18. Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemuka, Nidhi; Galib, R; Patgiri, B J; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Savīryatā-avadhi (shelf life) of different Ayurvedic dosage forms is described in Śārṅgadharasaṃhitā. Though the concepts have a strong background, we seek to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms. An attempt has been made in the present study to evaluate shelf-life of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules. Raw materials were procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar and utilized after proper authentication in pharmacognosy lab. The avaleha and its granules were prepared in the departmental laboratory following classical guidelines and subjected to accelerated stability studies. Both the products were found to be free from microbial contamination. Heavy metals were within the prescribed limit. Changes in physico-chemical profiles at different intervals are insignificant. On extrapolation of the observations, the shelf life of avaleha was found to be18 months and 27 months to the granules. Stability of granules was found to be comparatively higher than the avaleha. This observation may be exclusive to Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha. Studies on other avalehas and their granules need to be carried out to confirm this preliminary observation.

  19. Optical evaluation of a novel static incorporated compound parabolic concentrator with photovoltaic/thermal system and preliminary experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guiqiang; Pei, Gang; Yang, Ming; Ji, Jie; Su, Yuehong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel static incorporated CPC-PV/T system was designed and set up. • Theoretical model of optical efficiency under outdoor condition was established. • Experimental evaluation on the optical performance was completed. • Comparing simulation and experiment on typical days was made to assess the system. - Abstract: Optical performance is a significant factor for concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system, especially when the static concentrator is under outdoor condition, which would indicate the preliminary characteristics of the whole system. This paper put forward a novel static incorporated compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with PV/T system, whose concentrator is composed of the mirror CPC and lens-walled structure, and can make full use of the total internal reflection and specular reflection. The theoretical model on the optical performance of the system under real application condition was established and the outdoor experiment was carried out to compare the simulation evaluation. The results illustrated that the difference on optical efficiency of the simulation and experimental outcome during the test is small, and maximum of it is only approximately 5%. The study obtained the optical efficiency model on the whole day of the static incorporated compound parabolic concentrator and verified the rationality of the design which provided the guarantee for the further research on the building integrated with concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (BICPV/T) system

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) for Sampling Attribution Signatures from Building Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Scott D.; He, Lijian; Wahl, Jon H.

    2012-08-30

    This study provides a preliminary evaluation of the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) for its suitability for sampling building materials for toxic compounds and their associated impurities and residues that might remain after a terrorist chemical attack. Chemical warfare (CW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals were represented by a range of test probes that included CW surrogates. The test probes encompassed the acid-base properties, volatilities, and polarities of the expected chemical agents and residual compounds. Results indicated that dissipation of the test probes depended heavily on the underlying material. Near complete dissipation of almost all test probes occurred from galvanized stainless steel within 3.0 hrs, whereas far stronger retention with concomitant slower release was observed for vinyl composition floor tiles. The test probes displayed immediated permanence on Teflon. FLEC sampling was further evaluated by profiling residues remaining after the evaporation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. This study lays the groundwork for the eventual goal of applying this sampling approach for collection of forensic attribution signatures that remain after a terrorist chemical attack.

  1. Evaluation of polyphenols-rich natural compounds as treatments to prevent attacks by subterranean and drywood termites: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the view to find sustainable methods to prevent termite attacks to wooden objects and structural timbers, this study represents a preliminary step in the evaluation of some natural substances considered as effective by some African popular traditions. Dark shea cake, obtained from the kernels of Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae, is the phase just before the extraction of shea (= karitè butter. In some West African regions, by-products from this extraction are traditionally believed to protect houses from termites. To verify if this practice has scientific basis, shea cake was used in experiments with both subterranean and drywood termites, respectively Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi (Rhinotermitidae and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius (Kalotermitidae. As shea nuts are extremely rich in polyphenols, the trials included a comparison with tannins from chestnut (Castanea sativa. Short-term experiments to evaluate repellency and feeding deterrence of the two compounds were performed. Results showed differences in the behavior of the two termites species and that shea cake is significantly more repellent than chestnut tannins, especially for K. flavicollis. No feeding deterrence activity was detected for either substance for either termite species. Further investigation is currently being performed to better clarify how these compounds affect termite biology.

  2. Comparative evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test, an antibody ELISA, and a pLDH ELISA in detecting asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in Buea, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Tsamul, Beltine; Nsagha, Shey Dickson; Assob, Nguedia Jules-Clement; Tufon, Kukwah Anthony; Meriki, Dilonga Henry; Orock, Enow George

    2017-08-01

    In malaria endemic areas, infected blood donors serve as a source of infection to blood recipients, which may adversely affect their prognosis. This necessitates the proper screening of blood to be used for transfusion in these areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in Buea, Cameroon, and to evaluate the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), a malaria antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISA in the detection of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in the target population. In a prospective study conducted between September 2015 and June 2016, 1 240 potential blood donors were enrolled. The donors were screened for malaria parasites using Giemsa microscopy (GM) and a RDT. A sub-sample of 184 samples, comprising 88 positive and 96 negative samples, were selected for the evaluation of the pLDH ELISA and the antibody ELISA. The chi-square test and correlation analysis were performed as part of the statistical analyses. The statistical significance cut-off was set at P malaria parasitaemia in this study was found to be 8.1% (95% CI: 6.6 - 9.7). The prevalence was not observed to be dependent on the age or sex of the participants. The RDT had a sensitivity (88.0%), specificity (99.1%), and negative predictive value (99.0%) higher than the ELISAs. The performance of the pLDH ELISA, which demonstrated the highest positive predictive value (91.6%), was generally comparable to the RDT. The sensitivity was lowest with the antibody ELISA (69.9%), which also demonstrated the highest false positive and false negative rates. The detection threshold for the pLDH (three parasites/μl) was lower compared to the RDT (50 - 60 parasites/μl). Non-significant positive correlations were observed between the parasite density and the pLDH titers and malaria antibody titers. Overall, the RDT and the pLDH ELISA demonstrated a perfectly correlated agreement

  3. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  4. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  5. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Extended Temperature Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Borregaard, L.M.; Lei, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a batch of MEMS-based vibration energy harvesters consisting of a silicon/PZT thick film ntilever with integrated proof mass is characterized. The purpose of a vibration energy harvester is to convert low grade vibrations to useful electrical power. Optimally, the natural frequency...... of the harvester should match the frequency of he ambient vibration. The first step to achieve this is to evaluate the uniformity of the fabricated harvesters and nderstand the effects of temperature on the harvesters during operation. Therefore, the uniformity of 40 energy harvesters from one wafer has been...... evaluated. Thereafter the performance of the energy harvesters operating at emperatures between -30°C to 100°C was measured....

  6. A preliminary neutronic evaluation of high temperature engineering test reactor using the SCALE6 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanure, L. P. A. R.; Sousa, R. V.; Costa, D. F.; Cardoso, F.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Pereira, C.

    2014-02-01

    Neutronic parameters of some fourth generation nuclear reactors have been investigated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG. Previous studies show the possibility to increase the transmutation capabilities of these fourth generation systems to achieve significant reduction concerning transuranic elements in spent fuel. To validate the studies, a benchmark on core physics analysis, related to initial testing of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was simulated using the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). The CSAS6/KENO-VI control sequence and the 44-group ENDF/B-V 0 cross-section neutron library were used to evaluate the keff (effective multiplication factor) and the result presents good agreement with experimental value.

  7. A preliminary study of MR sickness evaluation using visual motion aftereffect for advanced driver assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sawako; Ino, Shuichi; Ifukube, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) technologies have recently been explored in many areas of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) such as medicine, manufacturing, entertainment and education. However MR sickness, a kind of motion sickness is caused by sensory conflicts between the real world and virtual world. The purpose of this paper is to find out a new evaluation method of motion and MR sickness. This paper investigates a relationship between the whole-body vibration related to MR technologies and the motion aftereffect (MAE) phenomenon in the human visual system. This MR environment is modeled after advanced driver assistance systems in near-future vehicles. The seated subjects in the MR simulator were shaken in the pitch direction ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 Hz. Results show that MAE is useful for evaluation of MR sickness incidence. In addition, a method to reduce the MR sickness by auditory stimulation is proposed.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of licensing issues associated with U. S. -sited CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Erp, J B

    1977-12-01

    The principal safety-related characteristics of current CANDU-PHW power plants are described, and a distinction between those characteristics which are intrinsic to the CANDU-PHW system and those that are not is presented. An outline is given of the main features of the Canadian safety and licensing approach. Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. Some of the main results of the safety analyses, routinely performed for CANDU-PHW reactors, are presented. U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to its conformance to the U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S.

  9. Microalgae harvesting and cell disruption: a preliminary evaluation of the technology electroflotation by alternating current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Neto, Riamburgo Gomes; do Nascimento, José Gilmar da Silva; Costa, Mayara Carantino; Lopes, Alexandre Colzi; Abdala Neto, Eliezer Fares; Filho, César Rossas Mota; Dos Santos, André Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    Some species of microalgae have high productivity and lipid content, which makes them good candidates for biodiesel production. Biomass separation and cell disruption are important steps in biodiesel production from microalgae. In this work, we explored the fundamentals of electroflotation by alternating current (EFAC) with non-consumable electrodes to simultaneously harvest microalgae and disrupt cells from mixed microalgae obtained from waste stabilization ponds. The harvesting efficiency was evaluated using chlorophyll-a and turbidity, which reached removals of 99% and 95%, respectively, during a batch time of 140 min. Cell disruption was evaluated using lipid extraction, and the best results were achieved with a batch time of 140 min, which resulted in a 14% yield. Therefore, EFAC was shown to be an attractive potential technology for simultaneous microalgal harvesting and cell disruption.

  10. Computer–Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  11. Preliminary proposed seismic design and evaluation criteria for new and existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The document provides a recommended set of deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria for either new or existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks placed in either the high hazard or moderate hazard usage catagories of UCRL-15910. The criteria given herein are consistent with and follow the same philosophy as those given in UCRL-15910 for the US Department of Energy facilities. This document is intended to supplement and amplify upon Reference 1 for underground hazardous materials storage tanks

  12. Initiation and preliminary evaluation of an oncology pharmacy training course for staff pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Matthew S; Blanchette, Lisa M; Smith, Morgan B; Cambron, Katie; Andricopulos, Katie; Brown, M Jay

    2016-08-01

    There is currently a disparity between oncology pharmacy job openings and PGY2 trained pharmacists completing residency training each year. As a result, pharmacists without specialized training in oncology are filling much needed oncology positions and may need on-the-job oncology training. To improve oncology knowledge among non-PGY2 trained pharmacists working in oncology positions, Novant Health coordinated an Oncology Pharmacy Training Course (OPTC). The primary objective was to assess efficacy of the OPTC through evaluation of post-intervention oncology knowledge. Secondary objectives included efficacy of each lecture, assessment of knowledge improvement in those with and without residency or chemotherapy training, and assessment of satisfaction with the OPTC. This was a prospective, cohort study. All pharmacists expressing interest in the OPTC were included unless PGY2 oncology residency trained or Board-Certified in Oncology Pharmacy (BCOP). Participants were invited to attend twice monthly lectures and were evaluated using questionnaires at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. At the 3-month evaluation, 29 pharmacists completed the per-protocol evaluation. Knowledge scores increased from a mean of 29.6% to 52.2% (p trained. Baseline knowledge scores were slightly higher in the chemotherapy-trained than training naïve participants (mean 42.5% vs. 27.4%). Both groups experienced significantly improved knowledge scores at 3 months (mean 59% and 48.1% respectively, p staff pharmacists in a community hospital system. This improvement in knowledge is consistent regardless of baseline chemotherapy training. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Target Population Involvement in Urban Ciclovias: A Preliminary Evaluation of St. Louis Open Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, J. Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct ...

  14. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Karbasi Kheir, Mitra; Hekmatian, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most commo...

  15. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    This report, prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), presents a summary evaluation of various shelter options for use in the case where the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft 2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft 2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The authors find that the FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. The authors also find that, in terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of a Cycling Cleat Designed for Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Ryan T; Smith, Steven R; Ghazizadeh, Ramin; Yalla, Sai V; Wu, Stephanie C

    2017-11-01

    Offloading devices for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) generally restrict exercise. In addition to traditional health benefits, exercise could benefit DFU by increasing blood flow and acting as thermotherapy. This study functionally evaluated a cycling cleat designed for forefoot DFU. Fifteen individuals at risk of developing a DFU used a recumbent stationary bicycle to complete one 5-minute cycling bout with the DFU cleat on their study foot and one 5-minute bout without it. Foot stress was evaluated by plantar pressure insoles during cycling. Laser Doppler perfusion monitored blood flow to the hallux. Infrared photographs measured foot temperature before and after each cycling bout. The specialized cleat significantly reduced forefoot plantar pressure (9.9 kPa versus 62.6 kPa, P cleat allowed participants to exercise with minimal forefoot stress. The observed increase in perfusion suggests that healing might improve if patients with active DFU were to use the cleat. Potential thermotherapy for DFU was not supported by this study. Evaluation of the device among individuals with active DFU is now warranted.

  18. Transperineal ultrasonography for evaluation of the perianal fistula and abscess in pediatric Crohn disease: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Wee Kyung; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transperineal ultrasonography (TPUS) for the evaluation of perianal Crohn disease (PCD) in pediatric patients. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 64 TPUS examinations were performed in 43 patients (34 males and 9 females; mean age±standard deviation, 13.3±2.4 years; age range, 6 to 17 years) to evaluate PCD. The pain severity, location, and activity of perianal fistula, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia were retrospectively evaluated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the severity of the pain and the fistula activity, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia. All examinations were successfully performed. Thirty-nine examinations (60.9%) were performed without any pain experienced by the patient, 19 examinations (29.7%) with mild pain, five examinations (7.8%) with moderate pain, and one examination (1.6%) with severe pain. The pain severity was correlated with the fistula activity (P<0.01). An anterior fistula location was more common than a posterior location. Active fistulas and abscesses were identified during 30 examinations (46.9%) and 12 examinations (18.8%), respectively. Anal canal hyperemia was identified in 31 examinations (48.4%). TPUS with a color Doppler study is useful for visualizing a perianal fistula or abscess and for assessing its inflammatory activity in pediatric Crohn patients.

  19. Transperineal ultrasonography for evaluation of the perianal fistula and abscess in pediatric Crohn disease: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Wee Kyung; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeoun Joo [Dept. of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children' s Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Mo [Dept. of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children' s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transperineal ultrasonography (TPUS) for the evaluation of perianal Crohn disease (PCD) in pediatric patients. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 64 TPUS examinations were performed in 43 patients (34 males and 9 females; mean age±standard deviation, 13.3±2.4 years; age range, 6 to 17 years) to evaluate PCD. The pain severity, location, and activity of perianal fistula, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia were retrospectively evaluated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the severity of the pain and the fistula activity, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia. All examinations were successfully performed. Thirty-nine examinations (60.9%) were performed without any pain experienced by the patient, 19 examinations (29.7%) with mild pain, five examinations (7.8%) with moderate pain, and one examination (1.6%) with severe pain. The pain severity was correlated with the fistula activity (P<0.01). An anterior fistula location was more common than a posterior location. Active fistulas and abscesses were identified during 30 examinations (46.9%) and 12 examinations (18.8%), respectively. Anal canal hyperemia was identified in 31 examinations (48.4%). TPUS with a color Doppler study is useful for visualizing a perianal fistula or abscess and for assessing its inflammatory activity in pediatric Crohn patients.

  20. Antibody biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... and automated, the hybrid cells can be stored for many years in liquid nitrogen and antibodies production is homogeneous. The hybridoma method .... they may be modified to vehicle active molecules such as radio-isotopes, toxins, cytokines, enzyme etc. In these cases, the therapeutic effect is due to ...

  1. Catalytic Antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ability of the highly evolved machinery of immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex ... to Pauling, if the structure of the antigen binding site of antibodies were to be produced in a random ..... where the immune system of the body is destructive, as in autoimmune disorders or after organ transplant.

  2. Catalytic Antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While chemistry provides the framework for understanding the structure and function of biomolecules, the immune sys- tem provides a highly evolved natural process to generate one class of complex biomolecules – the antibodies. A combination of the two could be exploited to generate new classes of molecules with novel ...

  3. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignani, Sara; Carelli, Vinicio; Cordedda, Carlo; Zonno, Fedele; Ampollini, Marco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Venoso, Gennaro; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  4. Planning Treatment and Assessing Recovery in Participants With Dual Diagnosis: Preliminary Evaluation of a New Clinical Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Valerie; Woods, Mary; Routhier, Jonathan; Drake, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Integrated treatment for people with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder would be enhanced by a simple, recovery-oriented instrument to plan treatment and monitor progress toward dual recovery. This paper describes the development of a clinical instrument, the WestBridge Dual Recovery Inventory, and presents a preliminary evaluation of its usability. In collaboration with participants in treatment, family members, clinicians, and program leaders, we developed an inventory on dual recovery and then examined its utility through a series of iterative steps. First, we tested the inventory for inter-rater reliability among 10 program participants (rated independently by the first and last author). Second, we examined concordance by having a separate group of 10 program participants and their care managers complete the inventory independently. Third, we observed 3 care managers and 10 participants working together to complete the inventory as part of routine care during the quarterly assessment; we evaluated shared decision making based on the process they used to resolve differences and on a brief survey completed by program participants as the end of the session. Finally, to measure the inventory's capacity to detect change over time, we analyzed the ratings from admission to one year for 43 participants with quarterly assessments available for that time period. The WestBridge Dual Recovery Inventory assesses 14 domains of recovery, each rated on 5-point scales. Inter-rater reliability was high (Kappa = .82 to 1.00); agreement between independent ratings by care managers and participants varied considerably (Kendall's tau = -.83 to +.87); and collaborative ratings demonstrated high scores on shared decision making. Participants improved significantly on 11 of 14 domains during the initial residential treatment phase (admission to six months) and sustained gains during outpatient assertive community treatment (6 to 12 months). This preliminary

  5. Preliminary verification results of the DWD limited area model LME and evaluation of its storm forecasting skill over the area of Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Orphanou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary verification and evaluation is made of the forecast fields of the non-hydrostatic limited area model LME of the German Weather Service (DWD, for a recent three month period. For this purpose, observations from two synoptic stations in Cyprus are utilized. In addition, days with depressions over the area were selected in order to evaluate the model's forecast skill in storm forecasting.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of water-resource development and potential within the Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.M.; Leonhart, L.S.

    1980-11-01

    This report was prepared in conjunction with the Basalt Waste Isolation Project in partial fulfillment of requirements to assess the effects of a deep geologic repository for radioactive wastes upon adjacent water resources within the Pasco Basin. Because of the many unanswered questions with respect to repository siting, environmental characterization, engineering design, and other factors related to the proposed facility, it is somewhat premature to present an intensive evaluation of such effects. However, it is considered appropriate at this time to speculate, in a generic fashion, upon the nature of these effects as a basis for future scenario evaluations. Accordingly, this report provides the following: (1) general information and data on the nature of water resources present within the Pasco Basin; (2) a description of present and, to the extent possible, a prediction of future use and trends; (3) speculation with respect to possible interfaces between the repository and adjacent water resources. Background information describes the setting of the Pasco Basin with respect to the physical and socioeconomic resources present. Uses of the water resource, with particular regard to industrial, agricultural, municipal, recreational, and river barging and transportation are described, and a matrix serves to show the existing administrative structure. For the groundwater system, three scenarios were evaluated briefly: importation and application of surface water for irrigation, excessive discharge from wells, and subsidence related to dewatering. In conclusion, it was determined that intrusion into the deeper groundwater systems within the Wanapum Basalt for well development is a foremost consideration with respect to scenarios involving contaminant release to the biosphere

  7. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed....... Participants with medium-to-severe ABI self-rated their interpersonal communication skills using the modified ICCS. Cronbach Alpha test was performed on both scales followed by a correlation analysis. Results: Seventeen participants with medium-to-severe ABI and staff and relatives (n¼37) were involved...... of the proxy-rating revealed six meaningful sub-groups of interpersonal communication competencies....

  8. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  9. Simultaneous PET/MR head–neck cancer imaging: Preliminary clinical experience and multiparametric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covello, M., E-mail: echoplanare@gmail.com [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Cavaliere, C.; Aiello, M.; Cianelli, M.S. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Mesolella, M.; Iorio, B. [Department of Otorhinolaryngoiatry, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Rossi, A.; Nicolai, E. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous PET/MRI is a suitable tool for head/neck T-staging. • No significant differences have been found for PET measures get by both PET/CT and PET/MRI. • SUV 2D and 3D measures in HN lesion offer comparable estimations. • Multiparametric evaluation allows a complete characterization of HN lesions. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of simultaneous hybrid PET/MR imaging and to correlate metabolic PET data with morpho-functional parameters derived by MRI in patients with head–neck cancer. Methods: Forty-four patients, with histologically confirmed head and neck malignancy (22 primary tumors and 22 follow-up) were studied. Patients initially received a clinical exam and endoscopy with direct biopsy. Next patients underwent whole body PET/CT followed by PET/MR of the head/neck region. PET and MRI studies were separately evaluated by two blinded groups (both included one radiologist and one nuclear physician) in order to define the presence or absence of lesions/recurrences. Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis was conducted on the primary lesion at the level of maximum size on metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K{sup trans}, V{sub e}, k{sub ep} and iAUC) parameters. Results: PET/MR examinations were successfully performed on all 44 patients. Agreement between the two blinded groups was found in anatomic allocation of lesions by PET/MR (Primary tumors: Cohen's kappa 0.93; Follow-up: Cohen's kappa 0.89). There was a significant correlation between CT-SUV measures and MR (e.g., CT-SUV VOI vs. MR-SUV VOI: ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001 for the entire sample). There was also significant positive correlations between the ROI area, SUV measures, and the metabolic parameters (SUV and MTV) obtained during both PET/CT and PET/MR. A significant negative correlation was observed between ADC and K{sup trans} values in the primary tumors. In addition, a significant negative correlation existed between MR SUV and ADC in

  10. Synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of a new putative radioiodinated AMPA receptor ligand for molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, T.L.; Sihver, W.; Ermert, J.; Coenen, H.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-5) - Nuclear Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    A new (radio)iodinated AMPA receptor ligand has been developed and pharmacologically evaluated in vitro and ex vivo using rodents. The new radioligand was directly labeled by electrophilic radioiodo-destannylation with iodine-131 in high radiochemical yields of 97% within 2 min. The new radioligand showed an excellent initial brain uptake of 2.1%ID/g at 10 min post injection, but a fast wash-out reduced the uptake by about 10-fold at 60 min post injection. Due to high nonspecific binding accompanied with a uniform distribution in brain tissue, however, the new radiotracer appears not suitable for AMPA receptor imaging in vivo.

  11. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC 50 values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 μM), C. krusei (34 μM) and C. tropicalis (17 μM). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  12. Partial nephrectomy online: a preliminary evaluation of the quality of health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Angela M; Deibert, Christopher M; Boyer, Celia; Hruby, Gregory W; McKiernan, James M

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Patients are highly likely to access the Internet for health information, and studies have reported that inaccurate or low-quality information may alter patients' expectations and negatively impact informed decision-making. In a unique collaboration with the Health On the Internet (HON) Foundation, we evaluated the top 20 search results for the urology search term 'partial nephrectomy,' and identified the highest and lowest scoring criteria to increase awareness of areas of concern and improvement. To further evaluate the quality of information available on the Internet with regard to the management of localized renal cancer, we evaluated websites providing information on 'partial nephrectomy' in conjunction with the Health On the Internet (HON) Foundation. Many patients now utilize the Internet as a resource to provide further information on disease, treatments and outcomes, and health information on the Internet is largely unregulated. Inaccurate information may contribute to unrealistic expectations and dissatisfied patients. A google.com search identified the top 30 websites for the search term 'partial nephrectomy'. The HON Foundation evaluated each website according to the eight principles for Health on the Internet code of conduct (HONcode) certification and reported the overall frequency of certification, as well as individual website compliance with each of the principles. Overall, seven (23.3%) of 30 websites met the requirements of HONcode certification and an additional two (6.7%) websites were under review to maintain their certification based on updating their resources. The remaining 21 (70%) websites did not meet the standards for certification. The lowest performing criteria included proper citation of medical information and a clear distinction of advertising from editorial content. The low rate of HONcode compliance for these websites illustrates the poor quality of information that

  13. Radiolabeled antibodies for cancer imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Jacques; Bardiès, Manuel; Bourgeois, Mickael; Chatal, Jean-François; Chérel, Michel; Davodeau, François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Gestin, Jean-François; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies were studied first for tumor detection by single-photon imaging, but FDG PET stopped these developments. In the meantime, radiolabeled antibodies were shown to be effective in the treatment of lymphoma. Radiolabeling techniques are well established and radiolabeled antibodies are a clinical and commercial reality that deserves further studies to advance their application in earlier phase of the diseases and to test combination and adjuvant therapies including radiolabeled antibodies in hematological diseases. In solid tumors, more resistant to radiations and less accessible to large molecules such as antibodies, clinical efficacy remains limited. However, radiolabeled antibodies used in minimal or small-size metastatic disease have shown promising clinical efficacy. In the adjuvant setting, ongoing clinical trials show impressive increase in survival in otherwise unmanageable tumors. New technologies are being developed over the years: recombinant antibodies and pretargeting approaches have shown potential in increasing the therapeutic index of radiolabeled antibodies. In several cases, clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies. Finally, new radionuclides, such as lutetium-177, with better physical properties will further improve the safety of radioimmunotherapy. Alpha particle and Auger electron emitters offer the theoretical possibility to kill isolated tumor cells and microscopic clusters of tumor cells, opening the perspective of killing the last tumor cell, which is the ultimate challenge in cancer therapy. Preliminary preclinical and preliminary clinical results confirm the feasibility of this approach.

  14. Risk assessments for energy systems and role of preliminary degree-of-hazard evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    The appropriate approach to risk or hazard assessment can vary considerably, depending on various factors, including the intended application of the results and the time other resources available to conduct the assessment. This paper illustrates three types of interrelated assessments. Although they can be mutually supportive, they have fundamentally different objectives, which require major differences in approach. The example of the overall risk assessment of alternative major energy technologies illustrates the compilation of a wide range of available risk data applicable to these systems. However, major uncertainties exist in the assessments, and public perception of their importance could play an important role in final system evaluations. A more narrowly defined risk assessment, often focusing on an individual component of a larger system, is the most commonly used approach in regulatory applications. The narrow scope allows in-depth analysis of risks and associated uncertainties, but it may also contribute to a loss of perspective on the magnitude of the assessed risk relative to that of the unassessed risks. In some applications, it is useful to conduct semiquantitative degree-of-hazard evaluations as a means of setting priorities for detailed risk assessment. The MAHAS procedure described in this paper provides a means of rapidly ranking relative hazards from various sources using easily accessible data. However, these rankings should not be used as definitive input for selecting technology alternatives or developing regulations. 25 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Evaluation of 4 mm implants in mandibular edentulous patients with reduced bone height. Surgical preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Calvo-Guirado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this short comunication was to evaluate the clinical use of implants < 10 mm in length and to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Materials and methods: Six women and three men were recruited for the treatment of edentulous mandibles. A total of 6 implants were inserted in each patient: two anterior implants of conventional lenght and four posterior 4 mm Titanium Zirconium (TiZr implants. The insertion torque and bone denisty were evaluated. Results: The mean insertion torque for the 4 mm implants was lower than for conventional ones, without any statistical difference. Moreover, most of the patients (88% showed a D2 bone type. Conclusion: The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term.

  16. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Orrell, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings. The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. A total of 629 (staff = 306, therapist = 323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement, and Enjoyment, were found. This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other outcomes such as quality of life or reduction in psychiatric symptoms.

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Inclusion of Oregano Extract on Growth Performance in Fattening Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Alexandra Prieto García

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Oregano as vegetal extract has been investigated scientifically and has proven to be an effective antibiotic; it does not generate resistant strains as it happens with the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, and is also considered an alternative to improve productive performance in livestock farms. This is why the aim of study was to evaluate the use of oregano extract on the gain of final weight, conversion and feed efficiency in rabbits, for this purpose an experiment completely randomized with 12 New Zealand rabbits divided into 3 treatment was performed; T1, was determined as control, and the base feed was 100 g of rabbit feed; T2, to 100 g of rabbit feed was added 1 ml of oregano extract and T3, 100 g of rabbit feed plus 3 ml of oregano. The research lasted 60 days, 8 which were dietary adaptation. The obtained data were evaluated by ANOVA and the statistical differences between treatments by TUKEY test, with significance level of 0,05. The results showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 for the variables final weight gain and feed efficiency for T1 relative to T2 and T3; for feed conversion no statistical difference (p>0.05 between treatments. For this experiment it was concluded that the addition of oregano extract showed no improvement in productive parameters of broiler rabbits.

  18. Target population involvement in urban ciclovias: a preliminary evaluation of St. Louis open streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kuhlberg, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct approach. The survey covered six domains: physical activity, travel to event, sense of community, marketing, economic impact, and demographics. Each event occurred within the city, along multiple streets. Domains were selected from Ciclovia Recreativa developed by Ciclovia Bogota, Pan American Health Organization, and CDC. Additional questions addressed city-specific goals and matched similar evaluations in other cities. Over 50 % of participants met CDC-defined weekly minute thresholds for physical activity. Participants, primarily (>80 %) middle class, college educated, and white, were not representative of the majority minority city population, which has high rates of poverty, and low percentage of college graduates. Cities must work with residents to increase low-income minority population participation in ciclovia-based physical activity.

  19. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of PAH sorptive changes in soil by Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangchul; Cutright, Teresa J

    2004-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sorbent modification by synthetic, chemical/thermal weathering on the sorptive behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A clean sandy-clay-loam soil was subjected to Soxhlet extraction and PAH sorptive phenomena were evaluated based on quantity and quality changes in soil organic matter (SOM) and clay minerals. Critical changes in sorption capacity were found to depend on the initial PAH concentrations. Above 7 mg/l, weathering increased the PAH in comparison to that of unmodified soil, whereas it decreased when applied below this concentration. Similarly, less PAH was desorbed from the altered soil when PAH was applied above 7 mg/l. Therefore, when PAH was applied below 7 mg/l, quantitative reduction of sorbent amount (i.e., SOM and clay minerals) by soil weathering governed PAH sorptive behavior. However, when the PAH was applied above the critical limit, qualitative modifications in the sorbents facilitated an opposite trend. Sorbent swelling, removal of competing compounds, and possible changes in surface characteristics by Soxhlet extraction, together with increased concentration gradient effects were factors that resulted in dissimilar PAH sorptive phenomena, pivoting at the critical concentration.

  1. Conducting family meetings in palliative care: themes, techniques, and preliminary evaluation of a communication skills module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Jennifer A; Bylund, Carma L; Brown, Richard F; Levin, Tomer T; Kissane, David W

    2009-06-01

    To develop a communication skills training module for health care professionals about how to conduct a family meeting in palliative care and to evaluate the module in terms of participant self-efficacy and satisfaction. Forty multispecialty health care professionals from the New York metropolitan area attended a communication skills training module at a Comprehensive Cancer Center about how to conduct a family meeting in oncology. The modular content was based on the Comskil model and current literature in the field. Based on a retrospective pre-post measure, participants reported a significant increase in self-efficacy about their ability to conduct a family meeting. Furthermore, at least 93% of participants expressed their satisfaction with various aspects of the module by agreeing or strongly agreeing with statements on the course evaluation form. Family meetings play a significant role in the palliative care setting, where family support for planning and continuing care is vital to optimize patient care. Although these meetings can be challenging, this communication skills module is effective in increasing the confidence of participants in conducting a family meeting.

  2. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Socioeconomic Status Questionnaire for Urban Households (SESIran): The Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abobakri, Omid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Alizadeh Aghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Imani, Ali; Tabrizi, Jafarsadegh; Salarilak, Shaker; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to develop and validate an appropriate socioeconomic status (SES) assessment questionnaire to be used through health studies in Iranian urban households. The study was conducted through a mixed method study design in Tabriz, northwest of Iran in 2014. It was conducted in several stages including: development of initial version, qualitative study, feasibility evaluation, and assessment of the validity as well as the reliability. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, concurrent validity and construct validity were assessed. With respect to the assessment of construct validity, 5 domains (factors) were extracted includ-ing: main factor (α=0.84), self-evaluation of expenditure capacity (α=0.96), wealth (α=0.70), home and furniture (α=0.66) and costs related to health (α=0.55). Intraclass correlation coefficient was above 0.6 for all factors except for wealth domain. The questionnaire developed appeared to be a valid and reliable SES assessment tool. It may be of value to be used not only as a complementary questionnaire in most health surveys or clini-cal studies, but also as a main questionnaire in health equity and health economics research.

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of a School-Based Media Education and Reduction Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, David S; Hswen, Yulin; Slaby, Ronald G; Rich, Michael

    2018-05-02

    While media education and reduction programs have been proposed to prevent adverse health and academic outcomes related to heavy electronic media use among school-aged children, few have been formally piloted and evaluated. We used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Take the Challenge (TtC), a school-based media education/reduction program for the primary prevention of sleep deprivation, dysfunctional social-emotional behaviors, and poor academic performance. Sixth- to eighth-grade students at a rural Midwestern U.S. middle school received the TtC program, while a similar school in the same district served as the comparison group. Health-related and academic measures were collected from students and teachers at both schools before and after the intervention. The primary outcome measure was student-reported electronic media use (television, video games, Internet). Secondary measures included student health behaviors (student-reported sleep, exercise, and outdoor play) and academic activities (teacher-reported homework and classroom performance). Compared to the comparison group, students receiving TtC slept more and reduced television viewing, background television time, after-school video gaming, and weekend Internet use. Teachers reported increases in the extent to which TtC students completed homework assignments and stayed on task in the classroom. Well-designed school-based programs such as TtC can reduce electronic media use among middle-school children and improve related health and academic outcomes.

  4. [Prognostic evaluations of recurrent gliomas and preliminary efficacies of combined modality therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yao, Yu; Qin, Zhi-yong; Wang, Yang; Wu, Jin-song; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prognosis and efficacies of comprehensive treatment for recurrent gliomas. A total of 62 patients diagnosed as recurrent gliomas at our hospital between May 2007 and January 2012 were reviewed and analyzed. The investigators compared the prognosis of different grades of gliomas and evaluated the efficacies of combined modality therapy of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Their median periods of time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 6.0 and 13.0 months respectively. The median TTP of WHO grade II (n = 21), III (n = 13) and IV (n = 28) recurrent gliomas were 9.0, 9.0 and 5.0 months respectively. And the average OS of WHO grade II, III and IV recurrent gliomas were 26.6, 21.4 and 13.8 months respectively. The efficacious rate of chemotherapy was 26.7%. Combined modality therapy based on chemotherapy may moderately improve the prognosis of recurrent gliomas. And the pathological grades of primary tumors are correlated with the prognosis of recurrent gliomas.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of cryogenic two-phase flow imaging using electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huangjun; Yu, Liu; Zhou, Rui; Qiu, Limin; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    The potential application of the 2-D eight-electrode electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) to the inversion imaging of the liquid nitrogen-vaporous nitrogen (LN2-VN2) flow in the tube is theoretically evaluated. The phase distribution of the computational domain is obtained using the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique with variable iterative step size. The detailed mathematical derivations for the calculations are presented. The calculated phase distribution for the two detached LN2 column case shows the comparable results with the water-air case, regardless of the much reduced dielectric permittivity of LN2 compared with water. The inversion images of total eight different LN2-VN2 flow patterns are presented and quantitatively evaluated by calculating the relative void fraction error and the correlation coefficient. The results demonstrate that the developed reconstruction technique for ECT has the capacity to reconstruct the phase distribution of the complex LN2-VN2 flow, while the accuracy of the inversion images is significantly influenced by the size of the discrete phase. The influence of the measurement noise on the image quality is also considered in the calculations.

  6. Development and evaluation of a double antibody sandwich ELISA for the detection of human sDC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Liang; Li, Yan-Li; Tang, Yuan; Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Na; Chen, Zheng-Liang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-09-01

    sDC-SIGN is the soluble form of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), which is a molecule involved with pathogen recognition and immune regulation. However, there is no commercially available ELISA kit for detecting human sDC-SIGN, and the normal range of this molecule is unknown. Here, we describe an ELISA for detecting human sDC-SIGN with high specificity. First, sDC-SIGN protein was expressed and purified. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were then raised against the purified protein and subsequently characterized. A sandwich ELISA was developed using polyclonal antibodies specific for sDC-SIGN for capture and a biotin-labeled monoclonal antibody specific for sDC-SIGN for detection of protein. This method has sensitivity up to 0.2 ng/ml. Using this ELISA, we found that the concentration of sDC-SIGN in sera of healthy volunteers ranges from 0-319 ng/ml with a mean concentration of 27.14 ng/ml. Interestingly, the concentration of sDC-SIGN in sera from patients with cancer or chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection was lower than that of health controls. The mean concentrations of sDC-SIGN in cancer patients and chronic hepatitis B virus infection patients were 3.2 ng/ml and 3.8 ng/ml, respectively. We developed a sandwich ELISA for detecting human sDC-SIGN and demonstrated its use by assessing sera concentrations of sDC-SIGN in patients with cancer and chronic CHB infection compared to that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Establishment and Evaluation of a One-Step Microplate Chemiluminescence Immunoassay to Detect IgG Antibody Against Treponema Pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijuan; Xie, Yuling; Dai, Zhenxian; Zhuo, Chuanshang; Wu, Yushui

    2015-11-01

    The serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum is of particular importance in the diagnosis of syphilis. The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) has been widely used for clinical diagnosis because they remit no radical waste products, cause no enzyme precipitation, and exhibit an excellent sensitivity. A one-step CLIA was established to detect T. pallidum IgG antibody based on microplate coated with a mixture of recombinant T. pallidum antigens TpN15, TpN17, and TpN47. The Chinese national reference substances standard panel for T. pallidum diagnosis was applied to test the accuracy, stability, interference, and cross-reactivity of the established CLIA. The validation of efficacy for clinical application was performed by comparing the established method with the marketed T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) kit and the Abbott ARCHITEC Auto System. The established method met the requirement of the Chinese national reference substances standard for T. pallidum diagnosis. When compared with TPPA (n = 1,052), the specificity, sensitivity, and overall concordance were 99.7%, 99.0%, and 98.8% respectively, showing a great agreement with a kappa value of 0.81. When compared with the Abbott ARCHITEC Auto System (n = 352), the results showed that the specificity, sensitivity, and overall concordance were 98.6.0%, 96.6% and 98.6% respectively, and a high-degree agreement was observed (kappa value = 0.95). The established rapid, specific, sensitive, and stable microplate CLIA method to detect IgG antibody against T pallidum will provide an efficient alternative to the treponemal tests and wide application in clinical laboratory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Optimized preparation and preliminary evaluation of [64Cu]-DOTA-trastuzumab for targeting ErbB2/Neu expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrooz Alirezapour; Mohammad Javad Rasaee

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer radioimmunoscintigraphy targeting HER2/neu expression is a growing field of work in nuclear medicine research. Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to HER2/neu, which is over expressed on breast and other tumors. Developing new tracers for the detection of this cancer is of great interest. In this study, trastuzumab was successively labeled with [ 64 Cu]CuCl 2 after conjugation with DOTA-NHS-ester. The conjugate was purified by molecular filtration, the average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb was calculated and total concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. DOTA-trastuzumab was labeled with 64 Cu produced by 68 Zn(p,αn) 64 Cu nuclear reaction (30 MeV protons at 180 μA). Radiochemical purity, integrity of protein after radiolabeling and immunoreactivity of radiolabeled mAb trastuzumab with HER2/neu antigen and SkBr3 cell line were performed by RIA. In vitro stability of radiolabeled mAb in human serum was determined by thin layer chromatography. In vitro internalization studies were performed with the SkBr3 cell line and the tissue biodistribution of the 64 Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab was evaluated in wild-type rat (90 ± 5.5 μCi, 2, 6, 12, 24 h p.i.). The radioimmunoconjugate was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 96 ± 0.5 % (ITLC) and specific activity as high as 5.3 μCi/μg. The average number of chelators per antibody for the conjugate used in this study was 5.8/1. The sample was showed to have similar patterns of migration in the gel electrophoresis. The 64 Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab showed high immunoreactivity towards HER2/neu antigen and SkBr3 cell line. In vitro stability of the labeled product was found to be more than 94 % in PBS and 82 ± 0.5 % in human serum over 48 h. In vitro internalization studies of the 64 Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab showed that up to 11.5 % of the radioimmunoconjugate internalized after 10 h. The accumulation of the radiolabeled mAb in liver, skin, intestine, lung

  9. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Fratini, Filippo; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Cerri, Domenico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some probiotic properties of 42 wild Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different Italian foods of animal origin. The strains were first screened for their antibiotic resistance profile (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline), subsequently they were tested for their in vitro resistance to lysozyme (100 mg L⁻¹), low pH (3.0, 2.5 and 2.0) and bile salts (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %). Moreover, agglutination property was studied (adhesion to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells), as well as the presence of bsh and msa genes. The strains with the best characteristics were subjected to a further trial in order to evaluate their ability to survive to multiple stresses over time (lysozyme, low pH and bile salts) and the effect of these treatments on adhesion to yeast cells. All the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, while 6 strains were excluded from further evaluation because of their resistant phenotype against tetracycline. All the strains were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, as well as in MRS broth at pH 3.0. Only 4 strains showed a growth rate lower than 80 % when grown in MRS broth at pH 2.5, while a relevant growth rate decrease was observed after exposure to pH 2.0. Bile salts didn't affect the viability of the L. plantarum cells. Twenty-one strains out of 33 tested strains were able to adhere to S. cerevisiae cells. Presence of both bsh and msa genes was detected in 6 strains. The strains resistant to all the stresses, positive to agglutination with S. cerevisiae and showing bsh and msa genes were selected for further evaluation and subjected to different stress treatments over time. The assessment of growth rates showed that exposure to lysozyme significantly increased low pH resistance in L. plantarum. This increase ranged from 2.35 to 15.57 %. The consequential lysozyme and low pH exposures didn't affect the growth rate values after bile salts treatment

  10. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav; Trkulja, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  11. An impact evaluation of medical insurance for poor in Georgia: preliminary results and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsadze, George; Zoidze, Akaki; Rukhadze, Natia; Shengelia, Natia; Chkhaidze, Nino

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the impact of the new health financing reform in Georgia-'medical insurance for the poor (MIP)'-which uses private insurance companies and delivers state-subsidized health benefits to the poorest groups of the Georgian population. To evaluate the reform we looked at access to health care services and financial protection against health care costs, which are two key dimensions proposed for the universal coverage plans. The data from two nationally representative Health Utilization and Expenditure Surveys (2007 and 2010) were used, and a difference-in-difference method of evaluation was applied. The MIP was not found to have a significant impact on service utilization growth nationwide, but in the capital city the MIP insured were 12% more likely to use formal health services and 7.6% more likely to use hospitals as compared with other areas of the country. The MIP impact on out-of-pocket health expenditures was greater in reducing costs of accessing services. The cost reductions were sizable and more pronounced among the poorest. Finally, the MIP significantly increased the odds of obtaining free benefits by insured individuals as compared with the control group. Such an increase was most noticeable for the poorest third of the population. Marginal changes in access to services and the geographically diverse impact of the MIP on service utilization points to other factors affecting health-seeking behaviour of the insured. These other factors include private insurer behaviour that may have used strategies for reducing claims and managing utilization. Equity impact of the MIP and improved financial protection, especially for the poor, are benefits to be retained by government policies when universal health coverage is rolled out nationwide and all citizens will be covered. The role of private insurance companies as financial intermediaries of the publicly funded programme needs further evaluation before moving forward

  12. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the apparent diffusion coefficient of the kidney with a spiral IVIM sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Kyo; Murakami, Takamichi; Sakurai, Kousuke

    1997-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of the spiral intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) sequence in measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the kidneys. Five volunteers and five patients with chronic renal failure underwent diffusion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys with the spiral IVIM sequence. The ADC values in patients with chronic renal failure were significantly lower than those in the renal cortex of volunteers. The mean value of ADC in patients with chronic renal failure was lower than that in volunteers, although there was no statistically significant difference. In volunteers, the ADC of the renal cortex was significantly higher than that of the renal medulla. The phantom study indicated that the accuracy of ADC depended on the signal to noise ratio. A spiral IVIM sequence with a high enough signal to noise ratio may be useful in evaluating renal function, especially that of the cortex. (author)

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the radiological quality of the water on Bikini and Eneu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brown, G.

    1975-01-01

    In June of 1975 a survey was conducted to determine the residual radioactivity in the terrestrial environment on the two main islands (Eneu and Bikini) of Bikini Atoll. The objective was to evaluate the potential radiation doses that could be received by the Bikinians scheduled to return to their atoll. This report describes the radiological quality of the groundwater during June 1975 (from data obtained from water samples collected at old and new well sites on both islets) and the cistern water on Bikini island. Based on the analyses of these samples, the cistern water from Bikini Island is both chemically and radiologically acceptable as drinking water in accordance with standard limits established by the U. S. Public Health Service. On both islands the quality of the ground water varies from one site to another. At some wells both chemical and radiological quality are acceptable; at others one or both is unacceptable according to U. S. Public Health Standards

  15. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  16. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Karbasi Kheir, Mitra; Hekmatian, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage

  17. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Paulo H B; Da Silva-Júnior, Edeildo F; Aquino, Pedro G V; Santana, Antônio E G; Ferro, Jamylle N S; De Oliveira Barreto, Emiliano; Do Ó Pessoa, Cláudia; Meira, Assuero Silva; De Aquino, Thiago M; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna S; Schmitt, Martine; De Araújo-Júnior, João X

    2016-03-01

    Guanylhydrazones have shown promising antitumor activity in preclinical tumor models in several studies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effect of a series of synthetic guanylhydrazones. Different human tumor cell lines, by including HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and SF-295 (glioblastoma) were continuous exposed to guanylhydrazone derivatives for 72 hours and growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and macrophages J774 was measured using tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. Compounds 7, 11, 16 and 17 showed strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values lower than 10 μmol L(-1) against four tumor cell lines. Among them, 7 was less toxic to non-tumor cells. Finally, obtained data suggest that guanylhydrazones may be regarded as potential lead compounds for the design of novel anticancer agents.

  18. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Paulo H. B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanylhydrazones have shown promising antitumor activity in preclinical tumor models in several studies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effect of a series of synthetic guanylhydrazones. Different human tumor cell lines, by including HCT-8 (colon carcinoma, MDA-MB-435 (melanoma and SF-295 (glioblastoma were continuous exposed to guanylhydrazone derivatives for 72 hours and growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and macrophages J774 was measured using tetrazolium salt (MTT assay. Compounds 7, 11, 16 and 17 showed strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values lower than 10 μmol L−1 against four tumor cell lines. Among them, 7 was less toxic to non-tumor cells. Finally, obtained data suggest that guanylhydrazones may be regarded as potential lead compounds for the design of novel anticancer agents.

  19. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of Alysicarpus longifolius W. and A. Prodr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhavesh; Patel, Bhupesh; Pandya, Preeti; Harisha, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the drugs of animal, herbal, or mineral origin. Drugs of plant origin occupy more than 90% of the constituents of the Ayurvedic formulations used during treatment. Due to over exploitation and non-availability of medicinal plants, certain classical drugs are being substituted by locally available ethnomedicinal plants that are being claimed to possess similar activity by the tribal and local practitioners. The authentic source of Prishniparni is Uraria picta Desv. (Fabaceae) and is being substituted by Alysicarpus longifolius W. and A. Prodr. (Fabaceae) by some traditional healers of Gujarat (Saurashtra region). Both the plants are locally known by the names Samervo or Pithvan and both have similar characteristics with reference to leaves and flowers (inflorescence type). Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical evaluation of Alysicarpus longifolius W. and A. Prodr has been carried out and results are reported. PMID:24250137

  20. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Karbasi Kheir, Mitra; Hekmatian, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage.

  1. Strength Evaluation of a Preliminary Hot Gas Duct Design for the NHDD Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Keenam; Kim, Y. W; Lee, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as a high energy heat source for a nuclear hydrogen generation. The VHTR can produce hydrogen from heat and water by using a thermo-chemical process or from heat, water, and natural gas by steam reformer technology. The NHDD program being researched at KAERI is planning to produce hydrogen by using nuclear energy and a thermo-chemical process. Helium gas is the choice for the coolant of the NHDD program since it is an inert gas, with no affinity to a chemical or nuclear activity, therefore a radioactivity transport in the primary circuit of the NHDD program is minimal under a normal operation. Moreover, its gaseous nature avoids problems related to a phase change and water-metal reactions and therefore improves its safety. In this study, a strength evaluation for the HGD of the NHDD program has been undertaken based on the HTR- 10 design concepts

  2. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  3. Synthesis of Xylitan Derivatives and Preliminary Evaluation of in Vitro Trypanocidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Elias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel xylitan derivatives derived from xylitol were synthesized using operationally simple procedures. A xylitan acetonide was the key intermediate used to prepare benzoate, arylsulfonate esters and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of xylitan. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in T. cruzi-infected cell lineages. Benznidazole was used as positive control against T. cruzi and cytotoxicity was determined in mammalian L929 cells. The arylsulfonate xylitan derivative bearing a nitro group displayed the best activity of all the compounds tested, and was slightly more potent than the reference drug benznidazole. The importance of the isopropylidene ketal moiety was established and the greater lipophilicity of these compounds suggests enhancement in cell penetration.

  4. THE COMPANY ACCOUNTING EVALUATIONPRELIMINARY PHASE OF THE PROPER ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem that the accounting information do not always reflect the economic reality may affect the analysis and forecast based on financial statements. This is due both to the accrual accounting limitations and to the fact that this type of accounting allows the result management. In spite of some disadvantages, the accrual accounting is considered superior to cash accounting in measuring the performances and determining financial position as well as in the predicting of future cash flow. In order to limit the negative effects on the results of analysis and forecast based on financial statements, the analists should evaluate the enterprise accounting and if necessary adjust the financial statements so they reflect the economic reality.

  5. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji

    2014-01-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive 238 U and 232 Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  6. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  7. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale...... development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings....... The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. Results: A total of 629 (staff=306, therapist=323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test...

  8. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of 5-[18F]fluoroleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Bennett B; McDougald, Darryl; Weitzel, Douglas H; Hawk, Thomas; Reiman, Robert E; Zalutsky, Michael R; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan

    2017-01-01

    Amino acid transporters, such as LAT1, are overexpressed in aggressive prostate and breast carcinomas, directly influencing pathways of growth and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and characterize a novel 18F labeled leucine analog, 5-[18F]fluoroleucine, as a potential imaging agent for aggressive tumors which may not be amenable to imaging by FDG PET. 5-fluoroleucine was synthesized and characterized, and its 18F-labeled analog was synthesized from a mesylate precursor. First, breast cancer cell line assays were performed to evaluate uptake of 3H- or 14C-labeled L-leucine and other essential amino acids. Both L-leucine and 5- [18F]fluoroleucine were tested for uptake and accumulation over time, and for uptake via LAT1. Biodistribution studies were performed to estimate radiation dosimetry for human studies. Small animal PET / CT studies of a breast cancer were performed to evaluate in vivo 5-[18F]fluoroleucine tumor uptake. Breast cancer cell lines showed increasing high net accumulation of L-[14C]leucine. Both L-leucine and 5-[18F]fluoroleucine showed increasing uptake over time in in vitro tumor cell assays, and uptake was also shown to occur via LAT1. The biodistribution study of 5-[18F]fluoroleucine showed rapid renal excretion, no significant in vivo metabolism, and acceptable dosimetry for use in humans. In vivo small animal PET / CT imaging of a breast cancer xenograft showed uptake of 5- [18F]fluoroleucine in the tumor, which progressively increased over time. 5-[18F]fluoroleucine is a leucine analog which may be useful in identifying tumors with high or upregulated expression of amino acid transporters, providing additional information that may not be provided by FDG PET. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  10. A preliminary exploration of plain-film radiography in scapular dyskinesis evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Deng, Simin; Ma, Yanhong; Yao, Yelin; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Yuqian

    2018-02-15

    Evaluation of scapular dyskinesis is of clinical interest because it is believed to be associated with pathologies of the shoulder. This study investigated the feasibility of plain-film radiography in evaluating scapular dyskinesis. Subjects with unilateral disorders of the shoulder (n = 186) who underwent plain-film radiography of bilateral scapulae were divided into 4 categories of scapular dyskinesis patterns according to the Kibler classification and analyzed. Coracoid upward shift distance (CUSD), length of the scapular spine line (LSS), and scapular upward rotation angle (SURA) were measured on the radiographs. Intrarater and inter-rater reliability were tested, and the characteristics of these parameters in each type were analyzed. The differences (d) between bilateral scapulae (d-CUSD, d-LSS, and d-SURA) among the 4 categories were compared. Intrarater and inter-rater reliability were excellent for all parameters. Significant differences between the scapulae were observed in CUSD in type I and in LSS in type II categories. No significant difference in any of the parameters was found in type III. Compared with the other categories, d-CUSD in type I and d-LSS in type II were significantly larger. The cutoff values of d-CUSD and d-LSS were 1.1 mm and 1.2 mm, respectively. No significant difference in d-SURA was found among the 4 categories. The measurement of CUSD, LSS, and SURA on plain-film radiography had excellent reliability. d-CUSD and d-LSS were characteristic parameters of type I and type II, respectively; however, type III had no distinguishing characteristics among the parameters. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Park, M J; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2012-11-14

    Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT) is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese), which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  12. Measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma: preliminary evaluation of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Karen; West, Anita; Nott, Philippa; Cole, Elaine; Playford, Diane; Liu, Clarence; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Injury severity, disability and care dependency are frequently used as surrogate measures for rehabilitation requirements following trauma. The true rehabilitation needs of patients may be different but there are no validated tools for the measurement of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential utility of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale (RCS) version 2 in measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma patients. A prospective observation study of 103 patients with traumatic injuries in a Major Trauma Centre. Rehabilitation complexity was measured using the RCS and disability was measured using the Barthel Index. Demographic information and injury characteristics were obtained from the trauma database. The RCS was closely correlated with injury severity (r=0.69, pBarthel Index (r=0.91, pBarthel was poor at discriminating between patients rehabilitation needs, especially for patients with higher injury severities. Of 58 patients classified as 'very dependent' by the Barthel, 21 (36%) had low or moderate rehabilitation complexity. The RCS correlated with acute hospital length of stay (r=0.64, p=Barthel which had a flooring effect (56% of patients classified as very dependent were discharged home) and lacked discrimination despite close statistical correlation. The RCS outperformed the ISS and the Barthel in its ability to identify rehabilitation requirements in relation to injury severity, rehabilitation complexity, length of stay and discharge destination. The RCS is potentially a feasible and useful tool for the assessment of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care by providing specific measurement of patients' rehabilitation requirements. A larger longitudinal study is needed to evaluate the RCS in the assessment of patient need, service provision and trauma system performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Innovative Aerogel Based Plasters: Preliminary Thermal and Acoustic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and acoustic properties of innovative insulating systems used as building coatings were investigated: Granular silica aerogel was mixed with natural plaster in different percentages. This coating solution is transpiring and insulating, thanks to the use of a natural lime coat and aerogel, a highly porous light material with very low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the proposed solution was evaluated by means of a Heat Flow meter apparatus (EN ISO 12667, considering different percentages of aerogel. The natural plaster without aerogel has a thermal conductivity of about 0.50 W/m K; considering a percentage of granular aerogel of about 90% in volume, the thermal conductivity of the insulating natural coating falls to 0.050 W/m K. Increasing the percentage of granular aerogel, a value of about 0.018–0.020 W/m K can be reached. The acoustic properties were also evaluated in terms of the acoustic absorption coefficient, measured by means of a Kundt’s Tube (ISO 10534-2. Two samples composed by a plasterboard support, an insulation plaster with aerogel (thicknesses 10 mm and 30 mm respectively and a final coat were assembled. The results showed that the absorption coefficient strongly depends on the final coat, so the aerogel-based plaster layer moderately influences the final value. The application of this innovative solution can be a useful tool for new buildings, but also for the refurbishment of existing ones. This material is in development: until now, the best value of the thermal conductivity obtained from manufacturers is about 0.015 W/m K.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of data mining on non-masslike enhancement of breast lesions on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongna; Li Ruimin; Wang Peihua; Tang Feng; Mao Jian; Shen Xigang; Qian Min; Gu Yajia; Su Yi; Chen Ying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic values of the breast imaging reporting and data system-MRI (BI-RADS-MRI)description about non-masslike enhancement by data mining. Methods: Fifty- five patients with non-masslike enhancement lesions showed on breast contrast-enhanced MRI were evaluated using two data mining algorithms (Logistic regression and decision tree) and 10-fold cross-validation methods. Results: There were 28 malignant and 27 benign lesions. The most frequent findings of the malignant lesions were clustered ring enhancement and clumped enhancement [12 and 4 lesions, respectively; 84.2% (16/19) in decision trees, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 2.128 and 1.723, respectively], whereas homogenous, stippled, reticular internal and linear ductal enhancement were the most frequent findings in benign lesions [4,9,1 and 7 lesions, respectively; 72.4% (21/29) in decision tree, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 0.357 (homogenous), 1.861 (stippled) and 18.870(reticular), respectively]. 10-fold cross-validation indicated that decision tree (C5.0) achieved an accuracy of 69.3% with a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 71.7% in comparison to the Logistic regression model with an accuracy of 57.0%, a sensitivity of 43.3% and a specificity of 71.7%. Conclusions: The diagnosis efficacy of non-masslike enhancement interpretation according to BI-RADS-MRI is not high. It is very important to find more potential features of non-masslike enhancement to improve the diagnosis accuracy. (authors)

  15. Preliminary checklists for applying SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation to rivers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation. SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istraživanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, održivo korišćenje i zaštita 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia

  16. Evaluation of healing of pressure ulcers through thermography: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Abreu Chaves

    Full Text Available Introduction Thermography is a surface thermal radiation measurement technique whose application has been expanding in the healthcare field. The unhealed wound is a serious public health problem because it intervenes in the quality of life of patients and may cause emotional and psychological losses. The wound temperature can provide quantitative data that allow for the healing process to be monitored. The aim of this study was to verify whether thermography can be used as a method to evaluate the healing of pressure ulcers. Methods Eight participants with sacral pressure ulcers were recruited and randomly divided into two groups: A (control and B (experimental. Both groups received standard treatment for a period of four weeks, which consisted of a daily cleaning of the pressure ulcers with physiological saline (sodium chloride 0.9% followed by an alginate hydrogel dressing. The group B received light-emitting diode (LED phototherapy in addition to standard treatment, three times a week, yielding a total of 12 sessions. Photographs and thermograms of each pressure ulcer were obtained in all sessions in both groups. Results Pressure ulcers treated with LED phototherapy were healed. The pressure ulcer area of group B decreased over the 12 treatment sessions, whereas the pressure ulcer area of group A increased. The ulcer temperature of group B was higher than that of group A during the treatment (temperature difference up to 7.6%. Discussion The present study suggests a relationship between the temperature and area of pressure ulcers and proposes thermography as an adjunctive method for the evaluation of healing processes.

  17. A new perceptual difference model for diagnostically relevant quantitative image quality evaluation: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Huang, Feng; Narayan, Sreenath; Wilson, David L

    2013-05-01

    Most objective image quality metrics average over a wide range of image degradations. However, human clinicians demonstrate bias toward different types of artifacts. Here, we aim to create a perceptual difference model based on Case-PDM that mimics the preference of human observers toward different artifacts. We measured artifact disturbance to observers and calibrated the novel perceptual difference model (PDM). To tune the new model, which we call Artifact-PDM, degradations were synthetically added to three healthy brain MR data sets. Four types of artifacts (noise, blur, aliasing or "oil painting" which shows up as flattened, over-smoothened regions) of standard compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction, within a reasonable range of artifact severity, as measured by both PDM and visual inspection, were considered. After the model parameters were tuned by each synthetic image, we used a functional measurement theory pair-comparison experiment to measure the disturbance of each artifact to human observers and determine the weights of each artifact's PDM score. To validate Artifact-PDM, human ratings obtained from a Double Stimulus Continuous Quality Scale experiment were compared to the model for noise, blur, aliasing, oil painting and overall qualities using a large set of CS-reconstructed MR images of varying quality. Finally, we used this new approach to compare CS to GRAPPA, a parallel MRI reconstruction algorithm. We found that, for the same Artifact-PDM score, the human observer found incoherent aliasing to be the most disturbing and noise the least. Artifact-PDM results were highly correlated to human observers in both experiments. Optimized CS reconstruction quality compared favorably to GRAPPA's for the same sampling ratio. We conclude our novel metric can faithfully represent human observer artifact evaluation and can be useful in evaluating CS and GRAPPA reconstruction algorithms, especially in studying artifact trade-offs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  18. Preliminary Comparative Evaluation Study on Reference Design of GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, Ser Gi (and others)

    2005-11-15

    A fast reactor has a good transmutation capability and it enables breeding of fuel and use of a closed fuel cycle. By these characteristics of a fast reactor, the limited uranium resources of the world can be much more effectively utilized and the nuclear wastes of a high level of radioactivity and toxicity from the current nuclear power reactors of LWRs and HWRs can be drastically reduced in its volume and the management of the wastes can be easily treated. Also electricity can be generated more effectively since a fast reactor has the feature of high operation temperature. These features of a fast reactor makes it inevitable on a long term basis to construct fast reactors in Korea. The domestic fast reactor technology level, however, is at the level of coming out of a beginning stage and needs utilization of international expertise. Recently an international cooperation program called GIF has been formulated and our KALIMER was selected as one of the two reference designs for the international joint R and D works with JSFR of Japan. In the current frame of the GIF program, the two selected reference designs are supposed to be evaluated against each other in future and one design is to be finally selected. To make the international cooperation program directed more useful to our fast reactor technology development, it is required to strengthen the competitiveness of KALIMER so that it can be selected. To meet the necessity, a study was made in this research for pre-evaluation of the GIF reference designs and setting up plans for development of designs and technology that will enhance the competitiveness of KALIMER.

  19. Development and evaluation of a new lateral flow assay for simultaneous detection of antibodies against African Horse Sickness and Equine Infectious Anemia viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia; Sastre, Patricia; Pérez, Teresa; Tapia, Istar; Barrandeguy, María; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M; Sánchez-Matamoros, Almudena; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Sanz, Antonio; Rueda, Paloma

    2016-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine infectious anemia (EIA) are both notifiable equid specific diseases that may present similar clinical signs. Considering the increased global movement of horses and equine products over the past decades, together with the socio-economic impact of previous AHS and EIA outbreaks, there is a clear demand for an early discrimination and a strict control of their transmission between enzootic and AHS/EIA-free regions. Currently, the individual control and prevention of AHS or EIA relies on a series of measures, including the restriction of animal movements, vector control, and the use of several laboratory techniques for viral identification, amongst others. Despite being widely employed in surveillance programmes and in the control of animal movements, the available serological assays can only detect AHS- or EIA-specific antibodies individually. In this work, a duplex lateral flow assay (LFA) for simultaneous detection and differentiation of specific antibodies against AHS virus (AHSV) and EIA virus (EIAV) was developed and evaluated with experimental and field serum samples. The duplex LFA was based on the AHSV-VP7 outer core protein and the EIAV-P26 major core protein. The results indicated that the duplex LFA presented a good analytical performance, detecting simultaneously and specifically antibodies against AHSV and EIAV. The initial diagnostic evaluation revealed a good agreement with results from the AHS and EIA tests prescribed by the OIE, and it highlighted the usefulness of the new AHSV/EIAV duplex LFA for an on-field and point-of-care first diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Antibody and Cytokines Responses in Intranasally and Intramuscularly Administrated BALB/C Mice With Influenza Virus-Like Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haideh Nadmdari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed an influenza virus like particle with HA, M, and NA proteins using Bac-to-Bac expression system and SF9 cell line. To evaluate the immunogenicity of our construct, we assessed the humoral, cytokine induced by H1N1-VLP in BALB/c mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Relative quantitative real-time PCR were used to evaluate the antibody (IgG and IgA and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-g in PBMCs. Our results showed that VLP was capable of intranasal (I.N. and intramuscular (I.M. induction of serum IgG and IgA responses. Interestingly, I.N. route induced higher IgG and IgA titer than I.M. route, which was statistically significant. Moreover, mRNA levels of IL-6 (4.2-4.5 folds, IFN-g (5.5-5.7 folds, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (2.5-3 folds and IL-4 (2.4-2.8 folds were significantly elevated in mice immunized I.N. and I.M. with H1N1-VLP compared to the control group. Our findings indicated that a non-infectious genome-less VLP approach mimics parenteral virus with multiple viral antigens and epitopes that stimulate a diverse set of immune responses such as innate immunity, specific serum IgG antibody, cell-mediated immunity, and local antibodies.

  1. Evaluation of stomatognathic problems in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (osteogenesis imperfecta - oi) - preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoląg, Danuta; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata; Sułko, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former. The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency with which particular disorders of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus occur within the group of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. The study was performed on patients of the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Polish-American Paediatric Institute in Kraków. The mean age of the children was 7.9 years. In all the cases, a genetic diagnosis of OI has been confirmed. The research methods were based on an in-depth interview on family diseases, pregnancy, postnatal period, feeding, subjective assessment of dysfunctions in the stomatognathic system. An examination of the deformations in the stomatognathic system and the skeleton was conducted, as well as an examination of the trauma and tone of the jaw. The relationship between breastfeeding and swallowing and speech disorders was also evaluated. The impact of intubation on mandibular ranges was investigated. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis on the basis of which conclusions were drawn concerning disorders in the stomatognathic system which tend to occur in children with OI. The renunciation of breastfeeding significantly contributes to sucking and swallowing disorders, rumen disorders, as well as biomechanical disorders in the temporomandibular joint. A significant dependence between breastfeeding and swallowing problems was found, whereas there was no such dependence with respect to

  2. 3D-2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S.; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-03-01

    An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely ‘LevelCheck’) to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of

  3. A new surgical strategy for treatment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma based on anatomic study with preliminary clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhen-Hu; Wu, Han-Jiang; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Kai; Gong, Zhao-Jian; He, Zhi-Jing; Peng, Jie

    2015-10-01

    This study characterized the infiltration of primary tumors along the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), to create a new surgical strategy that is suitable for most stages. A preliminary evaluation of this novel surgical approach was also conducted. An anatomic study of macroscopic specimens from 10 human cadavers and 100 OTSCC patients was conducted. The anatomic characteristics of the primary tumors and the origin and distribution of fibers of the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles were observed and measured. After initial treatment with curative intent, the 100 patients were regularly followed-up with clinical examination and imaging. Based on the anatomic characteristics of the primary tumors and tongue muscles, a new surgical approach was developed, and was described as muscle anatomy tongue surgery (MATS). MATS proved suitable for almost all stages of OTSCC. According to the morphology of the invasive tumor front, the 100 cases were divided into four types. The rate of 2-year local disease control was 98%, locoregional control 86%, disease-free survival 85%, and overall survival 89%. Tongue functions were perfectly recovered in more than 60% of the patients. Application of the principles of MATS to the treatment of OTSCC proved suitable for almost all stages of the disease. MATS is a novel surgical technique that may improve outcomes in tongue cancer surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of public health program for type 1 diabetes in a university community: preliminary evaluation of behavioural change wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Digban, K A; Anyasodor, A E; Bwititi, P T; Richards, R S; Igumbor, E O

    2017-10-23

    Diabetes mellitus, including type 1 is a global public health problem among the young persons. While public health campaign and screening program is a potential strategy, but communication skills, knowledge and opinion of the healthcare personnel are indicated as variables that can impact patient's education, which will lead to better outcome of care. Thus, in designing or planning a program for public health, workforce development considers opinion and behavioural change wheel of prospective personnel. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate if a university academic department has the behavioural change wheel to function as workforce infrastructure for an envisioned program. Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of a university community regarding diabetes type 1 was performed. The KAP were translated into behavioural change wheel comprising capacity, motivation and opportunity (CMO). There are baseline indications of the behavioural change wheel potential of the public health department to run a T1D screening program. The number of participants who knew someone with T1D was significantly higher than the subgroup with no such knowledge (pwheel or CMO to develop a workforce infrastructure for T1D screening program, the experience that comes with age of lecturers will be an important factor to enable such program to succeed.

  5. Translation and preliminary evaluation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Transgender Voice Questionnaire for male-to-female transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Heloisa Helena de Almeida Neves Matta dos; Aguiar, Andréa Gomes de Oliveira; Baeck, Heidi Elisabeth; Van Borsel, John

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the development of a Brazilian Portuguese language version of the vocal self-assessment questionnaire, Transsexual Voice Questionnaire: Male-to-Female (TVQ:MtF), and to evaluate the questionnaire for use in Brazil. The research was divided into two parts: (1) translation and adaptation of the questionnaire (TVQ:MtF) and demographic form and (2) preliminary study of the psychometric properties (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) of the adapted version of the questionnaire. For the translation and adaptation, the following steps were taken: translation, reconciliation, back-translation, harmonization, and pilot test. The TVQ:MtF questionnaire and the demographic form were applied to 13 male-to-female transsexuals, aged between 21 and 47 years. The participants agreed to answer the TVQ:MtF on two occasions (test and retest), with an optimal interval of 30 days. Two psychometric properties were investigated: internal consistency and test-retest reliability. High levels of internal consistency (in both test (α=0.911) and retest (α=0.952) conditions) and reliability (with an average ICC=0.957 (95%CI 0.916-0.984)), were found. The TVQ:MtF is an appropriate instrument for vocal self-assessment of male-to-female transsexual patients, which can be recommended for clinical and research goals.

  6. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development and preliminary evaluation of a music-based attention assessment for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.

  8. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new [18F]fluoro-inositols as Positron Emission Tomography radiotracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Charlotte; Schmitt, Sébastien; Maskali, Fatiha; Clément, Alexandra; Chrétien, Françoise; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Poussier, Sylvain; Lamandé-Langle, Sandrine

    2017-10-15

    This study describes the synthesis and radiosynthesis of eight new [ 18 F]fluoro-inositol-based radiotracers in myo- and scyllo-inositol configuration. These radiotracers are equipped with a propyl linker bearing fluorine-18. This fluorinated arm is either on a hydroxyl group, i.e. O-alkylated inositols, or on the cyclohexyl backbone, i.e. C-branched derivatives. To modulate lipophilicity, inositols were synthesized in acetylated or hydroxylated form. Automated radiosynthesis was performed on the AllInOne module and the radiotracers were produced in good radiochemical yields (15-31.5% dc). Preliminary in vivo preclinical evaluation of these eight [ 18 F]fluoro-inositols as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging agents in a breast tumour-bearing mouse model was performed and compared with [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG). Amongst the different inositols, [ 18 F]myo-2 showed the highest tumour uptake 2.34±0.39%ID/g, revealing the potential of this tracer for monitoring breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All