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Sample records for antibodies trichinella spiralis

  1. Trichinella spiralis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodoropoulos, G.; Hicks, S. J.; Corfield, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Duodenal and jejunal responses to infection with Trichinella spiralis were compared in weaned piglets with a "normal dirty" vs. a "clean SPF" gut flora. Histochemical staining of neutral, acidic, sialylated, and sulphated residues was used to assess biosynthetic responses in mucin-secreting goblet...... in the infected conventional animals than in the infected SPF group. This was accompanied by changes in the pattern of sulphation and sialylation in the duodenum and jejunum. The thickness of the glycocalyx was increased in both duodenum and jejunum in both infected groups. However, this effect was greater...... for the infected SPF animals than the infected conventional animals. No significant differences were observed between uninfected conventional and uninfected SPF pigs....

  2. Specific serum antibody responses following a Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis co-infection in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokken, G.; Eerden, van E.; Opsteegh, M.; Augustijn, M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Franssen, F.; Görlich, K.; Buschtöns, S.; Tenter, A.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of parasite specific antibody development in Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in pigs and to compare these with antibody dynamics in T. spiralis and T. gondii single infections. In this experiment, fiftyfour pigs were divided

  3. Antibody response against Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats is dose dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franssen Frits FJ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Domestic pigs are the main representatives of the domestic cycle of Trichinella spiralis that play a role in transmission to humans. In Europe, backyard pigs of small household farms are the most important risks for humans to obtain trichinellosis. Rats might play a role in the transmission of Trichinella spiralis from domestic to sylvatic animals and vice versa. In order to be able to investigate the role of wild rats in the epidemiology of T. spiralis in The Netherlands, we studied the dynamics of antibody response after T. spiralis infections in experimental rats, using infection doses ranging from very low (10 muscle larvae, ML, per rat to very high (16 000 ML per rat. To evaluate the feasibility of rats surviving high infection doses with T. spiralis, clinical and pathological parameters were quantified. Serological tools for detecting T. spiralis in rats were developed to quantitatively study the correlation between parasite load and immunological response. The results show that an infection dose-dependent antibody response was developed in rats after infection with as low as 10 ML up to a level of 10 000 ML. A positive correlation was found between the number of recovered ML and serum antibody levels, although specific measured antibody levels correspond to a wide range of LPG values. Serum antibodies of rats that were infected even with 10 or 25 ML could readily be detected by use of the T. spiralis western blot 2 weeks post infection. We conclude that based on these low infection doses, serologic tests are a useful tool to survey T. spiralis in wild rats.

  4. Antibody response against Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats is dose dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits F J; Fonville, Manoj; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Vallée, Isabelle; Grasset, Aurélie; Koedam, Marie A; Wester, Piet W; Boireau, Pascal; van der Giessen, Joke W B

    2011-11-30

    Domestic pigs are the main representatives of the domestic cycle of Trichinella spiralis that play a role in transmission to humans. In Europe, backyard pigs of small household farms are the most important risks for humans to obtain trichinellosis. Rats might play a role in the transmission of Trichinella spiralis from domestic to sylvatic animals and vice versa. In order to be able to investigate the role of wild rats in the epidemiology of T. spiralis in The Netherlands, we studied the dynamics of antibody response after T. spiralis infections in experimental rats, using infection doses ranging from very low (10 muscle larvae, ML, per rat) to very high (16,000 ML per rat). To evaluate the feasibility of rats surviving high infection doses with T. spiralis, clinical and pathological parameters were quantified. Serological tools for detecting T. spiralis in rats were developed to quantitatively study the correlation between parasite load and immunological response. The results show that an infection dose-dependent antibody response was developed in rats after infection with as low as 10 ML up to a level of 10,000 ML. A positive correlation was found between the number of recovered ML and serum antibody levels, although specific measured antibody levels correspond to a wide range of LPG values. Serum antibodies of rats that were infected even with 10 or 25 ML could readily be detected by use of the T. spiralis western blot 2 weeks post infection. We conclude that based on these low infection doses, serologic tests are a useful tool to survey T. spiralis in wild rats.

  5. Differentiation of Trichinella spiralis spiralis and Trichinella spiralis nativa based on resistance to low temperature refrigeration.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    A refrigeration technique to differentiate the subspecies, Trichinella spiralis spiralis and T. spiralis nativa is described. Trichinella spiralis spiralis trichinae in musculature do not survive 48 hours post-refrigeration at -32 degrees C while T. spiralis nativa will survive 72 hours and longer at the same temperature.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866... Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trichinella spiralis serological reagents are... Trichinella spiralis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of trichinosis caused by...

  7. Trichinella spiralis, Cacing yang Menginfeksi Otot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Tri Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis merupakan salah satu jenis nematoda/cacing gilig. Cacing ini tersebar di seluruh dunia (kosmopolit, terutama daerah beriklim sedang. Trichinella spiralis menyebabkan penyakit yang disebut trichinosis, trikinelosis, dan trikiniasis. Selain menginfeksi manusia, cacing ini juga menginfeksi mamalia lain seperti tikus, kucing, anjing, babi, beruang dan lain-lain.

  8. Dynamics of circulating antibodies against Trichinella spiralis after application of anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Cerman, J; Spaldonová, R

    1977-01-01

    Formation and dynamics of circulating antibodies were studied in mice experimentally inefected with T. spiralis and treated with mebendazole. Latex-fixation tube was used in the experiment. In the control group of untreated mice the antibodies were detected on the 21st day after infection. The antibody level reached the maximum on day 76 and low titres were found still on day 207 after infection. In mice treated with mebendazole in the intestinal phase of trichinellosis, the antibodies were detected 10 or 7 days earlier than in the control group. At this time the antibody level reached the maximum and then it decreased gradually until no antibodies were detected on days 66-76. This phenomenon correlated with postmortem examination and suggested that the formation and dynamics of circulating antibodies against T. spiralis are directly dependent on the effectiveness of the treatment.

  9. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked ... produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts may cause muscle pain and ...

  10. Trichinella spiralis infection in pigs in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorland, J; Brown, D; Gamble, H R; McAuley, J B

    1993-05-01

    Trichinella spiralis infection has been reported sporadically in several areas in Central and South America. However, several countries, including Bolivia, have not reported trichinellosis in animals or humans. A small survey of pigs slaughtered in an abattoir in Bolivia was undertaken during September 1991, to determine the presence of Trichinella spiralis. In a group of 100 pigs slaughtered consecutively on a single day and tested using the pooled digestion method, two of eight pools (25%) were positive. Twenty-one of 188 pigs (11.2%) from ten communities slaughtered consecutively on a second day tested positive for the presence of antibodies to Trichinella spiralis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was concluded that trichinellosis is present in pigs in Bolivia and the rate of infection may be quite high.

  11. Immune Correlates of Resistance to Trichinella spiralis Reinfection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ki-Back; Kim, Sang-Soo; Lee, Su-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Ah-Ra; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-01-01

    The immune correlate of host resistance induced by reinfection of Trichinella spiralis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated immune correlates between the resistance and serum IgG antibody level, CD23+ IgM+ B cells, and eosinophil responses induced by T. spiralis reinfection. Mice were primarily infected with 10 or 100 T. spiralis larvae (10 TS, 100 TS), respectively, and after 4 weeks, they were challenge infected with 100 T. spiralis larvae (10–100 TS, 100-100 TS). Upon challenge infections, 10–100 TS mice induced significantly higher levels of T. spiralis-specific total IgG antibody responses in sera and antibody secreting cell responses in spleens compared to 100-100 TS mice, resulting in significantly reduced worm burdens in 10–100 TS mice (60% and 70% reductions for adult and larvae, respectively). Higher levels of eosinophils were found in mice primarily infected with 10 TS compared to those of 100 TS at week 8 upon challenge. CD23+ IgM+ B cells were found to be increased significantly in mice primarily infected with 10 TS. These results indicate that primary infection of 10 larvae of T. spiralis, rather than 100 larvae, induces significant resistance against reinfection which closely correlated with T. spiralis-specific IgG, eosinophil, and CD23+ IgM+ B cell responses. PMID:27853121

  12. [Immunochemical properties of the excretory-secretory antigen of Trichinella spiralis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akibekov, O S; Lider, L A; Odoevskiĭ, I M; Tokpan, S S; Ospanova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultivation of Trichinella spiralis provided data on the structure of somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of T. spiralis larvae, their immunochemical properties were studied. The findings suggest that work should be continued to produce monoclonal antibodies and to develop highly sensitive and specific ELISA test systems for the diagnosis of human and animal trichinosis.

  13. A novel bead-based assay to detect specific antibody responses against Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis simultaneously in sera of experimentally infected swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokken Gertie CAM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel, bead-based flow cytometric assay was developed for simultaneous determination of antibody responses against Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in pig serum. This high throughput screening assay could be an alternative for well known indirect tests like ELISA. One of the advantages of a bead-based assay over ELISA is the possibility to determine multiple specific antibody responses per single sample run facilitated by a series of antigens coupled to identifiable bead-levels. Furthermore, inclusion of a non-coupled bead-level in the same run facilitates the determination of, and correction for non-specific binding. The performance of this bead-based assay was compared to one T. spiralis and three T. gondii ELISAs. For this purpose, sera from T. gondii and T. spiralis experimentally infected pigs were used. With the experimental infection status as gold standard, the area under the curve, Youden Index, sensitivity and specificity were determined through receiver operator curve analysis. Marginal homogeneity and inter-rater agreement between bead-based assay and ELISAs were evaluated using McNemar's Test and Cohen's kappa, respectively. Results Results indicated that the areas under the curve of the bead-based assay were 0.911 and 0.885 for T. gondii and T. spiralis, respectively, while that of the T. gondii ELISAs ranged between 0.837 and 0.930 and the T. spiralis ELISA was 0.879. Bead-based T. gondii assay had a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 96%, while the ELISAs ranged between 64-84% and 93-99%, respectively. The bead-based T. spiralis assay had a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 100% while the ELISA scored 72% and 95%, respectively. Marginal homogeneity was found between the T. gondii bead-based test and one of the T. gondii ELISAs. Moreover, in this test combination and between T. spiralis bead-based assay and respective ELISA, an excellent inter-rater agreement was found. When results of

  14. Trichinella spiralis, T-britovi, and T-nativa: infectivity, larval distribution in muscle, and antibody response after experimental infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Lind, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    The infectivity of Trichinella spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi was experimentally compared in pigs. Blood sampling was performed weekly, and muscle juices were obtained at slaughter 10 weeks after inoculation. Muscle larvae were found in all of four pigs inoculated with T. spiralis [mean 190...

  15. Class specific antibody responses to newborn larva antigens during Trichinella spiralis human infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendez-Loredo B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A follow-up study of the class antibody responses to newborn larva (NBL antigens in individuals involved in an outbreak of human trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA assays. The data showed that similar kinetics of antibody responses of different magnitude developed in trichinellosis patients; it was low by week 3, a peak raised by week 5 and decreased from week 7 up to the end of the study. The IgA-ELISA assay was the most sensitive and specific while the IgM was the least sensitive and specific. IgA antibodies to NBL antigens were detected in 80 % of patients while IgE, IgG and IgM responses were observed in 44, 31 and 19 % of the patients by week 3, respectively. From weeks 5 to 7, IgA antibodies were found in 89 to 100 % of the patients while lower percentages (0-82 % were found for the other isotypes. Reactivity of IgA, IgE, IgG and IgM to NBL antigens decreased from week 37 to 57 after infection (0-38 %. These results suggest that detection of IgA antibodies may be useful for early diagnosis and epidemiological studies in human trichinellosis.

  16. Characterization and functional analysis of Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Liu, Pei; Ren, Hui Jun; Shi, Hai Ning; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase (TsNd) was identified by screening a T7 phage display cDNA library from T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL), and vaccination of mice with recombinant TsNd protein (rTsNd) or TsNd DNA vaccine produced a partial protective immunity. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics and biological functions of TsNd in the process of invasion and development of T. spiralis larvae. Transcription and expression of TsNd gene at all developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by qPCR and immunofluorescent test (IFT). The rTsNd had the Nd enzymatic activity to dGTP, NAD, NADP and CoA. Its kinetic properties on the preferred substrate dGTP were calculated, and the Vmax, Km, and kcat/Km values at pH 8.0 were 3.19 μM min(-1) μg(-1), 370 μM, and 144 s(-1) M(-1), respectively, in reaction matrix containing 5 mM Zn(2+) and 2 mM DTT. The rTsNd was active from 25 °C to 50 °C, with optimal activity at 37 °C. rTsNd was able to bind specifically to mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and promoted the larval invasion of IECs, whereas anti-rTsNd antibodies inhibited the larval invasion of IECs in a dose-dependent manner. Anti-rTsNd antibodies could kill T. spiralis infective larvae by an ADCC-mediated mechanism. Our results showed that the rTsNd protein was able to interact with host IECs, had the Nudix hydrolasing activity and the enzymatic activity appeared to be essential indispensable for the T. spiralis larval invasion, development and survival in host.

  17. El estudio de Trichinella spiralis en modelos experimentales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe presenta una breve descripción del estudio de Trichinella spiralis en modelos experimentales, enfocándonos al estudio de la epidemiología, técnicas diagnósticas directas e indirectas, tratamiento y biología del parasito.

  18. Partially Protective Immunity Induced by a 20 kDa Protein Secreted by Trichinella spiralis Stichocytes.

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    Kuo Bi

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infection induces protective immunity against re-infection in animal models. Identification of the antigens eliciting acquired immunity during infection is important for vaccine development against Trichinella infection and immunodiagnosis.The T. spiralis adult cDNA library was immunoscreened with sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 infective T. spiralis larvae. Total 43 positive clones encoding for 28 proteins were identified; one of the immunodominant proteins was 20 kDa Ts-ES-1 secreted by Trichinella stichocytes and existing in the excretory/secretory (ES products of T. spiralis adult and muscle larval worms. Ts-ES-1 contains 172 amino acids with a typical signal peptide in the first 20 amino acids. The expression of Ts-ES-1 was detected in both the adult and muscle larval stages at the mRNA and protein expression levels. Mice immunized with recombinant Ts-ES-1 (rTs-ES-1 formulated with ISA50v2 adjuvant exhibited a significant worm reduction in both the adult worm (27% and muscle larvae burden (42.1% after a challenge with T. spiralis compared to the adjuvant control group (p<0.01. The rTs-ES-1-induced protection was associated with a high level of specific anti-Ts-ES-1 IgG antibodies and a Th1/Th2 mixed immune response.The newly identified rTs-ES-1 is an immunodominant protein secreted by Trichinella stichocytes during natural infection and enables to the induction of partial protective immunity in vaccinated mice against Trichinella infection. Therefore, rTs-ES-1 is a potential candidate for vaccine development against trichinellosis.

  19. Pesquisa de Trichinella spiralis em roedores capturados na zona portuária de Santos An investigation of Trichinella spiralis in rodents captured in the Santos dock area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Vianna Paim

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se 594 diafragmas de roedores capturados na zona portuária de Santos tendo em vista a procura de larvas de Trichinella spiralis. Todos os diafragmas examinados estavam negativos.Five hundred and ninety-four diaphragms of rodents captured in the Santos dock area were examined for Trichinella spiralis. The results of the examinations were negative.

  20. FASE INTESTINAL DE Trichinella spiralis EN MODELO MURINO Intestinal Trichinella spiralis Phase In Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ALEJANDRA MORENO GARCÍA

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis se encuentra principalmente en el hombre, rata, cerdo, perro; puede infectar a cualquier carnívoro u omnívoro. Cuando la carne o sus derivados están contaminados con larvas infectantes (LI de T. spiralis y son ingeridas éstas pasan al estómago, donde sus cápsulas son disueltas por acción de los jugos gástricos, las larvas son liberadas en pocas horas, después pasan a la porción proximal del intestino delgado, donde se lleva a cabo su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la fase intestinal de T. spiralis en un modelo murino. Un lote de 45 ratas Long Evans, se infectaron con aproximadamente 500 LI, y fueron sacrificadas tres diarias por 15 días. Se tomó un segmento de duodeno, yeyuno e íleon y se fijaron en formol al 10% para posteriormente ser procesados en parafina y teñido con hematoxilina-eosina. El resto del intestino delgado fue fraccionado, se incubó a 37 °C por dos horas y el sobrenadante se observó al microscopio de luz. Se encontró que el implante se lleva a cabo a nivel de yeyuno e íleon, que las hembras adultas dan origen aproximadamente 60-80 larvas recién nacidas (LRN, parto vivíparo en un tercio distal y subse-cuentemente son destruidas. Los machos adultos tienen espermatozoides no ciliados.Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic disease in man, rat, pig, but can infect any carnivorous or omnivorous. When the meat or their derivates are contaminated with infective larvae (il of T. spiralis pass to the stomach, their capsules are dissolved by the stomach juice, the larvaes are liberated in few hours, and then they pass to the near portion of the slim intestine in which they develop. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the intestine phase of T. spiralis in a murine model. Fourtyfive Long Evans rats were infected with 500 li approximately, then 3 rats were sacrificed everyday over a period of 15 days. A portion of duodenum, jejune and ileum were fixed in

  1. Early Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa infections induce similar gene expression profiles in rat jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Näreaho, Anu; Lindén, Jere; Valo, Erkka; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Sukura, Antti

    2013-10-01

    Trichinella spiralis causes a significantly higher parasite burden in rat muscle than Trichinella nativa. To assess whether the difference in infectivity is due to the early intestinal response, we analyzed gene expression changes in the rat jejunum during Trichinella infection with a whole-genome microarray. The rats were euthanized on day five of infection, and their jejunal mucosa was sampled for microarray analysis. In addition, intestinal histology and hematology were examined. Against our expectations, the gene expression changes were similar in both T.nativa- and T. spiralis-infected groups. The two groups were hence pooled, and in the combined Trichinella-infected group, 551 genes were overexpressed and 427 underexpressed when compared to controls (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and fold change at least 2 in either direction). Pathway analysis identified seven pathways significantly associated with Trichinella infection (p Trichinella infection caused complex gene expression changes that indicate a host response to tissue damage in the mucosa of the jejunum, but the changes were not notably dependent on the studied species of Trichinella.

  2. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  3. Invasion of epithelial cells by Trichinella spiralis: in vitro observations

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    Romarís F.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for many years that Trichinella spiralis initiates infection by penetrating the columnar epithelium of the small intestine, however, the mechanisms used by the parasite in the establishment of its intramulticellular niche in the intestine are unknown. The recent demonstration that invasion also occurs in vitro when infective larvae of T. spiralis are inoculated onto cultures of epithelial cells provides a model that allows the direct observation of the process by which the parasite recognizes, invades and migrates within the epithelium. The finding that penetration of the cell membrane or Induction of plasma membrane wounds by larvae do not always result in invasion argue in favor of some kind of host-parasite communication in successful invasion. In this sense, the in vitro model of invasion provides a readily manipulated and controlled system to investigate both parasite, and host cell requirements for invasion.

  4. Genetic evidence of interspecies introgression of mitochondrial genomes between Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Deksne, Gunita; Sprong, Hein; Pozio, Edoardo; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Rozycki, Mirek; van der Giessen, Joke

    2015-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) through ingestion of raw or undercooked meat. To date, 12 taxa are recognized in this genus, of which four are circulating in Europe (Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis). T. spiralis and T. britovi circulate in European wildlife and occur simultaneously in the same host species. The possibility of hybrid formation between T. britovi and T. spiralis has hardly been addressed and so far, results of experimental hybridisation attempts between T. britovi and T. spiralis are inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to analyse molecular polymorphisms of single T. spiralis and T. britovi ML from natural infections based on nuclear 5S rDNA intergenic spacer region (5S rDNA-ISR) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene sequences. Six haplotypes of the 5S rDNA intergenic spacer region (5S rDNA-ISR) and 14 of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene were demonstrated in 89 individual T. britovi ML from Latvia and Poland. In contrast, only two haplotypes were observed at both 5S rDNA-ISR and CO1 of 57 individual T. spiralis ML from Polish wild boar and red foxes. Moreover, this study demonstrates hybridisation in eight individual ML between T. britovi and T. spiralis under natural conditions in four Polish wild boar and two red foxes, revealed by combining 5S rDNA-ISR and CO1 sequence information of individual Trichinella ML. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies hybridisation between T. spiralis and T. britovi under field conditions.

  5. Modulation of inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model following infection with Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of mice with Trichinella spiralis redirects the mucosal immune system from a Th1 to a protective Th2 response with a reduction in the severity of trinitrobenzesulfonic acid-induced colonic damage. T. spiralis infection induced IL-10 production in a dose-dependent manner in oxazolone (OXZ)-...

  6. Molting, Ecdysis, and Reproduction of Trichinella spiralis Are Supported In Vitro by Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardo, L. F.; McVay, C S; Appleton, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis is an obligate parasite of animals that has an unusual intracellular life cycle. Investigation of parasitism at the cellular and molecular levels has been challenging because of a shortage of tools for in vitro cultivation of T. spiralis. We have found that T. spiralis larvae molt, ecdyse, develop to adulthood, and reproduce when they are inoculated onto cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Initially, larvae invade and migrate through cells in a monolayer (T. ManWarren, ...

  7. Trichinella spiralis: phospholipase in sensitized mice after challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsh, J.E. Jr. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Ottolenghi, A.; Weatherly, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    Mice given three sensitizing infections with Trichinella spiralis and then challenged with 400 larvae showed greatly elevated phospholipase B levels in the small intestine from one through 20 days after challenge; by 25 days after challenge, the enzyme level approached that of the uninfected controls. The high enzyme levels were accompanied, after a lag in time, by greatly increased numbers of eosinophils in the bone marrow. Increases of eosinophils strikingly above those in uninfected controls were noted from 11 through 20 days after challenge. The enzyme and eosinophil increases were parallel to the time course of the intestinal inflammatory response described in a previous study of sensitized mice of about the same age challenged with the same number of larvae. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that inflammation, elevated enzyme levels, and increased production of eosinophils are causally related.

  8. FASE INTESTINAL DE Trichinella spiralis EN MODELO MURINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALDONADO TAPIA CLAUDIA H.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Trichinella spiralis se encuentra principalmente en el hombre, rata, cerdo, perro; puede infectar a cualquier carnívoro u omnívoro. Cuando la carne o sus derivados están contaminados con larvas infectantes (LI de T. spiralis y son ingeridas éstas pasan al estómago, donde sus cápsulas son disueltas por acción de los jugos gástricos, las larvas son liberadas en pocas horas, después pasan a la porción proximal del intestino delgado, donde se lleva a cabo su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la fase intestinal de T. spiralis en un modelo murino. Un lote de 45 ratas Long Evans, se infectaron con aproximadamente 500 LI, y fueron sacrificadas tres diarias por 15 días. Se tomó un segmento de duodeno, yeyuno e íleon y se fijaron en formol al 10% para posteriormente ser procesados en parafina y teñido con hematoxilina-eosina. El resto del intestino delgado fue fraccionado, se incubó a 37 ºC por dos horas y el sobrenadante se observó al microscopio de luz. Se encontró que el implante se lleva a cabo a nivel de yeyuno e íleon, que las hembras adultas dan origen aproximadamente 60-80 larvas recién nacidas (LRN, parto vivíparo en un tercio distal y subse-cuentemente son destruidas. Los machos adultos tienen espermatozoides no ciliados.

    Palabras clave: larvas infectantes, adultos, larvas recién nacidas.


    ABSTRACT

    Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic disease in man, rat, pig, but can infect any carnivorous or omnivorous. When the meat or their derivates are contaminated with infective larvae (il of

  9. FASE INTESTINAL DE Trichinella spiralis EN MODELO MURINO

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    MARÍA ALEJANDRA MORENO GARCÍA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis se encuentra principalmente en el hombre, rata, cerdo, perro; puede infectar a cualquier carnívoro u omnívoro. Cuando la carne o sus derivados están con- taminados con larvas infectantes (LI de T. spiralis y son ingeridas éstas pasan al estó- mago, donde sus cápsulas son disueltas por acción de los jugos gástricos, las larvas son liberadas en pocas horas, después pasan a la porción proximal del intestino delga- do, donde se lleva a cabo su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la fase intestinal de T. spiralis en un modelo murino. Un lote de 45 ratas Long Evans, se infectaron con aproximadamente 500 LI, y fueron sacrificadas tres diarias por 15 días. Se tomó un segmento de duodeno, yeyuno e íleon y se fijaron en formol al 10% para posteriormente ser procesados en parafina y teñido con hematoxilina-eosina. El resto del intestino delgado fue fraccionado, se incubó a 37 oC por dos horas y el sobrena- dante se observó al microscopio de luz. Se encontró que el implante se lleva a cabo a nivel de yeyuno e íleon, que las hembras adultas dan origen aproximadamente 60-80 larvas recién nacidas (LRN, parto vivíparo en un tercio distal y subsecuentemente son destruidas. Los machos adultos tienen espermatozoides no ciliados.

  10. The different infectivity of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa in rat does not solely localize to enteral or parenteral phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Näreaho, Anu; Lindén, Jere; Tuomola, Karoliina; Sukura, Antti

    2012-12-01

    Rats are selective hosts for Trichinella nativa; infection levels in their muscles remain low when compared to Trichinella spiralis. To identify in which phase of the life cycle the selective responses take place, rats were infected perorally (p.o.) and intravenously (i.v.) with T. spiralis and T. nativa. Six rats were placed in each group; three rats served as uninfected controls. The infection intensities were examined 5 or 6 weeks after the infection. T. spiralis muscle larva burden was 57 times higher compared to that of T. nativa after p.o. inoculation (mean larvae per gram ± SD, 1,243 ± 378.9 vs. 22 ± 21.5). In i.v. inoculation, 12 times more T. spiralis larvae reached the muscle than with T. nativa. Also, in vitro newborn larva (NBL) production at day 6 postinfection was analyzed for parasites originating from both rat and mouse. The mean number of in vitro-produced NBL of rat-origin T. spiralis during 24 h was 70 (95 % CI, 65-75) and of T. nativa, 23 (95 % CI, 21-24). Intriguingly, this difference was less obvious with mouse-origin female Trichinella. NBL production of mouse origin T. spiralis was 57 (95 % CI, 51-62) and T. nativa, 29 (95 % CI, 26-31). Intestine histology at day 40 post p.o. infection, serological response, and weight dynamics were indistinguishable between the Trichinella species but differed from controls. Our results show that the defense against T. nativa is not solely enteral in rats but may partly be explained by different reproduction processes for the two Trichinella species in rat.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 as inflammation markers of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Bianchi, C; Fornaro, M; Naccarato, G; Menicagli, M; Gomez-Morales, M A; Pozio, E; Pinto, B

    2014-10-01

    Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibit differences in the host-parasite relationship such as the inflammatory response in parasitized muscles. Several studies indicate that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a marker of inflammation since they regulate inflammation and immunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of gelatinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) in mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis, to elucidate the involvement of these molecules during the inflammatory response to these parasites. Gelatin zymography on SDS polyacrilamide gels was used to assess the serum levels and in situ zymography on muscle histological sections to show the gelatinase-positive cells. In T. spiralis infected mice, the total MMP-9 serum level increased 6 days post-infection whereas, the total MMP-2 serum level increased onward. A similar trend was observed in T. pseudospiralis infected mice but the MMP-9 level was lower than that detected in T. spiralis infected mice. Significant differences were also observed in MMP-2 levels between the two experimental groups. The number of gelatinase positive cells was higher in T. spiralis than in T. pseudospiralis infected muscles. We conclude that MMP-9 and MMP-2 are markers of the inflammatory response for both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections.

  12. The efficacy of flubendazole against Trichinella spiralis in swine

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    Marinculić A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of flubendazole against experimentally induced trichinellosis in pigs when given mixed with food at different dose rates. At the start of the experiment, 48 pigs were infected with approximately 35,000 larvae of Trichinella spiralis, afterwhat the animals were distributed in six groups. The first three groups were used to test the activity of the drug against adult stages. Other three groups served to define the efficacy against muscle larvae. The dose rate of flubendazole varied according to the purpose of the experiment (from 8 mg/kg up to 62 mg/kg. At the end of the trial, the pigs were necropsied and the number of adults and larvae in predilection muscles were determined. At a dose rate of 8 mg/kg flubendazole supplied with food during eight days was 100 % effective against adults. At a dose rate of 31 mg/kg flubendazole administered for 14 days was 72.35 % effective. Treatment with higher dosages of flubendazole (62 mg/kg resulted in increased efficacy (87.77 % against the parasites. The biological assay performed with larvae from the muscle samples originating from the pigs treated with 62 mg/kg showed that at least half of the larvae were not infective.

  13. Reduction of muscle larvae burden in rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis

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    Machnicka-Rowinska B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats infected with 500 to 2,500 Trichinella spiralis larvae the muscle larvae intensity (larvae per gram-l.p.g. was measured from 20 to 180 day post infection (d.p.i. The l.p.g. increased to day 40-50 p.i. and decreased thereafter. The highest reduction took place between 6 0 and 120 d.p.i. with intermediate inoculum of T. spiralis larvae. The mechanism of the reduction of T. spiralis larvae in muscles is suggested to depend on pericapsular-intercapsular host cells infiltrations attracted by parasite antigens.

  14. Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds Human Complement C1q and Inhibits Classical Complement Activation.

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    Ran Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis expresses paramyosin (Ts-Pmy as a defense mechanism. Ts-Pmy is a functional protein with binding activity to human complement C8 and C9 and thus plays a role in evading the attack of the host's immune system. In the present study, the binding activity of Ts-Pmy to human complement C1q and its ability to inhibit classical complement activation were investigated.The binding of recombinant and natural Ts-Pmy to human C1q were determined by ELISA, Far Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Binding of recombinant Ts-Pmy (rTs-Pmy to C1q inhibited C1q binding to IgM and consequently inhibited C3 deposition. The lysis of antibody-sensitized erythrocytes (EAs elicited by the classical complement pathway was also inhibited in the presence of rTs-Pmy. In addition to inhibiting classical complement activation, rTs-Pmy also suppressed C1q binding to THP-1-derived macrophages, thereby reducing C1q-induced macrophages migration.Our results suggest that T. spiralis paramyosin plays an important role in immune evasion by interfering with complement activation through binding to C1q in addition to C8 and C9.

  15. Development of a single larva microsatellite analysis to investigate the population structure of Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella spiralis is the most important etiological agent of human trichinellosis. It has a cosmopolitan distribution and is transmitted to humans mainly through the consumption of pork. In nature, transmission occurs among animals through the ingestion of an infected carcass by one or more hosts...

  16. Parasitologisch en serologisch onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Trichinella spiralis bij Nederlandse slachtvarkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen F van; Franchimont JH; Fenigsen-Narucka U

    1987-01-01

    Onderzoek werd verricht naar het voorkomen van Trichinella spiralis infecties in een at random steekproef van 10075 nederlandse slachtvarkens. Direct parasitologisch onderzoek met behulp van een artificiele digestie methode van 20 gram diafragma materiaal en serologisch onderzoek met de enzyme l

  17. Localization of Trichinella spiralis in muscles of commercial and parasitologic interest in pork

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    Ribicich M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is widespread around the world with different representatives of the genus Trichinella found in almost every continent. In Argentina the main source of transmission for the disease to humans is pig meat infected with Trichinella spiralis. The object of this work was to determine the distribution of Trichinella larvae in fresh meat cuts which are sold for human consumption and in the muscles traditionally used for the disease diagnosis at meat-packing plants. Cranial muscles to the last rib showed more Trichinella spiralis larvae than those with a caudal location (p 0.05 between bilateral left and right muscles. Significant larval concentrations were found in the neck muscles, even in carcasses with a low parasitic load; these muscles are used to prepare cold meats (boston butt. Commercial cuts of meat had a substantial larval burdens in animals experimentally infected with 500 to 5,000 Trichinella spiralis larvae, with parasite burdens similar to infection levels in muscles evaluated at the meat packing plant.

  18. 旋毛虫感染相关抗体及细胞因子的研究进展%Advances in the study of antibody and cytokine with Trichinella spiralis infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍; 何文彤; 邢杰; 闫玉文

    2013-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis infection immunity is very complicated,including humoral immunity,cellular immunity and a variety of cytokine mutual influence between each other,that play a role in immune attack and pathological reaction.It is possible that Trichinella spiralis infection prevent and control some the diseases in addition to the harm.An intensive study will be made on the specific mechanisms in future.%旋毛虫感染免疫很复杂,包括体液免疫和细胞免疫,而且多种细胞因子间相互影响、互相作用,在免疫攻击和病理反应中发挥各自的作用.旋毛虫感染除对人体造成危害外,也有可能防治某些疾病.其具体的作用机制,还有待深入研究.

  19. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.

  20. CESSATION OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS TRANSMISSION AMONG SCAVENGING MAMMALS AFTER THE REMOVAL OF INFECTED PIGS FROM A POORLY MANAGED FARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs infected with the zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis were detected on a farm in Maryland during an animal welfare investigation. Sera and/or tissues were collected from 49 pigs and 3 pig carcasses (7 weeks of age to adult, mixed sex). The tissues were tested for the presence of T. spiralis ...

  1. Molecular differentiation of Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaow, L; Tantrawatpan, C; Intapan, P M; Lulitanond, V; Boonmars, T; Morakote, N; Pozio, E; Maleewong, W

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella which infect wildlife and domestic animals show a cosmopolitan distribution. These zoonotic parasites are the aetiological agents of a severe human disease, trichinellosis. Twelve taxa are recognized in the Trichinella genus, but they cannot be identified by morphology since they are sibling species/genotypes. For epidemiological studies, it is extremely important to identify each taxon since they have different distribution areas and host ranges. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (lsu-RNA) gene coupled with a pyrosequencing technique was developed to distinguish among four Trichinella species: Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis. A PCR method was used to amplify the lsu-RNA of Trichinella sp. larvae in mouse muscles and single larvae collected from infected muscles by digestion. The results show that the four Trichinella species can be distinguished by using 26 nucleotides in the target region and the method is sensitive enough to identify individual larvae. The pyrosequencing provides a simple, rapid and high-throughput tool for the differentiation of Trichinella species.

  2. Development of cellular immune response of mice to infection with low doses of Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorožňáková, Emília; Hurníková, Zuzana; Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The murine cellular immune response to the infection with ten larvae of encapsulating (Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi) and non-encapsulating species (Trichinella pseudospiralis) was studied. Both T. spiralis and T. britovi stimulated the proliferation of splenic T and B lymphocytes during the intestinal phase of infection, but T. spiralis activated the proliferative response also at the muscle phase, particularly in B cells. Non-encapsulating T. pseudospiralis stimulated the proliferation of T and B cells only on day 10 post-infection (p.i.) and later at the muscle phase. The numbers of splenic CD4 and CD8 T cells of T. spiralis infected mice were significantly increased till day 10 p.i., i.e., at the intestinal phase, and then at the late muscle phase, on day 60 p.i. T. britovi infection increased the CD4 and CD8 T cell numbers only on day 30 p.i. Decreased numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells after T. pseudospiralis infection suggest a suppression of cellular immunity. Both encapsulating Trichinella species induced the Th2 response (cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-10) at the intestinal phase and the Th2 dominant response at the advanced muscle phase. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production (Th1 type) started to increase with migrating newborn larvae from day 15 p.i. till the end of the experiment. IL-5 production was suppressed during the intestinal phase of T. pseudospiralis infection. The immune response to T. pseudospiralis was directed more to the Th1 response at the muscle phase, the high IFN-γ production was found on day 10 p.i. and it peaked on days 45 and 60 p.i.

  3. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible.

  4. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE in human Trichinellosis: Creating a new test

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease of humans caused by the nematode from the genus Trichinella, predominantly Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis). If Trichinella infection is suspected, based on epidemiological link and clinical criteria within defined period of time, then finding of Trichinella-specific antibodies in the examined sera provides a definitive proof of the infection establishment. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE that could precede, coi...

  5. Altered resistance to Trichinella spiralis infection following subchronic exposure of adult mice to chemicals of environmental concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of subchronic chemical exposure on expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis from the small intestine of mice and encystment of newborn larvae in the host's musculature were investigated. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene, tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, cyclophosphamide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dimethylvinylchloride prior to infection of mice with 200 infective larvae resulted in larger worm burdens in treated animals than in controls 14 days after infection. Worm expulsion was not affected by exposure to tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, orthophenylphenol, and indomethacin. Increased burdens of muscle-phase larvae were found in animals that maintained significant numbers of adult worms in the gut at 14 days, except in mice administered diethylstilbestrol and dimethylvinylchloride. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol and cyclophosphamide resulted in decreased inflammatory reactions in the tissues of the small intestine and development of bone marrow eosinophilia in infected mice. Marrow eosinophilia was likewise decreased in mice given tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate before infection. Additional studies with diethylstilbestrol administered either before, at the time of, or after infection showed inhibition of worm expulsion. Drug exposure during a primary infection inhibited the expulsion of a second T. spiralis infection, but did not affect worm elimination when given during a second infection. Treatment with diethylstilbestrol after artificial sensitization of mice with Trichinella antigens decreased delayed hypersensitivity responses to the sensitizing antigen. Immune functions, assessed by lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, generally correlated with altered host resistance to T. spiralis infection.

  6. Detrimental effects of geldanamycin on adults and larvae of Trichinella spiralis

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    Othman A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly the temperate regions. The treatment is a challenge for the physician, and the available therapy is far from ideal. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, on the adult worms and larvae of Trichinella spiralis. This research comprised an in vivo study in which T. spiralis-infected mice were treated by two different doses of geldanamycin, thereafter larval count and pathological changes were determined in the muscles. Meanwhile, the in vitro study investigated the effect of two different concentrations of geldanamycin on adult worms and larvae of T. spiralis via transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo study showed significant reduction of muscle larval counts under the effect of geldanamycin. Moreover, characteristic changes were noted as regards the parasite and the inflammatory response. The in vitro study revealed degenerative changes in the body wall of larvae and adults of T. spiralis under the influence of geldanamycin. In conclusion, heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, seems to have detrimental effects on the adults and larvae of T. spiralis. It, or one of its derivatives, could be an adjuvant to anthelmintic therapy of trichinellosis, but more studies are warranted to establish its usefulness.

  7. Predilection Muscles and Physical Condition of Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides Experimentally Infected with Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa

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    Helin H

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The predilection muscles of Trichinella spiralis and T. nativa were studied in 2 experimental groups of 6 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides, the third group serving as a control for clinical signs. The infection dose for both parasites was 1 larva/g body weight. After 12 weeks, the animals were euthanized and 13 sampling sites were analysed by the digestion method. Larvae were found in all sampled skeleton muscles of the infected animals, but not in the specimens from the heart or intestinal musculature. Both parasite species reproduced equally well in the raccoon dog. The median density of infection in positive tissues was 353 larvae per gram (lpg with T. spiralis and 343 lpg with T. nativa. All the infected animals had the highest larvae numbers in the carpal flexors (M. flexor carpi ulnaris. Also tongue and eye muscles had high infection levels. There were no significant differences in the predilection sites between these 2 parasite species. Trichinellosis increased the relative amount of fat, but not the body weight in the captive raccoon dogs. Thus, Trichinella as a muscle parasite might have catabolic effect on these animals.

  8. Trichinella pseudospiralis vs. T. spiralis thymidylate synthase gene structure and T. pseudospiralis thymidylate synthase retrogene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielska, Elżbieta; Płucienniczak, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Magdalena; Dowierciał, Anna; Rode, Wojciech

    2014-04-09

    Thymidylate synthase is a housekeeping gene, designated ancient due to its role in DNA synthesis and ubiquitous phyletic distribution. The genomic sequences were characterized coding for thymidylate synthase in two species of the genus Trichinella, an encapsulating T. spiralis and a non-encapsulating T. pseudospiralis. Based on the sequence of parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase cDNA, PCR techniques were employed. Each of the respective gene structures encompassed 6 exons and 5 introns located in conserved sites. Comparison with the corresponding gene structures of other eukaryotic species revealed lack of common introns that would be shared among selected fungi, nematodes, mammals and plants. The two deduced amino acid sequences were 96% identical. In addition to the thymidylate synthase gene, the intron-less retrocopy, i.e. a processed pseudogene, with sequence identical to the T. spiralis gene coding region, was found to be present within the T. pseudospiralis genome. This pseudogene, instead of the gene, was confirmed by RT-PCR to be expressed in the parasite muscle larvae. Intron load, as well as distribution of exon and intron phases in thymidylate synthase genes from various sources, point against the theory of gene assembly by the primordial exon shuffling and support the theory of evolutionary late intron insertion into spliceosomal genes. Thymidylate synthase pseudogene expressed in T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae is designated a retrogene.

  9. UV-B exposure impairs resistance to infection by Trichinella spiralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettsch, W.; Garssen, J.; Deijns, A.; Loveren, H. van (National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Gruijl, F.R. de (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands))

    1994-03-01

    To assess the possibility that increases in UV-B exposure on the earth's surface could lead to impaired resistance to several infectious diseases, we studied the effect of UV-B exposure on resistance against Trichinella spiralis. Wistar rats, orally infected with T. spiralis larvae, were exposed to suberythemal doses of UV-B radiation daily for 5 days at different time periods before or after infection. A significant increase in the number of Trichinella larvae was found in the carcasses of rats irradiated with UV-B between 6 and 10 days after infection. These data indicate that exposure to UV-B radiation suppresses the resistance to a parasitic infection. We suggested that UV-B radiation especially suppresses cellular immune responses against these worms because specific IgM, IgG, and IgE titers were not significantly altered by UV-B exposure. These data indicate that UV-B irradiation plays a role in the course of infection with T. spiralis, which suggests that increases of UV-B exposure might also lead to problems with other infectious diseases and might affect vaccination because of the interaction of UV-B irradiation with memory T-cells. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

    2013-10-18

    Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union.

  11. The in vivo role of stem cell factor (c-kit ligand) on mastocytosis and host protective immunity to the intestinal nematode Trichinella spiralis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grencis, R K; Else, K J; Huntley, J F; Nishikawa, S I

    1993-01-01

    The role of stem cell factor (SCF) in the generation of intestinal mast cell hyperplasia and host protective immunity following helminth infection was investigated using the Trichinella spiralis/mouse model. In vivo administration of a monoclonal antibody specific for the receptor for SCF (c-kit) was found to completely prevent the generation of intestinal mastocytosis normally observed following T. spiralis infection. This was reflected by markedly reduced intestinal mast cell protease (IMCP) levels in both tissue and serum. Moreover, animals treated with anti-c-kit antibody failed to show any evidence of worm expulsion from the gut. The data demonstrate for the first time, a critical role for the SCF in the generation of mucosal mastocytosis and host protective immunity following an intestinal helminth infection.

  12. Transcriptome of small regulatory RNAs in the development of the zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis is a parasite with unique features. It is a multicellular organism but with an intracellular parasitization and development stage. T. spiralis is the helminthic pathogen that causes zoonotic trichinellosis and afflicts more than 10 million people worldwide, whereas the parasite's biology, especially the developmental regulation is largely unknown. In other organisms, small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNA and small interfering RNAs (siRNA execute post-transcriptional regulation by translational repression or mRNA degradation, and a large number of miRNAs have been identified in diverse species. In T. spiralis, the profile of small non-coding RNAs and their function remains poorly understood. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, the transcriptional profiles of miRNA and siRNA in three developmental stages of T. spiralis in the rat host were investigated, and compared by high-throughput cDNA sequencing technique ("RNA-seq". 5,443,641 unique sequence tags were obtained. Of these, 21 represented conserved miRNAs related to 13 previously identified metazoan miRNA families and 213 were novel miRNAs so far unique to T. spiralis. Some of these miRNAs exhibited stage-specific expression. Expression of miRNAs was confirmed in three stages of the life cycle by qRT-PCR and northern blot analysis. In addition, endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs were found mainly derived from natural antisense transcripts (NAT and transposable elements (TE in the parasite. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide evidence for the presence of miRNAs and endo-siRNAs in T. spiralis. The miRNAs accounted for the major proportion of the small regulatory RNA population of T. spiralis, while fewer endogenous siRNAs were found. The finding of stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs in different developmental stages of T. spiralis suggests that miRNAs may play important roles in parasite development. Our data provide a basis for

  13. Research on the detection of IgG antibodies in saliva with Trichinella spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory antigen%旋毛虫成虫排泄分泌抗原检测唾液中抗旋毛虫IgG抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊琴; 申丽洁; 马鸣旺

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of the detection of IgG antibodies in saliva with Trichinella spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory antigen (AWESA). Methods Animal model of Japanese big ears rabbits infected with T. spiralis was established, AWESA was prepared. Saliva and serum of the rabbits before and 1-6 weeks post infection and that of the control group were collected. Taking commercial kit detecting anti-T. spiralis IgG antibody as control, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using AWESA was developed. Anti-T. spiralis IgG antibodies in saliva and serum of the rabbits before and 1-6 weeks post infection and that of the control group were detected with ELISA. A values of saliva and serum from the detection with AWESA and commercial kit were tested with linear regression analysis. The comparisons of positive rates from the detection with AWESA and commercial kit were determined by the chi-square test. Results The positive rates of saliva and serum from rabbits infected with T. spiralis before infection and 1-6 weeks postinfection obtained by AWESA were 0,5%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 85%, 90% and 0, 30%, 60%, 85%, 95%,100%, 100% ,respectively. There were significant linear correlations between A values of saliva and A values of serum every week, except for before and 1 week and 2 week post-infection ( P > 0.05, P > 0.05, P > 0.05, P <0.05 ,P <0.05 ,P <0.05 ,P <0.05, respectively). The positive rates of saliva and serum from rabbits infected with T. spiralis before and 1-6 weeks post-infection obtained by commercial kit detecting anti-T. spiralis IgG antibody were 0, 15% ,20% ,40% ,55% ,75% ,90% and 0,35% ,60% ,95% ,95%, 100%, 100%, respectively.There were significant correlations between A values of saliva and A values of serum every week, except that of before infection, 1 week and 3 week post-infection ( P > 0.05 、P > 0.05 、P < 0.05 、P > 0.05 、P < 0.05 、P <0.05 、P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion The

  14. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

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    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  15. Detección de Trichinella Spiralis en Rata Doméstica del Basurero Municipal de Zacatecas

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    Dra. María Alejandra Moreno García

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Trichinellosis zoonosis endémica diafragmas de ratas domesticas y suero reportada en el estado de Zacatecas del basurero municipal de Zacatecas. desde 1976, siendo su transmisor al Diagnóstico por técnicas directas de humano el cerdo por el consumo de compresión y digestión artificial e productos carnicos deficientemente indirectas por Micro inmunodifusión cocidos. En los últimos 10 años en todo el (MIDD, Inmunoelectrotrasferencia mundo desafortunadamente se ha (IET, reproducción del modelo presentado un aumento de esta experimental en rata Long Evans. parasitosis, de la cual solo se hace el Resultados: Se detecto Trichinella diagnóstico cuando hay brotes o es spiralis en 3 diafragmas de ratas evidente que el parásito este situado en domesticas por técnica directa de músculo estriado y hasta el momento no compresión y digestión artificial, y por hay un tratamiento definitivo. técnicas indirectas de MIDD y IET. Siendo el trasmisor al cerdo la rata. Conclusiones: Se detecto Trichinella spiralis en rata domestica, huésped que participa en Objetivo: Detección de Trichinella la permanencia de esta parasitosis como spiralis en rata domestica del basurero zoonosis. Municipal de Zacatecas. Material y Métodos: Detección de Trichinella spiralis en uno de los

  16. Ubiquitin-Dependent Modification of Skeletal Muscle by the Parasitic Nematode, Trichinella spiralis

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    White, Rhiannon R.; Ponsford, Amy H.; Rodrigues, Rachel B.; Ascher, David B.; Mol, Marco; Gygi, Steven P.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis is a muscle-specific parasitic worm that is uniquely intracellular. T. spiralis reprograms terminally differentiated skeletal muscle cells causing them to de-differentiate and re-enter the cell cycle, a process that cannot occur naturally in mammalian skeletal muscle cells, but one that holds great therapeutic potential. Although the host ubiquitin pathway is a common target for viruses and bacteria during infection, its role in parasite pathogenesis has been largely overlooked. Here we demonstrate that the secreted proteins of T. spiralis contain E2 Ub-conjugating and E3 Ub-ligase activity. The E2 activity is attributed to TsUBE2L3, a novel and conserved T. spiralis enzyme located in the secretory organ of the parasite during the muscle stages of infection. TsUBE2L3 cannot function with any T.spiralis secreted E3, but specifically binds to a panel of human RING E3 ligases, including the RBR E3 ARIH2 with which it interacts with a higher affinity than the mammalian ortholog UbcH7/UBE2L3. Expression of TsUBE2L3 in skeletal muscle cells causes a global downregulation in protein ubiquitination, most predominantly affecting motor, sarcomeric and extracellular matrix proteins, thus mediating their stabilization with regards to proteasomal degradation. This effect is not observed in the presence of the mammalian ortholog, suggesting functional divergence in the evolution of the parasite protein. These findings demonstrate the first example of host-parasite interactions via a parasite-derived Ub conjugating enzyme; an E2 that demonstrates a novel muscle protein stabilization function. PMID:27870901

  17. Th17: A New Participant in Gut Dysfunction in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis

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    Yu Fu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infection in rodents is a well-known model of intestinal inflammation associated with hypermotility. Our aim was to elucidate if Th17 cells were involved in the development of gastrointestinal hypermotility in this experimental model. Intestinal inflammation was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Jejunal smooth muscle contractility was investigated in response to acetylcholine (Ach. The effects of IL-17 on jejunum smooth muscle contractility were explored. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the proportion of Th17 cells in jejunum. The levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 in jejunum were measured by Western blot. Our results showed that the inflammation in jejunum was severe at 2 weeks postinfection (PI, which was not discernible at 8 weeks PI. Jejunal smooth muscle contractility was increased at 2 weeks PI and kept higher at 12 weeks PI. The proportion of Th17 cells and the expression of IL-17 were upregulated in jejunum at 2 weeks PI and normalized at 8 weeks PI. When jejunual smooth muscle strips were cultured with IL-17, contractions elicited by Ach were enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data suggest that Th17 cells are increased during acute infection with Trichinella spiralis and IL-17 may contribute to jejunal muscle contractility in mice.

  18. Oral Vaccination with Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium-Delivered TsPmy DNA Vaccine Elicits Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaohuan; Bi, Kuo; Sun, Ximeng; Yang, Jing; Gu, Yuan; Huang, Jingjing; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Background Our previous studies showed that Trichinella spiralis paramyosin (TsPmy) is an immunomodulatory protein that inhibits complement C1q and C8/C9 to evade host complement attack. Vaccination with recombinant TsPmy protein induced protective immunity against T. spiralis larval challenge. Due to the difficulty in producing TsPmy as a soluble recombinant protein, we prepared a DNA vaccine as an alternative approach in order to elicit a robust immunity against Trichinella infection. Methods and Findings The full-length TsPmy coding DNA was cloned into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1, and the recombinant pVAX1/TsPmy was transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207. Oral vaccination of mice with this attenuated Salmonella-delivered TsPmy DNA vaccine elicited a significant mucosal sIgA response in the intestine and a systemic IgG antibody response with IgG2a as the predominant subclass. Cytokine analysis also showed a significant increase in the Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, 5, 6, 10) responses in lymphocytes from the spleen and MLNs of immunized mice upon stimulation with TsPmy protein. The expression of the homing receptors CCR9/CCR10 on antibody secreting B cells may be related to the translocation of IgA-secreted B cells to local intestinal mucosa. The mice immunized with Salmonella-delivered TsPmy DNA vaccine produced a significant 44.8% reduction in adult worm and a 46.6% reduction in muscle larvae after challenge with T. spiralis larvae. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that oral vaccination with TsPmy DNA delivered by live attenuated S. typhimurium elicited a significant local IgA response and a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that elicited a significant protection against T. spiralis infection in mice. PMID:27589591

  19. Characterisation of a plancitoxin-1-like DNase II gene in Trichinella spiralis.

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    Chengshui Liao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxyribonuclease II (DNase II is a well-known acidic endonuclease that catalyses the degradation of DNA into oligonucleotides. Only one or a few genes encoding DNase II have been observed in the genomes of many species. 125 DNase II-like protein family genes were predicted in the Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis genome; however, none have been confirmed. DNase II is a monomeric nuclease that contains two copies of a variant HKD motif in the N- and C-termini. Of these 125 genes, only plancitoxin-1 (1095 bp, GenBank accession no. XM_003370715.1 contains the HKD motif in its C-terminus domain.In this study, we cloned and characterised the plancitoxin-1 gene. However, the sequences of plancitoxin-1 cloned from T. spiralis were shorter than the predicted sequences in GenBank. Intriguingly, there were two HKD motifs in the N- and C-termini in the cloned sequences. Therefore, the gene with shorter sequences was named after plancitoxin-1-like (Ts-Pt, 885 bp and has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KF984291. The recombinant protein (rTs-Pt was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis showed that rTs-Pt was recognised by serum from T. spiralis-infected mice; the anti-rTs-Pt serum recognised crude antigens but not ES antigens. The Ts-Pt gene was examined at all T. spiralis developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. Immunolocalisation analysis showed that Ts-Pt was distributed throughout newborn larvae (NBL, the tegument of adults (Ad and muscle larvae (ML. As demonstrated by DNase zymography, the expressed proteins displayed cation-independent DNase activity. rTs-Pt had a narrow optimum pH range in slightly acidic conditions (pH 4 and pH 5, and its optimum temperature was 25°C, 30°C, and 37°C.This study indicated that Ts-Pt was classified as a somatic protein in different T. spiralis developmental stages, and demonstrated for the first time that an

  20. Intestinal microbes influence the survival, reproduction and protein profile of Trichinella spiralis in vitro.

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    Jiang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Qiao-ling; Gao, Jiang-ming; Liu, Li-li; Wu, Teng-Fei; Wang, Ying; Huang, Qing-hua; Gou, Qiang; Chen, Wei; Gong, Peng-tao; Li, Jian-hua; Gao, Ying-jie; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xi-chen

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between intestinal microbes and parasitic worms play an essential role in the development of the host immune system. However, the effects of gut microbes on Trichinella spiralis are unknown. The aim of this work was to explore microbe-induced alterations in the survival and reproduction of T. spiralis in vitro. To further identify the proteins and genes involved in the response of nematodes to microbes, quantitative proteomic analysis of T. spiralis was conducted by iTRAQ-coupled LCMS/MS technology and quantitative real-time-PCR was used to measure changes in mRNA expression. The results showed Lactobacillus acidophilus, and especially Lactobacillus bulgaricus, significantly enhanced the survival and reproductive rates of nematodes. Salmonella enterica, and especially Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), had opposite effects. Genetic responses were activated mainly by EHEC. A total of 514 proteins were identified and quantified, and carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins existed in a higher proportion. These findings indicated that some gut bacteria are friendly or harmful to humans and in addition they may have similar beneficial or detrimental effects on parasites. This may be due to the regulation of expression of specific genes and proteins. Our studies provide a basis for developing therapies against parasitic infections from knowledge generated by studying the gut microbes of mammals.

  1. Persistence of Trichinella spiralis in Rat Carcasses Experimentally Mixed in Different Feed

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    Saloniemi H

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infected rat carcasses were incubated for 6 weeks in several animal feeds to assess how long Trichinella can present a risk for an outbreak in contaminated feeds. In groups of 6, 24 infected target rats were placed in silage, grained barley, propionic acid-preserved feed, and also into simulated pasture conditions. Test environments were sampled after one-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week-incubations. Trichinella larvae were recovered by digestion, and their infectivity was evaluated in rats. A two-week incubation reduced the number of recovered larvae, but still after 6 weeks low numbers were isolated from all feeds except from the experimental group simulating pasture conditions. After 2 weeks storage, the larvae were infective in all storage environments. However, up to 4 weeks, they survived only in the propionic acid-fermented feed and there in small numbers with reduced reproductive capability. This indicates the possibility of farm animals to get infection from rats or other infected material being hazardously mixed with hay or other feed. If silage is stored for at least one month before use, however, the risk from this forage appears to be minimized.

  2. Protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection induced by a multi-epitope vaccine in a murine model.

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    Yuan Gu

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses throughout the world. Because infected pigs are the major source of human infections, and China is becoming the largest international producer of pork, the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine to prevent swine from being infected is urgently needed for trichinellosis control in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated that specific Trichinella spiralis paramyosin (Ts-Pmy and Ts-87 antigen could provide protective immunity against T. spiralis infection in immunized mice. Certain protective epitopes of Ts-Pmy and Ts-87 antigen have been identified. To identify more Ts-Pmy protective epitopes, a new monoclonal antibody, termed 8F12, was produced against the N-terminus of Ts-Pmy. This antibody elicited significant protective immunity in mice against T. spiralis infection by passive transfer and was subsequently used to screen a random phage display peptide library to identify recognized epitopes. Seven distinct positive phage clones were identified and their displayed peptides were sequenced. Synthesized epitope peptides conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin were used to immunize mice, four of which exhibited larval reduction (from 18.7% to 26.3%, respectively in vaccinated mice in comparison to the KLH control. To increase more effective protection, the epitope 8F7 that was found to induce the highest protection in this study was combined with two other previously identified epitopes (YX1 from Ts-Pmy and M7 from Ts-87 to formulate a multi-epitope vaccine. Mice immunized with this multi-epitope vaccine experienced a 35.0% reduction in muscle larvae burden after being challenged with T. spiralis larvae. This protection is significantly higher than that induced by individual-epitope peptides and is associated with high levels of subclasses IgG and IgG1. These results showed that a multi-epitope vaccine induced better protective immunity than an individual

  3. Efecto de la temperatura sobre la viabilidad de larvas de Trichinella spiralis Effect of temperature on the viability of Trichinella spiralis larvae

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    Viviana R Randazzo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas sobre la viabilidad de larvas libres y enquistadas de Trichinella spiralis aisladas en el sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se trataron larvas libres y enquistadas a diferentes temperaturas (-30 °C, -20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, calentamiento gradual entre 0-100 °C. Se determinó el tiempo necesario para matar el 100 % de las larvas. Durante los primeros días, la mortalidad larvaria en todos los tratamientos con frío aumentó signifcativamente en función del tiempo. En todos los casos, las larvas libres sobrevivieron menor cantidad de días que las enquistadas. A -30 °C, -20 °C y 20 °C no se observaron diferencias signifcativas entre las curvas de mortalidad de cada estadio larvario, pero a 4 °C la mortalidad fue menos intensa entre las larvas enquistadas. El calentamiento disminuyó la viabilidad, sin observarse diferencias entre estadios larvarios. La totalidad de las larvas libres y enquistadas había muerto a los 61 y 95 días (-30 °C, a los 160 y 180 días (-20 °C, a los 280 y 330 días (4° C, y a los 460 y 590 días (20 °C, respectivamente. Fue necesaria una cocción durante 15 minutos a 90 °C para matar al 100 % de las larvas libres y a 100 °C para lograr igual mortalidad de las enquistadas. Nuestros resultados indican que la temperatura y los tiempos tradicionalmente utilizados para tratar productos cárnicos con potencial de transmisión de T. spiralis no serían los más efectivos para lograr la inactivación de la totalidad de larvas vivas de este parásito.The aim of this work was to study the effect of temperature on the viability of free and encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis from southwest Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Larvae were treated at variable temperatures (-30 °C, -20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, gradual heating between 0-100 °C. The time necessary to kill 100 % of larvae was calculated. During the frst days of

  4. Trichinella spiralis a new alien parasite in Italy and the increased risk of infection for domestic and wild swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Chiara; Interisano, Maria; Chiatante, Alessandro; Marucci, Gianluca; Merli, Enrico; Arrigoni, Norma; Cammi, Giuliana; Ricchi, Matteo; Tonanzi, Daniele; Tamba, Marco; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo

    2017-11-15

    In Europe, Trichinella spiralis, the most dangerous species for humans of the genus Trichinella, has a patchy distribution with important foci in Eastern countries and Spain. This zoonotic pathogen was apparently not circulating among wild and domestic animals of Italy. In 2016, muscle larvae belonging to this nematode species were detected in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) shot in the Piacenza province (Northern Italy). This parasite may have been introduced into northern Italy from eastern Europe by hunters, by a hunting dog, or by immigrants, who illegally carried infected meat in their personal baggage. In the same year, T. spiralis infected sausages illegally introduced by personal baggage into Italy from Romania, were inadequately disposed of in the garbage of a central Italian town. Even though these two episodes may not be connected in time and space, they represent an increased risk of infection for domestic and wild swine, which are highly susceptible to this pathogen. In these animals, T. spiralis shows a higher larval burden and a longer survival time than other Trichinella species. Since most of the Italian pig production plants are in northern Italy, the circulation of T. spiralis should be strictly monitored in wildlife living in these areas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. An anti-tumor protein produced by Trichinella spiralis and identified by screening a T7 phage display library, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma H7402 cells

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    Trichinella spiralis infection confers effective resistance to tumor cell expansion. In this study, a T7 phage cDNA display library was constructed to express genes encoded by T. spiralis. Organic phase multi-cell screening was used to sort through candidate proteins in a transfected human chronic m...

  6. Primary characterization and assessment of a T. spiralis antigen for the detection of Trichinella infection in pigs.

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    Zocevic, Aleksandar; Lacour, Sandrine A; Mace, Pauline; Giovani, Baldissera; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurelie; Vallee, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal

    2014-10-15

    A clone, designated L20h-Ts3, was selected by immunoscreening of cDNA libraries of Trichinella spiralis worms collected 14h, 20h and 48h post-infection (p.i.) from mice intestines. L20h-Ts3 encodes the full-length of a conserved hypothetical protein of 13.1kDa involving putative interaction with the immune system. PCR analysis showed that L20h-Ts3 mRNA is constitutively expressed throughout T. spiralis life cycle and not restricted to intestinal stages. The L20h-Ts3 fusion protein was obtained in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography before inoculation into mice in order to produce polyclonal antibodies. Then, immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis revealed its presence within the stichosome of T. spiralis and in excretory/secretory products strengthening a putative fundamental role for the parasite's survival such as host tissue invasion or modification of the host muscular cell phenotype. L20h-Ts3 fusion protein was recognized in Western blot as soon as 15-20 days p.i. by sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 muscle larvae (ML) of T. spiralis. Thus, an indirect L20h-Ts3 ELISA was designed and evaluated using sera from experimentally infected pigs by comparison with the only ELISA currently available for trichinellosis purposes. A gain of precocity from 7 up to 14 days and detection up to 25 weeks p.i. was possible with the L20h-Ts3 ELISA offering a large window for trichinellosis detection. The L20h-Ts3 ELISA was less effective in the case of low infections in pigs. Nevertheless, these results show that the L20h-Ts3 ELISA has a real interest due to its precocity and stability of detection in time. The association of the L20h-Ts3 fusion protein with other antigenic proteins identified previously could appreciably improve the serological test and facilitate its standardization.

  7. Deep resequencing of Trichinella spiralis reveals previously un-described single nucleotide polymorphisms and intra-isolate variation within the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic roundworm that infects domestic swine, rats and humans. Ingestion of infected pork by humans can lead to the potentially fatal disease trichinellosis. The phylogeny and historical dispersal of Trichinella spp. have been studied, in part, by sequencing portions of...

  8. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

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    Jovic S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  9. Collection of pre-encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis%旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫的收集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明治; 申丽洁

    2010-01-01

    目的 探索旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫的收集时间与方法.方法 20只成年大鼠,每只大鼠经口感染3000条旋毛虫脱囊幼虫,分别于第14、15、16、17、18、19、20天将大鼠处死,用人工胃蛋白酶消化肌肉收集旋毛虫.结果 感染后第14、15、16大膈肌均未见旋毛虫,第17、18、19、20天膈肌有旋毛虫的侵入并逐渐增多;第14、15、16天均未收集到旋毛虫,第17、18、19、20天平均每只大鼠分别收集5000、8000、10000、30000条旋毛虫.结论 旋毛虫在感染后第20天是旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫收集的最佳时期.人工胃蛋白酶消化肌肉可以收集成囊前期幼虫.%Objective To explore the collection time and method of the pre-encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis. Methods Twenty adult rats were inoculated with 3 000 encysted larva of Trichinella spir-alis per rat by the oral route. At the 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th day after infection, the rats were killed and the muscles were digested with pepsin to collect Trichinella spiralis. Results At the 14th,15th, 16th day after infection, no Trichinella spiralis was found in diaphragm. At the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th day after infection, Trichinella spiralis could be seen in the diaphragm and the number of Trichinella spiralis in-creased with time passing. At the 14th, 15th, 16th day, no Trichinella spiralis was obtained. At the 17th,18th, 19th, 20th day, the mean number of Trichinella spirulis collected were 5000, 8000, 10000, 30000per rat respectively. Conclusion The 20th day after Trichinella spiralis infection is the best time to collect the pre-encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis. Pepsin digestion of muscles can be the choice of methods for col-lecting the pre-encysted larvae of Trichinella spirulis.

  10. Molecular characterization of a cathepsin F-like protease in Trichinella spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zi-gang; Ma, Xue-ting; Li, Wen-hui; Zhang, Nian-zhang; Yue, Long; Cui, Jian-min; Cai, Jian-ping; Jia, Wan-zhong; Fu, Bao-quan

    2015-12-21

    Trichinellosis is a re-emerging infectious disease, caused by Trichinella spp. Cathepsin F belongs to cysteine protease that is a major virulence factor for parasitic helminths, and it may be a potential anti-helminth drug target and vaccine candidate. The aim of this study was to clone, express and identify a cathepsin F-like protease in Trichinella spiralis and to investigate its biochemical characteristics. The full-length cDNA encoding a putative cathepsin F-like protease in T. spiralis, TsCF1, was cloned and its biochemical characterization and expression profile were analyzed. Transcription of TsCF1 at different developmental stages of T. spiralis was observed by RT-PCR. The recombinant TsCF1 protein was expressed by prokaryotic expression system and recombinant TsCF1 (rTsCF1) was analyzed by western blotting. And expression of TsCF1 at muscle larvae stage was performed by immunofluorescent technique. Molecular modeling of TsCF1 and its binding mode with E-64 and K11777 were analyzed. Enzyme activity and inhibitory test with E-64 as inhibitor were investigated by using Z-Phe-Arg-AMC as specific substrate. Sequence analysis revealed that TsCF1 ORF encodes a protein of 366 aa with a theoretical molecular weight of 41.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.46. The cysteine protease conserved active site of Cys173, His309 and Asn333 were identified and cathepsin F specific motif ERFNAQ like KLFNAQ sequence was revealed in the propeptide of TsCF1. Sequence alignment analysis revealed a higher than 40 % identity with other cathepsin F from parasitic helminth and phylogenetic analysis indicated TsCF1 located at the junction of nematode and trematode. RT-PCR revealed the gene was expressed in muscle larvae, newborn larvae and adult stages. SDS-PAGE revealed the recombinant protein was expressed with the molecular weight of 45 kDa. The purified rTsCF1 was used to immunize rabbit and the immune serum could recognize a band of about 46 kDa in soluble protein of adult

  11. Efficacy of albendazole:β-cyclodextrin citrate in the parenteral stage of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Ana V; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Vasconi, María D; Di Masso, Ricardo J; Lamas, María C; Hinrichsen, Lucila I

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole-β-cyclodextrin citrate (ABZ:C-β-CD) inclusion complex in vivo antiparasitic activity was evaluated in the parenteral phase of Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. An equimolar complex of ABZ:C-β-CD was prepared by spray-drying and tested in CBi-IGE male mice orally infected with L1 infective larvae. Infected animals were treated with 50 or 30mg/kg albendazole, (ABZ) equivalent amounts of the ABZ:C-β-CD complex and non treated (controls). Mice received a daily dose on days 28, 29 and 30 post-infection. A week later, larval burden and percentage of encysted dead larvae were assessed in the host by counting viable and non-viable larvae in the tongue. Complexation of ABZ with C-β-CD increased the drug dissolution efficiency nearly eightfold. At 37 days p-i, the reduction percentage in muscle larval load was 35% in mice treated with 50mg/kg/day ABZ and 68% in those given the complex. Treatment with the lower dose showed a similar decrease in parasite burden. Treated animals showed a high percentage of nonviable larvae, the proportion being significantly higher in mice receiving the complex than in control animals (72-88% vs. 11%, P=0.0032). These data indicate that ABZ:C-β-CD increases bioavailability and effectiveness of ABZ against encapsulated Trichinella larvae, thus allowing the use of small doses.

  12. Characterization of novel fucosyl- and tyvelosyl-containing glycoconjugates from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnewski, N; McNeil, M; Grieve, R B; Wassom, D L

    1993-09-01

    The monosaccharide composition of an affinity-purified family of antigenically-related Trichinella spiralis larval glycoproteins was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This group of 6 major glycoproteins, designated TSL-1, originates in the muscle stage (L1) larval stichosome. They are present on the L1 surface and in excretory/secretory products of L1 larvae, are stage-specific, and are highly immunodominant. The glycosyl composition of the TSL-1 antigens was remarkable in 2 respects: (1) fucose accounted for 36 molar percent of the glycosyl residues; and (2) a 3,6-dideoxyhexose was identified, which accounted for at least 24 molar percent of the glycosyl residues. Previously, 3,6-dideoxyhexoses have been found only in certain Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides and in ascaroside alcohols (ascarylose) of Ascaris eggs. The 3,6-dideoxyhexose found in the TSL-1 antigens also was found in ES. This Trichinella sugar has been chemically identified as a 3,6-dideoxyarabinohexose, the same as found in Ascaris eggs. However, the absolute configuration of the TSL-1 sugar is D-(tyvelose), not L-(ascarylose) as is found in Ascaris eggs. Methylation analysis indicated that the TSL-1 3,6-dideoxy-D-arabinohexose was present entirely as non-reducing terminal residues. Approximately 83% of the fucose was also present as non-reducing terminal residues, with the remaining fucose found as 3,4-linked branched residues.

  13. Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination Enhances TsPmy’s Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis Infection in a Murine Model

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    Lei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available TsPmy is a paramyosin expressed by parasitic Trichinella spiralis and confers a protective immunity when its recombinant protein or DNA was used as an immunogen. To improve its immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy, we conducted a heterologous prime-boost strategy by orally delivering one dose of TsPmy DNA carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (SL7207, followed by two doses of recombinant TsPmy intramuscularly. This strategy effectively induced intestinal mucosal sIgA response and an enhanced and balanced Th1/Th2 immune responses that improve protection against T. spiralis larval challenge, with 55.4% muscle larvae reduction and 41.8% adult worm reduction compared to PBS control. The muscle larvae reduction induced by heterologous prime-boost regimen was significant higher than that induced by the homologous DNA or protein prime-boost regimens, which could act as a practical prophylactic approach to prevent T. spiralis infection.

  14. First findings of Trichinella spiralis and DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild raccoon dogs in the Netherlands

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    Miriam Maas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the raccoon dog in the Netherlands may be associated with the risk of introduction and spread of zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess whether Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp. infections are present in Dutch raccoon dogs. Between 2013 and 2014, nine raccoon dogs, mainly road kills, were collected for necropsies. One raccoon dog tested repeatedly positive in the qPCR for E. multilocularis. The positive raccoon dog was collected in the province of Flevoland, which is not a known endemic region for E. multilocularis. Another raccoon dog tested positive for Trichinella spiralis by the digestion of the forelimb musculature and the tongue. Trichinella spiralis has not been reported in wildlife since 1998 and thus far was not found in wild carnivores in the Netherlands. It shows that despite the small raccoon dog population that is present in the Netherlands and the limited number of raccoon dogs that were tested, the raccoon dog may play a role in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis and Trichinella spp. in the Netherlands.

  15. Assessment of efficacy and safety of various adjuvant formulations with a total soluble extract of Trichinella spiralis

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    Aucouturier J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a re-emerging zoonosis in several countries and pig, is the main species responsible for its transmission to human. Vaccination of swine could be an alternative to prevent the risk of human contamination. In order to develop an efficient and safe inactivate vaccine, the choice of the adjuvant is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop and select potent and safe adjuvants by screening them in an experimental model with a crude soluble antigen from L1 muscular larvae (ML of Trichinella spiralis (Ts. The efficacy was checked by the quantification of specific antibody levels. Specific and non-specific IgE antibody levels were also assessed. Safety was checked by the assessment of the local reaction at the injection site.Various Montanide® ISA adjuvant formulations including water in oil, oil in water and multiphasic emulsions, but also nanoparticles or microbeads were tested. The results clearly showed differences between the antibody responses induced by the adjuvants and demonstrated the necessity to use an adjuvant to obtain a specific IgG (IgG1or lgG2a response directed against the total soluble extract of Ts. All the formulations enhanced the humoral immune response. The origin of the oil contained in the emulsions played an important role on the efficacy. Indeed emulsions based on mineral oils were more efficient than those based on metabolisable oils. However it was linked with stronger local reactions. Multiphasic and oil in water emulsions but also nanoparticles failed to induce 1gG2a antibody levels. Microbeads and water in oil formulations based on mineral oils were more efficient. This experimentation allowed then the selection of several adjuvants which efficacy will be further Investigated by a challenge test and an analysis of the cellular populations involved in the mechanism of the immune response.

  16. Comparison of cholinesterase activities in the excretion-secretion products of Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae

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    Ros-Moreno R.M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cholinesterases (ChE is reported in T. pseudospiralis excretion-secretion products (ESP by spectrophotometry method, using acetylthiocholine (ATCI and butyrilthiocholine (BTCI as substrates. By inhibition assays, we found that T. pseudospiralis release both acetyl- and butiryl-cholinesterases (AchE and BchE, respectively. The sedimentation coefficientes of these enzymes were determined by sucrose density gradient. We studied the in vivo ChE secretion by immunoblot assays using AchE from Electrophorus (electric eel and sera from normal or infected mice with T. pseudospiralis or T. spiralis. The presence of anti-AchE antibodies was only demonstrated in the sera from T. pseudospiralis infected mice. Moreover the in vivo secretion was corroborated by the high difference determinate between the ChE activity of the immuno complexes from T. pseudospiralis infected sera and the immunocomplexes from T. spiralis infected sera as well as normal sera. Finally, we analyzed the effect of the organophosphate NeguvónR (metrifonate on the ChE activity from the J. pseudospiralis ESP. The drug inhibits in part this activity. Moreover NeguvónR (metrifonate showed a high activity against the T. pseudospiralis viability.

  17. Differential detection of Trichinella papuae, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis by real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Boonmars, Thidarut; Wu, Zhiliang; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-04-30

    Trichinellosis caused by nematodes of Trichinella spp. is a zoonotic foodborne disease. Three Trichinella species of the parasite including Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella papuae and Trichinella pseudospiralis, have been etiologic agents of human trichinellosis in Thailand. Definite diagnosis of this helminthiasis is based on a finding of the Trichinella larva (e) in a muscle biopsy. The parasite species or genotype can be determined using molecular methods, e.g., polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study has utilized real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR (real-time FRET PCR) and a melting curve analysis for the differential diagnosis of trichinellosis. Three common Trichinella species in Thailand were studied using one set of primers and fluorophore-labeled hybridization probes specific for the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene. Using fewer than 35 cycles as the cut-off for positivity and using different melting temperatures (T(m)), this assay detected T. spiralis, T. papuae and T. pseudospiralis in muscle tissue and found the mean T(m) ± SD values to be 51.79 ± 0.06, 66.09 ± 0.46 and 51.46 ± 0.09, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the technique enabled the detection of a single Trichinella larva of each species, and the detection limit for the target DNA sequence was 16 copies of positive control plasmid. A test of the technique's analytical specificity showed no fluorescence signal for a panel of 19 non-Trichinella parasites or for human and mouse genomic DNA. Due to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of these Trichinella species, as well as the fast and high-throughput nature of these tools, this method has application potential in differentiating non-encapsulated larvae of T. papuae from T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis in tissues of infected humans and animals.

  18. Ausência de Trichinella spiralis em suínos adultos abatidos em Palmas, Estado do Paraná, Brasil Absence of Trichinella spiralis in adult swines slaughtered in Palmas, Paraná, Brazil

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    Heitor Daguer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas amostras de 3.774 suínos adultos, abatidos sob inspeção federal entre os anos de 2002 e 2004 na cidade de Palmas, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando-se a técnica da digestão artificial de amostras coletivas com agitador magnético para pesquisa de larvas de Trichinella spiralis. Os animais eram provenientes de 68 municípios dos três estados da região Sul do Brasil. A técnica utilizada seguiu as recomendações européias e as amostras examinadas consistiam de fragmentos musculares do masseter, base da língua e diafragma de cada animal. Não foram detectadas larvas do parasita nos animais examinados, sugerindo que a infecção por T. spiralis não ocorre nas criações de suínos examinadas.Samples of 3.774 adult pigs, slaughtered under federal inspection between the years of 2002 and 2004 in the county of Palmas, State of Paraná, Brazil, were examined by pooled sample artificial digestion with magnetic stirrer for a survey of Trichinella spiralis larvae. Animals proceeded from 68 counties of the three states of the South region of Brazil. The employed essay was the recommended by the European commission. The samples were formed by muscular pieces of masseter, tongue and diaphragm of each animal. No larvae were detected in the animals, indicating that T. spiralis infection does not occur in the examined swine stocks.

  19. Functional correlations between mucosal mast cell activity and immunity to Trichinella spiralis in high and low responder mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, M; Lammas, D A; Wakelin, D; Huntley, J F; Newlands, G F; Miller, H R

    1990-11-01

    Levels of intestinal mast cell protease (IMCP) were quantified in serum, gut tissue and in intestinal fluids taken from mice infected with Trichinella spiralis during primary and secondary infections. The ability to generate a mast cell response was dependent on the response phenotype of the mouse strain used. The mast cell response in rapid responder mice (NIH) occurred sooner and was more pronounced than in either intermediate (SWR) and low responder (B1O) mice. This pattern was also reflected in the concentration of IMCP found in various tissues examined. The correlations between IMCP concentrations in blood, and worm expulsion, are discussed.

  20. Sleep Deprivation Induces Changes in Immunity in Trichinella spiralis-Infected Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G.; Velazquéz-Moctezuma, Javier; Diaz, Daniel; Becerril-Villanueva, Luis Enrique; Pavón, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is considered an important predictor of immunity. A lack of sleep may reduce immunity, which increases susceptibility to any type of infection. Moreover, sleep deprivation in humans produces changes in both, the percent of circulating immune cells (T cells and NK cells) and cytokine levels (IL-1, IFNγ, TNΦ-αα, IL-6 and IL-17). The aim of our study was to investigate whether sleep deprivation produces deregulation on immune variables during the immune response generated against the helminth parasite Trichinella spiralis. Because sleep deprivation is stressful per se, we designed another experiments to compared stress alone (consisting in movement restriction and single housing) with sleep deprivation, in both control (uninfected) and experimental (infected) rats. Our results demonstrate that the sleep deprivation and stress have a differential effect in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen. In uninfected rats sleep deprivation alone produces an increase in natural killer cells (NK+) and B cells (CD45+), accompanied by a decrease in cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) in spleen; while, in MLN, produces only an increase in natural killer cells (NK+). Both, SD and stress, produce an increased percentage of total T cells (CD3+) in spleen. In the MLN both are also associated to an increase in cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) and B cells (CD45+). In the spleens of parasitized rats, cell populations did not change. In spleens of both, sleep-deprived and stressed infected rats, we observed an increase in B cells (CD45+). In infected rats, sleep deprivation alone produced an increase in NK cells (NK+). In mesenteric node cell populations of parasitized rats, we observed a decrease in NK cells and an increase in T helper (CD4+) cells in both SD and stressed rats. Rats that were only subjected to stress showed a decrease in B cells (CD45+). These findings suggest that the immune response generated against infection caused by T. spiralis is affected when the sleep pattern is

  1. Sleep deprivation induces changes in immunity in Trichinella spiralis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Velazquéz-Moctezuma, Javier; Diaz, Daniel; Becerril-Villanueva, Luis Enrique; Pavón, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is considered an important predictor of immunity. A lack of sleep may reduce immunity, which increases susceptibility to any type of infection. Moreover, sleep deprivation in humans produces changes in both, the percent of circulating immune cells (T cells and NK cells) and cytokine levels (IL-1, IFNγ, TNΦ-αα, IL-6 and IL-17). The aim of our study was to investigate whether sleep deprivation produces deregulation on immune variables during the immune response generated against the helminth parasite Trichinella spiralis. Because sleep deprivation is stressful per se, we designed another experiments to compared stress alone (consisting in movement restriction and single housing) with sleep deprivation, in both control (uninfected) and experimental (infected) rats. Our results demonstrate that the sleep deprivation and stress have a differential effect in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen. In uninfected rats sleep deprivation alone produces an increase in natural killer cells (NK+) and B cells (CD45+), accompanied by a decrease in cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) in spleen; while, in MLN, produces only an increase in natural killer cells (NK+). Both, SD and stress, produce an increased percentage of total T cells (CD3+) in spleen. In the MLN both are also associated to an increase in cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) and B cells (CD45+). In the spleens of parasitized rats, cell populations did not change. In spleens of both, sleep-deprived and stressed infected rats, we observed an increase in B cells (CD45+). In infected rats, sleep deprivation alone produced an increase in NK cells (NK+). In mesenteric node cell populations of parasitized rats, we observed a decrease in NK cells and an increase in T helper (CD4+) cells in both SD and stressed rats. Rats that were only subjected to stress showed a decrease in B cells (CD45+). These findings suggest that the immune response generated against infection caused by T. spiralis is affected when the sleep pattern is

  2. Evaluation of high pressure processing, freezing, and fermentation/drying on viability of Trichinella spiralis larvae in raw pork and in Genoa salami

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated high pressure processing (HPP), freezing, and fermentation/drying to inactivate Trichinella spiralis larvae in both infected pig muscle and in Genoa salami produced with trichinae infected pork. In part A, in each of two trials 10 gram portions (2 replicates per treatment) of fresh pig ...

  3. Global gene expression analysis of the zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis revealed novel genes in host parasite interaction.

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    Xiaolei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichinellosis is a typical food-borne zoonotic disease which is epidemic worldwide and the nematode Trichinella spiralis is the main pathogen. The life cycle of T. spiralis contains three developmental stages, i.e. adult worms, new borne larva (new borne L1 larva and muscular larva (infective L1 larva. Stage-specific gene expression in the parasites has been investigated with various immunological and cDNA cloning approaches, whereas the genome-wide transcriptome and expression features of the parasite have been largely unknown. The availability of the genome sequence information of T. spiralis has made it possible to deeply dissect parasite biology in association with global gene expression and pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed the global gene expression patterns in the three developmental stages of T. spiralis using digital gene expression (DGE analysis. Almost 15 million sequence tags were generated with the Illumina RNA-seq technology, producing expression data for more than 9,000 genes, covering 65% of the genome. The transcriptome analysis revealed thousands of differentially expressed genes within the genome, and importantly, a panel of genes encoding functional proteins associated with parasite invasion and immuno-modulation were identified. More than 45% of the genes were found to be transcribed from both strands, indicating the importance of RNA-mediated gene regulation in the development of the parasite. Further, based on gene ontological analysis, over 3000 genes were functionally categorized and biological pathways in the three life cycle stage were elucidated. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The global transcriptome of T. spiralis in three developmental stages has been profiled, and most gene activity in the genome was found to be developmentally regulated. Many metabolic and biological pathways have been revealed. The findings of the differential expression of several protein

  4. Secretion and processing of a novel multi-domain cystatin-like protein by intracellular stages of Trichinella spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark W; Massie, Diane H; Connolly, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of nematode parasites are of major interest as they function at the host-parasite interface and are likely to have roles crucial for successful parasitism. Furthermore, the ES proteins of intracellular nematodes such as Trichinella spiralis may also function to regulate gene expression in the host cell. In a recent proteomic analysis we identified a novel secreted cystatin-like protein from T. spiralis L1 muscle larva. Here we show that the protein, MCD-1 (multi-cystatin-like domain protein 1), contains three repeating cystatin-like domains and analysis of the mcd-1 gene structure suggests that the repeated domains arose from duplication of an ancestral cystatin gene. Cystatins are a diverse group of cysteine protease inhibitors and those secreted by parasitic nematodes are important immuno-modulatory factors. The cystatin superfamily also includes cystatin-like proteins that have no cysteine protease inhibitory activity. A recombinant MCD-1 protein expressed as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli failed to inhibit papain in vitro suggesting that the T. spiralis protein is a new member of the non-inhibitory cystatin-related proteins. MCD-1 secreted from T. spiralis exists as high- and low-molecular weight isoforms and we show that a recombinant MCD-1 protein secreted by HeLa cells undergoes pH-dependent processing that may result in the release of individual cystatin-like domains. Furthermore, we found that mcd-1 gene expression is largely restricted to intracellular stages with the highest levels of expression in the adult worms. It is likely that the major role of the protein is during the intestinal stage of T. spiralis infections.

  5. Recognition of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae antigens by sera from human infected with this parasite and its potential use in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Ruiz, M R; Salinas-Tobón, M R; Aguilar-Alvarez, D J; Martínez-Marañón, R

    1992-01-01

    Human antibody response to total soluble extract of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (TSE) was analyzed by Western blot. The most frequently recognized antigens had molecular weights of 96, 67, 63, 60, 55 and 47 kDa. An antigenic fraction containing two peptides with M.W. of 43, 47 kDa from the parasite (p43, 47 Ts L1) was isolated by elution from polyacrylamide gel slabs. It was used as antigen in an ELISA test and compared to that of TSE. Serum samples from 51 symptomatic trichinellosis patients--43 with high antibody levels to TSE, 5 of them with positive biopsy and 8 with low levels of these antibodies--as well as 38 from asymptomatic individuals from the area where the trichinellosis outbreaks had occurred and 43 from apparently healthy individuals from a non-endemic area, 37 from patients with intestinal parasitic infections caused by helminth and protozoan parasites--11 from recurrent and 26 from non-recurrent disease--were analyzed by ELISA using both antigens. The ELISA using p43, 47 Ts L1 detected all trichinellosis patients with high antibody levels as well as 6 out of 8 of those with low antibody levels. All control groups were negative. Therefore, this purified fraction allowed the ELISA to be more specific and sensitive for human trichinellosis diagnosis.

  6. Glycans expressed on Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens are important for anti-inflamatory immune response polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Jelena; Ilic, Natasa; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa

    2014-12-01

    Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory antigens (ES L1) are most likely responsible for the induction of immune response during infection by this parasitic. The antigens bear carbohydrate structures that may contribute to immune system activation resulting in a Th2/anti-inflammatory immune response. We show that T. spiralis glycans affect the expression and the production of IL-4 and IL-10 in vivo. Alteration of carbohydrate structures on ES L1 altered dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Periodate treatment of ES L1 led to the reduction in both ERK and p38 phosphorylation which may be the cause of reduced IL-10 and IL-12p70 production. In vitro priming of naïve T cells with DCs stimulated with native and periodate-treated ES L1 emphasized the importance of intact glycans for IL-10 production. We conclude that T. spiralis glycans affect the anti-inflammatory environment and can interfere with the development of inflammatory diseases.

  7. Human antibody recognition of Anisakidae and Trichinella spp. in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L N; Krause, T Grove; Koch, A

    2007-01-01

    High levels of total IgE are observed among children in Greenland. To evaluate the extent to which Anisakidae and Trichinella spp. contribute to the high total IgE level, an ELISA and a western blot were developed for the detection of IgG antibodies to Anisakidae, based on excretory....../secretory antigens from Anisakidae larvae. Western blots with Anisakidae and Trichinella antigens discriminated between Anisakidae and Trichinella infections, enabling cross-reactivity between the two parasite infections to be eliminated. Serum samples from 1012 children in Greenland were analysed for specific...

  8. Expression of Myod and myogenin in muscles of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis

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    Wu Z.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a detection system for myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD and myogenin. Adapting the method we performed a longitudinal analysis of such regulatory factors after infection with T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. MyoD and myogenin were expressed from the early phase of cystogenesis in T. spiralis infection. The expression returned to the normal level after 18 days from the infection when the cyst was complete. In T. pseudospiralis infection, they were also expressed from the early phase of cystogenesis, but continuously expressed at least up to 43 days post infection.

  9. Coloración de azul de metileno como alternativa para determinar la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis Methylene blue test for the determination of viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis

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    V.R. Randazzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar si la coloración con azul de metileno, de probada utilidad para demostrar la viabilidad de protoescólices de Echinococcus granulosus, puede evidenciar también la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis. Para ello se utilizaron tres suspensiones de larvas de T. spiralis (M1, M2 y M3, las que fueron expuestas a diferentes condiciones y observadas a distintos tiempos: M1 se expuso a -30 °C y se observó a los 70 días; M2 a 80 °C durante 5 minutos y se observó inmediatamente, y M3 se mantuvo a 4 °C durante todo el experimento, como testigo del 100% de vitalidad. Cada suspensión contenía 500 estadios larvarios libres. Se emplearon 100 μl de solución de azul de metileno 1:10 000 en agua destilada, agregados a igual volumen de suspensión de larvas, y las muestras fueron observadas al microscopio óptico para evaluar la motilidad. Los resultados evidenciaron que cuando las larvas de T. spiralis estaban muertas (M1 y M2, el 100% se coloreaban totalmente de azul en su interior, y las estructuras internas, en relación con la capa quitinosa, aparecían retraídas y algunas fragmentadas. En la suspensión testigo M3 las larvas no se coloreaban, y como prueba adicional de viabilidad se pudo observar su típico movimiento en espiral en el 100% de ellas.The present research was carried out with the purpose of determining whether or not the methylene blue test could also evidence viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis, taking into account its usefulness in the determination of viability of protoscolices in Echinococcus granulosus. To this end, three T. spiralis larval suspensions (M1, M2 and M3 were used, each containing 500 free larval stages. A hundred μl of methylene blue solution 1:10000 in distilled water were added to 100 μl of the larval suspension. Larvae were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate motility. M1 was exposed to -30 °C and could be

  10. Comparison of IgM, IgG1 and IgG2 responses to Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi in swine

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    Serrano F.J

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigs infected with T. spiralis and T. britovi were followed by double (lgG and triple antibody ELISA (IgG1, lgG 2 and IgM during a 12-week-period. Specific IgG and IgG1 responses were similar and showed a significant relation with the infecting doses and intensity of infection. Response to T. britovi was slightly lower than in groups infected with the same dose of T. spiralis. lgG 2 response was weak and almost undetectable in the lowest infected pigs, but relationship with the intensity of infection was unclear. IgM antibodies showed rapid but transient increases, generally simultaneous to peaks of IgG response.

  11. A novel secretory poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP from Trichinella spiralis (Nematoda.

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    Georgi Radoslavov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis is an unusual parasitic intracellular nematode causing dedifferentiation of the host myofiber. Trichinella proteomic analyses have identified proteins that act at the interface between the parasite and the host and are probably important for the infection and pathogenesis. Many parasitic proteins, including a number of metalloproteins are unique for the nematodes and trichinellids and therefore present good targets for future therapeutic developments. Furthermore, detailed information on such proteins and their function in the nematode organism would provide better understanding of the parasite-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report the identification, biochemical characterization and localization of a novel poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP. The native Ts-PCHTP was purified from T. spiralis muscle larvae that were isolated from infected rats as a model system. The sequence analysis showed no homology with other proteins. Two unique poly-cysteine domains were found in the amino acid sequence of Ts-PCHTP. This protein is also the first reported natural histidine tailed protein. It was suggested that Ts-PCHTP has metal binding properties. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF assay revealed that it binds significant concentrations of iron, nickel and zinc at protein:metal ratio of about 1:2. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Ts-PCHTP is localized in the cuticle and in all tissues of the larvae, but that it is not excreted outside the parasite. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Ts-PCHTP is the first described member of a novel nematode poly-cysteine protein family and its function could be metal storage and/or transport. Since this protein family is unique for parasites from Superfamily Trichinelloidea its potential applications in diagnostics and treatment could be exploited in future.

  12. Investigation analysis on infection of Trichinella spiralis in animals%动物感染旋毛虫状况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡群; 王焱

    2003-01-01

    @@ 旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)(简称旋毛虫),寄生宿主十分广泛,包括人类在内,目前已知在120多种哺乳类动物体内均可寄生[1],引起旋毛虫病,是动物源性人兽共患寄生虫病之一.

  13. Trichinella spiralis, potential model nematode for epigenetics and its implication in metazoan parasitism

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    Fei eGAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of DNA methylation in the nematode T. spiralis may raise the possibility of using it as a potential model organism for epigenetic studies instead of C. elegans, which is deficient in this important epigenetic modification. In contrast to the free-living nematode C. elegans, T. spiralis is a parasitic worm that possesses a complicated life cycle and undergoes a complex developmental regulation of genes. We emphasise that the differential methylomes in the different life-history stages of T. spiralis can provide insight on how DNA methylation is triggered and regulated. In particular, we have demonstrated that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of its parasitism-related genes. Further computational analyses indicated that the regulatory machinery for DNA methylation can also be found in the T. spiralis genome. By a logical extension of this point, we speculate that comprehensively addressing the epigenetic machinery of T. spiralis may help to understand epigenetics in invertebrates. Furthermore, considering the implication of epigenetics in metazoan parasitism, using T. spiralis as an epigenetic model organism may further contribute to drug development against metazoan parasites.

  14. HERPESTES AUROPUNCTATUS AS A NEW RESERVOIR HOST OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN IRAN

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    GH. Mowlavi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reservoir host of Trichinella was identified as: Herpestes auropunctatus, (Mangoose in province of Khuzestan, south west of Iran. Wild swine, brown bear jackal and wild cat have been reported as natural host for Trichinella so far. The larvae obtained from the mongoose was infective for rat and white mouse, but the latter was more sensitive comparatively (This study was carried out in the Ahwaz Health Research Station.

  15. A bead-based suspension array for the serological detection of Trichinella in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der F.J.; Achterberg, R.P.; Kant, A.; Maassen, C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using bead-based suspension arrays to detect serological evidence of Trichinella in pigs was assessed. Trichinella spiralis excretory–secretory antigen was covalently coupled to paramagnetic beads and used to bind serum antibodies, which were subsequently detected using anti-swine

  16. [Characterization of surface antigens of the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis: study of its role in protection mechanisms and their usefulness in the diagnosis of trichinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pierres, M G

    1995-01-01

    Among the most important aspects in the study of trichinosis are the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic methods for the detection of the infection by the parasite as well as the characterization of antigens from Trichinella spiralis that induce protection in the host. In the context, the characterization of surface stichosome and excretory secretory antigens of T. spiralis muscle larvae has been an important issue due to the high immunogenicity of such components in most hosts so far studied. In this work, we have been able to identify and characterize molecules from both compartments of muscle larvae. These components have been used in assays for specific detection of T. spiralis infections particularly in pigs, as well as in assays to evaluate their role in the induction of protection in mice.

  17. Detection of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in trichinella spiralis L1 larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegretti S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Western-blotting analysis showed the presence of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in crude extracts of T. spiralis larvae and these phosphorylated proteins were located by immunofluorescence on the striations of the larval cuticle. The patterns of phosphorylated proteins were modified when larvae were incubated with bile.

  18. TsDAF-21/Hsp90 is expressed in all examined stages of Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella is an important parasitic nematode of animals worldwide. Heat shock proteins are ubiquitous in nature and allow organisms to quickly respond to environmental stress. A portion of the Tsdaf-21 gene, a Caenorhabditis elegans daf-21 homologue encoding heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was clone...

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE ANTICUERPOS ANTI-Trichinella spiralis OBTENIDOS POR INMUNIZACIONES SUBLINGUALES Y CONVENCIONALES CON LA PROTEÍNA 45kDa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca CHÁVEZ RUVALCABA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La trichinellosis es una enfermedad parasitaria zoonótica y cosmopolita, se debe al consumo de carne deficientemente cocida, principalmente proveniente del cerdo, diversos estudios avalan la eficacia de la administración de inmunoterapia. Se ha caracterizado un antígeno inmunodominante de 45 kDa y se plantea como objetivo evaluar la presencia de anticuerpos IgA, IgM e IgG anti- Trichinella spiralis a lo largo de la infección, así como el comportamiento en la administración de la inmunización de 45 kDa de Trichinella spiralis ( T. spiralis administrado por vía sublingual y vía parenteral. Se utilizaron 36 murinos (Long Evans, seis para la infección y purificación del antígeno de 45 kDa, 30 para formar los grupos de trabajo, control sano (cinco murinos, control infectado (cinco murinos, y 20 para los grupos experimentales, se inmunizaron dos grupos con cuatro dosis (0, 7, 14 y 21 días del inmunógeno de 45 KDa de T. spiralis , uno por vía sublingual y otro por vía parenteral y se retaron con 500 larvas infectantes (LI de T. spiralis siete días después de la ultima inmunización y dos grupos más se infectaron con 500 LI y se inmunizaron a las cuatro semanas postinfección por ambas vías. La respuesta se evaluó por inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI por microscopia confocal para determinar la respuesta humoral con anticuerpos de clase IgG, IgM e IgA.

  20. Efecto del estado nutricional en la susceptibilidad o resistencia a la infección de Trichinella spiralis en modelo murino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. en C. Claudia Maldonado Tapia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La Trichinellosis es una zoonosis causada inadecuadas. por nematodos del género Trichinella se trasmite principalmente por alimentos Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del estado contaminados con larvas infectantes (LI de nutricional en la susceptibilidad a la T. spiralis. Además de ser ampliamente infección de Trichinella spiralis en modelo difundida se adapta a los distintos climas y murino. regiones del mundo, y es una parasitosis que afecta a la mayoría de los mamíferos. El Metodología: consistió en 2 grupos; adecuado estado nutricional permite a los Nutridos con una dieta de 24 % (Nut y individuos una respuesta inmune ante la Desnutridos con una dieta del 12 % de presencia de patógenos externos. De igual proteína. (DN y posteriormente se modo se menciona que todo ser vivo nutrido infectaron con diferentes cargas parasitarias tiene una calidad de vida conveniente. La 500 LI (Larvas Infectantes de T.spiralis desnutrición en niños es un problema que se

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes of Trichinella spiralis larvae after exposure to host intestine milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jun Ren

    Full Text Available Although it has been known for many years that T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML can not invade intestinal epithelial cells unless they are exposed to the intestinal milieu and activated into intestinal infective larvae (IIL, which genes in IIL are involved in the process of invasion is still unknown. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH was performed to identify differentially expressed genes between IIL and ML. SSH library was constructed using cDNA generated from IIL as the 'tester'. About 110 positive clones were randomly selected from the library and sequenced, of which 33 T. spiralis genes were identified. Thirty encoded proteins were annotated according to Gene Ontology Annotation in terms of molecular function, biological process, and cellular localization. Out of 30 annotated proteins, 16 proteins (53.3% had binding activity and 12 proteins (40.0% had catalytic activity. The results of real-time PCR showed that the expression of nine genes (Ts7, Ndr family protein; Ts8, serine/threonine-protein kinase polo; Ts11, proteasome subunit beta type-7; Ts17, nudix hydrolase; Ts19, ovochymase-1; Ts22, fibronectin type III domain protein; Ts23, muscle cell intermediate filament protein OV71; Ts26, neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT and Ts33, FACT complex subunit SPT16 from 33 T. spiralis genes in IIL were up-regulated compared with that of ML. The present study provide a group of the potential invasion-related candidate genes and will be helpful for further studies of mechanisms by which T. spiralis infective larvae recognize and invade the intestinal epithelial cells.

  2. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M.; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6–8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4–3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large

  3. RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM (RFLP) ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA OF 5 STRAINS OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 张月清; 劳为德; 吴赵永

    1995-01-01

    Five restriction endonucleases were used to digest genomic DNA from 5 isolates of Trichinella spiralis obtained from Changchun,Tianjin,Xian,Henan and Yunnan.All the isolates were secured from pigs ex-cept the Changchun strain which came from dog.The DNA fragments digested by endonuclease were sepa-mted by agarose gel electrophoesis.The DNA fragments digested by endonuclease were sepa-rated by agarose gel electrophoresis.The Changchun is olate had a EcoRI band at 1.12kb and a Dral band at 1.97kb which were unique to this isolate.A cloned specific repetitive DNA sequence(1.12kb) from the Changchun strain was selected to prepare a probe for the Southern blotting of EcoRI restriction DNA frag-ments for the 5 isolates.The 1.12kb hybridizing band did not appear except in the Changchun isolate.These results seem to indicate that there are differences between the isolates obtained from hosts in differ-ent geographical regions.

  4. Evaluation of a fluid versus a powder pepsin formulation to detect Trichinella spiralis larvae in meat samples by a digestion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Nockler, K.; Pozio, E.

    2007-01-01

    ). The purpose of each trial was to ascertain and compare the action of pepsin powder with that of the pepsin fluid for digesting meat and liberating encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae for subsequent counting. The quality of digestion was furthermore evaluated by assessing the visibility through...... the digestion fluid and the amount of debris remaining after digestion. For the ring trial, at each laboratory 20 blinded replicate 100-g samples of pork meat containing a known number of encapsulated T. spiralis larvae (0 to 30) were digested by the magnetic stirrer method using either the standard pepsin...... powder (10 samples) or the pepsin fluid (10 samples). With an average recovery rate of 70 to 80%, all NRLs found the pepsin fluid and pepsin powder to be equally effective. The NRLs also found no difference between the two pepsin formulations with regard to debris remnants or visibility through...

  5. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  6. 旋毛虫传播途径及对宿主影响的研究进展%Research progress on infection routes of Trichinella spiralis and its risk in human host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊珊; 张莉; 李倩; 李海龙

    2015-01-01

    旋毛虫病是一种严重的食源性人兽共患寄生虫病,呈世界性分布.旋毛虫的传播途径主要为水平传播,但也可以通过机械传播和垂直传播感染宿主.旋毛虫对患者的消化系统、循环系统、神经系统、骨骼肌等系统产生不同程度的损害,严重影响人类的健康.该文综述了旋毛虫的传播途径及其对宿主的影响.%Trichinosis caused by Trichinella spiralis is a serious food-borne zoonotic parasitic disease in humans and animals worldwide.Horizontal transmission is the mainly route for Trichinella spiralis to infect hosts,mechanical transmission and vertical transmission are the other two ways to infect hosts.Trichinella spiralis can produce different degrees of risk to digestive system,circulatory system,nervous system and skeletal muscle system in patients.This paper reviewed the recent advances of researches on trichinosis in human host and infection routes of Trichinella spiralis.

  7. Evaluation of fermentation, drying, and high pressure processing on viability of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Trichinella spiralis in raw pork and/or Genoa salami

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effectiveness of fermentation, drying, and high pressure processing (HPP) to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Trichinella spiralis in Genoa salami produced with trichinae infected pork. In addition, we evaluated the effectiveness of u...

  8. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  9. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Response by Selective Removal of the Anterior, Posterior, or Entire Pituitary Gland in Trichinella spiralis Infected Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms. PMID:23555042

  10. 大蒜汁对旋毛虫幼虫杀灭效果研究%Kill effect of different concentrations of garlic juice on Trichinella spiralis muscle larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗卉; 张云; 肖明洋; 饶永庚; 张莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective By comparing the different concentrations of garlic juice soak meat containing trichinella spiralis muscle larva influence on mice's appeal, to assess the garlic juice on the killing effect of trichinella spiralis larvae. Methods Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups, only 30 fed by different concentrations of garlic juice concentration (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50% respectively) and normal saline containing trichinella spiralis muscle larva soak for half an hour of meat, feeding profile control after 30 d kill mice, observation and counting muscle larvae. Results The mice fed by 100%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50% concentration of garlic juice, and normal saline containing trichinella spiralis muscle larva soak for half an hour after meat, detection of trichinella spiralis muscle in muscle larvae number is 0, 10, 60, 140 and 235. Conclusion The infectivity of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae was decreased after the treatment of certain concentrations with garlic juice.%目的:通过比较经不同浓度大蒜汁浸泡含旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉块对小鼠感染力的影响,来评估大蒜汁对旋毛虫幼虫的杀灭效果。方法30只昆明小鼠分为5组,喂食经不同浓度的大蒜汁(浓度分别为100.00%、50.00%、25.00%、12.50%)和生理盐水浸泡半小时含有旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉,饲喂30d后剖杀小鼠,观察和计数肌幼虫数。结果小鼠饲喂经100.00%、50.00%、25.00%、12.50%浓度大蒜汁和生理盐水浸泡半小时含有旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉后,在单位肌肉中检出旋毛虫肌幼虫数为0条、10条、60条、140条和235条。结论含旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉经一定浓度的大蒜汁浸泡后其旋毛虫肌幼虫的感染力会降低。

  11. 旋毛虫HSP70基因的原核表达及其免疫原性%Prokaryotic expression of HSP70 gene of Trichinella spiralis and immunogenicity analysis of the expression product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佳; 禹洋; 唐颖; 俞昭旸; 李晓云; 宋铭忻

    2012-01-01

    利用RT-PCR方法扩增旋毛虫HSP70基因,将其扩增产物克隆到pEASY-Blunt Simple载体中,经限制性酶切后与pET-28a(+)载体连接,进一步转化至感受态细胞Transetta(DE3)中,用IPTG诱导表达重组旋毛虫HSP70。以纯化的重组HSP70制备多克隆抗体,并对HSP70进行免疫印迹分析及免疫组织化学染色。结果表明,重组质粒的鉴定和DNA测序均正确;SDS-PAGE和Western-blot分析结果显示,在70ku处获得一目的条带;免疫组织化学染色结果显示,该HSP70具有很好的免疫原性。证实,成功构建了重组表达质粒pET28a-HSP70,为深入研究旋毛虫HSP70的功能奠定了基础。%HSP70 gene of Trichinella spiralis was amplified by RT-PCR and then cloned into pEASY-Blunt Simple vector.The recombinant was digested and linked with pET-28a(+) vector.The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing.The positive plasmid was transformed into competent Escherichia coli Transetta(DE3) and induced by IPTG for expression.The recombinant Trichinella HSP70 was purified to prepare polyclonal antibody.Trichinella HSP70 was analysed by Western-blot and stained by immunohistochemistry.The recombinant protein was confirmed to be about 70 ku in size.The positive signals were localized in the Trichinella by immunohistochemistry.The results showed that the recombinant expression plasmid pET28a-HSP70 was successfully constructed and laid the foundation for further studies on the function of HSP70.

  12. Construction of cDNA Library of Newborn Larvae of Trichinella spiralis%旋毛虫新生幼虫cDNA文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明远; 付宝权; 卢强; 吴秀萍; 姚春雨; 宇丽; 窦兰清; P.Boireau

    2001-01-01

    为了克隆和研究旋毛虫新生幼虫功能性抗原基因,采用酸性异硫氰酸胍-酚-氯仿一步法提取新生幼虫总RNA,Oligo(dT)纤维素柱纯化mRNA,反转录合成第一链cDNA及第二链cDNA,用CHROMA SPIN-400柱离心层析纯化后,与载体λZAP Express连接.体外包装后得到中国猪旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)分离株新生幼虫cDNA文库.文库容量为2.0×106,重组率为98.6%,插入片段长度在0.4×103-2.0×103bp.

  13. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis Derived-Antigens in Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats: Role of FOXP3+ Treg Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Maha M.; Ghazy, Amany A.; El azzouni, Mervat Z.; Boulos, Laila M.; Younis, Layla K.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the concept of helminths therapy in a variety of autoimmune diseases. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of autoclaved Schistosoma mansoni antigen (ASMA) and Trichinella spiralis antigen (ATSA) on the clinical and immunopathological features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Adjuvant arthritis was induced by subcutaneous and intradermal injections of complete Freund’s adjuvant into the plantar surface of the right hind paw and the root of the tail, respectively. Rats were randomly assigned to serve as normal control, untreated arthritis, ASMA or ATSA-treated arthritis groups. Antigens were given by intradermal injection in two doses, two weeks apart. The development, progression of arthritic features, and the impact on animals’ gait and body weight were followed up for 4 weeks. The associated changes in serum cytokines (IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10), joints’ histopathology and immunohistochemistry of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) were evaluated at the end of the study. Treatment with either ASMA or ATSA attenuated the progression of clinical features of polyarthritis, improved gait and body weight gain, reduced the elevated serum IL-17 and further increased both IFN-γ and IL-10. Histopathologically, this was associated with a remarkable regression of paws’ inflammation that was limited only to the subcutaneous tissue, and a significant increase in the number of Foxp 3+ cells versus the untreated arthritis group. In conclusion, both Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis derived antigens exerted protective effect against adjuvant arthritis with better effect achieved by ASMA treatment. This anti-arthritic activity is attributed to upregulation of the Foxp3+ Tregs, with subsequent favorable modulation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The use of autoclaved parasitic antigens excludes the deleterious effects of imposing helminthic infection by using live parasites, which may pave the way to a

  14. Sex Steroids Effects on the Molting Process of the Helminth Human Parasite Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Hernández-Bello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1 to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%. The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development.

  15. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE in human Trichinellosis: Creating a new test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dević Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease of humans caused by the nematode from the genus Trichinella, predominantly Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis. If Trichinella infection is suspected, based on epidemiological link and clinical criteria within defined period of time, then finding of Trichinella-specific antibodies in the examined sera provides a definitive proof of the infection establishment. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE that could precede, coincide or follow IgG seroconversion not only confirms the infection existence, but could narrow the time frame in which the infection took place to a year or even less. Since there are no commercially available tests for monitoring the Trichinella-specific IgE presence during the course of the disease, our work was aimed to establish this kind of ELISA test. Specificity and sensitivity of so far described Trichinella-specific IgE ELISAs are not satisfying enough; two major problems are poor discrimination between positive and negative results and cross reactivity with sera of patients with different parasitic diseases. In this study, we have developed Trichinella-specific IgE Capture ELISA that overcomes problems with specificity and sensitivity and enables determination of Trichinella-specific IgE. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173047

  16. 染色法鉴别旋毛形线虫成虫死活的实验观察%Experimental study on determination of viability of the adult of Trichinella spiralis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小莉; 李亮; 方强; 崔洁; 郭凯; 沈继龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prompt methods in determination of viability of the adult of Trichinella spiralis. Methods: The adult worms of Trichinella spiralis were stained with 0. 5% safranine,l. 0% neutral red or 0. 5% methylene blue. Results:The dead adults were observed when stained with 0. 5% safranine or 1. 0% neutral red in the study. The vital adults were unstained with all three stains. Conclusions: Both 0. 5% safranine staining and 1. 0% neutral red staining are prompt method in determination of viability of the adult of Trichinella spiralis.%目的:探讨快速鉴别旋毛形线虫成虫死活的染色方法.方法:分别以0.5%番红、1.0%中性红和0.5%甲基蓝3种染液,对死或活旋毛形线虫成虫进行染色.结果:0.5%番红、1.0%中性红染液能使死亡旋毛形线虫成虫着色;旋毛形线虫活成虫对3种染液均不着色.结论:0.5%番红、1.0%中性红染液染色均可快速鉴别旋毛形线虫成虫死活.

  17. 旋毛虫对宿主免疫应答调节机制的研究进展%Research Progress on the Mechanism of Host Immune Response Regulated by Trichinella spiralis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵葛; 杨文涛; 王春凤; 杨桂连

    2013-01-01

    Trichinosis caused by Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic zoonosis with world-wide distribution, which impacts on the development of animal husbandry and food safety, and thus threatens human health. T. spiralis has the ability to evade the host immune response, which results in forming a long-term infection in the host. The previous studies indicated that a changed host immune state due to T. spiralis was an important reason for the evasion. Among the factors, cytokines, dendritic cells and regulatory T cells played an important role in the regulation of the host immune process.%旋毛虫病是由旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)引起的一种呈世界性分布的人兽共患寄生虫病,严重影响畜牧业发展和食品安全,从而威胁人类健康.旋毛虫具有逃避宿主免疫应答进而在宿主体内形成长期感染的能力.研究认为,旋毛虫改变宿主免疫状态是其逃避免疫应答的重要原因,其中细胞因子、树突状细胞和调节性T细胞在其调节宿主免疫过程中发挥着重要作用.

  18. Investigation on Parasitical Trichinella Spiralis of Dog and Cat in Heilongjiang Valley and the Areas near Heihe River and a certain City of Russian%黑龙江流域黑河沿江区域及俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克市犬猫寄生旋毛形线虫的区系调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉; 罗公平; 肖梅春; 赵兴存; 孙善华; 张子群

    2002-01-01

    对黑河沿江地域(瑷珲区、孙吴县、逊克县)及俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克市犬、猫寄生旋毛形线虫进行调查,(Trichinella spiralis)调查结果,44只犬,36只猫,检出犬的阳性数6只,猫的阳性数4只;犬的旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)感染率为17.63%,猫的旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)的感染率为12.9%;其中逊克县犬旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)感染率为23.07%,孙吴县猫的旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)的感染率为27.27%,为本次调查旋毛形线虫的高发地区.

  19. Application Research forTrichinella spiralis Excretory-secretory Antigens from Different Growth Stages in Immunologic Diagnosis%旋毛虫不同发育时期排泄分泌物抗原在免疫学诊断中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀萍; 孙召金; 翟铖铖; 刘晓雷; 唐斌; 刘明远

    2016-01-01

    different days within two months was collected and the IgM and IgG antibodies againstTrichinella were detected by ELISA. At last,dynamical change curves of antibodies were drawn and data analysis was made.[Results] 10 h ML and ML ES antigens could be used to detect the anti-Trichinella IgM antibodies from serum of pigs injected by different doses within 35 days after infection,low-dose infection can be detected in about 10 days and the high-dose infection in about 5 days,and Ad3 ES antigens could be applied to detect IgM antibodies when the infection dose was high;ES antigens from Ad3 and ML can be used to detect the anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies from serum of pigs injected by different doses over 35 days after infection,it's worth noting that detection effect by Ad3 ES was better than that of ML ES. [Conclusion]The 10 h ML ES,Ad3 ES and ML ES can be used as coating antigens to detect early infection withTrichinella spiralis,Ad3 ES and ML ES antigens can be used to detectTrichinella spiralis infection in slaughter pigs. This study provided reference and theoretical basis for the sufficient utilization of ES in different stages and for the establishment of a reasonable and effective method towards Trichinella spiralis detection.

  20. Progress on excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis pre-encysted larva%旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫排泄分泌抗原的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明治; 申丽洁

    2009-01-01

    在旋毛虫感染过程中,成囊前期幼虫(PEL)是旋毛虫侵入宿主肌肉的侵入期.旋毛虫PEL比成囊期幼虫(EL)在宿主体内约早2周出现.成囊前期幼虫抗原(PELA)对旋毛虫病的早期免疫学诊断具有较高的敏感性.而旋毛虫排泄分泌抗原具双重免疫功能,即有良好的抗原性和免疫原性.因此,本文就旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫ES抗原研究进展做一综述.%The pre-encysted larvae is the period of invasive hosts muscle in the development of Trichinella spiralis. T. spiralis pre-encysted larvae than encysted larva appeared about two weeks early in hosts. The pre-encysted larva antigens of T. spiralis have high sensitivity in the eary diagnosis of immunization. And excretory-secretory antigen of T. spiralis has double immune function, that is good antigenicity and immunogenicity. Therefore, this article introduced the progress on excretory-secretory antigens of T. spiralis pre-encysted larva.

  1. Epidemiological survey of Trichinella infection in some areas of Henan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianli X.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During 1996-1998 epidemiological survey of domestic Trichinella spiralis infection and serological survey on human beings were carried out in Yanling, Xuchang counties and Luohe city. By the artificial digestion method, the positive rates of pork in market and mutton were 1.6 % and 0.6 % respectively. Meat samples of pigs from pig-farms, cats and dogs were all negative for Trichinella larvae. Trichinellosis infection levels in rats captured in peasant households and places around abattoirs were 0.5 % and 4.1 % respectively (P < 0.05. By ELISA (double-antibody with excretion-secretion (ES antigens of Trichinella larvae, the positive rates of antibodies against Trichinella in sera of peasants and professional drivers were 2.2 % and 7.8 % (P < 0.05. The positive rates of antibodies in pigs from pig-farms and from peasant households were 1 % and 7 % respectively (P < 0.05. The levels of anti- Trichinella antibodies in rats captured in peasant households and places close to abattoirs were 0 % and 11.1 % respectively. Trichinella spiralis larvae were found in the washing meat slop in abattoirs.

  2. 一种快速、简便制作旋毛虫幼虫永久标本的方法%A fast and simple method for preparing permanent specimens of Trichinella spiralis larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛利娜; 李丹; 杨丁; 皮本伟; 张莹; 王国英; 闫文义

    2011-01-01

    经甲醛、乙醇、冰醋酸溶液固定,固绿染色液染色制作旋毛虫肌幼虫标本,方法简单,制作快速,幼虫虫体清晰可见,整体色调柔和,易于观察,可长期保存.%Trichinella spiralis larvae were collected and specimens were prepared by fixation with a solution of formaldehyde , alcohol, and acetic acid and fast green staining. This method is a simple and fast way to prepare specimens. The specimens had clearly visible structures with muted colors and were readily observed.

  3. Analysis of a novel cathepsin B circulating antigen and its response to drug treatment in Trichinella-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jian-hua; Yao, Jian-ping; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xu-chu; Wu, Zhong-dao; Zhou, Xing-wang

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we cloned a novel full-length cDNA that encodes a Trichinella spiralis cathepsin B-like protease gene (TsCPB) using 3'-RACE PCR. The recombinant mature TsCPB protein (rTsCPB) was then expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified with Ni-affinity chromatography. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that TsCPB was expressed across all development stages of the parasite but had the highest expression level during the adult stage. Furthermore, rTsCPB was detected in Trichinella excretory-secretory products with anti-rTsCPB rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Interestingly, rTsCPB was strongly recognized by the T. spiralis-infected sera in Western blotting, implying that TsCPB protein appeared in the peripheral blood of Trichinella-infected mice as circulating antigens (CAg). We then analyzed the dynamic levels of TsCPB CAg and its antibodies in T. spiralis-infected sera by using an improved double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect ELISA, respectively. The results showed that TsCPB CAg can be detected much earlier compared to antibody detection in Trichinella-infected mice. In addition, we monitored the effects of albendazole drug therapy (a dosage of 370 mg/kg body weight, twice a day) on T. spiralis-infected mice by detecting the levels of TsCPB CAg and its antibody in the sera of drug-treated mice. The results showed that the levels of CAg dramatically decreased after successful drug treatment, while the antibody level remained unchanged. Overall, the novel Trichinella antigen TsCPB could be a promising novel circulating antigen molecule for the detection of Trichinella infection and for monitoring the efficacy of drug treatment of trichinellosis.

  4. Protective immune response induced by co-immunization with the Trichinella spiralis recombinant Ts87 protein and a Ts87 DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaping; Yang, Xiaodi; Gu, Yuan; Wang, Yunyun; Zhao, Xi; Zhu, Xinping

    2013-05-20

    Ts87 is an immunodominant antigen that induces protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis larval challenge in mice. To determine if a combination of recombinant Ts87 protein and its coding DNA induces a stronger immune response in female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with 100 μg of recombinant Ts87 protein plus its coding DNA cloned in vector pVAX1, or the same amount of recombinant protein or DNA only. Mouse subclass IgG responses showed that both co-immunized and single-immunized mice produced a balanced IgG2a/IgG1 (Th1/Th2) response. T-cell proliferation in co-immunized animals was significantly higher than in single-immunized mice. Cytokine profiling in the co-immunization group showed a significant increase in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ in the splenocytes of mice upon stimulation with the recombinant Ts87 protein; however, the expression of IL-17 was down-regulated. Challenge results showed that mice immunized with the recombinant Ts87 protein and its coding DNA produced reduced the muscle larval burden to a greater extent (43.8%) than the groups immunized with only the protein (39.7%) or the DNA (9.7%). A better Th1/Th2 immune response and consequent protection induced by co-immunization with the recombinant Ts87 protein and its coding DNA may result from an adjuvant effect of DNA and a specific persistent expression of Ts87.

  5. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes.

  6. 旋毛虫成虫抗原的免疫保护性研究进展%Advances in study on protective immunity of Trichinella spiralis adult worm antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸣旺; 申丽洁

    2008-01-01

    The advances in study on protective immunity of Trichinella spiralis adult WOlln antigen were reviewed in this paper.Acording to the comparison of the three antigens of Trichinella spiralis,adult worm anti-gens can produce stronger protective immunity, which may serve as an important candidate of the vaccine a-gainst trichinellosis.With DNA recombination technology to clone the gene of the strong protective antigens of a-duh worm and to express them in vitro are important ways to get the vaccine against trichinellosis.%该文介绍了旋毛虫成虫抗原免疫保护性研究的进展.通过比较三期抗原的免疫保护性,表明旋毛虫成虫抗原具有较强的免疫保护作用,该抗原可能是研制旋毛虫病疫苗的重要候选抗原.利用DNA重组技术将保护性强的成虫抗原的基因克隆并在体外表达,将是获得旋毛虫病疫苗抗原的重要方法.

  7. 旋毛虫肌幼虫cDNA文库的免疫筛选及初步分析%Immunoscreening and Analysis of Muscle Larvae cDNA Library of Trichinella spiralis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宝权; 原丽红; 张亚兰; 吴秀萍; 李莲瑞; 卢强; 刘明远; 陈启军; P.Boireau

    2004-01-01

    用旋毛虫感染猪血清对旋毛虫肌幼虫cDNA文库进行了免疫筛选,从1.6×105个重组噬茵体中筛选出21个阳性克隆.阳性克隆的测序结果表明:有9个克隆为未曾报道过的新基因;有9个克隆不含有开放阅读框架(ORF),与旋毛虫线粒体DNA同源,编码核糖体大亚基RNA;3个克隆为旋毛虫已知基因,其中克隆MI12,34与Serine protease inhibitor[Trichinella spiralis](AAF63473)同源性为99%,克隆MI42与Hypothetical OFR 17.20[Trichinella spiralis](AAB48489)同源性为99%,与21 kDExcretory/secretory protein[Trichinellapseudospiralis](AAF79206)同源性为90%,这为进一步研究基因重组抗原奠定了基础.

  8. Determination of Trichinella spiralis in pig muscles using Mid-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (MID-FTIR) with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-De-Anda, Fabián; Dorantes-Álvarez, Lidia; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhri; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Martínez Labat, Pablo; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of detection of Trichinella spiralis in swine meat using Middle Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (MID-FTIR-ATR-SIMCA). Five male Pigs were orally infected at different larvae concentrations (13,000, 6500, 3500, 1625, 812 larvae/pig) and after 24 weeks the animals were euthanized. Five types of muscles were studied (leg, loin, rib, masseter, and diaphragm). Results showed that MID-FTIR-ATR-SIMCA was useful to determine the presence of T. spiralis in the samples, as the interclass distance between infected and non infected muscles varied from 13.5 to 36.8. This technique was also useful to discriminate among pig muscles, where masseter showed the largest interclass distance, while rib presented the smallest one. In all cases the recognition and rejection rates were 100%, which means that the methodology is capable of accurately separating T. spiralis infected from non infected swine meat.

  9. Improved method for preparing stained specimens of encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae%旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包染色标本制作方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮本伟; 牛利娜; 李丹; 杨丁; 张莹; 王国英; 卫琮玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study methods of staining specimens of encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae. Methods Acetate-carmine was used to prepare specimens of encapsulated T. Spiralis larvae. Results The specimens had clearly defined capsule edges and encapsulated larvae were more transparent and readily visible. Larvae also had a natural posture and more tangible feel. Conclusion Acetate-carmine staining can be used to prepare permanent specimens of encapsulated T. Spiralis larvae.%目的 探讨旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包染色标本的制作方法. 方法 采用醋酸卡红染色法制作旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包标本. 结果 醋酸卡红染色的标本,囊包轮廓清晰,囊内幼虫透明度及清晰度高,体态自然,立体感较强. 结论 醋酸卡红染色可用于旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包永久标本的制作.

  10. A comparative study of three methods of staining to prepare permanent specimens of adult Trichinella spiralis worms%3种旋毛虫成虫永久标本染色方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丁; 皮本伟; 李丹; 牛利娜; 张莹; 王国英; 赵粤萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the best method of staining to prepare permanent specimens of adult Trichinella spiralis worms. Methods Alcohol-borax-carmine, acetic acid carmine, and fast green were each used to prepare specimens of adult T. Spiralis worms. Results Specimens stained with alcohol-borax-carmine were brighter and had a more readily apparent internal structure than specimens stained by other methods. Conclusion Alcohol-borax-carmine staining can be used to prepare permanent specimens of adult T. Spiralis worms.%目的 探讨制作旋毛虫成虫染色标本的最佳方法. 方法 分别使用乙醇硼砂卡红、醋酸卡红、固绿3种染色法制作旋毛虫成虫标本. 结果 乙醇硼砂卡红染色的标本,颜色鲜艳,结构清晰,另外两种染液染色效果不佳.结论 乙醇硼砂卡红染色可用于旋毛虫成虫永久标本的制作.

  11. Feasibility study for the detection of Trichinella spiralis in a murine model using mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MID-FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de Anda, Fabián; Gallardo-Velazquez, Tzayhri; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Calderon-Dominguez, Georgina; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis

    2012-12-21

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and soft independent modelling by class analogies (SIMCA) was used to assess the feasibility of detecting Trichinella spiralis in a murine model. The selected FTIR wavenumber range was 1700-900 cm(-1) and the first derivative of the spectra was subjected to SIMCA analysis. The SIMCA model developed for rat meat spiked with T. spiralis larvae was successfully apply to classify non-infected from infected rat meat with a limit of detection of 3 larvae/10 g rat meat and no false positives with 99% confidence limit. To avoid false positives arising from the presence of other parasites, another chemometric model was developed to demonstrate the capacity of the model to discriminate between Ascaris suum, Taenia solium and T. spiralis. Results confirmed that this method could correctly distinguish these parasites. Additional studies are needed to prove the effectiveness of this technique for other types of muscle meats, including those relevant to human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland.

  13. Candidates for reference swine serum with anti-Trichinella antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Amati, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-03-15

    Serology to monitor Trichinella spp. infection in pigs reared in controlled system has been claimed as a possible diagnostic tool. However, no international biological standards or reference materials exist to validate in house tests or commercial kits, and to improve the inter-laboratory comparability for the serological detection of anti-Trichinella IgG in pigs. In this work, potential reference sera have been prepared from four experimentally infected pigs. Sera were tested, aliquot, lyophilized, and maintained at +4°C. Since one of the prerequisites for the development of any reference material is to plan and execute stability studies, isochronous studies for short and long term stability testing were carried out to evaluate the possible degradation effects of transportation and storage. The stability of the lyophilized serum samples at +4°C, was arbitrarily assumed. For the short term stability study, two units were stored at -20°C, +4°C, +20°C, and +50°C for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and then tested in duplicate. For the long term stability study, the same number of units and replicates per unit were stored at -80°C, -20°C, and +4°C for 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. In both studies, unit samples were selected randomly and tested on the same day under repeatability conditions. The linear regression versus time for each serum at each studied temperature was analyzed and then slopes were tested for significance. Further, uncertainty of the short and long term stability was calculated for a shelf life period of one week and three years, respectively. For all sera but one, and for all the studied temperatures but +50°C, the data from the short term stability study indicate the absence of a significant trend that would hint at degradation. The slopes of the regression lines did not significantly vary from zero. Even if the uncertainty of the short term stability was variable among serum samples, the rate of degradation was considered acceptable. For the long

  14. Effects of vinegar, soy sauce, and ethanol on the viability of Trichinella spiralis larvae%食醋、酱油和乙醇对旋毛虫肌幼虫活力影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂花; 覃金红; 罗超; 李俊飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察食醋、酱油及乙醇两两混合溶液1∶1(v/v)对旋毛虫肌幼虫活力的影响.方法 将200条旋毛虫肌幼虫分别置于食醋(总酸浓度4.5%)和酱油(含19.3%NaCl)、酱油和乙醇(体积分数为40%)、醋和乙醇混合溶液及生理盐水中处理不同时间,观察其活力.结果 肌幼虫经醋和乙醇的混合溶液处理30、60、90、120、150和180 min的死亡率分别为7.4%、12.5%、18.6%、40.3%、72.6%和100%;乙醇和酱油处理组及醋和酱油处理组肌幼虫全部死亡所需的时间分别为24 h和72 h.结论 乙醇和醋混合液对旋毛虫肌幼虫的杀伤作用较强,乙醇和酱油混合液杀伤作用次之,醋和酱油混合液的杀伤作用较弱.%Objective To observe the effects of mixtures of vinegar (4.5% acid) and soy sauce (19. 3% NaC1), soy sauce and ethanol, and vinegar and ethanol on the viability of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Methods Two hundred muscle larvae of T. spiralis were treated with the each mixture, and the viability of T. spiralis was observed at different times. Results The mortality rate of T. spiralis muscle larvae treated with the vinegar-ethanol mixture for 30,60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min was 7.4%, 12.5%, 18.6%, 40.3%, 72.6%, and 100%, respectively. The mortality rate of muscle larvae treated with the soy sauce-ethanol mixture for 24 hr was 100%; the mortality rate of muscle larvae treated with the vinegar-soy sauce mixture for 72 hr was also 100%. Conclusion Compared to mixtures of soy sauceethanol and vinegar-ethanol, a mixture of vinegar-ethanol was the most potent at killing T. spiralis muscle larvae.

  15. Trichinella spiralis mtDNA: a nematode mitochondrial genome that encodes a putative ATP8 and normally structured tRNAS and has a gene arrangement relatable to those of coelomate metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, D V; Brown, W M

    2001-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the nematode Trichinella spiralis has been amplified in four overlapping fragments and 16,656 bp of its sequence has been determined. This sequence contains the 37 genes typical of metazoan mtDNAs, including a putative atp8, which is absent from all other nematode mtDNAs examined. The genes are transcribed from both mtDNA strands and have an arrangement relatable to those of coelomate metazoans, but not to those of secernentean nematodes. All protein genes appear to initiate with ATN codons, typical for metazoans. Neither TTG nor GTT start codons, inferred for several genes of other nematodes, were found. The 22 T. spiralis tRNA genes fall into three categories: (i) those with the potential to form conventional "cloverleaf" secondary structures, (ii) those with TPsiC arm + variable arm replacement loops, and (iii) those with DHU-arm replacement loops. Mt-tRNA(R) has a 5'-UCG-3' anticodon, as in most other metazoans, instead of the very unusual 5'-ACG-3' present in the secernentean nematodes. The sequence also contains a large repeat region that is polymorphic in size at the population and/or individual level. PMID:11156984

  16. Trichinella spiralis: differences between early and late rapid expulsion evident from inhibition studies using cortisone and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.G.

    1987-12-01

    Cortisone administered once at 100 mg/kg during the first 3 weeks of infection inhibited rapid expulsion. In rats immunized with an abbreviated infection (T/M regime) inhibition averaged approximately 50%, whereas in rats given a complete infection (C.I.) 14% inhibition occurred. Sensitivity to 400 rad whole-body irradiation was greatest 7 days before a challenge infection in all immune rats. Three days after beginning the T/M infection rats were highly susceptible to cortisone but only weakly so to irradiation. Rats immunized by C.I. were equally, but only weakly, susceptible to either cortisone or irradiation 3 days after infection. Acute administration of cortisone 1 or 4 hr prior to challenge did not inhibit rapid expulsion but 60% inhibition occurred when cortisone was given 24 hr prior to challenge. Inhibition of rapid expulsion by irradiation 7 days prior to challenge was not reversed by immune serum and irradiation did not affect antibody titer in treated rats. It was suggested that irradiation 7 days before challenge compromised the intestinal, and not the immunological, component of rapid expulsion. Differences in sensitivity of early and late rapid expulsion to irradiation and cortisone therapy provide further evidence of functional differences between these rejection processes.

  17. 肺癌细胞A549抗原相关旋毛虫Tsp06172基因的克隆及原核表达%Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the Tsp06172 gene of Trichinella spiralis in A549 lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高江明; 徐晓芳; 吕萌; 左绍志; 宫鹏涛; 杨举; 李赫; 李建华; 张国才

    2013-01-01

    目的 克隆旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)与肺癌细胞A549相关抗原Tsp06172基因,并进行原核表达. 方法 采用RT-PCR方法扩增Tsp06172基因,连接原核表达载体pET-28a,转化入感受态细胞BL21,IPTG诱导表达,经SDS-PAGE和Western blot鉴定表达产物. 结果 重组表达质粒经双酶切及测序鉴定正确.表达分子质量单位约为16 ku的融合蛋白.Western blot检测融合蛋白能被抗A549细胞的多克隆抗体识别. 结论 构建的原核表达载体pET-28a Tsp06172表达具有A549细胞反应原性的蛋白,为旋毛虫Tsp06172重组蛋白功能的研究了奠定基础.%Objective To clone and express the Trichinella spiralis Tsp06172 gene in BL21. Methods The Tsp06172 gene was amplified with RT-PCR and then subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. BL21 containing the recombinant plasmid pET-28a-Tsp06172 was induced with IPTG. The fusion protein was detected and i-dentified with SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Results The recombinant expression plasmid was successfully constructed. After induction in an E. coli system. SDS-PAGE results showed that a fusion protein of about 16 ku was successfully expressed. Western blotting indicated that the fusion protein was readily recognized by polyclonal antibodies from A549 cells. Conclusion The recombinant expression plasmid pET-28a-Tsp06172 expressed the corresponding protein in BL21. This finding lays the foundation for research into the function of the Tsp06172 protein.

  18. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  19. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C A

    2014-01-01

    Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  20. Cloning and application of 28S rRNA gene fragment of Trichinella spiralis on Taxonmy%旋毛虫28S rRNA基因片段的克隆及其在分类学上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 魏颖; 袁金钱; 宋铭忻

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the classification of Trihicnella swine isolate from Heilongjiang Province, the gene fragment in ribosome 28S rRNA was cloned and sequenced. The results showed that Trihicnella swine isolate from Heilongjiang Province was closed and belonged to Trichinella spiralis by sequence analysis. To some extent, the result was consistent with the traditional classfication and provided a base for the traditional taxonomy.%为了探讨所采集旋毛虫的分类,利用PCR方法克隆了猪旋毛虫黑龙江隔离种核糖体28S rRNA序列的基因片段.序列分析结果表明,猪旋毛虫黑龙江隔离种与旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis,T1)的进化关系较近,确定为旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis).结果与传统的分类结果基本一致,为传统的分类学方法提供了新的理论依据.

  1. Experimental Design and Methods for Development of Diagnostic Assays for Schistosomiasis Using Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-25

    Sera from patients or experimental animals infected with Schistosoma, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Taenia solium, Echinococcus...were used as antigens for immuno- precipitation with sera of patients infected with one of three species of Schistosoma or Trichinella spiralis, Taenia

  2. Molecular identification of three Trichinella isolates from Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yixin; Han, Caixia; Yang, Jinyu; Li, Xiaoyun; Song, Mingxin

    2011-11-01

    DNAs of Trichinella dog isolate (HC), Trichinella swine isolate (HH) and Trichinella cat isolate (SW), obtained from Heilongjiang Province, were amplified by the fragments of 18S rDNA and ITS2. Two reference strains, Trichinella spiralis (ISS3) and Trichinella nativa (ISS10) were used for sequence comparison. Sequence and dendrogram analysis indicated that HC belonged to T. nativa and HH together with SW belonged to T. spiralis. This method permits rapid species identification of Trichinella isolates, although further evaluation is required before precisely identification.

  3. A stage-specific open reading frame from three-day old adult worms of Trichinella spiralis encodes zinc-finger motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu X.P.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate genes coding for stage-specific antigens of T. spiralis. Such antigens may then be associated with local and systemic immune responses against adult T. spiralis. Recombinant clones were obtained with an adult stage specific probe from a cDNA library of three-day old adult T. spiralis. Several cDNA clones encoding the same peptide were identified and their stage specificity was confirmed by northern blot analysis. Three independent clones were fully sequenced, and the resulting sequence found to code for a 487 amino acid peptide with a deduced molecular weight of ≈ 55 kDa. Sequence analysis showed that the 55 kDa peptide contained putative DNA binding motifs, suggesting that this protein may be involved in transcriptional regulation during the early development of the parasite.

  4. Nader onderzoek met sera van Trichinella-spiralis vrije varkens afkomstig uit 10 verschillende Europese landen en Canada naar de detectiegrens van de Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen; F.van; Franchimont; J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Bij vroeger onderzoek werd gevonden dat aanzienlijke verschillen bestaan tussen varkenspopulaties in verschillende Europese landen met betrekking tot zogenaamde achtergrondruis in de ELISA bepaling voor antistoffen tegen T.spiralis. In het huidige rapport zijn de resultaten vermeld van nader ond

  5. Molecular identification of a Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling Zhao; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Ren, Hui Jun; Cui, Jing

    2011-12-01

    The first human case with trichinellosis was reported in 1964 in Tibet, China. However, up to the present, the etiological agent of trichinellosis has been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify a Tibet Trichinella isolate at a species level by PCR-based methods. Multiplex PCR revealed amplicon of the expected size (173 bp) for Trichinella spiralis in assays containing larval DNA from Tibet Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig. The Tibet Trichinella isolate was also identified by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region (5S ISR) and mitochondrial large-subunit ribosomal RNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene sequences. The results showed that 2 DNA fragments (749 bp and 445 bp) of the Tibet Trichinella isolate were identical to that of the reference isolates of T. spiralis. The Tibet Trichinella isolate might be classifiable to T. spiralis. This is the first report on T. spiralis in southwestern China.

  6. A Single Staining Method for Specimen of Trichinella spiralis Encapsulated Larvae%一种旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包标本的单染制作方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丁; 皮本伟; 牛利娜; 李丹; 张莹; 王国英

    2012-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae speciemens were stained with acetate alum carmine staining solution. Four procedures were compared: ① speciemen stained for 20 h, and faded; ② speciemen stained for 2.5 h without fading; ③ speciemen stained for 20 h without fading; ④ speciemen stained for 20 h, and faded. The results showed that the first method is optimal, which clearly distinguishes the capsula, encapsulated larva and muscle cells.%本研究采用醋酸明矾卡红染色液对旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包标本进行染色.为观察不同染色时间对制片效果的影响,分别采用4种染色方法:①染色20 h后,分色;②染色2.5 h,不分色;③染色20 h,不分色;④染色40 h后,分色.结果显示,染色方法1制作的标本效果最佳.囊包、囊内幼虫和周围肌纤维色泽差别较大,易于观察.囊壁内外两层结构可清晰辨别,囊内幼虫典型.

  7. Comparison of Three Trichinella spiralis Antigen as Immunodiagnostic Antigen%旋毛虫三种抗原作为免疫诊断抗原的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申丽洁; 黎世涛; 王秀珍; 朱声华; 罗仲金

    1999-01-01

    用旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)成虫可溶性抗原、成虫排泄分泌抗原和肌肉幼虫抗原作为免疫诊断抗原,采用ELISA方法检测,观察各自在旋毛虫病免疫学诊断中的敏感性和特异性.结果表明:抗原的敏感性由强到弱依次是肌肉幼虫抗原(96%),成虫排泄分泌抗原(84%)和成虫可溶性抗原(72%);特异性由高到低分别是成虫排泄分泌抗原,肌肉幼虫抗原和成虫可溶性抗原.提示人体旋毛虫病的免疫诊断抗原仍首选肌肉幼虫抗原.

  8. Experimental observation of TNF-α-induced pulmonary apoptosis in the mice infected with Trichinella spiralis%旋毛虫感染小鼠后TNF-α诱导肺细胞凋亡的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴超; 李巍; 徐佳; 刘畅; 俞昭阳; 李晓云; 宋铭忻; 张唯哲

    2013-01-01

    为探究TNF-α在旋毛虫致小鼠肺损伤发生过程中的致病作用及信号传导途径,应用半定量RTPCR法检测感染前、后不同时期小鼠肺组织中TNF-α及细胞凋亡与抗凋亡基因mRNA的表达量,并应用TUNEL法对肺细胞凋亡形态进行观察.结果显示,旋毛虫感染后第4天,TNF-α mRNA的相对表达量由感染前的0.74上升到1.19,肺细胞凋亡增加,凋亡指数为2.57%;第14天出现峰值1.33,此时凋亡指数为21.42%,肺细胞凋亡明显(P<0.05),35d后表达量逐渐下降至1.11,此时凋亡指数为14.74%.TNFR1、FADD、Caspase8、Caspase3、TRAF2、RIP和NF-κB的相对表达量与TNF-α变化趋势相似.结果表明,TNF-α诱导肺细胞凋亡严重程度与旋毛虫生活史的不同阶段相关.%To explore the pathogenic role and signal transduction pathways of TNF-α-induced lung injury of the mice infected with Trichinella spiralis,the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α gene,the apoptosis genes and the anti-apoptosis genes both in the lungs without injury and in the injured lungs were monitored using semi-quantitative RT-PCR.The morphologic features of the cells undergoing apoptosis were observed using TUNEL at different time points during Trichinella spiralis infection.In result,the relative expression level of TNF-α was from 0.74 (before infection)to 1.19(on day 4 post-infection),and the lung cells of apoptosis increased.On day 14 post-infection,it reached peak(1.33),then decreased to 1.11 on day 35 post-infection.Apoptosis index,meanwhile,increased from 2.57 % to 21.42 % (P<0.05),and then decreased to 14.74%.The relative level of TNFR1,FADD,Caspase8,Caspase3,TRAF2,RIP and NF-κB showed a similar tendency to TNF-α' s.TNF-α induced severity of lung cell apoptosis,which is related to the different stages of Trichinella life.

  9. SEROINCIDENCE OF TRICHINELLA INFECTION IN THE NISAVA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Miladinovic-Tasic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Our country, unfortunately, belongs to the group of countries with high prevalence of human and animal trichinellosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of seropositive patients during the seventeen-year period of diagnosing trichinellosis in the Nisava District, which, so far, has been known as a region with high prevalence of this parasitic disease.For this study, epidemiological data were collected and analyzed using standard protocols in to the Department of Parasitology of the Public Health Institute Nis.Between 1988 and 2004, 238 serum samples which came from the patients with symptoms of trichinelosis were examined for the presence of specific antibodies for Trichinella spiralis.Anti-Trichinella antibodies in the patients' sera were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF, (INEP - Zemun and only 20 serum samples were tested with both indirect imunnofluorescent assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, DIALAB, Austria. The incidence rates of seropositive patients for trichinellosis were calculated as a number of seropositive patients per 100.000 inhabitants, and the number of 382.461 inhabitants in the Nisava District according to the latest census from 2001 was used. Statistical data processing was performed by using statistical program NCSS 2004 and PASS 2005 (Hintze J. 2004. NCSS and PASS. Number Cruncher Statistical Systems. Kaysville, Utah. www.NCSS.COM..From 1988 to 2004, it was determined that 65 patients showed the presence of specific antibodies for Trichinella spiralis. In the observed period the determined incidence by year ranged from 0.00 in 1989, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2003, and 2004 to 7.06 in 1990. The incidence of Trichinella seropositive patients defined by month was the highest in February (6.24 and January (5.2. In this retrospective study there were no significant differences determined between the number of Trichinella seropositive patients in relation to sex and the

  10. Dynamic variation of eosinophil count in rabbits infected with Trichinella Spiralis%感染旋毛虫兔血嗜酸性粒细胞计数的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立宏; 陈立峰; 石永威; 张进顺

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic change oi eosinophu count in rabbits infected with Tnchinella spirahs so as to oiler basic data for eosinophil examination in trichinosis. Methods Experimental rabbits were divided into two groups each consisted of 10 rabits. The rabbits in infected group were inoculated by gavage with 10 000 Trichinella spiralis larvae, 10 rabbits in control group. The blood samples were obtained from rabbits in the two group at different time after infection,the eosinophil absolute count was determined. Results The eosinophil absolute count in infected group raised and reached peak on the fourth week after infection and then began to decline therafter. Conclusions The detection of eosinophil examination has assistant values in diagnosis of trichinosis.%目的 观察旋毛虫感染免后血嗜酸性粒细胞的动态变化,为旋毛虫病(Trichinosis)血嗜酸性粒细胞的检测提供基础资料.方法 将实验用兔随机分组:感染组10只,每只喂入10 000条幼虫;对照组10只.在感染后不同时间检测血嗜酸性粒细胞绝对数.结果 感染旋毛虫兔血嗜酸性粒细胞计数升高,于第4周达高峰,随后逐渐降低.结论 嗜酸性粒细胞的检测对于旋毛虫病具有辅助诊断意义.

  11. Susceptibility of laboratory rodents to Trichinella papuae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp.

  12. 旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘小鼠血清及肺泡灌洗液总IgE的影响%Effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on total IgE levels in surum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice with allergic asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍; 闫玉文; 邢杰; 于剑

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on allergic asthma, through the study of the change of total IgE levels in surum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) when the mice which were infected with Trichinella spiralis were suffering from allergic asthma. [Methods] Female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups (six mice each), including A as control group, B as allergic asthma group, C as asthma followed by Trichinella spiralis infection. The animals in group C were intragastrically infected with 200-300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Four weeks later, ovalbumin (OVA) was used to induce allergic asthma for mice in group B and C, in order to establish experimental animal model. After eight weeks, all mice were killed and total IgE levels were measured in serum and BALF.[ Results] Total IgE levels were measured by ELISA. Total IgE levels from serum in group A, B and C were (61.79 ± 25.79) , (437.08 ± 75.68) , (251.64 ± 107.27) ng/ml. Total IgE level in group C was lower than that in group B (P< 0.05). BALF total IgE levels in group A, B and C were (43.70 ± 29.49), (387.49 ± 148.32), (102.50 ± 49.55) ng/ml. Total IgE level in group C was lower than that in group B (P < 0.05). [Conclusion] Trichinella spiralis infection can inhibit the total IgE level of mice with the allergic asthma.%通过研究旋毛虫感染小鼠在过敏性哮喘发病时血清及肺泡灌洗液中总IgE水平变化,探讨旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘的影响.[方法]取雌性、8周龄BALB/c小鼠,随机分为3组,A组为空白对照组,B组为单纯过敏性哮喘组,C组为感染旋毛虫后哮喘组.C组经灌胃感染旋毛虫囊包幼虫200 ~ 300条;4周后,以卵清白蛋白(ovalbumin,OVA)分别对B组和C组小鼠进行致敏激发,建立过敏性哮喘模型;8周后,取小鼠血清、肺泡灌洗液,检测总IgE水平.[结果]ELISA法检测血清中A、B、C组小鼠总IgE水平分别为(61.79±25.79)、(437.08±75.68)

  13. Sequence analysis of secretory antigen P53 and immunological identification of the recombinant product of Trichinella spiralis%旋毛形线虫分泌抗原P53的序列分析及重组表达产物的免疫学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿绪; 武伟华; 毛玉玲; 梁健; 谌嘉嘉; 胡旭初

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the immunological characteristics of Trichinella spiralis secretory antigen P53 and to evaluate its value in diagnosis of trichinellosis. Methods An open read frame of secretory antigen P53 was cloned from Trichinella spiralis by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to search for its homologues in other helminths and predict its potential linear B cell epitopes and T cell epitopes. The sequence coding mature peptide was inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pET28a(+) and the purified recombinant product was identified by Western blot using serum samples of patients infected with Trichinella spiralis or other helminth. Results Bioinformaties analysis results showed that there was no P53 homologue in other helminths, which indicated that there were many linear B cell epitopes and T cell epitopes in TsP53. The recombinant P53 antigen only reacted with the serum samples of patients infected with Trichinella spiralis without any cross-reaction with the serum of patients infected with other helminths. Conclusion P53 has strong immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, which may be a promising candidate for developing Trichinella spiralis specific diagnostic method.%目的 分析旋毛形线虫分泌抗原P53的免疫学特性,评价其免疫诊断价值.方法 克隆并测序分析旋毛形线虫P53的编码区序列,应用生物信息学分析其与其他蠕虫同源蛋白的相似性以及潜在的线性B细胞和T细胞表位;并将成熟肽编码区克隆至pET28a(+)原核表达质粒中,纯化的重组蛋白用旋毛形线虫感染血清和其他寄生蠕虫感染血清经Western印迹法鉴定其免疫反应性.结果 生物信息学分析未发现其他寄生蠕虫的P53同源基因,表明TsP53具有多个T细胞和B细胞识别表位,Western印迹法显示TsP53抗原只与旋毛形线虫感染血清反应,与其他几种蠕虫感染血清无反应.结论 P53具有

  14. 外源性一氧化氮体外杀伤旋毛虫成虫的研究%In vitro Killing of Adult Trichinella spiralis by Exogenous Nitric Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小莉; 王媛媛; 方强; 薛玉芹; 沈继龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the lethal effect of exogenous nitric oxide on adult worms of Trichinella spiralis in vitro. Methods Adult worms of T. spiralis isolated from the small intestine of Trichinella-infected BALB/c mice were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in different final concentration of 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50, and 1.00mmol/L, 1.00mmol/L SNP+0.15 mmol/L hemoglobin (Hb), 1.00mmol/L SNP+0.15 mmol/L FeSO4, 1.00mmol/L SNP+1.00 mmol/L L-cysteine (L-cyst), 1.00 mmol/L SNP+0.15 mmol/L FeSO4 +1.00 mmol/L L-cyst, respectively, and incubated at 37 ℃ in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere. On the 4th day after incubation, the adult worms were stained with safranin, and observed under light microscope. The worm mortality in the groups was analyzed. Results Under concentration of 0.02 and 0.05 mmol/L, SNP was not cytotoxic to adult T. spiralis with an inhibition of (1.4±1.2)% and (3.2±1.0)%, respectively. The worm mortality in the groups of SNP 0.10, 0.20, 0.50, and 1.00mmol/L was (9.9±1.8)%, (37.7±2.5)%, (50.1±3.5)%, and (80.8±1.1)%, respectively, significantly higher than that of negative control group [(1.9±0.2)%, P<0.05]. There was a positive linear correlation between the worm mortality and SNP concentration in the range of 0.02-1.00 mmol/L. Combination of hemoglobin, L-cyst, FeSO4 and FeSO4+L-cyst with 1.00 mmol/L SNP led to a decrease of the mortality from (80.8±1.1)% to (56.5±3.7)%, (69.8±2.3)%, (74.8±2.4)%, (72.7± 5.6)%, respectively. Conclusion Exogenous nitric oxide released from SNP can kill adult worms of Trichinella spiralis. However, hemoglobin and L-cysteine+FeSO4 can reverse its lethal effect on the parasites.%目的 探讨外源性一氧化氮(NO)对旋毛虫成虫的杀伤作用. 方法 取感染旋毛虫的BALB/c小鼠小肠组织,分离成虫,配制成虫悬液(1 000条/ml).48孔板中每孔加入100 μl成虫悬液,再加入各组试剂,终浓度分别为:亚硝基铁氰化钠(SNP) 0.02、0.05、0.10

  15. Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, M J; Alvarez, M; Olmedo, J; Blanco, M C; Pozio, E

    2015-06-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites circulating in most continents, including Europe. In Spain, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are highly prevalent in wildlife but seldom in domestic pigs. In Portugal, only T. britovi was documented in wild carnivores. In the period 2006-2013 in Spain, 384 (0.0001%) pigs and 1399 (0.20%) wild boars (Sus scrofa) were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae, which were identified as T. spiralis or T. britovi. In 2014, Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae were isolated from a wild boar hunted in the Gerona province, Cataluña region, North-East of Spain, near the border to France. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula, which suggests a broad distribution area of this zoonotic nematode in Europe. Since larvae of this Trichinella species do not encapsulate in the host muscles, they can be detected only by artificial digestion of muscle samples. T. pseudospiralis is the only Trichinella species infecting both mammals and birds. Birds can spread this pathogen over great distances including islands triggering new foci of infections in areas previously considered at low risk for this pathogen.

  16. THE PHYLOGENY AND GENOME OF TRICHINELLA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004, funding was received by Washington University’s Genome Sequencing Center through NHGRI, to completely sequence several nematode genomes as part of a holistic effort to advance our understanding of the human genome. Trichinella spiralis was among this group because of its strategic ...

  17. Human Trichinella infection outbreaks in Slovakia, 1980-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinský, Pavol; Antolová, Daniela; Reiterová, Katarína

    2016-03-01

    Trichinellosis, a parasitic zoonosis with world-wide distribution, causes serious health problems in humans and is also of economic importance. In Slovakia the most frequent species is T. britovi, causing disease mainly in wild life species. T. spiralis occurs less frequently and T. pseudospiralis only sporadically. The paper describes the epidemiology of six human Trichinella infection outbreaks recorded in Slovakia between 1980 and 2008. Before 1990 wild boar meat was the main source of infection. Later, risk farm practices, especially feeding of pigs with the wild animal´s offal contributed to the formation of synanthropic cycle and pig meat caused the epidemics in 1990, 2001 and 2008. Sausages prepared from pork and T. britovi infected dog meat and offered as a local food specialty on traditional folk festival in 1998 (Brezno district, Central Slovakia) were the source of the largest human outbreak recorded in Slovakia. The anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in 336 event visitors. The main reason of repeated human epidemics in Slovakia has been the permanent circulation of Trichinella spp. in sylvatic cycle, especially in red foxes and wild boars. High population density of both animal species, persistent prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and even increasing positivity of red foxes suggest that the risk of human outbreaks in Slovakia persists.

  18. 聚合酶链反应技术检测旋毛虫DNA的实验研究%EXPERIMENT RESEARCH ON DETECTING TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS BY PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温艳; 张月清

    2001-01-01

    Aim To establish a sensitive specific and stable polymerase chainreaction (PCR) for detecting Trichnilla spiralis infection. Method To adopt the PCR technique、to make sure the best choice of amplification and to compare the drawing DNA methods of lysine boiling with phenol extraction. Results A single excysted larva in plasma was identified. Due to the different homologies of the A1 、B1 of the 1.6-kb fragment, 3 bands of 500bp、670bp and 1200bp usually were present. It was not cross- reaction with Entamoeba histolytica and Schistosoma japonica.It is a simply and better method to extract the DNA with lysine boiling. Conclusion It shows that this technique can be used in early clinical diagnosis and animal infection. PCR technique can replace biopsy of the muscle tissue..%目的 建立敏感、特异、稳定的聚合酶链反应(PCR)法,以检测旋毛虫病。方法 采用PCR法,选择与合成引物并确立最佳扩增条件,比较不同的提取DNA方法,检测血浆中旋毛虫幼虫。结果 经扩增于500bp、670bp、1200bp出现特异性片段,与原选择的编码基因片段大小相同,此特异片段与溶组织内阿米巴、日本血吸虫DNA无交叉反应,不同的DNA提取法结果显示:用裂解煮沸法同样可从仅含1条旋毛虫幼虫的25μl正常小鼠血浆中扩增出特异性片段。结论 PCR法检测旋毛虫敏感高、特异强,提示本法可进一步用于人与畜旋毛虫感染的早期诊断与监测。

  19. LC-MS/MS Analysis on the Components of Excretory-secretory Protein of Trichinella spiralis Muscle Larvae%质谱法分析旋毛虫肌幼虫排泄分泌蛋白的组分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婧梅; 程露阳; 关晓东; 李丹; 于莉; 杜娈英

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析旋毛虫( Trichinella spiralis)肌幼虫排泄分泌蛋白(excretory-secretory protein,ESP)的组分,寻找其抗肿瘤活性组分.方法 收集纯净的旋毛虫脱囊肌幼虫,制备旋毛虫肌幼虫ESP.采用15%十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离ESP,将分离获得的所有蛋白条带进行胰蛋白酶酶解,采用液质联用质谱法(LC-MS/MS)进行鉴定.利用Gene Ontology (GO)对已鉴定蛋白质进行细胞组分、分子功能和生物过程的富集分析.结果 经SDS-PAGE电泳分离获得清晰的蛋白质条带,相对分子质量(Mr)为10 000~142 000.质谱分析共鉴定出162种蛋白质,其中63种为已明确鉴定的蛋白质,34种为假定蛋白质,65种为未鉴定的蛋白质.鉴定出6种与抗肿瘤相关的蛋白质,即原肌球蛋白、组蛋白H2A、剪切聚腺苷酸化特异因子亚基2、Kazal 4型丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂、犰狳极性蛋白和真核起始因子4A.GO富集分析显示,已鉴定的蛋白质具有54种不同的分子功能,参与细胞构成并参与382种生物过程.结论 旋毛虫肌幼虫ESP组分复杂,有多种未鉴定的蛋白质,从已知的63种蛋白质中筛选出6种与抗肿瘤相关的蛋白质.

  20. A Duplicate Staining Method for Permanent Specimen of Trichinella spiralis Encalpsulated Larvae%旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包标本的复染制作方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 杨丁; 皮本伟; 牛利娜; 张莹; 王国英

    2012-01-01

    With single staining method, Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae specimens were fixed with formaldehyde alcohol acetic acid fixative solution, and stained with alcohol borax-carmine staining solution (4% borax solution 100 ml, carmine 1 g, and 70% alcohol 100ml). With duplicate staining, the encapsulated larvae specimens were fixed with formaldehyde alcohol acetic acid fixative solution, and double stained with alcohol borax carmine staining solution and fast green staining solution (fast green 0.1 g, 95% alcohol 100ml). The results showed that with single staining, it was not clear-cut between the cyst and muscle cells although the larva was differentiable, while with duplicate staining, the larva, cyst and muscle cells were distinguished more clearly.%本研究采用单染和复染两种方法对旋毛虫肌幼虫囊包标本进行染色.单染方法:制片经甲醛、乙醇和冰醋酸溶液固定,用乙醇硼砂卡红染色液(4%硼砂水溶液100 ml,卡红1 g,70%乙醇100ml)染色.复染方法:制片经甲醛、乙醇和冰醋酸溶液固定,用乙醇硼砂卡红染色液和固绿染色液(固绿0.1g,95%乙醇100 ml)染色.结果显示,单染标本,囊包与周围肌细胞着色无明显差别,结构不清晰,不易观察,囊内幼虫可辨认.复染标本,囊包结构清晰;囊内幼虫、囊包和肌细胞呈不同的颜色,囊包梭形显著,囊内幼虫特征典型.与单染标本相比,复染标本着色适度,染色效果好,易于观察.

  1. 三苯双脒对小鼠感染3个旋毛虫分离株的疗效观察%Efficacy of Tribendimidine Against Three Isolates of Trichinella spiralis in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云; 杨晓东; 王丽娜; 陈晓宁; 李丽娜; 赵香菊; 刘丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of tribendimidine (TBD) against 3 geographical isolates of Trichinella spiralis in mice. Methods Isolates of T. spiralis from Henan (hereinafter referred to as HnT.s), Yunnan (referred to as YnT.s) and Heilongjiang (referred to as HljT.s) were used in the study. 144 Kunming strain mice were divided into 2 groups: 72 mice in group A (adult stage, treatment at 5 d after infection), and 72 mice in group B (encapsulated larva stage, treatment at 53 d after infection). Group A was further divided equally into 12 sub-groups. Mice in every 3 sub-groups were each infected orally with 200 T. spiralis larvae of the 3 isolates respectively, and the remained 3 subgroups served as untreated control. Mice in the 3 sub-groups infected with one isolate were orally treated with TBD at a single dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Group B was treated as group A but with a course of TBD once daily at a dose of 100, 200, and 300 mg/(kg·d) for 7 d, respectively. Mice in group A were sacrificed 2d post-treatment and adult worms were recovered from the small intestine and counted. Those in group B were sacrificed 10 d after completion of 7 d treatment. The intact diaphragm was removed and digested for collecting larvae. Worm burden and worm reduction of each treated sub-group were calculated and statistically compared with the respective control. Results In group A, the mean worm burden in the treated sub-groups infected with HnT.s and YnT.s were all significantly lower than that of the controls (P0.05), but was significantly lower in the other 2 sub-groups than that of the controls (P<0.01). The worm reduction rate in the 3 sub-groups was 27.9%, 57.4%, and 60.7%, respectively. In all treated sub-groups of group B, the mean worm burden was significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.05), with a mean worm reduction rate of 57.8%, 75.4%, and 87.5% in HnT.s sub-groups, of 74.5%, 92.4%, and 99.1% in YnT.s sub-groups, and of 50.5%, 53.3%, and

  2. Evaluation of Fermentation, Drying, and/or High Pressure Processing on Viability of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Trichinella spiralis in Raw Pork and Genoa Salami

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fermentation/drying on viability of T. spiralis in Genoa salami. We also evaluated HPP for efficacy towards T. spiralis larvae in trichinae-infected pig masseter muscle as an alternate to curing for trichinae control. We also validated the integrated ...

  3. [Biology, species biodiversity and distribution of Trichinella nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bozena

    2006-01-01

    From the time of the discovery of Trichinella larvae in 1835 until the middle of the next century it was commonly assumed that all trichinellosis was caused by a single species Trichinella spiralis. This species is an intracellular parasite in both a larva and an adult stage. The L1 larvae live in a modified skeletal muscles. The adult worms occupy a membrane-bound portion of columnar epitelium, living as intramulticellular parasite. More than century later T. spiralis have been reported from more than 150 different naturally or experimentally infected hosts and demonstrated worldwide distribution in domestic and/or sylvatic animals. Up to date, Trichinella genus comprised eight species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli, T. nelsoni, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensisi) and three additional genotypic variants that have not yet to be taxonomically defined (T6, T8, T9). Molecular markers revealed that Trichinella T6 is related to T. nativa, Trichinella T8 related to T. britovi. Two main clades are recognized in the genus Trichinella: the first encapsulated in host muscle tissue and the second--non-encapsulated. In this paper the history of Trichinella spp. discovery, their life cycle, taxonomy and phylogeny have been reviewed.

  4. Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp. (Nematoda), a new encapsulated species infecting carnivorous mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokapich, Silvio J; Pozio, Edoardo; Gatti, Graciana M; Prous, Cinthia L Gonzalez; Ribicich, Mabel; Marucci, Gianluca; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Confalonieri, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    Until a few years ago, Trichinella spiralis was the only taxon of the genus Trichinella detected in both domestic and wild animals of South America. Recently, a new genotype, named Trichinella T12, was identified in cougars (Puma concolor) from Argentina, on the basis of molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers. In the present study, cross-breeding experiments indicated that Trichinella T12 is reproductively isolated from all other encapsulated Trichinella spp. and suggested that it is biologically more similar to Trichinella britovi and Trichinella murrelli than to the other encapsulated species/genotypes. Biological assays revealed that the reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 was ~4 and >2000 times lower than those of T. spiralis in mice and rats, respectively. The reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 in domestic pigs ranged from 0.0 to 0.05. Larvae parasitising the muscles of carnivores were infective to mice after freezing at -5°C for 3 months, but they lost infectivity after freezing at -18°C for 1 week. The region within the rDNA, known as the expansion segment V, showed a unique sequence which differs from those of all other known Trichinella spp./genotypes. The biological, geographical and molecular data support the classification of the genotype Trichinella T12 as a new species widespread in the Neotropical region, for which we propose the name Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp.

  5. Molecular Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biogeography of nematodes belonging to the Trichinella genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying parasites of the genus Trichinella provides scientists of today many advantages. This is a group of zoonotic nematodes that circulate freely among wildlife hosts with one in particular, Trichinella spiralis that is particularly well adapted to domestic swine. Indeed, recent reports suggest ...

  6. Dynamic Changes of Dectin-2 Expression on Dendritic Cells in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis%旋毛虫感染小鼠树突状细胞相关C型凝集素-2动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博宇; 王丞; 邢鑫; 陈宏亮; 姜晶; 蔡亚南; 王春凤; 杨桂连

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)感染小鼠树突状细胞(DC)的C型凝集素-2(dectin-2)的变化情况. 方法 72只雌性BABL/c小鼠随机分成两组,实验组每鼠灌服200条旋毛虫肌幼虫,分别于感染后7、14、21、28、35和42 d各取小鼠6只,分离脾脏和肠系膜淋巴结(MLN),制备单细胞悬液,用流式细胞术检测脾脏和MLN内DC上dectin-2的表达情况;对照组不感染旋毛虫肌幼虫.取C57BL/6小鼠骨髓,体外条件下用粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)和白细胞介素4(IL-4)诱导培养髓源树突状细胞(BMDC).培养成熟后加入旋毛虫肌幼虫排泄/分泌抗原(ES) 100 μg/ml,同时设PBS对照组,分别于第6、12、24、36和48小时用流式细胞术检测dectin-2的表达量. 结果 流式细胞术检测结果显示,实验组BABL/c小鼠感染旋毛虫肌幼虫后7d,脾脏中DC的dectin-2表达量为(7.0±0.7)%,对照组为(15.1±1.6)%,实验组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).实验组小鼠感染旋毛虫肌幼虫后7、21和28 d MLNDC的dectin-2表达量分别为(11.1±3.5)%、(12.4±1.4)%和(6.9±1.0)%,对照组分别为(6.6±0.4)%、(4.9±0.4)%和(4.0±1.4)%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).体外实验结果显示,ES抗原刺激BMDC后,第6、12、24、36、48小时dectin-2的表达量分别为(9.4±2.2)%、(6.9±1.8)%、(6.9±0.7)%、(9.1±1.9)%和(15.9±1.9)%.PBS组为(21.3±6.3)%.第6、12、24、36小时组与PBS组比较表达量降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01). 结论 旋毛虫感染可以引起小鼠树突状细胞上的dectin-2受体表达量发生改变.

  7. 广西南丹县旋毛虫COX1基因和5S rRNA基因分析%Genetic Analysis of COX1 and 5S rRNA of Trichinella spiralis from Nandan County, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳颐; 黎学铭; 张鸿满; 杨益超; 王勇

    2007-01-01

    目的 分析广西壮族自治区南丹县旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)COX1和5SrRNA基因特点,阐述该分离株的系统发生关系及基因变异规律.方法 PCR扩增南丹旋毛虫分离株COX1和5S rRNA基因片段并对扩增产物进行测序;应用Blast和Clustal X软件计算其碱基组成,分析该分离株与GenBank中相应序列的同源性及遗传距离,同时应用UPGMA方法分析聚类关系.结果 扩增后COX1基因片段长419 bp.5S rRNA基因片段长695 bp.南丹旋毛虫分离株与Trichinella spiralis(T.spiralis)的同源性最高,分别为99.0%和99.1%,遗传距离最小,分别为0.005和0.014.采用UPGMA法构建的2个系统发生树,南丹分离株和T.spiralis具有高度同源性,位于同一分枝,与无囊包旋毛虫(T.papuae和T.zimbabwensis)分枝较远,后者独成一枝,与T.spiralis相比,2个基因均存在变异,且变异位点均为4个,分别占相应基因序列的1.19%和0.57%.2个基因均富含A和T碱基,A+T含量分别占相应基因的61.8%和66.4%.COX1变异存在转换和颠换,但均发生在密码子第三位点.5SrRNA基因变异位点分散,但变异均为转换,无颠换.结论 南丹旋毛虫分离株与T.spiralis具有高度的亲缘关系,其COX1和5S rRNA基因的碱基组成、变异位点及变异类型均具有偏好现象.

  8. Efficacy of Albendazole Orally Administered at Different Dosages against Trichinella spiralis Encapsulated Larvae in Mice%口服阿苯达唑抗小鼠旋毛虫成囊期幼虫的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润花; 裴彦江; 李起超; 霍将; 丁宇; 殷国荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) orally administered at different dosages against Trichinella spirails encapsulated larvae in striated muscle in mice. Methods A total of 72 BALB/c mice were divided equally into 9 groups. Each mouse was infected orally with 50 T. Spiralis encapsulated larvae. At the 29th day after infection, albendazole was each orally administered to the mice of the 8 groups with doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400mg/(kg·d), respectively, once a day at fixed time for 6d. The control group was untreated. Mice were sacrificed at the 7lh day post administration. The encapsulated larvae in diaphragmatic muscle, jugomaxillary muscle and gastrocnemius muscle were examined with pellet method. The encapsulated larva that the capsule was complete and the larva inside curled naturally with clear structure was considered survived. The therapeutic effect was estimated on the average quantity of total, survival and dead encapsulated larvae per gram muscle, total worm reduction and survival worm reduction. Results The total worm burden and survival worms showed a decreasing trend and the numbers of dead worms increased in diaphragmatic muscle, jugomaxillary muscle and gastrocnemius muscle when the dosage of albendazole were 50-250 mg/(kg·d), but the number of larvae in the muscles remained similar when the dosage of albendazole was greater than 250mg/kg·d. Compared with the control group, the total and survival worms in the muscles in 200mg/(kg·d) and the greater dose groups decreased significantly (P<0.01). In 250 mg/(kg·d) group the total worm reduction in jugomaxillary muscle, diaphragmatic muscle and gastrocnemius muscle were 50.00%, 62.62% and 57.48%, and the survival worm reduction were 79.96%, 83.25% and 80.56%, respectively. Conclusion Orally administered to mice for 6d, albendazole at 250mg/(kg·d) is a suitable dose against encapsulated larva stage of T. Spiralis in muscle.%目的 观察口服不同剂量阿

  9. Surveillance of feral swine for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the USA and host-related factors associated with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D E; Dubey, J P; Baroch, J A; Swafford, S R; Fournet, V F; Hawkins-Cooper, D; Pyburn, D G; Schmit, B S; Gamble, H R; Pedersen, K; Ferreira, L R; Verma, S K; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Feidas, H; Theodoropoulos, G

    2014-10-15

    Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are important zoonotic parasites that infect warm blooded animals and humans worldwide. Among domesticated food animals, pigs are the main host for Trichinella spiralis. Pigs, chickens, sheep, and goats are known to be infected with T. gondii at varying rates, depending on husbandry. Infections in wildlife with these parasites are generally higher than in domesticated species. Feral swine act as reservoirs of infection in the sylvatic ecosystem for Trichinella spp. and T. gondii, acting as sources of infection for peridomestic carnivores whose home ranges overlap with domestic pigs. Feral swine can have direct contact with non-biosecure domestic pigs, presenting opportunity for direct disease transmission through cannibalistic behavior. Determination of the prevalence of Trichinella spp. and T. gondii infection in feral swine is needed to understand the risk of transmission of these parasites to domestic pigs. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted between 2006 and 2010 to estimate the antibody prevalence of Trichinella spp. and T. gondii and risk factors associated with infection in feral swine in the USA. Serum samples were tested from 3247 feral pigs from 32 states; results are reported from 26 states. Maximum entropy ecological niche modeling and spatial scan statistic were utilized to predict the geographic range and to examine clusters of infection of Trichinella spp. and T. gondii in feral pigs. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Trichinella spp. and T. gondii was 3.0% and 17.7%, respectively. Species distribution modeling indicated that the most probable distribution areas for both parasites was similar, concentrated primarily in the South and the Midwest regions of the USA. A follow up survey conducted during 2012-2013 revealed that 2.9% of 984 sampled feral swine were seropositive for Trichinella spp., and 28.4% were seropositive for T. gondii. Three hundred and thirty (330) tongues were collected from

  10. The dynamics of Trichinella spiralis epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2016-01-01

    The great public health success in prevention of human trichinellosis has resulted in a decades-long decline in the incidence and health impact of this zoonosis. The important elements of this achievement include improvement in animal husbandry practices, meat inspection, consumer education...

  11. First finding of Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokapich, Silvio J; Prous, Cinthia L Gonzalez; Gatti, Graciana M; Saldía, Luisa

    2015-03-15

    Prior to this study, only encapsulated species of Trichinella had been found in South America, i.e., T. spiralis and T. patagoniensis. Here we report the molecular identification of a non-encapsulated isolate of Trichinella from a domestic pig in Argentina. The multiplex PCR technique and the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences revealed that it belongs to T. pseudospiralis, which parasitises birds and mammals from Australian, Nearctic, and Palaearctic regions. Interestingly, the isolate is closely related to the Palaearctic population. This is the first report of a non-encapsulated species of Trichinella from the Neotropical region.

  12. 旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘小鼠血清总IgE、IL-4、IL-5的影响%Experimental study on changes of serum total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 in mice with Trichinella spiralis induced allergic asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍; 闫玉文; 包春雨

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘小鼠血清TIgE、IL-4、IL-5的影响.方法 随机将20只BALA/c雌性小鼠分为4组,每组5只,Ⅰ组为空白对照组,Ⅱ组为单纯过敏性哮喘组,Ⅲ组为感染旋毛虫后哮喘组,Ⅳ组为单纯感染旋毛虫组.首先,将200~300条旋毛虫囊包幼虫经口感染Ⅲ、Ⅳ组小鼠,建立旋毛虫感染模型.28 d后,用卵清白蛋白分别对Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组小鼠进行致敏激发,建立过敏性哮喘模型.56 d后,取小鼠血清,用ELISA法检测TIgE、IL-4、IL-5水平.结果 4组小鼠总IgE水平分别为:(61.79±25.79)ng/ml、(437.08±75.68)ng/ml、(251.64±107.27)ng/ml和(446.12±74.32)ng/ml;IL-4水平分别为:(136.49±31.17)pg/L、(209.80±21.57)pg/L、(162.79±17.69)pg/L和(182.71±12.08)pg/L;IL-5水平分别为:(7.31±1.86)ng/L、(16.00±2.28)ng/L、(9.24±1.73)ng/L和(11.41±2.11)ng/L;与Ⅱ组相比较,Ⅲ组血清中总IgE、IL-4及IL-5水平明显降低(P<0.05).结论 旋毛虫感染可以抑制过敏性哮喘小鼠血清TIgE、IL-4及IL-5的表达.%Objective To study the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on total IgE, IL - 4 and IL - 5 in serum of the mice with allergic asthma. Methods Twenty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of five mice each, including Ⅰ as control group, Ⅱ as allergic asthma group, Ⅲ as asthma followed by Trichinella spiralis infection, Ⅳ as Trichinella spiralis infected group. Firstly, the animals in group Ⅲ and Ⅳ were infected with 200 -300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Twenty - eight days later , ovalbumin ( OVA) was used to induce the allergic asthma for mice in group Ⅱ and Ⅲ , in order to establish asthma animal model. After 56 days, all mice were sacrificed, levels of TIgE, IL - 4 and IL - 5 in serum were measured by ELISA. Results The TIgE levels in group Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ and Ⅳ were (61.79 ±25.79) ng/ml, (437.08 ±75.68) ng/ml, (251.64 ±107.27) ng/ml and (446. 12 ± 74.32)ng/ml, respectively. The

  13. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions.

  14. European mustelids occupying pristine wetlands in the Danube Delta are infected with Trichinella likely derived from domesticated swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Miruna; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Kiss, Botond J; Marinov, Mihai; Vasile, Alexe; Sándor, Attila D; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin M; Boireau, Pascal; Cozma, Vasile; Mihalca, Andrei D; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We analyzed 32 specimens from nine species of Mustelidae for Trichinella; six infections from two Trichinella species were observed from three host species. This provides documentation of Trichinella in Mustela erminea and Martes foina in Romania and Trichinella spiralis in a mustelid host from Europe. Trichinella spiralis continues to be a public challenge characterized by a wide host range and geographical distribution ( Pozio 2007 ). During the past 20 yr, Romania has had the most reported human cases of trichinellosis in the world ( Blaga et al. 2007 ). Transmission occurs among domesticated swine, rats, and wild mammals that feed by scavenging or predation ( Pozio 2000 ). Trichinella transmission to humans may occur by consumption of meat of livestock infected after exposure to wildlife ( Pozio et al. 2009 ).

  15. Trichinella britovi human infection in Spain : antibody response to surface, excretory/secretory and somatic antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Osorio M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A third outbreak of Trichinella britovi with 140 people involved, occurred in Granada Spain (December 1998. The source of infection was sausage made from uninspected wild boar meat. Fifty-two patients agreed to participated in this study. An elevated eosinophil level (> 5 % was detected in 59.6 % of patients, and persisted in most of these cases for two months. A moderate IgG response was observed. At the onset of symptoms, Western blot (WB test detected more positive cases than Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. Six months from infection, ELISA revealed fewer positive cases than the other two tests. It would appear that the response to somatic antigens starts earlier than those to cuticular and excretory/secretory (ES antigens and that the response to ES antigens is the first to decrease.

  16. Predicted geographic ranges for North American sylvatic Trichinella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of a lack of comprehensive surveys, the geographic distributions of the North American species of Trichinella (T. nativa and its variant T6, T. murrelli, and T. spiralis) are poorly characterized. These species are potentially zoonotic, and biogeographical information is critical to monitori...

  17. Construction of eukaryotic expression vector and expression of stage-specific gene T314 from newborn larvae of Trichinella spiralis%旋毛虫新生幼虫期特异性T314基因真核表达质粒的构建及表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建立; 白雪; 吴秀萍; 刘明远

    2012-01-01

    目的 构建旋毛虫(Trichinella spirais)新生幼虫期特异性T314基因真核表达质粒,并在BHK细胞中进行表达.方法 从旋毛虫新生幼虫RNA中通过RT-PCR技术扩增无信号肽T314全长基因,定向克隆至真核表达载体pEGFP-N1中,构建重组真核表达质粒T314-pEGFP-N1,脂质体法转染BHK细胞,荧光显微镜观察EGFP的表达,Western blot检测T314融合蛋白的表达.结果 重组真核表达质粒T314-pEGFP-N1经双酶切及测序证实构建正确;转染的BHK细胞48 h转染效率最高;表达的T314融合蛋白可与旋毛虫感染的猪血清发生特异性反应.结论 已成功构建了T314基因重组真核表达质粒T314-pEGFP-N1,并在BHK细胞中融合表达,为进一步研究旋毛虫包囊形成机制奠定了基础.%Objective To construct a eukaryotic expression vector for stage-specific gene T314 from newborn larvae of Trichinella spiralis and express in BHK cells. Methods Signal peptide-free full-length T314 gene was amplified from RNA of newborn larvae of T. Spiralis by RT-PCR and cloned into eukaryotic expression vector Pegfp-Nl. BHK cells were transfected with the constructed recombinant plasmid T314-Pegfp-Nl in mediation of Hposome, then observed for expression of EGFP by fluorescent microscopy, and for that of T314 fusion protein by Western blot. Results Restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid T314-Pegfp-Nl was constructed correctly. The transfection efficacy of BHK cells reached the maximum 48 h after transfection. The expressed T314 fusion protein showed specific reaction with porcine serum infected with T. Spiralis. Conclusion The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector T314-Pegfp-Nl for T314 gene was successfully constructed, and fusion protein was expressed in BHK cells, which laid a foundation of further study on mechanism of nurse cell formation of T. Spiralis.

  18. 两个旋毛虫新抗原基因的生物信息学分析及表达鉴定%Bioinformatics analysis on two new genes of Trichinella spiralis and their expression in E.coli system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小红; 曹建平; 徐馀信

    2013-01-01

    Objective To predict the antigenicity of two new Trichinella genes,Ad48 h-Ts3 and tetraspanin,synthesize their gene sequences,express their recombinant proteins and evaluate their potential for diagnosis.Methods The potential antigenicity of the two proteins,tetraspanin family protein and adult stage protein Ad48 h-Ts3 were determined according to the result of their hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity predictions.The sequences of these two genes were synthesized after codon optimization and were subcloned into pET28a expression vector and expressed in E.coli system.Western blotting was performed to evaluate the diagnosis value of the proteins using mouse infected sera.Results Bioninformatic analysis showed that tetraspanin gene of Trichinella spiralis,which bears two transmembrane domains,has homology gene in other species.However,Ad48 h-Ts3 gene,which has plenty of antigenic epitopes,is unique in Trichinella spiralis.Genes were subcloned into expression vector and recombinant Ad48 h-Ts3 protein was expressed successfully in E.coli system while no obvious expression was observed in tetraspaning expression.Western blotting showed the expressive recombinant Ad48 hTs3 protein could be recognized by Trichinella infected sera obtained from mice.Conclusion The adult stage protein,Ad48 h-Ts3 protein was expressed successfully in E.coli and had a potential value for diagnosis.%目的 预测旋毛虫成虫期Ad48 h-Ts3基因和旋毛虫四跨膜基因的抗原性,合成和表达这两个基因并评价其潜在诊断价值. 方法 对旋毛虫四跨膜基因和成虫期Ad48h-Ts3基因采用生物信息学分析其亲、疏水性,预测其可能的抗原表位,对其密码子优化后进行基因序列合成,并亚克隆至pET28a表达载体,在大肠埃希菌中表达获得重组蛋白,以小鼠感染血清进行Western blotting识别重组蛋白,评估其诊断价值. 结果 生物信息学分析表明,旋毛虫四跨膜基因在其他物种中存在同源序列,具有两

  19. Innovative molecular diagnosis of Trichinella species based on β-carbonic anhydrase genomic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Näreaho, Anu; Sukura, Antti; Parkkila, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    Trichinellosis is a helminthic infection where different species of Trichinella nematodes are the causative agents. Several molecular assays have been designed to aid diagnostics of trichinellosis. These assays are mostly complex and expensive. The genomes of Trichinella species contain certain parasite-specific genes, which can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. We selected β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) gene as a target, because it is present in many parasites genomes but absent in vertebrates. We developed a novel β-CA gene-based method for detection of Trichinella larvae in biological samples. We first identified a β-CA protein sequence from Trichinella spiralis by bioinformatic tools using β-CAs from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Thereafter, 16 sets of designed primers were tested to detect β-CA genomic sequences from three species of Trichinella, including T. spiralis, Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella nativa. Among all 16 sets of designed primers, the primer set No. 2 efficiently amplified β-CA genomic sequences from T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. nativa without any false-positive amplicons from other parasite samples including Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara cati and Parascaris equorum. This robust and straightforward method could be useful for meat inspection in slaughterhouses, quality control by food authorities and medical laboratories.

  20. A monoclonal anti-rat IgA antibody. Detection of IgA antibodies to ovalbumin and antigens of the parasite Trichinella spiralis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loveren H; Osterhaus ADME; Nagel J; Hakkert B; de Klerk A; Drost G; Vos JG

    1987-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft de resultaten weer van de ontwikkeling van een monoclonaal antilichaam dat specifiek ratte IgA immunglobulinen herkent. IgA is een belangrijk immuunglobuline voor de bescherming van muscosale oppervlakken (o.a. op het niveau van de darm en de luchtwegen). Met behulp van het ontw

  1. Antigen recognition by IgG4 antibodies in human trichinellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibody isotype response to Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory (ES products of muscle larva was examined using sera from patients with confirmed trichinellosis. Using Western blots we identify components of the ES antigen that are recognized by IgM and IgG antibodies. A 45 kDa component was strongly recognized by different antibody classes and subclasses. We observed a 45 kDa-specific lgG4 response that was detected exclusively using sera of patients with trichinellosis and not of patients with echinococcosis, filariasis, cysticercosis, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis or toxocariasis. These results are relevant for the diagnosis of human trichinellosis.

  2. Clinical appraisal of patients and detection of serum antibodies by ELISA and CIA tests in late periods of Trichinella sp. invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kociecka W.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of our studies using ELISA and competitive inhibition assay (CIA tests fully confirmed the previously experienced trichinellosis and reflected persistent stimulation of antibody production due to the antigen release from Trichinella larvae, which had survived longer and undergone gradual destruction in the muscles. The studies proved that the tests complement each other, yielding concordant results in 86.7 % of cases. Due to its higher specificity, the CIA test can help in interpreting pathological signs/symptoms and in evaluating humoral response activity at late and distant in time periods following the invasion.

  3. Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

    2001-10-01

    Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico.

  4. The vasculature of nurse cells infected with non-encapsulated Trichinella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khositharattanakool, Pathamet; Morakote, Nimit; Uparanukraw, Pichart

    2013-07-04

    The vasculature surrounding the nurse cells of encapsulated Trichinella spiralis has been described previously. It has been postulated the function of these vessels is to support the growth of the parasite. We describe here for the first time the vasculature surrounding the nurse cells of non-encapsulated T. pseudospiralis and T. papuae. Similar to the vasculature of uninfected muscle cells, the vessels surrounding non-encapsulated Trichinella nurse cells are dense and branched longitudinally along the long axis of the muscle cells; they also appear to be similar in diameter. The netting pattern of enlarged vessels found around T. spiralis (encapsulated) nurse cells is not present in non-encapsulated Trichinella infections. The vessels surrounding non-encapsulated Trichinella nurse cells seem to exist prior to parasite invasion of the muscle cell.

  5. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district.

  6. Survival of North American genotypes of Trichinella in frozen pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D E; Forbes, L; Zarlenga, D S; Urban, J F; Gajadhar, A A; Gamble, H R

    2009-12-01

    North American genotypes of Trichinella spiralis (T-1), Trichinella nativa (T-2), Trichinella pseudospiralis (T-4), Trichinella murrelli (T-5), and Trichinella T-6 were examined for susceptibility to freezing in pork using time-temperature combinations that have been proven to inactivate T. spiralis. Infections were established in 3-month-old pigs of mixed sex and breed by oral inoculation of 10,000 muscle larvae (ML) (all genotypes, rodent-derived ML), 20,000 ML (T-1, T-4, and T-5; cat-derived ML), or 30,000 ML (T-2 and T-6; cat-derived ML). Pigs were euthanized 60 days postinoculation. Muscles from the tongue, masseter muscles, diaphragm, triceps, hams, neck, rump, and loins were ground, pooled, and mixed to ensure even distribution of larvae. Samples (20 g) containing each Trichinella species, genotype, and source combination were placed in heat-sealable pouches, transferred to a constant temperature refrigerant bath, and maintained according to defined time and temperature combinations. Larvae recovered from cold-treated pork samples were inoculated into mice to determine infectivity. Results indicated that the time-temperature combinations known to render pork safe for T. spiralis are sufficient to inactivate T. nativa and T-6 (the freeze-resistant isolates), T. murrelli (the most common sylvatic species in the United States excluding Alaska), and T. pseudospiralis (a species that lacks a muscle nurse cell). These data close a gap in knowledge about the effectiveness of freezing for inactivating these parasites in pork and should alleviate concern about the safety of frozen pork products from the United States.

  7. Evaluation of two PCR-based techniques for molecular epidemiology in Finland, a high-endemic area with four sympatric Trichinella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapel C.M.O.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella larvae collected from wildlife, domestic and synanthropic animals in Finland were identified to species by two molecular techniques: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the recently described multiplex PCR. The RAPD-PCR was very sensitive to the sub-optimal preservation muscle larvae and resulting in weak and smeared bands on the gels for such material. However, the same samples yielded easily recognizable bands in the multiplex PCR; this latter technique is then recommended for epidemiological studies, especially when the preservation of the samples is sub-optimal. For larvae in good condition the unequivocal bands obtained by multiplex was the easiest identifiable. Four species of Trichinella were identified in the material: T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Trichinella britovi is a new record for Finland, and T. pseudospiralis is a new record for Northern Europe. Mixed infections between T. britovi and T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. spiralis, and between T. britovi and T. nativa were detected; this is the first record of a mixed infection between T. spiralis and T. nativa in a naturally infected host. Raccoon dogs were the only host species from which all of the four Trichinella species were detected. Trichinella spiralis was found in both domestic animals and wildlife, but none of the sylvatic Trichinella species were detected in domestic pig.

  8. Effect of immune protection of heart allograft in mice induced by immune escape mechanism of trichinella spiralis%旋毛虫免疫逃避机制对诱导小鼠移植心脏免疫保护作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓庚国; 卢新军; 马毅; 廖冰; 陈颖华; 王国栋; 何晓顺

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of immune protection of heart allograft in mice induced by immune escape mechanism of trichinella spiralis,and explore new and potential ways against acute rejection in clinic.Methods The heterotopic cardiac transplantation models were divided into three groups:rejection group,treatment group,and isograft group.Mean survival time was measured.Twenty-eight days before transplantation,recipients (C57BL/6) of rejection group were orally infected with 300 muscle larvae,and donors were untreated.Hearts in each group were harvested on the day 7 post-transplantation for pathological observation.Proportion of CD4 +,CD8 + T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) was detected by flow cytometry.Results As compared with rejection group (11 days),survival of allografts was significantly prolonged in treatment group (24 days) (P < 0.01),alleviated pathologic signd were observed,and proportion of CD8 + T cells (36.6%) was reduced (48.8%,P < 0.01),but there was no significant difference in CD4 + T cells between treatment group and rejection group.Meanwhile,proportion of Tregs in treatment group (16.9%) was significantly higher than in rejection group (10.8%,P < 0.05).Conclusion Trichinella spiralis infection lowered the proportion of CD8 + T cells,augmented Tregs frequency,and alleviated acute rejection of heterotopic cardiac transplantation in mice,which immunologically protected mice heart allograft.%目的 观察旋毛虫免疫逃避机制对诱导小鼠移植心脏免疫保护作用的影响,探讨可应用于临床的新抗排斥途径.方法 小鼠心脏移植术前28 d,实验组每只受体小鼠(C57 BL/6)以300条旋毛虫肌幼虫经口感染,供体小鼠(BALB/c)未感染,同时设立急性排斥反应组以及同系移植对照组,观察各组移植心脏的存活时间.术后第7天获取供心并观察移植物排斥病理学改变,流式细胞术检测受体脾脏淋巴细胞中CD4+、CD8+T淋巴细胞和调

  9. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe.

  10. Construction and Identification of cDNA File of Newborn Larvae of Trichinella spiralis%旋毛虫新生幼虫cDNA文库的构建与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春雨; 李青春; 东彦新; 魏彦辉

    2002-01-01

    利用λZAP Express载体成功地构建了中国猪株旋毛虫分离株Trichinella spiralis新生幼虫的cDNA文库,并对其重组噬菌体质粒pBK-CMV进行酶切鉴定.结果表明:所构建的cDNA文库容量为1.92×106,重组效率为98.6%,所有的克隆片段都在0.5-2.0 Kb之间,说明此cDNA文库几乎覆盖了全部mRNA.

  11. Efficacy of three different oral liquid formulations of albendazole against Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae in mice%口服阿苯达唑三种不同溶液抗小鼠旋毛虫成囊期幼虫的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润花; 赵文婧; 裴彦江; 李起超; 殷国荣

    2012-01-01

    To observe the efficacy of 3 different oral liquid formulations of albendazole (ABZ) against Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae in mice, 32 BALB/c mice were divided equally into 4 groups in which each mouse infected orally with 50 Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae. On 14d post-infection, ABZ was given to all 4 groups in 300mg/kg by meals for expelling intestinal tract adult worms. On 29d after helminthicide, ABZ was administered orally via bucco-gastric tube to 3 treatment groups with 200mg/ (kg · d) at 3 different oral liquid formulations and lasted for 6d respectively. For Tween group, ABZ were dissolved in 7% Tween-80 and 3% ethanol; for CMC group, ABZ were dissolved in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 3% ethanol; for HP-β-CD group, ABZ were dissolved in 7% hydroxypropyl-|3-cyclodextrin ( HP-β-CD) and 3% ethanol. Mice were sacrificed on the 14d post-treatment. The encapsulated larvae in diaphragmatic and gastrocnemius muscle were observed with pellet method, and the total, survival and dead worms were counted. The therapeutic effect was estimated on the basis of average quantity of encapsulated larvae in per gram muscle. The results showed that during the period of treatment, untoward reaction was not found in all mice. Compared with the control group, the total and survival worms in diaphragmatic and gastrocnemius muscle in 3 treatment groups were significantly decreased (β<0. 05 or P<0. 01), and the dead worms were significantly increased (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). The efficacy in HP-β~CD group was the highest in 3 treatment groups. The relative bioavailability of ABZ in CMC and HP-β-CD groups in mice were significantly increased in comparison with Tween group(diaphragmatic muscle: 1. 55 and 1. 33-folds gastrocnemius muscle: 1. 95 and 1.83-fold). The total worm reductions were e-valuated, which were 1. 93 and 1. 82-fold in diaphragmatic muscle, and 2. 45 and 3. 22-fold in gastrocnemius muscle. These results show shown significantly increased

  12. Studies on the Application of a Rapid ELISA with Mono-clonal Antibody for Detection of Trichinella sui%猪旋毛虫McAb快速ELISA法的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明亮; 胡天阳; 卢学利; 张彦庆; 何浩; 路义鑫; 宋铭忻; 熊永忠; 刘溯一; 王裕卿

    2002-01-01

    本研究用保存在小鼠中的猪旋毛虫、旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)、犬旋毛虫、本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)四种不同来源的旋毛虫隔离种接种断乳仔猪,定期用ELISA法检查抗体出现情况,剖杀后用鲜肉及冷冻不同时间的肉制成肉汁,进行ELISA抗体检测.结果表明:用ELISA法检出阳性的时间为:猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis在16天以后,犬旋毛虫和T.nativa在24天以后;鲜肉肉汁ELISA检测结果与其血清结果基本相同;冻肉肉汁检疫中,短期内冷冻对ELISA检测结果影响也不大.

  13. Oral administration with attenuated Salmonella encoding a Trichinella cystatin-like protein elicited host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X D; Wang, X L; Bai, X; Liu, X L; Wu, X P; Zhao, Y; Sun, S M; Yu, L; Su, X Z; Wang, Z Q; Wang, F; Liu, M Y

    2014-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a public health problem and is regarded as an emergent/re-emergent disease in various countries. The cDNA encoding a cystatin-like protein (Ts-cystatin) was identified by immunoscreening intestinal muscle larvae cDNA libraries with serum from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. To study its impact on host immunity, we chose a eukaryotic expression system based on several comparisons of immunogenicity between the two Salmonella typhimurium administration schemes, which indicated that the eukaryotic expression system was superior. Humoral IgG and mucosal IgA were measured to determine the antibody response. To explore whether Th1 and Th2 responses were responsible for the induced protection, Th1- and Th2-specific cellular transcription factors and the cytokine profile were examined. Changes in the T lymphocyte and macrophage populations were detected by flow cytometry. Lastly, parasitological examination was examined. The results showed that Ts-cystatin induced a Th1/Th2-mixed type of immune response and decreased STAT6 transcription. The intestinal adult recovery increased by 10.9% in the Ts-cystatin group, the Ts-cystatin group fecundity rate was decreased by 91%. Furthermore, the number of muscle larvae did not change compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that Ts-cystatin plays an important role in Trichinella resistance to rapid expulsion by the host and is worth further study.

  14. INTEGRATING GENOMICS AND PHYLOGENETICS IN UNDERSTANDING THE HISTORY OF TRICHINELLA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004, funding was received by Washington University’s Genome Sequencing Center through NHGRI, to completely sequence several nematode genomes as part of a holistic effort to advance our understanding of the human genome and evolution within the Metazoa. Trichinella spiralis was among this group o...

  15. 口服三苯双脒3种不同溶液抗小鼠旋毛虫成囊期幼虫效果观察%Efficacy of three different liquid oral preparations of tribendimidine against encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润花; 高晋华; 霍将; 丁宇; 孟晓丽; 殷国荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察口服三苯双脒3种不同溶剂溶液抗小鼠旋毛虫成囊期幼虫的效果. 方法 BALB/c小鼠40只,随机均分为4组,每鼠口饲感染旋毛虫成囊期幼虫50条.感染后第29 d,分别用不同溶剂配制的三苯双脒治疗,其中吐温溶剂组三苯双脒用7%吐温-80和3%乙醇溶解,羧纤溶剂组三苯双脒用1%羧甲基纤维素和3%乙醇溶解,羟环溶剂组三苯双脒用7%羟丙基-β-环糊精和3%乙醇溶解,三苯双脒剂量均为200 mg/(kg·d),连续给药6d,对照组不治疗.治疗后14 d,取小鼠膈肌和腓肠肌,压片法检查成囊期幼虫,观察其存活情况,计数活虫数、死虫数及总虫数,计算克肌肉减虫率、死亡率及相对药效率,以评价药物疗效. 结果 实验期间所有小鼠未见药物不良反应.与对照组相比,3个治疗组膈肌和腓肠肌中成囊期幼虫总虫数和存活虫数均显著减少(P<0.05或P<0.01),死亡虫数显著增加(P<0.05或P<0.01),以羟环溶剂组的疗效最好.以减虫率计算,羧纤溶剂组对膈肌和腓肠肌中成囊期幼虫相对药效率分别为吐温溶剂组的1.61和2.46倍,羟环溶剂组相应为2.13和2.49倍;以死虫率计算,羧纤溶剂组分别为1.55和1.79倍,羟环溶剂组分别为2.51和2.16倍. 结论 用1%羧甲基纤维素和3%乙醇或7%羟丙基-β-环糊精和3%乙醇配制三苯双脒的生物药效率和抗旋毛虫成囊期幼虫效果显著提高,以三苯双脒羟环溶液的效果更佳.%Objective To observe the efficacy of three different liquid oral preparations of tribendimidine (TBD) against encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae in mice. Methods Forty BALB/c mice were divided equally into 4 groups in which each mouse was orally infected with 50 encapsulated T. spiralis larvae. On day 29 post-infection, TBD 200 mg/ (kg o d) in three different liquid oral preparations was orally administered via a gastric tube to three treatment groups for 6 d. The control group was

  16. The opportunistic nature of Trichinella--exploitation of new geographies and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-05-20

    For more than 100 years, Trichinella spiralis (former Trichina spiralis) was considered a zoonotic parasite of the domestic habitat involving pigs, synanthropic rats and humans. In the last 70 years, there has been increasing evidence that the biomass of nematodes of the genus Trichinella is greater in wild animals than in domestic animals. Omnivores and carnivores (mammals, birds and some reptiles), mainly those with cannibalistic and scavenger behaviour, act primarily as reservoirs for the 12 Trichinella taxa recognized to date. The distribution areas of Trichinella spp. hosts can help to identify the environmental suitability where the different Trichinella taxa can be detected. Both the survival of larvae in decaying muscles of their hosts, which is favoured by high humidity and low temperatures, and human behaviour in the domestic and wild habitats play roles in the transmission patterns of these nematodes. Although Trichinella taxa develop in different host species circulating in different geographical regions, there is a common denominator among the hosts, namely their scavenging behaviour.

  17. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  18. Efficacy of tribendimidine oral administration at different courses of treatment on encapsulated larvae of Trichinella spiralis in mice%口服三苯双脒不同疗程抗小鼠旋毛虫成囊期幼虫的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润花; 高晋华; 裴彦江; 李起超; 申金雁; 殷国荣

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the curative effect of tribendimidine (TBD) oral administration at different courses of treatment against encapsulated larvae of Trichinella spirails in striated muscle in mice, forty BALB/c mice of 8 week old were randomly divided equally into 5 groups, and each mouse infected orally with 50 Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae. Twenty ninth day after infection, TBD was administered each orally to 5 groups with 300mg/ (kg · d) at different courses of treatment (lasted for 2, 4, 6 or 8 d), respectively, control group was not treated. Then the drug untoward reactions for mice were observed. Mice were sacrificed on the day 7 after drug withdrawal. The encapsulated larvae in diaphragmatic muscle, jugomaxillary muscle, pectoral muscle and gastrocnemius muscle were observed with pellet method and the total, survival and dead worms were counted. Another forty BALB/c mice of 8 week old were randomly divided equally into 5 groups, each mouse infected orally with 50 Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae in diaphragmatic muscle of mice that orally administered TBD 300mg/(kg · d) at different courses of treatment. On the day 29 after infection, encapsulated larvae in diaphragmatic muscle were observed and counted with pellet method. Results showed that during the experimental session, mice were in good health,while drug adverse reaction was not detected. The total worm burden and survival worms were downtrend and dead worms were raised in four muscles as the course of treatment increased.Compared with the control group, the total and survival worms in diaphragmatic muscle, jugomaxillary muscle and gastrocnemius muscle of 2 d and over 2 d courses of treatment were significantly decreased (P<0. 05, P<0. 01),and the total worm in pectoral muscle of 2 d and over 2 d courses of treatment groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). As the courses of treatment increasing, the death rates of encapsulated larvae were raise in four muscles

  19. 旋毛虫幼虫体外侵入正常小鼠肠上皮细胞及发育观察%Observation of the in vitro invasion of normal mouse intestinal epithelial cells by Trichinella spiralis larvae and their development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若丹; 王中全; 任会均; 龙绍蓉; 崔晶

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察旋毛虫幼虫在体外对正常小鼠肠上皮细胞(intestinal epithelial cells,IECs)的侵入及发育情况.方法 将旋毛虫肌幼虫在小鼠胆汁中孵育2h,然后分别以不同密度(1.7条/cm2、4.2条/cm2及10.4条/cm2)接种不同类型培养基及不同面积培养板(9.6 cm2和3.8 cm2),在37℃5% CO2条件下培养,观察幼虫存活与发育情况. 结果 幼虫在半固体培养基+ IECs中培养36 h,发育至2~4期幼虫的百分率为30.93%,而在单纯半固体培养基与DMEM完全培养基+ IECs中均不能发育为2~4期幼虫(P<0.01);半固体培养基+IECs中培养7d,低、中、高密度组虫体存活率分别为31.44%、7.82%和3.90%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).低密度幼虫在两种培养板(9.6 cm2和3.8 cm2)培养7d,发育至成虫的百分率分别为33.29%和26.19%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但仅在9.6 cm2培养皿中观察到雄虫和受孕的雌虫. 结论 旋毛虫肌幼虫低密度接种大面积半固体培养基+ IECs培养板培养,可发育至成虫.%Objective To observe the in vitro invasion of normal mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) by Trichinella spiralis larvae and their development.Methods T.spiralis muscle larvae were incubated in mouse bile for 2 h and then seeded in three different types of culture media in a low (1.7 larvae/cm2),medium (4.2 larvae/cm2),or high (10.4 larvae/cm2)density and in a large (9.6 cm2) and small (3.8 cm2) area.The larvae were incubated at 37℃ in 5% CO2 for 36h,and the survival and development of the larvae in media were observed.Results When the larvae were cultured in semisolid medium+ IECs,the percentage of L2-L4 larvae was 30.93%.The larvae cultured in semisolid medium and DMEM complete medium+ IECs did not develop into L2-L4 larvae (P<0.01).When the three densities of larvae were cultured for 7 days in semisolid medium+ IECs,the low-density larvae had a survival rate of 31.44 %,the medium-density larvae had a

  20. Comparative genetics: a lens through which to clarify the genomes, the transmission history, and the reproductive biology of Trichinella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress in studying the biology of Trichinella spp. was greatly advanced with the publication and analysis of the draft genome sequence of T. spiralis. Those data provide a basis for constructing testable hypothesis concerning parasite physiology, immunology, and genetics. They also provide tools...

  1. Studies on infectivity of Trichinella isolates to mice%旋毛虫各隔离种对小鼠的感染性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铭忻; 张桂红; 路义鑫; 师东方

    2001-01-01

    Infectivity of Trichinella from swine and dog,and the international standard Trichinella isolates:T.spiralis and T.nativa in mice was compared in Heilongjiang province, China.It was found that infectivity of 4 Trichinella isolates in mice was significantly different.Swine isolate and T.spiralis were highly infective to mice with Reproductive Capacity Indexes(RCI)of 121.01 and 149.86 respectively,however,mice were relatively refractory to dog isolate and T.nativa with RCIs of 60.89 and 55.15 respectively.On the basis of the results,it is concluded that Trichinella from swine and dog in Heilongjiang province, China belong to Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa respectively.%比较研究了黑龙江省猪、犬旋毛虫及国际标准虫种:旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)对小鼠的感染性异同。结果表明,四者对小鼠的感染力存在着显著差异,猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫在小鼠体内的繁殖力指数(RCI)分别为121.01±7.80和149.86±7.47;而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫的RCI分别为60.98±5.05和55.15±4.69。由实验结果可认为黑龙江省的猪旋毛虫相当于旋毛形线虫,而犬旋毛虫相当于本地毛形线虫。

  2. A comparison of antigenic peptides in muscle larvae of several Trichinella species by two-dimensional western-blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antigens recognised by mAb US5 specific to 53 kDa glycoprotein (gp 53 in T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL1 antigens, mAb US9 specific to gp 53 in TSL1 from all encapsulated species and mAb US4 specific to a tyvelose containing tetrasaccharide present in TSL1, were investigated in crude extracts from muscle larvae of T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. britovi by 2D-electrophoresis and western-blot. At least four proteins of different pI were recognised by mAb US5 on T. spiralis antigens. Recognition profile of mAb US9 on T. spiralis antigens exhibited some variation with regard to that of the US5. Polymorphism was apparent in gp 53. High reactivity was shown by the mAb US4 with the three species.

  3. Biological and genetic characteristics of two trichinella isolates in China; comparison with European species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu M.Y.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The most recent taxonomic revision in Trichinella genus included 10 taxa. Trichinella spiralis (Ts is a thoroughly studied species but most of the isolates came from the Europe or American continents. Few information is available from China about the Trichinella isolates and their diversity. In this report two Chinese isolates were characterized and compared with European strains. The in vitro release of newborn larvae (NBL was determined for the two species. NBL is observed in supernatant of cell culture after adults purification on day 4 post infection (pi with Ts, and on day 5 pi with Trichinella nativa (Tna. A new parameter was thus proposed to characterize Trichinella strains. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of genomic DNA and random amplified polymorphic cDNA (RAPD were used to define genetic variability among different isolates. Species specific pattern could be obtained with RAPD but it was far more difficult to get geographical markers for Trichinella using these methods. A low genetic variability in Trichinella species (i.e a strong "clonality" is suggested.

  4. Effect of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigen on expression of TLR2/4 mRNA in mouse macrophage%旋毛虫ES抗原对小鼠巨噬细胞TLR2/4mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹洋; 徐佳; 吕兴锋; 唐颖; 俞昭旸; 宋铭忻

    2012-01-01

    为探讨旋毛虫ES抗原对RAW264.7细胞TLR2/4mRNA表达的影响,分别取经0、2、5、15、30、45μg/mL ES抗原作用24h的RAW264.7细胞和用15μg/mL ES抗原作用0、3、6、12、18、24h后的RAW264.7细胞,采用半定量PCR方法检测TLR2和TLR4mRNA的表达水平变化。结果显示,随着ES抗原浓度的升高,TLR2/4mRNA的表达量逐渐上升,15μg/mL ES抗原组与空白对照组相比差异显著(P〈0.05)。在15μg/mL ES抗原作用24h内,随着作用时间的延长,TLR2/4mRNA的表达量逐渐上升,作用18h后的表达水平升高,且与空白对照组差异显著(P〈0.05)。证实,ES抗原可刺激RAW264.7细胞表面受体TLR2/4表达升高,且存在一定的剂量和时间效应。%To explore the effect of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigen on the expression of mRNA of TLR2/4 in RAW264.7 cell,the RAW264.7 cells stimulated respectively by ES antigen(0,2,5, 15,30 and 45 g/mL) for 24 h and 15 g/mL ES antigen stimulated for 0,3,6,12,18 and 24 h were collected, and the expression levels of TLR2 mRNA and TLR4 mRNA were detected by RT-PCR. In result,the expression levels of TLR2/4 mRNA in RAW264.7 cell increased followed the ES antigen concentration,and it showed significantly difference at the concentration of 15 g/mL(P〈0.05). At the concentration of 15 g/mL, the expression of TLR2/4 mRNA in RAW264.7 cell increased with time, and increased significantly after 18 h(P〈0. 05). The results showed that ES antigen has impact on the expression of TLR2/4 in RAW264.7 cell,and the expression level is related to dosage and time.

  5. 旋毛虫重组HSP70对小鼠巨噬细胞TLR2/4表达的影响%Effect of 70 ku recombinant HSP70 from Trichinella spiralis on expres-sion of TLR2/4 in murine macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 禹洋; 徐佳; 刘畅; 周兴东; 李晓云

    2014-01-01

    观察旋毛虫重组热休克蛋白HSP70(rTs-HSP70)对体外培养小鼠巨噬细胞Toll样受体TLR2/4表达的影响。体外常规培养小鼠巨噬细胞系RAW264.7,分别加入不同浓度rTs-HSP70刺激培养24 h,半定量PCR方法检测培养细胞TLR2/4 mRNA表达,流式细胞仪检测表面标志分子CD80和CD86表达。平行设立不加刺激物阴性对照组,细菌脂多糖LPS阳性对照组;同时试验比较5μg·mL-1浓度的HSP70组和HSP70+LPS组(HSP70预刺激后再加入LPS刺激培养12 h)RAW264.7细胞TLR2/4 mRNA表达差异。结果表明,低浓度rTs-HSP70与巨噬细胞活化呈正相关,浓度为5μg·mL-1时,TLR2/4表达水平达到峰值(P5μg·mL-1)则对巨噬细胞RAW264.7表现为抑制作用;当对RAW264.7进行旋毛虫HSP70预刺激,可引起免疫抑制效应,抑制LPS对巨噬细胞TLR2/4的活化反应。试验可为旋毛虫相关分子免疫调节机制研究及旋毛虫病防治提供参考。%To observe the effect of 70 kDa recombinant heat shock protein from Trichinella spiralis (rTs-HSP70) on expression of TLR2/4 (toll-like receptors) in murine macrophage in vitro. Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell lines were incubated in twelve-well plates and different concentrations of rTs-HSP70 were added, co-culturing for 24 hours. Then the cells’TLR2/4 expression were tested by semi-quantitative PCR, those of surface markers CD80 and CD86 by flow cytometry. Cells receiving no stimulation were taken as negative control, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as positive control. At the same time, comparative studies on incubation with rTs-HSP70 alone, rTs-HSP70 in combination with LPS, were conducted at concentration 5 µg·mL-1 of HSP70. The results indicated that lower concentra-tions of rTs-HSP70 had a positive correlation with macrophages activation, TLR2/4 expression peaked at concentration of 5 µg·mL-1 (P5 µg·mL-1), a inhibitory effect on macrophage could be observed. Pre-stimulation of the

  6. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) plays a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle of Trichinella in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Kálmán; Pozio, Edoardo; Tonanzi, Daniele; Sala, Claudia; Ilie, Marius S; Imre, Mirela; Morar, Adriana

    2015-09-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a worldwide distribution. The majority of the biomass of these nematodes circulates among wildlife, but when humans fail in the proper management of domestic animals and wildlife, Trichinella infections are transmitted from the sylvatic to the domestic environment. Such failures occur in Romania, where a high prevalence of Trichinella spiralis has been detected in domestic pigs. The aim of the present study was to provide data about the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that are hunted in Romanian counties, in which the prevalences of Trichinella spp. infection in backyard and free-ranging pigs range from 0.17 to 2.5%, to determine the role played by this carnivore species in the transmission of the parasite to domestic cycle. A total of 121 animals from 45 hunting grounds of three counties were screened to detect Trichinella spp. larvae by the digestion method. Infections were detected in 26 (21.5%) foxes from 18 (40%) hunting grounds of the three counties (13/67 in Arad, 1/3 in Hunedoara, and 12/51 in Timiş). The mean larval density was 10.5 larvae per gram. Of the 25 successfully tested samples, the Trichinella larvae from 24 isolates were identified as T. britovi (96%), and the larvae from one isolate were identified as T. spiralis (4%). No mixed infections were recorded. The present results revealed that the red fox should be considered an important T. britovi reservoir in the sylvatic cycle; in contrast, the detection of only a single T. spiralis-positive isolate suggests that red foxes play a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle in the investigated area of western Romania.

  7. Global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Kouam, Marc K; Kantzoura, Vaia; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    Maximum entropy ecological niche modeling was utilized to describe the global geographic distribution of Trichinella species and genotypes and to assess their invasive risk in new areas other than the ones currently known. Also, space-time scan statistic was utilized to identify global spatiotemporal clusters of infection. A database containing 3209 records for 12 species and genotypes identified at the International Trichinella Reference Center (ITRC) as well as climate, elevation, and land cover data extracted from various databases were used. Ecological niche modeling implemented in the Maxent program indicated new potential ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T. pseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, T. papuae (T10), and T. zimbabwensis (T11). The area under the curve values for the test data of the models ranged from 0.901 to 0.998, indicating that the models were very good to excellent. The most important bioclimatic factor in modeling the ranges for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T6, and T. zimbabwensis (T11) was temperature, for T. pseudospiralis (T4) and T. papuae (T10) was precipitation, and for T. murrelli (T5) was land cover. T. spiralis (T1), T. britovi (T3), and T. pseudospiralis (T4) had the same primary land cover which was "Grass Crops". The primary land covers were "Conifer Boreal Forest" for T. nativa (T2), "Cool Fields and Woods" for T. murrelli (T5), "Upland Tundra" for T6, "Tropical Rainforest" for T. papuae (T10), and "Crops and Town" for T. zimbabwensis (T11). The scan statistic analyses revealed the presence of significant spatiotemporal clusters (p<0.05) for T. spiralis (T1), T. nativa (T2), T. britovi (T3), T. pseudospiralis (T4), T. murrelli (T5), T6, and T. nelsoni (T7). No significant clusters were found for T. papuae (T10) and T. zimbabwensis (T11).

  8. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks.

  9. Immunoregulation by Trichinella spiralis: Benefits for parasite and host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranzamendi Esteban, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies indicate that certain helminths suppress the host immune responses. This suppression may benefit the parasite since it increases the chances of survival in their host. By doing so, the hosts may also benefit due to concomitant reduction of immune pathology associated with allergies a

  10. Trichinella spiralis: the evolution of adaptation and parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitism among nematodes has occurred in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and a...

  11. The draft genome of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome-based studies of metazoan evolution are most informative when crown and basal species are incorporated in the analysis. As such, evolutionary trends within and outside the phylum Nematoda have been less revealing by focusing only on the crown species Caenorhabditis elegans. Herein, we present...

  12. Comparison of three molecular detection methods for detection of Trichinella in infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhibing; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Deng, Mingjun; Li, Guoqing; Zhou, Jinlin

    2013-05-01

    Different molecular detection methods require diverse molecular platforms, but there is no uniform standard for people to reference in the detection of Trichinella. In this study, real-time PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and conventional PCR were developed for the detection of Trichinella by targeting mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal DNA (mt-lsrDNA). We compared the performance of the three newly developed assays. The results revealed that the detection limits of the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays were 10 and 100 fg/μL and 1 pg/μL of Trichinella spiralis genomic DNA, respectively. The assays were used in the detection of Trichinella in the field. A total of 192 samples were obtained from pigs: 75 samples from free range farming and 117 from intensive feeding factory. The infection rate was 8/192 (4.2 %), 7/192 (3.6 %), and 1/192 (1.0 %) through the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays, respectively. These data indicate that Taqman real-time PCR was a rapid, specific, and sensitive tool as a preferred option for investigation of valuable samples, but that LAMP assay was closed tube, highly sensitive, cost-effective, rapid, easy-to-perform, and was the optimal choice for detection of Trichinella in the field. The results of a model of experimental infection in mice indicated that spleen can be used as sampling site for the detection of early T. spiralis infection. However, the diaphragm and myocardium were the most suitable sampling sites for the detection of T. spiralis.

  13. Influencing factors of distribution of Trichinella larvae in host muscles%旋毛虫幼虫在宿主肌组织中分布的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立宏; 姜文静

    2012-01-01

    The distribution states of Trichinella spimlis larvae in host muscles are very complicated, and they are possibly in-fluenced by many factors, such as host species, the physiological condition of host muscles, Trichinella species, the encapsulat-ing condition of Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae, the level of infection and others. This paper summarizes the advance in the study of the influencing factors of distribution of Trichinella spiralis encapsulated larvae in host muscles.%旋毛虫幼虫在宿主肌组织中的分布受多种因素的影响,如宿主种类、肌肉生理状况、旋毛虫种别、旋毛虫幼虫能否成囊、感染量等.本文对旋毛虫幼虫在宿主肌组织分布的影响因素作一综述.

  14. Establishment and evaluation 0f ELISA for detection of anti-Trichinella antibody IgG in sera and saliva%建立和评价ELISA法检测血清和唾液中旋毛虫IgG抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊琴; 申丽洁; 马鸣旺; 李伟

    2008-01-01

    目的 建立检测血清和唾液中旋毛虫抗体的酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)方法.方法 应用方阵滴定法,筛选适宜的旋毛虫抗原(肌肉幼虫可溶性抗原、肌肉幼虫排泄分泌抗原、成虫可溶性抗原、成虫排泄分泌抗原)浓度、血清和唾液稀释度、辣根过氧化物酶标记的山羊抗兔、山羊抗人IgG抗体稀释度.共有20份旋毛虫感染兔、10份旋毛虫病患者血清和唾液用于这4种抗原的敏感性试验,20份健康兔与38份其他寄生虫感染兔和患者的血清和唾液用于这4种抗原的特异性试验.结果 这4种抗原适宜包被浓度依次为8.0 μg/ml、6.0 μg/ml、10.0 μg/ml、9.0 μg/ml.适宜的血清稀释度依次为1:100、1:200、1:50、1:200,唾液均用原液.适宜的山羊抗兔、山羊抗人IgG稀释度分别为1:2 500和l:2 000.这4种抗原检测旋毛虫感染兔血清和唾液的敏感性分别为100%和80%~100%,检测旋毛虫病患者血清和唾液的敏感性分别为100%和60%~80%;检测血清和唾液的特异性依次为81.03%、89.65%、77.59%、82.76%和93.10%、96.55%、89.65%、91.35%.结论 建立了检测兔和人血清及唾液中旋毛虫lgG抗体的ELISA方法.当采集血清标本有困难时,可将唾液替代血清用于检测旋毛虫病.%Objective To establish the ELISA method for detection of anti-Trichinella antibody IgG in sera and saliva. Methods The phalanx titration was used for the selection of the ELISA experimental conditions such as the optimal coating concentrations of T. spiralis antigens including muscle larval soluble antigen (MLSA),muscle larval excretory-secretory antigen (MLESA),adult wornl soluble antigen (AWSA),adult worm excretory-secretory antigen (AWESA), the dilutions of sera and saliva, the dilutions of the goat anti-rabbit and the goat anti-human IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP).Sera and saliva from 20 rabbits,10 patients infected with T. spiralis were used for the sensitivity assay of the 4

  15. 旋毛虫成虫排泄分泌蛋白抗CLP诱导的小鼠脓毒症的观察%Effect of excretory/secretory protein of Trichinella spiralis adult worm on CLP-induced sepsis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小迪; 张慧; 周瑞; 陈兴智; 刘牧林; 李徽徽; 褚亮; 贺文欣; 方强; 宋迪; 吴琦; 王小莉; 李楠; 齐琦; 万勇坤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms(AES)on cecal ligation and puncture(CLP)⁃induced sepsis in mice. Methods Forty⁃eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups:a sham operation group(PBS+sham group,Group A),a CLP⁃induced sepsis group(PBS+CLP group,Group B)and an AES treatment group(AES+ CLP group,Group C). The mice of each group were intraperitoneally injected with 25 μg of AES or PBS only as a control in a total volume of 200μl. Eight mice from each group were selected randomly for survival analy⁃sis of 96 hours. The other 8 mice in each group were observed for pathological changes in the lung,liver and kidney tissues by HE staining 12 h after CLP,and then determined for the detection of cytokines including TNF⁃α,IL⁃1β,IL⁃6,IL⁃10 and TGF⁃ βin the sera by ELISA. Results The difference among the survival rates of mice in the 3 groups was statistically significant (χ2=21.16,P<0.05). Compared to Group A(100%),the survival rate of mice in Group B(0)decreased significantly(P<0.05),and also the pathological damage degrees in the lung,liver and kidney tissues of the mice in Group B increased signifi⁃cantly after CLP. Compared with the mice in group B,the survival rate of those in Group C(70%)increased significantly(P<0.05),and the pathological damage degrees in the lung,liver and kidney tissues of the mice in Group C decreased significantly after the treatment with AES. The differences among the levels of pro⁃inflammatory cytokines TNF⁃α(F=27.11,P<0.05),IL⁃1β(F=18.75,P<0.05)and IL⁃6(F=100.93,P<0.05)in the sera of the mice in the three groups were statistically signifi⁃cant. Compared with the mice in Group A,the levels of the 3 cytokines of those in Group B increased significantly(all P <0.05). However,after the treatment with AES,the levels of the pro⁃inflammatory cytokines of those in Group C decreased signifi⁃cantly(all P<0.05). The differences among the

  16. The first report of Trichinella pseudospiralis presence in domestic swine and T. britovi in wild boar in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrac, Violeta; Nedic, Drago N; Maric, Jelena; Nikolic, Sonja; Stevanovic, Oliver; Vasilev, Sasa; Cvetkovic, Jelena; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana

    2015-09-01

    The Balkans is endemic for nematodes of the genus Trichinella in both domestic and wild animals. The high prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens in animals linked with the food habits to consume raw meat and meat derived products resulted in a very high prevalence of trichinellosis in humans living in this European region. In spite of numerous epidemiological investigations carried out in this region, very few information is available on the Trichinella species circulating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trichinella spp. larvae were isolated from a domestic pig reared in a backyard and from a hunted wild boar whose meat had been the source of trichinellosis in one case. Both Trichinella pseudospiralis and T. spiralis have been identified in the domestic pig, whereas, T. britovi was detected in the wild boar. While, T. spiralis is the Trichinella species most frequently detected in domestic pigs, T. pseudospiralis has been previously documented in domestic pigs only three times in Russia, Slovakia and Croatia. The detection of T. britovi in the wild boar confirms that this nematode is the most frequent species circulating among wildlife of Europe.

  17. A large-scale study of the Trichinella genus in the golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirović, Duško; Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Klun, Ivana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-09-15

    Over the last decades the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has significantly expanded its range throughout Southeast and Central Europe, and the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be a core area of the species distribution in this part of the range. Due to its increasing number, ability of long distance movement through a wide range of landscapes and opportunistic feeding habits, the golden jackal may represent an important reservoir and transmitter of a variety of zoonotic agents, including parasites. The Balkans, Serbia included, remain an endemic area for various zoonotic parasites including Trichinella spp. Trichinella has recently been recorded in jackals in Serbia, which prompted us to carry out a large-scale survey of its prevalence, distribution and species identification in this host. In cooperation with local hunters, carcasses of a total of 738 legally hunted golden jackals were collected at 24 localities over an 11-year period (2003-2013). Analysis of tongue base tissue revealed Trichinella larvae in 122, indicating a prevalence of infection of 16.5%. No difference in the prevalence of infection was found between genders [16.2% in males and 16.9% in females (χ(2)=0.05, p=0.821)], or among the study years (G=7.22, p=0.705). Trichinella larvae were found in 13 out of the 24 examined localities. Molecular identification was performed for 90 isolates, and 64 (71.1%) larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis and 25 (27.9%) as Trichinella britovi. Mixed infection (T. spiralis and T. britovi) was recorded in a single case. Although T. spiralis was more prevalent, T. britovi had a wider distribution, and was the only recorded species in jackal populations from the mountainous region of eastern Serbia. On the other hand, T. spiralis was dominant in jackals in the lowlands of central and northern Serbia, where domestic pigs are mostly reared. These results show that the golden jackal is involved in both the domestic and sylvatic cycle, and that it has emerged as

  18. Effect of vinegar or soy sauce at various concentrationons on the infectivity and reproductive capability of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae%不同浓度醋或酱油对旋毛虫肌幼虫感染力和生殖力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范顺云; 刘东旭; 张国超; 杨龙; 张佐娣; 徐亚; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    的生殖力无影响.结论 含旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉经一定浓度的食用醋或食用酱油浸泡一定时间后其旋毛虫肌幼虫的感染力和生殖力会降低.%Objective To compare the effect of vinegar or soy sauce at various concentrations and different time on the infectivity and reproductive capability of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae.Methods 84 Kunming mice were fed with muscle larvae in meat that soaked in vinegar(3.5 g/100 ml,4.5 g/100 ml,6 g/100 ml) or soy sauce (0.4 g/100 ml,0.7 g/100 ml,1.0 g/100 ml) and saline,with different concentrations and for different time(3,6,12 h).The infected mice were killed after 7 days and 30 days and the intestinal adult worms,muscle larvae and reproductive capacity index (RCI) were observed and counted.Results The intestinal adult worms were 150,110,80,respectively and RCIs were 85.87,52.00,29.33respectively in mice fed with muscle larvae treated by vinegar(3.5 g/100 ml) for 3,6,12 h; the intestinal adult worms were 120,90,50,respectively and RCIs were 72.53,52.53,17.33 respectively in mice fed with muscle larvae treated by vinegar(4.5 g/100 ml) for 3,6,12 h ; the intestinal adult worms were 60,40,11,respectively and RCIs were 52.00,12.00,8.00,respectively in mice fed with muscle larvae treated by vinegar(6 g/100 ml) for 3,6,12 h ; the intestinal adult worms were 190,140,60,respectively and RCIs were 65.73,45.60,24.27,respectively in mice fed with muscle larvae treated by soy sauce (0.4 g/100 ml) for 3,6,12 h the intestinal adult worms were 120,80,20,respectively and RCIs were 46.67,38.27,21.33,respectively in mice fed with muscle larvae treated by soy sauce (0.7 g/100 ml) for 3,6,12 h; the intestinal adult worms were 45,30,15,respectively and RCIs were 43.20,18.33,9.00,respectively in mice fed with muscle larvae treated by soy sauce ( 1.0 g/100 ml) for 3,6,12 h,lower than that in saline control mice( the intestinal adult worms were 200,180,120,respectively and RCIs were 96.00,60.80,48.06,respectively

  19. A 10-year wildlife survey of 15 species of Canadian carnivores identifies new hosts or geographic locations for Trichinella genotypes T2, T4, T5, and T6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajadhar, Alvin A; Forbes, Lorry B

    2010-02-26

    A survey of wild carnivores in Canada was conducted over a 10-year period to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Trichinella. Muscle samples collected from 1409 animals representing 15 hosts species were enzymatically digested to recover Trichinella larvae. Larvae were recovered from a total of 287 (20.4%) animals and PCR identified four genotypes of Trichinella. Trichinella nativa was found in 5 host species and was the most commonly found genotype. Trichinella T6 was present in 7 species of carnivores, and coyote and badger are new host records for this genotype. The recovery of T. pseudospiralis and T. murrelli from cougars is the first documentation of these species in Canada and in cougars. The cougar was also the only host species in which all four genotypes of Trichinella were identified. Black bears and walruses had the highest tissue levels of larvae in this study and are also the species most frequently associated with human trichinellosis in Canada. This work identifies additional host species and expanded geographic ranges for 4 genotypes of Trichinella in North America. Failure to demonstrate T. spiralis in wildlife and continued negative results from ongoing surveillance activities in swine provide additional evidence that T. spiralis is not present in Canada.

  20. Molecular similarities and differences between Trichinella spp., isolated from canine skeletal muscle in Zacatecas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Sandoval, Luz Ofelia; Caballero García, María de Lourdes; Hernández, Gabriela Rebeles; Moreno García, Maria Alejandra; Jiménez Cardoso, Enedina

    2012-06-01

    Four different isolates of Trichinella spp. (Z1, Z2, Z3, and Z4) obtained from the skeletal muscle of street dogs in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico were serial passaged in Wistar rats; infective larvae from the skeletal muscle of the rats were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After centrifugation, DNA was extracted and the 5SRNAr and IsRNAr genes were amplified. The isolates were identified by the size of the amplified products from the 5SRNAr and IsRNAr genes (750 and 290 bp, respectively). The amplicons obtained by PCR were sequenced, aligned, and compared to the reference strain Trichinella spiralis MSUS/MEX/91//EM isolated from pigs. Based on our results, we determined that the Trichinella isolates from canine (Z1-Z4) belonged to the T. spiralis species and had 83% identity with the reference strain. The phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences showed differences between the isolates from pig and dog. These genetic differences may be related to the immune response of the host or the pathogenicity of the isolates. Therefore, these findings have important epidemiological and public health implications.

  1. Trichinellosis survey in the wild boar from the Toledo mountains in south-western Spain (2007-2008): molecular characterization of Trichinella isolates by ISSR-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, R N; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Manzano-Lorenzo, R; Díaz, J M Arroyo; López, G Pérez; Ruano, F J Sánchez; Casas, A Ramiro; Bascón, C Crespo; Bolás-Fernández, F; Martínez-Fernández, A R

    2009-06-01

    In Spain, trichinellosis represents a public health problem, with an average of five outbreaks per year, wild boar meat being the main source of infection. A trichinellosis survey (2007-2008 hunting campaign) was carried out on wild boars in the Toledo Mountains (south-western Spain, EU) in the context of a surveillance programme on wildlife diseases. A total of 2216 wild boars from different locations of the region were examined. The examination was carried out by veterinarians in the local abattoir (Matadero Municipal de Toledo). The positive samples were sent to the Department of Parasitology (Facultad de Farmacia, UCM) for experimental isolation and specific identification by inter-simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR). Using this technique we identified 17 isolates as Trichinella spiralis with an electrophoretic profile indistinguishable from the T. spiralis reference strain (ISS48). We confirmed that ISSR-PCR is a robust technique for the molecular identification of Trichinella isolates. According to our results, the prevalence of T. spiralis in wild boars from the Toledo Mountains (>800 m above sea level) during the hunting season was approximately 0.77%. The prevalence of T. spiralis (100% of our observations) is a good example of the persistence of this species in sylvatic conditions (coming from the domestic cycle), if a good wild host is abundant. Our observations confirm the major prevalence of T. spiralis over T. britovi in this region, as well as the risk to human health represented by the consumption of uninspected wild boar meat.

  2. Experimental studies on female reproductivity of four Trichinella isolates%旋毛虫各隔离种雌虫生殖能力的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂红; 宋铭忻; 路义鑫; 师东方

    2001-01-01

    Newborn larva production per female worm of 4 Trichinella isolates in vitro was compared.It was found that swine isolate and T.spiralis were more reproductive,with an average of total reproduction of 66.00±7.34 and 76.20±7.57 newborn larvae (NBL) released per female worm at 24 hours of cultivation respectively,dog isolate and T.nativa had lower reproductivity, with an average of 28.80±4.30 and 22.00±3.22 NBL/female respectively.It is concluded that Trichinella from swine and dog in Heilongjiang province, China belong to Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa.%本试验对旋毛虫各隔离种雌虫体外产新生幼虫能力进行了研究。结果显示,猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)雌虫体外培养24 h平均产新生幼虫数分别为66.00±7.34和76.20±7.57,而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)分别是28.80±4.30和22.00±3.22,前者在雌虫体外产幼虫能力上明显高于后者。 研究结果表明,黑龙江猪旋毛虫相当于旋毛虫形线虫,犬旋毛虫相当于本地毛形线虫。

  3. Impaired acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus of Trichinella-infected rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.M.; Blennerhassett, P.A.; Blennerhassett, M.G.; Vermillion, D.L. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from jejunal longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations in noninfected control rats and in rats infected 6, 23, or 40 days previously with Trichinella spiralis. ACh release was assessed by preincubating the tissue with ({sup 3}H)choline and measuring the evoked release of tritium. The uptake of {sup 3}H was significantly less in tissue from T. spiralis-infected rats compared with control. In tissues from either infected or control animals, electrical field stimulation (30 V, 0.5 ms, 10 Hz for 1 min), or veratridine (6-30 microM) induced {sup 3}H release that was tetrodotoxin sensitive. Depolarization by KCl (25-75 mM) also caused {sup 3}H release, but this was only partially reduced by tetrodotoxin. Radiochromatographic analysis indicated evoked release of {sup 3}H to be almost entirely ({sup 3}H)ACh. In rats infected 6 days previously with T. spiralis, ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by KCl, veratridine, and field stimulation were decreased at least 80%. The suppression of ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by veratridine or KCl was fully reversible after 40 days postinfection, but field-stimulated responses remained approximately 50% of control values. These results indicate that T. spiralis infection in the rat is accompanied by a reversible suppression of ACh release from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the jejunum.

  4. Survey of Trichinella infections in domestic pigs from northern and eastern Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Li Na; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2013-05-20

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infections in swine in the cities of Anyang and Shanqiu in the Henan province historically designated as trichinellosis-free. A total of 475 diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 2010 to 2011 and examined by trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. No Trichinella larvae were detected by trichinelloscopy; however, using the digestion method, 3.79% (18/475) of domestic pigs were deemed positive for Trichinella. Among the 475 pigs examined, 112 from an industrialized pig farm were negative. However. Trichinella larvae were detected in 10% (9/90) of pigs from small pig farms, which was significantly higher than the 3.3% (9/273) of pigs found positive from backyard farms (PTrichinella spiralis. Our study confirms the existence of porcine trichinellosis in northern and eastern parts of Henan. The results will be useful for evaluating the risk of infection for humans. Given this new found data, public health officials should consider implementing strategies to eliminate human transmission.

  5. Detection of Trichinella infection in slaughter horses by artificial digestion, ELISA and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveros N.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compared the sensitivity of molecular, serologic and parasitologic methods for diagnosis of equine trichinellosis in two abattoirs, one rural and one federal inspection type. Diaphragm muscle samples were obtained from 170 slaughter horses and examined by artificial digestion and PCR. Serum samples from these horses were also analyzed by ELISA. No Trichinella muscle larvae were detected by artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies against Trichinella were detected in 17 % and 7 % of the serum samples examined from the rural and the federal abattoirs respectively. By PCR, 15 % and 2 % of the samples from these two abattoirs were Trichinella positive.

  6. Recent progress in the taxonomy of the Genus Trichinella%旋毛虫属分类的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中全; 崔晶

    2002-01-01

    @@ 自1835年Owen发现旋毛虫以后,一直认为旋毛虫属只有一个种,即Trichinella spiralis(T.spira-lis),并认为只有猪和少数生态上与人关联的动物(synanthropic animal,如鼠等)是其保虫宿主,野生动物感染旋毛虫被认为是罕见的.

  7. Molecular characterization of Trichinella species from wild animals in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; King, Roni; Markovics, Alex

    2016-11-15

    Trichinellosis is a worldwide disease caused by nematode worms of the genus Trichinella, frequently diagnosed in Israel. However, the identity of the Israeli isolates have not been studied. Here we describe the molecular characterization of 58 isolates collected from jackals (Canis aureus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a wolf (Canis lupus) in central and northern Israel. Isolates were analyzed using the multiplex PCR analysis encompassing expansion segment V (ESV) and internal sequence 1 (ITS-1) markers, which identified 52 of the 58 samples. Out of the six unidentified samples, four were successfully identified using extended PCR assays for ESV and ITS-1, developed in this study. Our analysis identified 44 isolates as T. britovi, 8 as T. spiralis, four mixed infections, and two isolates were not identified. Clonal analysis of the ITS-1 sequences from six isolates confirmed the initial identification of four mixed infections. These results show that the prevalent species in Israel are T. britovi and T. spiralis, with nearly 7% (4 of 58) incidence of mixed infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-time PCR as a surveillance tool for the detection of Trichinella infection in muscle samples from wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Leigh; Corley, Sean W; Gray, Christian P; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2012-09-10

    Trichinella nematodes are the causative agent of trichinellosis, a meat-borne zoonosis acquired by consuming undercooked, infected meat. Although most human infections are sourced from the domestic environment, the majority of Trichinella parasites circulate in the natural environment in carnivorous and scavenging wildlife. Surveillance using reliable and accurate diagnostic tools to detect Trichinella parasites in wildlife hosts is necessary to evaluate the prevalence and risk of transmission from wildlife to humans. Real-time PCR assays have previously been developed for the detection of European Trichinella species in commercial pork and wild fox muscle samples. We have expanded on the use of real-time PCR in Trichinella detection by developing an improved extraction method and SYBR green assay that detects all known Trichinella species in muscle samples from a greater variety of wildlife. We simulated low-level Trichinella infections in wild pig, fox, saltwater crocodile, wild cat and a native Australian marsupial using Trichinella pseudospiralis or Trichinella papuae ethanol-fixed larvae. Trichinella-specific primers targeted a conserved region of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA and were tested for specificity against host and other parasite genomic DNAs. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was at least 100 fg using pure genomic T. pseudospiralis DNA serially diluted in water. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking 10 g of each host muscle with T. pseudospiralis or T. papuae larvae at representative infections of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1 larvae per gram, and shown to detect larvae at the lowest infection rate. A field sample evaluation on naturally infected muscle samples of wild pigs and Tasmanian devils showed complete agreement with the EU reference artificial digestion method (k-value=1.00). Positive amplification of mouse tissue experimentally infected with T. spiralis indicated the assay could also be used on encapsulated

  9. 旋毛虫各隔离种成虫在小鼠肠道中的分布%Studies on Adult Worms in Intestinal Distribution of Trichinella Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路义鑫; 宋铭忻; 王宝林

    2003-01-01

    以旋毛虫国际标准种旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)为对照,对黑龙江省猪、犬旋毛虫成虫在小鼠肠道中的分布进行了比较研究,研究结果表明:分别有76.3%,80.67%和86.18%,88.30%的猪旋毛虫、T.spiralis和犬旋毛虫、T.nativa分布于小肠的前、中段.说明猪旋毛虫、T.spiralis、犬旋毛虫、T.nativa的成虫均主要分布于小肠的前、中段.但犬旋毛虫、T.nativa、所占比例明显高于猪旋毛虫、T.spiralis,差异极显著(P<0.01).研究结果揭示,黑龙江省猪旋毛虫相当于旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis),犬旋毛虫相当于本地毛形线虫(Trichinella.native).

  10. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE EXCRETORY-SECRETORY ANTIGENS OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS MUSCLE LARVAE%旋毛虫肌幼虫ES Ag单克隆抗体的制备与特性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学伍; 杨艳艳; 王自良; 肖治军; 柴书军; 张改平

    2008-01-01

    目的 获得能够用于制备旋毛虫病快速检测试纸条的ES Ag的单克隆抗体.方法 应用旋毛虫肌幼虫排泄分泌抗原(ES Ag)免疫诱导Balb/c小鼠,使小鼠产生较强的免疫应答,将免疫小鼠的脾细胞与NSO瘤细胞融合,利用ES-45、ES-49抗原通过间接ELISA对大量杂交瘤细胞培养上清的筛选,筛选出分泌高亲和力单克隆抗体的4株杂交瘤细胞.结果 ES-45和ES-49(分子质量分别为45ku,49ku)分别被Ts-2D4、Ts-4C5和Ts-4H6、Ts-2G8单克隆抗体识别,与猪肺丝虫(Metastrongylus pudendotectus.MP)、囊虫(Cysticercus cellulosae,CC)、细颈囊尾蚴(Cysticercus tenuicollis,CT)、蛔虫(Ascaris suum,AS)、弓形虫(Toxoplasma gondii,TG)、住肉孢子虫(Sarcocystis miescheriana,SM)抗原反应测试表明,4株单抗与参试抗原均无交叉反应,所有单抗上清ELISA平均效价为1∶1 120,腹水ELISA平均效价为1.1×106,亲和力常数的平均值为6.12 ×109L/mol.以金标免疫吸附试纸条原理为基础,利用制备的单抗成功研制了旋毛虫病快速检测试纸条,操作快速、无需设备及试剂,可以作为旋毛虫病的实时监测工具.结论 ES Ag单抗用于制备旋毛虫病快速诊断试纸条是理想的试剂.

  11. Advances in Distribution of Trichinella Species%旋毛虫种属分布研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊珊; 张莉; 李海龙; 李倩

    2016-01-01

    旋毛虫自发现以来,已有180年的历史,研究人员通过对亚洲和欧洲的共110个旋毛虫地理隔离株碱基进行分析发现,欧洲地理隔离株比亚洲地理隔离株的一致性更高,并且发现不同旋毛虫对动物的感染具有一定的异嗜性。随着 Trichinella patagoniousis 的发现,使得旋毛虫种属已扩大到了9个种和3个分类地位尚不明确的基因型,又进一步扩充了旋毛虫的数据库。不同种旋毛虫宿主和分布范围在不断扩大,已经涉及到55个国家及150多种哺乳动物、鸟类和爬行动物感染旋毛虫,诸多因素均表明,旋毛虫严重威胁着人类健康。明确旋毛虫的种类、宿主及其地理分布对旋毛虫病的防控具有重要意义。%It has been 180 years since the discovery of Trichinella spiralis .It was showed that in the analyt-ic result among 110 T.spiralis geographic isolates,there is a relatively higher degree of consistency in Asia than in Europe.And different species have different hosts.With the distribution of Trichinella,there were nine species in Trichinella and three unclear genotypes been found,taking further expansion of the Trichinella database.Different species of Trichinella hosts and expanding distribution have been involved in 55 countries and more than 150 kinds of mammals,birds and reptiles.Many factors indicated Trichinella being a serious threat to human health.So understanding the classification,host and geographical distribu-tion of Trichinella has important implications for prevention and control of trichinellosis.

  12. Innate immunity modulation in the duodenal mucosa induced by REM sleep deprivation during infection with Trichinella spirallis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G.; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Pantaleón-Martínez, Ana M.; Velazquéz-Moctezuma, Javier; Rodriguez-Mata, Veronica; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is considered to be an important predictor of the immunity, since the absence of sleep can affect the development of the immune response, and consequently increase the susceptibility to contract an infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate if sleep deprivation and stress induce dysregulation of the duodenal mucous membrane during the acute infection with Trichinella spiralis. Our results shows that, in the intestinal mucous membrane, stress and sleep deprivation, produces different effect in the cells, and this effect depends on the studied duodenal compartment, glands or villi. The sleep deprivation affect mast cells mainly, and the stress response is more heterogeneous. Interestingly, in the duodenal mucous membrane, none population of cells in the infected groups responded equally to both conditions. These findings suggest that the response of the intestinal mucous membrane during the infection caused for T. spiralis turns out to be affected in the sleep-deprived rats, therefore, the results of the present study sustain the theory that sleep is a fundamental process that is capable of modulating the immune response of mucous membranes, particularly the one generated against the parasite Trichinella spiralis. PMID:28374797

  13. 旋毛虫各隔离种ITSⅡ区基因克隆和序列分析%Cloning and sequencing of gene of six Trichinella isolates in ITSⅡ section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓波; 李冬梅; 花丽茹; 路义鑫; 宋铭忻

    2006-01-01

    克隆了6个不同旋毛虫隔离种的核糖体RNA ITSⅡ区的基因片段,序列分析结果表明,黑龙江省猪旋毛虫和猫旋毛虫为旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis);犬旋毛虫为本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa).结果与传统的分类结果基本一致,为传统的分类学方法提供了基础依据.

  14. Cloning and Application of ITS Ⅱ Gene of Six Trichinella Isolates on Taxonomy%旋毛虫ITSⅡ区基因的克隆及其在分类学上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓波; 李冬梅; 花丽茹; 路义鑫; 宋铭忻

    2006-01-01

    克隆了6个不同旋毛虫隔离种的核糖体RNA ITSⅡ区的基因片段,序列分析结果表明,黑龙江省猪旋毛虫和猫旋毛虫为旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis);犬旋毛虫为本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa),与传统的分类结果基本一致,为传统的分类学方法提供了基础依据.

  15. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  16. Unique antigenic gene expression at different developmental stages of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X P; Liu, X L; Wang, X L; Blaga, R; Fu, B Q; Liu, P; Bai, X; Wang, Z J; Rosenthal, B M; Shi, H N; Sandrine, L; Vallee, I; Boireau, P; Wang, F; Zhou, X N; Zhao, Y; Liu, M Y

    2013-05-20

    Parasite-induced and parasite-regulated larval capsule formation and host immunosuppression are two major characteristics that are unique in Trichinella spp. infections, but the molecule(s) and mechanism(s) that mediate these processes remain largely unknown. Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella spiralis, are obviously different with respect to these two characteristics. A comparative study of these two species, in particular their antigen expression profiles at different developmental stages (the main molecules involved in the cross-talk or interaction between each parasite and its host), may help us better understand the parasite molecules and mechanisms involved. Here, we constructed cDNA libraries from T. pseudospiralis adults (Ad), newborn larvae (NBL) and muscle larvae (ML) mRNA and screened them with pig anti-T. pseudospiralis serum collected 26, 32 and 60 days post-infection (p.i.). The most abundant antigens were found to vary among life-cycle stages. Pyroglutamy peptidase 1-like and 6-phosphogluconolactonase-like genes predominated in the Ad stage and a serine protease (SS2-1-like gene) predominated in NBL similar to that observed in T. spiralis. Muscle larvae expressed proteasome activator complex subunit 3-like and 21 kDa excretory/secretory protein-like genes. This study indicated that parasites of two species may utilise different molecules and mechanisms for larvae capsule formation and host immunosuppression during their infections. Proteins of antigenic genes identified in this study may be also good candidates for diagnosis, treatment or vaccination for T. pseudospiralis infection, and also for the differential diagnosis of two species' infections.

  17. Effect of myrrh and thyme on Trichinella spiralisenteral and parenteral phases with inducible nitric oxide expression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha AH Attia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a serious disease with no satisfactory treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol and, for the first time, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. against enteral and encysted (parenteral phases of Trichinella spiralis in mice compared with albendazole, and detect their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of myrrh and thyme led to adult reduction (90.9%, 79.4%, while 1,000 mg/kg led to larvae reduction (79.6%, 71.3%, respectively. Administration of 50 mg/kg of albendazole resulted in adult and larvae reduction (94.2%, 90.9%. Positive immunostaining of inflammatory cells infiltrating intestinal mucosa and submucosa of all treated groups was detected. Myrrh-treated mice showed the highest iNOS expression followed by albendazole, then thyme. On the other hand, both myrrh and thyme-treated groups showed stronger iNOS expression of inflammatory cells infiltrating and surrounding encapsulated T. spiralis larvae than albendazole treated group. In conclusion, myrrh and thyme extracts are highly effective against both phases of T. spiralis and showed strong iNOS expressions, especially myrrh which could be a promising alternative drug. This experiment provides a basis for further exploration of this plant by isolation and retesting the active principles of both extracts against different stages of T. spiralis.

  18. 旋毛虫各隔离株某些生物学特性的研究%Studies on Biological Characteristics of Trichinella Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路义鑫; 宋铭忻; 韩正博; 姜艳春

    2003-01-01

    以旋毛虫国际标准种:旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)为对照,从生物学方面对黑龙江省猪、犬旋毛虫进行了比较研究,结果表明:猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis在小鼠膈肌中出现保姆细胞(Nurse cell,NC)的时间为感染后第16和18天,第38和36天所有肌型幼虫都形成了NC,而犬旋毛虫和T.nativa为感染后20和22天,第32天完全形成;猪旋毛虫、T.spiralis、犬旋毛虫、T.nativa成虫肠期持续时间分别为22,20,16,14天;4个旋毛虫隔离株成虫均主要位于小肠的前、中段,但犬旋毛虫、T.nativa所占比例明显高于猪旋毛虫、T.spiralis,差异极显著(P<0.01).研究结果揭示,黑龙江省猪旋毛虫相当于旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis),犬旋毛虫相当于本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa).

  19. Trichinella infection in wild boars and synanthropic rats in northwest Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, N Vu; Nguyen, V D; Praet, N; Claes, L; Gabriël, S; Huyen, N T; Dorny, P

    2014-02-24

    Trichinellosis is an emerging parasitic zoonosis in North Vietnam. In this survey, hunted and farm-bred wild boars as well as synanthropic rats were sampled in two provinces of northwest Vietnam where outbreaks of trichinellosis have recently occurred. Evidence of Trichinella infection was studied by parasitological, serological and molecular methods. The results showed relatively low prevalence of Trichinella spiralis in hunted wild boars (2/62 (3.2%; 95% CI: 0.8- 4.8)) and rats (23/820 (2.8%; 95% CI: 13.7-32.3)). Parasite burdens in the muscle tissues were between 0.1 and 0.03 larvae/g, and 0.1 and 7 larvae/g in wild boars and rats, respectively. Seroprevalence in farm-bred wild boars was negative. The findings of Trichinella-infected rats in 7 of the 20 districts of Dien Bien and Son La provinces suggest that the parasite is circulating in these regions. These results indicate that the local population and health centers should be made aware of the risks of eating raw or undercooked meat dishes prepared from wild animals.

  20. 旋毛虫成虫与肌幼虫排泄分泌抗原蛋白组分的比较分析%Comparison of Protein Components of Excretory-Secretory Antigens of Adult Worm and Muscle Larvae of Trichinella spiralis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸣旺; 张志兰; 申丽洁; 董明治

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较大理猪源旋毛虫(Trichinela spiralis)成虫与肌幼虫排泄分泌抗原(Excretory-secretory antigens,ES)的蛋白组分差异,并进一步分析其反应原性,为分离筛选出免疫原性和反应原性强的旋毛虫抗原成分奠定基础.方法 分别收集和纯化旋毛虫成虫、肌幼虫虫体,制备ES,采用SDS-PAGE分析成虫和肌幼虫ES蛋白成分,Western blot分析其反应原性.结果 经SDS-PAGE分析,旋毛虫成虫ES显示17条蛋白条带,相对分子质量范围在120 000~14 000之间,其中主带6条,相对分子质量分别为120 000、64 000、43 000、40 000、35 000、33 000;旋毛虫肌幼虫ES显示20条蛋白条带,相对分子质量范围在112 000~10 000之间,其中主带11条,相对分子质量分别为112 000、66 000、56 000、55 000、53 000、49 000、45 000、43 000、25 000、21 000、10 000.Western blot分析表明,旋毛虫成虫ES抗原显示7条反应带,相对分子质量分别为43 000、40 000、35 000、27 000、19 000、18 000、14 000,其中相对分子质量43 000、40 000、27 000、18 000的条带着色明显;旋毛虫肌幼虫ES抗原显示14条反应带,相对分子质量范围在74 000~12 000之间,其中相对分子质量53 000、49 000、45 000、43 000、35 000、27 000、18 000、12 000的条带显色明显.结论 旋毛虫成虫和肌幼虫ES抗原蛋白组分均复杂,有共同组分,也有不同组分,旋毛虫ES抗原具有较强的反应原性,是旋毛虫病研究的重要候选抗原.

  1. ЕСТЕСТВЕННОЕ ЗАРАЖЕНИЕ ТРАНЗИТНЫХ ХОЗЯЕВ TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS В ПРИРОДНОМ БИОЦЕНОЗЕ

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Полученные данные показывают, что трихинеллы T. spiralis природного изолята от первого пассажа слабо адаптированы к организму нового для них вида хозяина (белой беспородной мыши). Биологические показатели - приживаемость, выживаемость, продуктивность и появление первых личинок в диафрагме трихинелл природного изолята от лисицы имеют закрепленные свойства, и во время 5-ти кратного пассирования на одном виде лабораторного животного не изменяются. Срок наступления инвазионности личинок трихинелл...

  2. [On the possibility of vertical transmission of Trichinella and the impact of its invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    Whether experimentally infected female rats can transmit Trichinella in utero and its invasion may affect the immunity of their offspring has been investigated. There is evidence that maternal antibodies have a significant impact on the humoral immunity of the offspring and as a result on the number of Trichinella larvae accustomed in the muscles. Immune interlayer formation in the populations of carnivorous mammals in the endemic areas occurs due to reinvasions and passive transmission of maternal antibodies to the offspring. High-tension immunity in the population and animals contributes to a reduction in the onset of invasion and to a predominance of the subclinical course of the disease and asymptomatic carriage in a specific focus. Passive immunity transmitted from the Trichinella-infected mother to its offspring is of importance in the development of epidemic and epizootic processes in the natural and synanthropic foci of trichinosis.

  3. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Cabaj, Władysław

    2013-06-01

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens. Natural transmission between hosts can only occur through the ingestion of infected meat. To date, two Trichinella species are known to be etiological agents of disease among domestic animals and wildlife in Poland: T. spiralis and T. britovi. In the last decades, since the administration of an oral vaccination against rabies, the red fox population in Poland has increased exponentially. The study area covers the Nowy Targ region: a mountainous area (585-1138 m above the sea) in southern Poland. Of 24 red foxes examined in the study, four were infected with Trichinella isolates: three were identified as T. britovi and one as T. pseudospiralis. The muscle of red foxes infected with T. britovi harboured 2.75, 3.11, 4.4 LPG and with T. pseudospiralis 0.36 LPG. Trichinella larvae were identified at species level by genomic and mitochondrial multiplex PCR, the products of which were sequenced for comparison with other sequences available in GenBank. The sequences obtained from the Polish T. pseudospiralis isolate, deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JQ809660.1 and JQ809661.1, matched sequences already published in GenBank. Sequence comparison showed a 100% match with the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene of T. pseudospiralis isolate ISS 013, and a 96-95% match with those of T. pseudospiralis isolates ISS 141 and ISS 470. This is the first report of the identification of T. pseudospiralis larvae from red fox in Poland.

  4. Description of an outbreak of human trichinellosis in an area of Argentina historically regarded as Trichinella-free: the importance of surveillance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, M A; Bourlot, I; Taus, R; Saracino, M P; Venturiello, S M

    2014-03-01

    Trichinellosis is an important food-borne zoonosis which is not treated as a major public health concern in Argentina. After more than 20 years without reports of infection in an area regarded as Trichinella-free, research studies reported that infection occurred in humans, pigs and game animals, including the recent outbreak of human trichinellosis revealed here. The outbreak, affecting 64 individuals, occurred in July 2010 in the province of Entre Ríos. Epidemiological studies, clinical observations, laboratory analyses and immunoserological specific assays (indirect immunofluorescence, IIF, and ELISA) were performed. Food samples were analyzed by artificial digestion, and Trichinella larvae isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex PCR. The main source of infection, commercially available food, had a parasite load of 1.1 muscle larvae per gram. Larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Patients presented predominantly with oedema, fever and myalgia; and laboratory findings and/or immunoserological tests were positive for trichinellosis. Individuals received outpatient treatment. No deaths or secondary sequelae were recorded. Results suggest that the presence of T. spiralis infection should be suspected in all endemic areas, especially where animal husbandry and official food safety controls are not properly conducted. The lack of the cases reported ought not to be taken as a proof of parasite absence. We highlight the importance of the urgent need to implement interdisciplinary and inter-institutional programs aimed to control infection transmission, to guarantee food safety and to conduct epidemiological surveillance studies.

  5. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology.

  6. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology.

  7. Cloning and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Trichinella from cat in Heilongjiang province%黑龙江省猫旋毛虫18S rRNA基因分子克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 王秀荣; 董小波; 路义鑫; 宋铭忻

    2007-01-01

    本文利用GenBank中发表的( Trichinella spiralis )18S rRNA序列为参考设计引物,对分离自黑龙江省猫体内的旋毛虫及本地毛形线虫( Trichinella nativa )的18S rRNA基因进行扩增,克隆后测序,序列分析结果表明:猫旋毛虫与旋毛形线虫基因同源性更高.

  8. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  9. A study to demonstrate freedom from Trichinella spp. in domestic pigs in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppers, M E; Rosenberg, G; Graf, R; Eidam, V; Wittwer, C; Zimmermann, W; Gottstein, B; Frey, C F

    2010-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Trichinella spp. Many omnivorous and carnivorous animal species can act as host for this parasite, including domestic pigs. To protect public health, it should be ensured that pork should not contain infective Trichinella larvae. Surveillance for Trichinella spp. can be done using direct (larval detection) and indirect (antibody detection) diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of infection in Swiss domestic pigs. An ELISA was used as the initial screening test, and sera reacting in ELISA were further investigated using both a Western blot for serology and an artificial digestion test with 20 g of diaphragm tissue for larval detection. A total of 7412 adult pigs, 9973 finishing pigs and 2779 free-ranging pigs were tested. Samples from 17 (0.23%) adult pigs, 16 (0.16%) finishing pigs and nine (0.32%) free-ranging pigs were ELISA-positive, but all of these sera were subsequently negative by Western blot and by the artificial digestion method. Based on these findings, an absence of Trichinella infections in adult pigs (target prevalence 0.04%) and finishing pigs (target prevalence 0.03%) can be concluded. The results also demonstrated that the prevalence of Trichinella infections does not exceed 0.11% in free-ranging pigs, the group with the highest risk of exposure.

  10. 旋毛虫各隔离种对低温耐受性的研究%Studies on the Low Temperature Tolerance of Various Trichinella species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗公平; 张彦庆; 何浩; 姜淑珍; 林明亮; 宋铭忻; 路义鑫; 刘溯一; 熊永忠; 王裕卿

    2002-01-01

    用来自哈尔滨地区猪、犬体内的旋毛虫和国际标准虫株旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)、本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)同时感染猪,在-22℃和-32℃条件下对感染了各旋毛虫的猪肉进行冷冻性试验,结果表明:哈尔滨地区猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis不耐低温,-32℃冷冻12h,-22℃冷冻48 h全部死亡;而犬旋毛和T.nativa对低温抵抗力较强,-32℃、72h,-22℃、168h才全部死亡.

  11. 不同旋毛虫隔离种在猪体内的分布%Distribution of Different Trichinella Strains in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何浩; 张云贵; 石金峰; 胡艳君; 胡天阳; 宋铭忻; 路义鑫; 熊永忠; 刘溯一; 曹荣峰

    2002-01-01

    本文研究了黑龙江省猪旋毛虫和国际标准株旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)在猪体内的分布情况,结果表明,猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis在猪体内寄生寄生密度较大的部位是:膈肌、舌肌、咬肌、腓肠肌、肩胛肌、肋间肌、颈肌、前腿肌,臀肌和背最长肌寄生密度较小.

  12. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna and...

  13. The detection of encapsulated and non-encapsulated species of Trichinella suggests the existence of two evolutive lines in the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the discovery of many non-encapsulated isolates of Trichinella, designated Trichinella pseudospiralis and the identification of a new non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, has revealed that the biomass of the genus Trichinella does not only include the well known encapsulated species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli, and T. nelsoni but also includes geographically disseminated, non-encapsulated species that represent important biological entities in the genus. Larvae of the first stage (L1 of both non-encapsulated and encapsulated species are able to penetrate the muscle cell and induce a dedifferentiation of this cell. But following this point in the parenteral cycle, non-encapsulated and encapsulated species diverge with respect to their developmental strategies where L1 of encapsulated species are able to induce the nurse cell to synthesize collagen, unlike non-encapsulated larvae which do not induce collagen production. The presence or absence of a collagen capsule is of great importance in the natural cycle of these parasites in that it allows the encapsulated larva to survive to substantially longer periods of time and therefore remain infective even within putrefied muscle tissue.

  14. Evaluation of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit for the digestion and recovery of larvae in pork, horse meat and wild meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecsni, Kelly; Scheller, Cheryl; Scandrett, Brad; Buholzer, Patrik; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2017-08-30

    The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite. The present study was conducted to determine the performance of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit compared to the conventional pepsin/HCl digestion. Replicate paired 115g samples of Trichinella-negative pork diaphragm and masseter, and of horse tongue and masseter, were used to compare the two methods for tissue digestibility. Similarly, paired 100g samples of pork diaphragm and horse tongue were spiked with proficiency samples containing known numbers of Trichinella spiralis first stage larvae to compare larval recoveries for the two methods. Masseter samples from wild bears and wolves naturally infected with Trichinella nativa or T6 were also used to compare the performance of the methods. The results of the study showed that the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit, when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, was effective in detecting Trichinella infection in all samples that contained 0.05 or more larvae per gram of tissue. Although there was no significant difference between the Kit method and the standard pepsin/HCl digestion procedure in the average number of larvae recovered from spiked pork diaphragm, 38% fewer larvae were recovered from similarly spiked samples of horse tongue by digestion using serine protease (one way ANOVA, P value <0.001). Additional clarification was also more often required for both horse meat and pork when using the Kit compared to the pepsin/HCl method. The results of testing wildlife samples were

  15. Serologic survey for Trichinella spp. in grizzly bears from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, R L; Gamble, R; Heckert, R A; Ver Hoef, J

    1997-07-01

    Blood was collected from 878 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in seven geographic areas of Alaska from 1973 to 1987. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure was used to test sera for evidence of exposure to Trichinella spp. Serum antibody prevalence ranged from 5% (10 positive of 196 tested) in the Southern Region of the state to 83% (355 of 430 tested) in the Northern Region. These major discrepancies may be a result of differing food habits of bears in the major geographic areas. Prevalence was higher in older age cohorts. Neither year-of-collection nor sex had a significant effect on prevalence.

  16. Immunosuppressive effects of fumonisin B1 in the Trichinella spiralis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs M de; Egmond HP van; Jong WH de; Loveren H van; LPI; ARO; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Fumonisine B1 is een mycotoxine geproduceerd door Fusarium moniliforme en wordt vooral gevonden in mais. Fumonisine B1 veroorzaakt oesophaguskanker in de mens, longoedeem in het varken en leuko-encephalomalacie in het paard. Effecten van dit mycotoxine op het immuunsysteem werden waargenomen in

  17. Effects of Salmeterol on host resistance to Trichinella spiralis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loveren H; de Jong WH; van der Stappen AJ; Verlaan AJM; de Waal EJ; LPI; LGM

    1998-01-01

    Salmeterol is een lang werkende Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonist. In het verleden is dit geneesmiddel getest voor immunotoxiciteit in een herhaalde dosis toxiciteitsstudie gedurende 28 dagen in de rat. In deze Tier I studie, waren de serum IgG spiegels verhoogd bij doseringen van 2 en 10 mg/kg/dag. T

  18. Trichinella infection and clinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T

    1996-01-01

    . Life-threatening cardiopulmonary, renal and central nervous system complications developed. The patient recovered after several months. Her husband, who also ate the pork, did not have clinical symptoms, but an increased eosinophil count and a single larva in a muscle biopsy confirmed infection......Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning...

  19. 各隔离株旋毛虫感染性的研究%Studies on Infectivity of Trichinella isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路义鑫; 宋铭忻

    2003-01-01

    以旋毛虫国际标准种:旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)为对照,对黑龙江省猪、犬旋毛虫对大、小鼠和猪的感染性进行了比较研究.结果表明:4个旋毛虫隔离株均对大鼠不易感,但相对犬旋毛虫和T.nativa而言,猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis对大鼠的感染性较高(P<0.01).猪旋毛虫、T.spiralis、犬旋毛虫、T.nativa在大鼠体内的繁殖力指数(RCI)分别为(35.02±8.37)、(32.10±7.77)和(2.90±1.71)、(2.66±2.19).4个旋毛虫隔离株对小鼠和猪的感染性存在着明显差异,猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis对小鼠和猪的感染性较强,其在小鼠体内RCI分别为(137.41±7.80)和(159.86±7.47),在猪体内的RCI分别是(385.68±41.51)和(300.55±12.45);而犬旋毛虫和T.nativa对小鼠和猪的易感性差,其在小鼠体内RCI分别是(64.98±5.05)和(58.15±4.69),在猪体内的RCI分别为 (0.064±0.031)和(0.033±0.033).研究结果揭示,黑龙江省猪旋毛虫相当于旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis),犬旋毛虫相当于本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa).

  20. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  1. Serological tools for detection of Trichinella infection in animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a serious foodborne zoonotic disease. It is an important threat to public health in both developing and developed countries. Human infections are strongly associated with consuming undercooked meat containing infective Trichinella larvae. The development of serological tools has enabled seroepidemiological studies and contributed to our knowledge on the importance of this parasite. Serological tests can also help the diagnosis of parasite infections in humans and the surveillance of animals. Generally speaking, serological techniques include detection methods for specific antibodies and for circulating parasite antigens in the serum or tissue fluids. Here, we present a comprehensive review of various methods used in the detection of antibodies against Trichinella and circulating parasite antigens in animals and humans.

  2. Sobre Dipetalonema spiralis (Molin, 1860 (Nematoda, Filarioidea On Dipetalonema Spiralis (Molin, 1860 (Nematoda, Filarioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Lent

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give a description of Dipetalonema spiralis (Molin, 1860, based on two samples collected by the C. E. E. L. V. A. in the joints of the hands and feet of Choloepus didactylus (L. at Piratuba, State of Pará, Brazil, both containing males and females. A study of the literature is made and original drawings are presented.

  3. 分子生物学技术在旋毛虫属分类方面的应用%Molecular biology in the systematics of the genus Trichinella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红卫; 崔晶

    2003-01-01

    @@ 自1835年发现旋毛虫以后,一直认为旋毛虫属只有一个种,即Trichinella spiralis.1972年,国外学者根据旋毛虫的不同地理株对宿主的感染性、地理分布范围及幼虫在宿主肌肉中是否有囊包形成,提出旋毛虫属包括4个虫种.

  4. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spp. in experimentally infected ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pigs, guinea pigs and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P; Kapel, C M O

    2005-06-30

    Vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis was evaluated in ferrets (n=21), foxes (n=11), pigs (n=12), guinea pigs (n=16), and mice (n=41). The placental barrier to be crossed by migratory Trichinella larvae varies structurally in different animal species. Ferrets and foxes have an endotheliochorial placenta structure, guinea pigs and mice a haemochorial, and pigs an epitheliochorial placenta. The non-encapsulating Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae have an extended muscle migration prior to entering a muscle cell. To evaluate if T. pseudospiralis was more likely to be transmitted to offspring, an additional group of foxes (n=11) infected with T. pseudospiralis was included. Two different dose levels were used for ferrets, pigs, guinea pigs, and mice. In pigs and guinea pigs, infection was given at different times of the gestation period. Vertical transmission, measured as recovery of muscle larvae in the offspring, was demonstrated in both ferrets groups, in all four guinea pig groups, and in the high dose mouse group, but not in any fox or pig groups.

  5. Trichinella britovi in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Marucci, Gianluca; Mobedi, Iraj; Zahabiioon, Farzaneh; Mirjalali, Hamed; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-10-14

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution. In Iran, these parasites have mainly been detected in carnivorous mammals, yet information on the Trichinella taxa circulating in this country date back to a time when biochemical and molecular tests were not available. We describe the first detection of Trichinella larvae in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Asia and its identification at the species level. The larvae recovered from the leopard muscles were identified as Trichinella britovi using multiplex PCR. The detection of Trichinella infection in a leopard confirms literature data on the high prevalence of infection in carnivorous mammals in Iran.

  6. The sylvatic Trichinella cycle and its implications for Trichinella control in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne, zoonotic disease caused by a parasitic organism. Pork containing muscle larvae represents the most important source of human trichinellosis. In Germany, each slaughtered domestic swine is systematically sampled and examined for Trichinella spp. European Union legislation (EC (No.) 2075/2005) condones the approach of a risk-oriented meat inspection for Trichinella in pigs which is accompanied by monitoring programmes for pig holdings and reservoir animals. Here we discuss the current epidemiological situation of Trichinella in the sylvatic cycle in Germany and the implications for the implementation of risk-based sampling.

  7. Distribution of intestinal mast cell proteinase in blood and tissues of normal and Trichinella-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J F; Gooden, C; Newlands, G F; Mackellar, A; Lammas, D A; Wakelin, D; Tuohy, M; Woodbury, R G; Miller, H R

    1990-01-01

    A sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for mouse intestinal mast cell proteinase (IMCP). Specificity was demonstrated by the absence of immunoreactivity with extracts of isolated serosal mast cells (SMC), or with high concentrations (50 micrograms/ml) of the antigenically similar rat mast cell proteinases I or II. The small and large intestines in normal mice were the major sources of IMCP, there being little or no IMCP in non-mucosal tissues. Concentrations of IMCP in normal (non-parasitized) mice were low, but were increased 100-1000-fold intestines of mice infected 10 days earlier with Trichinella spiralis. The kinetic response of secreted IMCP into the blood of mice following infection with T. spiralis was also studied. Systemic release of IMCP coincided with the immune expulsion of adult worms from the intestine, and peak concentrations (9.45 micrograms/ml IMCP) occurred 9 days after infection. The tissue distribution of IMCP, its secretion into blood, and its enteric accumulation during parasite infection, are consistent with a mucosal mast cell (MMC) source for IMCP. The results are discussed in the context of similar findings for rat mast cell proteinase II.

  8. Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 mixed infection in a lion (Panthera leo) of the Kruger National Park (South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, Gianluca; La Grange, Louis J; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-02-23

    In South Africa, Trichinella sp. was first discovered in 1966 in the wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP). Since then, both Trichinella T8 and Trichinella nelsoni have been detected in the KNP, leading to a debate on the existence of a gene flow between the two taxa. In 2006-2008, four lions were killed in the Manyeleti Game Reserve, the Mthethomusha Nature Reserve, Numbi Gate, and Skukuza, which border the KNP. Larvae were isolated from muscles by artificial digestion. The molecular identification of single larva by multiplex PCR, followed by a specific PCR to distinguish between Trichinella T8 and Trichinella britovi, revealed Trichinella T8 in the lions from Manyeleti and Skukuza, a mixed infection with T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the lion from Mthethomusha, and T. nelsoni in the lion from Numbi. No larva with a hybrid pattern between the two taxa was observed. No hybrid offspring resulted when crossing single males and females of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in both directions, whereas hybrid offspring were obtained when crossing T. britovi and Trichinella T8 in both directions. This is the first report of a mixed infection with two Trichinella taxa in a host from the KNP, where both Trichinella T8 and T. nelsoni circulate among wildlife. Despite the sympatry status of these two taxa, field and laboratory data seem to exclude the possibility of gene flow, confirming their evolutive separation.

  9. Aspects of clinical features, diagnosis, notification and tracing back referring to Trichinella outbreaks in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeckler K.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available 52 cases of human trichinellosis were notified from 11 towns in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 1998 to March 1999. After non-typical symptoms in the enteral phase, fever, muscular ache, headache, oedema, disorder of vision and rash occurred in the parenteral phase. Trichinellosis was serologically confirmed by ELISA, IFAT or western blot. Raw sausage and minced meat produced from raw pork could be determined as probable source of infection with 44 and eight notified cases, respectively. Whereas questionable raw sausage was not available for examination, frozen minced meat from the second outbreak could be secured in households of infected people. Larvae were isolated from minced meat and were identified by PCR as Trichinella spiralis. Tracing back to the source of infection was difficult because of the long time between clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis and notification as well as complex trade routes for pork and its products. Trichinella cases emphasize the necessity to meet the prescribed slaughter inspection and to guarantee a reliable prove of origin for meat products especially in view of specific consumer habits, i.e. the consumption of raw meat.

  10. Trichinella infections in arctic foxes from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Henriksen, S. A.; Berg, T. B.;

    1995-01-01

    differences were demonstrated either between age groups or between foxes with high and low total parasite burdens. Predilection sites were comparable with those recorded earlier in experimentally infected caged foxes and in other carnivorous species. Hypotheses on predilection sites of Trichinella muscle......Studies were carried out to determine the predilection sites of Trichinella nativa muscle larvae in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) caught in Greenland. The highest number of larvae per gram of tissue was found in the muscles of the eyes and the legs. With regard to predilection sites no significant...

  11. Immunomodulation in trichinellosis: does Trichinella really escape the host immune system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Chiumiento, Lorena

    2012-03-01

    This review describes different aspects of the host immune response to Trichinella. The role of antibodies, T cells, mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in immune reaction to this nematode is considered, in the light of the recent data derived from experimental models, both in in vivo and in vitro. The knowledge of immune response mechanisms against Trichinella is fundamental to understand how the parasite can escape such mechanisms. The principal evasion mechanisms of host immune response occurring in trichinellosis are described, some of which are shared by other parasites, some others are peculiar of this parasite, but particular attention is focused on immunomodulation and the possibilities to exploit this parasite ability to verify the effects on immuno-mediated diseases. In conclusion, some considerations on the actual ability to escape the host immune response by the parasite are discussed, taking into account the recent data that shows that the parasite might rather drive immune system of the host towards a less dangerous response.

  12. New pieces of the Trichinella puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2013-11-01

    Contrary to our understanding of just a few decades ago, the genus Trichinella now consists of a complex assemblage of no less than nine different species and three additional genotypes whose taxonomic status remains in flux. New data and methodologies have allowed advancements in detection and differentiation at the population level which in turn have demonstrably advanced epidemiological, immunological and genetic investigations. In like manner, molecular and genetic studies have permitted us to hypothesise biohistorical events leading to the worldwide dissemination of this genus, and to begin crystalising the evolution of Trichinella on a macro scale. The identification of species in countries and continents otherwise considered Trichinella-free has raised questions regarding host adaptation and associations, and advanced important findings on the biogeographical histories of its members. Using past reviews as a backdrop, we have ventured to present an up-to-date assessment of the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology of the genus Trichinella with additional insights on host species, survival strategies in nature and the shortcomings of our current understanding of the epidemiology of the genus. In addition, we have begun compiling information available to date on genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and population studies of consequence in the hope we can build on this in years to come.

  13. Cloning and prokaryotic expression of 49 Ku ES protein structural gene for Trichinella nativa%本地毛形线虫49 Ku ES蛋白结构基因的分子克隆及原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宝亮; 王秀荣; 路义鑫; 李冬梅; 闫清波; 宋铭忻

    2007-01-01

    提取Trichinella nativa(T.nativa)肌幼虫的总RNA,用RT-PCR方法扩增出了编码T.nativa 49 Ku ES蛋白的结构基因.基因克隆后测序,序列测定结果表明:目的基因TNPG长度为951 bp,核苷酸序列同已发表的Trichinella spiralis(T.spiralis)相应的序列P49同源性为97.68%,所推导的氨基酸序列同源性为95.24%.将目的基因TNPG插入到原核表达栽体pET-30a的BamH I酶切位点处,并转化到感受态表达菌中进行诱导表达.结果显示TNPG在原核表达茵BL-21中获得了高效表达,表达产物为40.8 Ku的融合蛋白,表达量达到菌体总蛋白的22.8%.通过Western blot分析,表达产物可以被小鼠T.nativa和T.spiralis阳性血清以及它们的中国地理株的小鼠血清特异性识别.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for the differentiation of Trichinella nativa and Trichinella britovi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, A; Broglia, A; Reckinger, S; Nöckler, K

    2014-06-16

    Recently, Trichinella nativa was identified in foxes in Germany and Poland, indicating that the geographical distribution of T. nativa is not restricted to areas north of the isotherm -4°C in January. In the European Union, legislation requires that a regular monitoring of the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in indicator animals such as foxes or raccoon dogs be carried out. The Trichinella isolates must also be identified on a species level. The multiplex PCR recommended by the Community Reference Laboratory for Trichinella allows species identification, yet the differentiation of T. nativa and Trichinella britovi, a widespread Trichinella species in the temperate regions of Europe, is unstable. We therefore describe an easy and reliable method for the differentiation of the two species, which can be utilised to monitor a potential spread of T. nativa in Central Europe.

  15. 旋毛虫分子分类学研究及其应用%Research of Trichinella Molecula Systematics and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠平; 陈佩惠

    1995-01-01

    @@ 旋毛形线虫[Trichinella spiralis Owen 1835(Rialliet,1895)]是英国人Peacock 1828年首次于伦敦人体中发现,由Owen(1835)定名的,简称为旋毛虫.它引起的旋毛虫病(Trichinosis)是一种世界分布的人兽共患寄生虫病.可感染人及150多种动物,对人畜危害很大.对旋毛虫分类的研究是旋毛虫病的病原学、流行病学与诊断防治的基础.为此,本文就旋毛虫分类研究概况,特另是近年来国外进行旋毛虫分子分类学研究及其应用进行综述.

  16. Seroepidemiologic study on the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. infections in black bears (Ursus americanus) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Brown, Justin; Ternent, Mark; Verma, Shiv K; Hill, Dolores E; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Humphreys, Jan G

    2016-10-15

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the metazoan Trichinella spp. infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. Both parasitic infections can cause serious illness in human beings and can be acquired by ingesting under-cooked meat harboring infective stages. Approximately 3500 black bears (Ursus americanus) are legally-harvested each year in Pennsylvania, USA during the November hunting season. Among animals found infected with T. gondii, the prevalence of T. gondii is the highest among black bears in the USA; however, little is currently known of epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host species. Serum samples were collected during the winters of 2015 and 2016 from adult female bears and their nursing cubs or yearlings while they were still in their dens. Additionally, archived sera from bear samples collected throughout the year, including hunter-harvested bears in November and trapped bears in the summer, were serologically tested. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25) and antibodies to Trichinella spp. were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, T. gondii antibodies were found in 87.6% (206/235) of adults, and 44.1% (30/68) of yearlings. In March 2015/2016 sampling, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 94% (30/32) adult female bears while in their den. Antibodies were detected in 5% (3/66) of the nursing cubs in the dens of these sows. One positive cub had a MAT titer of 1:160 and two were positive at the 1:25 dilution but not at 1:50. The adult females of these cubs had MAT titers ranging from 1:400 to 1:3200. Antibodies to Trichinella spp. were found in 3% (6/181) of adults and 3.6% (1/28) of yearlings; these 7 bears were also seropositive for T. gondii. No antibodies to Trichinella spp. were detected in the sera of 44 nursing cubs tested. The finding of T. gondii antibodies in only 3 of 66 cubs, and higher

  17. Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  18. Phylogenomic and biogeographic reconstruction of the Trichinella complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pasi K; Pozio, Edoardo; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Chang, Bill C H; Koehler, Anson V; Hoberg, Eric P; Boag, Peter R; Tan, Patrick; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    Trichinellosis is a globally important food-borne parasitic disease of humans caused by roundworms of the Trichinella complex. Extensive biological diversity is reflected in substantial ecological and genetic variability within and among Trichinella taxa, and major controversy surrounds the systematics of this complex. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of 16 draft genomes representing all 12 recognized Trichinella species and genotypes, define protein-coding gene sets and assess genetic differences among these taxa. Using thousands of shared single-copy orthologous gene sequences, we fully reconstruct, for the first time, a phylogeny and biogeography for the Trichinella complex, and show that encapsulated and non-encapsulated Trichinella taxa diverged from their most recent common ancestor ∼21 million years ago (mya), with taxon diversifications commencing ∼10-7 mya.

  19. Study on antibody against 46-58kDa proteins from excretory/secretory products of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae in patients with trichinellosis%抗旋毛虫肌肉期幼虫排泄分泌物中46-58kDa蛋白IgM和IgG抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燎; 钟桂书; 颜丹

    2006-01-01

    目的寻求简便、快速、可靠的方法,用于旋毛虫病的诊断及疗效考核.方法建立检测抗旋毛虫肌肉期幼虫排泄分泌物(TsL1-ES)中46-58kDa蛋白抗体的斑点金免疫渗滤试验(DIGFA),并对患者在治疗前和治疗后血清中特异抗体水平的动态变化进行研究.结果旋毛虫病患者治疗前血清中特异IgM和IgG抗体的检出率分别为94.83%(55/58)和91.38%(53/58);正常人血清(100份)、囊虫病(25份)、血吸虫病(20份)、肺吸虫病(20份)及蛔虫病(22份)病人血清均未检出该两类特异性抗体.52例两类抗体均阳性的旋毛虫病患者经有效药物治疗后3个月、6个月、1年、1.5年连续采血,经DIGFA检测连续观察的结果表明,IgM抗体出现较早,阴转较为明显和迅速,治疗后3月的阴转率达46.15%(24/52),1年的阴转率可达88.46%(46/52);而IgG抗体则出现较晚,阴转缓慢,治疗后1.5年的阴转率仅为23.08%(12/52).结论DIGFA为检测抗TsL1-ES中46-58kDa蛋白抗体的有效方法,检测IgM抗体可用于诊断及疗效考核,而IgG抗体的检测不宜用来判断疗效.

  20. Next Generation sequencing of the Trichinella murrelli mitochondrial genome allows comprehensive comparison of its divergence from the principal agent of human trichinellosis, Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mitochondrial genome’s non-recombinant mode of inheritance and relatively rapid rate of evolution has promoted its use as a marker for studying the biogeographic history and evolutionary interrelationships among many metazoan species. A modest portion of the mitochondrial genome has been define...

  1. 不同旋毛虫隔离种对低温抵抗力的研究%Freeze resistance of 4 Trichinella isolates in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马广鹏; 路义鑫; 花丽茹; 韩周; 宋铭忻

    2006-01-01

    分别用来自黑龙江省猪、犬体内的旋毛虫和国际标准虫种旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)感染兔,在-20℃和-30℃条件下对其进行冷冻试验.结果表明,猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis对低温耐受性较差,兔肌肉内的猪旋毛虫幼虫在-20℃经7 d、在-30℃经1 d就失去感染性,T.spiralis的幼虫在-20℃经1 d、在-30℃经1 d已全部死亡;而犬旋毛虫和T.nativa对低温抵抗力较强,犬旋毛虫幼虫在-20℃20 d、在-30℃经过23 d仍未失去活力,T.nativa的幼虫在-20℃经36 d、在-30℃经28 d才失去感染性.

  2. 旋毛虫各隔离株某些生物学特性的研究%Studies on some biological features of Trichinella isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志民; 杨枫; 李文赫; 李学奇; 张彦和; 宋铭忻

    2000-01-01

    通过对猪、犬旋毛虫和国际标准隔离种:旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)的研究发现,猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫在小鼠膈肌中出现保姆细胞的时间比较早,分别于感染第16 d和18 d出现,第38 d和36 d所有幼虫都已形成保姆细胞,而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫出现保姆细胞的时间较晚,于感染第20 d和22 d出现,第32 d完成形成.猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫雌虫体外培养24 h平均产新生幼虫数分别为66.0和76.2,而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫分别是28.8和22.0,前二者在雌虫体外产新生幼虫能力上明显高于后二者.研究结果表明,黑龙江猪旋毛虫为旋毛形线虫,犬旋毛虫为本地毛形线虫.

  3. 旋毛虫排泄/分泌(ES)抗原致鼠胸腺淋巴细胞凋亡的研究%Trichinellla spiralis muscle larve ES antigen-induced apoptosis in mice thymus lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花丽茹; 董晓波; 李冬梅; 韩周; 宋铭忻

    2007-01-01

    本试验首次以体外培养的小鼠胸腺淋巴细胞为实验对象,加入旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)肌幼虫ES抗原做刺激物,通过对鼠胸腺淋巴细胞DNA损伤、凋亡水平的检测,进而证明旋毛虫肌幼虫ES抗原能够诱导鼠胸腺淋巴细胞发生凋亡.掌握这种免疫细胞凋亡(apoptosis)发生的过程,对分析免疫应答的特点和调控,以及探索旋毛虫病(Trichinosis)的发病机制和提供防治对策都具有重要意义.

  4. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09460-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 963700 |pid:none) Trichinella spiralis adult-specifi... 41 2e-06 AF331159_1( AF331159 |pid:none) Trichinella spiralis newborn... larva... 56 3e-06 AY790264_1( AY790264 |pid:none) Trichinella spiralis newborn...e-06 AY790263_1( AY790263 |pid:none) Trichinella spiralis newborn larva... 54 1e-05 AY790258_1( AY790258 |pi...d:none) Trichinella spiralis newborn larva... 54 1e-05 AY790256_1( AY790256 |pid:...none) Trichinella spiralis newborn larva... 53 2e-05 AY790262_1( AY790262 |pid:none) Trichinella spiralis newborn

  6. Development of an ELISA to detect the humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovisi, Alessandra; La Grange, Louis Jacobus; Gómez Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-05-20

    Crocodiles are known reservoir hosts of Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis, two zoonotic parasites that also infect mammals. Since commercial crocodile farming represents a key source of income in several countries, it is important to monitor this nematode infection in both farmed crocodiles and in breeding stocks which are frequently introduced from the wild. For this purpose, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect the anti-Trichinella immune response in crocodile sera. New Zealand rabbits were immunized with pooled sera from non-infected farmed crocodiles in the presence of Freund's complete adjuvant. The anti-crocodile serum was then conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Serum samples from four Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis and from four uninfected crocodiles were used to set up the ELISA. The larval burden per gram of muscle tissue was determined by muscle biopsy. The test was performed on serum samples from an additional 15 experimentally infected crocodiles as well as eight wild Nile crocodiles. Among the 19 experimentally infected crocodiles, seroconversion was observed in 11 animals. The highest antibody response was observed six weeks post infection (p.i.), but in most of these animals, antibodies were not detectable after six weeks p.i. even though live larvae were present in the muscles up to six months p.i.

  7. Seroprevalence of Trichinella Spp. in Pigs and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Pig Farmers of Eastern and Midwestern Regions of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kathayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on four major pig raising districts of eastern and mid-western region of Nepal from February to May 2014 to find out the seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. A total of 184 serum samples of pigs were collected and antibodies against trichinella were detected using ID screen trichinella indirect multi- species ELISA kit. The study revealed prevalence rate of 3.8% and difference in prevalence rate according to age, sex, breed, rearing system, ecozone, region & district were statistically insignificant (P>0.05 as analysed by Chi-square test using PHStat version 2.5 and Fisher’s exact test. This study confirms that antibodies of Trichinella spp. are circulating in pigs of Nepal. Further, the knowledge, attitude and practices survey of meat borne helminthic zoonoses was conducted among 50 pig raisers and pork consumers by face to face interview using a semi-structure questionnaire. This survey concludes that although there were significant portion of the respondents aware of meat borne helminthic zoonoses but there were still a noticeable proportion of respondents who didn’t have a proper knowledge that upsurge public health risks. Moreover, present-day situation of their pig raising practices & pork consumption system possess them to a menace of public health zoonoses. be done for enhancing the potential of isolates.

  8. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected.

  9. Trichinella Infection in Wildlife of Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pozio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of Trichinella in some carnivores of Mashhad in northeast of Iran and to identify Trichinella species circulating in this area.Methods: The present study was carried out using muscle tissue collected from 120 stray dogs, 26 wild boars, 25 rodents, two foxes and two hyenas captured in Mashhad City, province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran.Results: Trichinella larvae were detected in three stray dogs by artificial digestion and compression. All larvae were identified as T. britovi using multiplex PCR.Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of T. britovi in stray dog in Iran.

  10. 6株旋毛虫49ku ES抗原基因克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of 49 ku ES antigen gene of six Trichinella spp.strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路义鑫; 韩彩霞; 李晓云; 董晓波; 宋铭忻

    2011-01-01

    49 ku ES antigen gene of six different strains of Trichinella spp. Were cloned by RT-PCR, then the cloned sequences and the corresponding sequence of T. Spiralis in GenBank were aligned and compared. The results showed that 49 ku ES gene of Trichinella spp. Were highly conserved, shared high similarities on the levels of nucleotides and amino acids, more than 97.2% and 94.0%, respectively. Therefore, the gene could not well identify different species of Trichinella spp. Encoded protein analysis showed the identity in antigenicity of the six strains, suggesting just one strain the recombinant antigen could be used to detect antiserum against P49 protein of different Trichinella spp.%应用RT-PCR方法从不同来源的6株旋毛虫肌幼虫总RNA中克隆49 ku ES抗原基因序列,与GenBank中T.spiralis相应序列进行比对分析.结果表明,旋毛虫49 ku ES基因具有相当强的保守性,不同虫株核苷酸和氨基酸序列的同源性分别达97.2%和94.0%以上,序列间差异很小,不能较好地区分各旋毛虫种;该基因编码蛋白的抗原性很稳定,不同旋毛虫49 ku ES抗原性几乎没有差别,只要获得一个虫株的重组49 ku ES蛋白,即可用于其他不同种株旋毛虫病的免疫诊断及预防.

  11. I. Effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the migration of mesenteric lymphoblasts and mesenteric T lymphoblasts in syngeneic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M L; Parrott, D M; Bruce, R G

    1976-11-01

    The migration of [125I]UdR-labelled mesenteric lymph node cells in NIH strain mice at various times after inis produced an enhanced accumulation of mesenteric immunoblasts in the small intestine at 2 and 4 days after infection but not at later times. The enhanced migration occurred when using cells from both uninfected and infected donors, denoting an absence of antigenic specificity. This effect is not secondary to a reduced arrival of cells at sites away from the gut in infected mice, but to a primary increase of the arrival in the small intestine. Mesenteric T lymphoblasts (separated on a nylon-wool column) migrated to the small intestine of uninfected recipients and appear to be a major portion of the population which migrate to the gut of infected recipients. Our results were confirmed using 51Cr to label mesenteric cells. We conclude that the parasite causes the small intestine to become more attractive or retentive for mesenteric blast cells early during infection.

  12. Evaluation of the infectivity of Trichinella spp. for reptiles (Caiman sclerops)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Bjørn, H.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental inoculation with nine well-characterised Trichinella isolates was performed on caimans (Caiman sclerops) to determine their infectivity for reptiles belonging to the family Crocodilidae. As controls, the same larval batches of Trichinella isolates were inoculated into mice and guinea...... pigs, It was suggested that Trichinella pseudospiralis was more likely to infect reptiles than encapsulating species, but whereas all Trichinella species established in mice and guinea pigs, the caimans remained negative. The finding that caimans could not be experimentally infected contrasts...

  13. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  14. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  15. DEVELOPMENT TIME OF NURSE CELLS AROUND MUSCLE LARVAE IN MICE DIAPHRAGMS OF 4 TRICHINELLA ISOLATES%毛形线虫各隔离种保姆细胞形成时间的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铭忻; 张桂红; 路义鑫

    2002-01-01

    通过对4个毛形线虫隔离种保姆细胞形成时间的研究,发现分离自中国猪的旋毛形线虫和波兰猪旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis )在小鼠膈肌中出现保姆细胞的时间比较早,分别于感染第16天和18天出现,第36天和38天所有幼虫都已形成保姆细胞,而分离自犬的毛形线虫和熊的本地毛形线虫( Trichinella nativa )出现保姆细胞的时间较晚,于感染第20天和22天出现,第32天完全形成.结果表明,中国猪旋毛形线虫与波兰猪旋毛形线虫,犬毛形线虫与本地毛形线虫分别是同一旋毛虫隔离种.

  16. 旋毛虫各隔离种雌虫体外产新生幼虫能力的研究%NEWBORN LARVAE PRODUCTION PER FEMALE WORM OF 4 TRICHINELLA ISOLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铭忻; 张桂红; 路义鑫

    2001-01-01

    本试验对旋毛虫各隔离种雌虫体外产新生幼虫能力进行了研究.结果显示,猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)雌虫体外培养24小时,平均产新生幼虫数分别为66.00±7.34和76.20±7.57,而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella natiua)分别是28.80±4.30和22.00±3.22,前者在雌虫体外产幼虫能力上明显高于后者.研究结果表明,黑龙江猪旋毛虫相当于旋毛形线虫,犬旋毛虫相当于本地毛形线虫.

  17. Searching for Trichinella: not all pigs are created equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Each year, millions of pigs worldwide are tested for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses with negative results. Yet, thousands of people acquire trichinellosis by consuming pork. So, where is the problem? Testing for Trichinella spp. is often performed on the 'wrong' animals; while the parasites are mainly circulating in backyard and free-ranging pigs, herds kept under controlled management conditions are the ones tested. Veterinary services should: (i) introduce a risk-based surveillance system for Trichinella by documenting the control of housing conditions and feedstuff sources, and (ii) introduce a capillary network of field laboratories for monitoring the parasites in free-ranging and backyard pigs. Investment of funds into the education of farmers, hunters, and consumers should be a priority for public health services.

  18. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hosni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7% of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus and 2 (10.5% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes. Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans.

  19. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El; Ganghish, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans. PMID:26623318

  20. Trichinella spp. imported with live animals and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-09-30

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are widely distributed throughout the world in omnivorous and carnivorous animals (mammals, birds, and reptiles) and in incidental hosts. To prevent the transmission of these zoonotic parasites to humans, meat samples from Trichinella spp. susceptible animals are tested at the slaughterhouse or in game processing plants. The aim of the present review was to collect documented cases on Trichinella infected animals, meat, or meat derived products which reached the international trade or were illegally introduced from one to another country in personal baggage. In the course of the last 60 years in the international literature, there have been 43 reports of importation of Trichinella spp. infected animals or meat, most of which (60%, 26/43) related to live horses or their meat. Meat or meat derived products from pigs, wild boar and bears, account only for 18.6% (8/43), 4.7% (3/43), and 14.3% (6/43), respectively. However, only live horses or their meat intended for human consumption, meat from a single wild boar, and live polar bears caught in the wild for zoos, were imported through the international market; whereas, meat from pigs, wild boars and bears were illegally introduced in a country in personal baggage. Trichinella infected animals or meat which were officially or illegally introduced in a country were the source of 3443 Trichinella infections in humans in a 40-year period (1975-2014). Most of these infections (96.8%) have been linked to horsemeat consumption, whereas meat from pigs, wild boars and bears accounted only for 2.2%, 0.7% and 0.3% of cases, respectively. This review shows the Trichinella spp. risk in the international animal and meat trade has been linked mainly to horses and only one time to wild boar, if they carcasses are not adequately tested, whereas pigs and other wild animals or their derived products infected with Trichinella spp. are unlikely to reach the international market by the official animal and

  1. The systematics of the genus Trichinella and its taxonomic methods%旋毛虫属分类及其分类研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红卫; 崔晶

    2002-01-01

    @@ 旋毛虫可感染包括人类在内的150多种哺乳动物,引起的旋毛虫病呈世界性分布.以前本病在欧洲及北美国家严重流行,以后通过严格猪肉检查,人体旋毛虫病的发病率己明显下降,但在过去20年内世界上许多地区又出现了本病的暴发[1-3],现已将其列入再次出现的疾病(re-emerging disease).目前全世界大约有1100万人体感染者,国际旋毛虫病委员会(International Commission on Trichinellosis,ICT)仅在1995-1997年即报道了1万多例病人[4-5].近年来的研究发现,不同地区的旋毛虫分离株(地理株,isolate)对外界环境的适应能力、繁殖力、对宿主的感染性及致病性等方面存在有明显的差异[6-7],因而认为旋毛虫属(Trichinella)内不仅包括旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis),还可能包含有其它多个虫种.现将旋毛虫属分类及其分类研究方法的进展综述如下.

  2. Studies on Some Biological Features of Trichinella Isolates%各旋毛虫隔离种某些生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铭忻; 路义鑫; 王丽杰; 闫玲

    2002-01-01

    通过对猪、犬旋毛虫和国际标准隔离种:旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)的研究发现,猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫在小鼠隔肌中出现保姆细胞的时间比较早,分别于感染第16天和18天出现,第38天和36天所有幼虫都已形成保姆细胞,而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫出现保姆细胞的时间较晚,于感染第20天和22天出现,第32天完全形成.猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫雌虫体外培养24小时平均产新生幼虫数分别为66.0和76.2,而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫分别是28.8和22.0,前二者在雌虫体外产新生幼虫能力上明显高于后二者.研究结果表明,黑龙江猪旋毛虫为旋毛形线虫,犬旋毛虫为本地毛形线虫.

  3. Evolution and diversification within the intertidal brown macroalgae Fucus spiralis/F. vesiculosus species complex in the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, J A; Hoarau, G; Costa, J F; Hogerdijk, B; Serrão, E A; Billard, E; Valero, M; Pearson, G A; Olsen, J L

    2011-02-01

    We examined 733 individuals of Fucusspiralis from 21 locations and 1093 Fucusvesiculosus individuals from 37 locations throughout their northern hemisphere ranges using nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Three genetic entities of F. spiralis were recovered. In northern and sympatric populations, the presence of "F. spiralis Low" in the mid-intertidal and "F. spiralis High" in the high-intertidal was confirmed and both co-occurred with the sister species F. vesiculosus. The third and newly-discovered entity, "F. spiralis South", was present mainly in the southern range, where it did not co-occur with F. vesiculosus. The South entity diverged early in allopatry, then hybridized with F. vesiculosus in sympatry to produce F. spiralis Low. Ongoing parallel evolution of F. spiralis Low and F. spiralis High is most likely due to habitat preference/local selection and maintained by preferentially selfing reproductive strategies. Contemporary populations of F. spiralis throughout the North Atlantic stem from a glacial refugium around Brittany involving F. spiralis High; F. spiralis South was probably unaffected by glacial episodes. Exponential population expansion for F. vesiculosus began during the Cromer and/Holstein interglacial period (300,000-200,000 yrs BP). Following the last glacial maximum (30,000-22,000 yrs BP), a single mtDNA haplotype from a glacial refugium in SW Ireland colonized Scandinavia, the Central Atlantic islands, and the W Atlantic.

  4. [Biological properties of Trichinella spp. isolated from the Central Region of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of a common fox inhabiting in the Central Region of the Russian Federation have been studied. The paper presents the results of passaging this isolate of Trichinella on laboratory rats and mice, shows morphometric variability in relation to the change of Trichinella habitat. Evidence is provided that the shape and size of Trichinella capsules depend on the strain of the parasite and the species of an animal host the muscles of which contain these tissue helminths. The morphological data, biological properties, and high negative temperature resistance of the Trichinella that are present in the muscles of a fox shot in the Ryazan Region allow the above isolate to be classified as Trichinella nativa.

  5. Isolation and characterization of new genetic types of Toxoplasma gondii and prevalence of Trichinella murrelli from black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hill, D; Zarlenga, D; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Driscoll, C P; Spiker, H; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) are hosts for two important zoonotic parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. and bears are hunted for human consumption in the USA. Little is known of the genetic diversity of T. gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were found in juice from tongues of 17 (25.7%) of 66 wild black bear from Maryland during the hunting season of 2010 and 2011. Antibodies to T. gondii were assessed by the modified agglutination test. Tongues of 17 seropositive bears were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from three samples. These three T. gondii isolates (TgBbMd1-3) were further propagated in cell culture and DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Results revealed three genotypes. TgBbMd1 is a Type 12 strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #4) and TgBbMd2 is ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #216, and TgBbMd3 is a Type II clonal strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1). The isolate TgBbMd2 was highly virulent for outbred Swiss Webster mice; all infected mice died of acute toxoplasmosis. Results indicate that mouse virulent strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife in the USA. These 66 tongues in addition to tongues collected during hunts in previous years were further investigated for the presence of muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. Tongues from 40 bears in 2005, 41 in 2006, 51 in 2007, 56 in 2008, 68 in 2009, 67 in 2010, and 66 in 2011 were subjected to digestion with pepsin/HCl and microscopic examination. Two bears were infected with Trichinella spp.; one in 2008 and one in 2009. Genotyping of collected muscle larvae revealed that the infecting species in both cases was Trichinella murrelli.

  6. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  7. [Evaluation of Trichinella cross-reactions in the serological diagnosis of toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkoç, Soykan; Bayram Delibaş, Songül; Akısü, Ciler

    2012-07-01

    Toxocariasis caused by the nematode larvae of the Toxocara genus is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis commonly relies on serological tests since the symptoms and signs of Toxocara infection are not pathognomonic. However Toxocara larval excretory-secretory (TES) antigen used in serological tests may exhibit low specificity due to the cross-reactions between related helminth infections such as ascariasis, anisakiasis, strongyloidosis and filariasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the possible effect of Trichinella cross-reactions in the serological diagnosis of toxocariasis by using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assay. For this purpose, sera samples of 209 trichinellosis patients who were definitely diagnosed during the Trichinella britovi outbreak occurred in İzmir in January 2004, were used. All the samples were screened initially by commercial Toxocara IgG-ELISA kit (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium), then commercial Toxocara IgG-WB (Test-Line Diagnostics, Czech Republic) was applied to positive/ borderline-positive sera for confirmation. In our study, 94.3% (197/209) of the sera were found seronegative, while nine were positive and three were borderline. Thus a total of 12 (5.7%) sera were considered as seropositive by Toxocara IgG-ELISA. According to the results of WB, only one sera with the antigenic bands of 120 kDa, 32 kDa and 26 kDa in molecular weights was evaluated as positive. Four sera samples were found to be borderline. In three of border sera, the antigenic bands of 120 and 70 kDa in molecular weights were observed together and one sera had three (120, 70 and 32 kDa) different antigenic bands. Seven sera that had been found to be positive by ELISA was considered as negative by WB. While no bands was observed in four of these, three samples had an antigenic band of 120 kDa which had no diagnostic value when it was found alone. The results of our study showed that the crossreactivities between anti-Trichinella antibodies

  8. Development of an ointment for burns based in dry extract of the seaweed Fucus spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fucus spiralis is a brown seaweed found on the Portuguese coast used as wound healing in traditional medicine were their antioxidant, immunostimulant, anticoagulant, antibacterial properties and also remineralizing, smoothing, moisturizing capacities and anti-tumor action were studied with proved results. These seaweed are one of the several described in the European Pharmacopoeia, making F.spiralis a seaweed with great potential for the development of new drugs and/or pharmaceuticals. The objective of this project was to formulate an ointment with F. spiralis dry extracts using vaseline as a base for the treatment of burns. Fucus spiralis was collected on the coast of Peniche (west coast of Portugal, washed, sorted, lyophilized and crushed for the dry extract preparation. The ash (g/g and iodine (% content in F. spiralis were determined. The ointment was prepared and homogenized with three concentrations of dry extract (1%, 2% and 5% and were analyzed over time in parallel with the observation of the physical, chemical, organoleptic and rheological characteristics. The results showed that the F. spiralis presented a iodine content of 0,0076%, a low concentration in comparison with the Farmacopeia europea directives. The ointment prepared is a non-Newtonian fluid, and the absorption spectrum in ultraviolet light (UV detected that it behaves as UVB and UVC blocker, despite of not having the same effect on UVA radiation. With these results and the many properties of Fucus spiralis we conclude that the ointment with dry extract of F. spiralis with the three concentrations of dry extract established is likely to have a great potential in the area of pharmaceutical and medicine, especially for burns application or other skins disorders.

  9. Trichinella nelsoni in carnivores from the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; De Meneghi, D; Roelke-Parker, M E; La Rosa, G

    1997-12-01

    A survey of trichinellosis among sylvatic carnivore mammals from the Serengeti ecosystem (Tanzania) demonstrated the presence of Trichinella nelsoni in 5 of 9 species examined. Muscle samples were collected from carcasses of 56 carnivores from 1993 to 1995 and frozen before transport and examination. Following artificial digestion of the samples, collected larvae were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. Trichinella nelsoni was identified in 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), 1 leopard (Panthera pardus), 3 lions (Panthera leo), and 3 spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). The numbers of bat-eared foxes (6), cheetahs (5), and leopards (3) examined were too small to reveal the roles of these carnivore species in the ecology of T. nelsoni. The numbers of lions and spotted hyenas examined, with a prevalence of 12% and 23%, respectively, suggest that these species may be reservoirs of T. nelsoni in the area under study.

  10. Trichinella in wildlife and pork production : evaluation of risk-based monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, F.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are parasites of mammals, birds and reptiles. Twelve taxa are recognised in this genus. Humans may develop trichinellosis through consumption of undercooked meat from Trichinella-infected wildlife and domestic animals. The severity of the disease depends on the dos

  11. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  12. Usefulness of sero-surveillance for Trichinella infections in animal populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis, P.F.M.; Fonville, M.T.M.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Molina, V.; Guarnera, E.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate serology as a tool to monitor Trichinella-free pig herds. Indoor, industrial-raised fattening pigs in the Netherlands are practically Trichinella-free, and were used as a negative reference cohort. A positive cohort was not available but we used sera from an endemic region

  13. First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schynts, F; Giessen, Joke van der; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de

    2006-01-01

    Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella antibod

  14. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  15. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers.

  16. Evolution and diversification within the intertidal brown macroalgae Fucus spiralis/F. vesiculosus species complex in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J. A.; Hoarau, G.; Costa, J. F.; Hogerdijk, B.; Serrao, E. A.; Billard, E.; Valero, M.; Pearson, G. A.; Olsen, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 733 individuals of Fucus spiralis from 21 locations and 1093 Fucus vesiculosus individuals from 37 locations throughout their northern hemisphere ranges using nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Three genetic entities of F. spiralis were recovered. In northern and sympatric populations, t

  17. Evolution and diversification within the intertidal brown macroalgae Fucus spiralis/F. vesiculosus species complex in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J. A.; Hoarau, G.; Costa, J. F.; Hogerdijk, B.; Serrao, E. A.; Billard, E.; Valero, M.; Pearson, G. A.; Olsen, J. L.

    We examined 733 individuals of Fucus spiralis from 21 locations and 1093 Fucus vesiculosus individuals from 37 locations throughout their northern hemisphere ranges using nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Three genetic entities of F. spiralis were recovered. In northern and sympatric populations,

  18. Trichinella infections in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Samson; La Grange, Louis; Pfukenyi, Davies M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on Trichinella infection in humans, livestock and wildlife in sub-Saharan Africa mainly focusing on geographical distribution of species/genotypes, biology, host range, life cycles and to identify research gaps. Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella zimbabwensis and one genotype (Trichinella T8) are known to occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Distinct geographic ranges with overlapping of some taxa in some areas have been observed. Genetic variants of T. nelsoni has been reported to occur among parasites originating from Eastern and Southern Africa and sequence heterogeneity also occurs among T. zimbabwensis isolates originating from different regions of Zimbabwe and South Africa. Field observations so far indicate that sylvatic Trichinella infections in the region are common in carnivores (mammals and reptiles) and to a lesser extent in omnivores. Cannibalism, scavenging and predation appear to be the most important routes of transmission and maintenance of the sylvatic cycles of the Trichinella taxa. To date, human trichinellosis has been documented in only four sub-Saharan countries (8.7%, 4/46). Bushpigs and warthogs have been the source of human infection with T. britovi and T. nelsoni being the aetiological agents. An increase in bushmeat trade and the creation of Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) may have increased the risk of human trichinellosis in the region. With the creation of TFCAs in the region, sampling of wildlife hosts from protected areas of most sub-Sahara African countries is required to fully map the distribution of Trichinella species/genotypes in this region. More structured field surveys are still needed to determine the sylvatic host distribution of the different Trichinella taxa. Biological data of the Trichinella taxa in both wild and domestic animals of sub-Saharan Africa is very limited and further research is required.

  19. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Pozio, E; Boes, J; Boireau, P; Boué, F; Claes, M; Cook, A J C; Dorny, P; Enemark, H L; van der Giessen, J; Hunt, K R; Howell, M; Kirjusina, M; Nöckler, K; Rossi, P; Smith, G C; Snow, L; Taylor, M A; Theodoropoulos, G; Vallée, I; Viera-Pinto, M M; Zimmer, I A

    2011-05-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across the EU as well as the national level of monitoring and reporting. It also reviewed which animal species were affected by Trichinella and in which species it should be surveyed. This information was used to design a cost-effective surveillance programme that enables a standardised monitoring approach within the EU. The proposed surveillance programme relies on identifying sub-populations of animals with a distinct risk. Low-risk pigs are finisher pigs that originate from so-called controlled housing. All other pigs are considered high-risk pigs. Controlled housing is identified by the application of a specific list of management and husbandry practices. We suggest that member states (MS) be categorised into three classes based on the confidence that Trichinella can be considered absent, in the specified sub-population of pigs above a specified design prevalence which we set to 1 per million pigs. A simple and transparent method is proposed to estimate this confidence, based on the sensitivity of the surveillance system, taking into account the sensitivity of testing and the design prevalence. The probability of detecting a positive case, if present, must be high (>95 or >99%) to ensure that there is a low or negligible risk of transmission to humans through the food chain. In MS where the probability of a positive pig is demonstrated to be negligible, testing of fattening pigs from a sub-population consisting of pigs from controlled housing can be considered unnecessary. Furthermore, reduced testing of finishers from the sub-population consisting of pigs from non-controlled housing might even be

  20. International commission on trichinellosis : recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamble H.R.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of serological tests to detect Trichinella infection in domestic and wild animals and in humans has not been standardised yet. This review provides an uniform set of recommendations for the development and use of serological tests to detect circulating antibodies in serum samples. The recommendations are based on the best scientific published information and on the unpublished data from laboratories with a great expertise in this field and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable methods and the evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.

  1. Presentation of computer code SPIRALI for incompressible, turbulent, plane and spiral grooved cylindrical and face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowit, Jed A.

    1994-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation is made showing the capabilities of the computer code SPIRALI. Overall capabilities of SPIRALI include: computes rotor dynamic coefficients, flow, and power loss for cylindrical and face seals; treats turbulent, laminar, Couette, and Poiseuille dominated flows; fluid inertia effects are included; rotor dynamic coefficients in three (face) or four (cylindrical) degrees of freedom; includes effects of spiral grooves; user definable transverse film geometry including circular steps and grooves; independent user definable friction factor models for rotor and stator; and user definable loss coefficients for sudden expansions and contractions.

  2. 旋毛虫各隔离种对猪的感染性和低温耐受性的研究%Infectivity and Freeze Resistance of Trichinella Isolates in Pigs and Mice in Heilongjiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铭忻; 张桂红; 路义鑫

    2002-01-01

    用消化法所得的猪旋毛虫、犬旋毛虫、旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)分别感染猪和小鼠,以观察其感染性,同时在-22℃和-32℃条件下对其进行冷冻试验.结果表明:4个旋毛虫隔离种对猪的感染性存在着明显差异,猪旋毛虫和T.spiralis对猪易感,其繁殖力指数(RCI)分别为385.68±41.51和300.55±12.45;而犬旋毛虫和T.nativa对猪不易感,RCI分别是0.064±0.031和0.033±0.033.猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫不耐低温,在猪体内-32℃、24 h,-22℃、72 h;在小鼠体内-32℃、12 h即全部死亡.而犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫对低温抵抗力较强,在猪体内-32℃、72 h,-22℃、192 h;在小鼠体内-32℃、48 h才失去感染性.结果揭示:黑龙江省猪旋毛虫相当于旋毛形线虫,犬旋毛虫相当于本地毛形线虫;犬旋毛虫和T.nativa很难通过猪的感染而对人体健康构成威胁.

  3. Trichinella sp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olvera, Jorge-Ramón; Vives, Laia; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Picart, Lluís; Rossi, Luca; Marco, Ignasi; Bigas, Esther; Lavín, Santiago

    2011-06-01

    European legislation allows the official recognition of Trichinella-free pig holdings, provided Trichinella sp. infection is absent from humans and prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) is below 0.1% in the area, region or country. Tibialis anterior muscle samples from 1,319 red foxes captured in Catalonia (NE Spain) between 1998 and 2007 were analyzed for Trichinella sp. using the digestion method. Four foxes resulted positive (one in 1999, one in 2002 and two in 2006), accounting for a low prevalence (0.3%). However, this prevalence was concentrated in mountain or rural areas with a low sample size, reaching high local prevalences. The two positive samples in 2006 were characterized as Trichinella britovi, and a sylvatic cycle of trichinellosis seems to occur, at least in the rural insufficiently sampled regions of Catalonia. Overall, the results obtained do not currently allow the establishment of Trichinella-free pig holdings in the study area, but further research is needed to better know the prevalence and cycle of Trichinella sp. in Catalonia.

  4. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  5. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-08-21

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely.

  6. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate transaminase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT. The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely.

  7. Genetic analysis of Trichinella populations by 'cold' single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Robin B; Hu, Min; El-Osta, Youssef Abs; Zarlenga, Dante S; Pozio, Edoardo

    2005-09-05

    A non-isotopic single-strand conformation polymorphism ('cold' SSCP) technique has been assessed for the analysis of sequence variability in the expansion segment 5 (ES5) of domain IV and the D3 domain of nuclear ribosomal DNA within and/or among isolates and individual muscle (first-stage) larvae representing all currently recognized species/genotypes of Trichinella. Data are consistent with the ability of cold SSCP to identify intra-specific as well as inter-specific variability among Trichinella genotypes. The cold SSCP approach should be applicable to a range of other genetic markers for comparative studies of Trichinella populations globally.

  8. [Molecular taxonomic identification of Trichinella spp. from the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Bukina, L A; Khiliuta, N V; Spiridonov, S É

    2013-01-01

    Epizootological surveys on the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation revealed 8 terrestrial andmarine mammal species that were Trichinella carriers. The infection rate varied with the animal species from 1.6 to 92.8%. Analysis of the taxonomic affiliation of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of the terrestrial and marine mammals indicated that the Trichinella species T. nativa was widespread in the arctic areas of the Russian Federation. Analysis of sequences in the Cob gene of mtDNA revealed nucleotide differences between several isolates of this species.

  9. Molecular identification of Trichinella isolates from wildlife animals of the Russian Arctic territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goździk K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematodes of genus Trichinella are infective to a wide range of hosts, including humans, and have global distribution from tropic to arctic areas. Muscle samples from animals, collected in two areas of the Russian Federation, Chukotka Peninsula and Arkhangelsk Oblast, were tested for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae. Trichinella spp. larvae were recovered from tissues of eleven wild and domestic animals: 1 polar bear, 1 wolverine, 3 arctic foxes, 1 ringed seal, 1 brown bear, 1 cat, 1 sled dog, 1 domestic pig and 1 northern sea lion.

  10. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  11. Trichinella britovi beim Rotfuchs (Vulpes vulpes) in Österreich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krois, E.; Nöckler, K.; Duscher, G.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary Laboratory in Moedling for rabies testing, were examined for Trichinella with the compression technique. Positive samples were evaluated quantitatively by digestion and differentiated by PCR. Results: 24 foxes (1.55%) were positive (Carinthia: 1.52%, Salzburg: 2.77%, Styria: 1.62%, the Tyrols: 1...... infections in foxes. Materials and methods: Masseter and tongue samples from 1,546 foxes with known origin (sample coordinates from the provinces of Carinthia [n=401], Salzburg [108], Styria [493], Tyrol [395] and Vorarlberg [149] were determined by Geographic Information System), sent to the State...

  12. Cellular responses to elevated light levels in Fucus spiralis embryos during the first days after fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, S.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Brown, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cellular responses of 1-, 2- and 4-d-old Fucus spiralis embryos subjected to a single dose of elevated photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD), with or without ultraviolet (U-V) radiation, were investigated by measuring the effects on the effective quantum yield of photosystem II

  13. 旋毛虫排泄/分泌抗原研究进展%The Progress of Study on Excretory-Secretory Antigens of Trichinella spiralis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宝亮; 宋铭忻; 王秀荣; 路义鑫

    2003-01-01

    旋毛虫病由于其对人、畜危害严重历来被人们所重视,其免疫防制是当今国内外学者研究的重要方向.通过对旋毛虫几种抗原的对比研究,排泄/分泌抗原效果最好,它具有双重的免疫学功能,成为众多学者研究的热点,人们对排泄/分泌抗原成分进行了大量研究.作为蛋白质其主要成分是三种糖蛋白(分子量分别为4.5万,4.9万,5.3万),他们可以发生免疫学交差反应.目前人们已经获得了编码这三种蛋白的基因序列,并通过分子生物学技术对其基因进行克隆和表达,将表达蛋白用于旋毛虫病的防制.本文介绍了旋毛虫排泄/分泌抗原的组成成分与功能,以及检测抗原和免疫原方面研究状况.

  14. Función barrera epitelial en un modelo de disfunción intestinal inducido por parasitosis con Trichinella spiralis en la rata

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Blanco, Joan Antoni

    2013-01-01

    La función barrera intestinal constituye la primera línea de defensa del tracto digestivo. Ésta se ve condicionada por el transporte hidroelectrolítico, la permeabilidad y la motilidad intestinales. Alteraciones de estas funciones favorecen la estimulación continua, por antígenos y microorganismos luminales, del sistema inmune local llevando a estados inflamatorios más o menos crónicos. Estos cambios parecen caracterizar diversas patologías inflamatorias y funcionales gastrointestinales, incl...

  15. First record of wild boar infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilska-Zając Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper describes identification of Trichinella species isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa in the most popular hunting region of the West Pomeranian Province of Poland.

  16. Analysis of polymorphism in genomic DNA of Trichinella isolates in China by RAPD%我国旋毛虫地理株基因组DNA多态性的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玺; 崔晶; 王中全

    2009-01-01

    Using international reference strains of five Trichinella species[Trichinella spiralis (T1), T. nativa(T2) ,T. britovi(T3) ,T. pseudospiralis(T4) and T. nelsoni(T7)] as control,randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) technique was performed to amplify genomic DNA of seven Trichinella isolates from Henan Province, Hubei Province, Yunnan Province, Xi'an of Shaanxi Province, Tianjin Metropolis, and Tongjiang Prefecture and Harbin of Heilongjiang Province. The genetic distance of the isolates was measured by the percentage of unshared bands,and the dendrogram was constructed. The results showed that the genetic distance between T1 and the seven Chinese Trichinella isolates was less than 0. 369 5. The genetic similarity between Harbin and Yunnan isolates and that between Henan and Xi' an isolates was 83. 33% and 86. 35%, respectively. The genetic distance between Tianjin and Harbin or Yunnan isolates was less than 0. 250 0. The genetic distance between Tongjiang isolate and other 6 Chinese isolates was more than 0. 284 1 ,but which between Tongjiang isolate and T1 was less than 0. 263 3. The genetic distance between Hubei isolate and other 6 Chinese isolates was more than 0. 301 2. The genetic distance between T2,T3,T4 or T7 and seven Chinese Trichinella isolates was more than 0. 589 8. All the seven Chinese Trichinella isolates belonged to Tl. Tianjin, Harbin and Yunnan isolates were classified into one group, Henan and Xi'an isolates were classified into another group, and Tongjiang isolate or Hubei isolate was classified into an individual group.%以旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis,T1)、乡土旋毛虫(T.nativa,T2)、布氏旋毛虫(T.britovi,T3)、伪旋毛虫(T.pseudospiralis,T4)、纳氏旋毛虫(T.nelsoni,T7)的国际参考株作为对照,应用随机扩增多态性DNA技术对我国7个旋毛虫地理株(河南、湖北、云南、陕西西安、天津、黑龙江同江及哈尔滨株)基因组DNA进行了PCR扩增,根据扩增产物的电泳条带进行MEGA分

  17. Validation studies of the latex agglutination test for the detection of Trichinella larvae in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Jennifer; Reckinger, Sabine; Thaben, Nora; Nöckler, Karsten; Mayer-Scholl, Anne

    2016-11-15

    Human trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by ingestion of meat infected with Trichinella muscle larvae. To control Trichinella spp. infection in the European Union, all slaughtered pigs from holdings that are not officially recognized as applying controlled housing conditions and other animals susceptible to Trichinella infection and intended for human consumption should be examined by one of the approved digestion methods described in Regulation (EU) No. 2015/1375. In the past, Trichinella outbreaks due to the consumption of cured wild boar or pork products have been described in several European countries, making the identification of the larvae from these products relevant for Trichinella control. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the newly approved latex agglutination test (Trichin-L) for routine testing of cured meat products. The test was validated based on the OIE Guidelines using pork products spiked with Trichinella larvae. The sensitivity of the method varied greatly depending on the investigated meat product and was usually lower than for the gold standard, the magnetic stirrer method. The detection rate reached 80% for three larvae and 60% for one larva in cured pork sausages. A detection rate of 100% for three larvae and 50% for one larva was found in bacon. For frozen samples (-20°C) the Trichin-L kit is similarly sensitive as for cured samples. Further, to determine the performance of the test under field conditions, pork products from regions with known high Trichinella prevalences confiscated by customs authorities at two German international airports were analyzed. Problems associated with the Trichin-L test were incomplete digestion due to fatty ingredients, spices and very dry meat products, resulting in data which could not be evaluated. Therefore, the test is currently not suitable for the detection of Trichinella larvae in cured meat products and needs further adaptation steps to increase both usability and sensitivity

  18. Prevalence of Trichinella larvae and extra-intestinal nematodes in Norwegian red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Gjerde, Bjørn; Vikøren, Turid; Lillehaug, Atle; Handeland, Kjell

    2006-03-31

    A survey of the parasitic fauna of the Norwegian red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population was carried out in 1994/1995 and 2002-2005. All foxes were killed during the licensed hunting season from October to April and, in total, 393 animals from all regions of the country were examined. The present study details the results of extra-intestinal nematode and Trichinella larvae examinations. All individuals were examined for Trichinella, using routine digestion methods. Parasitological examination of the internal organs of some of the foxes also identified a number of different extra-intestinal nematodes. The following prevalences were identified (number positive/number foxes examined): Trichinella larvae 19/393 (4.8%); Capillaria böhmi (C. böhmi) 88/174 (51%); Capillaria aerophila (C. aerophila) 160/181 (88%); Crenosoma vulpis (Cr. vulpis) 105/181 (58%) and Capillaria plica (C. plica) 81/154 (53%). No evidence of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection was found. The 19 different Trichinella isolates were species typed by PCR and sequence analysis; 18 isolates were identified as Trichinella nativa and one as Trichinella britovi. A wide geographical distribution of the parasites was seen. The following exceptions were recorded: C. böhmi, the prevalence of which was significantly lower in northern Norway (6%) compared to other regions (central Norway, eastern Norway and southern and western Norway; 52-57%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of Trichinella infection in eastern Norway (8.1%), when compared with the rest of the country (0.6%). Cr. vulpis prevalence was significantly higher in central Norway (83%) than in other regions (41-56%). There were no significant differences in age and sex distribution of the parasites with the exception of Cr. vulpis where juvenile foxes had a greater likelihood of infection. The data also indicated that adult foxes were more commonly infected with Trichinella larvae (5.8%) than juveniles (3.3%) (no statistical significance).

  19. 伊维菌素和丙硫咪唑对小鼠旋毛虫病的疗效试验%Efficacy of ivermectin and albendazole against the various phases of 4 Trichinella isolates in treating mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铭忻; 路义鑫; 张子群; 许辉; 胡天阳

    2002-01-01

    目的为伊维菌素更广泛临床应用提供科学依据.方法用伊维菌素和丙硫咪唑对人工感染旋毛虫各隔离种的小鼠进行疗效试验,观察其杀虫效果.结果30mg/kg*d的丙硫咪唑对猪旋毛虫、旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis)、犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫(Trichinella nativa)的3个时期虫体均有100%的杀虫效果.0.3mg/kg*d的伊维菌素对4个旋毛虫隔离种的移行幼虫和包囊幼虫杀虫效果较好,杀虫率分别为75.97%~89.63%和71.95%~82.81%,而对成虫较差;该药对犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫的杀虫率比猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫要高些.结论试验揭示伊维菌素对旋毛虫没有高效的杀灭作用.

  20. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Pozio, E.; Boes, J.

    2011-01-01

    -effective surveillance programme that enables a standardised monitoring approach within the EU. The proposed surveillance programme relies on identifying sub-populations of animals with a distinct risk. Low-risk pigs are finisher pigs that originate from so-called controlled housing. All other pigs are considered high......-risk pigs. Controlled housing is identified by the application of a specific list of management and husbandry practices. We suggest that member states (MS) be categorised into three classes based on the confidence that Trichinella can be considered absent, in the specified sub-population of pigs above...... a specified design prevalence which we set to 1 per million pigs. A simple and transparent method is proposed to estimate this confidence, based on the sensitivity of the surveillance system, taking into account the sensitivity of testing and the design prevalence. The probability of detecting a positive case...

  1. Detection and zoonotic potential of Trichinella spp. from free-range pig farming in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsiros, V G; Boutsini, S; Ntousi, D; Stougiou, D; Mintza, D; Bisias, A

    2012-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious parasitic zoonosis, which is widely distributed around the world. Pork meat is still the predominant source of outbreaks of human trichinellosis in many countries. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Trichinella spp. as an important risk factor on the free-range pig farming sector in Greece. In 2009, during routine testing for the detection of Trichinella larvae at slaughterhouses and the National Reference Laboratory for Parasites (NRL), a total of 826,426 pigs were tested with the magnetic stirrer method for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses, including 2,892 samples from free-range pigs. Two positive samples were detected: one positive for Trichinella britovi and one positive for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) in the samples from wild farmed free-range pigs. It is alarming that one of these cases was connected with clinical signs of trichinellosis in five persons of the same family in northeastern Greece, who consumed undercooked pork meat from a free-range pig farm. During 2010, a total number of 1,295,034 pigs were tested with same method, including 4,159 samples from free-range pig farms. Five positive samples for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) were detected from 4,159 free-range pigs tested by the Greek NRL. Moreover, 363 serum samples from free-range pigs were serologically tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, 363 serum samples from farmed free-range pigs were serologically tested with ELISA, and 15 samples were found positive. Finally, the present study is the first report of detection of T. britovi in Greece. In conclusion, based on the results of the present study, Trichinella spp. is a high-risk factor for the free-range pig farming in Greece.

  2. European mustelids occupying pristine wetlands in the Danube delta harbor infections with trichinella likely derived from domesticated swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although mustelids may play a significant role in the transmission of Trichinella spp., their protected status has limited opportunities to understand their exposure to parasites cycling either among domesticated or wildlife host species. Of the species of Trichinella in Europe, only T. britovi has ...

  3. Detection of Trichinella murrelli in coyotes (Canis latrans) from Oklahoma and North Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Mason V; Tiernan, Kathryn E; Paras, Kelsey L; Interisano, Maria; Reiskind, Michael H; Panciera, Roger J; Pozio, Edoardo

    2011-12-15

    We determined the prevalence and mean intensity of Trichinella sp. infection in coyotes from six counties in Oklahoma and one in northern Texas. Tongues from 77 coyotes were examined using histology and artificial tissue digestion. Histological examination showed a prevalence of 3.9% (3 of 77) whereas the prevalence was 6.5% (5 of 77) based on artificial digestion of 5.0 g of muscle from coyote tongues. One sample was positive for Trichinella sp. on histology but negative by artificial digestion. Combining data from both diagnostic techniques showed that six of 77 (7.8%) coyotes were infected with Trichinella spp. The mean intensity of Trichinella sp. larvae ranged from 0.2 to 66.2 with an average of 16.0 larvae per gram (LPG) of tongue. Genotyping results demonstrated that the coyotes were infected with Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of T. murrelli infection in coyotes in Oklahoma. T. murrelli had previously been isolated from coyotes in Texas.

  4. Incorrect sequencing and taxon misidentification: an example in the Trichinella genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, G; La Rosa, G; Pozio, E

    2010-09-01

    Molecular analyses such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing are very useful for taxon identification, especially when morphological characters useful for identifying taxa are lacking. However, the use of molecular tools can be the source of taxon misidentification if they are not correctly applied and the results are not critically evaluated and compared with the literature and GenBank data. We describe a case of misidentification of a taxon of the genus Trichinella due to sequencing mistakes, lack of reference material and selection of a single molecular marker. A Trichinella sp. isolate from an Iranian wild boar (Sus scrofa) was identified as belonging to the Nearctic species Trichinella murrelli, through the molecular analysis of the 5S rRNA intergenic spacer region. A successive molecular identification of the same isolate was performed by the International Trichinella Reference Centre in Rome, Italy, using the 5S rRNA intergenic spacer region, the LSU rDNA expansion segment five, and the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2. According to these analyses, the Iranian isolate belonged to Trichinella britovi, a Palaearctic species already described in Iran.

  5. Trichinella zimbabwensis in wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Marucci, Gianluca; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-04-06

    Recent discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in crocodiles from Zimbabwe, Lake Cahora Basa, Mozambique, and from lake Abaja, Ethiopia, prompted strict control measures to curb the possible spread of the infection to humans and also to prevent its introduction to other countries, which were considered free of this pathogen. In 2006, the Chief Directorate Veterinary Services of Mpumalanga Province of South Africa launched a survey to investigate the status of wild and commercial breeding crocodiles in the province. To evaluate if T. zimbabwensis was circulating in the environments where crocodiles are living in South Africa, 9 fish, 36 reptiles (including 27 Nile crocodiles) and 4 mammals have been investigated to detect Trichinella sp. larvae in their muscles. In January 2008, a Nile crocodile from Komatipoort, sampled by means of a tail biopsy, tested positive for Trichinella larvae. In June-July 2008, Trichinella sp. larvae were also detected in four other Nile crocodiles from the Olifants River Gorge. The prevalence of Trichinella infection in the investigated wild Nile crocodiles from South Africa is 38.5%. The larvae were identified as belonging to T. zimbabwensis by multiplex-PCR. These are the first reports of T. zimbabwensis in South Africa and suggest that the distribution area of this parasite species is wider than that believed in the past.

  6. Impact of human activities on water level and clarity and underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. in Poyan Lake, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.

    2008-01-01

    Almost 95% of the world population of Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) winter in Poyang Lake, China. Here they forage on the tubers of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. The growth and production of V. spiralis are regulated by the local hydrology, which might also be

  7. Impact of human activities on water level and clarity and underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. in Poyan Lake, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.

    2008-01-01

    Almost 95% of the world population of Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) winter in Poyang Lake, China. Here they forage on the tubers of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. The growth and production of V. spiralis are regulated by the local hydrology, which might also be influen

  8. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in a red fox in mainland Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Boughtflower, Valerie; Allanson, Peter C; Hartley, Kayleigh M; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Stephens, Nathalie A; Marucci, Gianluca; Smith, Graham C

    2015-03-15

    Active surveillance of red foxes for Trichinella has been undertaken in mainland Britain since 1999. Post-mortems are carried out, followed by a magnetic stirrer method for sample digestion based on European Commission (EC) Regulation 216/2014 (which amends 2075/2005). Initially samples are tested in batches of 20 foxes and in December 2013, for the first time under the surveillance programme, a batch tested positive for Trichinella at the Animal and Plant Health Agency, York. Further individual tests identified one infected fox, from the Bristol area. The larvae were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Great Britain and suggests the possibility of a cycle of infection existing in wildlife.

  9. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella...... served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were...

  10. PRESENCE OF TRICHINELLA BRITOVI IN WILD BOAR IN THE MARCHE REGION REGULARLY SLAUGHTERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Di Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a nematode belonging to the genus Trichinella. Numerous mammal species as well as birds and crocodiles can harbour the parasite worldwide, but the wild cycle is mainly maintained by wild carnivores. Human represents only a possible host and the parasite is exclusively transmitted through consumption of undercooked or raw meat. In Italy, pork, wild boar meat and horse meat are the main sources for human infection. This article describe a presence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar in the Marche region regularly slaughtered. These case confirms the occurrence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar and the important role of slaughterhouse in epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic diseases.

  11. 小鼠感染不同数量旋毛虫后幼虫在鼠体内的发育及分布%DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IARVAE IN MICE INFECTED BY DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IARVAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树国; 张光玉; 王绍基

    2003-01-01

    目的:观察小鼠感染不同数量旋毛虫幼虫后,幼虫在体内的发育、分布以及密度上的差异.方法:小鼠随机分组感染不同数量旋毛虫幼虫,28天、35天后解剖观察鼠体不同组织内幼虫的发育,分布以及密度.结果:旋毛虫在3组小鼠体内发育情况大体相同,幼虫在鼠体膈肌和咬肌中的密度最高.不同动物组感染不同数量旋毛虫后,鼠体幼虫密度和分布有明显差异.结论:研究结果表明,较小数量旋毛虫幼虫感染适宜于旋毛虫保种,较大数量旋毛虫幼虫感染适合于旋毛虫幼虫的收集及进行旋毛虫病的试验研究.

  12. Occurrence and genotypic analysis of Trichinella species in Alaska marine-associated mammals of the Bering and Chukchi seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, J; Horstmann-Dehn, L; Rosa, C; Lopez, J A

    2014-02-24

    The zoonotic parasite Trichinella is the causative agent of trichinellosis outbreaks in the circumpolar Arctic. Subsistence communities are particularly prone to trichinellosis due to traditional meat preparation methods and regional presence of a freeze-tolerant Trichinella species (Trichinella nativa). This study is the first application of a validated artificial digestion method in determining incidence of Trichinella sp. in Alaskan mammals. Infection incidence in pinniped species (Erignathus barbatus, Eumetopias jubatus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens, and Pusa hispida) was low, with only 1/57 ringed seals infected. Polymerase Chain Reaction assays indicate T. nativa as the only species present in northern Alaska. Analysis of an archived polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle sample shows freeze-tolerance and longevity for T. nativa to -20°C for 10 years and short-term freeze resistance to -80°C when morphology was used to determine presence of live larvae. However, larval motility suggests 0% survival. An approach that combines artificial digestion with PCR based species identification has excellent potential for Trichinella sp. detection and identification of archived tissues. Overall, Trichinella in Alaskan mammals, particularly marine mammals of subsistence importance, appears to be a minor problem. These modern diagnostic techniques provide accurate insight into the presence of Trichinella in the Alaskan marine environment.

  13. The wolf (Canis lupus) as an indicator species for the sylvatic Trichinella cycle in the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Ćirović, Duško; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Djurić, Spomenka; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife is the most important reservoir of Trichinella spp. worldwide. Although the Balkans are a recognized European endemic region for Trichinella infections, data on wildlife are scarce. To monitor the circulation of these zoonotic parasites in the Central Balkan region, the wolf (Canis lupus) was selected because of its abundance (>2,000 individuals) and because it is at the top of the food chain. A total of 116 carcasses of wolves were collected in Serbia and in the neighboring areas of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) between 2006 and 2013. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in 54 (46.5%) wolves. The great majority (90.5%) originated from Serbia, where 52 of the 105 examined animals were Trichinella positive (49.5%; 95% confidence interval  =39.9-59.1). One positive animal each was found in B&H and Macedonia. All larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi. The high prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves suggests that this carnivore can be a good indicator species for the risk assessment of the sylvatic Trichinella cycle in the Central Balkans.

  14. Examination and Disposal on Trichnella Spiralis%猪旋毛虫的检验及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱本志

    2001-01-01

    旋毛虫可感染多种动物和人,危害严重。本文介绍了旋毛虫的检验、处理方法,即各定点屠宰厂(场)生产现场都采用目检、镜检结合检验,按有关法规处理。%Animals and humans could be dangerously infected by TrichnellaSpiralis.Combination eye-examination with microscopic examination was widely used for Trichnella Spiralis detection in designated slaughterhouse and the related disposal law was also introduced.

  15. Efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Gcanga, L; Kamau, J

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematode species of the genus Trichinella. Anthelmintics targeting the intestinal adults and muscle-dwelling larvae of Trichinella spp. have been tested, with limited success. This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats, with an average weight of 270 g and 180 g for males and females respectively, were infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Infected rats were randomly assigned to three groups which were subjected to single treatments with each of maslinic acid, fenbendazole and a combination of both on day 25 post-infection (pi), and three groups which were subjected to double treatments with each of these drugs and a combination on days 25 and 32 pi. The untreated control group received a placebo. In single-treatment groups, the efficacy of each treatment, measured by rate of reduction in muscle larvae, was significant (P0.05). We conclude that the efficacy of maslinic acid against larval stages of T. zimbabwensis in rats was comparable to that of fenbendazole, with no side-effects observed, making maslinic acid a promising anthelmintic against larval stages of Trichinella species.

  16. The presence and molecular identification of Trichinella infections in foxes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen JWB; Rombout YB; Franchimont JH; Veen A; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Onder vossen in Nederland werd een prevalentie van Trichinella infecties van 5.1% gevonden. In totaal werden 429 vossen onderzocht met de artificiele digestiemethode. Geisoleerde larven werden met behulp van RAPD-PCR geanalyseerd. Het bleek om T. britovi te gaan. Deze species komt voor in de sy

  17. Trichinella murrelli in scavenging mammals from south-central Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Sundar, N.; Zarlenga, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Tissues and serum from 59 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 42 coyotes (Canis latrans), and seven Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) collected in Dane and Iowa Counties, Wisconsin, USA, between October 2005 and March 2006 were microscopically and serologically examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. Encapsulated larvae were found on compression slides prepared from tongue tissues from a few animals. Complete tissue digestion of tongues revealed that 19% of the raccoons, 26% of the coyotes, and none of the seven skunks tested were infected with Trichinella spp. Cats were subsequently experimentally infected by feeding them the raccoon tissues containing muscle larvae, and muscle larvae isolated from the collected tongues were experimentally transmitted to mice. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of the isolated muscle larvae demonstrated two distinct bands migrating at 127 base pairs (bp) and 316 bp in all samples, which together are diagnostic for Trichinella murrelli; the isolates were assigned Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) codes ISS1656 through ISS1667, and ISS1708 through ISS1710 by the International Trichinella Reference Centre. These findings extend the geographic range of T. murrelli into Wisconsin, USA. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  18. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  19. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations.

  20. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  1. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-04-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea.

  2. Direct correlation of radiolarian Kilinora spiralis Zone with the Late Jurassic ammonite faunal succession in the Kurisaka Formation, Kurosegawa Terrane, SW Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISHIDA; Keisuke; TSUJINO; Yasuyuki; KOZAI; Takeshi; SATO; Tadashi; HIRSCH; Francis

    2009-01-01

    The last appearance datum of the radiolarian Kilinora spiralis is recorded above the first appearance datum of the ammonite Ataxioceras (A.) kurisakense in the Todoro Section of the Kurisaka Formation, Southern Kurosegawa Terrane, Shikoku, SW Japan. The constraint by ammonite age prolongs the range of the Kilinora spiralis Zone, a remarkable Jurassic radiolarian zone in Japan-NW Pacific region, into the lower Kimmeridgian. The direct correlation of the Kilinora spiralis zone with the Late Jurassic ammonite faunal succession in the Kurisaka Formation will provide a clue to the still pending chronological difference between European and North American radiolarian zones.

  3. Genetic entities and mating system in hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and its close dioecious relative F. vesiculosus (Fucaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C R; Daguin, C; Serrão, E A

    2005-06-01

    To date, molecular markers have not settled the question of the specific status of the closely related, but phylogenetically unresolved, brown seaweeds, hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and dioecious Fucus vesiculosus, nor their propensity for natural hybridization. To test the degree of species integrity and to assess effect of the mating system on the population genetic structure, 288 individuals coming from parapatric (discontinuous) and sympatric (contiguous) spatial configurations at two sites were genotyped with five microsatellite loci. Using a Bayesian admixture analysis, our results show that F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus comprise clearly distinct genetic entities (clusters) generally characterized by cosexual and unisexual individuals, respectively. Genetic diversity within each entity suggests that F. spiralis reproduces primarily through selfing while F. vesiculosus is characterized by an endogamous breeding regime. Nevertheless, aberrant sexual phenotypes were observed in each cluster, no diagnostic alleles were revealed and 10% of study individuals were intermediate between the two genetic entities. This pattern can be explained by recent divergence of two taxa with retention of ancestral polymorphism or asymmetrical, introgressive hybridization. However, given (i) coincident monomorphism at three loci in spiralis clusters and (ii) that significantly more intermediates were observed in sympatric stations than in parapatric stations, we argue that interspecific gene flow has occurred after divergence of the two taxa. Finally, we show that whether recently separated or recently introgressive, the divergent breeding systems probably contribute to species integrity in these two taxa.

  4. Rhodobacteraceae on the marine brown alga Fucus spiralis are abundant and show physiological adaptation to an epiphytic lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs, Marco; Wemheuer, Bernd; Wolter, Laura; Bergen, Nils; Daniel, Rolf; Simon, Meinhard; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2017-09-01

    Macroalgae harbour specific microbial communities on their surface that have functions related to host health and defence. In this study, the bacterial biofilm of the marine brown alga Fucus spiralis was investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based analysis and isolation of bacteria. Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) were the predominant family constituting 23% of the epibacterial community. At the genus level, Sulfitobacter, Loktanella, Octadecabacter and a previously undescribed cluster were most abundant, and together they comprised 89% of the Rhodobacteraceae. Supported by a specific PCR approach, 23 different Rhodobacteraceae-affiliated strains were isolated from the surface of F. spiralis, which belonged to 12 established and three new genera. For seven strains, closely related sequences were detected in the 16S rRNA gene dataset. Growth experiments with substrates known to be produced by Fucus spp. showed that all of them were consumed by at least three strains, and vitamin B12 was produced by 70% of the isolates. Since growth of F. spiralis depends on B12 supplementation, bacteria may provide the alga with this vitamin. Most strains produced siderophores, which can enhance algal growth under iron-deficient conditions. Inhibiting properties against other bacteria were only observed when F. spiralis material was present in the medium. Thus, the physiological properties of the isolates indicated adaption to an epiphytic lifestyle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Constituents of the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Leiothrix spiralis Ruhland and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campaner dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fractionation of the methanolic extract of leaves of Leiothrix spiralis Ruhland afforded the flavonoids luteolin-6-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, 7-methoxyluteolin-6-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (2, 7-methoxyluteolin-8-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (3, 4′-methoxyluteolin-6-C-b-D-glucopyranoside (4, and 6-hydroxy-7-methoxyluteolin (5, and the xanthones 8-carboxymethyl-1,5,6-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (6, 8-carboxy-methyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (7. Methanolic extract, fractions, and isolated compounds of the leaves of L. spiralis were assayed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella setubal and Helicobacter pylori and fungi (the yeasts Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. We observed the best minimum inhibitory concentration values for the methanolic extract against Candida parapsilosis, for the fraction 5 + 6 against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and compound 7 against all tested Candida strains. The methanolic extract contents suggest that this species may be a promising source of compounds to produce natural phytomedicines.

  6. Discernible but limited introgression has occurred where Trichinella nativa and the T6 genotype occur in sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Reichard, Mason V; Torretti, Luigi; Zarlenga, Dante S; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2012-04-01

    The genetic diversity within and among parasite populations provides clues to their evolutionary history. Here, we sought to determine whether mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation could be used to evaluate the extent of differentiation, gene flow and historical reproductive isolation among the freeze resistant parasites Trichinella nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype infecting wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Nunavut, Canada. To this end, we genotyped Trichinella isolates derived from the diaphragms of 39 wolverines from this locale to reference strains of T. nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype. Results showed that among a subset of 13 isolates examined, individuals resembled T. nativa in their mitochondrial DNA, but resembled the Trichinella T6 genotype when assayed at expansion segment V and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear rDNA. To adjudicate among these conflicting diagnoses, we further characterized each isolate at several nuclear microsatellite loci and again compared these to data from reference strains. Statistical assignment established that the nuclear genomes of most Nunavut isolates corresponded to those of the Trichinella T6 genotype; however, two isolates corresponded to T. nativa, and one isolate exhibited equal similarity to both reference strains. Taken as a whole, the evidence suggests that these isolates derive from the T. nativa matrilineage, but that their nuclear genomes resemble individuals previously designated as Trichinella T6. Assuming distinct lineages, this argues for cross-hybridization among these genotypes. Although introgression has occurred, recognizable genetic distinctions persist. One possibility is that selection disfavors the survival of hybrid offspring in most instances. Alternatively, the recent disappearance of glacial barriers might have increased contact, and therefore introgression. Broader geographic sampling will be required to determine the extent to which hybridization occurs beyond this

  7. 7 CFR 98.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nematodes of the genus Trichinella, which live as parasites in man, horses, rats, and other animals. Trichinella spiralis. A small parasitic nematode worm which lives in the flesh of various animals,...

  8. Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.; Gamble, H. R.

    2009-01-01

    in all aspects of a Trichinella diagnostic system is emphasized. It includes the use of international quality standards, test validation and standardization, critical control points, laboratory accreditation, certification of analysts and proficiency testing. Also described, are the roles and locations......Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used...... in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application...

  9. Outbreak of human trichinellosis in Northern California caused by Trichinella murrelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rebecca L; Lindsay, Ann; Hammond, Chris; Montgomery, Susan P; Wilkins, Patricia P; da Silva, Alexandre J; McAuliffe, Isabel; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; Mathison, Blaine; Sun, Benjamin; Largusa, Ron; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2012-08-01

    In October of 2008, an outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in northern California that sickened 30 of 38 attendees of an event at which meat from a black bear was served. Morphologic and molecular testing of muscle from the leftover portion of bear meat revealed that the bear was infected with Trichinella murrelli, a sylvatic species of Trichinella found in temperate North America. Clinical records revealed a high attack rate for this outbreak: 78% for persons consuming any bear meat and 100% for persons consuming raw or undercooked bear meat. To our knowledge, this report is the first published report of a human trichinellosis outbreak in the United States attributed to T. murrelli, and it is the second such outbreak reported worldwide.

  10. Molecular identification of nematode larvae different from those of the Trichinella genus detected by muscle digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, Gianluca; Interisano, Maria; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-05-20

    Although larvae of the genus Trichinella are the most common parasite species detected in vertebrate muscles using artificial digestion, nematode larvae belonging to other genera are sometimes detected and incorrectly identified as Trichinella. However, it is often very difficult to identify these larvae at the species, genus or family level using microscopy because of the absence of specific morphological characters or cuticle damage, and the only means of identification is PCR and sequencing of specific molecular markers (12S mtDNA; COI; 18S rDNA; and ITS1). From 2008 to 2011, 18 nematode isolates not belonging to the genus Trichinella were collected from different host species. Eleven of these isolates were successfully identified at the species, genus or superfamily level: larvae from two common kestrels, three hooded crows, a hen harrier and a domestic pig were identified as Toxocara cati; larvae from a badger were identified as Toxocara canis; larvae from a domestic pig were identified as a free-living nematode of the genus Panagrolaimus; larvae from a wild boar were identified as belonging to the Metastrongylus genus; and larvae from a rough-legged buzzard were identified as belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea. The recovery of nematodes belonging to genera other than Trichinella during routine meat inspection suggests that the persons performing the analyses need to be informed of the possibility of false positives and that a molecular-based identification system that allows for a rapid and reliable response must be adopted (i.e., a DNA barcoding-like system).

  11. Antibacterial effect of Costus spiralis leaves extract on pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pérez

    2008-01-01

    pueden ser extraídos y purificados a partir de plantas para el desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos. Entre las diversas enfermedades que históricamente han afectado al hombre, el cólera ha sido potencialmente epidémico y una de las más sobresalientes. La bacteria Vibrio cholerae, el agente causal, puede ser eliminado mediante antibióticos, de modo que además del tratamiento tradicional de la enfermedad de rehidratación vía oral o intravenosa, comúnmente son aplicados antibióticos tales como la tetraciclina, ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina o azitromicina. El efecto antimicrobiano in vitro de extractos de hojas de Costus spiralis (Roscoe sobre varias cepas patógenas de Vibrio cholerae fue ensayado mediante la técnica de difusión en placas de agar. Hojas verdes de la plantas fueron colectadas, secadas en horno a 50 ºC durante 48 h, molidas y finalmente, sometidas a extracción con etanol. Luego de secado, el material residual fue resuspendido en agua destilada a 100 mg/mL (p/v y realizados los ensayos de actividad antimicrobiana. Aparentemente, las cepas patógenas que representan las pandemias del siglo xx: C7258 (O1, El Tor, Ogawa, C6706 (O1, El Tor, Inaba, O395 (O1, Clásica, Ogawa, CRC266 (O139 y 569B (O1, Clásica, Inaba fueron matadas, a juzgar por la presencia de halos de inhibición de crecimiento en los ensayos. Adicionalmente, se eterminaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de los extractos para las diferentes cepas. Los resultados anteriores fueron similares a los de la Ampicillina, lo que sugiere que Costus spiralis pude utilizarse como fuente de principios activos contra Vibrio cholerae.

  12. First report of a Trichinella papuae infection in a wild pig (Sus scrofa) from an Australian island in the Torres Strait region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, L; Cookson, B; Jackson, L A; Gray, C; Traub, R J

    2012-04-30

    Multiple Trichinella species are reported from the Australasian region although mainland Australia has never confirmed an indigenous case of Trichinella infection in humans or animals. Wildlife surveys in high-risk regions are essential to truly determine the presence or absence of Trichinella, but in mainland Australia are largely lacking. In this study, a survey was conducted in wild pigs from mainland Australia's Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait region for the presence of Trichinella, given the proximity of a Trichinella papuae reservoir in nearby PNG. We report the detection of a Trichinella infection in a pig from an Australian island in the Torres Strait, a narrow waterway that separates the islands of New Guinea and continental Australia. The larvae were characterised as T. papuae (Kikori strain) by PCR and sequence analysis. No Trichinella parasites were found in any pigs from the Cape York Peninsula. These results highlight the link the Torres Strait may play in providing a passage for introduction of Trichinella parasites from the Australasian region to the Australian mainland.

  13. The lateral flow card test: an alternative method for the detection of Trichinella infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrascu I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel lateral flow card (TS-Card pork test was developed for the serological detection of Trichinella infected pigs. Based on extensive studies performed in Romania during 1 999-2000 this test proved to be highly specific, sensitive, rapid (3-12 minutes and easy to use (no need for laboratory facilities. It can be used both for the detection of Trichinella infection in carcasses and for epizootiological studies using a variety of samples including whole or dried blood, serum, or tissue fluids. The TS-Card pork test, used as a screening test, can be the foundation of an on-farm or field based inspection system to significantly improve food safety in countries with a high prevalence of Trichinella in pigs or other food animal species. The results presented are also promising for application of the test in an on-line laboratory based inspection system since the speed of the test allows sufficient time to rail out suspected hog carcasses during the slaughter process.

  14. Epidemiology, histopathology, and muscle distribution of Trichinella T9 in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) and wildlife of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Kanai, Yuta; Ono, Yoko; Matoba, Yohei; Suzuki, Kazuo; Okamoto, Minoru; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Kinpei; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    The prevalences of Trichinella T9 in trapped raccoons (Procyon lotor) and several other potential mammalian reservoirs in Hokkaido, Wakayama, and Nagasaki Prefectures were investigated. Muscle samples were collected from 2003 to 2006 from 1,080 raccoons, 113 raccoon dogs including 2 species (Nyctereutes procyonoides albus and N. p. viverrinus), 41 wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), 14 martens (Martes melampus), 10 badgers (Meles meles), 5 Siberian weasels (Martes sibirica coreana), 7 mink (Mustela vison), and 1 red fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica). The samples were digested, and the prevalence and mean intensity of infection with the Trichinella muscle larvae were determined. The prevalence and intensity of the muscle larvae were 0.9% and 93.3 larvae/g (range 0.4-201.8) in raccoons, and 1.6% and 61.6 larvae/g in raccoon dogs, respectively. The infected animals were captured in different areas in Hokkaido Prefecture. These results confirmed that raccoons, which have been introduced from North America since the 1970s, are involved in the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella in Japan. In raccoons, the muscle density of Trichinella T9 larvae was highest in the tongue, and larvae were not found in the heart muscle or diaphragm. This is the first report of Trichinella T9 infection of feral raccoons in Japan.

  15. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    , Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense or Sarcoptes

  16. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  17. The relevance of evolutionary genetics for identification of Trichinella sp. and other pathogens at the strain, subspecies and species levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibayrenc M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the specific field of Trichinella research, the impact of evolutionary methods has been until now limited. This is all the more distressing, since this group of parasites is characterized by hard taxonomical problems. Moreover, for the epidemiological tracking of Trichinella populations, high-discriminating genetic typing, conveniently analyzed by population genetic methods, could be of considerable help. With no additional efforts, many molecular data are already available and could be used for retrospective analyses able to solve many taxonomical problems. It is desirable that coming studies are specifically designed according to evolutionary genetics principles and the question under study (sample size, selection of the appropriate marker.

  18. Comparative assessment of Azolla pinnata and Vallisneria spiralis in Hg removal from G.B. Pant Sagar of Singrauli Industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to monitor the Hg pollution in water and sediments of G.B. Pant Sagar located in Singrauli Industrial Region, India and to suggest the efficient aquatic plants for its phytoremediation. The study assessed the comparative potential of a free floating water fern Azolla pinnata and submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis to purify waters polluted by Hg. Six days laboratory experiments have been conducted to mark the percentage removal of Hg at initial concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg L(-1). The percentage removal of Hg was higher for A. pinnata (80-94%) than V. spiralis (70-84%). Likewise, the Hg accumulated in dry mass was much higher for A. pinnata and a high correlation (R(2) = 0.91 for A. pinnata and 0.99 for V. spiralis) was obtained between applied Hg doses and accumulated amounts in biomass. A concentration dependent decrease in chlorophyll a, protein, RNA, DNA and nutrients (NO(3-) and PO(4)(3-)) uptake was detected in A. pinnata and V. spiralis due to Hg toxicity. The decrease was more prominent in Azolla than Vallisneria. The results recommended the use of A. pinnata and V. spiralis to ameliorate the industrial effluents (thermal power, chlor-alkali and coal mine effluent) contaminated with Hg.

  19. Trichinella britovi biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2016-11-15

    Parasites of the genus Trichinella are cosmopolitan nematodes infecting primarily wild animals, which represent the main reservoirs of these zoonotic pathogens. To investigate the transmission patterns of Trichinella spp. from wild to domestic animals and to humans and for the risk assessment of these parasites in a geographical area, it is important to know the number of possible transmission events deriving from carcasses of infected hosts. For this purpose, the evaluation of the larval biomass in reservoir hosts is needed. No data is available on how to estimate the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of naturally infected animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larval biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia, in which the prevalence of Trichinella britovi infection was over 50%. Single muscles or group of muscles (abdomen, back, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, muscles from the head, left and right shoulders, lower and upper parts of the forelimbs and hind limbs, neck, rump with tail, and base and tip of the tongue) were collected from five skinned and eviscerated carcasses of T. britovi infected pine martens. Muscles were entirely removed from the bones and weighted. Each muscle or group of muscles was separately digested to detect the larvae per gram (LPG). Using linear regression, the larval burden in each muscle or group of muscles was evaluated to measure the possible prediction of the total animal larval burden (both as total number of larvae and as average LPG). All muscles were significantly predictive of the total burden with high "goodness of fit" (all adjusted R2>0.80; P≤0.01), and the left shoulder provided the highest adjusted R2 (0.999). Then, to estimate the Trichinella britovi biomass in the pine marten population of Latvia, recent literature data on prevalence (56.2%, 95% CI: 47.8-64.3) and geometric mean LPG (1.26, 95% CI: 0.89-1.79) in the limb muscles of a sample representative of the whole

  20. 四个旋毛虫地理株肌幼虫虫体抗原和排泄-分泌抗原的免疫学分析%Immunological analysis of the crude and excretory-secretory antigens of muscle larvae from four Trichinella isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简莎娜; 艾琳; 陈韶红; 蔡玉春; 卢艳; 陈木新; 吴秀萍; 田利光; 陈家旭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the components and immunity of the crude and excretory-secretory antigens of muscle larvae of four Trichinella isolates.Methods Sixteen Kunming mice infected with 300 muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis,respectively,and muscle larvae were collected on the 45th day after infection.The crude muscle larvae antigens(CLA) and the excretory-secretory antigens(ESA) of the muscle larvae were prepared by repeated freeze-thaw and culture procedures,respectively.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to analyze the components of the CLA and ESA.Western-blot analysis was performed with sera of normal mice,mice infected with Trichinella,healthy individuals,and patients with trichinosis,schitosomiasis,clonorchiasis,echinococcosis,sparganosis,trichuriasis,paragonimiasis,cysticercosis,hookworm disease.Results By the analysis of SDS-PAGE,the CLA and ESA of the four Trichinella isolates were all presented 8 main bands with Mr 100 000,66 000,49 000,45 000,43 000,30 000,18 000,12 000 (former) and 70 000,16 000(latter) and 66 000,53 000,49 000,43 000,36 000,34 000,30 000,16 000 respectively,and 1 to 4 sub-bands with Mr 21 000~40 000 of the four isolates.Among them,5 immune reaction bands with Mr 95 000,72 000,53 000,49 000 and 43 000 of the CLA,and 4 bands with Mr 53 000,49 000,43 000,40 000 of the ESA were recognized with the sera of patient and mice infected with Trichinella spiralis respectively on Western blot.Conclusion There are some differences in components and immunological reaction of different isolates,Mr 40 000 component of CLA and Mr 95 000,72 000 components of ESA should be the focus of further study.%目的 分析4个旋毛虫地理株肌幼虫的虫体抗原、排泄-分泌抗原的蛋白组成和免疫学特性.方法 昆明小鼠16只,每只感染旋毛虫肌幼虫300条,45 d后人工消化法收集旋毛虫肌幼虫制备虫体抗原,幼虫体外培养获得排泄-分泌抗原.用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(polyacrylamide gel

  1. Detecting Trichinella infections using inverse microscopy and an improved larval counting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrutzki, G; Riehn, K; Hamedy, A; Petroff, D; Hasenclever, D; Meiler, H; Lücker, E

    2014-12-01

    Several methods for the detection of Trichinella in meat are legally prescribed in regulation (EC) No 2075/2005, which prescribes the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion (MSM) as the reference method. However, the MSM's multistage protocol requires several preparatory steps that seem to be accountable for the loss of larvae. Here we present a modified MSM (mMSM) based on: (1) an inversion of the optical path using inverse microscopy; and (2) a modified larval counting basin (mLCB, 'Trichoview'). This enables one to examine samples of up to 40 ml and reduces the examination area from 72 to 10.3 cm2. Preparatory steps that might cause the loss of Trichinella larvae are eliminated from the new protocol. Correspondingly, the overall analytical time is reduced. In a direct and blinded comparison using 60 digest samples containing spiked vital Trichinella larvae (1-90 L1), both methods performed well for both small and large numbers of L1. However, 1278 of 1285 L1 (99.4%) were detected using the mMSM, while MSM recovered only 1225 L1 (95.3%). The improvement stems largely from samples with small numbers of L1: in all samples spiked with fewer than 10 L1, the recovery rate of mMSM was 100% compared to only 93% with MSM. Our data suggest that the use of the mMSM can improve the recovery rate by about 4% and therefore reduce the chances of a false-negative result in a sample containing 5 larvae by a factor of about 4.

  2. Trichinella pseudospiralis in sedentary night-birds of prey from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Goffredo, M; Fico, R; La Rosa, G

    1999-08-01

    Trichinella pseudospiralis has been isolated from carnivorous and carrion-feeding mammals and birds in Eastern Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America, suggesting its cosmopolitan distribution. We conducted a survey to detect this parasite in raptorial and carrion-feeding birds in Italy, examining muscles from 205 animals by artificial digestion. We isolated from the breast muscle 1 larva from a tawny owl (Strix aluco) and 2 larvae from a little owl (Athene noctua). These larvae were identified as T. pseudospiralis by the polymerase chain reaction with a specific primer set. This is the first documented report of T. pseudospiralis in animals in Western Europe.

  3. Verification of good production practices that reduce the risk of exposure of pigs to Trichinella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamble H.R.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of Trichinella infection in swine has traditionally been accomplished by inspection of individual carcasses or by post-slaughter processing to inactivate parasites. Recent declines in prevalence of this parasite in domestic swine, coupled with improvements in swine management systems, offer the opportunity to document pork safety during the production phase. We report here on a certification pilot study using an audit to document good production practices for swine relative to the risk of exposure to trichinae. Based on the results, improvements in the program have been made and further studies will be undertaken prior to launching a voluntary trichinae herd certification program in the United States.

  4. Genetic insights into pyralomicin biosynthesis in Nonomuraea spiralis IMC A-0156.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Patricia M; Wu, Xiumei; Perry, Steven; Mahmud, Taifo

    2013-05-24

    The biosynthetic gene cluster for the pyralomicin antibiotics has been cloned and sequenced from Nonomuraea spiralis IMC A-0156. The 41 kb gene cluster contains 27 ORFs predicted to encode all of the functions for pyralomicin biosynthesis. This includes nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) required for the formation of the benzopyranopyrrole core unit, as well as a suite of tailoring enzymes (e.g., four halogenases, an O-methyltransferase, and an N-glycosyltransferase) necessary for further modifications of the core structure. The N-glycosyltransferase is predicted to transfer either glucose or a pseudosugar (cyclitol) to the aglycone. A gene cassette encoding C7-cyclitol biosynthetic enzymes was identified upstream of the benzopyranopyrrole-specific ORFs. Targeted disruption of the gene encoding the N-glycosyltransferase, prlH, abolished pyralomicin production, and recombinant expression of PrlA confirms the activity of this enzyme as a sugar phosphate cyclase involved in the formation of the C7-cyclitol moiety.

  5. Diagnostic test evaluation for Trichinella infections in pigs: a renewed interaction between diagnostic test data and their statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopfer, D.D.V.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Achterberg, R.P.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Teunis, P.; Buist, W.G.; Molina, V.; Guarnera, E.; Gonzales, M.; Krivokapich, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Peralta, J.L.; Trabattoni, H.; Larrieu, E.; Engel, B.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of serological tests applied to monitor Trichinella free herds, Bayesian methodology was used to estimate the diagnostic test parameters: sensitivity, specificity and prevalence in the absence of a Gold Standard test. In the absence of Dutch serum samples for positive pigs

  6. Comparison of three artificial digestion methods for detection of non-encapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nockler, K.; Reckinger, S.; Szabo, I.;

    2009-01-01

    In a ring trial involving five laboratories (A, B, C, D, and E), three different methods of artificial digestion were compared for the detection of non-encapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in minced meat. Each sample panel consisted often 1 g minced pork samples. All samples in each pan...

  7. The occurrence of nematodes of the genus Trichinella in wolves (Canis lupus) from the Bieszczady Mountains and Augustowska Forest in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, Justyna; Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Welc, Mirosław; Popiołek, Marcin; Cabaj, Władysław

    2016-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves (Canis lupus) in two regions in Poland. Muscle samples were collected from 21 wolves between 1999 and 2015 and processed by artificial digestion. In two cases, the muscle larvae (ML) were obtained and stored in alcohol. ML were detected in 12 wolves and genotyped by multiplex PCR. Trichinella britovi was confirmed in 12 wolves (54.5%). The larval burdens in infected animals ranged from 0.009 to 27 larvae per gram. The high prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves might suggest that this predator is a significant reservoir of Trichinella species in the sylvatic cycle in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0098 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0098 ref|NP_077257.1|ND4_15606 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Trichinel...la spiralis] gb|AAK12897.1|AF293969_3 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Trichinella spiralis] NP_077257.1 0.31 25% ...

  9. Antimitochondrial antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  10. 旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫17 000抗原组分的免疫诊断价值%Immunodiagnostic value of the 17 000 antigen component of pre-encysted Trichinella spiralis larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣光; 崔晶; 毛福荣; 晋雪香; 王中全

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫抗原(PELA) 17 000组分的免疫诊断价值.方法:应用聚丙烯凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)和转印技术分离PELA 17 000蛋白组分,用ELISA检测实验感染旋毛虫的Wistar大鼠和旋毛虫病患者血清抗体,并以PELA和成囊期幼虫抗原(ELA)为对照.结果:对于感染旋毛虫的大鼠,17 000组分和PELA的首次血清阳性反应出现在感染后第10 d,而ELA则在感染后第14 d,其差异具有统计学意义(P0.05).17 000抗原与其他寄生虫病患者及健康人血清无反应,而PELA和ELA均与肺吸虫病、鞭虫病患者血清有反应,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:与PELA和ELA相比,PELA 17 000组分对旋毛虫病的早期诊断具有更大的价值.

  11. 乙醇对旋毛虫幼虫活力及感染性的影响%Effects of ethanol on the viability and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玺; 崔晶; 祁欣; 井封军; 王中全

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察不同体积分数的乙醇溶液对旋毛虫幼虫活力及感染性的影响.方法在体外模拟胃内环境条件下,将100条旋毛虫用不同体积分数的乙醇溶液处理,美蓝-伊红-硼砂(M.E.B)染液鉴定幼虫的活力.64只昆明小鼠随机分为8组(每组8只),6组小鼠分别经口接种或喂饲500条用不同体积分数的乙醇溶液处理不同时间后的幼虫或含500条幼虫的肌肉,另2组分别为生理盐水处理幼虫与含幼虫肌肉的对照组,感染后7 d与40 d每组各剖杀4只小鼠,分别观察肠道雌虫数与肌幼虫数.结果 肌幼虫用体积分数为0.20和0.25的乙醇溶液处理240 min,死亡率分别为0和1.4%;在体积分数为0.30、0.35、0.40、0.45、0.50、0.55和0.60的乙醇溶液处理组幼虫全部死亡所需时间分别为180、90、45、30、30、20和20 min;肌幼虫用体积分数为0.65的乙醇溶液处理1和6 min的死亡率分别为44.4%和100%.旋毛虫幼虫经不同体积分数乙醇溶液处理不同时间后的死亡率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).趋势性分析结果表明,在体积分数为0.25~0.60的乙醇处理组,幼虫的死亡率随乙醇体积分数的增加及处理时间的延长而升高(P<0.05).不同体积分数的乙醇溶液处理不同时间的幼虫接种小鼠后7 d和40 d,未发现肠道成虫与肌幼虫.结论 乙醇对旋毛虫幼虫有较强的杀伤作用,幼虫用体积分数≥0.35的乙醇溶液处理30 min其感染性及生殖力完全丧失.

  12. Survey of Trichinella spiralis infection in pigs in Xiangfan city ih 1993-2003%1993~2003年襄樊市猪旋毛虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正敏; 侯向进; 曹正寅

    2004-01-01

    旋毛虫病为人兽共患寄生虫病,该病的流行与猪密切相关。本文对襄樊市1993-2003年屠宰猪后旋毛虫检查情况进行了整理分析,通过定基比、环比,反映11年来猪旋毛虫感染情况及发生的变化,并说明其发展过程与规律。旨在为该病的监控、综合性防治提供必要的参考资料,结果报告如下。

  13. 无菌分离和体外培养旋毛虫成虫方法的改进%Improved method of asepsis separation and culture in vitro of Trichinella spiralis adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊琴; 李科荣; 申丽洁

    2008-01-01

    目的 探索一种既简便又能用于大量收集和培养旋毛虫成虫的方法. 方法 在旋毛虫肌幼虫收集方法的基础上,结合现有方法和旋毛虫成虫的特点改进试验. 结果 10只成年大鼠,每只大鼠感染8 000条旋毛虫脱囊幼虫,收集到纯净成虫约44 600条,回收率55.75%.培养24 h后成虫活动活跃,并产生新生蚴,运动活泼. 结论 该法是一种既简便又能用于大量收集纯净的﹑活力较好的旋毛虫成虫的方法.

  14. The components of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigen and its diagnostic value%旋毛虫排泄分泌抗原的成分及应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光辉; 张龙现; 王选年; 张改平; 石团员; 朱惠丽; 宋海涛; 宁长申

    2006-01-01

    旋毛虫病是一种重要的人畜共患寄生虫病,长期以来用于免疫诊断和免疫预防的旋毛虫抗原,尤其是排泄分泌(ES)抗原引起了国内外众多学者的关注.本文综述了近年来旋毛虫ES抗原有效成分的研究及其在免疫诊断和免疫预防方面的应用价值,并且提出应用DNA重组技术在体外大量表达ES抗原和利用多肽合成技术在体外大量合成抗原用于免疫诊断和免疫预防将是今后的研究方向.

  15. Analysis on excretory secretory antigens of trichinella spiralis muscle larvae in vitro%犬旋毛虫肌幼虫体外培养排泄分泌物抗原的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔春兰; 郑虎哲; 张守发

    2007-01-01

    自1835年由伦敦的J.Paget和R.Owen首次发现旋毛虫,旋毛虫病已传遍世界各地。在我国已在26个省、市、区有该病的发生或流行的报道。在东北地区尤以犬的感染率最高,这几年随着肉用犬养殖业的发展,食用狗肉饮食文化的发展,犬旋毛虫病的流行范围正进一步扩大,发病率逐渐升高,更加严重威胁着人类健康,也给畜牧业及食品工业带来重大的经济损失。

  16. 旋毛形线虫肌幼虫代谢分泌抗原的鉴定%Identification of serological antigens in excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄学贵; 贺莉芳; 袁仕善; 刘晖; 王鑫

    2016-01-01

    目的 采用免疫共沉淀偶联质谱技术分离和鉴定旋毛形线虫肌幼虫代谢分泌抗原中的血清学抗原.方法 收集感染旋毛形线虫的新西兰兔血清,硫酸铵沉淀法分离血清IgG;从感染肌肉中分离纯化肌幼虫并培养收集代谢分泌抗原.免疫共沉淀和SDS-PAGE分离代谢分泌抗原,Western blot法分析血清学抗原,并予质谱鉴定.结果 间接ELISA检测旋毛形线虫感染新西兰兔的血清抗体滴度达1∶6400以上;采用硫酸铵沉淀法获得血清IgG.免疫共沉淀的旋毛形线虫肌幼虫代谢分泌抗原经电泳分离获得4条较清晰的蛋白质条带,Western blot法分析发现在相对分子质量(Mr)40000、50000、83000处存在旋毛形线虫感染血清识别、而正常兔血清不识别的3条较强的蛋白质条带.切取Mr40000、50000、83000处的蛋白质条带进行质谱鉴定,获得4种蛋白质分子,分别为丝氨酸蛋白酶、肌幼虫特异性丝氨酸蛋白酶、43000分泌糖蛋白、53000代谢分泌抗原.结论 采用免疫共沉淀偶联质谱技术从旋毛形线虫肌幼虫代谢分泌抗原(ES)中获得4种血清学抗原,为旋毛形线虫病有效诊断和疫苗候选分子的获得提供了新的来源和视角.

  17. 抗旋毛虫肌幼虫ES抗原IgY的制备及鉴定%Production and identification of IgY against excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭旭; 崔晶; 井丰军; 王书伟; 王中全

    2010-01-01

    目的 制备抗旋毛虫肌幼虫排泄-分泌(excretory- secretory, ES)抗原的鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白(IgY),测定其效价及用于检测抗原的敏感性.方法 4只24 w龄罗曼母鸡用旋毛虫肌幼虫ES抗原经大腿外侧与胸部肌肉免疫4次(首次剂量为500μg/只,加强剂量为250μg/只),每次间隔 10d.取免疫前和首次免疫后42d的鸡蛋卵黄,用水稀释法提取IgY,考马斯亮蓝法测定蛋白含量,十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)、蛋白质印迹(Western blot)及间接荧光抗体试验(IFAT)对IgY进行分析,ELISA检测纯化后IgY的效价及检测抗原的敏感性.结果 罗曼鸡经ES抗原免疫后,每枚鸡蛋经提纯后均可得到约70mg抗体,SDS-PAGE表明纯化的IgY有2条主要蛋白带,分子量为67kDa、23 kDa,Western blot与IFAT发现提纯的IgY可识别肌幼虫虫体与ES抗原.IgY的抗体效价为1∶107,IgY-夹心ELISA检测旋毛虫抗原的敏感性为1.17ng/mL.结论 制备的抗旋毛虫ES抗原的IgY具有较高的效价与敏感性.

  18. Study on the immune protective effect of Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigen%旋毛虫排泄分泌抗原对小鼠的保护性免疫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 刘文琪; 马远方

    2006-01-01

    目的 比较旋毛虫成虫排泄分泌抗原(ES抗原)、肌幼虫ES抗原、成虫和肌幼虫ES混合抗原对小鼠的免疫保护作用.方法 用生理盐水培养法从培养液中提取成虫ES抗原、肌幼虫ES抗原,分别用成虫ES抗原、肌幼虫ES抗原、成虫和肌幼虫ES混合抗原免疫小鼠,同时设佐剂组和对照组,间隔7 d共免疫3次.末次免疫后7天,每只小鼠用200条旋毛虫感染期幼虫经口进行攻击感染.感染后7天和30天检查各组小鼠肠道成虫数和肌幼虫数.结果旋毛虫成虫ES抗原组、肌幼虫ES抗原组、成虫和肌幼虫ES混合抗原组的成虫减虫率分别为87.95%、69.48%、84.34%,肌幼虫减虫率分别为74.79%、87.97%、86.87%.成虫ES抗原组、成虫与肌幼虫ES抗原混合组的成虫减虫率均高于肌幼虫ES抗原组(P均<0.05).肌幼虫ES抗原组、成虫与肌幼虫ES抗原混合组的肌幼虫减虫率均高于成虫ES抗原组(P均<0.01).结论 旋毛虫成虫和肌幼虫ES混合抗原均能诱导小鼠产生抗成虫及肌幼虫较强的免疫力.

  19. 旋毛虫肌幼虫排泄分泌物中特异性诊断抗原的研究%Studies on Specific Diagnostic Antigens in Excretory-secretory Products from Trichinella spiralis Muscle Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晶; 王中全; 张灯

    2003-01-01

    目的寻找旋毛虫肌幼虫排泄分泌(ES)物中的特异性诊断抗原.方法应用SDS-PAGE和Westem印迹对旋毛虫肌幼虫体外培养18、30 h后的ES抗原中的蛋白组分进行研究.结果旋毛虫肌幼虫培养18、30 h后得到的ES抗原组分大致相同,两种ES抗原中主要蛋白带的分子量为112、110、108、97、53、49、45、42、35、23和16 kDa.18h ES抗原中的102、97、95和53 kDa以及30 h ES抗原中的53、49、45和43 kDa均与并殖吸虫病、华支睾吸虫病、日本血吸虫病及囊尾蚴病患者血清发生明显的交叉反应.ES抗原中的23 kDa蛋白组分只与旋毛虫感染的大鼠、小鼠及患者血清反应,而不与上述其它寄生虫感染者、正常大鼠和小鼠及正常人血清发生交叉反应.结论旋毛虫肌幼虫ES抗原中的23 kDa蛋白组分为旋毛虫肌幼虫的特异性抗原,可用于旋毛虫病的血清学诊断及血清流行病学调查.

  20. Immune protective effect of excretory-secretory antigen from Trichinella spiralis%两种方法制备的旋毛虫ES抗原对小鼠免疫保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 马远方; 刘广超; 谷敬丽; 张军; 杜耀武

    2007-01-01

    旋毛虫病流行于世界各地,是一种危害严重的人兽共患病。旋毛虫的抗原可分为虫体抗原、表面抗原、杆细胞颗粒相关抗原以及排泄分泌抗原(excretory—secretory antigen,简称ES抗原)。ES抗原是旋毛虫的代谢分泌产物,与宿主免疫系统直接接触,具有较强的免疫原性。ES抗原也可用于人旋毛虫病的诊断。

  1. 云南猪株旋毛虫43ku抗原基因的原核表达%Prokaryotic expression and purification of the 43 ku excretory-secretory antigen gene of Trichinella spiralis from swine in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 赵蕾; 邴玉艳; 高杨; 刘金霞; 刘芳馨; 陈晓宁

    2015-01-01

    目的 构建云南猪株旋毛虫43 ku抗原基因原核表达载体,诱导其表达目的蛋白,为研究其功能奠定基础.方法 收集云南株旋毛虫成虫,提取总RNA,采用RT-PCR获得43 ku抗原基因.将PCR产物插入克隆载体pMD18-T中,重组质粒经酶切、PCR及测序鉴定正确后,将目的片段插入原核表达载体pET20b中并转化大肠埃希菌BL21,通过IPTG诱导表达目的蛋白,经镍柱亲和层析纯化后进行SDS-PAGE鉴定. 结果 RT-PCR扩增出云南猪株旋毛虫43ku抗原基因,其基因序列全长1 134 bp,与GenBank中注册的序列同源性最高为98.8%.重组表达质粒pET20b-Ts43经双酶切得到1 000 bp和3 700 bp左右两条片段,与预期结果相符.表达产物经SDS-PAGE鉴定,其分子质量单位为43 ku.纯化蛋白经SDS-PAGE分析为单一43 ku蛋白带. 结论 成功构建了云南猪株旋毛虫43 ku抗原基因的原核表达载体,表达并纯化了43 ku蛋白,为其功能研究奠定了基础.

  2. Effect of Trichinella spiralis Infection on Mannose Receptor of Dendritic Cell on Mice%树突状细胞甘露糖受体在旋毛虫感染中的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博宇; 王丞; 邢鑫; 陈宏亮; 姜晶; 蔡亚南; 赵权; 王春凤; 杨桂连

    2015-01-01

    应用流式细胞术(FCM)检测旋毛虫感染后小鼠肠系膜淋巴结(MLN)中树突状细胞(DC)上甘露糖受体(MR)的影响.培养小鼠骨髓源树突状细胞(BMDC)并负载旋毛虫排泄/分泌抗原(ES抗原),FCM检测BMDC上MR的变化情况.结果显示,感染第7天MLN中DC表面MR出现下调,但在14 d后出现上调,差异显著(P<0.05).体外实验发现,BMDC负载ES抗原后MR出现下调,直到第48小时出现上调,差异显著(P<0.05).本研究证明旋毛虫感染后可以引起树突状细胞上MR的变化,表明MR可能是ES抗原的识别受体.这为研制旋毛虫树突状细胞疫苗提供了支持,并对寄生虫免疫逃避机制的研究提供了思路.

  3. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferté, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallée, I.

    2011-01-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

  4. Screening for infection of Trichinella in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 6141 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for infection with Trichinella. The foxes were killed in Denmark during the hunting season 1995-1996 and 1997-1998; 3133 and 3008, respectively, Foxes included in the investigation came from throughout the country with the exception of the island...... of Bornholm. The right foreleg from each fox was submitted for investigation. The legs were stored at -20 degrees C for 3-10 months prior to examination. Following thawing, muscle tissue (10 g) from each leg was examined by trichinoscopy and by a pepsin-HCl digestion technique. In 1995-1996, three foxes were...... found positive corresponding to a prevalence of 0.001. Each of the infected foxes harboured an extremely low infection, i.e, about one larva per 10 g muscle tissue. It was not possible to obtain sufficient larval material for species identification, All three foxes were shot in the vicinity of a small...

  5. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected with tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkoba, N.; Chimbari, M.J.; Kamau, J.M.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. The metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses. Sixty (60) female BALB/c mice aged between 6 to 8 weeks old were randomly assigned into T. zimbabwensis-infected and control groups. Levels of Th1 (interferon-γ) and Th17 (interleukin-17) cytokines, insulin and blood glucose were determined as well as measurements of body weight, food and water intake. Results showed that during the enteric phase of infection, insulin and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in the Trichinella infected group accompanied with a reduction in the trends of food intake and weight loss compared with the control group. During systemic larval migration, trends in food and water intake were significantly altered and this was attributed to compensatory feeding resulting in weight gain, reduced insulin levels and increased IL-17 levels. Larval migration also induced a Th1/Th17 derived inflammatory response. It was concluded that T. zimbabwensis alters metabolic parameters by instigating host compensatory feeding. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that non-encapsulated T. zimbabwensis parasite plays a role in immunomodulating host Th1/Th17 type responses during chronic infection. PMID:27882304

  6. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected with tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onkoba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. The metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses. Sixty (60 female BALB/c mice aged between 6 to 8 weeks old were randomly assigned into T. zimbabwensis-infected and control groups. Levels of Th1 (interferon-γ and Th17 (interleukin-17 cytokines, insulin and blood glucose were determined as well as measurements of body weight, food and water intake. Results showed that during the enteric phase of infection, insulin and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in the Trichinella infected group accompanied with a reduction in the trends of food intake and weight loss compared with the control group. During systemic larval migration, trends in food and water intake were significantly altered and this was attributed to compensatory feeding resulting in weight gain, reduced insulin levels and increased IL-17 levels. Larval migration also induced a Th1/Th17 derived inflammatory response. It was concluded that T. zimbabwensis alters metabolic parameters by instigating host compensatory feeding. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that non-encapsulated T. zimbabwensis parasite plays a role in immunomodulating host Th1/Th17 type responses during chronic infection.

  7. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-11-28

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen muscle samples of 369 red foxes from the Netherlands, of which one fox was positive (0.067 larvae per gram). This result was compared with historical Trichinella findings in Dutch red foxes. Molecular analysis using 5S PCR showed that both T. britovi and T. nativa were present in the Latvian foxes, without mixed infections. Of 96 non-frozen T. britovi ML, 94% was successfully sequenced, whereas this was the case for only 8.3% of 72 frozen T. britovi ML. The single Trichinella sp. larva that was recovered from the positive Dutch fox did not yield PCR product, probably due to severe freeze-damage. In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%.

  8. Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the artificial digestion estimate of 0.0% (95% C.I. 0.0-1.1). Real-time PCR testing of muscle from

  9. Mitochondrial genomes of Trichinella species and genotypes – a basis for diagnosis, and systematic and epidemiological explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Namitha; Pozio, Edoardo; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Koehler, Anson V; Hall, Ross S; Sternberg, Paul W; Boag, Peter R; Jex, Aaron R; Chang, Bill C H; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we sequenced or re-sequenced, assembled and annotated 15 mitochondrial genomes representing the 12 currently recognised taxa of Trichinella using a deep sequencing-coupled approach. We then defined and compared the gene order in individual mitochondrial genomes (14 to 17.7 kb), evaluated genetic differences among species/genotypes and re-assessed the relationships among these taxa using the mitochondrial nucleic acid or amino acid sequence data sets. In addition, a rich source of mitochondrial genetic markers was defined that could be used in future systematic, epidemiological and population genetic studies of Trichinella. The sequencing-bioinformatic approach employed herein should be applicable to a wide range of eukaryotic parasites.

  10. Inappropriate feeding practice favors the transmission of Trichinella papuae from wild pigs to saltwater crocodiles in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo; Owen, Ifor L; Marucci, Gianluca; La Rosa, Giuseppe

    2005-02-28

    The recent discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in farmed crocodiles (Crocodilus niloticus) of Zimbabwe and its ability to infect mammals, and the development of both T. zimbabwensis and Trichinella papuae in experimentally infected reptiles led to an investigation of Trichinella infection in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) of Papua New Guinea, to see if T. papuae also, is present in both cold- and warm-blooded animals. Of 222 crocodiles examined, 47 animals (21.2%), all from Kikori, Gulf Province, were positive for non-encapsulated larvae in the muscles. The greatest number of larvae was found usually in the biceps, with an average of 7 larvae/g. One isolate from a crocodile infected successfully both laboratory rats and mice. Of 81 wild pigs examined, 9 from Bensbach river area (Western Province) and 1 from Kikori area (Gulf Province) were positive for non-encapsulated larvae in the muscles. Trichinella larvae from both saltwater crocodiles and wild pigs have been identified by multiplex-PCR analysis as T. papuae. The sequence analysis of the region within the large subunit ribosomal DNA, known as the expansion segment V, has shown the presence of a molecular marker distinguishing T. papuae isolates of Bensbach river area from those of Kikori area. This marker could be useful to trace back the geographical origin of the infected animal. The epidemiological investigation carried out in the Kikori area has shown that local people catch young crocodiles in the wild and keep them in holding pens for several months, before sending them to the crocodile farm in Lae (Morobe Province). They feed the crocodiles primarily with wild pig meat bought at the local market and also with fish. These results stress the importance of using artificial digestion for routinely screening of swine and crocodiles, and of adopting measures for preventing the spread of infection, such as the proper disposal of carcasses and the adequate freezing of

  11. Prospects for use of the ELA test in control of trichinellosis in swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinard, E.H.; Saunders, G.C.; Leighty, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A practicable system for examining food animals at the time of slaughter to detect the presence of humoral antibodies against diseases of significance to human or animal health would be a valuable adjunct to meat inspection. Trichinosis, which has the characteristics of many of the disease problems that are of interest to the Meat and Poultry Inspection Program, was selected as a model for this purpose. Preliminary work indicated that the enzyme-labeled antibody test (ELA) could be used for detection of antibodies to Trichinella spiralis in swine. Other characteristics of the ELA test, such as its low cost, sensitivity, specificity, and potential for automation, supported its further development. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a rapid, economical, automated test which will identify all swine constituting a human health hazard due to presence of infective T. spiralis larvae at the time of slaughter and identify all animals which have been infected by this parasite.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens DSM 16098 and P. spiralis DSM 16099 Isolated from the Hydrothermal Vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Zhou, Zhi; Gao, Dahai; Wang, Lingling

    2016-08-25

    This report describes the draft genome sequences of two strains, Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens DSM 16098 and P. spiralis DSM 16099, which were isolated from hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs with total sizes of 4.4 Mb and 4.1 Mb for DSM 16098 and DSM 16099, respectively.

  13. Trichinella zimbabwensis n.sp. (Nematoda), a new non-encapsulated species from crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe also infecting mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Foggin, C M; Marucci, G; La Rosa, G; Sacchi, L; Corona, S; Rossi, P; Mukaratirwa, S

    2002-12-19

    Since 1995, Trichinella larvae have been detected in 39.5% of farmed crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe. Morphological, biological, biochemical and molecular studies carried out on one isolate from a farmed crocodile in 2001 support the conclusion that this parasite belongs to a new species, which has been named Trichinella zimbabwensis n.sp. This species, whose larvae are non-encapsulated in host muscles, infects both reptiles and mammals. The morphology of adults and larvae is similar to that of Trichinella papuae. Adults of T. zimbabwensis cross in both directions with adults of T. papuae (i.e. male of T. zimbabwensis per female of T. papuae and male of T. papuae per female of T. zimbabwensis), producing F1 offspring which produce very few and less viable F2 larvae. Muscle larvae of T. zimbabwensis, like those of T. papuae, do not infect birds. Three allozymes (of a total of 10) are diagnostic between T. zimbabwensis and T. papuae, and five are diagnostic between T. zimbabwensis and Trichinella pseudospiralis, the third non-encapsulated species. The percentage of the pairwise alignment identity between T. zimbabwensis and the other Trichinella species for the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, the large subunit ribosomal-DNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene and the expansion segment five, shows that T. zimbabwensis is more similar to the two non-encapsulated species T. papuae (91% for cytochrome oxidase I; 96% for mt-lsrDNA; and 88% for expansion segment five) and T. pseudospiralis (88% for cytochrome oxidase I; 90% for mt-lsrDNA; and 66-73% for expansion segment five) than to any of the encapsulated species (85-86% for cytochrome oxidase I; 88-89% for mt-lsrDNA; and 71-79% for expansion segment five). This is the first non-encapsulated species discovered in Africa. The finding of a new Trichinella species that infects both reptiles and mammals suggests that the origin of Trichinella parasites dates back further than previously believed and can contribute to

  14. Hybridization is limited between two lineages of freeze-resistant Trichinella during coinfection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Luke B B; Thompson, Peter C; Lavin, Elizabeth S; Zarlenga, Dante S; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2016-03-01

    Hybridization between two closely related but distinct genetic lineages may lead to homogenization of the two lineages with potentially novel phenotypes, or selective pressure to avoid hybridization if the two lineages are truly distinct. Trichinella nativa and Trichinella T6 are zoonotic nematode parasites which can be distinguished genetically despite occasional hybridization. Here, using an experimental murine model, we attempt to determine whether there are barriers to hybridization when sizeable numbers of each lineage are allowed to coinfect a host. Two mice were independently infected with equal numbers of T. nativa and T6. The offspring of these coinfections were genotyped at two microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus capable of distinguishing T. nativa from T6 genotypes. Among larvae in the F1 generation, offspring of every possible mating were encountered. Most larvae (63.6%) derived from T. nativa×T. nativa matings, while 21.1% of offspring were the product of T6×T6 matings, and only 15.3% were hybrid offspring of T. nativa×T6 crosses, differing markedly from null expectations. In this experimental model, T. nativa and Trichinella T6 were able to mate, but ratios of offspring indicated pre- or post-zygotic barriers to hybridization that may include assortative mating, genetic incompatibilities, and/or differences in the fitness of offspring. These barriers would limit gene flow between these two lineages in a natural setting, serving as a barrier to their homogenization and promoting their persistence as distinct and separate entities.

  15. High prevalence of Trichinella nativa infection in wolf (Canis lupus populations of Tvier and Smoliensk regions of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casulli A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis have frequently been documented in European regions of Russia, with the highest prevalence reported in wolves (Canis lupus. From 1998 to 2000, 75 carcasses of wolves shot by hunters were tested for Trichinella larvae, and 73 (97.3 % of them were found to be positive. This very high prevalence of infection, the highest ever detected in a natural population of carnivores, could be explained by the human impact on the natural ecosystem. In fact, the diet of wolves living in the region under study mainly consists of carcasses of dogs and wolves, which are left in the forest or used as bait by hunters.

  16. Trichinella detection: identification and statistical evaluation of sources of error in the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehn, Katharina; Hasenclever, Dirk; Petroff, David; Nöckler, Karsten; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Makrutzki, Gregor; Lücker, Ernst

    2013-05-20

    Proficiency testing (PT) is the use of inter-laboratory comparisons to determine the performance of individual laboratories for specific tests or measurements, and to monitor a laboratory's performance. Participation in proficiency testing provides laboratories with an objective means of assessing and demonstrating the reliability of the data they are producing. To ensure the reliability of Trichinella detection and meat hygiene within the European Union and afford optimal protection to the consumer, PT is conducted under the direction of the European National Reference Laboratories for Trichinella. Evaluation of data from the national PT showed that lab-internal shortcomings are frequent. These shortcomings are specifically related to: (1) improper sample collection and preparation; (2) incorrect transposition and application of the protocol as laid down in Annex I, Chapter I, Nr. 3 (a-g) of the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005; (3) insufficient sedimentation times; and (4) improper equipment.(e.g. Prost and Nowakowski, 1990; Rossi and Pozio, 2008; Forbes and Gajadhar, 1999; Rossi and Pozio, 2008). To test the hypothesis that both method based errors as well as internal lab errors can influence the accuracy and precision of the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion (MSM), we initiated a study to evaluate the analytical uncertainty of the MSM. Results presented here are based on: (i) data from PT in Germany (2008, 2009, and 2010); (ii) within-lab performance conducting high volumes of MSM; (iii) larval recovery experiments; and (iv) statistical evaluation of data resulting from these procedures. Quantitative data from the PT show that on average only 60% of Trichinella larvae were detected. Even laboratories that showed relatively good performance (>80% larva recovery, no false negative or false positive results), frequently reported samples with an unexpectedly low larval count (loss of >2 larvae). In our own laboratory, high numbers of

  17. [RIBOSOMAL DNA INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER 2 SEQUENCE AS A PHYLOGENETIC MARKER FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF TRICHINELLA NEMATODES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoyevskaya, I M; Spiridonov, S E

    2015-01-01

    The results of testing several primer combinations were used to choose an optimal pair for the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA (direct: Tri58s F 5 CGG TGG ATC RCT TGG CTC GTA CG and reverse: AB28 Rr (CGA CCG CTT ATT GAT ATG C). This pair of primers yields a 900 bp PCR product. Comparative analysis of obtained ITS2 sequences, for 8 Trichinella isolates from different regions of the Russian Federation permits different species and individual genotypes of these parasitic nematodes to be validly distinguished.

  18. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  19. Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Trichinella species infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations of central Spain: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Pozio, E; Montoro, V; Vicente, J; Gortazar, C; Acevedo, P

    2012-07-01

    In south-central Spain, the harvest of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) has increased significantly during recent decades in association with more intensive management actions to increase hunting yields and with consequent effects on the health status of the wild boar populations. We investigated the spatio-temporal trends and the risk factors related to the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boar in order to obtain the annual probability of occurrence for these parasites in the Ciudad Real province of south-central Spain. Based on muscle samples collected during the hunting seasons from 1998/1999 to 2009/2010, the mean prevalence for Trichinella spp. in 95,070 wild boar was 0.2% (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.23). A subsample of 1,432 wild boar was also tested by ELISA. No correlation was observed between the prevalence of infection detected by serology and by the artificial digestion of muscle. The presence of Trichinella infections in wild boar showed a decreasing trend during the study period and was negatively related with fenced wild boar populations. The predicted 'favourability' for Trichinella infections disappeared almost completely after the 2006/2007 hunting season. Risk maps based on biogeographical tools showed, however, that most hunting estates presented favourable risk factors for these parasites during at least one of the hunting seasons studied.

  20. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horsemeat demonstrates its reliability for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel (DSF) procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horsemeat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. It consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue followed by two sequential ...

  1. Trichinellosis outbreak caused by meat from a wild boar hunted in an Italian region considered to be at negligible risk for Trichinella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichi, G; Stefanelli, S; Pagani, A; Luchi, S; De Gennaro, M; Gómez-Morales, M A; Selmi, M; Rovai, D; Mari, M; Fischetti, R; Pozio, E

    2015-06-01

    The wild boar is an important source of trichinellosis for people in European countries as a large number of hunted animals escape veterinary control. In November 2012, uncooked sausages made with meat from wild boar were consumed by 38 persons in a village of the Lucca province (Tuscany region, Italy). Of them, 34 were serologically positive, 32 developed clinical signs and symptoms of trichinellosis, and two were asymptomatic. Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in vacuum-packed sausages made with the same batch of sausages consumed raw which had been prepared with meat from wild boar hunted in the Lucca province. As no case of trichinellosis had been reported in this region during the last 20 years, the regional public health authority considered the risk for this zoonosis to be negligible and put in place a surveillance programme on Trichinella spp. in indicator animals (mainly foxes and including wild boar for private consumption), by testing only a percentage of heads. The experience from this outbreak shows that the definition of a region with a negligible risk for Trichinella infection is not applicable to wild boar and stresses the need to test all Trichinella-susceptible wild animals intended for human consumption and to implement risk communication to consumers and hunters.

  2. A large-scale outbreak of trichinellosis caused by Trichinella britovi in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, N; Kuruuzum, Z; Akar, S; Yuce, A; Onen, F; Yapar, N; Ozgenc, O; Turk, M; Ozdemir, D; Avci, M; Guruz, Y; Oral, A M; Pozio, E

    2009-03-01

    An outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Izmir, Turkey, between January and March 2004. The outbreak was caused by the consumption of raw meat balls made of beef deceptively mixed with pork infected with Trichinella britovi. A total of 1098 people who had consumed this food either in 14 restaurants or from the street vendors located in three different neighbourhoods, consulted six different healthcare centres with a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. Of them, 418 (38.1%) patients fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of acute trichinellosis. The most commonly observed signs and symptoms were myalgia (89.2%), arthralgia (69.9%) and eyelid (67%) and facial oedema (65.8%). High levels of creatinine kinase (69.3%) and lactate dehydrogenase (93.8%) with leucocytosis (>10 000/mm(3), 58.9%) and eosinophilia (>1000/mm(3), 60.5%) were the most prominent laboratory findings. All, but 13 of these patients were treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Based on the physicians' assessments of disease severity, 78 (19%) patients were additionally given prednisolone in whom a significantly more rapid recovery of clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. fever, myalgia, facial and eyelid oedema) was observed, with a rapid improvement in leucocytosis, eosinophilia and muscle enzymes, compared with those, who had not received corticosteroids (P origin, by a wholesale butcher who had sold this product to restaurants and street vendors at a lower price than the prevailing market price of beef, was the cause of this large-scale outbreak in a country with a predominantly Muslim population.

  3. Evaluation of the infectivity and the persistence of Trichinella patagoniensis in muscle tissue of decomposing guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M

    2017-01-01

    Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.

  4. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  5. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children...... aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis...... results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55...

  6. Swine trichinellosis in slaughterhouses of the metropolitan area of Toluca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, H; Flores-Trujillo, M; Benitez, E; Arriaga, C

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis infections in abattoirs of the metropolitan area of Toluca where pigs from commercial farms as well as backyard pigs are slaughtered, 539 swine diaphragm tissue samples were collected and examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Serum samples from the same animals were analyzed by ELISA using somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, and by Western blot analysis. T. spiralis muscle larvae were not found by trichinoscopy or artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting in 12.4% of the serum samples examined. Analysis of risk factors showed no association of seropositive results with sex. However, significant higher risk was observed in swine seven to 12 months old and in backyard pigs, compared with pigs from commercial farms.

  7. 7 CFR 98.100 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS MEALS... for Trichinella spiralis in horsemeat. Certification would be granted to a qualified analyst or...

  8. [Pulmonary echinococcosis, hepatic opisthorchiasis and generalized trichinelliasis combined with pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, O V

    1993-01-01

    A case is reported of a spontaneous abortion (25 weeks of gestation) in a Nenets woman resulting in thrombohemorrhagic syndrome and profuse uterine bleeding. The abortion is attributed to drastic allergization by three parasites: Echinococcus granulosus, Opisthorchis felineus, Trichinella spiralis.

  9. Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp. and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (Papios p.and four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecuase thiops and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. The infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbitaol edema and muscular pain in varying degrees. One baboon became blind due to the infection. Levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactated ehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on Day 42 post-infection(pifor both baboons and monkeys. Blood parameters such as packed cell volume, levels of red blood cells and white blood cells did not change significantly from the normal ranges except for the levels of eosinophils which peaked above the normal ranges at Day 28 and 56 pi in baboons and at Day 56 pi in monkeys.

  10. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  11. Quality Control of Trichinella Testing at the Slaughterhouse Laboratory: Evaluation of the Use of a 400-Micrometer-Mesh-Size Sieve in the Magnetic Stirrer Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; van Andel, Esther; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-02-01

    The performance of a 400-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve400) has not previously been compared with that of a 180-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve180). Using pork samples spiked with 0 to 10 Trichinella muscle larvae and an artificial digestion method, sieve performance was evaluated for control of Trichinella in meat-producing animals. The use of a sieve400 resulted in 12% lower larval counts, 147% more debris, and 28% longer counting times compared with the use of a sieve180. Although no false-negative results were obtained, prolonged counting times with the sieve400 may have an impact on performance in a high-throughput environment such as a slaughterhouse laboratory. Based on our results, the sieve180 remains the sieve of choice for Trichinella control in meat in slaughterhouse laboratories, according to the European Union reference method (European Commission regulation 2075/2005). Furthermore, the results of the present study contribute to the discussion of harmonization of meat inspection requirements among countries.

  12. Investigation on swine Trichinella infection in Shangqiu area of Henan Province%河南省商丘地区猪旋毛虫感染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏; 丁艳霞; 姚义好; 刘莉娜; 张盾; 巫小龙; 崔晶; 王中全

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解河南省商丘地区猪的旋毛虫自然感染情况.方法 在河南商丘某县农村的3个生猪屠宰点,收集屠宰猪的膈肌样本,分别应用压片镜检法和人工消化法对肌肉样本进行旋毛虫检验.结果 273头屠宰猪均为圈养猪,肌肉样本应用镜检法与消化法的幼虫检出率分别为0(0/273)与3.30%(9/273)(x2=7.230,P<0.05),阳性肉样的平均每g肌肉虫荷(larvae per gram,lpg)为0.48.结论 河南省商丘地区农村圈养猪的旋毛虫感染率较高,但感染度较低;在旋毛虫病低度流行区应使用消化法对猪肉进行旋毛虫检验.%To investigate swine Trichinella infection in Shangqiu area of Henan Province, a total of 273 diaphragm samples were collected from the pigs slaughtered in 3 abattoirs in villages of Shangqiu, and examined for Trichinella larvae by direct microscopic examination and artificial digestion method, respectively. The 273 slaughtered pigs were indoor-raised. The detection rate of Trichinella larvae in meat samples was 0%(0/273) and 3. 30% (9/273), respectively (χ2 =7. 230,P<0. 05). The mean larvae per gram (lpg) of the infected pork samples was 0. 48. The prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Shangqiu of Henan was high with low level of infection and the digestion method should be applied for inspection of Trichinella in pork in low endemic area of trichinellosis.

  13. [Antinuclear antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiedes, Javier; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are immunoglobulin directed against autologous cell nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Besides the autoimmune ANA there are other ANA that can be detected in circulation, like natural and infectious ANA. Because of its high sensibility, detection of the ANA must be done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) as screening test and all of those positive samples are convenient to confirm its specificity by ELISA, western blot or other techniques. Positive ANA detected by IIF must be evaluated taking in to account the pattern and titer. The following recommended step is the specificity characterization (reactivity against extractable nuclear antigens [ENA], dsDNA, etc.) which is useful for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with autoimmune diseases, and by such reasoning, its detection must be performed in an orderly and reasonable way using guides or strategies focused to the good use and interpretation of the autoantibodies. The objective of this review is to present a compilation of the literature and our experience in the detection and study of the ANA.

  14. The probable role of cannibalism in spreading Trichinella papuae infection in a crocodile farm in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Ifor L; Awui, Columba; Langelet, Eric; Soctine, Wenda; Reid, Simon

    2014-07-14

    Between 2003 and 2007, 83 (50%) of 167 crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) purchased as juveniles by a crocodile farm 3 or 4 years earlier from Kikori, Gulf Province, were found to be infected with Trichinella papuae. Between 2005 and 2007 infection was detected in a number of crocodiles at the farm obtained from six localities other than Kikori, as well as in a few animals born on the farm. Up to 2004, all juveniles at the farm, whether wild- or farm-born, were penned together; the practice was then stopped to prevent possible infection through cannibalism. The last infected animal from Kikori was seen in 2007, 4 years after the purchase of crocodiles from there ceased. The last non-Kikori infected crocodile was seen, also, in 2007. None of the 1972 crocodiles (comprising wild- and farm-born animals) tested from 2008 to 2013, using the digestion method, was infected with T. papuae. This indicates that infection of non-Kikori crocodiles was the result of cannibalism within the farm during the years up to 2004 when juvenile crocodiles were kept together, and that the farm is now free of the infection.

  15. The occurrence of Trichinella zimbabwensis in naturally infected wild crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, L J; Govender, D; Mukaratirwa, S

    2013-03-01

    Trichinella zimbabwensis has been found naturally infecting crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Ethiopia and South Africa, as well as monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) in Zimbabwe. The reports on natural infections were mostly accidental rather than structured surveys and involved very few animals. Previous surveillance studies in South Africa reported a 38.5% prevalence of T. zimbabwensis among wild crocodiles tested from the Mpumalanga province and Kruger National Park (KNP). No studies have been conducted to date on the geographical distribution and occurrence of T. zimbabwensis in wild crocodiles and varans in countries in southern Africa. Recent outbreaks of pansteatitis in crocodile populations of the KNP, South Africa, provided an opportunity to conduct a more structured survey aimed at elucidating the occurrence and distribution of T. zimbabwensis in culled wild crocodile populations within the KNP. Results from this study showed that T. zimbabwensis occurred in 10 out of 12 culled crocodiles form the KNP. The results also showed that the natural distribution of T. zimbabwensis in crocodiles includes all the major river systems in the KNP. The predilection sites of larvae in muscles followed a different pattern in naturally infected crocodiles compared to observations in experimentally infected mammalian hosts.

  16. Utilidad de la Técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta en ratas Long Evans nutridas, desnutridas, infectadas con T. spiralis e inmunizadas con el inmunógeno de 45kDa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. en C. José Jesús Muñoz Escobedo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Trichinellosis es una zoonosis endémica, cosmopolita, sus huéspedes son: rata, cerdo y otros mamíferos entre ellos el hombre, la presencia de Trichinellosis se debe a la ingestión de carne de cerdo insuficientemente cocida, afecta a países con bajos recursos económicos. Se han caracterizado Inmunógenos, siendo el inmunodominante el de 45 kDa, efectivo contra T. spiralis, Se han descrito efectos de desnutrición (DN sobre órganos linfáticos. Los mecanismos de defensa del huésped son alterados con DN proteico-calórico (DPC.SummaryThe Trichinellosis is an endemic zoonosis, which cosmopolitan guests are: rat, pig and other mammals including humans. Immunogens have beencharacterized, with the inmunodominant of 45kDa, effective against T.spiralis. Have described effects of malnutrition on lymphatic organs. The host's defense mechanisms are altered by caloric DN protein (DCP.Objective: To evaluate the indirect immunofluorescence technic in LongEvans rats and DN OUR infected immunized with T. spiralis and theimmunogenicity of 45 kDa.

  17. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science.

  18. Trichinellosis in farmed wild boar: meat inspection findings and seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukura A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A reflection of highly prevalent endemic wildlife trichinellosis is seen in wild boar farming in Finland. During the last five years, 0.7 % (15/2265 of wild boars undergoing official meat inspection have been determined to be Trichinella-positive. These findings originate from six different farms. In Finland, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis have been discovered in meat inspection of wild boars. ELISA showed 11 out of 9 9 serum samples (11 % as having specific antibodies for T. spiralis crude antigen. Positive samples were from three out of the thirteen farms from which the sera were available. Most of the positive serum samples (8/11 originated from a farm where trichinellosis was also revealed in meat inspection, the other two seropositive farms were without previous Trichinella records. Over the last few decades, no reports have been made of human trichinellosis acquired in Finland. This indicates both efficient meat inspection as well as public awareness of high-risk foodstuff.

  19. 青海省部分地区家猪感染旋毛虫情况调查%Investigation on Trichinella infection in domestic pigs in some regions of Qinghai province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏; 刘巴睿; 崔晶; 李国昌; 李楠; 韩秀敏; 王虎; 王中全

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Qinghai Province. Methods 192 pigs from seven abattoirs randomly selected in Huzu Tu Autonomous County and Delingha City were selected as subjects. The diaphragm samples of the slaughtered pigs were taken and examined for Trichinella larvae by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion method. Results 192 diaphragm samples were not detected Trichinella larvae by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion method. Conclusion No pigs infected with trichinella larvae were found in Huzu and Delingha of Qinghai province for the moment.%目的 了解青海省家猪旋毛虫的感染情况.方法 在青海省互助土族自治县和德令哈市随机选取7个生猪屠宰点,对192头屠宰猪收集膈肌样本,先后使用压片镜检法和人工消化法对肌肉样本进行旋毛虫检验.结果 192份猪肉样本经镜检法和人工消化法检查,均未检出旋毛虫幼虫.结论 青海省互助土族自治县和德令哈市未发现自然感染旋毛虫的家猪.

  20. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  1. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalic, Yann; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Perrin, Cécile; Pearson, Gareth A; Serrao, Ester A

    2011-01-31

    Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence) and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity) distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization.

  2. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  3. Lyme disease antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  4. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  5. The antibody mining toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew RM; Kiss, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput ...

  6. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer....

  7. ANALYSIS OF ANTIGENS OF THE PRE-ENCYSTED LARVAE OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS AND THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUES FOR TRICHINOSIS%旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫抗原的分析与诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣光; 尹清源; 王中全; 曲传智

    1999-01-01

    目的研究旋毛虫成囊前期幼虫抗原(pre-encysted larva antigens,PELA)的组分和诊断价值.方法应用免疫印迹对比分析PELA和成囊幼虫抗原(ELA)的组分和它们对人及大鼠旋毛虫病诊断的敏感性和特异性.结果 PELA有3条抗原带(分子量分别为:15、17和129kD)与ELA明显不同;对于感染旋毛虫的大鼠,PELA的首次血清阳性反应出现在感染后第10天,而ELA则在感染后第14天,大鼠抗PELA血清抗体出现较早(P<0.01);对22份旋毛虫病人血清,PELA的阳性率为100%,ELA为72.7%,差异具有显著性(P<0.05);除1例鞭虫病人外,其它寄生虫病人及健康人血清,两种抗原均呈阴性反应,两种抗原的特异性无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 PELA比ELA对早期旋毛虫病的诊断著有更大的价值.

  8. Histological and histochemical observation on the effect of mebendazole against larvae of Trichinella Spiralis and its parasitical muscle%甲苯咪唑对旋毛虫幼虫及其寄生肌肉的组织学与组织化学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 黄学贵; 万启惠; 张曦

    2003-01-01

    目的观察甲苯咪唑对旋毛虫幼虫及其寄生的骨骼肌的作用.方法观察沙鼠感染旋毛虫后的幼虫移行期和成囊期经甲苯咪唑治疗(即感染后20d、50d)幼虫及其寄生肌肉组织的组织学和组织化学的变化.结果甲苯咪唑治疗后幼虫虫体不完整,出现空泡,50d治疗组囊壁结构明显破坏;幼虫SDH、NADH-TR、ATPase活性降低,LDH活性增高,两治疗组肌肉组织SDH、NADH-TR、ATPase均高于相应对照组,而LDH活性低于对照组.结论甲苯咪唑可以破坏旋毛虫囊包的囊壁,损伤虫体;可抑制旋毛虫幼虫的有氧代谢;治疗后肌肉组织有氧代谢增强,而无氧糖酵解减弱.

  9. Detection of expression level of 43 ku excretory-secretory antigen gene of Trichinella spiralis by RQ-PCR%旋毛虫43 ku ES抗原基因表达水平的实时荧光定量PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守育; 路义鑫; 张子群; 韩彩霞; 宋铭忻

    2009-01-01

    根据GenBank中旋毛虫43 ku ES抗原基因(Ts43)序列设计引物和探针.以管家基因18 SrRNA为内参基因,对旋毛虫总RNA进行归一化处理,根据循环阈值(Ct值)的变化计算Ts43基因的表达量,建立检测旋毛虫Ts43表达量的实时荧光定量PCR方法,并用该方法测定旋毛虫不同寄生时期Ts43基因的表达水平.结果显示,旋毛虫Ts43基因在各寄生时期均有表达,成虫和新生幼虫Ts43基因的表达水平相对于其他寄生时期的虫体低,该基因表达量在感染后第18 d开始逐渐上升,于感染后第30 d达到高峰,而后开始逐渐下降,但感染后第58 d的虫体Ts43基因表达水平仍高于成虫和新生幼虫.结果表明,Ts43基因的表达与保姆细胞的形成有较大关系.

  10. 旋毛虫肌肉期幼虫分泌排泄物中46-58KD抗原的保护性免疫作用%Protective immunity in mice after immunized with purified 46 - 58KD antigens from excretory-secretory products of muscle larvae of trichinella spiralis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燎; 颜丹; 钟桂书

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究旋毛虫肌肉期幼虫分泌排泄物(TsL1-ES)中46-58KD抗原诱发小鼠的保护性免疫能力.方法 用该纯化抗原组分加福氏完全佐剂(FCA)腹腔注射免疫昆明小鼠3次,继以旋毛虫感染性幼虫300条攻击感染,感染后第7天计数小鼠肠道成虫数,第30天肌肉幼虫数和血清抗体IgG滴度.结果 46-58KD抗原免疫鼠的肠道成虫减虫率、肌肉幼虫减虫率和血清抗体IgG的几何平均倒数滴度(GMRT)分别为46.4%、46.1%和2841.2,与TsL1-ES诱导的保护性免疫力(48.3%、50.2%和3458.6)水平接近,显著高于佐剂对照组(4.8%、8.2%和748.6).结论 TsL1-ES中46-58KD抗原组分可产生明显的保护性免疫作用.

  11. 旋毛虫21 KDa排泄分泌抗原二级结构及T细胞和B细胞表位预测%Prediction of the Secondary Structure and the T Cell and B Cell Epitopes of 21 KDa Excretory-Secretory Antigen from Trichinella Spiralis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王来; 崔晶; 王强; 王中全

    2006-01-01

    应用SYFPEOTHI和Propred程序和多种预测方案对旋毛虫21 KDa排泄分泌抗原的T细胞表位、二级结构、疏水性、柔韧性、表面可能性、两性区以及B细胞表位进行预测.旋毛虫21 KDa排泄分泌抗原存在2个较强的T细胞表位区,分别为第9~23位和第135~150位氨基酸位点;潜在的B细胞表位存在于从第28个氨基酸残基开始的广大区域内.预测结果为旋毛虫病诊断和新型疫苗研制提供候选抗原.

  12. 旋毛虫重组热休克蛋白对小鼠骨髓源树突状细胞的活化研究%Trichinella spiralis-derived recombinant beat shock protein activates routine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少华; 顾园; 杨静; 杨雅平; 魏骏飞; 崔世娟; 诸欣平

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察旋毛虫70 ku重组热休克蛋白(rTs-Hsp70)对体外培养的小鼠骨髓源树突状细胞(BMDC)的活化作用.方法 分离BMDC,体外培养至第6 d,培养基中加入rTs-Hsp70刺激培养24 h,ELISA检测培养上清中细胞因子IL-12P70和TNF-α的含量,流式细胞仪检测BMDC表面标志分子CD11c和CD86的表达,同时观察细胞的形态.实验平行设立不加刺激物的阴性对照组.细菌脂蛋白LPS阳性对照组和煮沸变性的rTs-Hsp70组.结果 rTs-Hsp70刺激组DC培养上清中的IL-12P70和TNF-α水平与不加刺激物对照比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);C1386+双阳性细胞的百分比为27.0%;电镜观察rTs-Hsp70刺激后的DC呈成熟细胞形态,相邻细胞间的突起形成连接.结论 rTs-Hsp70可能通过诱导DC的成熟而使其活化,从而激活小鼠产生抗旋毛虫感染的免疫保护作用.

  13. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  14. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia.

  15. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  16. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-02-21

    No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus) and varans (Varanus exanthematicus) have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average), medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average) and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average) cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26%) and hind limb muscles (13%). In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%), sternomastoid (18%) and hind limb muscles (13%). In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%), longissimus complex (27%), forelimb muscles (20%) and hind limb muscles (10%). Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p crocodiles. Results from this study show that, in Nile crocodiles, larvae of T. zimbabwensis appear first to invade predilection muscles closest to their release site in the small intestine before occupying those muscles situated further away. The recommendation for the use of masseter, pterygoid and intercostal muscles as sampling sites for the detection of T. zimbabwensis

  17. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  18. [MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE STRIATED MUSCLES AFTER ALBENDAZOLE TREATMENT FOR EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovoit, V I; Adoeva, E Ya; Kozlov, S S; Turitsin, V S; Nikitin, A F

    2015-01-01

    Trichinosis was experimentally induced in rats. The morphology of encystation of Trichinella larvae was studied in the striated muscles. The efficacy of albendazole was evaluated in different intensity of Trichinella larvae infestation in the striated muscles of the laboratory animals. Encystation was shown to cease at 21 days. Albendazole showed high activity against intestinal and encapsulated larvae of Trichinella, leading to 100% death of T. spiralis. Capsules and Trichinella larvae were described to be destructed after treatment with albendazole 15 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days.

  19. Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

    2009-04-01

    Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting.

  20. 用DNA限制性片段长度多态性鉴定旋毛虫各隔离种%IDENTIFICATION OF 4 TRICHINELLA ISOLATES BY RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋铭忻; 张桂红; 路义鑫; 蒋成玉

    2001-01-01

    以旋毛虫国际标准虫种:旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spirlais)和本地长形线虫(Trichinella nativa)作对照,应用DNA限制性片段长度多态性(RFLP)技术对黑龙江省猪、犬旋毛虫进行虫种鉴定.结果显示:猪旋毛虫和旋毛形线虫酶切图谱相同;犬旋毛虫和本地毛形线虫酶谱一致.结果揭示,黑龙江猪旋毛虫为旋毛形线虫,犬旋毛虫为本地毛形线虫.

  1. Expression of recombinant antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with "human-like" post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  2. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  3. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  4. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  5. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  6. Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, William R

    2014-03-01

    Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described.

  7. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  8. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutteh, William H; Hinote, Candace D

    2014-03-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are acquired antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in the presence of certain clinical features in conjunction with positive laboratory findings. Obstetric APS is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Thus, obstetric APS is distinguished from APS in other organ systems where the most common manifestation is thrombosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of aPLs have been described. This article discusses the diagnostic and obstetric challenges of obstetric APS, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of APS during pregnancy, and the management of women during and after pregnancy.

  9. PARASITES TRANSMITTED TO HUMAN BY INGESTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEAT, EL-MINIA CITY, EL-MINIA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Kamal, Amany Mohamed; Abdelgelil, Noha Hamed; Abdel-Fatah, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Meat-borne parasites are Sarcocystis species, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis. A total of 300 animals including 100 cattle, 100 goat, and 100 pigs, slaughtered in El-Minia governmental slaughterhouses. From each animal, five samples were taken from different muscles (esophageal, tongue and cardiac) and different organs (liver and brain). Meat samples were examined macroscopic and microscopic (direct, homogenization and H&E staining) for detection of the above-mentioned parasites. Serum samples were subjected to IHA for detection of T gondii specific antibodies. This study revealed that Sarcocystis species were the highest parasites that could be detected, with overall prevalence of 80%, which was statistically significant (P pigs were infected with C. cellulosae, but without statistical significant (P < or = 0.5).

  10. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  11. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to confirm the cause of thyroid problems, including Hashimoto thyroiditis . The test is also used to find ... positive test may be due to: Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also ...

  12. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2. HSV-1 most often causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test ... whether a person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  13. Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Faldu, Dinesh; Chumsae, Chris; Sun, Joanne

    2008-07-01

    Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies is common due to the various modifications introduced over the lifespan of the molecules from the point of synthesis to the point of complete clearance from the subjects. The vast number of modifications presents great challenge to the thorough characterization of the molecules. This article reviews the current knowledge of enzymatic and nonenzymatic modifications of monoclonal antibodies including the common ones such as incomplete disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, N-terminal pyroglutamine cyclization, C-terminal lysine processing, deamidation, isomerization, and oxidation, and less common ones such as modification of the N-terminal amino acids by maleuric acid and amidation of the C-terminal amino acid. In addition, noncovalent associations with other molecules, conformational diversity and aggregation of monoclonal antibodies are also discussed. Through a complete understanding of the heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies, strategies can be employed to better identify the potential modifications and thoroughly characterize the molecules.

  14. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia PF4 Antibody Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Heparin-PF4 Antibody; HIT Antibody; HIT PF4 Antibody; Heparin Induced Antibody; ...

  15. [New antibodies in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C; Knuth, A

    2004-09-22

    Since the development of hybridoma technology in 1975 monoclonal antibodies with pre-defined specificity can be produced. Only twenty years later did it become possible to make therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies in oncology. To this end it was necessary to attach the antigen-binding site of a mouse antibody onto the scaffold of a human antibody molecule. Such chimeric or "humanized" antibodies may be used in passive immunotherapy without eliciting an immune response. Rituximab and trastuzumab are such humanized antibodies. They are used today routinely in the treatment of malignant lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. These antibodies are usually used in combination with conventional cytostatic anticancer drugs.

  16. Engineering antibodies for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The advent of modern antibody engineering has led to numerous successes in the application of these proteins for cancer therapy in the 13 years since the first Food and Drug Administration approval, which has stimulated active interest in developing more and better drugs based on these molecules. A wide range of tools for discovering and engineering antibodies has been brought to bear on this challenge in the past two decades. Here, we summarize mechanisms of monoclonal antibody therapeutic activity, challenges to effective antibody-based treatment, existing technologies for antibody engineering, and current concepts for engineering new antibody formats and antibody alternatives as next generation biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

  17. 河南猪株旋毛虫分子鉴定%MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF SWINE-ORIGINATED TRICHINELLA IN HENAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 路国兵; 杨晓东; 高云; 陈晓宁

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过分析河南猪株旋毛虫18S rRNA基因同源性序列,对旋毛虫进行分子鉴定及分类.方法:收集旋毛虫成虫,提取总RNA,反转录合成cDNA,经特异引物扩增获得l8S rRNA基因片段,将此目的基因与pMD18-T载体进行连接,转化大肠杆菌感受态细胞.阳性克隆经酶切鉴定后进行序列测定及分析.结果:河南猪株旋毛虫与亲缘关系较近虫株Trichinella nativa(AY487254.1)的同源性达99%.结论:河南猪株旋毛虫归属于T.nativa.

  18. Natural and Man-made Antibody Repertories for Antibody Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C eAlmagro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are the fastest-growing segment of the biologics market. The success of antibody-based drugs resides in their exquisite specificity, high potency, stability, solubility, safety and relatively inexpensive manufacturing process in comparison with other biologics. We outline here the structural studies and fundamental principles that define how antibodies interact with diverse targets. We also describe the antibody repertoires and affinity maturation mechanisms of human, mice and chickens, plus the use of novel single-domain antibodies in camelids and sharks. These species all utilize diverse evolutionary solutions to generate specific and high affinity antibodies and illustrate the plasticity of natural antibody repertoires. In addition, we discuss the multiple variations of man-made antibody repertoires designed and validated in the last two decades, which have served as tools to explore how the size, diversity and composition of a repertoire impact the antibody discovery process.

  19. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    surface expression of various antibody formats in the generated knockout strain. Functional scFv and scFab fragments were efficiently displayed on yeast whereas impaired chain assembly and heavy chain degradation was observed for display of full-length IgG molecules. To identify the optimal polypeptide...... linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  20. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...... surface expression of various antibody formats in the generated knockout strain. Functional scFv and scFab fragments were efficiently displayed on yeast whereas impaired chain assembly and heavy chain degradation was observed for display of full-length IgG molecules. To identify the optimal polypeptide...... linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate...

  1. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies recognize their cognate antigens in a precise and effective way. In order to do so, they target regions of the antigenic molecules that have specific features such as large exposed areas, presence of charged or polar atoms, specific secondary structure elements, and lack of similarity...... to self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  2. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  3. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  4. Human germline antibody gene segments encode polyspecific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jordan R; Briney, Bryan S; DeLuca, Samuel L; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Structural flexibility in germline gene-encoded antibodies allows promiscuous binding to diverse antigens. The binding affinity and specificity for a particular epitope typically increase as antibody genes acquire somatic mutations in antigen-stimulated B cells. In this work, we investigated whether germline gene-encoded antibodies are optimal for polyspecificity by determining the basis for recognition of diverse antigens by antibodies encoded by three VH gene segments. Panels of somatically mutated antibodies encoded by a common VH gene, but each binding to a different antigen, were computationally redesigned to predict antibodies that could engage multiple antigens at once. The Rosetta multi-state design process predicted antibody sequences for the entire heavy chain variable region, including framework, CDR1, and CDR2 mutations. The predicted sequences matched the germline gene sequences to a remarkable degree, revealing by computational design the residues that are predicted to enable polyspecificity, i.e., binding of many unrelated antigens with a common sequence. The process thereby reverses antibody maturation in silico. In contrast, when designing antibodies to bind a single antigen, a sequence similar to that of the mature antibody sequence was returned, mimicking natural antibody maturation in silico. We demonstrated that the Rosetta computational design algorithm captures important aspects of antibody/antigen recognition. While the hypervariable region CDR3 often mediates much of the specificity of mature antibodies, we identified key positions in the VH gene encoding CDR1, CDR2, and the immunoglobulin framework that are critical contributors for polyspecificity in germline antibodies. Computational design of antibodies capable of binding multiple antigens may allow the rational design of antibodies that retain polyspecificity for diverse epitope binding.

  5. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup;

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  6. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? While it is rare, it is possible for patients to have a negative antibody test results and still have celiac disease. ...

  7. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.;

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  8. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test also may be used to help diagnose autoimmune-related hemolytic anemia in conjunction with a DAT. This condition may be caused when a person produces antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. This can happen with some autoimmune disorders , such as lupus , with diseases such as ...

  9. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000547.htm Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining ...

  10. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the ...

  11. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome? Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody ... weeks or months. This condition is called catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). People who have APS also are at ...

  12. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  13. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery...

  14. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Larrick, James W; Parren, Paul WHI; Huston, James S; Plückthun, Andreas; Bradbury, Andrew; Tomlinson, Ian M; Chester, Kerry A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Adams, Gregory P.; Weiner, Louis M.; Scott, Jamie K.; Alfenito, Mark R; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Bi...

  15. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the uni

  16. Transmission studies on Trichinella species isolated from Crocodylus niloticus and efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole against muscle L1 stages in Balb C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Magwedere, K; Matenga, E; Foggin, C M

    2001-03-01

    Forty-four Balb C mice, aged 18 weeks were infected with crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)-derived Trichinella species. Of the infected mice, 32 were randomly divided into two groups each containing equal numbers of males and females; levamisole treated group and fenbendazole treated group. Each group was randomly subdivided into two subgroups as follows: levamisole group (subgroup 1: treated with levamisole on day 35 post infection, and subgroup 2: treated with levamisole on days 35 and 42 post infection) and fenbendazole group (subgroup 1: treated with fenbendazole on day 35 post infection and subgroup 2: treated with fenbendazole on days 35 and 42 post infection). The first subgroups treated on day 35 post infection were slaughtered on day 42 post infection and the second subgroups were treated on day 35 and day 42 post infection and slaughtered on day 49 post infection. Two female mice were infected a day after mating and were slaughtered together with the offspring on day 64 post-infection. Ten infected control mice were given 1 ml distilled water orally as placebo, and five of these were slaughtered on day 42 post infection. The results showed that the mean reproductive capacity index of this strain (RCI) in Balb C mice was 110. There was a significant reduction (P fenbendazole by 76.7%. Following double treatments, levamisole reduced the infection by 95.5% and fenbendazole by 99.1%. There was evidence that the infected pregnant mice transmitted the parasite to their offspring. It is not certain whether the parasite was transmitted congenitally or transmammary Alternative ways of controlling the parasite in crocodile farms in Zimbabwe are discussed.

  17. A monoclonal antibody against leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Jafar; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Vojgani, Yasaman; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Hadavi, Reza; Zarei, Saeed

    2012-10-01

    Leptin is an important protein that regulates energy storage and homeostasis in humans and animals. Leptin deficiency results in various abnormalities such as diabetes, obesity, and infertility. Producing a high affinity monoclonal antibody against human leptin provides an important tool to monitor and trace leptin function in different biological fluids. In this study, recombinant human leptin was conjugated to KLH and injected into mice. After immunization, mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells were fused with murine splenocytes followed by selection of antibody-producing hybridoma cells. After screening of different hybridoma colonies by ELISA, a high affinity antibody was selected and purified by affinity chromatography. The affinity constant of the antibody was measured by ELISA. Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry experiments were used to characterize the antibody. The anti-leptin antibody had a high affinity (around 1.13 × 10(-9) M) for its antigen. The saturation of the antibody with leptin (20 moles leptin per 1 mole antibody) in Western blot analysis proved that the antibody had specific binding to its antigen. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry on JEG-3 (human placental choriocarcinoma cell) cells revealed that the anti-leptin antibody recognized intracellular leptin. In conclusion, we report here the production and characterization of a murine anti-leptin antibody with high affinity for human leptin.

  18. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic......More and more antibody therapeutics are being approved every year, mainly due to their high efficacy and antigen selectivity. However, it is still difficult to identify the antigen, and thereby the function, of an antibody if no other information is available. There are obstacles inherent...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...

  19. Antiphospholipid Antibody and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞生

    2008-01-01

    @@ Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) APA is a big category for all kinds of negative charge phospholipid or lecithin - a protein complex autoantibodies or the same antibody, through its recognition of antigen (target protein) different, and phospholipids or lecithin - protein complex combination of various rely on the interference Phospholipid clotting and anti-coagulation factor, and promote endothelial cells, platelets, complement activation and play a role. APA including lupus anticoagulant(LA) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA), In addition, there are anti-β2 glycoprotein-I (β2-GPI) antibody, anti-prothrombin (a- PT) antibody, anti-lysophosphatidic acid antibody and anti-phosphatidylserine antibody, and so on. APA as the main target of phospholipid-binding protein, including β2-GPI, prothrombin, annexin, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS), plasminogen, and so on.

  20. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.