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Sample records for antibodies diagnosed antenatally

  1. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis.

  2. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis. PMID:26713828

  3. Severe hydrops in the infant of a Rhesus D-positive mother due to anti-c antibodies diagnosed antenatally: a case report

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    Sharma Jai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rhesus haemolytic disease of the newborn is a prototype of maternal isoimmunisation and fetal haemolytic disease. There are other rare blood group antigens capable of causing alloimmunisation and haemolytic disease such as c, C, E, Kell and Duffy. In India, after the confirmation of a newborn's blood group, antibodies are screened only if the mother is Rehsus D-negative negative and the father is Rhesus D-positive. Hydrops in Rhesus positive women are investigated along the lines of non-immune hydrops. Case presentation We report the case of a patient from India where irregular antibodies were requested for an O-positive 26-year-old mother in order to investigate fetal hydrops. Anti-c antibody was revealed and the fetus was treated successfully with compatible O negative and c negative intrauterine blood transfusions. The baby was treated postnatally with double volume exchange transfusion with the same compatible blood, and was discharged 30 days after birth. Conclusion We highlight the importance of conducting irregular antibody screening for women with significant obstetric history and fetal hydrops. This could assist in diagnosing and successfully treating the fetus with appropriate antigen negative cross-matched compatible blood. We note, however, that anti-c immunoglobulin is not yet readily available.

  4. A Rare Case of Oropharyngeal Teratoma Diagnosed Antenatally with MRI

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    Murali Mohan Manchali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal teratomas are extremely rare congenital tumors and have an incidence rate of one in 35,000-200,000 newborn babies/neonates. Oropharyngeal teratomas may cause life threatening airway obstruction to a newborn. Early diagnosis with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is essential to plan management. Here, we present a rare case of oropharyngeal true teratoma diagnosed with MRI antenatally in a fetus at 34 weeks of gestation in a 25-year-old female who was being evaluated for polyhydraminos. We found MRI to be more helpful for antenatal diagnosis, counseling, and management than ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT.

  5. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

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    Ajdinović Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most frequent entities identified on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings in postnatal investigation of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Methods. Twenty four infants (19 boys and five girls presented with antenatal hydronephrosis and mild to moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound in newborn period were referred for renal scintigraphy. Ten patients with vesicoureteral reflux documented on micturating cystoureterography underwent 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and 14 patients were subjected to 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Results. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter on ultrasound ranged from 11 to 24 mm. Renal DMSA scans identified congenital scars in two boys with bilateral reflux of grade V and unilateral reflux of grade III. Relative kidney uptake (RKU less than 40% was found in three, and poor kidney function (RKU less than 10% in two patients. Significant obstruction was shown on DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy in 6/14 patients. Some slowing in dranaige (T1/2 greater than 10 minutes with no reduction in differential renal function was identified in three patients. Differential renal function less than 10% was obtained in one case. Conclusion. A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

  6. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  7. Frequency, Timing, and Diagnoses of Antenatal Hospitalizations in Women with High-Risk Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooten, Dorothy; Kaye, Jennifer; Poutasse, Sarah M.; Nixon-Jensen, Angelita; McLean, Heather; Brooks, Latina M.; Groden, Sandra; Polis, Nikki S.; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the frequency, time of gestation, and reasons for antenatal hospitalizations in women with medically high-risk pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN This secondary analysis reports all antenatal hospitalizations from a clinical trial testing transitional care to women with high-risk pregnancies. Data were collected from 1992 to 1996. Pregnant women with pregestational (n = 16) or gestational diabetes (n = 21), hypertension (n = 29), and diagnosed (n = 47) or at high risk for preterm labor (n = 37) were included. Diagnoses for each hospitalization and lengths of stay were collected from chart review and validated by attending physicians. Gestation was determined via ultrasonography. The sample (N = 150) consisted of predominately African-American women, never married, between the ages of 15 and 40 with Medicaid insurance. RESULTS Eighty-three percent (n = 125) of the women had one or more antenatal hospitalization with a mean length of stay of 123 hours. All women with diabetes were hospitalized at least once. Women with pregestational diabetes had the greatest number of hospitalizations whereas those with gestational diabetes had the least. Major reasons for hospitalizations were preterm labor, glucose control, premature cervical dilation, and preeclampsia. CONCLUSION Some hospitalizations could potentially be avoided or reduced through expanded patient education, improved screening, and more aggressive monitoring for early signs and symptoms of impending complications. PMID:9766414

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to HTLV in antenatal clinic attenders in south east London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, A; Leung, T; Sivasubramaniam, S; Kenny, J; Sutherland, S

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to HTLV in women attending a south east London antenatal clinic between October 1990 and July 1992 was determined using sera referred for routine rubella antibody testing. Samples were screened for HTLV antibody using a modified Fujirebio gel particle agglutination test and reactive sera confirmed by ELISA (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) and two commercial Western blots (Cambridge Biotech Inc., Rockville, MD, and Diagnostic Biotechnology, Genelab Diagnostics, Louvaine, Belgium). This strategy confirmed the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies in 12 out of 6,289 sera (0.19%, 95% confidence limits 0.083% to 0.30%) and HTLV-2 antibodies in 2 (0.03%) sera. Specimens from 8 of 821 (0.97%, 95% confidence limits 0.42% to 1.9%) Afro-Caribbean women, three of 1,136 (0.26%, 95% confidence limits 0.055% to 0.78%) African women, and one of 3,049 (0.033%, 95% confidence limits 0.006% to 0.18%) Caucasian women were positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Sera from Afro-Caribbean women born in the Caribbean were 7.6 times more likely to be HTLV-1 antibody positive than sera from Afro-Caribbean women born in the UK (P = 0.012). Selective testing of Afro-Caribbean and African antenatal clinic attenders, in this setting, would have identified 11 of the 12 HTLV-1 infections at an estimated cost of prevention of HTLV-1 associated disease of 100,000 pounds per case which is considerably less than the 1.3 million pounds which has been estimated to prevent a case by universal screening of UK blood donors.

  9. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  10. Estimating Benzathine Penicillin Need for the Treatment of Pregnant Women Diagnosed with Syphilis during Antenatal Care in High-Morbidity Countries.

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    Melanie M Taylor

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis continues to be a preventable cause of global stillbirth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Shortages of injectable penicillin, the only recommended treatment for pregnant women and infants with syphilis, have been reported by high-morbidity countries. We sought to estimate current and projected annual needs for benzathine penicillin in antenatal care settings for 30 high morbidity countries that account for approximately 33% of the global burden of congenital syphilis.Proportions of antenatal care attendance, syphilis screening coverage in pregnancy, syphilis prevalence among pregnant women, and adverse pregnancy outcomes due to untreated maternal syphilis reported to WHO were applied to 2012 birth estimates for 30 high syphilis burden countries to estimate current and projected benzathine penicillin need for prevention of congenital syphilis.Using current antenatal care syphilis screening coverage and seroprevalence, we estimated the total number of women requiring treatment with at least one injection of 2.4 MU of benzathine penicillin in these 30 countries to be 351,016. Syphilis screening coverage at or above 95% for all 30 countries would increase the number of women requiring treatment with benzathine penicillin to 712,030. Based on WHO management guidelines, 351,016 doses of weight-based benzathine penicillin would also be needed for the live-born infants of mothers who test positive and are treated for syphilis in pregnancy. Assuming availability of penicillin and provision of treatment for all mothers diagnosed with syphilis, an estimated 95,938 adverse birth outcomes overall would be prevented including 37,822 stillbirths, 15,814 neonatal deaths, and 34,088 other congenital syphilis cases.Penicillin need for maternal and infant syphilis treatment is high among this group of syphilis burdened countries. Initiatives to ensure a stable and adequate supply of benzathine penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis

  11. Lyme myocarditis diagnosed by indium-111-antimyosin antibody scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a new case of Lyme disease with cardiac manifestations, which has been possible to follow during the long period of 12 years. We have detected the usual ECG abnormalities, and concentric hypertrophic myocardiopathy, by echocardiography. The acute myocarditis was demonstrated by 111In-antimyosin scintigraphy, which showed global myocardial uptake of the tracer, constituting the first report, to our knowledge, of Lyme myocarditis diagnosed by this method. (orig.)

  12. Elimination of islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies II in a patient with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, W O; Donner, M G; Schwandt, P

    1997-01-01

    Islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase II (GAD II) antibodies have been discussed in the autoimmune pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Hence, immunosuppressants, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis have been used in an effort to modulate autoimmune activity and thereby prevent the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. We describe the autoantibody (islet cell antibody and GAD II) kinetics and clinical course in a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM treated with a specific immunoglobulin apheresis technique. Five days after the initial diagnosis a 37-year-old patient with IDDM underwent a series of seven immunoglobulin aphereses. Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM), islet cell antibody, GAD II, and C-peptide concentrations were monitored for a time course of 74 days. Daily insulin requirements were recorded. One single immunoglobulin apheresis decreased IgG by 66.2 +/- 9.1%, IgA by 66.8 +/- 8.7%, and IgM by 57.7 +/- 12.9%. GAD II antibodies were reduced by 61.9 +/- 12.4%. The islet cell antibody titer declined from 1:32 to 1:4 after the treatment series. There were no relevant changes in the safety parameters determined nor were there any clinical side effects. The efficient decrease in islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase II antibodies in a patient with IDDM encourages further investigations into the impact of this treatment on the clinical course of this autoimmune disorder.

  13. Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women : an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, K. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Van Geloven, N.; Alves, M. F. C.; Anestad, G.; Bhattacharya, S.; Allan, J.; Guerra-Infante, M. F.; Den Hartog, J. E.; Land, J. A.; Idahl, A.; Van der Linden, P. J. Q.; Mouton, J. W.; Ng, E. H. Y.; Van der Steeg, J. W.; Steures, P.; Svenstrup, H. F.; Tiitinen, A.; Toye, B.; Van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Chlamydia IgG antibody test (CAT) shows considerable variations in reported estimates of test accuracy, partly because of the use of different assays and cut-off values. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of CAT in diagnosing tubal pathology by individual patient data

  14. Chlamydia antibody testing and diagnosing tubal pathology in subfertile women: an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, K.A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Coppus, S.F.; Geloven, N. van; Alves, M.F.; Anestad, G.; Bhattacharya, S.; Allan, J.; Guerra-Infante, M.F.; Hartog, J.E. Den; Land, J.A.; Idahl, A.; Linden, P.J. van der; Mouton, J.W.; Ng, E.H.; Steeg, J.W. van der; Steures, P.; Svenstrup, H.F.; Tiitinen, A.; Toye, B.; Veen, F. van der; Mol, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Chlamydia IgG antibody test (CAT) shows considerable variations in reported estimates of test accuracy, partly because of the use of different assays and cut-off values. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of CAT in diagnosing tubal pathology by individual patient data

  15. Antenatally detected solid tumour of kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Mandelia, Ankur; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Congenital renal tumours are rare and usually benign. Polyhydramnios is the most common mode of presentation. Although most cases have been diagnosed postnatally, with advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of cases are being detected on antenatal scans. We describe a case of solid tumour of kidney detected in the second trimester of pregnancy and managed by surgery in the postnatal period.

  16. Importance of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titration for diagnosing varicella-zoster virus infection in Bell's palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeta, S; Baba, M.; Ogata, M; Nozaki, H.; Okuaki, A; Nakamura, S.

    1986-01-01

    Anticomplement Immunofluorescence was used for antibody titration against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in 43 patients with peripheral facial palsy. Nine of 31 patients (29%) with Bell's palsy and eight of 12 patients (75%) with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome had anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. On the other hand, none of 14 patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and 51 healthy adults showed anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres ...

  17. Antenatal diagnosis of intestinal malrotation on fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyyam, Deepa R. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Dighe, Manjiri [University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Siebert, Joseph R. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Laboratories, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington, Department of Pathology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    We report a case of intestinal malrotation without any associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally by fetal MRI. Antenatal US revealed a midline stomach. Subsequent fetal MRI confirmed the midline stomach and, in addition, revealed all loops of small bowel to the right of the midline and all large bowel to the left. All these features were consistent with intestinal malrotation. There was no abnormal bowel wall thickening, bowel dilatation, ascites or polyhydramnios. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of intestinal malrotation without associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally on fetal MRI. (orig.)

  18. Antenatal diagnosis of intestinal malrotation on fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of intestinal malrotation without any associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally by fetal MRI. Antenatal US revealed a midline stomach. Subsequent fetal MRI confirmed the midline stomach and, in addition, revealed all loops of small bowel to the right of the midline and all large bowel to the left. All these features were consistent with intestinal malrotation. There was no abnormal bowel wall thickening, bowel dilatation, ascites or polyhydramnios. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of intestinal malrotation without associated GI tract complications diagnosed antenatally on fetal MRI. (orig.)

  19. Importance of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titration for diagnosing varicella-zoster virus infection in Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, S; Baba, M; Ogata, M; Nozaki, H; Okuaki, A; Nakamura, S

    1986-11-01

    Anticomplement Immunofluorescence was used for antibody titration against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in 43 patients with peripheral facial palsy. Nine of 31 patients (29%) with Bell's palsy and eight of 12 patients (75%) with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome had anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. On the other hand, none of 14 patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and 51 healthy adults showed anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1/10. The anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody titre in two patients with Ramsey-Hunt syndrome increased later and decreased sooner than the indirect immunofluorescence antibody titre, becoming undetectable at 66 and 104 days, respectively, after onset of the disease. There was no cross reaction between anti-VZV and anti-HSV antibodies in the patients who showed a positive antibody rise for VZV. As the acute stage of VZV infection is obscure in the patients with peripheral facial palsy without herpes the screening of anticomplement immunofluorescence antibody to VZV at titres greater than or equal to 1/10 may be useful for the diagnosis of VZV infection in patients with peripheral facial palsy.

  20. Antenatal imaging of cutis verticis gyrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ana [Starship Hospital, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Perry, David [Starship Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Auckland (New Zealand); Battin, Malcolm [Auckland City Hospital, Newborn Services, National Women' s Health, Auckland (New Zealand); University of Auckland, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-05-15

    Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is a skin condition characterized by thick folds and deep furrows, resembling a cortical gyral pattern. There is a recognized but rare association with Noonan syndrome. We report the antenatal imaging, including three-dimensional surface-rendered sonography and MRI, of a fetus with CVG who was subsequently diagnosed with Noonan syndrome. The case illustrates the antenatal appearances of congenital CVG and the potential yield of antenatal imaging in excluding a major central nervous system anomaly. This is important because without prior knowledge of this condition and its imaging characteristics, it is possible to get a false impression of an underlying skull defect on mid-trimester imaging. (orig.)

  1. Relationship Between Ljungan Virus Antibodies, HLA-DQ8, and Insulin Autoantibodies in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna-lena; Vaziri Sani, Fariba; Andersson, Cecilia K.; Larsson, Karin; Carlsson, Annelie; Cedervall, Elisabeth; Jonsson, Bjorn; Neiderud, Jan; Elding Larsson, Helena; Ivarsson, Sten; Lernmark, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors, including viral infections, may explain an increasing and fluctuating incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). Ljungan virus (LV) isolated from bank voles have been implicated, but it is unclear whether LV contributes to islet autoimmunity, progression to clinical onset, or both, of T1D. The aim was to test whether LV antibodies (LVAb) were related to HLA-DQ and islet autoantibodies in newly diagnosed T1D patients (n = 676) and controls (n = 309). Patients, 0-18 ye...

  2. In Vivo Molecular Imaging to Diagnose and Subtype Tumors through Receptor-Targeted Optically Labeled Monoclonal Antibodies

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    Yoshinori Koyama

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging of cell surface receptors can potentially diagnose tumors based on their distinct expression profiles. Using multifilter spectrally resolved optical imaging with three fluorescently labeled antibodies, we simultaneously imaged three different cell surface receptors to distinguish tumor types noninvasively. We selected tumors overexpressing different subtypes of EGFR receptor: HER-1 (A431 and HER-2 (NIH3T3/HER2+, or interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit receptor (IL-2Rα; SP2/Tac. After tumor establishment, a cocktail of three fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies was injected: cetuximab-Cy5 (targeting HER-1, trastuzumab-Cy7 (HER-2, daclizumab-AIexaFluor700 (IL-2Ra. Optical fluorescence imaging was performed after 24 hours with both a red filter set and three successive filter sets (yellow, red, deep red. Spectrally resolved imaging of 10 mice clearly distinguished A431, NIH3T3/HER2+, SP2-Tac tumors based on their distinct optical spectra. Three-filter sets significantly increased the signal-to-background ratio compared to a single-filter set by reducing the background signal, thus significantly improving the differentiation of each of the receptors targeted (P < .022. In conclusion, following multifilter spectrally resolved imaging, different tumor types can be simultaneously distinguished and diagnosed in vivo. Multiple filter sets increase the signal-to-noise ratio by substantially reducing the background signal, may allow more optical dyes to be resolved within the narrow limits of the near-infrared spectrum.

  3. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin auto-antibodies in patients with newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.;

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Thyroid autoimmunity is a major cause for hypothyroidism. We describe thyroid auto-antibodies in patients with various nosological subtypes of hypothyroidism identified in a population study. Design: Population-based follow-up study identifying all new cases of hypothyroidism in an open...... cohort. Methods: We established a monitoring system, and identified all new cases with primary overt hypothyroidism (n = 685) in a 4 year period in a well-defined population cohort (2,027,208 person-years of observation). Patients were sub-classified into: spontaneous hypothyroidism, presumably...... of autoimmune origin ( n 578); non-spontaneous hypothyroidism ( associated with medication, delivery, neck-irradiation or subacute thyroiditis, n 97); and congenital hypothyroidism ( n 10). A total of 186 adult patients (61% of those invited) underwent thyroid ultrasonography and measurements of antibodies...

  4. Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Antibodies in Individuals Without Diagnosed Cancer: A Pooled Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Anantharaman, Devasena; Waterboer, Tim; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Purdue, Mark P.; Holcátová, Ivana; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Lagiou, Pagona; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Merletti, Franco; Healy, Claire M.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Conway, David I.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Thomson, Peter; Castellsagué, Xavier; Znaor, Ariana; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Krogh, Vittorio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B(as).; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ekström, Johanna; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Sánchez, María-José; Travis, Ruth C.; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in many developed countries has been attributed to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Recently, HPV16 E6 serology has been identified as a promising early marker for oropharyngeal cancer. Therefore, characterization of HPV16 E6 seropositivity among individuals without cancer is warranted. Methods 4,666 controls were pooled from several studies of cancer and HPV seropositivity, all tested within the same laboratory. HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were classified as having i) moderate (mean fluorescent intensity [MFI]≥484 & <1000) or ii) high seroreactivity (MFI≥1000). Associations of moderate and high HPV16 E6 seroreactivity with i) demographic risk factors; and seropositivity for ii) other HPV16 proteins (E1, E2, E4, E7 and L1) and iii) E6 proteins from non-HPV16 types (HPV6, 11, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 52) were evaluated. Results Thirty-two (0.7%) HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were identified; 17 (0.4%) with moderate and 15 (0.3%) with high seroreactivity. High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity was associated with former smoking (odds ratio [OR] 5.5 [95% confidence interval [CI]:1.2-51.8]), and seropositivity against HPV16 L1 (OR 4.8, 95%CI:1.3-15.4); E2 (OR 7.7, 95%CI:1.4-29.1); multiple HPV16 proteins (OR 25.3, 95%CI:2.6-119.6 for 3 HPV16 proteins beside E6) and HPV33 E6 (OR 17.7, 95%CI:1.9-81.8). No associations were observed with moderate HPV16 E6 seroreactivity. Conclusions High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity is rare among individuals without diagnosed cancer and was not explained by demographic factors. Impact Some HPV16 E6 seropositive individuals without diagnosed HPV-driven cancer, especially those with seropositivity against other HPV16 proteins, may harbor a biologically relevant HPV16 infection. PMID:25623733

  5. REVIEW OF FOCUSSED ANTENATAL CARE

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    Sreelatha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care is a comprehensive antepartum programme which involves a coordinated approach to medical care , continuous risk assessment , and psychological support that optimally begins before conception and extends throughout the postpartum period and int erconceptional period . [1] One of major responsibility of obstetrician providing antenatal care is to identify high risk factors based on past history, examination and investigation results. The objective of antenatal care therefore is to assure that every wanted pregnancy results in the delivery of a healthy baby without impairing the mothers health . [2] In a 1914 study by Williams antenatal care reduced fetal mortality by 40%

  6. Red cell alloimmunization among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in south India

    OpenAIRE

    Jophy Varghese; Chacko, Mary P.; Molly Rajaiah; Dolly Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). This study was conducted to measure the presence of allosensitization to blood group antibodies in the antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and to observe the proportion of minor blood group antibodies to assess the benefit of screening for the same. Methods: All antenatal women registered in the hospital...

  7. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  8. Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Aleksandar Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

  9. Perturbations in the Lipid Profile of Individuals with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Lipidomics Analysis of a Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program Sample Subset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Christina M.; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Qibin; Alquier, Thierry; Zhao, Rui; Mueller, Patricia W.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-08-01

    Objectives: To characterize the lipid profile of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus using LC-MS-based lipidomics and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Design and methods: Lipids were extracted from plasma and sera of 10 subjects from the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (years 2000-2005) and 10 non-diabetic subjects and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid ion-trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Lipids were identified and quantified using the AMT tag approach. Results: Five hundred sixty lipid features differentiated (q < 0.05) diabetic from healthy individuals in a partial least-squares analysis, characterizing of individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: A lipid profile associated with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may aid in further characterization of biochemical pathways involved in lipid regulation or mobilization and lipotoxicity of pancreatic beta-cells.

  10. Prevalence of “unexpected antibodies” in the antenatal women attending the Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh B; Sreedhar Babu KV; Arun R; Jothibai DS; Bharathi T

    2015-01-01

    Background: All antibodies to red cell antigens, other than naturally occurring anti-A and anti-B are considered unexpected. They can be either alloantibodies or auto antibodies. In pregnant women, these antibodies may cross the placenta and cause haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). Timely detection of such antibodies in antenatal women is essential for early management of HDFN. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 2060 multiparous pregnant women...

  11. Socio Demographic and Clinical Profile of HIV Positive Antenatal Women Registered in PPTCT Centres, Surat, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishma Chauhan, Anupam Verma, R.K.Bansal, Rachana Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study reports the socio demographic and clinical profile of 127 HIV positive antenatal women and their husbands. The findings of the study will be helpful for policy decision makers to address the issues of a specific vulnerable group. Materials and Methods: During Jan 2007 to Dec 2008, a total 282 ante-natal women were referred to 5 PPTCT centres for HIV testing and counseling. Of these 127 (45% antenatal women who came to collect their reports could be contacted for this study. The husbands of the 127 HIV positive antenatal women were contacted to collect their information. Result: Mean Age of HIV positive antenatal women was 25.5 ±3.8 years, more than 50% were in the age group of 20-25 years and 18.9% of HIV positive antenatal women were illiterate. HIV positivity rate in spouse was 80%. Two third women were diagnosed HIV positive in 2nd & 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Among the positive 60 (47.3% were primi gravidas, 27 (21.3% mothers were not tested for CD4 count. However 98 (77% mothers were registered in ART centre and 35% HIV positive an-tenatal women were on ART. Conclusion: HIV positive pregnant women were younger, primi and housewives. HIV positive antenatal women need to be followed rigorously to link them to ART services.

  12. Case report: Upper neck pouch sign in the antenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Mukesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia remains a challenge for the imaging consultant. On antenatal USG, the finding of an absent or small stomach in the setting of polyhydramnios used to be considered suspicious of esophageal atresia. However, these findings have a low positive predictive value. The upper neck pouch sign is another sign that helps in the antenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia. In this paper, I report a case of esophageal atresia that was diagnosed on USG at 27 weeks of ...

  13. Antenatal management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shabeen Naz; Masood, Yasir; Naim, Uzma; Razzak, Safina Abdul

    2016-09-01

    The prevalance of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. It is estimated that 21 million women develop gestational diabetes out of which 1 in 7 births are affected. Women who have been previously diagnosed as GDM are at higher risk of developing diabetes in subsequent pregnancies and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) later in life. Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes also have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in their teens or early adulthood. Instead of risk stratification universal screening is essential in all pregnant women. Tight glycaemic targets are required for optimal maternal and foetal outcome. This article outlines the importance of pre-pregnancy counseling, antenatal management, screening and treatment of Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy (HIP). PMID:27582158

  14. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel S Bondagji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence, pattern of distribution, and the outcome of different types of kidney and urinary tract anomalies (CAKUT diagnosed during the antenatal period. The second objective is to test the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis of CAKUT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional hospital-based study, all cases diagnosed antenatally with urinary tract anomalies at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were studied. The prevalence, pattern of distribution, and immediate postnatal outcomes, in addition to the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis, of those cases are reported. Results: One hundred and forty-one cases of urinary tract anomalies were antenatally diagnosed; postnatal diagnosis was confirmed in 128 cases (90.1%. The prevalence of CAKUT in our population is 3.26 per 1000 births. The most common abnormalities detected were hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and renal agenesis, in descending order of frequency. The perinatal mortality rate among fetuses with CAKUT is 310 per 1000, the majority of these cases (90% occurred in cases with renal parenchyma involvement. Conclusions: The prevalence of different types of CAKUT is higher than that reported in developed countries. Urinary tract anomalies can be accurately diagnosed and classified in the antenatal period using ultrasonography imaging. Antenatal diagnosis is a helpful tool in planning immediate postnatal care and deciding the place for delivery. This might prevent or slow renal function deterioration and help in early identification of patients who need early surgical intervention.

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2: Seroprevalence in antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Shagufta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2 infection in pregnant females, assess the frequency of unrecognized infection and identify the demographic profile and risk factors associated with the seroprevalence. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected, asymptomatic pregnant females attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Outpatient Department for a routine antenatal check-up constituted the study group. Serum specimens were screened for HSV-2 infection by detecting IgG class antibodies against HSV-2-specific glycoprotein G-2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: A seroprevalence of 7.5% was found in our study. Seropositivity was maximum in the age group ≥30 years (22.20%, followed by 26-30 years (9.7%, 21-25 years (2.20% and ≤20 years (0%. HSV-2 seropositivity was found to be significantly associated with increasing age, parity, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity and history of abortions (P < 0.05. No statistically significant correlation was observed between seropositivity and other demographic variables such as place of residence, education, annual family income and occupation (P > 0.05. No statistically significant association of seropositivity with present or past history suggestive of other sexually transmitted infections was found. None of our cases tested positive for human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV. Conclusion: A relatively low prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity was found in our study, with a high frequency of unrecognized and asymptomatic infections. Our findings suggest that type-specific serotesting could be an efficient strategy to diagnose clinically asymptomatic HSV-2 infections and, therefore, to reduce the risk of HSV-2 and HIV sexual transmission by prophylactic counseling against unprotected intercourse. It may also be a useful adjunct in detecting cases who present with symptoms not directly suggestive of genital herpes.

  16. Standardization of natural mycolic acid antigen composition and production for use in biomarker antibody detection to diagnose active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlandla, F L; Ejoh, V; Stoltz, A C; Naicker, B; Cromarty, A D; van Wyngaardt, S; Khati, M; Rotherham, L S; Lemmer, Y; Niebuhr, J; Baumeister, C R; Al Dulayymi, J R; Swai, H; Baird, M S; Verschoor, J A

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is characterized by the abundance of species specific, antigenic cell wall lipids called mycolic acids. These wax-like molecules all share an identical, amphiphilic mycolic motif, but have different functional groups in a long hydrophobic hydrocarbon mero-chain that divide them into three main classes: alpha-, keto- and methoxy-mycolic acids. Whereas alpha-mycolic acids constitutively maintain an abundance of around 50%, the ratio of methoxy- to keto-mycolic acid types may vary depending on, among other things, the growth stage of M. tuberculosis. In human patients, antibodies to mycolic acids have shown potential as diagnostic serum biomarkers for active TB. Variations in mycolic acid composition affect the antigenic properties and can potentially compromise the precision of detection of anti-mycolic acids antibodies in patient sera to natural mixtures. We demonstrate this here with combinations of synthetic mycolic acid antigens, tested against TB patient and control sera. Combinations of methoxy- and α-mycolic acids are more antigenic than combinations of keto- and α-mycolic acids, showing the former to give a more sensitive test for TB biomarker antibodies. Natural mixtures of mycolic acids isolated from mature cultures of M. tuberculosis H37Rv give the same sensitivity as that with synthetic methoxy- and α-mycolic acids in combination, in a surface plasmon resonance inhibition biosensor test. To ensure that the antigenic activity of isolates of natural mycolic acids is reproducible, we cultured M. tuberculosis H37Rv on Middlebrook 7H10 solid agar plates to stationary growth phase in a standardized, optimal way. The proportions of mycolic acid classes in various batches of the isolates prepared from these cultures were compared to a commercially available natural mycolic acid isolate. LC-MS/MS and NMR data for quantitation of mycolic acids class compositions show that the variation in batches

  17. Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

  18. Detection of antibodies directed at M. hyorhinis p37 in the serum of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and molecular studies suggest infection and inflammation initiate certain cancers, including cancers of the prostate. Over the past several years, our group has been studying how mycoplasmas could possibly initiate and propagate cancers of the prostate. Specifically, Mycoplasma hyorhinis encoded protein p37 was found to promote invasion of prostate cancer cells and cause changes in growth, morphology and gene expression of these cells to a more aggressive phenotype. Moreover, we found that chronic exposure of benign human prostate cells to M. hyorhinis resulted in significant phenotypic and karyotypic changes that ultimately resulted in the malignant transformation of the benign cells. In this study, we set out to investigate another potential link between mycoplasma and human prostate cancer. We report the incidence of men with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) being seropositive for M. hyorhinis. Antibodies to M. hyorhinis were surveyed by a novel indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples collected from men presenting to an outpatient Urology clinic for BPH (N = 105) or prostate cancer (N = 114) from 2006-2009. A seropositive rate of 36% in men with BPH and 52% in men with prostate cancer was reported, thus leading us to speculate a possible connection between M. hyorhinis exposure with prostate cancer. These results further support a potential exacerbating role for mycoplasma in the development of prostate cancer

  19. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

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    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  20. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  1. Antenatal Bartter Syndrome: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Y Ramesh Bhat; Vinayaka, G.; Sreelakshmi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated...

  2. Risk Factors for RhD Immunisation Despite Antenatal and Postnatal Anti-D Prophylaxis COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koelewijn; M. de Haas; T.G.M. Vrijkotte; C.E. van der Schoot; G.J. Bonsel

    2010-01-01

    Despite routine antenatal and postnatal administration of anti-D immunoglobulin (Ig) during pregnancy and delivery in a previous pregnancy, 0.1% to 0.3% of women are found to have Rhesus D (RhD) antibodies in their next pregnancy. The primary aim of this case-control study was to identify causative

  3. Changing prevalence and the risk factors for antenatal obstetric hospitalizations in Denmark 2003-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Langhoff-Roos, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Population-based studies evaluating the use and extent of antenatal obstetric hospitalizations (AOH) are sparse. The objective of the present study was to describe the prevalence, time trend, and risk factors for AOH in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective national register......-based cohort study was conducted that included all pregnancies with delivery after 22 gestational weeks in Denmark from 2003 to 2012. The outcomes were AOH and the diagnoses leading to these hospitalizations. AOH was defined as an antenatal hospitalization for at least 1 day with at least one obstetric...

  4. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody imaging for the detection and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease newly diagnosed by colonoscopy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, M.; Hickeson, M.P. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (HUP), Philadelphia (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Lorenzo, C. di; Kocoshis, S.A.; Orenstein, S.R.; Goyal, A.; Kahn, S.; Collins, L. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Objective: This prospective study evaluated a {sup 99m}Tc antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody Fab' imaging agent (Sulesomab) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) newly diagnosed by colonoscopy. Materials and methods: Ten children (4 boys, 6 girls; mean age 14 years) with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (n = 6) or ulcerative colitis (n = 4) were studied. Colonoscopy was performed in all of these patients. Within 24 h after colonoscopy, they underwent scintigraphy with {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-Sulesomab. Abdominal/pelvic images were acquired at 30 min (planar) and 2-4 h (planar and SPECT) after injection of Sulesomab. Eighty bowel segments were evaluated semi-quantitatively by the investigators, using these three sets of images. The Pediatric Disease Activity (PDA) was correlated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin, Kirschner's score, the Sulesomab bowel segment with maximum uptake, and the sum of Sulesomab score in each segment. Results: The median PDA score was 26 (range 12.5-40). Three children had normal ESR and six normal WBC counts. All patients had at least one positive mucosal biopsy for IBD. While using the Kirschner's scale, the maximal severity of colonoscopy findings was graded as none (n = 2), mild (n = 4), moderate (n = 3), or severe (n = 1). Of the 59 segments evaluated with endoscopy, 35 were found to be endoscopically abnormal. The planar images identified 17 of these abnormal segments and the SPECT images 20. Nine of these ten children had abnormal bowel uptake by scintigraphy. Thus, the sensitivity of Sulesomab per patient was 90 % and per bowel segment 57 %. The correlation coefficient between the scintigraphic score for the segment with the Sulesomab maximum activity and the PDA was 0.3 (P = 0.41). Conclusion: In pediatric IBD assessment, planar imaging with Sulesomab did not prove very sensitive in detecting inflammation in each bowel segment. However, SPECT detected the

  5. Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J; John, F; Chung, M; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G; Kiarie, J

    2011-01-01

    Summary The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine™ and false-negative Uni-Gold™ rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine™ and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine were re-tested by Uni-Gold™. Vironostika HIV-1 and Uni-FORM II Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to confirm samples that had positive Abbott Determine™ and negative Uni-Gold™. Among 2311 women who accepted HIV-1 testing, 1238 (54%) were tested antenatally and 1073 (46%) were tested postnatally. Of tested women, 274 (12%) women were reactive by Abbott Determine™ and on retesting with Uni-Gold™ 30 (11%) had indeterminate results. The prevalence of indeterminate results was significantly higher in antenatal women than in postnatal women (2% versus 1%, P = 0.03). In conclusion, indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results are more common in the antenatal period and appropriate safeguards to confirm HIV-1 infection status should be implemented in antenatal programmes. PMID:19875832

  6. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  7. Antenatal umbilical cord parameters and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athira Narayanan

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: No association between antenatal umbilical cord characteristics and perinatal outcome was found in pregnancies at high risk for poor perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1211-1215

  8. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience.......Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience....

  9. Antenatal Bartter Syndrome: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramesh Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated chloride level is usually diagnostic. Awareness, early recognition, maternal treatment with indomethacin, and amniocentesis allow the pregnancy to continue. Affected neonates are usually born premature, have postnatal polyuria, vomiting, failure to thrive, hypercalciuria, and subsequently nephrocalcinosis. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism and hyperreninaemia are other characteristic features. Volume depletion due to excessive salt and water loss on long term stimulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Clinical features and electrolyte abnormalities may also depend on the subtype of the syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis and timely indomethacin administration prevent electrolyte imbalance, restitute normal growth, and improve activity. In this paper, authors present classification, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications, and prognosis of ABS.

  10. Demand for antenatal care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, J M; Lambo, E; Sambo, L G

    2000-01-01

    On May,24 1994, the then South African president, Mr. Nelson Mandela, declared that all health care for children under the age of 6 years, and pregnant women would be free. Unfortunately, there has been no significant decrease in maternal, perinatal and infant mortality. Thus, there is a need of research into the factors that influence the demand for antenatal services. The objectives of this paper are to (a) establish the determinants of individual pregnant women's choice to seek antenatal care; and (b) deal with potential endogeneity bias in the relationship between the decision to seek pre-natal care and perceived health status. The joint determination of consumption of antenatal care and pregnant woman's health status requires estimation of a simultaneous system. To help mitigate the simultaneity bias and avoid the inconsistency inherent in the application of Ordinary least Squares (OLS) method to simultaneous equations systems, we used Two-Stage Probit Maximum Likelihood Estimator Method. In the antenatal structural-form equation, the coefficients for TOILET, AGE, OCCUPATION, EMPLOYMENT, SMOKER, METHODS and QUALITY were statistically significant at P risk-lovers or risk-neutral are unlikely to consume preventive and promotive health care, including antenatal care. Thus, there is need to put in place incentives that would convert seemingly risk-lovers to risk-averters. (2) Programmes aimed at reducing women unemployment and general working conditions would improve use of pre-natal care. (3) Improvements in perceived quality of care at the health facilities that offer antenatal care is needed to boost the consumption of antenatal care and probably other forms of health care. PMID:17650027

  11. Indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J.; John, F; Chung, M.; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G; Kiarie, J.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine™ and false-negative Uni-Gold™ rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine™ and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine wer...

  12. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  13. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in women attending antenatal care in Tete province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Luján, Jhonny; Arrázola de Oñate, Wouter; Delva, Wim; Claeys, Patricia; Sambola, Fulgencia; Temmerman, Marleen; Fernando, Joaquim; Folgosa, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and syphilis in pregnant women. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending antenatal care clinics (ANCs). Blood samples were tested for syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and treponemal haemagglutination (TPHA) tests; CT and NG were diagnosed using a manual polymerase chain reaction assay on first-void urine samples. A socio-demographic questionnaire was com...

  14. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary...... repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been...... scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  15. Effect of Antenatal Exercise on Outcome of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    AK Khatri, Suraj Sirohi, Sanjay Dixit, Shailesh Rai, Dhruvendra Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Safe maternity with improved neonatal outcomes is predicated on proper antenatal care services. Exercise has become a fundamental aspect of women's lives and an important constituent of antenatal care. Objective: To find out effectiveness of antenatal exercise in facilitating normal labor and also other benefits associated with antenatal exercise during pregnancy. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban area (private clinic and government institution) of ...

  16. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  17. Getting Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also for those with related disorders. How is Marfan syndrome diagnosed? getting_diagnosed.jpg A Marfan diagnosis ... spinal column). Is there a genetic test for Marfan syndrome? Genetic testing can provide helpful information in ...

  18. Sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy at booking for antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O

    2016-01-01

    Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women. PMID:26214716

  19. A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Alexander; Ramelius, Anita; Olsson, Tomas; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Lamb, Favelle; Khademi, Mohsen; Ambati, Aditya; Maeurer, Markus; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Fink, Katharina; Lernmark, Åke

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the H1N1 antibody levels in both patients and controls (p = 0.026). Serum autoantibody levels to TRIB2 were low overall and high binders did not differ between patients and controls. We observed an association between levels of A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibody levels particularly among the youngest narcolepsy patients (r = 0.819, p H1N1 antibody levels were associated with young age

  20. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  1. A/H1N1 antibodies and TRIB2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients diagnosed in conjunction with the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Sweden 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Alexander; Ramelius, Anita; Olsson, Tomas; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Lamb, Favelle; Khademi, Mohsen; Ambati, Aditya; Maeurer, Markus; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Fink, Katharina; Lernmark, Åke

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(®). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p = 0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the <13 years old (n = 12) compared to patients who were older than 30 years (n = 12, p = 0.014). Being HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive was associated with higher A/H1N1 antibody levels in both patients and controls (p = 0.026). Serum autoantibody levels to TRIB2 were low overall and high binders did not differ between patients and controls. We observed an association between levels of A/H1N1

  2. Antenatal Diagnosis of Alobar Holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-year-old second gravida presented to the department of radiodiagnosis for routine obstetric ultrasound examination. Ultrasonography revealed a live fetus of 17 weeks with absent falx, fused thalami, monoventricle, proboscis, and cyclopia. Fetal MRI was performed and the findings were confirmed. Even though ultrasonography is diagnostic in the detection of fetal anomalies, MRI plays a vital role due to its multiplanar capability and excellent soft tissue resolution. The importance of presenting this classical case of alobar holoprosencephaly is to sensitize the clinicians and radiologists to the imaging manifestations of holoprosencephaly and to stress the importance of early diagnosis. If diagnosed in utero at an early stage of pregnancy, termination can be performed and maternal psychological trauma of bearing a deformed fetus can be avoided.

  3. Does an Antenatal Care make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal Care utilization and its effects among booked and unbooked women were studied retrospectively in Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar (India during April- June, 2012. Demographic variables, obstetric history and event outcomes were explored. Unbooked (58% status was seen with primiparity, low socioeconomic status (p<0.01 and younger age (p<0.001; 20-25 yrs. 37.21% of unbooked mothers had Anemia (p<0.01 while fetuses of 24.14% mothers developed Fetal Distress. Incidence of Oligohydraminos, Pregnancy Induced Hypertension, Intrauterine Growth Retardation, Preterm Premature Rupture Of Membrane and Preterm Labour were higher among unbooked mothers. Unbooked status had higher Preterm (22.42% and Low Birth Weight babies (51.73%. Majority of mothers of moderate age (40.48%; 26-30yrs, high socioeconomic status (26.20% and multiparity (54.77% booked themselves. The lack of required antenatal care might have led to higher obstetric complications among unbooked mothers. Improving socioeconomic status and women literacy rate may increase the number of booked mothers which may provide them the needed antenatal care.

  4. Study of prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhadoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Study on prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves. Materials and Methods: Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis patients were included. Postnatally, they were divided into two groups, posterior urethral valve (PUV and non-PUV. The studied parameters were: Gestational age at detection, surgical intervention, ultrasound findings, cord blood and follow up plasma renin activity (PRA values, vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, renal scars, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Results: A total of 25 patients were included, 10 PUV and 15 non-PUV. All infants with PUV underwent primary valve incision. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 body surface area in 4 patients at last follow-up. Keyhole sign, oligoamnios, absent bladder cycling, and cortical cysts were not consistent findings on antenatal ultrasound in PUV. Cord blood PRA was significantly higher (P < 0.0001 in PUV compared to non-PUV patients. Gestational age at detection of hydronephrosis, cortical cysts, bladder wall thickness, and amniotic fluid index were not significantly correlated with GFR while PRA could differentiate between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV. Conclusions: Ultrasound was neither uniformly useful in diagnosing PUV antenatally, nor differentiating it from cases with non-PUV hydronephrosis. In congenital hydronephrosis, cord blood PRA was significantly higher in cases with PUV compared to non-PUV cases and fell significantly after valve ablation. Cord blood PRA could distinguish between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV.

  5. The diagnostic value of monoclonal antibody scan (leucoscan) compared with 99mTc MDP bone scan and Ga 67 in diagnosing bone and joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nowadays different radiopharmaceuticals have been developed as 99mTc MDP, 67Ga citrate, 111In oxine- and 99mTc HMPAO labeled leucocytes for the accurate localization of bone/joint infection, but all of them have limitations that encouraged the search of new agents characterized from high and early uptake in infectious/inflammatory tissues, low toxicity and no accumulation in non inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of a 99mTc labeled antigranulocyte Fab' fragment (Leucoscan) with 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67 Ga. The monoclonal antibody, Leucoscan, is an IgG murine Fab' fragment directed against a NCA-90 epitope located on the surface of granulocytes. 45 patients with suspected bone and joint infection (18 total hip prosthesis, 4 knee prosthesis, 8 vertebral infection and 15 long bones) were included in this study. All patients underwent conventional Rx, bone scan, 67Ga scan and Leucoscan. Three phase 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67Ga scan were performed using standard procedures. For Leucoscan the antibody was labeled with 25 mCi of 99mTc and was infected intravenously over 30 seconds. Ten minutes planar images were taken 1 h and 2 hrs p.i using a GE Millennium γ camera provided with a LEGP collimator. Images were evaluated as score 1 (no abnormal uptake), score 2 (probably positive), score 3 (definitely infected) according the intensity of abnormally increased uptake. Results were compared with 99mTc MDP bone scan and 67Ga scans. The final diagnosis was given by the surgical verification with histopathology or culture. All 45 patients had pathologic proof of presence/absence of bone and joint infection. 36/45 were positive for bone or joint infection and 9/45 were negative.30/36 patients with surgically proven bone and joint infection had true positive Leucoscan, 26/36 had true positive MDP bone scan and 20/36 true positive 67Ga scan. Nine out of 9 patients with proven absence of inflammation had true negative

  6. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Nielsen, Birgitte B; Hemed, Maryam;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Applying mobile phones in healthcare is increasingly prioritized to strengthen healthcare systems. Antenatal care has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and improve newborns' survival but this benefit may not be realized in sub-Saharan Africa where the attendance and quality...... measure was four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures were tetanus vaccination, preventive treatment for malaria, gestational age at last antenatal care visit, and antepartum referral. RESULTS: The mobile phone intervention was associated with an increase in antenatal...... care attendance. In the intervention group 44% of the women received four or more antenatal care visits versus 31% in the control group (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.03-5.55). There was a trend towards improved timing and quality of antenatal care services across all secondary outcome measures although...

  7. Women's education level, antenatal visits and the quality of skilled antenatal care: a study of three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella

    2014-02-01

    Many pregnant women in Africa who access professional antenatal care do not receive all the WHO-recommended components of care. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria, this study assesses the relationship of education level with the quality of antenatal care received and highlights how the number of antenatal visits mediates this relationship. The results show that a large proportion of the effect of education level on quality of care is direct, while only a small portion is mediated through the number of antenatal visits. Efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes for under-privileged women should focus on removing structural barriers to access, strengthening the technical and interpersonal skills of providers, and addressing providers' biases and discriminatory practices towards these women. Such efforts should also seek to empower underprivileged women to insist on quality antenatal care by explaining what to expect during an antenatal visit.

  8. Noninvasive Antenatal Determination of Fetal Blood Group Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a condition characterized by a decreased lifespan of fetal red blood cells caused by maternally produced allospecific antibodies transferred to the fetus during pregnancy. The antibodies bind to the corresponding blood group antigens on fetal red...... blood cells and induce hemolysis. Cell-free DNA derived from the conceptus circulates in maternal blood. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), it can be determined if this cell-free fetal DNA encodes the corresponding blood group antigen that is the target of the maternal allospecific antibodies....... This determination carries no risk to the fetus. It is important to determine if the fetus is at risk of hemolysis to enable timely intervention. Many tests for blood groups are based solely on the presence or absence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Antenatal determination of fetal blood group by NGS...

  9. Prevalence, Specificity and Titration of Red Cell Alloantibodies in Multiparous Antenatal Females at a Tertiary Care Centre from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meena; Bala, Renu; Akhtar, Naveen; Sawhney, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Screening and detection of clinically significant antibodies among antenatal women plays an important role in transfusion safety and preventing hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn. Routine screening of antenatal women for antibodies is not done in all blood centres of our country and so immunization rates are not known in pregnant women. We studied the prevalence of alloantibodies and titration of Anti D among antenatal multiparous women in Jammu region. In present prospective study, 750 antenatal multiparous women attending antenatal clinics were typed for ABO and D antigens. Alloantibody screening was done, if positive, specificity of alloantibody was ascertained by using commercially available red cell panel by tube method. Rate of alloimmunization was correlated with Rh D status, gravida, previous transfusion history and bad obstetric history. Titration of alloantibody D was done in first and third trimester of pregnancy. In present study most common blood group detected was B positive (38.4 %). Rh D negative cases constituted 7.6 % of total cases. Rate of alloimmunization was 2 %. A significant correlation was seen between Rh D-negative and alloimmunization (21 % in D-negative and 0.45 % in D-positive). There is significant increasing degree of alloimmunization with increase in Gravida. Alloimmunization in females with bad obstetric history was high (4.41 %) as compared to females with no bad obstetric history showing only 1.76 %. Alloantibodies detected were Anti-D, Anti-E, Anti-C and Anti-K. Anti-D constituted 80 % of all alloantibodies detected. Six women in their third trimester had raised titers of anti-D. Most common alloantibody detected was anti-D (80 %). Alloantibodies to other Rh antigens and Kell blood group systems were also identified. To minimize alloimmunization in Rh D negative women, proper Anti D immunoprophylaxis should be implemented. PMID:27429523

  10. Ellis Van Creveld Syndrome with Synpolydactyly, an Antenatal Diagnosis with Postnatal Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal G Kundaragi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ellis Van Creveld syndrome (EVC, also known as chondroectodermal dysplasia, presents at birth with short limbs accompanied by postaxial polydactyly, nail dysplasia, and dental anomalies. Other manifestations of EVC include atrial septum defects and other congenital heart diseases. We report a case of the EVC syndrome with postaxial polydactyly (Synpolydactyly with seven fingers on the right side and hexadactyly on the left side and a partial atrioventricular canal defect diagnosed antenatally. This variation of EVS has not been reported in English literature till date.

  11. Case report: Antenatal MRI diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal duplication cysts are classified as a subgroup of foregut duplication cysts. They are very rare and are predominantly detected in children. Antenatal detection is very rare. We report a case of an esophageal duplication cyst that was accurately identified antenatally by USG and MRI

  12. Antenatal Ultrasound and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Judith K.; Li, Sherian Xu; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Croen, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated antenatal ultrasound (U/S) exposure as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), comparing affected singleton children and control children born 1995-1999 and enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente health care system. Among children with ASD (n = 362) and controls (n = 393), 13% had no antenatal exposure to U/S examinations;…

  13. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  14. The use of antenatal and postnatal care: perspectives and experiences of women and health care providers in rural southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushi Adiel K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antenatal care coverage in Tanzania is high, worrying gaps exist in terms of its quality and ability to prevent, diagnose or treat complications. Moreover, much less is known about the utilisation of postnatal care, by which we mean the care of mother and baby that begins one hour after the delivery until six weeks after childbirth. We describe the perspectives and experiences of women and health care providers on the use of antenatal and postnatal services. Methods From March 2007 to January 2008, we conducted in-depth interviews with health care providers and village based informants in 8 villages of Lindi Rural and Tandahimba districts in southern Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions were also conducted with women who had babies younger than one year and pregnant women. The discussion guide included information about timing of antenatal and postnatal services, perceptions of the rationale and importance of antenatal and postnatal care, barriers to utilisation and suggestions for improvement. Results Women were generally positive about both antenatal and postnatal care. Among common reasons mentioned for late initiation of antenatal care was to avoid having to make several visits to the clinic. Other concerns included fear of encountering wild animals on the way to the clinic as well as lack of money. Fear of caesarean section was reported as a factor hindering intrapartum care-seeking from hospitals. Despite the perceived benefits of postnatal care for children, there was a total lack of postnatal care for the mothers. Shortages of staff, equipment and supplies were common complaints in the community. Conclusion Efforts to improve antenatal and postnatal care should focus on addressing geographical and economic access while striving to make services more culturally sensitive. Antenatal and postnatal care can offer important opportunities for linking the health system and the community by encouraging women to

  15. Uso antenatal do corticosteroide e hemorragia peri-intraventricular Antenatal corticosteroids and intraventricular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo de F. Vinagre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o uso antenatal do corticosteroide na prevenção da hemorragia peri-intraventricular. FONTES DE DADOS: Levantamento bibliográfico por meio do Pubmed e SciELO abrangendo os últimos 20 anos. Foram utilizadas as palavras chaves no idioma inglês: "cerebral hemorrhage", "steroids" e "newborn, infant". SÍNTESES DE DADOS: A hemorragia peri-intraventricular é uma importante patologia nos prematuros, sobretudo nos menores de 34 semanas, devido a suas graves sequelas neurológicas. Uma vez ocorrido o sangramento, não há tratamento específico. Desta forma, a prevenção torna-se o maior objetivo das pesquisas. O resultado da meta-análise de estudos randomizados demonstrou que o corticosteroide antenatal reduz a mortalidade e a incidência da doença de membrana hialina e da hemorragia peri-intraventricular. O efeito protetor na redução do risco da hemorragia peri-intraventricular não está completamente esclarecido. Além de acelerar a maturidade pulmonar, o corticosteroide antenatal estimula a maturação da microvasculatura da matriz germinativa, promove o espessamento da membrana basal, acelera a formação proteica nas junções firmes e estabiliza o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral. Também melhora as condições de nascimento dos fetos pré-termo. CONCLUSÕES: O uso antenatal do corticosteroide associado à implementação de melhores práticas de atendimento ao prematuro tem sido responsável pela evidente redução dos índices dessa doença. Apesar de comprovada eficácia e segurança, não é amplamente utilizado. Medidas devem ser tomadas para estimular seu uso como prática rotineira no atendimento de gestantes com risco de parto prematuro.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on the use of antenatal corticosteroids for the prevention of peri-intraventricular hemorrhage. DATA SOURCE: Bibliography search in Pubmed and SciELO databases covering the past 20 years using the following

  16. Antenatal genetic studies in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, F O; Cruikshank, D P; Brown, J

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of multiple gestation at the time of genetic amniocentesis is a routine occurrence. In a combined series of 2765 patients referred for antenatal genetic studies from the Medical College of Virginia and the University of Iowa, 34 twin pregnancies were encountered (1.2%). Twenty-six of the patients with twins were referred for advanced maternal age. The other indications were previous neural tube defects (1), previous trisomy 21 (2), known carriers of Tay Sachs disease (2), previous Turner's syndrome (1), family history of trisomy 21 (1), and one pregnancy was referred because of an abnormal ultrasound. Amniocentesis procedures, outcome of the twin pregnancies, and genetic counseling issues, are discussed. PMID:6741416

  17. Antenatal stress: An Irish case study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2013-05-16

    BACKGROUND:: stress in pregnancy is common and impacts negatively on women, infants and families. A number of factors contribute to high levels of stress in pregnancy, including financial concerns, marital discord, low support systems and low socio-economic status. OBJECTIVES:: the aim of this study was to evaluate stress anxiety levels and depressive symptoms among low risk women in an area in Ireland that was particularly impacted by the 2008 economic crisis. DESIGN:: a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Perceived Stress Scale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data was collected at a single time during the second trimester. SETTING:: this paper reports a case study of one maternity service in Ireland. Participants included low risk pregnant women who were attending the hospital clinic for routine antenatal care. RESULTS:: of 150 questionnaires distributed, 74 completed questionnaires were returned indicating a 49.3% return rate. Findings indicated high levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptomatology among participants. There were no significant difference in mean EPDS score for different age groups (F4,69=2.48, P=0.052), living arrangements (F4,68=0.90, P=0.5) or usual occupation (F4,69=1.45, P=0.2). A score of ≥12 was taken as indicative of probable antenatal depression and 86.5% of participants responded with a score of 12 or above. PSS scores were also high and more than three quarters of respondents scored ≥15 (75.6%) and more than a third had scores ≥20 (35.1%), out of a total score of 40. There was a significant difference in mean PSS score between the different age groups (F4,69=3.60, P=0.010) but not for living arrangements or usual occupation. A STAI score of ≥39 was taken as indicative of antenatal anxiety, and 74.3% of participants responded with a score of 39 or above. There were no significant differences in mean STAI

  18. Teaching antenatal counseling skills to neonatal providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Theophil A; Watson, Katie L; Boss, Renee D

    2014-02-01

    Counseling a family confronted with the birth of a periviable neonate is one of the most difficult tasks that a neonatologist must perform. The neonatologist's goal is to facilitate an informed, collaborative decision about whether life-sustaining therapies are in the best interest of this baby. Neonatologists are trained to provide families with a detailed account of the morbidity and mortality data they believe are necessary to facilitate a truly informed decision. Yet these complicated and intensely emotional conversations require advanced communication and counseling skills that our current fellowship-training strategies are not adequately providing. We review educational models for training neonatology fellows to provide antenatal counseling at the threshold of viability. We believe that training aimed at teaching these skills should be incorporated into the neonatal-perinatal medicine fellowship. The optimal approaches for teaching these skills remain uncertain, and there is a need for continued innovation and outcomes-based research.

  19. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby is Rh-positive and the mother's antibody status is negative for anti-D, the mother is given additional RhIG. This test also may be used to help diagnose autoimmune-related hemolytic anemia ... when a person produces antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. This ...

  20. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  1. Antenatal screening and the gendering of genetic responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Reed Kate

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study is to explore men's and women's perceptions of antenatal blood screening. The study will assess the impact of these perceptions on decision-making regarding diagnostic testing and selective abortion, and on parental feelings of genetic responsibility. By exploring gender and antenatal screening in this way, the research aims to contribute to our understanding of lay perceptions of genetic screening and increase our knowledge of the decision-maki...

  2. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  3. Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum and Omdurman Maternity Hospitals, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Abdel-Raouff; Mohamed Mobarak Elbasheir

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection among pregnant Sudanese women. Methods:One hundred and sixty three pregnant women attending antenatal care in Omdurman Maternity Hospitals, Khartoum, Sudan during June to August in 2013 were enrolled and screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antitoxoplasma antibodies using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results:Among 163 pregnant women, 33 (20.2%) were positive for (IgG) antitoxoplasma antibodies, while 130 (79.8%) were seronegative. None of the examined women had IgM antitoxoplasma antibodies. The highest rate of infection (26.7%) was detected among women aged 21-29 years. No statistically significant relation was observed between T. gondii sero-prevalence and the other variable of risk factors studied. Conclusions: Over 79% Sudanese women screened for antitoxoplasma IgG antibodies were seronegative and they were at risk of seroconversion during pregnancy. Moreover, the study showed that screening of T. gondii infections during antenatal care should be considered in Khartoum state as the main strategy to minimize congenital toxoplasmosis.

  4. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  5. Malawi: HIV surveillance in antenatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    From October to December 1996, a surveillance for HIV among antenatal clinic attenders (ANC) was conducted in 19 hospitals serving as sentinel sites in Malawi. The sites consisted of 3 urban, 8 semiurban, and 8 rural hospitals drawn from all 3 regions of the country. Findings showed that of the 4163 samples, 793 were HIV positive, giving an overall prevalence of 19%, with a range from 27% in the urban areas to 18% in the semiurban areas and 10% in the rural areas. The age distribution of infection showed that seroprevalence was highest in the 25-29 age group. In terms of syphilis infection, the rate was more common in the southern than in the central or northern regions, but it did not vary according to urban, semiurban, or rural sites or according to age. Overall, the results showed that ANC HIV seroprevalence remained relatively stable from 1994 to 1996, increasing from 17.4% in 1994 to 18% in 1995 and 19% in 1996. Moreover, the national estimate for seroprevalence in the entire population was 6.4%, essentially the same as that for 1995 (6.6%), indicating that the level of HIV infection had been fairly stable since 1993. Continued close monitoring is required to assess whether the incidence of new infection is actually declining, particularly among young people, and to identify what interventions have the greatest impact.

  6. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  7. "I Owe Her So Much; Without Her I Would Be Dead": Developing a Model of Mother-Infant Bonding Following a Maternal Antenatal HIV Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Kate; Evangeli, Michael; Anderson, Jane; Zetler, Sarah; Scourse, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Women can face a period of psychological vulnerability following antenatal HIV diagnosis, affecting feelings about both the pregnancy and motherhood. Our study explored the impact of being diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy on mother-infant bonding. Grounded Theory was used to assess perceived challenges and facilitating factors for mother-infant bonding for 10 mothers given an HIV diagnosis during pregnancy. Data analysis led to a model of mother-infant bonding composed of four theoretical codes: (a) facing barriers to bonding, (b) feeling disconnected from the baby, (c) developing a special bond, and (d) strengthening and moving on. Challenges with bonding emerged primarily during early stages after diagnosis and birth, with maternal resilience and positivity about the future developing as the infant HIV testing process progressed. Study recommendations include more timely information regarding vertical transmission and more targeted psychological support along with greater promotion of services to support women diagnosed with HIV antenatally.

  8. Altered white matter and cortical structure in neonates with antenatally diagnosed isolated ventriculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lockwood Estrin

    2016-01-01

    WM alterations in isolated VM cases may be consistent with abnormal development of WM tracts involved in language and cognition. Alterations in WM FA and MD may represent neural correlates for later neurodevelopmental deficits.

  9. Management of antenatally diagnosed pulmonary sequestration associated with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, M; BURGE, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sequestration with associated cystic adenomatoid malformation is rare. A study was undertaken to determine whether pulmonary sequestration associated with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation has a more favourable natural history than that of sequestration without associated cystic adenomatoid malformation.
METHODS—An outline of the postnatal work up leading to the management of extralobar or intralobar pulmonary sequestration with congenital cystic ad...

  10. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2010-01-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  11. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2012-02-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  12. Antenatal information sources for maternal and infant diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-07-01

    This report describes information sources accessed by pregnant women around antenatal and early infant diet. Australian women in their first pregnancy (n = 277) responded to questionnaires online and on paper between June 2010 and March 2011 as part of the Feeding Queensland Babies Study. Antenatal information sources are reported for maternal diet, breastfeeding and formula-feeding. Pregnant women sought and encountered information for their own and their infants' diet from many sources. Health care professionals provided antenatal dietary information for 80% of respondents and infant feeding advice for 69%. Relatives or friends were the respondents' largest reported information source for infant feeding, reported by 78%. Information on artificial baby milk was accessed on television by 77% and on the internet by 52% of respondents. Health care professionals should proactively support clients' informational needs and address encountered nutrition misinformation. Further research is necessary to establish the nature and accuracy of dietary information in the mass media. PMID:26285323

  13. Midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: Do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. DESIGN: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey. Cog

  14. Midwives' views on of appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. Design: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey. Cog

  15. PREVENTION OF CANCER OF THE CERVIX UTERI AT AN ANTENATAL CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Bakhlaev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC morbidity is analyzed on the basis of the data of the Karelian cancer register over the period 1998-2007. During this period, 816 cases of CC were registered and 126 were found at an antenatal clinic (AC. Its early detection rate was ascertained to be 96% during screening at the AC. A comprehensive examination was made in 1742 women with various cervical diseases, of them 37.5% were infected with human papillomavirus (HPV. High-grade dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were diagnosed in 6.6% of the HPV-infected patients. Large-scale screening for HPV infection and pretumor disorders with their further treatment will aid in reduc- ing CC morbidity and mortality rates.

  16. Antenatal brain injury: aetiology and possibilities of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, H; Mallard, C

    2000-02-01

    Although the aetiology of antenatal brain injury is often unclear, procedures can be employed to prevent or reduce the risk of injury. Defective neuropore closure can be prevented by periconceptional administration of folic acid, and the incidence of other severe malformations and genetic disorders can be reduced by early identification and termination of pregnancy. Antenatal identification of IUGR, administration of corticosteroids to cases with pending preterm birth, and treatment of maternal/fetal infections would also reduce the incidence of injury. Mothers can decrease the risk of injury by maintaining a good diet, avoiding smoking, alcohol intake and exposure to TORCH infections during pregnancy. PMID:10802749

  17. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  18. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... other disease may be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  19. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  20. Enhancing normal labour by adopting antenatal physiotherapy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooplekha Chauhan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This highlights the very need for physiotherapy to be inculcated into the curriculum during antenatal period with conducive maternal and foetal outcome as it inflates the chances of normal deliveries and abate the rates of cesarean section and subsequent, which is the dire need of the day. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2672-2676

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice study regarding anemia in antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha M

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Assessments of knowledge and practice and health education are essential step towards prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Educating antenatal women about the importance of diet and implementing this into practice will help in the prevention of anemia. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2101-2103

  2. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  3. CLASSIC DANDY WALKER MALFORMATION: ANTENATAL SONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS AND POSTNATAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvinder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dandy Walker malformation is a rare congenital abnormality that affects the cerebellum and some of its components; particularly hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis, a cystic dilatation of fourth ventricle and is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa. Here we present a case of classical DWM with antenatal and postnatal imaging

  4. What do parents expect antenatally and do babies teach them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delight, E; Goodall, J; Jones, P W

    1991-11-01

    Antenatal inquiry of 658 parents in the North Staffordshire District Health Authority showed at least 13% to lack knowledge about a baby's potential for personal interaction when under 1 week old. Mothers and fathers varied significantly, independent of parity. Experienced parents expected later smiles. Two hundred and seventy eight of the same families were questioned three to four months after birth. Most parents had observed their baby's early responsiveness. Specific responses (Looking, listening) were noted earlier when anticipated and looked for. Significant among postnatal non-responders was their antenatal selection of predominantly impersonal stimulation for a baby. The greatest degree of warmth noted in postnatal observations correlated notably with a father's antenatal interest and postnatal support from him and their friends, a mother's commitment to breast feeding and her knowledge that a very young baby can see, like faces, and cries for emotional reasons. This highlights areas for antenatal tuition and postnatal encouragement, aiming to enhance warm early mutual regard between parents and child. PMID:1755644

  5. Mothers' Antenatal Depression and Their Children's Antisocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Sharp, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of 120 British adolescents and their parents (80% of a random sample of antenatal patients drawn from a representative urban population and followed longitudinally) revealed that 40 (33%) had been arrested and/or had a diagnosis of "DSM-IV" conduct disorder by 16 years of age; of those, 18 (45%) had committed violent acts. Depression in…

  6. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Kaul, Anita; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Agrawal, Soma; Singh, Chanchal; Karna, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was identified on advanced immunohematological workup, in addition to other alloantibodies. PMID:26420948

  7. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Nath Makroo; Anita Kaul; Aakanksha Bhatia; Soma Agrawal; Chanchal Singh; Prashant Karna

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was iden...

  8. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN, either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was identified on advanced immunohematological workup, in addition to other alloantibodies.

  9. Deep venous thrombosis in the antenatal period in a large cohort of pregnancies from western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Vinita

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep venous thrombosis (DVT is an important complication in the peripartal and postpartal period. Methods We followed up prospectively the prevalence of DVT in 34720 prenatal mothers between June 2002 and July 2006 attending the antenatal clinics of two major hospitals in Mumbai, India. Thirty two women (0.1% presented for the first time with symptomatic DVT i.e. 17 in the first trimester, 6 in the second and 9 in the third trimester of pregnancy. Nine had history of fetal loss while in the remaining twenty three there was no history of fetal loss. Results The evaluation of both acquired and heritable thrombophilia showed a conglomeration of thrombophilia in this group when compared to 100 normal pregnant women who have given birth to at least one healthy baby with no history of fetal death, DVT or other obstetrical complications. The relative risks for all the antiphospholipid antibodies (APA studied i.e lupus anticoagulant (LA, IgG/IgM antibodies for cardiolipin (ACA, β2 glycoprotein 1 (β2 GP 1 and annexin V were significantly higher in women with pregnancy associated DVT (RR 7.4 95% CI 4.3–11.3 P Conclusion We conclude that the prevalence of DVT in India is more or less similar to other reports published and both acquired and heritable thrombophilia show strong association with DVT associated with pregnancy.

  10. Review of the antenatal and postnatal use of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Julie; Kovacs, Lajos; Papageorgiou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids play an extremely important role in the management of premature infants. The antenatal administration of steroids has been universally implemented. They have not only been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), but also have an impact on the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by reducing the need for supplemental oxygen due to improved lung function. The postnatal use of dexamethasone in ventilated infants has been adopted with caution, as there have been several reports of long-term neurodevelopmental complications with this therapy. Hence, changes in dosage and indications and the search for alternative therapies has emerged. Hydrocortisone appears to be a good alternative, with reassuring long-term evaluations thus far. PMID:24682835

  11. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  12. Dimensions of Quality of Antenatal Care Sservice at Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and i...

  13. Men's Violence against Women – a Challenge in Antenatal Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stenson, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Men’s violence against women is a universal issue affecting health, human rights and gender-equality. In pregnancy, violence is a risk for both the mother and her unborn child. The overall aims were: to determine the prevalence of such violence in a Swedish pregnant population, to investigate pregnant women’s attitudes to questioning about exposure to violence, and to evaluate experience gained by antenatal care midwives having routinely questioned pregnant women regarding violence. All women...

  14. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, L. M.; Reid, A. J.; Midmer, D. K.; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involut...

  15. Barriers to antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Kouanda, Seni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite advances in treatment and management, syphilis remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. Syphilis in pregnancy poses major health risks for the mother and the fetus and also increases the risk for HIV transmission. Despite its potential benefits, antenatal syphilis screening is often poorly implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of the study is to identify and understand barriers affecting health system performance for syphilis screeni...

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  17. Utilization of antenatal services in apparel manufacturing factories in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparel manufacturing industry in Karnataka has assumed gigantic proportions. A large majority of the workers in this industry are women in the reproductive age group. Some companies have recognized this situation and are taking proactive steps in providing a range of services to the women employees. The objective of this study was to identify the outcomes of the services that are provided to the pregnant women in seven factories belonging to one such company. The study attempted to contact all registered pregnant women who had returned to work, in an attempt to identify the positive features and lacunae in the services that were provided. The results showed that half the workers who had been provided services in the antenatal period had not returned to work. A majority of the workers had availed of adequate antenatal care and most of them had delivered in the local Employees State Insurance (ESI Hospital. Knowledge of antenatal care was generally good and most information had been received from the Health Care Providers (HCPs. The positive role of the HCPs in these factories has to be recognized and they should be provided with adequate support and training to perform their functions optimally.

  18. Antenatal screening and the gendering of genetic responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Kate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to explore men's and women's perceptions of antenatal blood screening. The study will assess the impact of these perceptions on decision-making regarding diagnostic testing and selective abortion, and on parental feelings of genetic responsibility. By exploring gender and antenatal screening in this way, the research aims to contribute to our understanding of lay perceptions of genetic screening and increase our knowledge of the decision-making process in screening. Research design This qualitative study will be based on semi-structured interviews with twenty pregnant women and twenty male partners in the post-industrial city of Sheffield, UK. All interviews will be taped, transcribed and analysed thematically using NVIVO, a qualitative software package. Discussion The findings of this study have relevance to existing debates on the social and ethical implications of reproductive genetics. A better understanding of male and female perceptions of the screening process could improve guidance and practice in antenatal screening and genetic counselling. It will also inform and contribute to the development of theory on gender and genetic screening.

  19. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  20. Analysis of Antenatal Care and its Related Factors among Married Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qing MI; Xi-kuan CHEN; Er-Sheng Gao

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors of antenatal care Methods The data derived from National Demography and Reproductive Health Survey in 1997 conducted by National Population and Family Planning Commission. 11 892 women who had given birth to at least one survival child were involved in this study. SAS software was used in multivariate analysis.Results The average rate of general antenatal care is 57.3% and has increased dramatically in the recent 30 years. The major reason why most subjects didn't have antenatal care was lacking the recognition of the importance of antenatal care. The antenatal care was associated with residence in rural area or urban area, age, educational level, parity of the last birth, local average income, distance between home and township in rural area and so on.Conclusion Women of childbearing age need to improve their health knowledge; the government should increase the availability of antenatal care.

  1. How Is COPD Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is COPD Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose COPD based on ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is COPD? 05/22/2014 Describes how COPD, or chronic ...

  2. Perceptions, attitude and uptake of rapid syphilis testing services in antenatal clinics in North-Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnko, Soori; Changalucha, John; Mosha, Jacklin; Bunga, Catherine; Wamoyi, Joyce; Peeling, Rosanna; Mabey, David

    2016-06-01

    Infection with syphilis during pregnancy could cause spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and stillbirth. To prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by syphilis, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends syphilis screening and treatment of all pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. Rapid syphilis testing (RST) demonstration project was introduced at ANC clinics in Tanzania in 2009, to assess the feasibility, acceptability and its impact on uptake of syphilis screening service. Data collection was composed of in-depth interviews with health workers and pregnant women attending ANC. Additionally, from the health facility registers we extracted information on the uptake of antenatal care services, including number of pregnant women screened and treated for syphilis. Introduction of RST at health facilities was appreciated by pregnant women attending ANC and health workers. Following the introduction of RST services at ANC clinics, we observed a significant increase of the uptake of syphilis screening. Pregnant women appreciated RST service since it reduced the frequency of their visits to the health facilities and shortened the duration that they spent at the clinics. Moreover, the provision of same-day screening and treatment services helped women to save money that they would have to spend on transportation for the follow up visits. Health workers felt that RST simplified procedures to diagnose syphilis, and enabled the health workers to test and treat large numbers of clients in a shorter period of time. Our study demonstrates that, it is feasible to introduce RST service in antenatal clinics. The RST was appreciated by health workers and pregnant women, since it simplifies syphilis screening procedures, saves the time that pregnant women used to waste to wait for the results, and saves the cost that women would have to spend on transportation to come back for treatment. PMID:26685146

  3. Antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms are differentially associated with early childhood weight and adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Gillman, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    Antenatal depression is associated with small for gestational age, but few studies have examined associations with weight during childhood. Similarly few studies address whether antenatal and postpartum depression differentially affect child weight. Among 838 mother-child dyads in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, we examined relationships of antenatal and postpartum depression with child weight and adiposity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy and 6 months postpartum wi...

  4. Study of seroprevalance of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus (ToRC infections in antenatal women presented with bad obstetric history and comparative evaluation of Nanoplex ToRCH screen ELISA kit with VIDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmitha Simgamsetty

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections caused by Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus are major causes of Bad Obstetric History (BOH. Cause of BOH may be genetic, hormonal, abnormal maternal immune response, and maternal infection. Women affected with any of these diseases during pregnancy are at high risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, or for a child with serious birth defects and/or illness and also a hazard to attending staff nurses. Methods: A total 96 serum samples were collected from antenatal women with BOH attending the out-patient services of department of gynaecology at NRI general hospital, Chinakakani, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. Serum samples were obtained and were subjected to screening for Immunoglobulin M (IgM and Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies of Toxopalsma gondii, Rubella Virus and CMV infections by VIDAS (bioMerieux, France and Nanoplex ToRCH Screen kit [Lilac Medicare (P Ltd, Maharastra, India]. Results: Majority of cases with BOH were found in females aged 18-23 years (25, 52.08% followed by 24-29 years (18, 37.5%. Congenital anomalies and other complications were found to be more in age group 18-23 years followed by 24-29 years. The disease prevalence as studied with respect to IgM antibodies was found to be 31.25% for Cytomegalovirus Infections, 23.96% for Toxoplasma gondii, 21.88% for Rubella virus infections. The overall agreement in the Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV and Negative Predictive Value (NPV between VIDAS and Nanoplex ToRCH Screen kit for the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in our study was excellent with sensitivity ranging from 90.91%-96.00% and specificity ranging from 89.47%-95.59% for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies. The discrepancies were relatively less with 8.3% for CMV IgM, 6.2% for CMV IgG, 5.20% for Rubella IgM, 6.25% for Rubella IgG, 6.25% for Toxo IgM and 5.20% for Toxo IgG. Conclusion: Nanoplex ToRCH Screen Kit is a cheap, cost effective

  5. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup;

    2015-01-01

    , with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education due to, for example, group dynamic. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes. METHODS...... of small group antenatal education on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists as to whether antenatal education in small classes is effective in regard to obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. We recommend updating this review following the emergence of well...

  6. Monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are antibodies having single specificity for a given antigen site (epitope). The development of hybridoma technology and the relative ease by which MAbs can be prepared has revolutionized many aspects of serological applications in diagnosis and differentiation of disease producing agents. The property of monospecificity offers advantages in diagnostic applications over polyclonal sera in that tests can be defined exactly with regard to the antigen detected and the affinity of reaction between the given antigenic site and the monoclonal reagent. In addition, MAbs offer better possibilities for test standardization, because the same reagent can be used in different laboratories. Such an MAb can be supplied by a central laboratory or 'grown' from hybridoma cells, ensuring that the resultant product is identical from laboratory to laboratory and that the part of the test involving the MAb reaction is the same. The methodologies for inoculation regimes, mice, cloning methods, selection of fusion partners, etc., have been validated extensively in developed country laboratories. The decision to establish a MAb production facility must be examined on a strict cost-benefit basis, since it is still expensive to produce a product. There are many MAbs available that should be sought to allow exploitation in developing tests. If a production facility is envisaged, it should produce reagents for national needs, i.e. there should be a clear problem oriented approach whereby exact needs are defined. In the field of veterinary applications, MAbs are the central reagent in many immunoassays based on the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The development of specific tests for diagnosing diseases is dominated by MAbs and has been fuelled by a strong research base, mainly in developed countries allied to developing countries through the study of related diseases. Thus, there are very many assays dependent on MAbs, some of which form the basis of

  7. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse. PMID:27635258

  8. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse.

  9. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. Methods In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Findings Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. Conclusion While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care. PMID:27274597

  10. Determinants of folic acid knowledge and use among antenatal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    1999-06-01

    Although recommendations on folic acid use were issued by health authorities in a number of countries in the early 1990s, uptake of peri-conceptional folic acid is still disappointingly low. Regardless of food fortification policies, folic acid promotion will probably be required in most countries to optimize folate levels among women of child-bearing age. The aim of this study was to examine folic acid knowledge and use, and their determinants among antenatal women in the east of Ireland in 1997.

  11. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L; Lindqvist, P G; Jakobsson, M;

    2016-01-01

    National health registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data. RESULTS: A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single...... most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence...

  12. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Kocherla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and monoamniotic twins who died at 14 weeks of gestation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1172-1175

  13. 'Yummy Mummies': exploring sexuality in the antenatal and postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HaKyung Maria; Geraghty, Sadie

    2016-06-01

    Sexuality is often bound together with sexual function in contemporary sexual health literature; however, sexuality is a multidimensional phenomenon that has a broader historical concept and cultural meaning. In addition to a significant global decline in sexual function, women may experience decline in emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure up to 4.5 years after giving birth. Midwives have an important role in raising conversations about sexuality on a regular basis during antenatal visits, and informing couples about the decline of libido, desire and orgasm, which may lead to reduction in sexual intercourse frequency, particularly in the last trimester and puerperium. PMID:27451488

  14. Antenatal diagnosis of chorioangioma of the placenta: MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Takao; Imai, Michiko; Isoda, Haruo [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    We report a case of chorioangioma of the placenta, in which MR findings were useful in establishing the antenatal diagnosis. Polyhydramnios and a placental tumor that was 5 cm in size were visualized. The tumor had relatively high signal intensities on proton density imaging and T2-weighted imaging and showed partially high intensity signal rims on T1-weighted imaging, especially when using a breath-holding technique. Magnetic resonance imaging has an important role in detection and diagnosis of these lesions, particularly the larger tumors, so that appropriate steps can be taken to deal with the complications that may accompany this tumor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  15. The results of 15 years of consistent strategy in treating antenatally suspected pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Jokela, R; Cortes, Dina;

    2003-01-01

    To determine how to select patients for surgery among those with antenatally detected pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction.......To determine how to select patients for surgery among those with antenatally detected pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction....

  16. The results of 15 years of consistent strategy in treating antenatally suspected pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J; Jokela, R; Cortes, D;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how to select patients for surgery among those with antenatally detected pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study comprised 100 consecutive children with antenatally detected suspected unilateral PUJ obstruction and a normal contralateral...

  17. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Andersen, Stig Krøger;

    2014-01-01

    number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education. The latest Cochrane review, assessed as up-to-date in 2007, concluded that the effect of antenatal education for childbirth or parenthood or both remains largely unknown. This systematic review and meta...

  18. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B;

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  19. Impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes and postpartum depression in Korean women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Kyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal prenatal mental health has been shown to be associated with adverse consequences for the mother and the child. However, studies considering the effect of prenatal depressive symptoms are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of antenatal depressive symptoms on obstetric outcomes and to determine associations between antenatal and postpartum depressions. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS questionnaire was completed by pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at Seoul St. Mary′s hospital in the third trimester of gestation. The electronic medical records were reviewed after delivery and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The association between antenatal and postpartum depression was analyzed using the EPDS questionnaire, which was completed by the same women within 2 months of delivery. Results: Of the 467 participants, 26.34% (n = 123 had antenatal depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of ≥10. There were no significant perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. During the postpartum period, 192 of the women in the initial study cohort were given the EPDS again as a follow-up. Of the 192 participants, 56 (29.17% scored >10. Spearman correlation coefficient between the antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores was 0.604, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Antenatal depression does not lead to unfavorable perinatal outcomes. However, screening for antenatal depression may be helpful to identify women at risk of postpartum depression.

  20. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ibu Hamil dalam Melakukan Pemeriksaan Antenatal Care

    OpenAIRE

    Ritonga, Fatimah Jahra; Sitohang, Nur Asnah

    2016-01-01

    Pemeriksaan Antenatal Care adalah suatu program yang terencana berupa observasi, edukasi dan penanganan medik pada ibu hamil, untuk memperoleh suatu proses kehamilan dan persalinan yang aman dan memuaskan. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ibu hamil dalam melakukan pemeriksaan antenatal care adalah pengetahuan,pendidikan,umur,ekonomi,sumber informasi, letak geografis dan dukungan keluarga. Nur Asnah Sitohang

  1. Integrating couple relationship education in antenatal education - A study of perceived relevance among expectant Danish parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim...

  2. Group-based antenatal birth and parent preparation for improving birth outcomes and parenting resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education.......To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education....

  3. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes - a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup; Andersen, Stig Krøger; Due, Pernille; Koushede, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of antenatal education are broad and encompass outcomes related to pregnancy, birth, and parenthood. Both form and content of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education due to, for example, group dynamic. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the e...

  4. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, K.A. [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital and Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Foresterhill, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: k.duncan@nhs.net

    2007-02-15

    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is {>=} 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of {>=} 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate.

  5. Differential diagnoses to MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Friis, Tina; Modvig, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    of 643 patients were included in the study. Apart from ON, the most frequent diagnoses were tumors (n = 15), ischemic or hypertensive neuropathies (n = 13), and retinal or choroid disorders (n = 9). Six patients were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. Rarer causes of visual loss were infections (n = 5...

  6. Diagnosing Psoriatic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode Diagnosing Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis can develop slowly with mild symptoms, or it ... severe. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment of psoriatic arthritis can help prevent or limit extensive joint damage ...

  7. Diagnosing Delirium by Telephone

    OpenAIRE

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Sm,; Michaels, Mary; Resnick, Neil M.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether delirium can be diagnosed by telephone, we interviewed 41 subjects aged 65 years or older 1 month after repair of hip fracture, first by telephone and then face-to-face. Interviews included the modified telephone Mini-Mental State Examination and the Delirium Symptom Interview. Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method diagnostic algorithm, and the telephone results were compared with the face-to-face results (the “gold standard”). Of 41 subjects, 6 wer...

  8. Health education during antenatal care: the need for more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ateeq MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A Al-Ateeq,1 Amal A Al-Rusaiess21College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of health education during ante natal is to provide advice, education, ­reassurance and support, to address and treat the minor problems of pregnancy, and to provide effective screening during the pregnancy. Exploring current practices in this regard revealed the need for more organized educational activities to ensure high quality and clients satisfaction. Keywords: antenatal care, health education, pregnant women, postpartum, misconceptions

  9. Maternal Pregnancy Intention and Professional Antenatal Care Utilization in Bangladesh: A Nationwide Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mosfequr; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Tareque, Md. Ismail; Ferdos, Jannatul; Jesmin, Syeda S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between maternal pregnancy intention and professional antenatal and delivery care utilization. Methods Our data were derived from the 2011 nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. We included antenatal and delivery care utilization data of the most recent live births for women for the previous three years (n = 4672). We used multilevel logistic regression models to assess the relationship between pregnancy intention and use of professional antenatal and delivery care, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results Approximately 13% and 16% of children were reported by their mothers as unwanted and mistimed at the time of conception, respectively. Among the women, 55% received at least one professional antenatal care service; 21% received four or more professional antenatal services, while 32% were attended by professionals during deliveries. Mothers of children whose pregnancies had been unwanted had a greater risk for not seeking professional antenatal and professional delivery care than those whose pregnancies had been wanted [1≥ ANC from professionals: AOR: 0.66; 95% CI:0.51–0.93; 4≥ ANC from professionals: AOR:0.56; 95% CI:0.37–0.84; and delivery care from professionals: AOR: 0.70; 95% CI:0.50–0.97]. Women who were married after age 18, had secondary or higher level of education, and were from the wealthiest households were more likely to utilize antenatal and delivery care. Conclusion Unwanted pregnancy is significantly associated with lower utilization of professional antenatal and delivery care services in Bangladesh. Reducing unwanted births and promoting access to professional antenatal and delivery care are crucial for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3 in Bangladesh. PMID:27309727

  10. A CASE REPORT-ANTENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF FETAL INTRACRANIAL HAEMORHAGE

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    Kalyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 26 years old para 1 with 26 weeks of pregnancy presented with intermittent fever. Her obstetric history included one spontaneous first trimester miscarriage and one previous Caesarean Section for meconium stained amniotic fluid. Her antenatal course was uneventful so far. On investigation she tested IgM dengue positive. Her WBC count, platelet count and coagulation profiles were within normal limits. Obstetric sonography was done which was suggestive of a single live intrauterine gestation corresponding with growth appropriate for gestational age with moderate polyhydramnios (AFI 25cms with hyperechoic cerebral cisterns suggestive of intracranial haemorrhage. Fetal MRI was done which revealed generalized atrophy of the brain parenchyma with subdural haematoma over posterior cerebral convexities extending along tentorial leaflets. Patient went into preterm labour at 27 weeks and delivered male baby of 980gms which was an intrapartum fetal demise. Fetal intracranial hemorrhage occurs in 5 in 10,000 pregnancies. Hemorrhage may occur either within the cerebral ventricles (Intraventricular haemorrhage, IVH, subdural space or infratentorial fossa. IVH are common variety and are characteristic of immature brain. IVH are subdivided according to their severity into four grades: the first three grades are limited to the ventricles, while the fourth grade includes parenchymal involvement occurring in the most severe cases. Fetal stroke is caused by antenatal hemorrhagic, ischemic or thrombotic injury. Although there is no identifiable risk factor in 50% of cases of fetal stroke, the most common maternal conditions associated with it are alloimmune thrombocytopenia and trauma. Outcome is usually poor, for those fetuses affected with high grade IVH or subdural hemorrhages. USG helps in accurate diagnosis of fetal ICH and prenatal MRI also contributes to the accuracy of diagnosis.

  11. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

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    Cornelle W Noorlander

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  12. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  13. Prevalence of HIV in antenatal women at GMERS Medical College Sola, Ahmedabad

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    Seema Kalpesh Patel

    2014-06-01

    Methods: This is a retrospective study. Total 8224 antenatal patients, who attended for first time at antenatal OPD at GMERS Medical College, Sola between April 2012 to March 2014, were included in the study. HIV testing was done by RAPID method after taking informed consent and pre-test counselling as per NACO guideline. Results: Out of total 8224 antenatal patients 7921 (96% patient opted for HIV testing. Seroprevalence of HIV is found to be 15/7921 (0.19%. 7044/7921 (88.93% women attended post-test counselling. 12/15 (80% HIV positive women accepted post-test counselling.12/15 (80% spouses accepted testing for HIV. 8/12 (66.66% spouses of HIV positive women were also found to be HIV positive. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of HIV infection in antenatal women is low. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 662-665

  14. Decline in effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids with time to birth: real or artefact?

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Simon; Brocklehurst, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The widely accepted notion that the benefits of antenatal corticosteroids decline with time to birth may not be correct, argue Simon Gates and Peter Brocklehurst, as the evidence is based on unsound subgroup analyses

  15. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis It is important to get your questions about ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  16. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... Diagnosis » How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed Lab ...

  17. Health professional's treatment of gestational overweight and obesity at an antenatal clinic in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rifai, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Aim:  To describe health professional's treatment of pregnant overweight or obese women at an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Method: A descriptive qualitative method was used including interviews with 11 health professionals at an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. The interviews were semi-structured and consisted of five open-ended question. The result was then analysed through a systematic content analyse. Result: Four categories were identified. The methods used to state gestational ...

  18. Effects of Antenatal Magnesium Exposure on Intestinal Blood Flow and Outcome in Preterm Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Gürsoy, Tuğba; İmamoğlu, Ebru Yalın; Ovalı, Fahri; Karatekin, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the effects of antenatal magnesium sulfate on intestinal blood flow in preterm neonates. Study Design In this prospective case-match study, 25 preterm neonates exposed to magnesium sulfate antenatally were included (study group). Overall, 25 gestational age-matched neonates who had no exposure to magnesium constituted the control group. Serial daily Doppler flow measurements of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were performed. The time to reach full fee...

  19. Childbirth information feeds for first time Malawian mothers who attended antenatal clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Malata, Address; Chirwa, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Childbirth information received by mothers during antenatal period influences their satisfaction with the care during perinatal period. It is important for the midwives to know the type of information that satisfies their clients. This study found that the childbirth information that mothers received during antenatal period did not satisfy them. On the other hand, although some of the information received at home was useful, some information had potential to cause fear, anxiety and ill health...

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika; Souris

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks fo...

  1. Using the ALPHA form in practice to assess antenatal psychosocial health

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, A. J.; Biringer, A; Carroll, J D; Midmer, D; Wilson, L. M.; Chalmers, B; Stewart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of the psychosocial health of pregnant women and their families, although recommended, is not carried out by most practitioners. One reason is the lack of a practical and evidence-based tool. In response, a multidisciplinary group created the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form. This article describes the development of this tool and experience with it in an initial field trial. METHODS: A systematic literature review revealed 15 antenatal psychoso...

  2. HIV Prevalence Comparison Between Antenatal Sentinel Surveillance and Demographic and Health Survey in Rwanda §

    OpenAIRE

    Kayibanda, Jeanne Françoise; ALARY, Michel; Bitera, Raphaël; Kabeja, Adeline; Hinda, Ruton; Munyakazi, Louis; Chitou, Bassirou; Gatarayiha, Jean Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare HIV prevalence from antenatal surveillance to that of the demographic and health survey (DHS), and to identify factors determining the difference of HIV prevalence between women recruited in these two surveys in Rwanda in 2005. Methods: Comparative cross-sectional study of HIV prevalence and socio-demographic factors collected by the antenatal survey in 13,745 pregnant women, seen in 30 health centres located throughout the country and those collected by the DHS among 56...

  3. Integration of antenatal syphilis screening in an urban HIV clinic: a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Manabe, Yukari C; Namale, Gertrude; Nalintya, Elizabeth; Sempa, Joseph; Ratanshi, Rosalind Parkes; Pakker, Nadine; Katabira, Elly

    2015-01-01

    Background Syphilis infection during pregnancy leads to avoidable morbidity and mortality and remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite global initiatives to increase the proportion of pregnant women screened, implementation has been slow. We sought to investigate the feasibility of adding syphilis screening within an integrated antenatal HIV clinic. Methods Pregnant women attending the HIV antenatal clinic were sequentially enrolled and consenting participants answered a q...

  4. Does antenatal fear of childbirth predict postnatal fear of childbirth? - A study of Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Takegata, Mizuki; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Okano, Tadaharu; Severinsson, Ingeborg Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether antenatal fear of childbirth (expectation) could predict postnatal fear of childbirth (experience) by taking account of other antenatal psychological variables(anxiety and depression) as well as birth outcomes in Japanese women. A longitudinal observational study was conducted at a clinic in Tokyo, Japan, in 2011. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to 240 Japanese women at 37 gestational weeks (Time 1) and on the second day after delivery (Time 2)...

  5. Knowledge, Perception, and Attitude of Pregnant Women Towards the Role of Physical Therapy in Antenatal Care - A Cross Sectional Study

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    Nayak R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy plays an essential role in obstetrics, both in the antenatal and postnatal periods. Antenatal exercises are recommended for the health benefits and safe delivery that they secure of pregnant mothers. However, studies on the efficacy of this approach in developing countries like India are limited in literature.The objective of this study was to determine knowledge, perception, and attitude of pregnant women towards the role of physical therapy in antenatal care. Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used for this cross-sectional study. A total of 106 pregnant women attending regular antenatal checkups in tertiary care centers in Mangalore, Karnataka, India were recruited. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, perception, and attitude towards the role of physiotherapy in antenatal care. Results: 46% of subjects knew about antenatal exercises. The majority of them were not aware or not sure about the different type of antenatal exercises avaliable.60% of the respondents had a positive attitude to physiotherapy during antenatal care. However, only 30% of the participants had adequate knowledge of the benefits of antenatal exercise and this was not influenced by maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion: A majority of Indian pregnant women demonstrate inadequate knowledge but have positive attitude towards role of physiotherapy in antenatal care.

  6. Socio Demographic Factors Determining the Adequacy of Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women Visiting Ekiti State Primary Health Centers

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    Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centers among pregnant women to elucidate adequacy of antenatal care across different socio demographic variables. Four hundred respondents were proportionately selected from 18 primary health centers using simple random sampling. Exit interviews were conducted using the adapted antenatal care exit interview form of the Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment package. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Adequacy of antenatal care in this study was measured by the single adequacy indicators which are duration of pregnancy at entry into antenatal care and number of antenatal visits; which are particularly suitable for developing countries. Age of respondents, means of transportation to the PHCs, occupation, location and level of education of the respondents were found to be determinants of whether the pregnant women attended their first antenatal visit in the first trimester, similarly, age of the respondents was a predictor of whether the women made up to four antenatal visits by their third trimester. Occupation and level of education were determinants of whether or not the pregnant women made their first antenatal visits at the first trimester. More respondents who were not working and those who were unskilled workers made their first antenatal visit at the first trimester compared to those who were skilled workers; work place policies and the fact that antenatal booking are made on weekdays and at work hours may hinder or be discouraging to the working class mothers.

  7. Male involvement in antenatal HIV counseling and testing: exploring men's perceptions in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Pauliina; Olsson, Pia; Chimbiri, Agnes; Kulmala, Teija

    2009-12-01

    Antenatal care can act as an excellent tool to improve access to HIV counseling and testing services. This paper investigates an issue that may weaken its potential, namely lack of male involvement. We explored married men's perceptions of HIV in pregnancy and male involvement in antenatal HIV testing and counseling in Southern Malawi through 11 focus group discussions and a cross-sectional survey (n=388). The main findings were that men were largely unaware of available antenatal HIV testing and counseling services, and perceived it overall problematic to attend female-oriented health care. Most men supported provision of antenatal HIV testing. They perceived husbands to participate in the process indirectly through spousal communication, being faithful during pregnancy, and supporting the wife if found HIV-positive. Involvement of husbands was compromised by men's reluctance to learn their HIV status and the threat that HIV poses on marriage. Men stressed the importance of prior spousal agreement of antenatal HIV testing and considered HIV testing without their consent a valid reason for divorce. We suggest that male involvement in antenatal HIV testing requires refocusing of information and health services to include men. To avoid negative social outcomes for women, comprehensive and early involvement of men is essential. PMID:20024733

  8. Screening for Anxiety among Antenatal Women Attending a Taluk Hospital in Rural India

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    Chris Zacharias Thomas, Surekha A., Suguna A. , Kurian Jose Puthur, Pretesh Kiran, Sulekha T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Antenatal anxiety can adversely affect pregnancy outcome, have an impact on maternal competence in childcare. Lot of emphasis has been given on antenatal depression but studies addressing the anxiety issues are few. Objectives were to study the prevalence of anxiety, using the Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS and to identify the risk factors associated with anxiety among antenatal women attending the Anekal Taluk Hospital, Bangalore. Method: This was a cross sectional study, done at Anekal between April and May 2014 among 146 antenatal women by convenience sampling. Results: The mean [SD] age of the study population was 22.52 ± 3.04 years. Majority (89.73% were housewives and 43.2% were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Of the 146 antenatal women, 22.6% of women screened positive for anxiety. Anxiety was significantly associated with primigravida, low parity and previous abortions. Multivariate regression analysis showed significant association of anxiety with period of gestation and gravidity. Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight the importance of routine screening for antenatal anxiety in primary health care. "

  9. Multiple Antenatal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Brain Vessel Differentiation in Newborn Mouse Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Winfried; Schlundt, Marian; Fehrholz, Markus; Ehrke, Alexander; Kunzmann, Steffen; Liebner, Stefan; Speer, Christian P; Förster, Carola Y

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal steroid treatment decreases morbidity and mortality in premature infants through the maturation of lung tissue, which enables sufficient breathing performance. However, clinical and animal studies have shown that repeated doses of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and betamethasone lead to long-term adverse effects on brain development. Therefore, we established a mouse model for antenatal dexamethasone treatment to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on brain vessel differentiation towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB) phenotype, focusing on molecular marker analysis. The major findings were that in total brains on postnatal day (PN) 4 triple antenatal dexamethasone treatment significantly downregulated the tight junction protein claudin-5, the endothelial marker Pecam-1/CD31, the glucocorticoid receptor, the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and Abc transporters (Abcb1a, Abcg2 Abcc4). Less pronounced effects were found after single antenatal dexamethasone treatment and in PN10 samples. Comparisons of total brain samples with isolated brain endothelial cells together with the stainings for Pecam-1/CD31 and claudin-5 led to the assumption that the morphology of brain vessels is affected by antenatal dexamethasone treatment at PN4. On the mRNA level markers for angiogenesis, the sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathway were downregulated in PN4 samples, suggesting fundamental changes in brain vascularization and/or differentiation. In conclusion, we provided a first comprehensive molecular basis for the adverse effects of multiple antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain vessel differentiation. PMID:26274818

  10. Multiple Antenatal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Brain Vessel Differentiation in Newborn Mouse Pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroid treatment decreases morbidity and mortality in premature infants through the maturation of lung tissue, which enables sufficient breathing performance. However, clinical and animal studies have shown that repeated doses of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and betamethasone lead to long-term adverse effects on brain development. Therefore, we established a mouse model for antenatal dexamethasone treatment to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on brain vessel differentiation towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB phenotype, focusing on molecular marker analysis. The major findings were that in total brains on postnatal day (PN 4 triple antenatal dexamethasone treatment significantly downregulated the tight junction protein claudin-5, the endothelial marker Pecam-1/CD31, the glucocorticoid receptor, the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and Abc transporters (Abcb1a, Abcg2 Abcc4. Less pronounced effects were found after single antenatal dexamethasone treatment and in PN10 samples. Comparisons of total brain samples with isolated brain endothelial cells together with the stainings for Pecam-1/CD31 and claudin-5 led to the assumption that the morphology of brain vessels is affected by antenatal dexamethasone treatment at PN4. On the mRNA level markers for angiogenesis, the sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathway were downregulated in PN4 samples, suggesting fundamental changes in brain vascularization and/or differentiation. In conclusion, we provided a first comprehensive molecular basis for the adverse effects of multiple antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain vessel differentiation.

  11. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis

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    Bineeta Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Materials and Methods: Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. Results: The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Conclusions: Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  12. Being publicly diagnosed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Lillebaek, Troels; Wilcke, Torgny;

    2014-01-01

    . METHOD: A grounded theory design with field studies and qualitative interviews, following the recommendations from Glaser and Strauss. RESULT: A process of being publicly diagnosed was identified, which developed during the patient's trajectory from being on the way to becoming a patient, becoming...

  13. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

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    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  14. Antenatal and postnatal depression: A public health perspective

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    Saurabh R Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy, to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals.

  15. Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-06-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  16. Psychosocial Characteristics and Obstetric Health of Women Attending a Specialist Substance Use Antenatal Clinic in a Large Metropolitan Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Burns; Elizabeth Conroy; Moore, Elizabeth A.; Delyse Hutchinson; Haber, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This paper reports the findings comparing the obstetrical health, antenatal care, and psychosocial characteristics of pregnant women with a known history of substance dependence (n = 41) and a comparison group of pregnant women attending a general antenatal clinic (n = 47). Method. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess obstetrical health, antenatal care, physical and mental functioning, substance use, and exposure to violence. Results. The substance-dependent group had more d...

  17. Integration of antiretroviral therapy services into antenatal care increases treatment initiation during pregnancy: a cohort study.

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    Kathryn Stinson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART during pregnancy is critical to promote maternal health and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT. The separation of services for antenatal care (ANC and ART may hinder antenatal ART initiation. We evaluated ART initiation during pregnancy under different service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using routinely collected clinic data. Three models for ART initiation in pregnancy were evaluated ART 'integrated' into ANC, ART located 'proximal' to ANC, and ART located some distance away from ANC ('distal'. Kaplan-Meier methods and Poisson regression were used to examine the association between service delivery model and antenatal ART initiation. RESULTS: Among 14 617 women seeking antenatal care in the three services, 30% were HIV-infected and 17% were eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count <200 cells/µL. A higher proportion of women started ART antenatally in the integrated model compared to the proximal or distal models (55% vs 38% vs 45%, respectively, global p = 0.003. After adjusting for age and gestation at first ANC visit, women who at the integrated service were significantly more likely to initiate ART antenatally (rate ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.64 compared to women attending the distal model; there was no difference between the proximal and distal models in antenatal ART initiation however (p = 0.704. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of ART initiation into ANC is associated with higher levels of ART initiation in pregnancy. This and other forms of service integration may represent a valuable intervention to enhance PMTCT and maternal health.

  18. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  19. Modifiable antenatal risk factors for stillbirth amongst pregnant women in the Omusati region, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desire D. Tshibumbu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of stillbirth rates is important because of the social and economic implications. Access to quality antenatal care is important in preventing the risk factors associated with stillbirth.Aim: To determine the prevalence of modifiable antenatal risk factors associated with stillbirth so as to determine possible gaps in their prevention.Setting: The study was conducted at four district hospitals in the Omusati Region of Namibia.Methods: A descriptive study using recorded antenatal data was used. Data were collected from the records of 82 women at the time that they had a stillbirth, during the period October 2013 to December 2014. Data were collected for modifiable risk factors related to maternal characteristics, antenatal care received, medical conditions and obstetric complications.Results: The average prevalence of each category of risk factors was as follows: quality of antenatal care (19.8%, maternal characteristics (11.4%, medical conditions (8.9% and obstetric complications (6.5%. The most prevalent individual risk factors included: no folate supplementation (30.5%, HIV infection (25.6%, late booking (16.7%, intrauterine foetal growth retardation (13.4% and alcohol use (12.5%.Conclusion: Amongst the 14 modifiable risk factor included in the present study, 11 (78.6% were prevalent amongst women who had a stillbirth. Risk factors associated with quality of antenatal care were the most prevalent. Whilst further investigation is needed to determine the causes behind this prevalence, health education on the availability and benefits of antenatal care, pregnancy timing and spacing may contribute to reducing the prevalence of these risk factors.Keywords: Stillbirth; modifiable risk factors; pregnant women; Omusati region; Namibia

  20. Contraception awareness and practice among antenatal attendees in Uyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Vincent Umoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Contraception is major component of reproductive health. The study aims to document the awareness of contraception and its use in Uyo, South-south Nigeria and provide useful information for future intervention strategies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using pretested questionnaires among antenatal attendees in a tertiary and a secondary health facility in Uyo. RESULTS: A total of 550 women took part in the study. Majority of respondents (92.4% were aware of contraception while 52.6% had ever used any form of contraception. The condom (60.3% and the pill (49.9% were the most common forms of contraception that the women had heard of, mostly from the doctor (36.9%, radio (33.8% and nurse (28.5%. The condom (46.7%, withdrawal method (14.1% and the pills (13.3% were the most commonly used forms of contraception. Majority of the women (70.5% planned to use contraception in the future and this intention was significantly related to the woman's educational status (p<0.05 but not to religion or occupation. Fear of side effects, uncertainty about its need, partner objection and previous side effects were the common reasons given for unwillingness to use contraception in the future. CONCLUSION: Our study has shown that while there is good contraceptive awareness in Uyo, Nigeria, this is not matched by commensurate contraceptive prevalence but prospects for improvement exist. There�s need to tackle known obstacles to contraceptive uptake. Also targeted campaigns and every available opportunity should be used to provide reproductive counseling to women especially on contraception.

  1. Red blood cell parameters in antenatal nonsickling hemoglobinopathy screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencaiova G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Bencaiova, Kristina Dapoto, Roland Zimmermann, Alexander Krafft Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Obstetric Research, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Objective: To find a hematological parameter and the cut-off level for identification of nonsickling hemoglobinopathies in pregnant women. Materials and methods: Venous blood samples of 849 women with singleton pregnancies were collected at the first visit. All women who met inclusion criteria were examined for nonsickling hemoglobinopathy. On the basis of the sensitivity and the specificity of different cut-off levels for hematological parameters, we calculated the optimal clinically practicable parameter for screening of nonsickling hemoglobinopathies in pregnant women. Results: On the basis of the sensitivity and the specificity, the best screening parameters for the identification of nonsickling hemoglobinopathies among nonanemic pregnant women are mean corpuscular volume (MCV with cut-off ≤80 fL (Youden’s index 91.2%, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH <27.5 pg (Youden’s index 90.7%, and microcytosis (MRC ≥3% (Youden’s index 90.2%. An analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves and the calculated Youden’s index showed that MCV ≤76 fL, MCH ≤24 pg, or MRC ≥10% are the best red blood cell indices for the screening of nonsickling hemoglobinopathy among anemic women with iron deficiency. Conclusion: Our results suggest targeted screening for nonsickling hemoglobinopathies in nonanemic pregnant women with MCV ≤80 fL, MCH ≤27.5 pg, or MRC ≥3% and in anemic women with MCV ≤76 fL, MCH ≤24 pg, or MRC ≥10%. Keywords: anemia, antenatal, hemoglobinopathy, pregnancy, screening, hemoglobin, hematological parameters

  2. Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Seppo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most pertinent studies of inadequate antenatal care concentrate on the risk profile of women booking late or not booking at all to antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of pregnancies when free and easily accessible antenatal care has been either totally lacking or low in number of visits. Methods This is a hospital register based cohort study of pregnancies treated in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 1989 – 2001. Pregnancy outcomes of women having low numbers (1–5 of antenatal care visits (n = 207 and no antenatal care visits (n = 270 were compared with women having 6–18 antenatal visits (n = 23137. Main outcome measures were: Low birth weight, fetal death, neonatal death. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were controlled for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratios, OR: s in multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the analyzed pregnant population, 1.0% had no antenatal care visits and 0.77% had 1–5 visits. Under- or non-attendance associated with social and health behavioral risk factors: unmarried status, lower educational level, young maternal age, smoking and alcohol use. Chorio-amnionitis or placental abruptions were more common complications of pregnancies of women avoiding antenatal care, and pregnancy outcome was impaired. After logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding, there were significantly more low birth weight infants in under- and non-attenders (OR:s with 95% CI:s: 9.18 (6.65–12.68 and 5.46 (3.90–7.65, respectively more fetal deaths (OR:s 12.05 (5.95–24.40 and 5.19 (2.04–13.22, respectively and more neonatal deaths (OR:s 10.03 (3.85–26.13 and 8.66 (3.59–20.86, respectively. Conclusion Even when birth takes place in hospital, non- or under-attendance at antenatal care carries a substantially elevated risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Underlying adverse health behavior and possible abuse indicate close surveillance of the

  3. How Is Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in cool temperatures and can block blood vessels). Cold agglutinins Cold agglutinins are antibodies that attack and ... attach to cells only if they contain specific molecules. These antibodies cause color changes, which can be ...

  4. Antenatal depressive symptoms associated with specific life events and sources of social support among Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Salvatori, Paola; Dellabartola, Sara; Bozicevic, Laura; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify different kinds of stressful life events and social support associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant Italian women. We conducted the study at a primary health-care centre in an urban area (northeast Italy). Mainly recruited at antenatal classes, 404 eligible pregnant women completed a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about the present pregnancy, the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the quality and nature of social support and recent negative life events. Of the 404 women, 60 (14.9 %) scored 13 or higher on the EDS. This group reported significantly lower social support from various sources-family, friends, and significant others; only in primiparous women were depressive symptoms significantly related to lower support from friends. Women with EDS scores equal or higher than 13 also reported a higher occurrence of recent stressful life events-specifically, death or a serious problem with a close friend or relative, unemployment, financial problems, and moving or housing difficulties. Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms. Our results underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources. Clinical attention to these psychosocial correlates is recommended toward detecting vulnerability to antenatal depressive symptoms.

  5. Evaluation of an antenatal education programme: characteristics of attenders, changes in knowledge and satisfaction of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, S; Oak, S; Booth, P; Jensen, J; Saxton, A

    1991-11-01

    The evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of antenatal education programmes has been identified as a priority in improving maternity services in Australia. Two hundred and ninety four primiparas completed a brief questionnaire in the 3 days following delivery; 82% of the women surveyed attended antenatal education classes. Women were less likely to attend if they were single, younger than 26 years, had lower levels of education, received care during pregnancy from the antenatal clinic and did not have private health insurance. Attenders at antenatal education were also more likely to plan on breast feeding, to be nonsmokers and to know of a greater number of community organizations to help new mothers. However, logistic regression analyses indicated that, with the exception of number of community organizations known, these differences were attributable to demographic differences between attenders and nonattenders. One hundred and forty two women and their partners attending the major provider of antenatal education classes in Newcastle were surveyed prior to and following classes. Significant increases in knowledge were evident following the programme among both women and their partners. Satisfaction with the programme was high as indicated by a large proportion of respondents attending all 4 classes, most programme components being reported as useful or very useful and only a small proportion of respondents experiencing problems with the programme. PMID:1799341

  6. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosla Rahul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common, treatable, highly lethal emergency, which despite advances in diagnostic testing, remains an under diagnosed killer. The mortality rate of diagnosed and treated pulmonary embolism ranges from 3-8%, but increases to about 30% in untreated pulmonary embolism. PE is a part of the spectrum of venousthromboembolic disease and most pulmonary emboli have their origin from clots in the iliac, deep femoral, or popliteal veins. Nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms with low sensitivity and specificity of routine tests such as arterial blood gas, chest roentgenogram and electrocardiogram make the diagnosis of PE very challenging for the clinician. Pulmonary angiography is the gold standard diagnostic test, but this technique is invasive, expensive, not readily available and labor intensive. Diagnostic strategies have revolved around establishing clinical probabilities based on predictive models, then ruling in or ruling out the diagnosis of PE with various tests. The aim of this article was to review the literature and present an evidence- based medicine approach to diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

  7. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  8. How Is Muscular Dystrophy Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is muscular dystrophy diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The first step in diagnosing muscular dystrophy (MD) is a visit with a health care ...

  9. Diagnosing Dementia--Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  10. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosed? Doctors diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) based on ... tested to see whether the baby has CF. Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Testing People who have one normal CFTR ...

  11. Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Not Diagnosed A A A | Print | Share Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed Long-term complications result from ... patients: Total ankle replacements--similar to hip and knee replacements--were once reserved for geriatric patients but ...

  12. Do antenatal education classes decrease use of epidural analgesia during labour? – a Danish RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg;

    on whether to implement the NEWBORN program in a clinical setting also depend upon the trial effect on psycho-social outcomes which will be analysed in near future. Main messages (max 200 anslag): 1. No effect of antenatal education in small groups on use of epidural analgesia as pain relief during labour......Background: Epidural analgesia is widely used as pain relief during labour but has negative side effects, such as prolonged labour and increased risk of obstetric interventions. Antenatal education in small groups may increase trust in own ability to cope at home in the early stages of labour......, and reduce fear during birth which in turn may decrease use of pain relief. Few randomised trials have examined the effect of attending antenatal education in small groups on use of epidural analgesia and among these conclusions are conflicting. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the effect...

  13. Antenatal care strengthening for improved health behaviours in Jimma, Ethiopia, 2009-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: health systems in low-income settings are not sufficiently reaching the poor, and global disparities in reproductive health persist. The frequency and quality of health education during antenatal care is often low. Further studies are needed on how to improve the performance of health...... systems in low income settings to improve maternal and child health. OBJECTIVES: to assess the effectiveness of a participatory antenatal care intervention on health behaviours and to illuminate how the different socioeconomic groups responded to the intervention in Jimma, Ethiopia. SETTING, INTERVENTION...... given birth within the previous 12 months. The effect of the intervention was assessed by comparing the change in health behaviours (number of antenatal visits, health facility delivery, breast feeding, preventive infant health check, and infant immunisation) from before to after the intervention period...

  14. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with IQ and behavior in young adults born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, B. van der; Pal, S.M. van der; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Preterm survivors exhibit neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether this association is influenced by antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and glucocorticoid sensitivity is unknown. Objectives: To study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and miner

  15. Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagnoses, the podiatry diagnoses (impairments and disabilities), treatment goals derived from these diagnoses, and interventions. Impairments were recorded in nearly all patients. The interrelationship ...

  16. Antenatal screening of women for hepatitis B and C in an out-patient department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine frequency of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its clinical manifestation in pregnant women. Pregnant women visiting the Gynaecology and Obstetrics out patient's department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore for antenatal check-ups from October 2006 to March 2007 were screened for hepatitis B and C. Immune- chromatography was used for initial screening and diagnosis was confirmed by ELISA technique. Data collection included maternal age, parity, symptoms or past history of jaundice, fatigue, tiredness, insomnia, depression, dyspepsia, fever, anorexia and pale stool. Risk factors investigated include past history of some surgical procedures, the dental visit, blood transfusion, tattooing, hospitalization and history of injection. Among the screened population, 7.3% out of 2439 ladies were positive for anti HCV and 2.2% for HBsAg while dual infection with HBV and HCV was observed in 0.08 % . Symptoms observed in hepatitis B patients were fatigue (90%), depression and pale stool (70%), anorexia (60%), jaundice (57.2%), fever (56.4%) and dyspepsia (51.2%). In hepatitis C antibody positive patients fatigue was the main symptom (95.7%) followed by pale stool (84.5%) and depression (80.2%); 63.3% had insomnia, 59.1% had anorexia, 50.7% had fever, 50.7% had jaundice and 43.6% had dyspepsia. Past history of blood transfusion was reported by 32.3% patients, surgery by 42.2% and tattooing was observed in 0.70%. One or more tooth extraction was reported by 50.2% subjects, and 49.25% had history of repeated injections. The frequency of sero-positivity for HBsAg and HCV among pregnant women is alarming. These sero-positive mothers are not only predisposed to chronic consequences of hepatitis, but also are a continuous threat to their offsprings and care providers. Hence, there is a direct need for further epidemiological studies and to take measures for prevention and control of the disease. (author)

  17. ADHD deficit as measured in adolescent boys with a continuous performance task is related to antenatal maternal anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bergh, BRH; Mennes, M; Stevens, [No Value; Van Der Meere, J; Borger, N; Stiers, P; Marcoen, A; Lagae, L; Van den Berg, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Antenatal maternal anxiety has been shown to be related to infant temperament, childhood disorders, and impulsivity in adolescence. This study prospectively investigated whether antenatal maternal anxiety is associated with performance on a continuous performance task. Sixty-four adolescents (mean a

  18. A descriptive study of the prevalence of hypothyroidism among antenatal women and foetal outcome in treated hypothyroid women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya R. Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: TSH testing should be included in routine antenatal investigations for early detection of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism among antenatal women and early treatment should be initiated so as to prevent complications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1892-1896

  19. Barriers to utilization of antenatal care services in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar eDeo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWorld Health Organization (WHO recommends at least four pregnancy check-ups for normal pregnancies. Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP Nepal has introduced various strategies to promote prenatal care and institutional delivery to reduce maternal and child deaths. However, maternal health service utilization is low in some selected and socio-economic and ethnic groups. Hence, this study aims to assess barriers to the recommended four antenatal care (4ANC visits in eastern Nepal.MethodsA cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Sunsari district. A total of 372 randomly selected women who delivered in the last year preceding the survey were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify barriers associated with 4ANC visits.ResultsMore than two-third women (69% attended at least 4ANC visits. The study revealed that women exposed to media had higher chance of receiving four or more ANC visits with an adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1 in comparison to women who did not. Women from an advantaged ethnic group had more chance of having 4ANC visits than respondents from a disadvantaged ethnic group (aOR=2.4, 95% CI: 2.1-6.9. Similarly, women having a higher level of autonomy were nearly three times more likely (aOR= 2.9, 95%CI: 1.5-5.6 and richer women were twice (aOR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3 as likely to have at least 4ANC visits compared to women who had a lower level of autonomy and were economically poor.ConclusionBeing from disadvantaged ethnicity, lower women?s autonomy, poor knowledge of maternal health service and incentive upon completion of ANC, less media exposure related to maternal health service, and lower wealth rank were significantly associated with fewer than the recommended 4ANC visits. Thus, maternal health programs need to address such socio-cultural barriers for effective health care utilization.

  20. Rural Indonesia women’s traditional beliefs about antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yenita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060. Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1 pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will; 2 women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs; 3 relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth and 4 midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care. Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following

  1. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  2. Risk factors for RhD immunisation despite antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Koelewijn, JM; de Haas, M.; Vrijkotte, TGM; van der Schoot, CE; Bonsel, GJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for Rhesus D (RhD) immunisation in pregnancy, despite adequate antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis in the previous pregnancy. To generate evidence for improved primary prevention by extra administration of anti-D Ig in the presence of a risk factor. Design Case–control study. Setting Nation-wide evaluation of the Dutch antenatal anti-D-prophylaxis programme. Population Cases: 42 RhD-immunised parae-1, recognised by first-trimester routine red cell ant...

  3. Psychosocial characteristics and obstetric health of women attending a specialist substance use antenatal clinic in a large metropolitan hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lucy; Conroy, Elizabeth; Moore, Elizabeth A; Hutchinson, Delyse; Haber, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This paper reports the findings comparing the obstetrical health, antenatal care, and psychosocial characteristics of pregnant women with a known history of substance dependence (n = 41) and a comparison group of pregnant women attending a general antenatal clinic (n = 47). Method. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess obstetrical health, antenatal care, physical and mental functioning, substance use, and exposure to violence. Results. The substance-dependent group had more difficulty accessing antenatal care and reported more obstetrical health complications during pregnancy. Women in the substance-dependent group were more likely to report not wanting to become pregnant and were less likely to report using birth control at the time of conception. Conclusions. The profile of pregnant women (in specialised antenatal care for substance dependence) is one of severe disadvantage and poor health. The challenge is to develop and resource innovative and effective multisectoral systems to educate women and provide effective care for both women and infants. PMID:21760814

  4. Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy C; Harvey, Katie; Beck, Michael; Burin, Maira Graeff; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Church, Heather J; D'Almeida, Vânia; van Diggelen, Otto P; Fietz, Michael; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Hawley, Sara M; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Ketteridge, David; Lukacs, Zoltan; Miller, Nicole; Pasquali, Marzia; Schenone, Andrea; Thompson, Jerry N; Tylee, Karen; Yu, Chunli; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. A group of biochemical genetics laboratory directors and clinicians involved in the diagnosis of MPS IVA, convened by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., met to develop recommendations for diagnosis. The following conclusions were reached. Due to the wide variation and subtleties of radiographic findings, imaging of multiple body regions is recommended. Urinary glycosaminoglycan analysis is particularly problematic for MPS IVA and it is strongly recommended to proceed to enzyme activity testing even if urine appears normal when there is clinical suspicion of MPS IVA. Enzyme activity testing of GALNS is essential in diagnosing MPS IVA. Additional analyses to confirm sample integrity and rule out MPS IVB, multiple sulfatase deficiency, and mucolipidoses types II/III are critical as part of enzyme activity testing. Leukocytes or cultured dermal fibroblasts are strongly recommended for enzyme activity testing to confirm screening results. Molecular testing may also be used to confirm the diagnosis in many patients. However, two known or probable causative mutations may not be identified in all cases of MPS IVA. A diagnostic testing algorithm is presented which attempts to streamline this complex testing process.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killie, M K; Kjeldsen-Kragh, J; Husebekk, A;

    2007-01-01

    -4 weeks before term. Severely thrombocytopenic newborn were transfused immediately with compatible platelets. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs. RESULTS: Compared with no screening, a programme of screening and subsequent treatment would generate between 210 and 230...... in Norway encompassing a 2.78 million population. POPULATION: Pregnant women (n = 100,448) screened for human platelet antigen (HPA) 1a and anti-HPA 1a antibodies, and their babies. METHOD: Decision tree analysis. In three branches of the decision tree, pregnant women entered a programme while in one...

  6. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); M.J. van Veen (Mieke); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGrowing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed

  7. Feasibility and reliability of a newly developed antenatal risk score card in routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.J.; Birnie, E.; Poeran, J.; Torij, H.W.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to study in routine care the feasibility and inter-rater reliability of the Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction risk score card (R4U), a new semi-quantitative score card for use during the antenatal booking visit. The R4U covers clinical and non-clinical psychosocial factors and ident

  8. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V;

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were coll...

  9. Antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis in the Netherlands is effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coul, E.L.M. op de; Hahné, S.; Weert, Y.M. van; Oomen, P.; Smit, S.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Notermans, D.W.; Boer, K.; Sande1, M.A.B. van der

    2011-01-01

    A screening programme for pregnant women has been in place since the 1950s in the Netherlands. In 2004 universal HIV screening according to opting out was implemented. Here, we describe the evaluation of the effectiveness of antenatal screening in the Netherlands for 2006-2008 for HIV, hepatitis B v

  10. Antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis in the Netherlands is effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.M. op de Coul; S. Hahne; Y.W.M. van Weert; P. Oomen; C. Smit; K.P.B. van der Ploeg; D.W. Notermans; K. Boer; M.A.B. van der Sande

    2011-01-01

    Background: A screening programme for pregnant women has been in place since the 1950s in the Netherlands. In 2004 universal HIV screening according to opting out was implemented. Here, we describe the evaluation of the effectiveness of antenatal screening in the Netherlands for 2006-2008 for HIV, h

  11. A nation-wide fetal RHD screening programme for targeted antenatal and postnatal anti-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, M. de; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Scheffer, P.G.; Verlinden, D.A.; Hirschberg, H.; Abbink, F.; Schoot, C.E. van der

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, since 1 July 2011, both antenatal anti-D immunoprophylaxis (1000 IU in the 30th week of gestation) and postnatal prophylaxis (1000 IU) is administered to only those women for whom a fetal RHD typing, performed in week 27 of pregnancy, predicts the presence of a D-positive child.

  12. Risk factors for RhD immunisation despite antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koelewijn; M. de Haas; T.G.M. Vrijkotte; C.E. van der Schoot; G.J. Bonsel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for Rhesus D (RhD) immunisation in pregnancy, despite adequate antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis in the previous pregnancy. To generate evidence for improved primary prevention by extra administration of anti-D Ig in the presence of a risk factor. Design C

  13. Using the Cascade Model to Improve Antenatal Screening for the Hemoglobin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah; Papadopoulos, Irena; Kelly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The inherited hemoglobin disorders constitute a major public health problem. Facilitators (experienced hemoglobin counselors) were trained to deliver knowledge and skills to "frontline" practitioners to enable them to support parents during antenatal screening via a cascade (train-the-trainer) model. Objectives of evaluation were to…

  14. Antenatal diagnosis of mirror-image dextrocardia in association with situs inversus and Turner's mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiga, D J; Chiba, Y; Kanai, H; Hosono, T

    2001-10-01

    We describe the antenatal diagnosis of a fetus with mirror-image dextrocardia, complete situs inversus and Turner's mosaicism (45,XO/46,XY) that was artificially terminated at 19 weeks. Autopsy confirmed our initial findings. This case represents an unusual combination of anomalies rarely encountered in clinical practice.

  15. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh: a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204

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    Baghurst Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. Methods/design A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and Discussion If effective, hypnosis would be a simple, inexpensive way to improve the childbirth experience, reduce complications associated with pharmacological interventions, yield cost savings in maternity care, and this trial will provide evidence to guide clinical practice.

  16. Seroprevalence of HIV in women attending antenatal clinic at KIMS hospital, Narketpally

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    Venna Guru Prasad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess seroprevalence of HIV among antenatal women and the extent of utilization of therapeutic interventions to minimize the risk of mother to child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of a medical college in a rural area of Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India from August 2006 to July 2009 were tested for HIV by Rapid Test which included pre and post test counseling. Antiretroviral prophylaxis with nevirapine was given to seropositive mother-baby pairs during delivery. Results: Of the 5809 new antenatal booking visits 4848 attended pretest counseling and 4698 accepted HIV testing. Fifty three women were found to be seropositive. Sero-prevalence rate of HIV infection was 1.12%. Ten had opted for pregnancy termination. Out of forty three deliveries four were intrauterine deaths. All the newborns received nevirapine prophylaxis. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of HIV infection among antenatal women is 1.12% which was high as the institute is located in Andhra Pradesh which is a known high prevalence state. Thirty one babies tested after 18 months of age were negative. Nine babies died before they reached 18 months of age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 17-21

  17. Effects of Antenatal Glucocorticoid Therapy on Hippocampal Histology of Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, Deodata; Wijnberger, Lia D. E.; Derks, Jan B.; van Velthoven, Cindy T. J.; de Vries, Willem B.; van Bel, Frank; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if antenatal glucocorticoid treatment has an effect on hippocampal histology of the human preterm newborn. Patients and Methods: Included were consecutive neonates with a gestational age between 24 and 32 weeks, who were born between 1991 to 2009, who had died within 4 days

  18. INTRAVENOUS IRON VERSUS ORAL IRON IN ANTENATAL WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN SUB - HIMALAYAN SETTINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha; Anup

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compare Intravenous Iron sucrose and Oral Ferrous sulphate in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy. METHOD: 100 sub - himalayan antenatal women between 12 to 36 weeks gestation from Central Referral Hospital with Iron deficiency anemia; hemoglobin 6 – 9 gm/dl, MCV

  19. Associations of life events during pregnancy with longitudinal change in symptoms of antenatal anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Judith L; Bockting, Claudi L H; Stolk, Ronald P; Kotov, Roman; Ormel, Johan; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association of life events during pregnancy with change in antenatal anxiety and depression symptoms. We distinguished pregnancy related and non-pregnancy related events and assessed specificity of these associations for depressive or anxious symptoms. In addition, we i

  20. Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Central Nepal

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    Srijana Pandey, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The importance of maternal health services in lessening maternal mortality and morbidity as well as neonatal deaths has received substantial recognition in the past decade. The lack of antenatal care has been identified as a risk factor for maternal mortality and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting attendance of antenatal care services in Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Central Nepal. Using semi-structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married women aged between 15-49 years, who had delivered their babies within one year. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Results were obtained by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation of the variables. Results: More than half of the women were not aware of the consequences of lack of antenatal care. Age, education, income, type of family were strongly associated with the attendance at antenatal care service. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: In Nepal and in other developing countries, maternal mortality and morbidity continue to pose challenges to the health care delivery system. Variety of factors including socio-demographic, socio-economic, cultural and service availability as well as accessibility influences the use of maternal health services.

  1. Antenatal corticosteroid therapy : short-term effects on fetal behaviour and haemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; de Heus, R.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroid therapy to enhance fetal lung maturity in threatened preterm delivery has a number of non-pulmonary side-effects, both beneficial and undesirable. This review focuses on the short-term (transient) effects of betamethasone and dexamethasone on aspects of fetal circulation and

  2. Stigma and Attitudes towards Antenatal Depression and Antidepressant Use during Pregnancy in Healthcare Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare…

  3. Evaluation of utilization of antenatal services by mothers of babies with severe birth asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. A. A. Ugboma; C. N. Onyearugha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the utilization of antenatal services by mothers of babies delivered with severe birth asphyxia at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A case control study of the utilization of antenatal services by 97 mothers of newborns with severe birth asphyxia delivered at UPTH from 1st February to 31st October 2009 compared with mothers of newborns with normal Apgar scores was done. Relevant pregnancy, birth, family and social history was obtained by personal interviews and referral to case notes. Results:Significantly more of the mothers of babies with normal Apgar score booked early(4 months or less) and had up to 8 or more antenatal visits prior to delivery than mothers of asphyxiated babies 86 (88.6 % ) vs 68(70.2 %), P = 0. 002 ; 93 (95.7 % ) vs 68 ( 70. 2 % ), P = 0.001 respectively. Significantly more subjects 56 (57.7 % ) than the controls 45 (46.4 % ) were primiparous, P= 0. 04. Also, significantly more subjects 19 (19.5%) suffered delay prior to intervention in labour than the controls 5 (5.1 %),P= 0. 004. Conclusion: Primiparity, delayed booking, inadequate antenatal visits and late intervention in labour have been identified as significant contributors to severe birth asphyxia.

  4. Antenatal screening and prevalence of infection: surveillance in London, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudon, I; Forde, J; Maguire, H; Arnold, J; Permalloo, N

    2009-03-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), it is recommended to universally offer antenatal infection screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and syphilis infections, and susceptibility to rubella for the benefit of the mother and to reduce vertical transmission of infection. This paper describes the surveillance of antenatal infection including uptake of screening, and the results of testing in pregnant women in London between 2000 and 2007. Antenatal screening coordinators in liaison with midwifery heads and microbiologists at all thirty London National Health Service (NHS) Trust maternity units supplied quarterly data on the number of pregnant women booked for antenatal care, tests done, and tests results. The overall estimated uptake of screening increased since 2000 and reached 95.6% for HIV, 96.5% for syphilis, 96.2% for hepatitis B and 97% for rubella susceptibility by the second half of 2007. There is considerable variation in the performance between NHS Trusts. The overall estimated prevalence of HIV infection was 3.4/1,000 women (ranging from monitor the uptake of screening. PMID:19317973

  5. Fetal MRI and antenatal diagnosis of unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia

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    Houda El Mhabrech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Focal cerebellar hypoplasia is restricted to one cerebellar hemisphere or to the vermis. Prenatal diagnosis of unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia is possible by the use of ultrasound and MRI. Familiarity with the prenatal MRI findings is essential to recognize cerebellar pathologies accurately and prospectively. We present US and MRI findings in a fetus with cerebellar malformation at 20 weeks gestation. The goal of our case report is to present the fetal MRI findings of unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia, to discuss the value of fetal MRI in the early diagnoses of this malformation and to summarize the current main stream literature concerning the etiology.

  6. Antenatal diagnosis of cystic adenomatoid malformation: Effect on patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, A.K.; McAlister, W.H.; Martin, C.M.; Gast, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Congenital adenomatoid malformation (CAM) of the lung was diagnosed at 30 weeks gestation. The mother presented with preterm labor and polyhydramnios. A complex cystic mass was seen in the right lung of the fetus. Additional radiographic and sonographic investigations prior to delivery allowed differentiation of this rare lesion from other cystic thoracic pathology of the fetal period. Careful hospital obstetric management of the mother and fetus for over 3 weeks allowed the delivery of an infant with adequate pulmonary maturity to permit stabilization and surgery on the baby in the first days of life.

  7. Antenatal diagnosis of cystic adenomatoid malformation: Effect on patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital adenomatoid malformation (CAM) of the lung was diagnosed at 30 weeks gestation. The mother presented with preterm labor and polyhydramnios. A complex cystic mass was seen in the right lung of the fetus. Additional radiographic and sonographic investigations prior to delivery allowed differentiation of this rare lesion from other cystic thoracic pathology of the fetal period. Careful hospital obstetric management of the mother and fetus for over 3 weeks allowed the delivery of an infant with adequate pulmonary maturity to permit stabilization and surgery on the baby in the first days of life. (orig.)

  8. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KUNJUNGAN K4 DALAM PELAYANAN ANTENATAL DI KELURAHAN RAWANG BARAT PADANG

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    Hasni Mastian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aternal, mortality rate in Indonesia was 470 per 100.000 life birth in 2004. Public Health Centre (PHC Rawang Barat is the only one of all PHC in Padang City that has under target reached of the fourth examination of pregnancy with 77,2%. One intervention to decrease the maternal mortality is to have antenatal care at least once in first and second trimester and twice in third trimester during of any pregnancy's period. This research is to get some factors related to the fourth antenatal care of pregnancy. The research design is across sectional study, done at Rawang Barat in September 2008 up to April 2009. Population in this research are all mothers with 0-6 months of baby with amount 67 babies: The research has univariate and bivariate analysis with chi-square test. The research results are 20,9% mothers with non-complete fourth antenatal care, 29,9% mothers with highly pregnant risk, 38,8% mothers with afar residence from integrated health services unit (Posyandu, and 44,8% mother with lower education. Bivariate analysis get no significant correlation between age, distance to Posyandu and the fourth antenatal care, meanwhile it get significant correlation between knowledge and the fourth antenatal care. Intensive Health Education is needed to increase amount of antenatal care, especially the fourth antenatal care.

  9. Screening of Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension Among Antenatal Women in Rural West India

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    Viral R. Dave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension and gestational diabetes are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality, especially in rural areas of developing countries with meager health facilities. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, these adverse events can be decreased. The primary aim of this study was to implement a screening program for gestational diabetes and hypertension, and to assess risk factors associated with these conditions among antenatal women in the rural area of the Gujarat province in India.Methods: A cross–sectional study was conducted at one of the rural areas of Gujarat province in India. Following a random  cluster sampling procedure, the village of Davas was selected. A multistage random sampling method was utilized, resulting in a sample of 346 antenatal women. Screening guidelines from the American Diabetes Association were followed for gestational diabetes screening.Results: The majority of antenatal mothers (55.50% were between 21-25 years of age. 242 antenatal women were multigravida, and among them, 85.96% had institutional delivery at their last pregnancy. Of the total 346 women, 17.60% were prehypertensive. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was 1.40%, diastolic hypertension was 0.90%, and gestational diabetes was 1.73%.Conclusion: Socioeconomically upper class, a family history of hypertension, and BMI ≥ 25 were strong risk factors for hypertension during pregnancy and gestational diabetes. Health education should be made readily available to antenatal mothers by paramedical workers regarding symptoms of hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus for early self identification.

  10. Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroid and resuscitation induced lung injury in preterm sheep

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    Kallapur Suhas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initiation of ventilation using high tidal volumes in preterm lambs causes lung injury and inflammation. Antenatal corticosteroids mature the lungs of preterm infants and postnatal corticosteroids are used to treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Objective To test if antenatal or postnatal corticosteroids would decrease resuscitation induced lung injury. Methods 129 d gestational age lambs (n = 5-8/gp; term = 150 d were operatively delivered and ventilated after exposure to either 1 no medication, 2 antenatal maternal IM Betamethasone 0.5 mg/kg 24 h prior to delivery, 3 0.5 mg/kg Dexamethasone IV at delivery or 4 Cortisol 2 mg/kg IV at delivery. Lambs then were ventilated with no PEEP and escalating tidal volumes (VT to 15 mL/kg for 15 min and then given surfactant. The lambs were ventilated with VT 8 mL/kg and PEEP 5 cmH20 for 2 h 45 min. Results High VT ventilation caused a deterioration of lung physiology, lung inflammation and injury. Antenatal betamethasone improved ventilation, decreased inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and alveolar protein leak, but did not prevent neutrophil influx. Postnatal dexamethasone decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, but had no beneficial effect on ventilation, and postnatal cortisol had no effect. Ventilation increased liver serum amyloid mRNA expression, which was unaffected by corticosteroids. Conclusions Antenatal betamethasone decreased lung injury without decreasing lung inflammatory cells or systemic acute phase responses. Postnatal dexamethasone or cortisol, at the doses tested, did not have important effects on lung function or injury, suggesting that corticosteroids given at birth will not decrease resuscitation mediated injury.

  11. Increasing institutional deliveries among antenatal clients: effect of birth preparedness counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubeiga, Dieudonné; Sia, Drissa; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization recommends birth and emergency preparedness (BEP) as essential components of the Focused Antenatal Care model. The purpose of providing BEP messages to women during their antenatal visits is to increase the use of skilled attendance at childbirth. However, the effectiveness of this component has not yet been clearly established in routine contexts. This retrospective cohort study examined the association between exposing women to BEP messages during antenatal visits and the use of the skilled attendance at childbirth in two rural districts of Burkina Faso (Koupela and Dori). The study included 456 antenatal care users in 30 rural health centres in these two districts. Data were collected using modified questionnaires from the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics and from demographic and health surveys. Logistic regression was performed with a model of generalized estimating equation to adjust for clustered effects. In the Koupela district, where the rate of institutional deliveries (80%) was relatively high, the use of BEP messages was not associated with an increase in institutional deliveries. In contrast, in the district of Dori, where the rate of institutional deliveries (47%) was lower, messages regarding danger signs [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.93; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.07, 3.49] and cost of care (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.22) were associated with an increased probability of institutional births. Based on these results, it appears that birth and emergency preparedness messages provided during antenatal visits may increase the use of skilled attendance (increase the rate of institutional births) in areas where institutional births are low. Therefore, it is important to adapt the content of the messages to meet the particular needs of the users in each locality. Furthermore, BEP counselling should be implemented in health facilities.

  12. Ontogeny of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors: effects of antenatal glucocorticoids in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, C W; De Graan, P N E; Middeldorp, J; Van Beers, J J B C; Visser, G H A

    2006-12-20

    Women at risk for preterm delivery are treated with synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) to enhance fetal lung maturation. GCs can bind to two intracellular receptors, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which function as transcription factors. Both are highly expressed in the hippocampus. Several studies have focused on adverse side effects of antenatal GC treatment. However, relatively little is known about the ontogeny of GR and MR, especially in human. Therefore, we studied the ontogeny of both receptors in the human and mouse hippocampus and investigated the effects of antenatal dexamethasone (dex) treatment, a synthetic glucocorticoid, on MR and GR mRNA levels during hippocampal development. The results demonstrate that MR mRNA was first expressed in mouse hippocampus at embryonic day (E)15.5, at the timepoint when dex was administered. In contrast, GR mRNA expression was first observed after birth at postnatal day (P)5. However, in the human hippocampus both receptors are expressed at 24 weeks of gestation, when antenatal GCs are administered in clinical practice. Quantitative in situ hybridization demonstrated that MR mRNA levels were reduced only shortly after dex treatment at E16, but were unaffected from E18 onwards. These findings indicate that a single antenatal dex administration at E15.5 transiently affects MR mRNA levels in the mouse hippocampus. No effect of antenatal dex treatment was found on the human hippocampus at the third trimester of pregnancy. These data on the prenatal ontogeny of both corticosteroid receptors in the human hippocampus is important for understanding the significance of fetal glucocorticoid or stress exposure and its potential effects on health and disease.

  13. Antenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism: biological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianey-Saban, Christine; Acquaviva, Cécile; Cheillan, David; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Guibaud, Laurent; Pagan, Cécile; Pettazzoni, Magali; Piraud, Monique; Lamazière, Antonin; Froissart, Roseline

    2016-09-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) that present with abnormal imaging findings in the second half of pregnancy are mainly lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), cholesterol synthesis disorders (CSDs), glycogen storage disorder type IV (GSD IV), peroxisomal disorders, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects (FAODs), organic acidurias, aminoacidopathies, congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs), and transaldolase deficiency. Their biological investigation requires fetal material. The supernatant of amniotic fluid (AF) is useful for the analysis of mucopolysaccharides, oligosaccharides, sialic acid, lysosphingolipids and some enzyme activities for LSDs, 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol and lathosterol for CSDs, acylcarnitines for FAODs, organic acids for organic acidurias, and polyols for transaldolase deficiency. Cultured AF or fetal cells allow the measurement of enzyme activities for most IEMs, whole-cell assays, or metabolite measurements. The cultured cells or tissue samples taken after fetal death can be used for metabolic profiling, enzyme activities, and DNA extraction. Fetal blood can also be helpful. The identification of vacuolated cells orients toward an LSD, and plasma is useful for diagnosing peroxisomal disorders, FAODs, CSDs, some LSDs, and possibly CDGs and aminoacidopathies. We investigated AF of 1700 pregnancies after exclusion of frequent etiologies of nonimmune hydrops fetalis and identified 108 fetuses affected with LSDs (6.3 %), 29 of them with mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), and six with GSD IV (0.3 %). In the AF of 873 pregnancies, investigated because of intrauterine growth restriction and/or abnormal genitalia, we diagnosed 32 fetuses affected with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (3.7 %). PMID:27393412

  14. Male partner antenatal attendance and HIV testing in eastern Uganda: a randomized facility-based intervention trial

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    Byamugisha Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a written invitation letter to the spouses of new antenatal clinic attendees on attendance by couples and on male partner acceptance of HIV testing at subsequent antenatal clinic visits. Methods The trial was conducted with 1060 new attendees from October 2009 to February 2010 in an antenatal clinic at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital, Mbale District, eastern Uganda. The intervention comprised an invitation letter delivered to the spouses of new antenatal attendees, while the control group received an information letter, a leaflet, concerning antenatal care. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of pregnant women who attended antenatal care with their male partners during a follow-up period of four weeks. Eligible pregnant women were randomly assigned to the intervention or non-intervention groups using a randomization sequence, which was computer generated utilizing a random sequence generator (RANDOM ORG that employed a simple randomization procedure. Respondents, health workers and research assistants were masked to group assignments. Results The trial was completed with 530 women enrolled in each group. Participants were analyzed as originally assigned (intention to treat. For the primary outcome, the percentage of trial participants who attended the antenatal clinic with their partners were 16.2% (86/530 and 14.2% (75/530 in the intervention and non-intervention groups, respectively (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.8, 1.6. For the secondary outcome, most of the 161 male partners attended the antenatal clinic; 82 of 86 (95% in the intervention group and 68 of 75 (91% in the non-intervention group were tested for HIV (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 0.6 to 7.5. Conclusions The effect of the intervention and the control on couple antenatal attendance was similar. In addition, the trial demonstrated that a simple intervention, such as a letter to the spouse, could increase couple

  15. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ... your primary care doctor thinks you have aplastic anemia, he or she may refer you to a ...

  16. Targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis in the prevention of RhD immunisation--outcome of a new antenatal screening and prevention program.

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    Eleonor Tiblad

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of RhD immunisation after implementation of first trimester non-invasive fetal RHD screening to select only RhD negative women carrying RHD positive fetuses for routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a population-based prospective observational cohort study with historic controls including all maternity care centres and delivery hospitals in the Stockholm region, Sweden. All RhD negative pregnant women were screened for fetal RHD genotype in the first trimester of pregnancy. Anti-D immunoglobulin (250-300 µg was administered intramuscularly in gestational week 28-30 to participants with RHD positive fetuses. Main outcome measure was the incidence of RhD immunisation developing during or after pregnancy. RESULTS: During the study period 9380 RhD negative women gave birth in Stockholm. Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma was performed in 8374 pregnancies of which 5104 (61% were RHD positive and 3270 (39% RHD negative. In 4590 pregnancies with an RHD positive test the women received antenatal anti-D prophylaxis. The incidence of RhD immunisation in the study cohort was 0.26 percent (24/9380 (95% CI 0.15-0.36% compared to 0.46 percent (86/18546 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.56% in the reference cohort. The risk ratio (RR for sensitisation was 0.55 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.87 and the risk reduction was statistically significant (p = 0.009. The absolute risk difference was 0.20 percent, corresponding to a number needed to treat (NNT of 500. CONCLUSIONS: Using first trimester non-invasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD to target routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis selectively to RhD negative women with RHD positive fetuses significantly reduces the incidence of new RhD immunisation. The risk reduction is comparable to that reported in studies evaluating the outcome of non selective RAADP to all RhD negative women. The cost-effectiveness of this

  17. Monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The ability to produce and exploit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized many areas of biological sciences. The unique property of an mAb is that it is a single species of immunoglobulin (IG) molecule. This means that the specificity of the interaction of the paratopes on the IG, with the epitopes on an antigenic target, is the same on every molecule. This property can be used to great benefit in immunoassays to provide tests of defined specificity and sensitivity, which improve the possibilities of standardization. The performance of assays can often be determined relating the actual weight of antibody (hence the number of molecules) to the activity. Often the production of an mAb against a specific epitope is the only way that biological entities can be differentiated. This chapter outlines the areas involving the development of assays based on mAbs. The problems involved address include the physical aspects of mAbs and how they may affect assay design and also the implications of results based on monospecific reagents. Often these are not fully understood, leading to assays that are less than satisfactory, which does not justify the relatively high cost of preparing and screening of mAbs. There are many textbooks and reviews dealing with the preparation of mAbs, the principles involved, and various purification and manipulative methods for the preparation of fragments and conjugation. There has been little general information attempting to summarize the best approaches to assay design using mAbs. Much time can be wasted through bad planning, and this is particularly relevant to mAbs. A proper understanding of some basic principles is essential. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to discuss all aspects, but major areas are highlighted. PMID:19219589

  18. Utilization of antenatal ultrasound scan and implications for caesarean section: a cross-sectional study in rural Eastern China

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    Huang Kun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal ultrasound scan is a widely accepted component of antenatal care. Studies have looked at the relationship between ultrasound scanning and caesarean section (CS in certain groups of women in China. However, there are limited data on the utilization of antenatal ultrasound scanning in the general population, including its association with CS. The purpose of this study is to describe the utilization of antenatal ultrasound screening in rural Eastern China and to explore the association between antenatal ultrasound scan and uptake of CS. Methods Based on a cluster randomized sample, a total of 2326 women with childbirth participated in the study. A household survey was conducted to collect socio-economic information, obstetric history and utilization of maternal health services. Results Coverage of antenatal care was 96.8% (2251/2326. During antenatal care, 96.1% (2164/2251 women received ultrasound screening and the reported average number was 2.55. 46.8% women received at least 3 ultrasound scans and the maximum number reached 11. The CS rate was found to be 54.8% (1275/2326. After adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables, it showed a statistically significant association between antenatal ultrasound scans and uptake of CS by multivariate logistic regression model. High husband education level, high maternal age, having previous adverse pregnant outcome and pregnancy complications during the index pregnancy were also found to be risk factors of choosing a CS. Conclusions A high use of antenatal ultrasound scan in rural Eastern China is found and is influenced by socio-demographic and clinical factors. Evidence-based guidelines for antenatal ultrasound scans need to be developed and disseminated to clinicians including physicians, nurses and sonographers. Guidance about the appropriate use of ultrasound scans should also be shared with women in order to discourage unreasonable expectations and demands. It

  19. How Is Childhood Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to see if the antibodies stuck to them (meaning they have these proteins), while for flow cytometry ... your child may be asked to drink a contrast solution and/or get an intravenous (IV) injection ...

  20. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H; Sisay Mitike M; Moland Karen; Åstrøm Anne N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009...

  1. Effect of antenatal exercises on pulmonary functions and labour outcome in uncomplicated primigravida women: a randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Jain; Himsweta Srivastava; Neerja Goel; Farah Khaliq; Pooja Dewan; Renu Sharma; Vishnu Bhartiya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness could influence pulmonary functions, labour and neonatal outcomes in pregnancy. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of antenatal exercises on pulmonary functions and labour outcomes. Methods: Study included 122 uncomplicated primigravida in age group of 18-35 years at 24th - 28th week of gestation were randomly allocated into study and control groups. Antenatal exercises were performed by study group for a minimum of 3 days a week for 20 min...

  2. Assessing predictors of delayed antenatal care visits in Rwanda: a secondary analysis of Rwanda demographic and health survey 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, Anatole; Munyaneza, Fabien; Mujawase, Francisca; Banamwana, Leonidas; Sayinzoga, Felix; Thomson, Dana R; Ntaganira, Joseph; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2014-01-01

    Background Early initiation of antenatal care (ANC) can reduce common maternal complications and maternal and perinatal mortality. Though Rwanda demonstrated a remarkable decline in maternal mortality and 98% of Rwandan women receive antenatal care from a skilled provider, only 38% of women have an ANC visit in their first three months of pregnancy. This study assessed factors associated with delayed ANC in Rwanda. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data collected during the 2010 R...

  3. Assessing predictors of delayed antenatal care visits in Rwanda: a secondary analysis of Rwanda demographic and health survey 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, Anatole; Munyaneza, Fabien; Mujawase, Francisca; Banamwana, Leonidas; Sayinzoga, Felix; Thomson, Dana R; Ntaganira, Joseph; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early initiation of antenatal care (ANC) can reduce common maternal complications and maternal and perinatal mortality. Though Rwanda demonstrated a remarkable decline in maternal mortality and 98% of Rwandan women receive antenatal care from a skilled provider, only 38% of women have an ANC visit in their first three months of pregnancy. This study assessed factors associated with delayed ANC in Rwanda. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using data collected during the 2010...

  4. Evaluation of a proposed mixture model to specify the distributions of nuchal translucency measurements in antenatal screening for Down's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bestwick, J. P.; Huttly, W J; Wald, N J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A mixture model of crown–rump length (CRL)-dependent and CRL-independent nuchal translucency (NT) measurements has been proposed for antenatal screening for Down's syndrome. We here compare the efficacy of the mixture model method with the standard method, which uses NT multiple of the median (MoM) values in a single distribution. Settings A routine antenatal screening programme for Down's syndrome comprising 104 affected and 22,284 unaffected pregnancies. Methods The ability of NT...

  5. Brugada Syndrome and Pregnancy: Highlights on Antenatal and Prenatal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giambanco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Brugada syndrome is characterized by a disruption of heart’s normal rhythm. It is an autosomal dominant disease due to a mutation of SNC5A gene. Its prevalence is low all over the world, but it is a lethal disease. Sudden cardiac death is the result of phenotypic manifestation of Brugada syndrome. Among asymptomatic Brugada patients, arrhythmia could be provoked by physical activity, fever, or pregnancy. About obstetrical management, very few data or reports have been published since this syndrome has been diagnosed in late 1992. Case Presentation. A 20-year-old pregnant woman at 13 weeks of gestation was referred to our department because of her familial history of sudden cardiac deaths. Brothers and sisters of her mother died of Brugada syndrome in childhood or older and live components of this family were carrier of mutation in Brugada gene. The pregnancy was uneventful. The patient gave birth vaginally without any arrhythmia. Strictly cardiological monitoring was performed during labour, delivery, and 12 hours of the postpartum. Conclusion. Even though patient at low risk may never have arrhythmia, some conditions could represent a Brugada trigger. The management could be very easy and uneventful. Otherwise it could be very difficult with need of ECMO or antiarrhythmics drugs or intracardiac device. Obstetrical management of Brugada pregnant women should be very strict and multidisciplinary in cooperation with cardiologist and anaesthesiologist and should provide an informed consent to the couple.

  6. QUALITY ASSESSEMENT OF ANTE-NATAL CARE USING THE METHOD OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Salarilak

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the coverage rate, timeliness and quality of ante-natal care in rural areas under the coverage of Health Houses in West Azerbaijan province, 30 Health Houses (HH were randomly selected out of 731 HH in the province. In each HH, using the method of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS 28 women having recently born babies was selected. Data were collected using check-list for facilities, and questionnaires and forms to be completed from the files by interview. The study showed that the method of LQAS is quite effective for evaluation of this service at HH level. The weighted total coverage of ante-natal care was 46.2%. Quality of care was acceptable for 53.9% of mothers. The weighted average of time lines of care was 49.8%. Availability of facilities in delivery of this service was 100%, showing there was no short coming in this respect.

  7. FACTORS LEAD TO DEPRESION DURING ANTENATAL CARE EVERY TRIMESTER OF PREGNANT MOTHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Surya Kurniawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important factor in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates began during pregnancy. In 2000, one in twenty children die before reaching the age of five years and a mother died of childbirth out of every 325 live births. The death rate in research mainly indicated comparable levels of depression due to stress in pregnant women. The occurrence of symptoms of depression during the perinatal period can be easily recognized. Depression during pregnancy is a common mood disorder such as depression that occurs in the laity in general, where the incidence of depression will occur chemical changes in the brain. Each trimester of pregnancy are at risk of psychological disorders respectively. Antenatal care plays a very important for the safety of the mother and fetus, minimizing the risks of pregnancy, and reduce the number of neonatal deaths. Nursing antenatal care should have run in accordance with minimum standards for pregnant women to obtain a safe childbirth and satisfying.

  8. Antenatal management of the expectant mother and extreme preterm infant at the limits of viability.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, R

    2012-01-31

    We explored the opinions of healthcare providers on the antenatal management and outcome of preterm delivery at less than 28 weeks gestation. An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to health care providers. The response rate was 55% (74% Obstetrician, 70% neonatologist). Twenty four weeks is the limit at which most would advocate intervention. At 23 weeks 67% of neonatologists advocate antenatal steroids. 50% of all health care providers advocate cardiotocographic monitoring at 24 weeks gestation. Written information on survival and long-term outcome is provided by 8% of the respondents. Neonatologists (50%) were more likely than obstetrician (40%) to advocate caesarean section at 25 weeks. We conclude that 24 weeks is the limit at which most would advocate intervention. Significant variation exists both between and within each health care group at less than 25 weeks. Establishment and provision of national outcome data may aid decision making at the limits of viability.

  9. Impact on infants' cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA and common mental disorders (CMD on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. METHODS: A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

  10. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  11. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park CM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chul Min Park,1 Hye-Jin Seo,2 Young-Eun Jung,3 Moon-Doo Kim,3 Seong-Chul Hong,4 Won-Myong Bahk,5 Bo-Hyun Yoon,6 Min Hee Hur,7 Jae Min Song31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yeonkang Hospital, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 5Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 6Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, 7School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaBackground: This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity.Methods: Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire.Results: Nineteen participants (22.6% had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction.Conclusion: These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity.Keywords: antenatal depression, bipolarity, pregnancy, Korea

  12. Practice and Pattern of Antenatal and Postnatal Exercise among Nigerian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The African culture seems to play a major prohibiting role in physical exercise during pregnancy and immediate postpartum. This study was designed to assess practice and pattern of antenatal and postnatal exercise among Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-five women (189 pregnant women and 179 nursing mothers from six selected hospitals in south-west Nigeria participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were obtained on socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and practice of antenatal and postnatal exercise. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data at P<0.05 alpha level. Results: The mean age of all the respondents was 28.9± 4.63 years. A majority of the pregnant women responders were nulliparous (39.2% while the nursing mother responders were mostly multiparous (54.5%. Prevalence for engagement in physical exercise was 81.9% and mostly based on self-prescription (35.5% and prescription by nurses (28.8%. Antenatal and postnatal exercise practice was 84.7% (160/189 and 79.0% (139/176, respectively. Aerobic (43.5% and stretching (33.4% were the most common type of physical exercises. Exercise frequency was mostly 1-2 times per week (40.8%. There was significant association between exercise practice and education level (χ2=18.795; P=0.001. Conclusion: Engagement in antenatal and postnatal exercise among Nigerian pregnant and nursing women was high and mostly based on self-prescription. Education level significantly influence physical exercise practice among Nigerian women with aerobic and stretching as the predominant exercises in pregnancy and postpartum.

  13. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  14. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  15. The adequacy of antenatal care services among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayou, Yibeltal T.; Mashalla, Yohana S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods This was a quantitative and cross-se...

  16. Antenatal Care Strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia: A Mixed-Method Needs Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Fredsted Villadsen; Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl; Dereje Negussie; Abebe GebreMariam; Abebech Tilahun; Henrik Friis; Vibeke Rasch

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national...

  17. Extracranial vascular malformation: value of antenatal and postnatal MRI in management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, C.J.; Pilling, D.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Walkinshaw, S.A. [Dept. of Fetal Medicine, Liverpool Women' s Hospital (United Kingdom); May, P.L. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    We report a case where fetal MRI using a low-field-strength magnet (0.5 T) accurately confirmed a large extracranial vascular malformation, which was suspected on antenatal US. Fetal MRI enabled better counselling of the parents and allowed suitable plans to be made regarding method of delivery and early management of the neonate. To our knowledge this is the first case of an extracranial vascular malformation imaged using fetal MRI. (orig.)

  18. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR. PMID:24676564

  19. A qualitative study of women's experiences of communication in antenatal care: Identifying areas for action

    OpenAIRE

    Raine, R; Cartwright, M; Richens, Y.; Muhamed, Z.; Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    To identify key features of communication across antenatal (prenatal) care that are evaluated positively or negatively by service users. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to explore communication experiences of thirty pregnant women from diverse social and ethnic backgrounds affiliated to a large London hospital. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Women reported a wide diversity of experiences. From the users’ perspective, constructive communication on the part of...

  20. The Ghanaian Woman's experience and perception of ultrasound use in antenatal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how Ghanaian women perceive the use, and their assessment of the experience, of antenatal ultrasound scanning. A cross-sectional study, using interviewer administered questionnaire, from 25th February to 16th April, 2011 was conducted at the Obstetrics Units of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, University of Ghana Hospital, Legon and Ga South District Hospital, Weija. A total of 337 clients were randomly selected after delivery and interviewed. Issues addressed included why women went for antenatal ultrasound, their knowledge of the uses of ultrasound in pregnancy, information provided by health care providers, clients’ eagerness to know the sex of their fetuses, and their overall assessment of the ultrasound scanning experience. The results of this study showed that the mean number of scans was 2.2(1.1). Most were performed on the request of a doctor or midwife; 154(45.7%) were not told the reasons for the request and 185(54.9%) did not have the results explained to them. For 239(70.9%) women the sonographer did not explain the procedure before the examination; 89(26.4%) were allowed to ask questions and 61(18.1%) were allowed to see their fetuses on the monitor. One hundred and sixty respondents (47.5%) asked for and were told the sex of their fetuses, with accuracy at delivery of 86.5%. Most respondents perceived antenatal ultrasound as a useful tool. There is lack of information flow from health care providers to clients concerning the indications for the ultrasound, the processes involved and the results of the procedure. Improvements in these areas are needed to enhance the experience of antenatal ultrasound among Ghanaian women

  1. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  2. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Paternal Depression from the Antenatal to the Postpartum Period and the Relationships between Antenatal and Postpartum Depression among Fathers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the fact that maternal perinatal mental health problems have been extensively studied and addressed to be a significant health problem, the literature on paternal perinatal mental health problems is relatively scarce. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of paternal perinatal depression and identifying the risk factors and the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression. Methodology. 622 expectant fathers were recruited from regional maternal clinics. The expectant fathers were assessed using standardized and validated psychological instruments on 3 time points including early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and six weeks postpartum. Results. Results showed that a significant proportion of expectant fathers manifested depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. Paternal antenatal depression could significantly predict higher level of paternal postpartum depression. Psychosocial risk factors were consistently associated with paternal depression in different time points. Conclusions. The present study points to the need for greater research and clinical attention to paternal depression given that it is a highly prevalent problem and could be detrimental to their spouse and children development. The present findings contribute to theoretical basis of the prevalence and risk factors of paternal perinatal depression and have implications of the design of effective identification, prevention, and interventions of these clinical problems.

  3. How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is lactose intolerance diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... based on symptoms alone whether a person has lactose intolerance or another condition. 2 Many common health problems ...

  4. How Is Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atrial Fibrillation » How Is Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosed? Explore Atrial Fibrillation What Is... Types Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia ...

  5. How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed? Polycythemia vera (PV) may not cause signs or symptoms for ... to find out whether you have primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera) or secondary polycythemia. Your medical history and physical ...

  6. Bacteriological study of urinary tract infection in antenatal care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ritu, Singh Brij N, Begum Rehana, Yadav Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objective: To isolate and diagnose the Uropathogens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in anti-natal care patient suffering from Urinary tract Infections. Material and Methods: 150 samples were collected by consent pregnant women between the age group of 18 to 40 years. A midstream clean catch is adequate, provided by all pregnant women’s through given careful instructions. For enumeration of bacteria we perform standard loop techniques method. The number of colonies counted or estimated, and this number used to calculate the number of viable bacteria per ml of urine. The bacterial strains were identified by colonies character stick, gram staining, morphological and biochemical character. The bacterial strains identification was done up to genus and species level. The antibiotics sensitivity test of bacterial strains was done as per CLSI guidelines by Kirby-Baure Disc Diffusion Methods. Results: The significant bactiurea was found in 50 patients among 150 patients used. The most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli 23(40% Klebsiellaaerogens 11 (22% Staphylococcus aureus 10 (20% Pseudomonas aerugenosa 4(8%.The incidence of bacteriuria among in their first pregnancy was 22.2%.The higher incidence of UTI in 2nd and 3rd trimester was found to have 31.4% & 40%. These studies were showing high level of resistance to first line antibiotics such as Cotrimaxozole. Conclusion: To minimizing the complication of the pregnant women should be educated about the physiology of pregnancy clinical presentation includes asymptomatic bacteria, acute cystitis & pyelonephritis. Pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria by urine culture and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After the post treatment pregnant women should be examine again to confirm post treatment urine sterility.

  7. [Agreement between information from the Pregnant Card and the mother's memory of antenatal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to verify agreement between information given by mothers after delivery and data recorded on Pregnant Cards about antenatal care under the Brazilian Unified National Health System in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The study considered a population of 1,035 postpartum mothers interviewed in eight hospitals, where the cards were copied. The representativeness of the sample was guaranteed by stratification according to the proportion of births. Kappa and McNemar tests were carried out with the collected and processed information. Agreement levels regarding antenatal care were predominantly poor (kappa Mothers tend to: overestimate the number of antenatal visits (McNemar = 51.73; p-value = 0.001); affirm diseases during pregnancy, such as diabetes, anemia, hypertension and urinary infections; report the performance of laboratory tests; report the carrying out of clinical examinations. Results suggest the need to reflect on the type of data used for planning and implementing maternal and child public health polices, since data varies depending on the information source. PMID:22331152

  8. Antenatal and postnatal radiologic diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandaralage, Sahan P.S. [Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service, Southport, Queensland (Australia); Griffith University, School of Medicine, Southport, Queensland (Australia); Farnaghi, Soheil [Caboolture Hospital, Caboolture, Queensland (Australia); Dulhunty, Joel M.; Kothari, Alka [Redcliffe Hospital, Redcliffe, Queensland (Australia); The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency results in impaired activation of enzymes implicated in glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Antenatal imaging and postnatal imaging are useful in making the diagnosis. Untreated holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is fatal, while antenatal and postnatal biotin supplementation is associated with good clinical outcomes. Although biochemical assays are required for definitive diagnosis, certain radiologic features assist in the diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. To review evidence regarding radiologic diagnostic features of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the antenatal and postnatal period. A systematic review of all published cases of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency identified by a search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 75 patients with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency were identified from the systematic review, which screened 687 manuscripts. Most patients with imaging (19/22, 86%) had abnormal findings, the most common being subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly and intraventricular hemorrhage. Although the radiologic features of subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly, intraventricular hemorrhage and intrauterine growth restriction may be found in the setting of other pathologies, these findings should prompt consideration of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in at-risk children. (orig.)

  9. Effects of antenatal glucocorticoid therapy on hippocampal histology of preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodata Tijsseling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate if antenatal glucocorticoid treatment has an effect on hippocampal histology of the human preterm newborn. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Included were consecutive neonates with a gestational age between 24 and 32 weeks, who were born between 1991 to 2009, who had died within 4 days after delivery and underwent brain autopsy. Excluded were neonates with congenital malformations and neonates treated postnatally with glucocorticoids. The brains were routinely fixed, samples of the hippocampus were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and sections were examined for presence or absence of large and small neurons in regions of the hippocampus. Additional staining with GFAP, neurofilament and vimentin was performed to evaluate gliosis and myelination. The proliferation marker Ki67 was used to evaluate neuronal proliferation. Staining with acid fuchsin-thionin was performed to evaluate ischemic damage. RESULTS: The hippocampi of ten neonates who had been treated with antenatal glucocorticoids showed a lower density of large neurons (p = 0.01 and neurons irrespective of size (p = 0.02 as compared to eleven neonates who had not been treated with glucocorticoids. No difference was found in density of small neurons, in myelination, gliosis, proliferation or ischemic damage. CONCLUSION: We found a significantly lower density of neurons in the hippocampus of neonates after antenatal glucocorticoid treatment. Although the pathophysiological and clinical interpretations of these findings are not clear, they are consistent with those from experiments in mice and rhesus monkeys.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

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    Radhika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks for each patient. They were given Carbonyl Iron 100 mg/day and FeS04 100gm/day . Before and after treatment all the baseline and specific investigations were one. Results were tabulated, comparison and significance were tested by unpaired student ’s’ test and their 'p' value was calculated. Results were shown graphically also. Carbonyl Iron showed improvement in hemoglobin, PCV and better than ferrous Sulphate (P <0.001. Incidence of side effects were less with Carbonyl Iron than Ferrous Sulphate, better compliance was seen with Carbonyl Iron. In conclusion, the present study s howed that Carbonyl Iron had better efficacy and safety in the management of Iron deficiency anemia in antenatal women than ferrous Sulphate

  11. What is the impact of antenatal diagnosis on long-term outlook?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Laurent [CHU Ste-Justine, Department of Medical Imaging, Montreal (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Congential malformations result in very significant consequences in paediatrics; more than 20% of infant mortality, more than 30% of paediatric ICU admissions, and one-third of overall admissions in the paediatric age group are linked to congential malformations. Health economics and antenatal diagnosis. Key issues yet to be addressed include: 1. Clarification of the objectives for screening for birth defects: Is it to detect cases or to prevent the birth of affected fetuses? 2. The establishment of the trade-of between resources allocated to screening and those allocated to help families and disabled children. 3. The value of a child born with structural or chromosomal defects compared with miscarriage of a normal fetus following amniocentesis. Apart from the ethical debates related to prenatal screening (variable expertise, rationing of resources, eugenics), the economic evaluations of antenatal diagnosis espouse the hypothesis and value judgment of the health commissioners. Indeed, prenatal screening and antenatal diagnosis carry high political and social stakes that make evidence-based evaluation of their impact more difficult than in any field in medicine. (orig.)

  12. [Antinuclear antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiedes, Javier; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are immunoglobulin directed against autologous cell nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Besides the autoimmune ANA there are other ANA that can be detected in circulation, like natural and infectious ANA. Because of its high sensibility, detection of the ANA must be done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) as screening test and all of those positive samples are convenient to confirm its specificity by ELISA, western blot or other techniques. Positive ANA detected by IIF must be evaluated taking in to account the pattern and titer. The following recommended step is the specificity characterization (reactivity against extractable nuclear antigens [ENA], dsDNA, etc.) which is useful for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with autoimmune diseases, and by such reasoning, its detection must be performed in an orderly and reasonable way using guides or strategies focused to the good use and interpretation of the autoantibodies. The objective of this review is to present a compilation of the literature and our experience in the detection and study of the ANA.

  13. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Titaley Christiana R; Dibley Michael J; Roberts Christine L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most...

  14. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Titaley, Christiana R; Dibley, Michael J.; Roberts, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent b...

  15. Study To Assess Utilization of Antenatal and Intranatal Services Amongst Women in an Urban Slum of Mumbai

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    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the utilization of antenatal & intra-natal services by antenatal women and the socio-demographic factors affecting the utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in urban slum from July to September 2011. Study population comprised of women who had delivered in last one year preceding study, irrespective of place and outcome of delivery. Only women who were residing at current address for at least 1 year were included. Women not consenting and pregnant women were excluded. All such women were interviewed face to face after obtaining their informed consent using pre tested semi-structured questionnaire which included details of their antenatal care (ANC and intra-natal services availed. Hospital Management Information System (HMIS and Systems, Applications and Products (SAP software were used for obtaining information regarding antenatal and intra-natal care. RESULTS: Antenatal services were utilized by 158(77.8% of study participants. 161(79.3% subjects had institutional delivery and 42(20.7% home delivery, out of which, only 3(7.1% subjects had an assisted home delivery. Low education status and poor socio-economic class had a significant association (P < 0.05 with utilization of ANC services. CONCLUSION: Public sector was the major source of utilization of antenatal care services and intra natal services in 62.7% subjects and 78% subjects respectively. It is suggested that low-income, uneducated women should be targeted for promotion of utilization of antenatal and intra-natal services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 157-164

  16. Nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents

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    Raphaela Santos do Nascimento Rodrigues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents from public schools, according to the International Classification for Nursing Practice. A population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological characteristics of adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years. 11 nursing diagnoses were identified: "Risk of overweight", "Risk of impaired adolescent development", "Risk of insecurity in parental role performance", "Risk of the family impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of lack of knowledge of dietary regime", "Risk of excess food intake", "Risk of negative self-image", "Risk of low self-esteem", "Risk of impaired social well-being" and "Impaired exercise pattern". These diagnoses reflect the multifactorial nature of obesity, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary and intersectoral articulation of nursing interventions for prevention and control of overweight.

  17. A review of patients with deep vein thrombosis diagnosed at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam, C K; Ng, S C

    1990-11-01

    In this retrospective study, 81 patients were diagnosed to have deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a ten year period from 1977 to 1986. Fifty-six patients had their DVT confirmed by venograms. The left side was affected in 79.5% of venographically proven cases of DVT of the lower limbs above the popliteal vein. The incidence of clinically apparent DVT following surgery was 0.21 per 1,000 operations. The incidence of pregnancy-related DVT was 0.039%. DVT was 3 times more frequent in the puerperium than in the antenatal period. The overall incidence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism was 13.6% of the cases of DVT.

  18. Psychosocial Characteristics and Obstetric Health of Women Attending a Specialist Substance Use Antenatal Clinic in a Large Metropolitan Hospital

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    Lucy Burns

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper reports the findings comparing the obstetrical health, antenatal care, and psychosocial characteristics of pregnant women with a known history of substance dependence (n=41 and a comparison group of pregnant women attending a general antenatal clinic (n=47. Method. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess obstetrical health, antenatal care, physical and mental functioning, substance use, and exposure to violence. Results. The substance-dependent group had more difficulty accessing antenatal care and reported more obstetrical health complications during pregnancy. Women in the substance-dependent group were more likely to report not wanting to become pregnant and were less likely to report using birth control at the time of conception. Conclusions. The profile of pregnant women (in specialised antenatal care for substance dependence is one of severe disadvantage and poor health. The challenge is to develop and resource innovative and effective multisectoral systems to educate women and provide effective care for both women and infants.

  19. Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagno

  20. Advice for the Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... De-Risking Successes PD Therapeutics Conference Sponsored Prizes Data Science Challenge Robert A. Pritzker Prize Bachmann-Strauss Prize ... need newly-diagnosed Parkinson’s patients.) In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a specialized imaging ...

  1. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed? People who have Fanconi anemia (FA) are born with the disorder. They may ... questions about: Any personal or family history of anemia Any surgeries you’ve had related to the ...

  2. Serum Antibody Repertoire Profiling Using In Silico Antigen Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Tallo, Luke J; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Schettine, Cassandra A; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Ionov, Yurij

    2013-01-01

    Serum antibodies are valuable source of information on the health state of an organism. The profiles of serum antibody reactivity can be generated by using a high throughput sequencing of peptide-coding DNA from combinatorial random peptide phage display libraries selected for binding to serum antibodies. Here we demonstrate that the targets of immune response, which are recognized by serum antibodies directed against sequential epitopes, can be identified using the serum antibody repertoire profiles generated by high throughput sequencing. We developed an algorithm to filter the results of the protein database BLAST search for selected peptides to distinguish real antigens recognized by serum antibodies from irrelevant proteins retrieved randomly. When we used this algorithm to analyze serum antibodies from mice immunized with human protein, we were able to identify the protein used for immunizations among the top candidate antigens. When we analyzed human serum sample from the metastatic melanoma patient, the recombinant protein, corresponding to the top candidate from the list generated using the algorithm, was recognized by antibodies from metastatic melanoma serum on the western blot, thus confirming that the method can identify autoantigens recognized by serum antibodies. We demonstrated also that our unbiased method of looking at the repertoire of serum antibodies reveals quantitative information on the epitope composition of the targets of immune response. A method for deciphering information contained in the serum antibody repertoire profiles may help to identify autoantibodies that can be used for diagnosing and monitoring autoimmune diseases or malignancies. PMID:23826227

  3. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  4. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver

  5. Prevalence and Characteristics of Pregnant Syphilis among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Shenzhen (China) in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Fan(杨帆); Zhou Hua(周华); Hong Fuchang(洪福昌); Luo Bin(罗斌); Cai Yumao(蔡于茂); Wen Lizhang(文立章); Zhang Chunlai(张春来)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Nnewly reported cases of congenital syphilis have been increaseding substantially over the past few years. To control the epidemic, a municipal program aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission of syphilis was introduced in July, 2001,which was designed aimed to screen all pregnant women for syphilis at their first visit to antenatal clinics or at admission to hospitals in Shenzhen.Objectives: The aim of the study is tTo determine the prevalence of syphilis among women attending antenatal clinics and other medical institutions in Shenzhen and identifies its patterns of infection.Methods: Upon giving informed consent, w Women who attended antenatal care centers in Shenzhen from January to December 2003 were included in this study subject to obtaining informed consent. A blood sample was harvested for syphilis screened for syphilising by using rapid plasma reagent test (RPR) and confirmed by TPHA for those who were RPR positive. The women with pregnant syphilispositive serology were systematically interviewed to obtain. During the interview, their demographic detailsinformation, patterns of risk behaviors and other data. Data were collected andwere analyzed retrospectively.Results: Among Of 118,235 pregnant women surveyed,555 pregnant women were confirmed to have syphilis (prevalence of 4.69%), with a incidence of 4.69‰. 123women were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete medical records. Of 432 infected subjects with complete medical records, the average age was 26.8, with a range of 19 to 41. 7.41% (32/432) of them suffered from primary syphilis, 3.24% (14/432) were ofhad secondary syphilis, and 89.35%(386/432) had latent syphilis. Without any conspicuous clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusions: The prevalence of syphilis among the pregnant women in our series was high an most of them were asymptomatic. Screening for syphilis among pregnant women in Shenzhen is of importantce for the prevention of mother

  6. EVALUATION OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN POSITIVITY IN ANTENATAL WOMEN AND ROLE OF ANTIVIRAL THERAPY

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    Jhansi Rani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Hepatitis B infection is a major global health problem . AIM : of the study is to identify the antenatal women who are HBsAg positive and to evaluate their viremic status to prevent vertical transmission from mother to foetus and role of antiviral therapy in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN : I s two centres prospective cohort study. All the pregnant women who attended the antenatal OPD in Government Victoria hospital/ Andhra Medical C ollege , Visakhapatnam between February 2013 and September 2014 were evaluated. METHODS AND MATERIAL : HBs Ag screening was done using Rapid Stick test to all the pregnant women attending the OPD. 6400 members were screened. 100 subjects were HBsAg positive and confirmed by using ELISA technique. Evaluation for HBeAg and HBV viral load is done in all subjects. If HBV DNA is > 10 5 log copies/ml and Alanine transaminase (ALT is > 2 ULN or HBV DNA is >10 8 log copies/ml will be offered telbivudine therapy. RESULTS: Of the 6400 members screened , 100(1.5% were HBsAg positive. Of them , 10% were HBe Ag positive and 2% had HBV DNA > 10 5 log copies/ml. These patients were treated with drug , telbivudine in their third trimester. The HBV DNA level at the time of delivery is below 10 5 log copies/ml. The babies of these patients were checked for HBsAg and HBV DNA at birth and at 7th month which were negative and also for anti HBS at 7th month. CONCLUSIONS : The present study shows that HBsAg positive antenatal women are not prone for maternal and foetal complications. HBeAg positive individuals with high viremia need to be treated with antiviral drugs during the last trimester of pregnancy in order to prevent vertical transmission.

  7. Prenatal Depression: Screening and Referral for Women Who Are Low Income during Antenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestad, Renee; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Smith, Carrie J; Carter, D Bruce; Rubinstein, Robert A; Keefe, Robert H; Jones-Moore, Chevelle

    2016-10-01

    This study uses prenatal clinical chart reviews of 245 women who were screened for depression while receiving antenatal care services at an urban hospital-based clinic in Syracuse, New York. The results indicate that more than one half of the mothers who screened positive are not being adequately referred and followed-up on to ensure they are receiving proper treatment. Among the mothers who are not being successfully referred are women who are non-English speaking, facing multiple life stressors, and inadequately insured. Recommendations for colocating services that may ease the ongoing burdens of new motherhood are addressed. PMID:27286463

  8. Efficacy and long term effects of antenatal prophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J.G.; Page, C; Foote, G.; Arthur, G R; Tovey, L A; Scott, J S

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the safety and efficacy of antenatal treatment with anti-D immunoglobulin. DESIGN--Open study with historical controls. SETTING--Multicentre study in 17 hospitals in West Yorkshire. PATIENTS--1238 Rh negative women who delivered Rh positive infants after 34 weeks in their first pregnancy in 1980-1 (group 1) and 2000 similar primigravidas from 1978-9 (group 2). Obstetric data were collected for 616 women in group 1 who had a subsequent pregnancy, 536 similar women in grou...

  9. Effect of antenatal administration of thyrotrophin releasing hormone on fetal flow velocity waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoria, R.; Stagiannis, K.; Fisk, N.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To determine whether antenatal administration of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), to promote lung maturation, alters blood flow through the fetal middle cerebral, umbilical artery, or ductus arteriosus and through the maternal uterine arteries.
METHODS—The effect of transplacentally administered TRH on the fetal circulation was prospectively evaluated in 30 patients between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation. TRH (400 µg) was given to the mother intravenously either as a bolus or an infusion...

  10. Ovine fetal thymus response to lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Kuypers

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Chorioamnionitis is associated with preterm delivery and involution of the fetal thymus. Women at risk of preterm delivery receive antenatal corticosteroids which accelerate fetal lung maturation and improve neonatal outcome. However, the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on the fetal thymus in the settings of chorioamnionitis are largely unknown. We hypothesized that intra-amniotic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS causes involution of the fetal thymus resulting in persistent effects on thymic structure and cell populations. We also hypothesized that antenatal corticosteroids may modulate the effects of LPS on thymic development. METHODS: Time-mated ewes with singleton fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of LPS 7 or 14 days before preterm delivery at 120 days gestational age (term = 150 days. LPS and corticosteroid treatment groups received intra-amniotic LPS either preceding or following maternal intra-muscular betamethasone. Gestation matched controls received intra-amniotic and maternal intra-muscular saline. The fetal intra-thoracic thymus was evaluated. RESULTS: Intra-amniotic LPS decreased the cortico-medullary (C/M ratio of the thymus and increased Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 mRNA and CD3 expression indicating involution and activation of the fetal thymus. Increased TLR4 and CD3 expression persisted for 14 days but Foxp3 expression decreased suggesting a change in regulatory T-cells. Sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA, which are negative regulators of T-cell development, decreased in response to intra-amniotic LPS. Betamethasone treatment before LPS exposure attenuated some of the LPS-induced thymic responses but increased cleaved caspase-3 expression and decreased the C/M ratio. Betamethasone treatment after LPS exposure did not prevent the LPS-induced thymic changes. CONCLUSION: Intra-amniotic exposure to LPS activated the fetal thymus which was accompanied by structural changes. Treatment

  11. Influence of antenatal screening on perinatal mortality caused by syphilis in Swaziland.

    OpenAIRE

    Guinness, L F; Sibandze, S; McGrath, E.; Cornelis, A L

    1988-01-01

    In a survey of 283 deliveries in Swaziland, active syphilis (positive results in the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test) was found in 37 (13.1%) and possibly active infection (positive TPHA but negative RPR test results) in a further 87 (30.7%). The perinatal mortality of untreated mothers with active disease was 21.9% (7/32). The RPR test carried out antenatally by nurses had a sensitivity of 36% (13/36) and predictive accuracy of 48% (13...

  12. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

  13. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis. PMID:18440216

  14. Antenatal and neonatal visits increase complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in rural area of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar Belakang: Anak yang memiliki status imunisasi dasarlengkap di daerah pedesaan di Indonesia lebih rendah dibandingkan di perkotaan. Penelitian ini menilai hubungan kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal terhadap status imunisasi lengkap pada anak usia 12-23 bulan di daerah pedesaan Indonesia.Metode: Penilaian menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 (Riskesdas. Sub-sampel terdiri dari anak usia 12-23 bulan di daerah pedesaan. Dari 8747 anak umur 12-23 bulan di wilayah perdesaan, 5452 memiliki data yang lengkap untuk dilakukan analisis. Status imunisasi dasar lengkap berdasarkan catatan pada kartu imunisasi dan wawancara. Analisis menggunakan regresi Cox dengan waktu yang konstan.Hasil: Dari 5452 responden, 52,8% (2880/5452 mempunyai imunisasi dasar lengkap. Faktor-faktor dominan yang berhubungan dengan status dasar imunisasi lengkap adalah kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal, indeks kekayaan, pendidikan ibu, dan pekerjaan ibu. Dibandingkan dengan yang tidak melakukan kunjungan antenatal, mereka yang melakukan kunjungan antenatal 38% lebih besar kemungkinan mendapatkan imunisasi dasar lengkap [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,38; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,27-1,50; P = 0,000]. Menurut kunjungan neonatal, mereka yang melakukan kunjungan neonatal 37% lebih besar untuk mendapatkan imunisasi dasar yang lengkap dibandingkan dengan yang tidak melakukan kunjungan neonatal (RRa = 1,37; 95% CI = 1,29-1,46; P = 0,000.Kesimpulan: Anak-anak di pedesaan Indonesia yang melakukan kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal lebih mempunyai kemungkinan mendapatkan imunisasi dasar lengkap.  (Health Science Indones 2014;2:73-7Kata kunci: imunisasi dasar lengkap, kunjungan antenatal dan neonatal, pedesaanAbstractBackground: The children who had complete basic immunization status in rural areas in Indonesia was lower than in urban areas. This study assessed the association of antenatal and neonatal visits with complete immunization status among children aged 12

  15. APPLICATION OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR DIAGNOSING AMEBIC LIVER ABSCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭增柱; 王正仪; 安亦军; 祝宏

    1996-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied in diagnosing amebic liver infection by detecting pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica DNA in liver aspirates. Oligonucleotide primers found to he specific for the gene encoding the 30 kDa molecule of this pathogenic ameba were used in the test. Liver aspirates obtained from 23 patients with amebic liver abscess substantiated by typical clinical rnanifastation or with very high titres of anti-E histtolytica antibodies by ELISA were found to he positive by PCR. Fourteen controlsamples (3 cases of bacterial liver abscess, I of liver cancer and 10 of other abscess) were all found to be negative to this reaction. The results suggested PCR to he a specific and sensitive tool for diagnosing amebic liver abscess infections.

  16. Microcytic hypochromic anemia: Should high performance liquid chromatography be used routinely for screening anemic and antenatal patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Philip

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited red cell disorders worldwide. Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically and for improved management protocols. Aim and Objectives: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in patients with microcytic hypochromic anemia and to assess the suitability of using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC routinely for screening antenatal cases and patients with anemia. Materials and Methods: A total of 4335 cases received from Mar 2007 to Nov 2011 were studied for various hemoglobinopathies and variants on BIO RAD ′VARIANT′ analyzer. Results: Of the 4335 cases studied, 2119 were antenatal cases, 1710 patients with other disorders and 506 family studies. Of these, 688 cases displayed abnormal hemoglobin fractions on HPLC of which 140 were antenatal women. There were 455 cases of β thalassemia trait, 24 β thalassemia major, 20 thalassemia inter-media, 54 sickle cell trait, fivesickle cell disease, 21 double heterozygous β thalassemia-sickle cell trait, nineand 4 Hb D- Punjab heterozygous and homozygous respectively, three Hb D β Thalassemia trait, 20 and 37 Hb E homozygous and heterozygous respectively, three Hb E β Thalassemia trait and four cases of Hb Q India. Twenty nine adults had isolated HbF elevation. Conclusion: Our study found a high prevalence (15.8% of hemoglobinopathies amongst microcytic hypochromic anemia and antenatal cases. An accurate diagnosis helps in preventing unnecessary iron loading. Screening all antenatal cases with anemia helps in timely antenatal counseling, thus preventing the psychological trauma of bearing a transfusion dependent child for life.

  17. Coverage and quality of antenatal care provided at primary health care facilities in the 'Punjab' province of 'Pakistan'.

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    Muhammad Ashraf Majrooh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antenatal care is a very important component of maternal health services. It provides the opportunity to learn about risks associated with pregnancy and guides to plan the place of deliveries thereby preventing maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. In 'Pakistan' antenatal services to rural population are being provided through a network of primary health care facilities designated as 'Basic Health Units and Rural Health Centers. Pakistan is a developing country, consisting of four provinces and federally administered areas. Each province is administratively subdivided in to 'Divisions' and 'Districts'. By population 'Punjab' is the largest province of Pakistan having 36 districts. This study was conducted to assess the coverage and quality antenatal care in the primary health care facilities in 'Punjab' province of 'Pakistan'. METHODS: Quantitative and Qualitative methods were used to collect data. Using multistage sampling technique nine out of thirty six districts were selected and 19 primary health care facilities of public sector (seventeen Basic Health Units and two Rural Health Centers were randomly selected from each district. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with clients, providers and health managers. RESULTS: The overall enrollment for antenatal checkup was 55.9% and drop out was 32.9% in subsequent visits. The quality of services regarding assessment, treatment and counseling was extremely poor. The reasons for low coverage and quality were the distant location of facilities, deficiency of facility resources, indifferent attitude and non availability of the staff. Moreover, lack of client awareness about importance of antenatal care and self empowerment for decision making to seek care were also responsible for low coverage. CONCLUSION: The coverage and quality of the antenatal care services in 'Punjab' are extremely compromised. Only half of the expected pregnancies are enrolled and

  18. Diagnosing GORD in respiratory medicine

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    Chris James Timms

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease is increasing in prevalence and is associated with several lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Current diagnostic methods are imperfect, being insensitive, nonspecific, expensive or invasive. An accurate diagnosis of GORD can aid effective treatment with a significant clinical impact. Novel methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and electronic nose technology have the potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosing GORD.

  19. Anophthalmia and serious microphthalmia: a summary of the problems associated with antenatal diagnosis and therapeutic refunding in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Diomande IA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Abib Diomande,1 Abdoulaye Toure,2 Konan Virgile Koffi,1 Gossé François Diomande,1 Windinmanégdé Pierre Djiguimde,3 Nouraly Habib,4 Ahgbatouhabéba Ahnoux-Zabsonre3 1Ophthalmology Department, Center Hospital University of Bouaké, University Alassane Ouattara, 2Radiology Department, Center Hospital University of Yopougon, University Félix Houphouët Boigny, Côte d'Ivoire; 3Ophthalmology Department, Center Hospital University Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 4Radiology Department, Center Hospital University of Mahavoky Atsimo, Mahajanga, MadagascarAbstract: Anophthalmia and serious microphthalmia are conditions characterized by the complete lack of the primary optic vesicle or the presence of the rudimentary eye-like structure. These are rare prenatal conditions, yet diagnoses remain a challenge in Black African areas, raising a major concerns surrounding care after birth. This paper reports a case of anophthalmia and serious microphthalmia, the diagnosis of which was not possible despite many ultrasounds undergone by the mother during pregnancy.Keywords: pediatric, malformation, antenatal diagnosis, treatment, Africa

  20. Imaging spectrum of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Gon; Ki, Won Woo; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is recognized as one of the most important causes of hypercoagulability. It can be clinically diagnosed if patients have experienced unexplained recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, or thrombocytopenia in the presence of circulating autoantibodies to phospholipids, such as anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Approximately half of all patients with this syndrome do not have associated systemic disease, and their condition is described as primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). In the remainder, the syndrome is accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective tissue diseases, and is known as secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (1). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the systemic manifestation of PAPS, focusing on the radiological findings of CT, MR and angiography in clinically proven patients. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

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    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32

  2. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondi infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kefale; Awoke; Endalkachew; Nibret; Abaineh; Munshea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women. Three hundred eighty four serum samples were collected from November 2013 to January 2014. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant with simple random sampling technique. The serum samples were examined for anti- Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) antibodies using latex agglutination test. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among the pregnant women was 18.5%. All of T. gondii positive cases found to be positive only for Ig G antibody. Significant association was observed between seroprevalence and presence of domestic cats [AOR=2.85, 95% CI: 1.66-4.90, P=0.000], consumption of raw or undercooked meat [AOR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.15-2.43, P=0.014] and history of abortion [AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.40-4.34, P=0.002]. No significant association was observed between seroprevalence and socio-demographic characters, gestational age, gravidity, consumption of raw vegetable, and blood transfusion. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Bahir Dar town was relatively high. Presence of domestic cats at home and consumption of raw or undercooked meat were identified as main risk factors for T. gondii infection. Therefore, health education towards avoiding eating raw or undercooked meat and avoiding contact with cats are recommended for prevention of miscarriage or defects during pregnancy.

  3. Relationship between professional antenatal care and facility delivery: an assessment of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Juan C; Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J

    2014-07-01

    The determinants of maternal and child health have been the recurrent topics of study in developing countries. Using the Demographic and Health Survey (2010) of Colombia, this study aimed to identify the determinants for professional antenatal care and institutional delivery, taking into account the interdependence of these two decisions, which we consider using a bivariate probit model. This study found that when certain factors affecting both the decision to seek prenatal care and giving birth in a hospital are neglected, the results of the estimates are inefficient. Estimates show that the effects of education, parity, regional location and economic status on institutional delivery tend to be underestimated in a univariate probit model. The results indicate that economic status, level of education, parity and medical-insurance affiliation influenced the joint likelihood of accessing professional antenatal care and delivering in a health facility. An important finding is that mothers with a higher level of education are 9 percentage points more likely to access these two health services compared with mothers who are illiterate. Another observed finding is the regional disparities. The evidence indicates that mothers in the Pacific Region, the poorest region of Colombia, are 6 percentage points less likely to access such services. Thus, the results indicate that the Colombian health policy should emphasize increasing the level of schooling of mothers and establish health facilities in the poorest regions of the country to ensure that women in need are provided with social health insurance. PMID:23735737

  4. A STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE & PRACTICE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG ANTENATAL WOMEN OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Shailaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among Antenatal women attending OPD and to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among them. METHOD: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Andhra Medical College Visakhapatnam which is a tertiary center for three districts Visakhapatnam , Vijayanagaram , and Srika kulam. 499 antenatal women attending the OPD were included in the study. Their knowledge , attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall awareness of permanent methods of family plannin g 96.3% and that of temporary methods is only 62.9% (314. 69.9% of women became aware of contraceptive method , by obtaining information from relatives and friends and 23.2% from media (television. 42.1% are of the opinion that these contraceptive methods are available in the medical shops and only 13% know that they are available in the government hospitals. 99.8% are aware of female sterilization , and 92.8% are aware of vasectomy. But awareness of temporary methods is very poor. CONCLUSION: The study hig hlights that knowledge and awareness doesn’t always lead to the use of contraceptives. There is still a need to educate and motivate the couples and improve family planning services to achieve more effective and appropriate use of contraceptives and to arr est the trend towards increase in population

  5. Advice, authority and autonomy in shared decision-making in antenatal screening: the importance of context.

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    Pilnick, Alison; Zayts, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) has been widely advocated across many branches of healthcare, yet there is considerable debate over both its practical application and how it should be examined or assessed. More recent discussions of SDM have highlighted the important of context, both internal and external to the consultation, with a recognition that decisions cannot be understood in isolation. This paper uses conversation analysis (CA) to examine how decision-making is enacted in the context of antenatal screening consultations in Hong Kong. Building on previous CA work (Collins et al. , Toerien et al. 2013), we show that, whilst previously identified formats are used here to present the need for a decision, the overriding basis professionals suggest for actually making a decision in this context is the level of worry or concern a pregnant woman holds about potential foetal abnormality. Professionals take an unknowing 'epistemic stance' (Heritage ) towards this worry, and hence step back from involvement in decision-making. We argue that this is linked to the non-directive ethos that prevails in antenatal screening services, and suggest that more research is needed to understand how the enactment of SDM is affected by wider professional contexts and parameters.

  6. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment during antenatal care

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    Johanna M. Mathibe-Neke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological and psychological changes caused by pregnancy may increase a woman’s vulnerability to depression, which may in turn have adverse effects on both maternal and foetal wellbeing. Inadequate psychosocial risk assessment of women by midwives may lead to lack of psychosocial support during pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women who lack psychosocial support may experience stress, anxiety and depression that could possibly affect foetal wellbeing. Objective:The objective of this study was toexplore and describe the perception of psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial care by midwives providing antenatal care to pregnant women. Method: An interpretive and descriptive qualitative approach was adopted. Three focus group interviews were conducted with midwives working in three Maternal Obstetric Units in Gauteng Province, using a semi-structured interview guide. The constant comparison data analysis approach was used. Results:Findings revealed that midwives are aware of and have encountered a high prevalence of psychosocial problems in pregnant women. Furthermore, they acknowledged the importance of psychosocial care for pregnant women although they stated that they were not equipped adequately to offer psychosocial assessment and psychosocial care. Conclusion:The findings provided a basis for incorporation of psychosocial care into routine antenatal care.

  7. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-01

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  8. Prevalence of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendees in Karachi: Imperative to begin universal screening in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, SA; Kristensen, S; Memon, MA; Usman, G; Ghazi, A; John, R; Sathiakumar, N; Vermund, SH

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sexually transmitted infections are thought by some to be rare in socially conservative Muslim countries. Little is known about prevalence of syphilis in Pakistani women from the general population. We determined syphilis prevalence in a multi-center cross-sectional study of low risk pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire and obtained a blood sample for syphilis serology (rapid plasma reagin test with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation) from all women giving informed consent over six weeks in 2007. Results The prevalence of confirmed syphilis was less than one percent (0.9%; 95%CI: 0.4, 1.8) in a sample size of 800 women recruited from three urban sites (≈1% refusal rate). Women who lived in an area where male drug use is prevalent (Ibrahim Hyderi Hospital) had 1% (1.5%) higher prevalence rates than women from the other two sites 0.5%. Conclusions We documented higher-than-expected syphilis seroprevalence rates in a low risk population of antenatal clinic attendees in Pakistan. Bridge populations for syphilis may include drug users, who are usually married, and Hijras or their clients. Hijras are transgender and/or transvestite men who may provide sex for money to men. In accordance with our results, the national policy for syphilis control in Pakistan should be modified to include universal syphilis screening in antenatal clinics with subsequent partner notification. PMID:22356034

  9. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon entity that is difficult to diagnose given the ambiquity of the clinical signs. Computerized tomography plays a major role in the diagnosis, disclosing enlarged adrenal glands presenting the hyperdense aspect that characterizes this disorders. We present a case of bilateral adrenal hemoorrhage in a patient diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is a less common cause of adrenal hemorrhage than those classically reported, such as anticoagulant therapy, sepsis, shock and abdominal injury. (Author) 8 refs

  10. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111In, 67Ga and 131I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  11. Diagnosability issues in multiprocessor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, V.

    1989-01-01

    In a seminal paper on fault diagnosis, Preparata, Metze, and Chien introduced a graph-theoretical model. Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini relaxed some constraints in this model to create a different model for fault diagnosis. Both these models have become the subject of intense research in the past two decades. A major open problem for these models is the question of sequential t-diagnosability-Given an arbitrary system of units and that there are no more than t faulty units in it, can we always identify at least one faulty unit The author shows that this problem is co-NP complete in both models. Recent research has shown that there are polynomial time algorithms to find the maximum number of faulty units a system can withstand and still identify all of them from a single collection of test results. He presents improved algorithms to solve this problem in both models. Using the letters n,m, and {tau} to denote the number of units, the number of tests, and the maximum number of faulty units respectively, our results can be summarized as follows: in the model of Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini, the algorithm has a time complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2}/log{tau}) improving on the currently known O(n{tau}{sup 2}); in the model of Preparata, Metze, and Chien, the algorithm has a complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2.5}) improving on the currently known O(mn{sup 1.5}). He also presents related results in the latter model, which suggest the possibility of reducing the complexity even further. Finally, he develops a general scheme for characterizing diagnosable systems. Using this scheme, he solves the open problem of characterizing t/s and sequentially t-diagnosable systems. The characterizations are then used to rederive some known results.

  12. DIAGNOSE AND MANAGEMENT TINEA FASCIALIS

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    I Pt Agus Suryantara P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi disease  on skin is often occur at Indonesia because it is a tropic country that has hot climate and also correlate wit bad hygiene.  Dermatofitosis is fungi disease on the keratinizing tissue and differentiate as many class such as Tinea Corporis or TineaCruris. Tinea fascialis include in this form. The diagnose this disease from anamnesis,clinical manifetation, and also test result from the tissue. Management for thistineacomprise to topical and systemic. The important one in management this disease isprevention  management include in control of skin dryness.

  13. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  14. The utilization of antenatal care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai:a hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Zhao Qi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving utilization of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving China’s Millennium Development Goal of decreasing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR. While overall utilization has increased recently in China, an urban vs. rural disparity in access remains. Here we aim to assess utilization of antenatal care in rural-to-urban migrant women and identify its risk and protective factors. Methods Migrant women who had been living in Shanghai for more than six months, delivered in one of the two study hospitals between August 2009 and February 2010, and provided written consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Of 767 women, 90.1% (691 made at least one antenatal care visit, while 49.7% (381 had adequately utilized antenatal care (i.e., made five or more antenatal care visits. Only 19.7% of women visited an antenatal care center during the first trimester (12 weeks. Women between the ages of 25 and 30 and women older than 30 were more likely than younger women to have adequately utilized antenatal care (AOR=2.2 and 1.9, 95%CI=1.4-3.5 and 1.1-3.2, respectively. Women whose husbands held Shanghai residency status (AOR=4.9, 95%CI=2.2-10.9 or who had more than 10 years of education (AOR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.9, previously experienced a miscarriage or abortion (AOR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.8, had higher household income (AOR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.5 were more likely to have adequately utilized antenatal care. Women from high-income households were also more likely to receive antenatal care during the first 12 weeks (AOR=3.5, 95%CI=1.7-5.5. Conclusions Many migrant women in Shanghai did not receive adequate antenatal care and initiated antenatal care later than the optimal first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Poor antenatal care utilization was associated with low socioeconomic status, education, and certain demographic factors. Tailored health education for both migrant women and their husbands should be strengthened to

  15. Feasibility of Providing Culturally Relevant, Brief Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Antenatal Depression in an Obstetrics Clinic: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…

  16. Ten years' trend of HIV seroprevalence among Indian pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at tertiary hospital in Dhule, Maharashtra, India

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    Vaishali Milind Patil

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Declining HIV seroprevalence rate is noted among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics from 2004 to 2013. The effective implementation of prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT programmed is helping in control of the spread of HIV. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1514-1519

  17. ADHD deficit as measured in adolescent boys with a continuous performance task is related to antenatal maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Bea R H; Mennes, Maarten; Stevens, Veerle; van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert; Stiers, Peter; Marcoen, Alfons; Lagae, Lieven

    2006-01-01

    Antenatal maternal anxiety has been shown to be related to infant temperament, childhood disorders, and impulsivity in adolescence. This study prospectively investigated whether antenatal maternal anxiety is associated with performance on a continuous performance task. Sixty-four adolescents (mean age, 15 y; 34 boys, 30 girls) were examined with a computerized continuous performance task (CPT) measuring sustained attention. Results showed that the CPT performance of boys of mothers with high levels of state anxiety during the 12th to 22nd postmenstrual week of pregnancy declined as the task progressed: their processing speed became slower and the variability in their reaction times increased. The study controlled for the possible confounding influences of postnatal maternal anxiety, the parents' educational level, and intelligence. Establishing a link between antenatal maternal anxiety and an objective measure of sustained attention/self-regulation, our results extend the growing evidence for an association between antenatal maternal anxiety and the neurobehavioral development of the offspring up into adolescence. PMID:16327007

  18. Ethnic differences in antenatal care use in a large multi-ethnic urban population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chote, Anushka A.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.; Redekop, Ken; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Foets, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to determine differences in antenatal care use between the native population and different ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Design: the Generation R Study is a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: seven midwife practices participating in the Generatio

  19. Antenatal hypoxia induces programming of reduced arterial blood pressure response in female rat offspring: role of ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to adverse environmental factors increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The present study tested the hypothesis that antenatal hypoxia causes a gender-dependent programming of altered arterial blood pressure response (BP in adult offspring. Time-dated pregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from days 15 to 21 of gestation groups. The experiments were conducted in adult offspring. Antenatal hypoxia caused intrauterine growth restriction, and resulted in a gender-dependent increase Angiotensin II (Ang II-induced BP response in male offspring, but significant decrease in BP response in female offspring. The baroreflex sensitivity was not significantly altered. Consistent with the reduced blood pressure response, antenatal hypoxia significantly decreased Ang II-induced arterial vasoconstriction in female offspring. Ovariectomy had no significant effect in control animals, but significantly increased Ang II-induced maximal BP response in prenatally hypoxic animals and eliminated the difference of BP response between the two groups. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized animals significantly decreased the BP response to angiotensin II I only in control, but not in hypoxic animals. The result suggests complex programming mechanisms of antenatal hypoxia in regulation of ovary function. Hypoxia-mediated ovary dysfunction results in the phenotype of reduced vascular contractility and BP response in female adult offspring.

  20. Antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: an exploratory video-observational study about client-midwife communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Spelten, E.R.; Kuiper, F.; Pereboom, M.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests is conceptualised as having both Health Education (HE) and Decision-Making Support (DMS) functions. Building and maintaining a client-midwife relation (CMR) is seen as a necessary condition for enabling these two counselling functions. Ho

  1. Antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: an exploratory video-observational study about client-midwife communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Spelten, E.R.; Kuiper, F.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Dulmen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective: antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests is conceptualised as having both Health Education (HE) and Decision-Making Support (DMS) functions. Building and maintaining a client–midwife relation (CMR) is seen as a necessary condition for enabling these two counselling functions. Ho

  2. Utility of Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosing Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fukuhara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI for diagnosing chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT and to verify the effect of fibrotic thyroid tissue on shear wave velocity (SWV. The subjects were 229 patients with 253 normal thyroid lobes (controls and 150 CAT lobes. The SWV for CAT (2.47 ± 0.57 m/s was significantly higher than that for controls (1.59 ± 0.41 m/s (P<0.001. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for CAT was 0.899, and the SWV cut-off value was 1.96 m/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.4%, 78.7%, and 85.1%, respectively. Levels of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid isthmus thickness were correlated with tissue stiffness in CAT. However, there was no correlation between levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and tissue stiffness. Quantitative SWE is useful for diagnosing CAT, and it is possible that SWE can be used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis in patients with CAT.

  3. Serum Treponema IgM Antibody Test for Syphilis Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑占才; 张荣富; 溪茜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical utility of testing serum anti-treponema pallidum IgM antibody in the diagnosis of syphilis patients. Methods: Seventy-two cases of syphilis were tested for specific IgM antibody with ELISA, and the results were compared with RPR and TPPA.Results: The sensitivity of IgM antibody was 73.3 %(11/15) in primary syphilis, 88.9% (16/18) in sec-ondary syphilis, and there was no significant differ-ence between these values (x2=1.6363, P>0.10). The sensitivity of IgM antibody in diagnosing latent syphi-lis was only 26.1% (6/23), much lower than the detec-tion rate in symptomatic earlv svDhilis (x2=17.6189. P<0.005). RPR and TPPA were both 100% sensitive in latent and early symptomatic syphilis. Two were posi,five for IgM in the 16 cases who had received regular treatments 2 to 24 months before enrolled.Conclusions: Specific IgM antibody detection doees not appear superior to RPR and TPPA in diagnosing primary syphilis. The diagnosis of latent syphilis should mainly rely on RPR and TPPA, since there are low titers of IgM antibody at that stage. IgM antibody testing alone should not be recommended for monitor-ing syphilis development or treatment efficacy. Fur-ther studies should be concerned.

  4. Prevalência de anticorpos IgG antiparvovírus B19 em gestantes durante o atendimento pré-natal e casos de hidropisia fetal não imune atribuídos ao parvovírus B19, na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibody prevalence in pregnant women during antenatal follow-up and cases of non-immune hydropsis fetalis due to parvovirus B19, in the City of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Araujo da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de medir a prevalência de anticorpos IgG contra o parvovírus B19 em gestantes com até 24 semanas de idade gestacional e detectar a ocorrência de casos de hidropisia fetal não-imune atribuídos a esse vírus, coletamos 249 amostras de soro em uma maternidade de referência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, entre junho de 2003 e março de 2005. As gestantes foram acompanhadas até o termo da gestação, sendo detectados 17 casos de hidropisia fetal. Quatro casos foram atribuídos ao parvovírus B19 e dois destes ocorreram em gestantes residentes na zona oeste da cidade, em fevereiro de 2005. Resultados positivos para anticorpos IgG antiparvovírus B19 foram encontrados em 172 (71,6% gestantes (IC 95% 65,5-77,7%, sendo esta prevalência de anticorpos comparável à encontrada em outras cidades brasileiras. A única variável associada com aquisição prévia de anticorpos IgG foi número de gestações anteriores maior que um(p= 0,02, IC 95% 0,36-0,94.With the aim of measuring the prevalence of anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies during pregnancy up to 24 weeks of gestation and detecting cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis, 249 sera from pregnant women attending a reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, from June 2003 to November 2004 were collected. They were followed-up until the end of pregnancy, with 17 cases of fetal hydrops detected. Four cases were caused by parvovirus B19 and two of them occurred in pregnant women living in the western zone of the city, during February 2005. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies were found in 172 (71.6% pregnant women (CI 95% 65.5%-77.7%; this antibody prevalence is similar to results found for others Brazilian cities. The only variable associated with previous acquisition of IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19 was number of pregnancies greater than one (p= 0.02, CI 95% 0.36-0.94.

  5. Maternal demand for cesarean section: perception and willingness to request by Nigerian antenatal clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo NS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ngozi S Okonkwo1, Oladosu A Ojengbede2, Imran O Morhason-Bello1, Babatunde O Adedokun31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College Hospital; 2Center for Population and Reproductive Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan; 3Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics, and Environmental Health, College of Medicine, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: Contrary to the widely reported aversion to cesarean section in the West African subregion, maternal demand for cesarean section (MDCS seems to be on the increase, and there is little evidence to explain this trend. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception and attitudes of Nigerian antenatal clients towards MDCS, their willingness to request MDCS, and the relationship between willingness to request MDCS and sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 843 antenatal clients at Agbongbon/Orayan primary health care centers (PHCs, Adeoyo Maternity Hospital (SHC, and UCH Ibadan (THC, representing the three different levels of health care in Nigeria, ie, primary, secondary, and tertiary.Results: The proportion of women aware of MDCS was 39.6%. Predictors of awareness were education and type of health facility. Women from THC and those with tertiary education and above were more likely to be aware of MDCS than others (P = 0.001. Doctors were major sources of information on MDCS (30.8% as well as friends (24.3%. Common reasons reported for MDCS were fear of labor pains (68.9%, and fear of poor labor outcome (60.1%, and fear of fecal (20.2% and urinary incontinence (16.8%. More women from the THC than other facilities believed that requests for MDCS should be granted (P < 0.001. However, willingness to request MDCS was low (6.6%. More than 50% of those willing to request MDCS would likely be criticized, mainly by their husbands. On multiple logistic regression, respondents at the THC were significantly more

  6. Antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis%妊娠梅毒与先天梅毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林松; 全钰平

    2013-01-01

    Antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis have gradually become one of the important infectious diseases threatening maternal and child health .During pregnancy , treponema pallidum can induce fetal dysplasia or even stillbirth .Risk factors of antenatal syphilis include age , education degree , history of many sexual partner and address .The intrauterine infection of fetus is related to the infection course and treatment course of pregnant women .Thus, it is very necessary to further understand risk factors , criteria of screening and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of antenatal syphilis and congenital syphilis , which could effectively control mother-to-child transmission, prevent bad pregnant outcomes and reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis .%妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒逐渐成为危害母婴健康的重要传染性疾病之一。妊娠期梅毒螺旋体能通过胎盘引起胎儿发育不良,甚至死胎、死产。妊娠期梅毒感染的危险因素与发病年龄、文化程度、多性伴史、居住地等有关。胎儿宫内感染状况与感染母亲的病程及妊娠期治疗时间有关。因此,进一步了解妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的感染危险因素,明确妊娠梅毒和先天梅毒的筛查和诊断标准、治疗方法及预后效果,对于有效地控制梅毒的母婴传播,预防和治疗梅毒宫内感染的不良后果,降低先天梅毒的发病率具有重要意义。

  7. 孕期集体干预对产后抑郁症的影响%Effect of antenatal group intervention on postpartum depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖毓冕; 杨金英; 曾慧倩; 程曦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of antenatal group intervention on postpartum depression ( PPD ) .Methods Totally 438 pregnant women examined and delivering in Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center were included, whose Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale ( HAD) score≥11 in 16-24 gestational weeks.The subjects were randomly assigned to intervention group and control group.Interventions lasted for 90 minutes each time and were given to the intervention group weekly for 6 weeks from 24 weeks of gestation.Routine antenatal care was given to the control group.Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ( EPDS) score ≥12 was used to diagnose PPD at 42 day after delivery.Results The ratio of women in the intervention group with HAD score≥11 was significantly lower than in the control group at 42 day after delivery ( χ2 =25.22, P<0.01) .There were 22 women in the intervention group and 63 women in the control group with EPDS score≥12 at 42 day after delivery, respectively (χ2 =24.51, P<0.01).Conclusion Group intervention in the antenatal period can relieve anxiety and depression of pregnant women and reduce the incidence of PPD.%目的 探讨孕期集体干预对产后抑郁症(PPD)的作用.方法 选择在我院产检且分娩,在孕16~24周行医院焦虑-抑郁量表(HAD)筛查≥11分的438例孕妇为研究对象,分为干预组和非干预组.干预组孕妇从孕24周开始实施每周1次,每次90分钟,共6周的干预治疗,非干预组孕妇行常规孕期保健.所有研究对象在产后42天行爱丁堡产后抑郁量表(edinburgh postnatal depression scale,EPDS)测试≥12分诊断为产后抑郁症.结果 干预组产后42天HAD≥11分(有焦虑或抑郁情绪)患者比率显著低于对照组(χ2=25.22,P<0.01).干预组产妇EPDS值≥12分人数为22人,显著低于非干预组的63人,差异有统计学意义(χ2=24.51,P<0.01).结论 孕期集体干预能够缓解孕产妇焦虑-抑郁情绪,降低产后抑郁症发生率.

  8. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  9. How Is Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnosis thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. If TTP is suspected or diagnosed, a hematologist will be ...

  10. How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... and Blood Institute. (2012). How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www. ...

  11. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  12. Antenatal and Postnatal Diagnosis of Coxsackie B4 Infection: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Hunt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a common cause of neonatal infection. In particular, Coxsackie B viruses are often associated with severe, fatal disease. The antenatal diagnosis of Coxsackie B viral infections is uncommon. We present a unique case of Coxsackie B4 virus ventriculitis and myocarditis causing fetal hydrops at 22 weeks gestation. Transmission was inferred by viral isolation from the amniotic fluid and by placental pathology. We also describe two additional cases of fatal neonatal Coxsackie B4 infection complicated by myocarditis and encephalitis with cerebral necrosis in a 4-day-old female and by myocarditis, spinal leptomeningitis, and hepatitis in a 4-day-old male. Transplacental acquisition of infection carries a poor prognosis. We propose that Coxsackie B virus should be considered in the investigation of nonimmune hydrops, particularly in the presence of cardiac dysfunction.

  13. Antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of coxsackie b4 infection: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer C; Schneider, Carol; Menticoglou, Savas; Herath, Jayantha; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2012-11-01

    Enteroviruses are a common cause of neonatal infection. In particular, Coxsackie B viruses are often associated with severe, fatal disease. The antenatal diagnosis of Coxsackie B viral infections is uncommon. We present a unique case of Coxsackie B4 virus ventriculitis and myocarditis causing fetal hydrops at 22 weeks gestation. Transmission was inferred by viral isolation from the amniotic fluid and by placental pathology. We also describe two additional cases of fatal neonatal Coxsackie B4 infection complicated by myocarditis and encephalitis with cerebral necrosis in a 4-day-old female and by myocarditis, spinal leptomeningitis, and hepatitis in a 4-day-old male. Transplacental acquisition of infection carries a poor prognosis. We propose that Coxsackie B virus should be considered in the investigation of nonimmune hydrops, particularly in the presence of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:23946895

  14. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  15. Patients’ perspectives on antenatal group consultations: Identifying communicative strengths and weaknesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth; Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    Introduction and objectives: The doctor-patient dyad has constituted the main paradigmatic relationship in Western medicine, and provided a central focus for health communication research and clinical teaching endeavors. With new technologies, other constellations are enabled, such as patient......-patient communication, which is increasingly taking place in online patient communities. One novel offline setting which can support patient-patient communication is the group consultation where an individual healthcare professional and a group of patients engage. The purpose of this study is to investigate how patient......-patient communication unfolds in a group consultation with a midwife in order to identify its communicative strengths and weaknesses. Methods: Using a sequential multi-methods design, we performed eight individual interviews with pregnant women from a Danish antenatal clinic about their experiences of two group...

  16. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  17. The influence of antenatal exposure to phthalates on subsequent female reproductive development in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger; Doherty, Dorota A; Frederiksen, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that antenatal exposure to ubiquitous phthalates may lead to an earlier menarche and a lower prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCO) in adolescence. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 3000 women at 18......-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, androstenedione and DHEAS. 400 µL of the frozen maternal serum underwent isotope diluted liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with preceding enzymatic deconjugation followed by solid phase extraction to determine phthalate exposure. 244 girls...... attended assessment and most common phthalate metabolites were detectable in the majority of the 123 samples available. Several phthalates were negatively associated with maternal SHBG, associations with maternal androgens were less consistent. The sum of the metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  18. Maternal bereavement in the antenatal period and oral cleft in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, K G; Liang, H; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    to the body of literature on stress and birth defects. Our study is in agreement with previously published results and can be generalized to similar populations like the native Danish population. Severe stress may be added to the list of potential causes for oral cleft.......STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal bereavement (emotional stress) due to loss of a close relative in the antenatal period associated with the risk of oral cleft in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study suggests prenatal maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft...... in the offspring, especially when the bereavement was due to a sudden death or death of a child. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The aetiology of oral cleft is unknown but includes both genetic and environmental causes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION: We performed a population-based cohort study based on several national...

  19. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed to adequately care for obese pregnant women especially during antenatal care. This review evaluates the current evidence of obesity interventions during pregnancy various including weight loss for safety and efficacy. Recommendations are provided with the end goal being a healthy pregnancy, optimal condition for breastfeeding and prevent the progression of obesity in future generations.

  20. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities.

  1. Psychosocial factors of antenatal anxiety and depression in Pakistan: is social support a mediator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waqas

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities.This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS. Pearson's chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS.Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65. Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%, borderline (110, 22% or anxious (245, 49%. Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%, borderline (123, 24.6% or depressed (159, 31.8%. Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05. Social support (SPS score mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05.Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors.

  2. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  3. Comparison of micromorphometric testis tissue structures in antenatal fetuses and patients with congenital cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Bunkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of paired organs, testicles in particular, in the antenatal period as compared to congenital cryptorchidism in the context of interrelationship can objectively approach the consideration of the whole set of physiological and pathological processes in them, by taking into account histophysiological identity. The paper gives the results of micromorphometric examinations of the units of a communication system (cellular populations and the areas of parenchymatous and stromal structures (intertubular connective tissue, convoluted seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic epithelium in two groups: 1 34 antenatal (ANT fetuses at 20–41 weeks' gestation and 2 46 children with congenital unilateral cryptorchidism (CR, in whom testis tissue biopsy specimens were examined at the age of 1 to 14 years. Determination of the similarity of micromorphometric structures (the number of cellular population in the intertubular connective tissue, convoluted seminiferous tubules, and the areas of intertubular connective tissue, spermatogenic epithelium, and capillary lumens was analyzed to discover an identity in the testes tissues of the ANT fetuses versus the children with congenital unilateral CR, by considering the position and site of testicles. The findings indicate that there are synchronous changes of individual similar structures between the right and left testicle during its natural descent into the scrotum in the ANT fetuses and in the patients with congenital CR, which is suggestive of the symmetry and relationship between the contralateral sex glands in different ontogenetic groups. This may testify that there are similar processes occurring between the testis tissues in the children with congenital CR and in the ANT fetuses. The findings may become a ground for further consideration of congenital CR in the context of not only the micromorphometry, but also functional activity of tests tissue structures when comparatively analyzing these

  4. IMPACT OF ANTENATAL COUNSELLING ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE REGARDING BREASTFEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Manjula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of several studies from India and other countries with high under 5 mortality rates, there is a need for strategies to save children from preventable causes of death. Ensuring safe infant feeding by promoting breastfeeding is the most practical and viable of such strategies. However, lack of knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding on the part of the mothers as well as health care providers has led to faulty infant feeding practices taking a toll in the developing countries. There is a definite need for interventions that improve the knowledge of the mothers regarding ideal breastfeeding practices. The present study attempts to evaluate the usefulness of trained, semi-skilled lactation counsellors in positively influencing the knowledge, attitude and practices of breastfeeding mothers. AIMS To assess the impact of antenatal counselling on the knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS It is a single centre cross sectional questionnaire based study. Pregnant Mothers admitted in OBG Department of Gandhi Hospital are included in the Study; 600 pregnant women recruited were divided into groups A and B with 300 subjects in each group. Women in group B were given a brief structured lactation counselling on a one-to-one basis by trained, semi-skilled lactation counsellors just before delivery. Both groups were interviewed after delivery using an identical questionnaire to assess their knowledge, atti tude and practice regarding breastfeeding. The responses were statistically analysed using an open Epi Info method. RESULTS In the Counselled group there is a significant positive impact on mothers in all parameters of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS 1. Antenatal counselling by trained lactation counsellors plays a significant positive impact on the knowledge, attitude and practices of breastfeeding mothers. 2. Lactation Counsellors may be from the community with comprehensive training from paediatricians.

  5. Diagnosing dementia: No easy job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquay Louis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From both clinical experience and research we learned that in complex progressive disorders such as dementia, diagnosis includes multiple steps, each with their own clinical and research characteristics. Discussion Diagnosing starts with a trigger phase in which the GP gradually realizes that dementia may be emerging. This is followed by a disease-oriented diagnosis and subsequently a care -oriented diagnosis. In parallel the GP should consider the consequences of this process for the caregiver and the interaction between both. As soon as a comprehensive diagnosis and care plan are available, monitoring follows. Summary We propose to split the diagnostic process into four diagnostic steps, followed by a monitoring phase. We recommend to include these steps when designing studies on screening, diagnosis and monitoring of patients with dementia and their families.

  6. Transplantvaskulopathie - Pathophysiologie, Diagnose und Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pölzl G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Transplantvaskulopathie (CAV ist die häufigste Todesursache im Langzeitverlauf nach Herztransplantation. Sowohl immunologische als auch nicht-immunologische Faktoren sind für die Entwicklung der meist konzentrischen, diffusen, überwiegend fibrösen Intimahyperplasie verantwortlich. Die klinische Symptomatik ist unspezifisch, regelmäßige Kontrolluntersuchungen sind daher erforderlich. Im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Koronarangiographie ermöglicht der intravaskuläre Ultraschall die frühzeitige Diagnose und Quantifizierung der Erkrankung und damit einen raschen Therapiebeginn. Dabei spielen die konsequente Einstellung kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktoren, die immunsuppressive Therapie und die Zytomegalie-Prophylaxe eine wichtige Rolle. Bei schweren Verlaufsformen kommen die perkutane Koronarintervention, seltener die Bypassoperation und in ausgewählten Fällen die Retransplantation zum Einsatz.

  7. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer. © 2013 by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.......Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen......-binding fragments in cancer targeting and therapy. VHHs express low immunogenicity, are highly robust and easy to manufacture and have the ability to recognize hidden or uncommon epitopes. We highlight the utility of VHH in design of new molecular, multifunctional particulate and immune cell-based systems...

  8. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  9. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with adrenal hemorrhage in a child : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Han Wook; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a disease that is clinically diagnosed if a patient suffers recurrent thromboses, stroke, recurrent fetal loss, livedo reticularis, and thrombocytopenia, without evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective diseases. Adrenal hemorrhage in a patient with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a rarely recognized, but potentially catastrophic disorder. We recently encountered bilateral adrenal hemorrhaging in a child with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and casem as well as reviewing the literature.

  10. [Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in congenital heart block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Prieto, Ernesto; Martínez Ceccopieri, David Alejandro; Panduro Barón, J Guadalupe; Fajardo Dueñas, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    Describe a case of a female patient having anti-Ro/SSA antibodies without any other risk factor or collagen disease. In her first pregnancy a congenital heart block and hydrops in the fetus were diagnosed, and these caused stillbirth. In a second pregnancy an in utero treatment resulted in the succesful delivery of a normal child.

  11. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources

  12. Report of the first nationally implemented clinical routine screening for fetal RHD in D- pregnant women to ascertain the requirement for antenatal RhD prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Christiansen, Mette; Steffensen, Rudi;

    2012-01-01

    and analyzed for the presence of the RHD gene by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting two RHD exons. Prediction of the fetal RhD type was compared with serologic typing of the newborn in 2312 pregnancies, which represented the first 6 months of routine analysis. RESULTS: For the detection of.......087%) were not detected, and antenatal RhIG was not given. CONCLUSION: These data represent the first demonstration of the reliability of routine antenatal fetal RHD screening in D-, pregnant women to ascertain the requirement for antenatal RhD prophylaxis. Our findings should encourage the implementation of...

  13. Physical examinations and laboratory tests in antenatal care visits in Denmark. Do reported practice and current official guidelines concord with results of literature reviews? A nationwide study of the public scheme of shared antenatal care in general practice, centres of midwifery and hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, F B; Andersen, K V; Andersen, A M;

    1995-01-01

    To analyse physical examinations and laboratory tests reported in antenatal care visits in relation to official guidelines and reviews of appropriateness.......To analyse physical examinations and laboratory tests reported in antenatal care visits in relation to official guidelines and reviews of appropriateness....

  14. Analisis Cakupan Antenatal Care K4 Program Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak di Wilayah Kerja Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Padang Pariaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmispendriya Gusna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPencapaian target K4 (kunjungan ibu hamil ke tenaga kesehatan yang dilakukan paling sedikit 4 kali selama hamil akan terlaksana jika adanya motivasi bidan di desa ditambah pembinaan dari bidan koordinator yang secara rutin dilakukan dalam bentuk supervisi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis cakupan antenatal care K4 program kesehatan ibu dan anak di wilayah kerja dinas kesehatan kabupaten Padang Pariaman. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian gabungan antara kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian untuk penelitian kuantitatif  adalah 49 orang bidan desa, sedangkan informan untuk kualitatif adalah kepala bidang kesehatan keluarga dan Kasie kesehatan ibu dan anak dinas kesehatan kabupaten Padang Pariaman, kepala puskesmas, petugas pemegang program KIA dan bidan pengelola KIA di puskesmas Sungai Limau. Hasil penelitian ini mendapatkan lebih dari separoh (53,1% bidan desa memiliki motivasi rendah, sedangkan lebih dari separoh (67,3% bidan koordinator sudah melakukan supervisi  ke bidan desa dan pada umumnya (91,8% responden memiliki cakupan K4 yang rendah. Tidak terdapat hubungan antara motivasi bidan desa dan supervisi bidan koordinator dengan cakupan antenatal care K4 (p < 0.05. Cakupan antenatal care K4 di Kabupaten Padang Pariaman belum berhasil karena kurangnya peran aktif bidan desa di tengah masyarakat, monitoring dan evaluasi dari dinas kesehatan dan pimpinan puskesmas serta supervisi bidan koordinator belum optimal, serta sumber daya manusia yang belum memaksimalkan perannya dalam melaksanakan tugas ditambah masih kurangnya  kelengkapan sarana dan prasarana. Perlu optimalisasi peran dan fungsi bidan di desa dan optimalisasi kemitraan dengan berbagai pihak dalam komunitas.Kata kunci: cakupan antenatal care K4, motivasi, supervisi AbstractThe achievement of K4 (four time antenatal care target will be success with support from motivation of village midwives and routine supervision of coordinator midwives. The

  15. Acute infection by hepatitis E virus with a slight immunoglobulin M antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Imanishi, Mamiko; Ishige, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody response is generally regarded as a useful marker for diagnosing primary infection. However, in some cases, this antibody is not detected during the acute phase of infection. An 81-year-old man with stable membranous nephropathy who presented with asymptomatic acute liver dysfunction came to our hospital. HEV RNA of genotype 3 was detected in his serum, and he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E. According to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high-level positivity for anti-HEV IgG and IgA antibodies was observed, but the assay was negative for IgM antibody throughout the clinical course of infection. The patient was not immunosuppressed. We further investigated the presence of IgM antibody using two other polyclonal antibodies against human IgM as secondary antibodies and another recombinant ORF2 protein of genotype 3 as an immobilized antigen. IgM was weakly detected in the serum during the acute phase only by the test with the antigen of genotype 3. Multi-genotype antigens can detect a slight IgM antibody response; however, anti-HEV IgA is more useful in diagnosing primary HEV infection, particularly in cases with a low IgM antibody response. PMID:26215116

  16. The Utilization of a New Immunochromatographic Test in Detection of Helicobacter pylori Antibody from Maternal and Umbilical Cord Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori was linked with several extragastrointestinal diseases, including preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction of fetus. One of the signals which can be transferred from mother to fetus is the H. pylori IgG antibody. Aims. We utilized a commercial immunochromatographic kit to detect the antibody in maternal and cord serum. Methods. Three hundred and forty-six females were enrolled and the blood samples were collected on antenatal examination and on delivery. The maternal H. pylori infection was determined by stool H. pylori antigen test. Results. One hundred and five females (30.3% were H. pylori-infected, and the prevalence was higher in immigrants (43.5% than in Taiwanese (28.7%, P=0.058. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the kit were 77.1%, 88.0%, 73.6%, 89.8%, and 84.7%, respectively. This kit also had similar performance in cord serum. Comparing to the maternal result on delivery, this kit offered a consistent performance in antenatal maternal serum (kappa coefficient 0.92 and in cord serum (kappa coefficient 0.88. Conclusions. H. pylori IgG antibody can be transferred through the placenta into the fetal circulation. However, accuracy of the test kit needs to be evaluated before utilization in screening.

  17. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antiviral immunoresponse have to be used to confirm more specifically the diagnosis of viral hepatitis. IgM antibodies against viral antigens implicated in the elimination of the virus seem to be suitable alternative candidates. Significant changes in the serum values of viraemia and aminotransferases occur within a few days, while a significant variation in liver histology takes much longer. Only the kinetics of the highly variable parameters can be used for an appropriate study of the relationship between viraemia, antiviral immunoresponse, and liver cell necrosis. Quantitative and dynamic analyses of hepatitis virus markers seem the most suitable and reliable methods of monitoring the patients eligible for antiviral treatment and identifying the most appropriate time to start this. PMID:8314490

  18. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasch Vibeke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT. A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been scaled up to reach first level health facilities. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV testing. Results The prevalence of women who lacked HIV testing among the study group was 10% while more than half of the women tested had had more than two tests during pregnancy. The following factors were associated with the lack of antenatal HIV test: having two children (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4, living in a remote rural area (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 3.4-17.8, late antenatal care attendance (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.1 and not being informed about PMTCT at their first antenatal care visits (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 2.6-21.1. Among women who had multiple tests, 80% had the second test after 36 weeks of gestation. Women who had first ANC and first HIV testing at health facilities at primary level were more likely to be tested multiple times (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.9-4.3 and OR = 4.7 95% CI 3.5-6.4, respectively. Conclusions Not having an HIV test during pregnancy was associated with poor socio-economic characteristics among the women and with not receiving information about PMTCT at the first ANC visit. Multiple testing during pregnancy prevailed; the second tests were often

  19. Application of Ultrasonography Measuring the Thickness of the Fetal Nuchal Translucency in Antenatal Examination%超声测量胎儿颈项透明层厚度在产前筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁庄

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonography oi the fetus is accurate and safe in diagnosis with non-invasive, no teratogenir efferts,and no additive effert. It's ruiTently the preferred diagnostic imaging method oi screening the ietal malformations and obstetrie prenatal diagnosis. Antenatal examination is the necessary method oi diagnosing ietal malformation currently, and at the 11-13+6weeks oi gestation ultrasound screening for the measurement oi ietal nuchal translucency is the most significant examination in first trimester oi pregnancy, which is especially now considered the most sensitive target ior screening the ietal chromosomal all normalities. Here is to make a review on the application oi ultrsonography measuring the thickness oi the ietal nuchal translucency in antenatal examination.%超声检查对胎儿无创伤、无致畸作用、无叠加效应,诊断准确且安全性高,是目前产科产前诊断与筛查胎儿畸形首选的影像诊断方法.产前筛查是目前诊断胎儿畸形的必要手段,孕11 ~13+6周超声测量胎儿颈项透明层(NT)厚度是孕早期诊断胎儿畸形最有意义的一项检查,特别是筛查染色体异常的较敏感的指标.现将超声测量胎儿NT厚度在产前筛查中的应用予以综述.

  20. Prevalence of anemia in women with asymptomatic malaria parasitemia at first antenatal care visit at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agan, TU; Ekabua, JE; Udoh, AE; Ekanem, EI; Efiok, EE; Mgbekem, MA

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy in malaria endemic areas is a public health challenge that has contributed either directly or indirectly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. Anemia and malaria during pregnancy are highly preventable and treatable. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anemia in asymptomatic malaria parasitemic women at first antenatal visit in a tertiary hospital facility. Method: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of ...

  1. Antenatal Depression is Associated with Pregnancy-related Anxiety, Partner Relations, and Wealth in Women in Northern Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rwakarema, Mechtilda; Premji, Shahirose S; Nyanza, Elias Charles; Riziki, Ponsiano; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial health problems, specifically depression during pregnancy, can have negative impact on birth outcomes, postnatal mental health of the mother, and infant health. Antenatal depression is more prevalent among women in low- and middle-income countries than among women in high-income countries. Risk factors for antenatal depression reported in the literature relate to pregnant women in South Asia. Consequently, this study assessed depression in pregnancy and related psychos...

  2. Why do women not use antenatal services in low- and middle-income countries? A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Finlayson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 50% of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs don't receive adequate antenatal care. Women's views can offer important insights into this problem. Qualitative studies exploring inadequate use of antenatal services have been undertaken in a range of countries, but the findings are not easily transferable. We aimed to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a predetermined search strategy, we identified robust qualitative studies reporting on the views and experiences of women in LMICs who received inadequate antenatal care. We used meta-ethnographic techniques to generate themes and a line-of-argument synthesis. We derived policy-relevant hypotheses from the findings. We included 21 papers representing the views of more than 1,230 women from 15 countries. Three key themes were identified: "pregnancy as socially risky and physiologically healthy", "resource use and survival in conditions of extreme poverty", and "not getting it right the first time". The line-of-argument synthesis describes a dissonance between programme design and cultural contexts that may restrict access and discourage return visits. We hypothesize that centralised, risk-focused antenatal care programmes may be at odds with the resources, beliefs, and experiences of pregnant women who underuse antenatal services. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in LMICs. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences is likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resources or physical danger during travel, when the promised care is not delivered because of resource constraints, and when women experience

  3. Couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing in an antenatal clinic in Lusaka, Zambia: lessons for policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Musheke, M.; Bond, V.; Merten, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Couple HIV testing has been recognized as critical to increase uptake of HIV testing, facilitate disclosure of HIV status to marital partner, improve access to treatment, care and support, and promote safe sex. The Zambia national protocol on integrated prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) allows for the provision of couple testing in antenatal clinics. This paper examines couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing at a public antenatal clinic...

  4. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Selection of Recombinant Human Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomszak, Florian; Weber, Susanne; Zantow, Jonas; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of therapeutic antibodies the demand of recombinant human antibodies is steadily increasing. Traditionally, therapeutic antibodies were generated by immunization of rat or mice, the generation of hybridoma clones, cloning of the antibody genes and subsequent humanization and engineering of the lead candidates. In the last few years, techniques were developed that use transgenic animals with a human antibody gene repertoire. Here, modern recombinant DNA technologies can be combined with well established immunization and hybridoma technologies to generate already affinity maturated human antibodies. An alternative are in vitro technologies which enabled the generation of fully human antibodies from antibody gene libraries that even exceed the human antibody repertoire. Specific antibodies can be isolated from these libraries in a very short time and therefore reduce the development time of an antibody drug at a very early stage.In this review, we describe different technologies that are currently used for the in vitro and in vivo generation of human antibodies. PMID:27236551

  6. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  7. Novel approaches in diagnosing tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2011-06-01

    The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.

  8. Pulmonale Hypertension, Pathophysiologie, Diagnose, Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang I

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die pulmonale Hypertension (PH ist ein Syndrom, bestehend aus Atemnot bei Belastung, Brustschmerzen und Synkopen und beruht auf einer Steigerung des pulmonal-arteriellen Druckes und Erhöhung des Lungengefäßwiderstandes. Durch einen progressiven Verlauf kommt es beim Unbehandelten innerhalb von zwei bis drei Jahren nach Diagnosestellung zu Rechtsherzversagen und Tod. Die Erkrankung ist eine Lungengefäßerkrankung. In allen Schichten der Gefäßwand finden sich pathologische Veränderungen. Das Lungengefäßendothel zeigt prokoagulatorische Eigenschaften, die glatte Gefäßmuskulatur ist depolarisiert und Kalzium-überladen, die Adventitia zeigt eine Überexpression von Metalloproteinasen und Elastasen als Ausdruck eines aktiven vaskulären Remodelings. Basierend auf dem Konzept, daß Vasokonstriktion und thrombotischer Verschluß der Widerstandsgefäße der Lunge den Krankheitsprozeß beschleunigen, werden derzeit Vasodilatation und Antikoagulierung als Therapie eingesetzt. Noch vor wenigen Jahren wurde die medikamentöse Therapie der PH nur als Überbrückung zur Lungen- oder Herz-Lungen-Transplantation betrachtet. Allerdings könnten Vasodilatatoren oder Vasodilatator-Kombinationstherapien in Zukunft eine Alternative zur Lungentransplantation darstellen. Vor Beginn einer Vasodilatatortherapie wird in einem standardisierten Austestungsverfahren die individuelle Gefäßreaktivität festgestellt. Schlüssel für die Diagnostik ist die Abgrenzung der chronisch thromboembolischen pulmonalen Hypertension (CTEPH von allen anderen Formen. Die CTEPH ist die einzige PH, die durch eine pulmonale Thromboendarterektomie geheilt werden kann. Dieser Artikel bietet eine kurze aktuelle Zusammenfassung über Klassifikation der verschiedenen Formen von PH, Pathologie und Pathobiologie, Risikofaktoren, Genetik, Diagnose und Therapien.

  9. How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implications for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpembeni Rose

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is a widely used strategy to improve the health of pregnant women and to encourage skilled care during childbirth. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania developed a national adaptation plan based on the new model of the World Health Organisation (WHO. In this study we assess the time health workers currently spent on providing ANC services and compare it to the requirements anticipated for the new ANC model in order to identify the implications of Focused ANC on health care providers' workload. Methods Health workers in four dispensaries in Mtwara Urban District, Southern Tanzania, were observed while providing routine ANC. The time used for the overall activity as well as for the different, specific components of 71 ANC service provisions was measured in detail; 28 of these were first visits and 43 revisits. Standard time requirements for the provision of focused ANC were assessed through simulated consultations based on the new guidelines. Results The average time health workers currently spend for providing ANC service to a first visit client was found to be 15 minutes; the provision of ANC according to the focused ANC model was assessed to be 46 minutes. For a revisiting client the difference between current practise and the anticipated standard of the new model was 27 minutes (9 vs. 36 min.. The major discrepancy between the two procedures was related to counselling. On average a first visit client was counselled for 1:30 minutes, while counselling in revisiting clients did hardly take place at all. The simulation of focused ANC revealed that proper counselling would take about 15 minutes per visit. Conclusion While the introduction of focused ANC has the potential to improve the health of pregnant women and to raise the number of births attended by skilled staff in Tanzania, it may need additional investment in human resources. The generally anticipated saving effect of

  10. Seroprevalence of unexpected red blood cell antibodies among pregnant women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eipl, K; Nakabiito, C; Bwogi, K; Motevalli, M; Roots, A; Blagg, L; Jackson, J B

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among pregnant women in Kampala, Uganda, to determine ABO and D blood types and to determine the percentage who have unexpected red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and their specificities. De-identified blood samples from routine testing of 1001 pregnant women at the Mulago Hospital antenatal clinics in Kampala were typed for ABO and D and screened for the presence of unexpected RBC antibodies with confirmation and subsequent antibody identification. Of the 1001 blood samples tested, 48.9 percent, 26.4 percent, 21.0 percent, and 3.8 percent tested positive for blood groups 0, A, B, and AB, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (2.3%)were negative forD, and 55 (5.5%) showed initial reactivity with at least one screening RBC. The RBC antibody screen was repeated on these 55 samples, and antibody identification was performed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital Blood Bank in Baltimore, Maryland. Twenty-one of the 55 samples were confirmed to have evidence of agglutination. Nine of the 21 samples demonstrated the presence of clinically significant RBC antibodies with anti-S being the most common, 8 samples demonstrated the presence of benign or naturally occurring antibodies, and 4 had only inconclusive reactivity. This study revealed a relatively high frequency of D and a low frequency of demonstrable clinically significant alloantibodies that may cause hemolytic disease of the newborn or hemolytic transfusion reactions among pregnant women in Kampala, with anti-S being the most frequent antibody specificity. PMID:23421539

  11. Predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among antenatal clinic attendants in Ghana: a cross-sectional study of population data

    OpenAIRE

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Ansah, Evelyn K.; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Grobbee, Diederick E; Gbenga A Kayode; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify demographic, maternal and community predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among women who attend antenatal clinic at least once during their pregnancy in Ghana. Design A cross-sectional study using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. We used frequencies for descriptive analysis, χ2 test for associations and logistic regression to identify significant predictors. Predictive models were built with estimation of area under the receiver operating ...

  12. Pengaruh Pemanfaatan Pelayanan Antenatal Care (ANC) terhadap Kejadian Anemia pada Kehamilan Usia Remaja di Kecamatan Hinai Kabupaten Langkat tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Eva Sari Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy in teenagers has an adequately high medical risk because during that time the reproductive organs are not yet mature enough for reproduction. One of the risks may occur during the teenagers pregnancy is anaemia. Many factors predicted to have influenced the incident of anaemia in teenagers and one of them is the low or inappropriate utilization of antenatal care service. The purpose of this observational study with cross-sectional design conducted in Hinai Subdistrict, Langkat Di...

  13. Fertility Intent and Contraceptive Decision-making among HIV Positive and Negative Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, Heather M.; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Daya

    2012-01-01

    We explored contraceptive decision-making among South African antenatal clinic attendees, fertility intent post-HIV diagnosis, and women’s experiences at government health facilities. Data are from in-depth interviews with HIV negative and HIV positive women. We interviewed women in Zulu; interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated. We conducted qualitative analyses of interviews. Women were the dominant decision-makers about contraceptive use, whether they involved their partners or...

  14. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

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    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  15. Perilaku pemeriksaan antenatal sebagai faktor risiko anemia gizi ibu hamil di Puskesmas II Denpasar Selatan tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Made Dwi Hendrayani

    2013-01-01

    The South Denpasar II community health centre has the highest reported nutritional anaemia among pregnant women(57,4%) in the year 2011-2012. Nutritional anaemia increased the risk of maternal and perinatal mortality, prematurity and lowbirth weight. This case control study aimed to identify the relationship between antenatal care (ANC) behaviour and nutritionalanemia. The study involved 69 cases and 69 controls which taken from pregnant women records April to August 2012 by using aquota samp...

  16. Comparison of hypnosis with conventional relaxation for antenatal and intrapartum use: a feasibility study in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Brann, Les R.; Guzvica, Sally A.

    1987-01-01

    A hypnosis programme for antenatal and intrapartum use has been developed and successfully introduced into a practice as an alternative to conventional relaxation training. Of 96 women from the practice who delivered during the 10-month period of the study 51 opted for the psychoprophylaxis and 45 for the hypnosis. Details of the pregnancy, labour and postnatal period were collected for both groups, together with a subjective assessment of their satisfaction with labour.

  17. Household cost of antenatal care and delivery services in a rural community of Kaduna state, northwestern Nigeria

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    Mohd Nasiq Sambo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality remains a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. While Nigeria has only two percent of the global population, it contributes 10% to the global maternal mortality burden. Antenatal care (ANC reduces the incidence of maternal mortality. However, financial capability affects access to antenatal care. Thus, the rural poor are at a higher risk of maternal mortality. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 135 women (pregnant women and those who are 6 weeks postpartum. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences software (version 17. Results: The average amount spent on booking and initial laboratory investigations were N77 (half a dollar and N316 ($2, respectively. Per ANC visit, average amount spent on drugs and transportation were N229 ($1.5 and N139 ($0.9 respectively. For delivery, the average amount spent was N1500 ($9.6. On an average, ANC plus delivery cost about N3,365.00 ($22. There was a statistically significant association between husband′s income and ANC attendance (X 2 = 2.451, df = 2, P = 0.048. Conclusion: Cost of Antenatal care and delivery services were not catastrophic but were a barrier to accessing antenatal care and facility-based delivery services in the study area. ANC attendance was associated with the income of household heads. Pro-poor policies and actions are needed to address this problem, as it will go a long way in reducing maternal mortality in this part of the country.

  18. Previous Early Antenatal Service Utilization Improves Timely Booking: Cross-Sectional Study at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse Belayneh; Mulat Adefris; Gashaw Andargie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Early booking of antenatal care (ANC) is regarded as a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health care. However, existing evidence from developing countries indicate that lots of pregnant woman begin ANC booking lately. Objective. It was aimed to assess timing of ANC booking and associated factors among pregnant women attending ANC clinic at University of Gondar Hospital, 2013. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study design was used to collect data with a face-to-face...

  19. 'They would never receive you without a husband' : Paradoxical barriers to antenatal care scale-up in Rwanda.

    OpenAIRE

    Påfs, Jessica; Musafili, Aimable; Finnema, Pauline Binder; Allvin, Marie Klingberg; Rulisa, Stephen; Essén, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore perspectives and experiences of antenatal care and partner involvement among women who nearly died during pregnancy ('near-miss'). DESIGN: a study guided by naturalistic inquiry was conducted, and included extended in-community participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions. Qualitative data were collected between March 2013 and April 2014 in Kigali, Rwanda. FINDINGS: all informants were aware of the recommendations of male involvement f...

  20. Prevalence of syphilis infection in Mozambican women with second trimester miscarriage and women attending antenatal care in second trimester.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrand, A; Bergström, S; Bugalho, A.; Zanconato, G; Helgesson, A M; Hederstedt, B.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To elucidate whether recent syphilis infection is significantly more prevalent among women with mid-trimester miscarriage than among antenatal care attenders in midtrimester pregnancy. DESIGN--Two categories of pregnant women were compared regarding serological signs of syphilis. Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) analyses were done in Mozambique and Veneral Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests in Sweden. In case of RPR and/or VDRL positivity, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA...

  1. Novel molecular variants of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter gene are responsible for antenatal Bartter syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Poussou, R; Feldmann, D. (Dirk); Vollmer, M.; Konrad, M; Kelly, L.; van den Heuvel, L.P.; Tebourbi, L; Brandis, M.; Karolyi, L.; Hebert, S C; Lemmink, H.H.; Deschênes, G.; Hildebrandt, F.; Seyberth, H. W.; Guay-Woodford, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a variant of inherited renal-tubular disorders associated with hypokalemic alkalosis. This disorder typically presents as a life-threatening condition beginning in utero, with marked fetal polyuria that leads to polyhydramnios and premature delivery. Another hallmark of this variant is a marked hypercalciuria and, as a secondary consequence, the development of nephrocalcinosis and osteopenia. We have analyzed 15 probands belonging to 13 families and have performe...

  2. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Farnot Ubaldo; Carroli Guillermo; Ba'aqeel Hassan; Al-Mazrou Yagob; Garcia Jo; Villar José; Al-Osimy Muneera; Rojas Georgina; Romero Mariana; Kuchaisit Chusri; Langer Ana; Nigenda Gustavo; Lumbiganon Pisake; Belizán José; Bergsjo Per

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Method...

  3. Development and pretesting of an information, education and communication (IEC focused antenatal care handbook in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avan Bilal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of maternal morbidity and mortality indicators remains a major challenge for developing countries. Antenatal care is one of the key strategies in maintaining safe motherhood. The objective of this study was to develop and pretest a culturally relevant Antenatal Care Handbook (ANC handbook utilizing the principles of information, education, and communication (IEC. We developed the ANC handbook after an extensive review of existing literature, available instruments (for keeping track of pregnancy and informing pregnant women, and seeking expert opinion. To pretest the ANC handbook, a cross-sectional approach was adopted, and information was collected from 300 expectant women, 150 women each from the community and from the health facility arm. Trained field workers conducted the pretesting from May 2004 to June 2004. Feedback on messages for pregnant mothers contained in the handbook was also assessed. At the same time, the ANC handbook was reviewed by 25 health care providers (including community health workers, physicians, nurses, and other health staff working at various kinds of health care facilities. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Findings Twenty-three percent of the interviewed women were primigravida, 50% were multigravida and 27% were grandmultipara. The mean age of the women in the community sample was 25.8 SD: 4.9 years and in the hospital sample it was 25.7 SD: 5.2 years. No significant differences were observed between women interviewed at community or health facilities related to their understanding of ANC messages, and the majority of messages were well understood. Similarly, health care providers found all of the instruments useful and workable in the health system. Finally, feedback from pregnant women and health care staff regarding different components of the handbook were incorporated and later verified by them. Conclusions Findings of pretesting reveal that a

  4. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of chinese women at maternal and child health centres

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    Siu Bonnie WM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors. Methods Eight hundred and five Chinese women were interviewed during their third trimester of pregnancy and at around 2 months postnatally. Putative risk factors for PND were collected and the diagnosis of PND was confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The 2-month postnatal depression status was used as the dependent variable for univariate and multivariate analyses against putative risk factors. Results Marital dissatisfaction (Relative Risk = 8.27, dissatisfied relationship with mother-in-law (Relative Risk = 3.93, antenatal depressive symptomatology (Relative Risk = 3.90, and anxiety-prone personality (Relative Risk = 2.14 predicted PND in Chinese women independently. Conclusions Chinese women tend to keep their own feelings and emotions and it is important to monitor Chinese pregnant women with these predictive risk factors so that PND can be identified early.

  5. The Simplified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS for Antenatal Depression: Is It a Valid Measure for Pre-Screening?

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    Sea Kyung Choi, Jung Jin Kim, Yong Gyu Park, Hyun Sun Ko, In Yang Park, Jong Chul Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of antenatal depression is critical but poorly conducted. The aim of this study was to construct a simplified depression survey scale and to verify its efficacy as a pre-screening for antenatal depression. A total of 494 pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation who had received antenatal care at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from July 2009 to June 2010 were included. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS questionnaire was completed by them. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 250 of training set and 244 of validation set. We designed a simplified questionnaire comprising two items of EPDS using the training set. We then validated its efficacy with the training set and reaffirmed the results with the validation set. The sum of item 5 (scare or panic and item 8 (sadness or misery explained 75.5% of the total score of the EPDS (AUC = 0.947. Using a score of 3 as a cut-off value of the simplified scale, sensitivity was 92.4% and specificity was 86.3%. The positive and negative predictive values were 56.2% and 98.4%, retrospectively. This study suggests that the simplified EPDS can be an efficient instrument to rule out depression during pregnancy.

  6. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  7. Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

    2013-05-01

    Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics.

  8. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnot Ubaldo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a concepts about pregnancy and health care, b experience with health services and health providers, and c opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

  9. Correlates of antenatal body mass index (bmi as a determinant of birth weight – a longitudinal study

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    Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI in antenatal period and birth weight of child, along with the socio-demographic determinants of birth weight. Methods: A longitudinal study of one-year duration, from June 2010 to May 2011, was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Universal sampling method was employed, including as subjects all pregnant women with minimum two Antenatal Care (ANC visits - and at least one in the third trimester - registered at an urban health centre from June to August 2010. Subjects with any pre-existing co-morbid illness or with past history of giving birth to twins or to any congenitally malformed child, or else, with outcome of still births or home delivery, were excluded. These women were followed up for the next months until delivery. Maternal weight was recorded at each visit and BMI was calculated, or the average BMI, in case of more than one visit in any trimester. Birth weight was recorded using hospital or maternity home records. Results: Prevalence of low birth weight was 26.7%. Correlation between maternal BMI of third trimester and neonatal birth weight was moderately positive. 60.8% of variability in birth weight can be predicted by maternal BMI in third trimester. Conclusions: Third trimester BMI can be used as a predictor of neonatal birth weight. Information, Education and Counseling (IEC activities regarding utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC services can help reducing the incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW.

  10. [Two cases with SLE and MCTD developed after a long period of chronic arthritis that was initially diagnosed as JRA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, S; Maeno, N; Shigemori, M; Nakae, Y; Mori, H; Nerome, Y; Imanaka, H; Hokonohara, M; Miyata, K

    1997-10-01

    In order to discuss the diversity of clinical features and the difficulty in diagnosis of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), we present two cases who have documented the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) after a long period of disease characterized only by arthritis that was initially diagnosed as JRA. The first case was a girl diagnosed for her arthritic joints as polyarticular JRA at 15 years of age. At onset, she had Raynaud phenomenon but autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-DNA antibody, and rheumatoid factor were negative. Five years after onset, she became ANA positive and 3 years later she became pregnant. During her pregnancy, she became positive for anti-DNA antibody without any signs of nephritis. One month after the delivery, however, she developed butterfly rash, carditis, nephritis, and was diagnosed as SLE. No destructive changes were observed in her joints though arthritis continued for 8 years form onset to pregnancy. The second case was a 3 years old girl who was diagnosed as polyarticular JRA. Treatment by aspirin induced complate remission after one year from the onset. However, 10 years after that remission, she developed Raynaud phenomenon and arthralgia in her knees and hip joints. Her laboratory findings showed hypergammaglobulinemia, positive ANA, positive anti-DNA antibody, positive anti-RNP antibody. She was eventually diagnosed as MCTD when she was found to have polymyositis by EMG and serum CK. In the present paper, two cases imply the difficulty in diagnosing JRA and diversity of rheumatic diseases such as JRA, SLE and MCTD. Closer and longer period of observation is essential for the JRA patients with nondestructive arthritis.

  11. Longitudinal study of interferon-gamma, serum antibody and milk antibody responses in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huda, A.; Jungersen, Gregers; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    cattle of 2+ years of age. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses supported the assumption that the IFN-gamma test had a better performance than antibody tests of animals of 1+ and 2+ years of age. However, for animals of 3+ years all tests performed equally well. Application of single sampling......-blood lymphocytes (IFN-gamma test), and measurement of antibody responses against M. paratuberculosis in serum and milk by an in-house absorbed ELISA. The IFN-gamma test diagnosed higher proportions of infected and exposed animals than the antibody ELISAs. The highest sensitivity of IFN-gamma test was in infected...... compared with repeated samplings showed better performance of the IFN-gamma test by repeated samplings, and the milk antibody ELISA in animals of 3+ years of age performed significantly better with repeated sampling compared with single sampling. In conclusion, the IFN-gamma test may be applied...

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IRON SUPPLEMENTS IN SOUTH INDIAN ANTENATAL WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

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    Geetha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. It is a major public health problem particularly among pregnant women with adverse effects on the mother and the new born. Iron supplementation is universally recommended to correct or prevent iron deficiency. AIMS & OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of three oral iron preparations in anemic pregnant women of more than 14 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized Control trial, done at Tagore Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. 60 antenatal women were selected; they were divided into three groups, 20 in each group. They were treated with Carbonyl iron, ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate. Hemoglobin estimation was done at 0 day, 30th and 60th day. Adverse effects were monitored. RESULTS: Data analysis showed an increase in haemoglobin levels in all three groups after the 30th day (p<0.05. Carbonyl iron showed highly significant increase (p<0.05 in the haemoglobin level as compared to the other two drugs at the end of the 60th day. CONCLUSION: Carbonyl iron is superior in efficacy when compared to ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate and is better tolerated. So carbonyl iron is safe in pregnancy and can be given as a supplement to treat iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

  13. The Impact of Integration of Rapid Syphilis Testing during Routine Antenatal Services in Rural Kenya

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    Eleanor Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the integration of rapid syphilis tests (RSTs and penicillin treatment kits into routine antenatal clinic (ANC services in two rural districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya. In February 2011, nurses from 25 clinics were trained in using RSTs and documenting test results and treatment. During March 2011–February 2012, free RSTs and treatment kits were provided to clinics for use during ANC visits. We analyzed ANC registry data from eight clinics during the 12-month periods before and during RST program implementation and compared syphilis testing, diagnosis, and treatment during the two periods. Syphilis testing at first ANC visit increased from 18% (279 of 1,586 attendees before the intervention to 70% (1,123 of 1,614 attendees during the intervention (P<0.001; 35 women (3% tested positive during the intervention period compared with 1 (<1% before (P<0.001. Syphilis treatment was not recorded according to training recommendations; seven clinics identified 28 RST-positive women and recorded 34 treatment kits as used. Individual-level data from three high-volume clinics supported that the intervention did not negatively affect HIV test uptake. Integrating RSTs into rural ANC services increased syphilis testing and detection. Record keeping on treatment of syphilis in RST-positive women remains challenging.

  14. EXPLAINING THE GAP IN ANTENATAL CARE SERVICE UTILIZATION BETWEEN YOUNGER AND OLDER MOTHERS IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Sheila A; Amoyaw, Jonathan; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-05-01

    Over two-thirds of pregnant women (69%) have at least one antenatal care (ANC) coverage contact in sub-Saharan Africa. However, to achieve the full life-saving potential that ANC promises for women and babies, a nuanced understanding of age-specific gaps in utilization of ANC services is required. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 1456 individuals, this study examined the disparities in the use of ANC services between younger and older mothers by applying four counterfactual decomposition techniques. The results show that cross-group differences in the explanatory variables largely account for the differentials in ANC service utilization between younger and older mothers. Birth order (parity) accounts for the largest share of the contribution to the overall explained gap in ANC utilization between the younger and older mothers, suggesting that ANC differentials between the two groups are probably due to biosocial factors. To a lesser extent, wealth status of the two groups also contributes to the overall explained gap in ANC service utilization. The policy implications of these findings are that in order to bridge the ANC service utilization gap between the two groups, policymakers must systematically address gaps in cross-group differences in the explanatory variables in order to increase the utilization of ANC to attain the minimum recommendation of four visits as per World Health Organization guidelines. PMID:26160032

  15. Antenatal Corticosteroids: A Risk Factor for the Development of Chronic Disease

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    Elizabeth Asztalos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth remains a major health issue worldwide. Since the 1990s, women at risk for preterm birth received a single course of exogenous antenatal corticosteroids (ACSs to facilitate fetal lung maturity. More recently, repeated or multiple courses of ACS have been supported to provide continued fetal maturity support for women with continued risk of preterm birth. However, exogenous ACS reduces birth weight which, in turn, is associated with adverse adult outcomes such as coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. The long-term effects of ACS exposure on HPA axis activity and neurological function are well documented in animal studies, and it appears that ACS, regardless of dose exposure, is capable of affecting fetal HPA axis development causing permanent changes in the HPA axis that persists through life and is manifested by chronic illness and behavioral changes. The challenge in human studies is to demonstrate whether an intervention such as ACS administration in pregnancy contributes to developmental programming and how this is manifested in later life.

  16. Frequency of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendee in combined military hospital abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency of syphilis among pregnant women attending Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad Study Design: Descriptive study. Material and Methods: A screening for syphilis of 500 married pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics was carried out using the qualitative Rapid Plasma Regent (RPR) test/ Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. The Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test was used as confirmatory test for all Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test positive cases. Results: A total of 8 women (1.6%) were positive for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Out of these 4 (0.8%) were positive for Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test. All of these cases have bad obstetrical history. Conclusion: The sero-positivity of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is (1.6%), considered high among pregnant women reporting in obstetrics clinics of Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad. Similarly sero-positivity of Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test is (0.8%) considered high among the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test population. Therefore Screening of syphilis in pregnancy especially in patients having bad obstetrical history (BOH) should be incorporated into the study. (author)

  17. Antenatal Care Strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia: A Mixed-Method Needs Assessment

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    Sarah Fredsted Villadsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health education, and lack of training of health professionals. Conclusions. Health system trials are needed to study the feasibility of ANC strengthening in the study area. Nationally and internationally, the leadership needs to be strengthened with supportive supervision geared towards building trust and mutual respect to protect maternal and infant health.

  18. Fast automatic analysis of antenatal dexamethasone on micro-seizure activity in the EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work wc develop an automatic scheme for studying the effect of the antenatal Dexamethasone on the EEG activity. To do so an FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) based detector was designed and applied to the EEG recordings obtained from two groups of fetal sheep. Both groups received two injections with a time delay of 24 h between them. However the applied medicine was different for each group (Dex and saline). The detector developed was used to automatically identify and classify micro-seizures that occurred in the frequency bands corresponding to the EEG transients known as slow waves (2.5 14 Hz). For each second of the data recordings the spectrum was computed and the rise of the energy in each predefined frequency band then counted when the energy level exceeded a predefined corresponding threshold level (Where the threshold level was obtained from the long term average of the spectral points at each band). Our results demonstrate that it was possible to automatically count the micro-seizures for the three different bands in a time effective manner. It was found that the number of transients did not strongly depend on the nature of the injected medicine which was consistent with the results manually obtained by an EEG expert. Tn conclusion, the automatic detection scheme presented here would allow for rapid micro-seizure event identification of hours of highly sampled EEG data thus providing a valuable time-saving device.

  19. Adolescent mothers’ non-utilisation of antenatal care services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Chaibva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent pregnancies are high risk obstetric occurrences. Antenatal care (ANC provides opportunities to recognise and treat obstetric complications, enhancing the pregnancy outcomes for mothers and babies. The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing adolescents' non-utilisation of ANC services in Bulawayo. The Health Belief Model (HBM was used to contextualise the study. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive research design was adopted, using structured interviews to collect data. Purposive, non-probability sampling was used to conduct structured interviews with 80 adolescent mothers from the postnatal wards who had delivered their babies without attending ANC. Factors influencing these adolescent mothers’ non-utilisation of ANC services included socio-economic issues, individuals' perceptions about ANC, limited knowledge about ANC, policies and structural barriers. However, these adolescents knew that delivering their babies with skilled attendance could enhance the outcomes for the mothers and babies, would help secure documents to facilitate the acquisition of their children's birth certificates, and that obstetric complications required the services of skilled midwives/doctors. Policy-related issues, such as requiring national identity cards from pregnant adolescents (or from their spouses prohibited some of them from utilising ANC services. There is a need to improve adolescents’ reproductive health outreach (including ANC programmes and to offer free ANC services in Zimbabwe. Restrictive policies, such as the required identity cards of the pregnant adolescents (or their husbands, impacted negatively on the accessibility of ANC services and should be addressed as a matter of urgency in Bulawayo.

  20. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  1. Study of utilization of antenatal care services iin tribal area of Thane district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpalata Abhiman Bhaisare

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many health problems among pregnant women are preventable, detectable or treatable through visits to health facility before birth. This enables women to receive important services, such as tetanus vaccinations and screening and treatment for infections, as well as potentially life-saving information on warning signs during pregnancy.2 The objective of this study is to understand the current status of utilization of maternal health services in rural area by elucidating the various factors influencing the use of these services. Methods: It is a community based, cross sectional study carried out in a primary health centre in tribal area of Thane district. Results: 93% women received ANC care for 3 or more than 3 times. 73% women received recommended antenatal care. 68% women received ANC care exclusively from public health facility. Conclusions: Inspite of implementation of various programmes like Janani Suraksha Yojana, Matrutva Anudan Yojana and NRHM in the area percentage of registration during first trimester was less. There was lack of awareness and motivation in study subjects to come on their own to PHC for early registration of pregnancy. Though the coverage of ANC services was good it was not of good quality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 378-383

  2. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and eva

  3. Therapy of Newly Diagnosed Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Westin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma is relatively common and can be effectively treated with several differing approaches. Although the disease is often considered incurable, it is highly responsive to therapy when indicated. This review discusses the indications for treatment, risk stratification systems, treatment options with supporting clinical trial data, and expected therapeutic outcomes in newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma.

  4. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  5. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood may be due to: Chronic liver disease Collagen vascular disease Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Myositis (inflammatory muscle disease) ... Saunders; 2011:chap 51. Read More Antibody Arthritis Collagen vascular disease Drug-induced lupus erythematosus Liver disease Scleroderma Systemic ...

  6. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  7. Predictors of ante-natal care, delivery and infant feeding practices among rural women in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrapal Ishwarji Meshram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality rates and prevalence of under nutrition are high in the State Madhya Pradesh. Regular ante-natal check-ups (ANC, delivery by trained health personnel, delivery practices and optimal infant feeding practices are important to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Objectives: The aim was to assess antenatal care, delivery and infant feeding practices of mothers of <1-year-old children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This was community-based cross-sectional study carried out in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh by adopting systematic random sampling procedure. Data were collected from 5324 mothers having <1-year-old children. Information on household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars was collected from the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed to study the association between dependent and independent variables. Results and Interpretations: About 36% mothers had undergone at least three ante-natal check-ups and 73% delivered either at government or private hospitals. Only 26% mothers initiated breastfeeding within 1-h of birth and 92% fed colostrum. Step-wise regression analysis showed that ante-natal care for <3 times was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among women with high parity (≥5, illiterate women, and among lower socioeconomic group,s while home delivery was higher among women with high parity (≥5 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, among Scheduled Caste and Tribe women (OR: 1.5, illiteracy of head of HH (OR: 2, and among lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.3. Discarding colostrum was higher among illiterate women (OR: 1.6, belonging to lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.4 and delivery conducted by untrained person (OR: 3.9, while initiation of breastfeeding after 1-h of childbirth was higher among ≥30 years women (OR: 1.9, illiterate women (OR: 1.4, and delivery by untrained person (OR: 2.9. Conclusions: It was observed that antenatal care, delivery and infant and

  8. Antenatal and obstetric care in Afghanistan – a qualitative study among health care receivers and health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite attempts from the government to improve ante- and perinatal care, Afghanistan has once again been labeled “the worst country in which to be a mom” in Save the Children’s World’s Mothers’ Report. This study investigated how pregnant women and health care providers experience the existing antenatal and obstetric health care situation in Afghanistan. Methods Data were obtained through one-to-one semi-structured interviews of 27 individuals, including 12 women who were pregnant or had recently given birth, seven doctors, five midwives, and three traditional birth attendants. The interviews were carried out in Kabul and the village of Ramak in Ghazni Province. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and analyzed according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis. Results Antenatal care was reported to be underused, even when available. Several obstacles were identified, including a lack of knowledge regarding the importance of antenatal care among the women and their families, financial difficulties, and transportation problems. The women also reported significant dissatisfaction with the attitudes and behavior of health personnel, which included instances of verbal and physical abuse. According to the health professionals, poor working conditions, low salaries, and high stress levels contributed to this matter. Personal contacts inside the hospital were considered necessary for receiving high quality care, and bribery was customary. Despite these serious concerns, the women expressed gratitude for having even limited access to health care, especially treatment provided by a female doctor. Health professionals were proud of their work and enjoyed the opportunity to help their community. Conclusion This study identified several obstacles which must be addressed to improve reproductive health in Afghanistan. There was limited understanding of the importance of antenatal care and a lack of family support. Financial and

  9. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  10. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transg...

  11. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood Peter; Hunter Cynthia L; Titaley Christiana R; Dibley Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using thes...

  12. Antenatal corticosteroids for maturity of term or near term fetuses: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids given at ≥34 weeks’ gestation. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Electronic databases were searched from their inception to February 2016. Eligibility criteria for study selection Randomized clinical trials comparing antenatal corticosteroids with placebo or no treatment in women with a singleton pregnancy at ≥34 weeks’ gestation. Trials on antenatal steroids in women expected to deliver late preterm (340-366 weeks) and trials given before planned cesarean delivery at term (≥37 weeks) were included. Data synthesis The primary outcome was the incidence of severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The summary measures were reported as relative risks or mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Results Six trials, including 5698 singleton pregnancies, were analyzed. Three included 3200 women at 340-366 weeks’ gestation and at risk of imminent premature delivery at the time of hospital admission. The three other trials included 2498 women undergoing planned cesarean delivery at ≥37 weeks. Overall, infants of mothers who received antenatal corticosteroids at ≥34 weeks had a significantly lower risk of RDS (relative risk 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.91), mild RDS (0.67, 0.46 to 0.96), moderate RDS (0.39, 0.18 to 0.89), transient tachypnea of the newborn (0.56, 0.37 to 0.86), severe RDS (0.55, 0.33 to 0.91), use of surfactant, and mechanical ventilation, and a significantly lower time receiving oxygen (mean difference −2.06 hours, 95% confidence interval −2.17 to −1.95), lower maximum inspired oxygen concentration (−0.66%, −0.69% to −0.63%), shorter stay on a neonatal intensive care unit (−7.64 days, −7.65 to −7.64), and higher APGAR scores compared with controls. Infants of mothers who received antenatal betamethasone at 340-366 weeks’ gestation had a significantly lower incidence of transient tachypnea of the newborn

  13. Association of anti-phospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases

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    Reena Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA are directed against phospholipids and their binding proteins and are frequently found in association with connective tissue disorders. Systemic lupus erythematoses (SLE with APLA may cause a diagnostic dilemma as there are several manifestations like haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurologic manifestations, leg ulcerations, serositis proteinuria which overlap in both these conditions. We conducted a study to find out the association of antiphospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases and compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between antiphoshpolipid antibody positive and antiphoshpolipid antibody negative group. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 102 patients diagnosed with connective tissue diseases. APLA testing was done at baseline and for those positive, the test was repeated after 12 weeks. Results: 14.7 % of patients with connective tissue diseases tissue had positive antiphoshpolipid antibodies. Positive antiphoshpolipid antibody was detected in 73.3% of patients with SLE group, 13.3% of patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD and 13.3% of patients with systemic sclerosis. APLA positivity was seen in SLE patients with leg ulcers (87.2%, neurologic manifestation (72.7%, hemolytic anemia (62.3%, thrombocytopenia (72.7%, serositis (27.8% and proteinuria(19.6%. Conclusions: Antiphoshpolipid antibodies should be tested in all patients with connective tissue disease.

  14. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi;

    2014-01-01

    for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  15. Engineering antibodies for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The advent of modern antibody engineering has led to numerous successes in the application of these proteins for cancer therapy in the 13 years since the first Food and Drug Administration approval, which has stimulated active interest in developing more and better drugs based on these molecules. A wide range of tools for discovering and engineering antibodies has been brought to bear on this challenge in the past two decades. Here, we summarize mechanisms of monoclonal antibody therapeutic activity, challenges to effective antibody-based treatment, existing technologies for antibody engineering, and current concepts for engineering new antibody formats and antibody alternatives as next generation biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

  16. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent birth within five years preceding each survey was examined. Twenty-three potential risk factors were identified and categorized into four main groups, external environment, predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential risk factors and underutilization of antenatal services. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR was calculated for selected significant factors associated with the outcome. Results Factors strongly associated with underutilization of antenatal care services were infants from rural areas and from outer Java-Bali region, infants from low household wealth index and with low maternal education level, and high birth rank infants with short birth interval of less than two years. Other associated factors identified included mothers reporting distance to health facilities as a major problem, mothers less exposed to mass media, and mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy. The PAR showed that 55% of the total risks for underutilization of antenatal care services were attributable to the combined low household wealth index and low maternal education level. Conclusions Strategies to increase the accessibility and availability of health care services are important particularly for communities in rural areas. Financial support that enables mothers from poor households to use health services will be beneficial. Health promotion programs targeting

  17. Suppression of in vitro megakaryopoiesis by maternal sera containing anti-HPA-1a antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Jian; Bussel, James B; Lakkaraja, Madhavi; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca; Ghevaert, Cedric; Feldman, Henry A; McFarland, Janice G; Chavda, Chaitanya; Sola-Visner, Martha

    2015-09-01

    Incompatibility of the human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) system is the most common cause of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (F/NAIT) and is thought to be mediated by accelerated clearance of antibody-opsonized fetal platelets. We evaluated the effect of maternal sera containing anti-HPA-1a antibodies (F/NAIT sera) on in vitro megakaryopoiesis. Compared with control maternal sera, 14 out of 17 F/NAIT sera significantly reduced megakaryocyte (MK) number. This finding was associated with increased apoptosis and cell death of early MKs/MK progenitors, but normal maturation and differentiation of surviving MKs. An analysis of platelet counts in infants born to mothers following antenatal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) ± prednisone therapy demonstrated a significant and moderately strong correlation between the MK growth in cultures and the infants' platelet counts at birth. These findings suggest that maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies can suppress fetal megakaryopoiesis by inducing early cell death and that this influences the neonatal platelet count. Thus, the ability of maternal antibodies to suppress MK growth is a potential predictive factor for the fetal response to maternal IVIG therapy.

  18. Validation studies of nursing diagnoses in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Rabasová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the review was the analysis of Czech and foreign literature sources and professional periodicals to obtain a relevant comprehensive overview of validation studies of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. Design: Review. Methods: The selection criterion was studies concerning the validation of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. To obtain data from relevant sources, the licensed professional databases EBSCO, Web of Science and Scopus were utilized. The search criteria were: date of publication - unlimited; academic periodicals - full text; peer-reviewed periodicals; search language - English, Czech and Slovak. Results: A total of 788 studies were found. Only 5 studies were eligible for content analysis, dealing specifically with validation of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. The analysis of the retrieved studies suggests that authors are most often concerned with identifying the defining characteristics of nursing diagnoses applicable to both the mother (parents and the newborn. The diagnoses were validated in the domains Role Relationship; Coping/Stress tolerance; Activity/Rest, and Elimination and Exchange. Diagnoses represented were from the field of dysfunctional physical needs as well as the field of psychosocial and spiritual needs. The diagnoses were as follows: Parental role conflict (00064; Impaired parenting (00056; Grieving (00136; Ineffective breathing pattern (00032; Impaired gas exchange (00030; and Impaired spontaneous ventilation (00033. Conclusion: Validation studies enable effective planning of interventions with measurable results and support clinical nursing practice.

  19. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  20. Abnormal antenatal sonogram: an indicator of disease severity in children with posterior urethral valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, S. [Peterborough Health Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); McLeod, L. [IWK Health Centre, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Acott, P. [IWK Health Centre, Dept. of Nephrology, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Walsh, E. [Dr. Charles A. Janeway Children' s Health Centre, Dept. of Radiology, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada); Abdolell, M. [QE II Health Sciences Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Macken, M.B., E-mail: mmacken@dal.ca [IWK Health Centre, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    To review the association of an abnormal prenatal sonogram with most recent serum creatinine in patients with proven posterior urethral valves (PUV). Since 1992, all live-born patients between 1992-2004 with clinically proven PUV, with postnatally proven PUV, from 2 pediatric tertiary care centers, were reviewed for age at diagnosis, most recent serum creatinine, presence of chronic renal failure (CRF) (serum creatinine >2 standard deviations above normal for age), or end stage renal disease (dialysis or transplant). Available antenatal reports from the 2 centres and surrounding community hospitals were reviewed for gestational age (GA) at the time of ultrasound, volume of amniotic fluid, and urinary-tract abnormality. Thirty-four patients with proven PUV and prenatal sonograms were identified (1992-2004). Eighteen patients had abnormalities on their prenatal sonogram, with poor outcome in 5 (mean follow-up, 8 years [1-13 y]). No specific features were identified on prenatal sonogram. Sixteen patients had normal prenatal sonograms, with poor outcomes in 2 (mean follow-up, 8 years [3-13 y]). There is an increased risk of an abnormal serum creatinine among those patients with an abnormal prenatal study, odds ratio (OR) 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.35-32). PUV represents a spectrum of disease severity. A normal prenatal ultrasound does not preclude PUV. The majority of patients with a normal prenatal examination have good outcomes. The OR suggests that there may be increased risk for poor outcome in those with an abnormal prenatal examination. A multicenter study is necessary to obtain a larger sample size and more precise ORs. (author)

  1. Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Siri; Foster, Jennifer; Kols, Adrienne

    2012-08-01

    In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2007. Follow-up surveys documented a sustained increase in WaterGuard use three years after the initial intervention. In 2010, PATH (www.path.org) conducted qualitative research on the factors motivating women to adopt, sustain, or discontinue use. To provide context, interviews were also conducted with their friends, relatives, and husbands. Interviews revealed that sustained use of WaterGuard does not necessarily imply consistent use. Most respondents reported switching back and forth between WaterGuard and stock chlorine distributed for free by the government, and many treated water seasonally rather than year-round. Qualitative findings suggest that two program strategies strongly influenced women's decisions to adopt, purchase, and continue using WaterGuard. First, positive, ongoing contacts with health care workers, especially during home visits, raised awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use. Second, an extended free trial of the product overcame initial cost barriers and allowed women and their families to experience the health benefits of WaterGuard, appreciate its value and relevance to their lives, and get used to its taste. Social support-from like-minded relatives, friends, neighbors, health care workers, husbands, and children-was also a critical factor that promoted consistent, ongoing use of WaterGuard. The findings confirm the importance of interpersonal communication in prompting adoption of household water treatment and suggest that consumers assess the perceived value of a product, not

  2. Does antenatal maternal psychological distress affect placental circulation in the third trimester?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helbig

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Some types of antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced fetal growth and birthweight. A stress-mediated reduction in placental blood flow has been suggested as a mechanism. Previous studies have examined this using ultrasound-derived arterial resistance measures in the uterine (UtA and umbilical (UA arteries, with mixed conclusions. However, a reduction in placental volume blood flow may occur before changes in arterial resistance measures are seen. Fetoplacental volume blood flow can be quantified non-invasively in the umbilical vein (UV. Our objective was to study whether specific types of maternal psychological distress affect the placental circulation, using volume blood flow quantification in addition to arterial resistance measures. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 104 non-smoking pregnant women (gestational age 30 weeks with uncomplicated obstetric histories. Psychological distress was measured by General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance and arousal. UtA and UA resistance measures and UV volume blood flow normalized for fetal abdominal circumference, were obtained by Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: IES intrusion scores above the mean were associated with a reduction in normalized UV volume blood flow (corresponding to -0.61 SD; P = 0.003. Adjusting for UA resistance increased the strength of this association (difference -0.66 SD; P<0.001. Other distress types were not associated with UV volume blood flow. Maternal distress was not associated with arterial resistance measures, despite adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Intrusive thoughts and emotional distress regarding the fetus were associated with reduced fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. Uterine and umbilical artery resistance measures were not associated with maternal distress. Our findings support a decrease

  3. Factors affecting antenatal care attendance: results from qualitative studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi with varying levels of ANC attendance. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. RESULTS: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care - checking the foetus' position or monitoring its progress - motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women's timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures - in spite of policies of free ANC - combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. CONCLUSION: In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that 'supply' side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation.

  4. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Shelley A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  5. INTRAVENOUS IRON VERSUS ORAL IRON IN ANTENATAL WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN SUB - HIMALAYAN SETTINGS

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    Shraddha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare Intravenous Iron sucrose and Oral Ferrous sulphate in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy. METHOD: 100 sub - himalayan antenatal women between 12 to 36 weeks gestation from Central Referral Hospital with Iron deficiency anemia; hemoglobin 6 – 9 gm/dl, MCV<78fl, MCH <30pg, and serum ferritin <15μg/l; were randomized to receive either 200mg ferrous sulphate tablet twice daily for 6 weeks or receive intravenous ferric hydroxide sucrose complex in water after calculating Total dose infusion. The primary outcome measure was change in hemoglobin, RBC indices, serum ferritin and total serum iron. RESULTS: The mean increase in total serum iron following iron sucrose was 40.20±5.11μg/dl compared to a increase of 33.56±3.39 μg/dl with oral ferrous sulphate, which was statistically highly significant (P< 0.0001. Similarly, the mean increase in serum ferritin with iron sucrose was 31.72 ±10.74μg/dl and with ferrous sulphate being 23.31±4.06 μg/dl which was also statistically highly significant (P<0.001. There was no difference in the increase in hemoglobin, MCV and MCHC between the two groups. CONCLUSION : Though increase in hemoglobin an d RBC indices were not significantly higher with iron sucrose, the main highlight of the study was that iron sucrose significantly increased serum ferritin and serum iron, suggesting that it replenishes iron stores much better than oral iron. Iron sucrose also had a more favourable improvement in clinical features with fewer side - effects , and more effective in later months of pregnancy. This may be of relevance to pregnant mothers residing in difficult Sub - Himalayan terrain.

  6. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

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    Abubakar Sadiq Umar, MBBS, MPH, MHPM, FWACP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson’s Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Results: Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR = 2.40; CI 1.24 – 4.67, belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 – 75.74 and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 – 10.52 are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG 1 – eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 – universal basic education; MDG 3 – gender equality; and MDG 4 – maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach.

  7. Antenatal BAY 41-2272 reduces pulmonary hypertension in the rabbit model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Aline; Herber-Jonat, Susanne; Flemmer, Andreas W; Strizek, Brigitte; Engels, Alexander C; Jani, Jacques C

    2016-04-01

    Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) fail to adapt at birth because of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PH), a condition characterized by excessive muscularization and abnormal vasoreactivity of pulmonary vessels. Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by BAY 41-2272 prevents pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal rats with hypoxia-induced PH. By analogy, we hypothesized that prenatal administration of BAY 41-2272 would improve features of PH in the rabbit CDH model. Rabbit fetuses with surgically induced CDH at day 23 of gestation were randomized at day 28 for an intratracheal injection of BAY 41-2272 or vehicle. After term delivery (day 31), lung mechanics, right ventricular pressure, and serum NH2-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. After euthanasia, lungs were processed for biological or histological analyses. Compared with untouched fetuses, the surgical creation of CDH reduced the lung-to-body weight ratio, increased mean terminal bronchial density, and impaired lung mechanics. Typical characteristics of PH were found in the hypoplastic lungs, including increased right ventricular pressure, higher serum NT-proBNP levels, thickened adventitial and medial layers of pulmonary arteries, reduced capillary density, and lower levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. A single antenatal instillation of BAY 41-2272 reduced mean right ventricular pressure and medial thickness of small resistive arteries in CDH fetuses. Capillary density, endothelial cell proliferation, and transcripts of endothelial nitric oxide synthase increased, whereas airway morphometry, lung growth, and mechanics remained unchanged. These results suggest that pharmacological activation of soluble guanylate cyclase may provide a new approach to the prenatal treatment of PH associated with CDH. PMID:26873974

  8. Contraceptive Awareness and Practice Among Antenatal Attendees in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

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    Aniekan Monday Abasiattai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of effective contraceptive methods has been shown to improve health, sexual life and partner relations and also significantly reduce maternal and infant mortality by protecting against unplanned pregnancy, high fertility and high parity. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of contraception by women in Uyo, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to three hundred and seventy women in the antenatal clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Results: Majority of the respondents were 21-30 years old (64.1%, 53.8% were multiparous and 66.5% had tertiary level education. Three hundred and twenty women (87.6% had heard about contraception (OR=49.6, P< 0.001, while only 49.5% of the respondents had practiced contraception previously (OR=0.96, P=0.76 of which the male condom (40.0% and the safe period/calendar method (31.1% were the most commonly practiced methods. Majority of the respondents (66.8% preferred to have 3 to 4 children and 78.4% of the respondents would want to used a method of contraception to either space their family or limit child bearing (OR=13.14, P< 0.001. Fear of side effects (20.0% and previous bad experience (8.8% were the most common reasons given by those respondents who would not want to practice contraception. Conclusion: This study reveals a high level of awareness of contraception but a significant unmet need among the respondents. There is need to intensify public enlightenment campaigns in our environment emphasizing the benefits and safety of modern contraceptive methods. Community leaders and heads of social groups and women organisations should be co-opted in the dissemination of accurate information on contraception. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 29-34

  9. Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Siri; Foster, Jennifer; Kols, Adrienne

    2012-08-01

    In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2007. Follow-up surveys documented a sustained increase in WaterGuard use three years after the initial intervention. In 2010, PATH (www.path.org) conducted qualitative research on the factors motivating women to adopt, sustain, or discontinue use. To provide context, interviews were also conducted with their friends, relatives, and husbands. Interviews revealed that sustained use of WaterGuard does not necessarily imply consistent use. Most respondents reported switching back and forth between WaterGuard and stock chlorine distributed for free by the government, and many treated water seasonally rather than year-round. Qualitative findings suggest that two program strategies strongly influenced women's decisions to adopt, purchase, and continue using WaterGuard. First, positive, ongoing contacts with health care workers, especially during home visits, raised awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use. Second, an extended free trial of the product overcame initial cost barriers and allowed women and their families to experience the health benefits of WaterGuard, appreciate its value and relevance to their lives, and get used to its taste. Social support-from like-minded relatives, friends, neighbors, health care workers, husbands, and children-was also a critical factor that promoted consistent, ongoing use of WaterGuard. The findings confirm the importance of interpersonal communication in prompting adoption of household water treatment and suggest that consumers assess the perceived value of a product, not

  10. Prevalence of Diagnosed Cancer According to Duration of Diagnosed Diabetes and Current Insulin Use Among U.S. Adults With Diagnosed Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoyang; Zhao, Guixiang; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Ford, Earl S.; Balluz, Lina S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed cancer according to duration of diagnosed diabetes and current insulin use among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 25,964 adults aged ≥18 years with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that the greater the duration of diagnosed diabetes, the higher the prevalence of diagnosed ...

  11. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

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    Brocklehurst Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

  12. How Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this protein generally indicate a more advanced CLL. Bone marrow tests Blood tests are often enough to diagnose ... is called an incisional biopsy . Lumbar puncture (or spinal tap) This procedure is used to take samples ...

  13. How Is Breast Cancer in Men Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disturbing. Some places will give you headphones with music to block this noise out. MRIs are also expensive, but insurance plans generally pay for them in some situations, such as once cancer is diagnosed. MRI machines are quite common, but ...

  14. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » How are lung carcinoid tumors diagnosed? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  15. Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning about Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes There are several ways ... mg/dl – 199 mg/dl Preventing Type 2 Diabetes You will not develop type 2 diabetes automatically ...

  16. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  17. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate......-2. Based on the presented data we suggest that affinity maturation of the model antibody proceeds through multiple incremental steps of subtle improvements. We moreover conclude that the best affinity improved candidates are likely to be obtained through optimization of both the antigen...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  18. Diagnosing patients with longstanding shoulder joint pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Krogsgaard, M R; Lorenzen, T;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the interobserver agreement of commonly used clinical tests and diagnoses in patients with shoulder pain, and the accuracy of these tests and ultrasonographic findings in comparison with arthroscopic findings. METHODS: Eighty six patients with longstanding shoulder joint pain...... lesion also showed poor agreement. Pain during muscle contraction showed moderate agreement. The agreement of clinical diagnoses was poor and the accuracy was low in comparison with arthroscopy. Ultrasonography was accurate in full thickness supraspinatus tendon tears, but inaccurate for partial tears...

  19. Challenges in diagnosing tuberculosis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Nadia; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Nielsen, Vibeke Rosenfeldt;

    2012-01-01

    Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country.......Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country....

  20. Anti-microbial antibodies in celiac disease: Trick or treat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Papp; Ildiko Foldi; Istvan Altorjay; Eszter Palyu; Miklos Udvardy; Judit Tumpek; Sandor Sipka; Ilma Rita Korponay-Szabo; Eva Nemes; Gabor Veres; Tamas Dinya; Attila Tordai; Hajnalka Andrikovics; Gary L Norman; Peter Laszlo Lakatos

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of a new set of anti-glycan and anti-outer membrane protein (anti- OMP) antibodies in a Hungarian cohort of adult Celiac disease (CD) patients. METHODS: 190 consecutive CD patients [M/F: 71/119, age:39.9 (SD:14.1) years], 100 healthy, and 48 gastrointestinal controls were tested for glycan anti- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gASCA), anti-laminaribioside (ALCA), anti-chitobioside, anti-mannobioside, anti-OMP antibodies and major NOD2/CARD15 mutations. Thirty out of 82 CD patients enrolled at the time of diagnosis were re-evaluated for the same antibodies after longstanding gluten-free diet (GFD).RESULTS: 65.9% of the CD patients were positive for at least one of the tested antibodies at the time of the diagnosis. Except anti-OMP and ALCA, antimicrobial antibodies were exclusively seen in untreated CD; however, the overall sensitivity was low. Any glycan positivity (LR+: 3.13; 95% CI: 2.08-4.73)was associated with an increased likelihood ratio for diagnosing CD. Significant correlation was found between the levels of anti-glycan and anti-endomysial or anti-transglutaminase antibodies. Anti-glycan positivity was lost after longstanding GFD. Anti-glycan antibody titers were associated with symptoms at presentation, but not the presence of NOD2/CARD15 mutations. Patients with severe malabsorption more frequently had multiple antibodies at diagnosis ( P = 0.019).CONCLUSION: The presence of anti-glycan antibodies in CD seems to be secondary to the impaired small bowel mucosa which can lead to increased antigen presentation.Furthermore, anti-glycan positivity may be considered an additional marker of CD and dietary adherence.

  1. Antenatal care practice and the chance of having nurse/midwife birth attendant: a study in Central Mountain of Papua

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    Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Papua merupakan salah satu propinsi di Indonesia dengan angka kematian ibu tertinggi di Indonesia. Penolong persalinan terlatih dan asuhan antenatal (ANC merupakan salah satu faktor yang penting untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu. Tujuan studi ini untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh ANC dan beberapa faktor yang lain terhadap kemungkinan persalinan yang ditolong oleh perawat/bidan di Papua.Metode: Studi potong lintang dengan sampling purposif dilakukan terhadap perempuan yang mempunyai anak balita yang datang ke Posyandu pada 15-30 Januari 2014 di 24 desa wilayah pegunungan tengah Jayawijaya, Papua. Karakteristik demografi, praktek ANC dan persalinan didapatkan melalui wawancara. Subjek diklasifikasikan ke dalam 2 kelompok, yang bersalin didampingi perawat/bidan dan yang menolong sendiri atau ditolong keluarga. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox dengan waktu konstan. Hasil: Dari 469 subjek, 391 subjek yang dianalisis terdiri dari 280 subjek yang melahirkan ditolong sendiri/keluarga dan 111 subjek yang ditolong perawat/bidan. Subjek yang yang melahirkan di hutan atau kandang hina hanya 3 orang. Dibandingkan dengan yang tidak pernah ANC, subjek yang melakukan ANC di Posyandu 5,6 kali kemungkinan melahirkan ditolong perawat/bidan [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 5,60; interval kepercayaan 95% (CI = 2,99-10,47]. Selain itu, subjek yang mendapatkan pemeriksaan ANC oleh bidan dan kunjungan ANC 4 kali memiliki kemungkinan lebih tinggi untuk melahirkan ditolong perawat/bidan, masing-masing 4,9 kali (RRa = 4,89; 95% CI = 2,70-8,86 dan 6,9 kali (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3,59-13,27.Kesimpulan: Asuhan antenatal adalah cara untuk meningkatkan angka persalinan yang ditolong oleh tenaga tenaga perawat/bidan di Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Kata kunci: asuhan antenatal, persalinan oleh perawat/bidan, PapuaAbstractBackground: Papua has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in Indonesia. Nurse/midwife birth attendants and regular

  2. ANTENATAL THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN RAYALASEEMA REGION: A PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY BASED ON CIRCULATING SERUM THYROTROPIN LEVELS

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    Pandit Vinodh Bandela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foetal brain development can be influenced by thyroid gland functioning. Sub normal function of thyroid gland in first trimester of pregnancy leads to miscarriages, stillborn and anomalies of central nervous system in foetus. The environmental factors that will effect thyroid gland functioning are deficit soil iodine, high fluoridation of water and low dietary iodine intake. Rayalaseema is endemic for iodine and most of the communities are suffering from high fluoride levels of water. Therefore study was designed to estimate prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women of Rayalaseema region. Materials and Methods: 139 first trimester pregnant women randomly selected from Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Santhiram medical college and General Hospital, Nandyal during the period from April 2013 to June 2013 in respect of inclusion and exclusion criteria. And fasting blood samples of the participants were analyzed for T3, T4 and TSH. Based on the TSH levels subjects were categorised in to euthyroid, hypothyroid, subclinical hypothyroid and hyper thyroid. Results: The prevalence of antenatal thyroid dysfunction is 18.70% [10.0% - subclinical hypothyroid, 2.87% - overt hypothyroid, 5.75% - hyperthyroid and 81.29% - euthyroid]. 37.5%- tribal, 10.81% - rural and 21.21% urban antenatal are suffering from thyroid dysfunction. Median maternal age was 25 years and gestational age was 8.5 weeks. Prevalence of pregnancy related risk factors include 26.92% - personnel thyroid history, 11.53% - hypertension, 15.38% - elevated fasting blood glucose, 30.76 % - family thyroid history. Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism was highly prevalent among Rayalaseema region antenatal women at first trimester of pr

  3. Evaluation of clinical findings on 10063 prognance women for second-trimester antenatal screening in Lanzhou%兰州地区10063例孕妇孕中期二联产前筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝胜菊; 李静; 郑雷; 纪维立; 闫有圣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinic value of screening chromosomal diseases and abnormal pregnancy by maternal serum examination during second trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Auto - DELFLA are used to test the concentrations of AFP and free β - HCG in the serum of mid - pregnant women, then the results were analyzed with 2T Risk calculator and managing software to determine the fetal risk of DS and NTD, considering weight, maternal age, gestational week, etc. Results; of the 10, 063 pregnant women undergoing antenatal screening, 327 (3. 25% ) were considered as high risk of DS, 45 (0. 45% ) cases suggest trisomy - 18, 277 (2. 75% ) cases are NTD. 315 of the high —risk cases underwent amino fluid examination, of which 9 were diagnosed DS, 3 were trisomy - 18 and 4 were other chromosome abnormities. By B ultrasonic, 69 were diagnosed NTD. Conclusions: This study suggests that complementary measures, such as routine antenatal US, maternal serum screening and antenatal diagnosis, have important values in predicting fetal chromosomal diseases and help reduce the birth defect rate.%目的 探讨兰州市孕中期母血清筛查及异常妊娠的临床价值.方法 以全自动时间分辨仪对10 063例中孕期孕妇血清学标本进行甲胎蛋白(AFP)和游离β人绒毛膜促性腺激素(Freeβ-HCG)检测,并结合孕周、体重、年龄等因素,通过2T风险评估软件进行风险评估.结果 在10 063例单胎孕妇中筛查出21-三体高风险327例,占筛查总数3.25%,18-三体高风险45例,占筛查总数0.45%,NTD高风险277例,占筛查总数2.75%.有315例在本院接受产前诊断,经羊水染色体检查,检测出21-三体9例,18-三体3例,其他染色体异常4例.对277例神经管缺陷高风险的孕妇均加强B超检查,确诊69例.结论 定期的B超、母血清标志物的筛查以及产前诊断等手段的联合对于预测胎儿染色体疾病有重要的临床价值,可有效降低染色体病患儿的出生.

  4. Cost-effectiveness estimates for antenatal HIV testing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; Verweel, G.; Folkerts, D.K.F.; Dronkers, F.; van den Hoek, J.A.R.; Hartwig, N.G.; de Groot, R.; Postma, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the lifetime health-care cost of HIV-infected children and an update of the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV-screening of pregnant women in Amsterdam (The Netherlands). During 2003-2005, we collected data concerning the prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV-infect

  5. Cost-effectiveness estimates for antenatal HIV testing in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; Verweel, G.; Folkerts, D.K.; Dronkers, F.; Hoek, JA van den; Hartwig, N.G.; Groot, R. de; Postma, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the lifetime health-care cost of HIV-infected children and an update of the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV-screening of pregnant women in Amsterdam (The Netherlands). During 2003-2005, we collected data concerning the prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV-infect

  6. Antenatal Iron Supplementation Regimens for Pregnant Women in Rural Vietnam and Subsequent Haemoglobin Concentration and Anaemia among Their Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available Little evidence about the effects of antenatal iron supplementation on infant anaemia is available. The aim was to compare effects on six-month-old infants' Haemoglobin (Hb concentration and anaemia of daily iron-folic acid (IFA, twice-weekly IFA with or without other micronutrients (MMN and usual antenatal care in rural Vietnam.Secondary data analysis from: a prospective population-based observational study (OS which examined effects of antenatal psychosocial factors, anaemia and iron deficiency on infant development and health; and a three-arm cluster randomised trial (CRT of different antenatal iron supplementation regimens. In the OS 497 women (<20 weeks gestation from 50 randomly-selected communes participated, and in the CRT 1,258 pregnant women (<16 weeks gestation in 104 communes were allocated randomly to trial arms. The main outcome was six-month-old infant Hb concentration. Baseline data included women's socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, Hb and serum ferritin. Mean differences in infant Hb and odds ratios of infant anaemia between CRT arms and OS were calculated by multivariable regression models, controlling for baseline differences and clustering, using robust standard errors. Infant anaemia prevalence was 68.6% in the OS, 47.2% daily IFA, 53.5% weekly IFA, and 50.3% MMN conditions. After adjustment, mean infant haemoglobin levels in daily IFA (mean difference = 0.95 g/dL; 95%CI 0.7-11.18; weekly IFA (0.91; 95%CI 0.69-1.12 and MMN (1.04; 95%CI 0.8-1.27 were higher than in the OS. After adjustment there were lower odds ratios of anaemia among infants in the daily IFA (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.43, weekly IFA (0.38; 95%CI 0.26-0.54 and MMN (0.33; 95%CI 0.23-0.48 groups than in the OS.Infant anaemia is a public health problem in Vietnam and other resource-constrained countries. All supplementation regimens could have clinically significant benefits for Hb and reduce anaemia risk among six-month-old infants

  7. Antenatal endotoxin disrupts lung vitamin D receptor and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase expression in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Erica; Seedorf, Gregory J; Ryan, Sharon; Gien, Jason; Cramer, Scott D; Abman, Steven H

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D [vit D; 1,25-(OH)2D] treatment improves survival and lung alveolar and vascular growth in an experimental model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) after antenatal exposure to endotoxin (ETX). However, little is known about lung-specific 1,25-(OH)2D3 regulation during development, especially regarding maturational changes in lung-specific expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase), and CYP24A1 during late gestation and the effects of antenatal ETX exposure on 1,25-(OH)2D3 metabolism in the lung. We hypothesized that vit D regulatory proteins undergo maturation regulation in the late fetal and early neonatal lung and that prenatal exposure to ETX impairs lung growth partly through abnormal endogenous vit D metabolism. Normal fetal rat lungs were harvested between embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 14. Lung homogenates were assayed for VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP24A1 protein contents by Western blot analysis. Fetal rats were injected on embryonic day 20 with intra-amniotic ETX, ETX + 1,25-(OH)2D3, or saline and delivered 2 days later. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from fetal sheep were assessed for VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP24A1 expression after treatment with 25-(OH)D3, 1,25-(OH)2D3, ETX, ETX + 25-(OH)D3, or ETX + 1,25-(OH)2D3. We found that lung VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP2741 protein expression dramatically increase immediately before birth (P < 0.01 vs. early fetal values). Antenatal ETX increases CYP24A1 expression (P < 0.05) and decreases VDR and 1α-OHase expression at birth (P < 0.001), but these changes are prevented with concurrent vit D treatment (P < 0.001). ETX-induced reduction of fetal PAEC growth and tube formation and lung 1α-OHase expression are prevented by vit D treatment (P < 0.001). We conclude that lung VDR, 1α-OHase, and CYP24A1 protein content markedly increase before birth and that antenatal ETX disrupts lung vit D metabolism through downregulation of VDR and increased vit D catabolic enzyme

  8. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining

  9. Determinants of Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women Living in Endemic Malaria Settings: Experience from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manianga, Célestin; Kapanga, Serge; Mona, Esther; Pululu, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antenatal care (ANC) attendance helps pregnant women to benefit from preventive and curative services. Methods. Determinants for ANC attendance were identified through a cross-sectional survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Sociocultural bottlenecks were assessed via focus groups discussion of married men and women. Results. In this survey, 28 of the 500 interviewed pregnant women (5.6%) did not attend ANC services and 82.4% booked over the first trimester. The first visit is positively influenced by the reproductive age (OR: 0.52, 95% CI(0.28–0.95), p attendance is delayed among poor women with little education and living alone.

  10. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due

  11. Male Partner Risk Behaviors Are Associated With Reactive Rapid HIV Antibody Tests Among Pregnant Mexican Women: Implications for Prevention of Vertical and Sexual HIV Transmission in Concentrated HIV Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Estela; Kendall, Tamil

    2015-01-01

    Mexico's policies on antenatal HIV testing are contradictory, and little is known about social and behavioral characteristics that increase pregnant Mexican women's risks of acquiring HIV. We analyzed the association between risk behaviors reported by pregnant women for themselves and their male partners, and women's rapid HIV antibody test results from a large national sample. Three quarters of pregnant women with a reactive test did not report risk behaviors for themselves and one third did not report risk behaviors for themselves or their male partners. In the retrospective case-control analysis, other than reporting multiple sexual partners, reactive pregnant women reported risk behaviors did not differ from nonreactive women's behaviors. However, reactive pregnant women were significantly more likely to have reported risk behaviors for male partners. Our findings support universal offer of antenatal HIV testing and suggest that HIV prevention for women should focus on reducing risk of HIV acquisition within stable relationships. PMID:26066695

  12. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.;

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  13. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  14. Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodis, Ioannis; Arnaud, Laurent; Gerhardsson, Jakob; Zickert, Agneta; Sundelin, Birgitta; Malmström, Vivianne; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Gunnarsson, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a major manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It remains unclear whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) alter the course of LN. We thus investigated the impact of aPL on short-term and long-term renal outcomes in patients with LN. We assessed levels of aPL cross-sectionally in SLE patients diagnosed with (n = 204) or without (n = 294) LN, and prospectively in 64 patients with active biopsy-proven LN (52 proliferative, 12 membranous), before and after induction treatment (short-term outcomes). Long-term renal outcome in the prospective LN cohort was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage, after a median follow-up of 11.3 years (range: 3.3-18.8). Cross-sectional analysis revealed no association between LN and IgG/IgM anticardiolipin or anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, or lupus anticoagulant. Both aPL positivity and levels were similar in patients with active LN and non-renal SLE. Following induction treatment for LN, serum IgG/IgM aPL levels decreased in responders (p<0.005 for all), but not in non-responders. Both at active LN and post-treatment, patients with IgG, but not IgM, aPL had higher creatinine levels compared with patients without IgG aPL. Neither aPL positivity nor levels were associated with changes in eGFR from either baseline or post-treatment through long-term follow-up. Moreover, aPL positivity and levels both at baseline and post-treatment were similar in patients with a CKD stage ≥3 versus 1-2 at the last follow-up. In conclusion, neither aPL positivity nor levels were found to be associated with the occurrence of LN in SLE patients. However, IgG aPL positivity in LN patients was associated with a short-term impairment of the renal function while no effect on long-term renal outcome was observed. Furthermore, IgG and IgM aPL levels decreased following induction treatment only in responders, indicating that aPL levels are affected by

  15. Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Parodis

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a major manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. It remains unclear whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL alter the course of LN. We thus investigated the impact of aPL on short-term and long-term renal outcomes in patients with LN. We assessed levels of aPL cross-sectionally in SLE patients diagnosed with (n = 204 or without (n = 294 LN, and prospectively in 64 patients with active biopsy-proven LN (52 proliferative, 12 membranous, before and after induction treatment (short-term outcomes. Long-term renal outcome in the prospective LN cohort was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD stage, after a median follow-up of 11.3 years (range: 3.3-18.8. Cross-sectional analysis revealed no association between LN and IgG/IgM anticardiolipin or anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, or lupus anticoagulant. Both aPL positivity and levels were similar in patients with active LN and non-renal SLE. Following induction treatment for LN, serum IgG/IgM aPL levels decreased in responders (p<0.005 for all, but not in non-responders. Both at active LN and post-treatment, patients with IgG, but not IgM, aPL had higher creatinine levels compared with patients without IgG aPL. Neither aPL positivity nor levels were associated with changes in eGFR from either baseline or post-treatment through long-term follow-up. Moreover, aPL positivity and levels both at baseline and post-treatment were similar in patients with a CKD stage ≥3 versus 1-2 at the last follow-up. In conclusion, neither aPL positivity nor levels were found to be associated with the occurrence of LN in SLE patients. However, IgG aPL positivity in LN patients was associated with a short-term impairment of the renal function while no effect on long-term renal outcome was observed. Furthermore, IgG and IgM aPL levels decreased following induction treatment only in responders, indicating that aPL levels are

  16. Uso antenatal de corticosteróide e evolução clínica de recém-nascidos pré-termo Antenatal corticosteroid use and clinical evolution of preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a freqüência de utilização de corticosteróide antenatal e a evolução clínica dos recém-nascidos pré-termo. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo tipo coorte de todos os neonatos com idade gestacional entre 23 e 34 semanas nascidos na Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas Neonatais entre agosto e dezembro de 2001. Os prontuários médicos foram revistos, as mães entrevistadas e os pré-termos acompanhados. A análise dos dados foi realizada com o teste do qui-quadrado, t de Student, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA e regressão logística múltipla, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 463 gestantes e seus 514 recém-nascidos. As gestantes tratadas tiveram mais gestações prévias, consultas de pré-natal, hipertensão arterial e maior uso de tocolíticos. Suas crianças apresentaram melhores escores de Apgar no 1º e 5º minutos, menor necessidade de intervenção na sala de parto e menor SNAPPE II. Nasceram com maior peso e idade gestacional, receberam menos surfatante exógeno, ventilação mecânica e oxigenoterapia. Após regressão logística, o uso pré-natal de corticosteróides manteve de forma independente o efeito protetor para as condições de nascimento e para a diminuição do tempo de ventilação mecânica e esteve associado com aumento na ocorrência de sepse neonatal. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do corticosteróide antenatal foi associado a melhor atendimento pré-natal. As crianças nasceram em melhores condições e tiveram melhor evolução, porém com maior risco de infecção.OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of antenatal corticosteroid and clinical evolution of preterm babies. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study was carried out. All 463 pregnant women and their 514 newborn babies with gestational age ranging from 23 to 34 weeks, born at the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network units, were evaluated from August 1 to December 31, 2001. The data were obtained through maternal

  17. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000547.htm Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining ...

  18. Characterization of IgG4 anti-neurofascin 155 antibody-positive polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Hiwatashi, Akio; Oka, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Matsuse, Dai; Kuwahara, Motoi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kusunoki, Susumu; Fujimoto, Yuichi; Ikezoe, Koji; Kishida, Hitaru; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Takuya; Murai, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibody-positive chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Methods Sera from 50 consecutive CIDP patients diagnosed in our clinic, 32 patients with multiple sclerosis, 40 patients with other neuropathies including 26 with Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS)/Fisher syndrome, and 30 healthy controls were measured for anti-NF antibodies by flow cytometry using HEK293 cell lines stably expressing human NF155 or NF186. Four additiona...

  19. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Bola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. Methods A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. Results 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively. Conclusions Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study

  20. Assessment of attitude towards use of emergency contraceptives among antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Jaget Lakkawar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide availability of a range of modern contraceptives, unwanted and unplanned pregnancies continue to be a major problem in most of the developing countries like India. Situations such as unprotected sex, improper use of regular contraceptives, failure of barrier methods and sexual violence often lead to an unwanted pregnancy, which may warrant for unsafe abortions. Introduction of Emergency Contraception (EC over the counter in India in the recent past can help women to avoid unintended pregnancies. Methods: The present cross sectional study was designed to assess the awareness, level of knowledge and usage of EC among the women attending antenatal clinic. Systematic random sampling was used to select the participants for the study. 200 married women in age group between 18-35 years were interviewed through a pretested structured questionnaire to collect information on age, education, residential and socioeconomic status, obstetric profile, knowledge and usage of EC. Results: The average age of women included in the study was 24.2 years +/- 4.2. The knowledge and usage of EC among the participants was 11.5 % and 10.5% respectively. Age, education, socio-economic status, religion and parity had the significant role in knowledge and attitude towards EC. Clinician and electronic media were the most important source of information about EC. Knowledge about the brand name, time frame for usage and the side effects of EC were known to 60.8%, 43.4% and 17.9% of the participants respectively. Chemist and general practitioners were the first choice of places for obtaining the EC. Conclusions: Most importantly, the women who are most likely to need EC and those who are at high risk of an unintended pregnancy but not using any method of contraception have low level of knowledge about emergency contraception. There is a need for sustained efforts by the government and non-government organization including the media to clarify the

  1. Assessing the Extent of Adherence to the Recommended Antenatal Care Content in Malaysia: Room for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ling Yeoh

    Full Text Available Recent papers on monitoring of health services affirmed that while antenatal care (ANC is an effective measure, quality is still a problem. Quality in maternal services "…involves providing a minimum level of care to all pregnant women…" Yet adherence to a minimum level of recommended ANC content appears to be unmet. Comprehensive review of ANC content rendered in environments with rapid changes in demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and morbidity was sparse. Malaysia is such a country that has undergone these transitions with tremendous progress in health. However, recent progress in pregnancy outcomes is stagnating. This study aims to analyse adherence to recommended ANC; specifically, to examine the extent of adherence to recommended ANC content and to determine the factors influencing ANC content score.A retrospective cohort study of 522 randomly selected women who used ANC was conducted. Data were extracted from individual records. The study examined adherence to essential ANC guidelines using weighted scoring for physical examination, health screening, case management, and health education. GLM Univariate analysis procedure was used to determine the factors associated with ANC content score. Binary logistic regression was used to assess ANC content level and pregnancy outcomes, controlled for ANC utilisation.Around half of the women had <80% of recommended ANC content documented. Health education had the lowest mean score, at around 35%. The low-risk pregnancies had a higher ANC content score than the high-risk pregnancies (78% vs. 75%; P = 0.002. The smallest clinics had a higher ANC content score than the bigger clinics (78% vs. 74-76%; P<0.001. ANC content score among the women with "adequate" ANC utilisation, as defined by the modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation Index, was lower than the women with "adequate-plus" ANC utilisation (75% vs. 78%, P<0.001. Assessment of symphysis-fundal height, foetal presentation and

  2. Quality of antenatal care in primary health care centers of bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M S A Mansur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To find out the quality of ANC in the Upazila Health Complexes (PHC centres of Bangladesh.This cross sectional study was done in purposively selected three upazilas among the clients receiving antenatal care (ANC. Data were collected with questionnaire cum checklist in the context of two aspects of quality issues, namely assessment of physical arrangements for ANC (input and services rendered by the providers (process.The mean age of respondents was 24.6±4.5 years. Majority of the respondents were with primary level education (60.3%. About half (52.8% of the families had monthly income ranging from 3000-5000 taka (38-64 US$. Nearly half (48.9% had no child, little more than one third (42.3% were primigravida and 528 (57.7% were multigravida. Out of 528 multigravid respondents 360 (68.2% took ANC in their previous pregnancy whereas 168 (31.8% did not take ANC Pregnancy outcome was found to be associated with receiving ANC (χ(2=73.599; p=0.000. Respondents receiving ANC had more good pregnancy outcome. The mean waiting time for receiving ANC was 0.77±.49 hours. Out of the 13 centers, only 3 (23.1% have sufficient instruments to render ANC services. Findings showed that where the modes of ANC service delivery in the ANC centers are fairly satisfactory. Though some of the points of standard operation procedures (SOPs on ANC are not covered by some ANC centers, those were not considered necessary. But, regarding the physical facilities available for rendering ANC services, it is seen that facilities are not quite satisfactory. Number of doctors and nurses are not very satisfactory. One of the centers under this study has no doctor, where ANC services are given by nurses.It can be concluded that the ANC services at the primary health care level is not adequate in Bangladesh. To ensure further improvement of the quality of ANC services, instruments used in logistics and supplies should be enhanced.

  3. Recombinant antibodies and tumor targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikholvaezin, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Different antibody derived constructs are rapidly advancing as putative tools for treatment of malignant diseases. Antibody engineering has added significant new technologies to modify size, affinities, solubility, stability and biodistribution properties for immunoconjugates. In the present thesis, the aim was to increase our knowledge on how new recombinant antibodies could be tailored to optimize localization to experimental tumors in mice. One hybridoma, producing the monoclonal antibody ...

  4. Low serum Vitamin C status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at general hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria

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    Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate.

  5. Assessment of peer-based and structural strategies for increasing male participation in an antenatal setting in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphonda, Steve M; Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Esmie; Mofolo, Innocent; Mwale, Gertrude; Boa, Edson; Mwale, Mwawi; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 - June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 - September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas. During period 3 (October 2009 - December 2009) changes to clinical infrastructure were introduced to make the clinic more male-friendly. The proportion of women attending ANC with a male partner increased from 0.7% to 5.7%, to 10.7% over the three periods. Peer education through drama and male-friendly hospital infrastructure coincided with substantially greater male participation, although further gains are necessary. PMID:25022146

  6. Antenatal magnesium individual participant data international collaboration: assessing the benefits for babies using the best level of evidence (AMICABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study is to assess, using individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis, the effects of administration of antenatal magnesium sulphate given to women at risk of preterm birth on important clinical outcomes for their child such as death and neurosensory disability. The secondary aim is to determine whether treatment effects differ depending on important pre-specified participant and treatment characteristics, such as reasons at risk of preterm birth, gestational age, or type, dose and mode of administration of magnesium sulphate. Methods Design The Antenatal Magnesium Individual Participant Data (IPD International Collaboration: assessing the benefits for babies using the best level of evidence (AMICABLE Group will perform an IPD meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Setting/Timeline The AMICABLE Group was formed in 2009 with data collection commencing late 2010. Inclusion Criteria Five trials involving a total 6,145 babies are eligible for inclusion in the IPD meta-analysis. Primary study outcomes For the infants/children: Death or cerebral palsy. For the women: Any severe maternal outcome potentially related to treatment (death, respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest. Discussion Results are expected to be publicly available in 2012.

  7. Using mHealth to Improve Usage of Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Immunization: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Jessica L; Walsh, Julia; Madeka, Isheeta

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients', caretakers', or health workers' behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC), postnatal care (PNC), and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n = 8) and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n = 8). All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings. PMID:26380263

  8. Comparing couples' and individual voluntary counseling and testing for HIV at antenatal clinics in Tanzania: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stan; Mlay, Rose; Schwandt, Hilary M; Lyamuya, Eligius

    2010-06-01

    Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for couples (CVCT) is an important HIV-prevention effort in sub-Saharan Africa where a substantial proportion of HIV transmission occurs within stable partnerships. This study aimed to determine the acceptance and effectiveness of CVCT as compared to individual VCT (IVCT). 1,521 women attending three antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam were randomized to receive IVCT during that visit or CVCT with their husbands at a subsequent visit. The proportion of women receiving test results in the CVCT arm was significantly lower than in the IVCT arm (39 vs. 71%). HIV prevalence overall was 10%. In a subgroup analysis of HIV-positive women, those who received CVCT were more likely to use preventive measures against transmission (90 vs. 60%) and to receive nevirapine for themselves (55 vs. 24%) and their infants (55 vs. 22%) as compared to women randomized to IVCT. Uptake of CVCT is low in the antenatal clinic setting. Community mobilization and couple-friendly clinics are needed to promote CVCT.

  9. Using mHealth to Improve Usage of Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Immunization: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Watterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients’, caretakers’, or health workers’ behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC, postnatal care (PNC, and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n=8 and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n=8. All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings.

  10. Using mHealth to Improve Usage of Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Immunization: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Jessica L; Walsh, Julia; Madeka, Isheeta

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have been implemented in many low- and middle-income countries to address challenges in maternal and child health. Many of these technologies attempt to influence patients', caretakers', or health workers' behavior. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine what evidence exists for the effectiveness of mHealth tools to increase the coverage and use of antenatal care (ANC), postnatal care (PNC), and childhood immunizations through behavior change in low- and middle-income countries. The full text of 53 articles was reviewed and 10 articles were identified that met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies used text or voice message reminders to influence patient behavior change (80%, n = 8) and most were conducted in African countries (80%, n = 8). All studies showed at least some evidence of effectiveness at changing behavior to improve antenatal care attendance, postnatal care attendance, or childhood immunization rates. However, many of the studies were observational and further rigorous evaluation of mHealth programs is needed in a broader variety of settings.

  11. Pulmonary embolus diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound

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    Justin M. Segraves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS imaging is commonly used to evaluate and aid in biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes. Pulmonary arteries are readily viewable with this type of imaging modality. We present a case report of a pulmonary embolism (PE diagnosed by EBUS. Our patient had no smoking history and presented with respiratory and constitutional symptoms, urinary retention, and leg weakness suspicious for malignancy with metastasis to spine. Chest computed tomography (CT was suggestive of lung carcinoma and specifically showed no PE. EBUS with TBNA was requested for tissue diagnosis. A mobile filling defect consistent with a PE was observed and reported to primary team. Follow-up chest CT showed an acute PE which confirmed the diagnosis originally made by EBUS. Bronchoscopists should be aware of potential to diagnose a PE while performing EBUS. Additionally, there may be a role in using EBUS specifically to diagnose a PE in the right patient population.

  12. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:25264572

  13. Fetal germinal matrix and intraventricular haemorrhage diagnosed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, K.; Morioka, T.; Nishio, S.; Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mihara, F. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Nakayama, H. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsukimori, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Subependymal germinal matrix haemorrhage and intraventricular haemorrhage (GMIVH) is a common complication of delivery in preterm neonates but has rarely been observed in the fetus. We report two cases of GMIVH in fetuses of 36 weeks gestation, clearly demonstrated by antenatal MRI. In both cases progressive ventriculomegaly was observed, and ventriculoperitoneal shunts were placed at 19 and 6 months of age, respectively. Prenatal GMIVH may be a cause of congenital hydrocephalus, for which no aetiology has yet been found. (orig.)

  14. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a

  15. A monoclonal antibody against leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Jafar; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Vojgani, Yasaman; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Hadavi, Reza; Zarei, Saeed

    2012-10-01

    Leptin is an important protein that regulates energy storage and homeostasis in humans and animals. Leptin deficiency results in various abnormalities such as diabetes, obesity, and infertility. Producing a high affinity monoclonal antibody against human leptin provides an important tool to monitor and trace leptin function in different biological fluids. In this study, recombinant human leptin was conjugated to KLH and injected into mice. After immunization, mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells were fused with murine splenocytes followed by selection of antibody-producing hybridoma cells. After screening of different hybridoma colonies by ELISA, a high affinity antibody was selected and purified by affinity chromatography. The affinity constant of the antibody was measured by ELISA. Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry experiments were used to characterize the antibody. The anti-leptin antibody had a high affinity (around 1.13 × 10(-9) M) for its antigen. The saturation of the antibody with leptin (20 moles leptin per 1 mole antibody) in Western blot analysis proved that the antibody had specific binding to its antigen. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry on JEG-3 (human placental choriocarcinoma cell) cells revealed that the anti-leptin antibody recognized intracellular leptin. In conclusion, we report here the production and characterization of a murine anti-leptin antibody with high affinity for human leptin. PMID:23098305

  16. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  17. Antiphospholipid Antibody and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞生

    2008-01-01

    @@ Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) APA is a big category for all kinds of negative charge phospholipid or lecithin - a protein complex autoantibodies or the same antibody, through its recognition of antigen (target protein) different, and phospholipids or lecithin - protein complex combination of various rely on the interference Phospholipid clotting and anti-coagulation factor, and promote endothelial cells, platelets, complement activation and play a role. APA including lupus anticoagulant(LA) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA), In addition, there are anti-β2 glycoprotein-I (β2-GPI) antibody, anti-prothrombin (a- PT) antibody, anti-lysophosphatidic acid antibody and anti-phosphatidylserine antibody, and so on. APA as the main target of phospholipid-binding protein, including β2-GPI, prothrombin, annexin, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS), plasminogen, and so on.

  18. Heterophile Antibody Interference led to Unneeded Chemotherapy in a Testicular Cancer Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniele G; Millot, Françoise; Lacroix, Isabelle; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Human heterophile antibodies may develop after infection or contact with animal tissues or animal serum products. These antibodies have the capacity to bind to the animal immunoglobulins used in immunoassays leading to erroneous results. We here report a case of a testicular germ cell tumor patient who developed heterophile antibodies during the surveillance period of his disease. Following false-positive results of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) he received unneeded chemotherapy. This article also stresses the problem of using serum tumor markers without no major imaging abnormalities to diagnose a patients' relapse. PMID:27617210

  19. Bordetella pertussis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Heron, I; Skjødt, K

    1994-01-01

    The object of this work was to test the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for demonstration of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in nasopharyngeal secretions. The method was applied to patients with recently diagnosed pertussis, as verified by BP culture. In order to test the sensitivity and specificity...

  20. Diagnosing Functional Seizures in Children and Adolescent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichaidit, Bianca Taaning; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ostergaard, John R

    2014-01-01

    Functional seizures (FS) is a condition where the child experiences seizure-like events, without abnormal electrical discharge as measured by EEG, and with high risk of misdiagnosis. Diagnosing FS contains: 1) video-EEG, 2) anamnestic evaluation, focusing on the presence of psychosocial stressors...

  1. Fighting to be heard: contested diagnoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Trundle; I. Singh; C. Bröer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores how diagnoses can become sites of contest, rather than of agreement. Conflict can arise when illness refuses to yield the level of proof that epidemiology, clinical medicine, and toxicology require, or its existence is doubted within mainstream medicine. Other forms of contest

  2. Diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new method of diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects is introduced in the paper. The method is an improvement on existing risk methods used on product-innovation projects, such as potential problem analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Technological, organizational and commercia

  3. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...

  4. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  5. Diagnosing and treating respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierkowski, Daria B

    2016-09-22

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of respiratory tract illness in children and can lead to significant infection and death. This article discusses the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, current treatment, and prevention options to successfully diagnose and treat infections caused by RSV. PMID:27552683

  6. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis diagnosed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Cid, P; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Noguera Morel, L; Beato Merino, M J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 defined by lesions affecting a single segment of the body and crossing the midline, with no systemic involvement. We present a case diagnosed during pregnancy because of the characteristic increase in size of the lesions during this period. PMID:21635828

  7. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  8. Appendiceal endometriosis differentially diagnosed from acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gastón Astroza; Victor Faundes; René Nanjarí; Marcelo Fleiderman; Carlos Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis is a common disease in premenopausal women involving pelvic organs specially. However endometriosis that affects the appendix is rarely seen except appendiceal endometriosis that mimics acute appendicitis. In a patient with acute appendicitis we diagnosed and operated on, histopathological examination of the appendix revealed appendiceal endometriosis which caused symptoms.

  9. Medicinalindustrien har brug for diagnoser som ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Det er ikke første gang, at medicinalindustriens evne til at finde nye markeder har medført nye eller bredere diagnoser. I det forrige årti så vi et parallelt forløb mellem et boom i antallet af depressionsdiagnoser og forbruget af lykkepiller. Interview med sociolog Thomas Brante. Udgivelsesdato...

  10. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein- Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan–McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter < 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) during pregnancy is also associated with ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are

  11. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein- Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan–McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter < 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) during pregnancy is also associated with ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are

  12. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10) during pregnancy is also associated with ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are only partially proven, and not

  13. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter < 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) during pregnancy is also associated with ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are

  14. Control de gestación en inmigrantes Antenatal care in immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de la Torre

    2006-01-01

    is diverse. The immigrant population is characterised by its being young and healthy, and with a capacity to adapt to changes, but its social, economic and labour conditions are frequently insecure and favour vulnerability to disease. In spite of the number of immigrants of the male sex being globally higher than that of women, the percentage of immigrants of the female sex is growing. This increase of the female immigrant population has resulted in the appearance of specific health care needs, especially with respect to sexual and reproductive health. To which we must add a substantial increase in pathologies prevalent in the countries of origin, such as anaemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, haemoglobinopathies, consanguinity, hypocalcaemia, hepatitis B and/or C, sexually transmitted infections, infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods, such as Chagas disease and other parasitoses, as well as genital mutilations. The aim of this article is to analyse the factors that make it difficult to control gestation in the immigrant population, as well as to establish guidelines for acting in antenatal care consultations. Insistence is placed on health education and prevention during pregnancy, and consideration is given to the appearance of rare diseases related to some of these groups.

  15. The Whole Is Greater than the Sum of the Parts: The Effects of an Antenatal Orientation Interviews Training for Prospective Parents Postnatal Depression Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Pinar; Barut, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an antenatal orientation interviews training for prospective parents' postnatal depression levels. A quasi-experimental study carried out with 26 (12 experimental, 14 control) prospective mother and father. Participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale one week before the intervention and 12…

  16. Testing for the endogenous nature between women's empowerment and antenatal health care utilization: evidence from a cross-sectional study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaky, Hassan H M; Armanious, Dina M; Hussein, Mohamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Women's relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women's empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women's empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women's empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care. PMID:25140310

  17. Testing for the Endogenous Nature between Women’s Empowerment and Antenatal Health Care Utilization: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. M. Zaky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women’s relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women’s empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women’s empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women’s empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care.

  18. Vaginal tampons as specimen collection device for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections in antenatal clinic attendees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Connolly, C.E.; Khan, N.; Ebrahim, S.; Sturm, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Self-inserted vaginal tampons for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative STIs were evaluated. Cervical and vaginal swabs, tampons and urines were collected from 185 first-time antenatal clinic attendees. Cultures and nucleic acid amplification assays (NAA) were performed. The sensitivity of PCR o

  19. Effect of antenatal education in small classes versus standard auditorium-based lectures on use of pain relief during labour and of obstetric interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of an antenatal education programme in small classes versus standard auditorium-based lectures. DESIGN: Randomised trial using random-generated web-based 1:1 allocation. SETTING: The largest birth site in the Capital Region of Denmark, from August 2012 to May 2014...

  20. Community-based distribution of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy improved coverage but reduced antenatal attendance in southern Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P. Msyamboza; E.J. Savage; P.N. Kazembe; S. Gies; G. Kalanda; U. D'Alessandro; B.J. Brabin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a 2-year programme for community-based delivery of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine (SP) on intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy coverage, antenatal clinic attendance and pregnancy outcome. Fourteen intervention and 12 control villages in the catchment areas of Chikw