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Sample records for antibiotics therapeutic use

  1. Oral Antibiotics in Acne Vulgaris: Therapeutic Response Over 5 Years

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topical and systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome.

  2. Antibiotics: Use and misuse in pediatric dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F C Peedikayil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are commonly used in dentistry for prophylactic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Most often antibiotics are used in unwarranted situations, which may give rise to resistant bacterial strains. Dentists want to make their patients well and to prevent unpleasant complications. These desires, coupled with the belief that many oral problems are infectious, stimulate the prescribing of antibiotics. Good knowledge about the indications of antibiotics is the need of the hour in prescribing antibiotics for dental conditions.

  3. Antibiotics: Use and misuse in pediatric dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    F C Peedikayil

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in dentistry for prophylactic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Most often antibiotics are used in unwarranted situations, which may give rise to resistant bacterial strains. Dentists want to make their patients well and to prevent unpleasant complications. These desires, coupled with the belief that many oral problems are infectious, stimulate the prescribing of antibiotics. Good knowledge about the indications of antibiotics is the need of the hour in prescr...

  4. Use of Xylitol To Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Antibiotic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Karen E.; Bradney, Laura; Bellamy, William; Skinner, Robert A.; McLaren, Sandra G.; Gruenwald, M. Johannes; Spencer, Horace J.; Smith, James K.; Haggard, Warren O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of postsurgical osteomyelitis, we demonstrate that incorporation of xylitol into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement enhances the elution of daptomycin under in vivo conditions. We also demonstrate that this can be correlated with an improved therapeutic outcome in the treatment of a chronic bone infection following surgical debridement. PMID:22948866

  5. Use of Xylitol To Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Antibiotic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Beenken, Karen E.; Bradney, Laura; Bellamy, William; Skinner, Robert A.; McLaren, Sandra G.; Gruenwald, M. Johannes; Spencer, Horace J.; Smith, James K; Haggard, Warren O.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of postsurgical osteomyelitis, we demonstrate that incorporation of xylitol into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement enhances the elution of daptomycin under in vivo conditions. We also demonstrate that this can be correlated with an improved therapeutic outcome in the treatment of a chronic bone infection following surgical debridement.

  6. Response to "Antibiotic Use and Resistance"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; Rabanaque, María José; Feja, Christina; Lallana, María Jesús; Aguilar, Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned, antibiotic consumption in heavy users, especially in children, is really striking. Certainly, our results revealed an antibiotic use in this age group higher than published in previous studies, and in line with different reports repeatedly presenting the high antibiotic consumption...... existing in Spain compared with other European countries (1). Determinants involved in antibiotic prescribing are numerous and varied. It is true that therapeutic failures lead to repeated courses of antibiotic treatment. However, it is not probably the only reason. Frequent and high consumption of...... antibiotics, as observed in heavy users, could also be due to factors related to the GP, patient and parents' expectations or the influence exerted by the pharmaceutical industry (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  7. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  8. Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...

  9. Pharmacology and therapeutic applications of enediyne antitumor antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rong-Guang

    2008-01-01

    The natural compounds that interfere with cellular DNA such as enediyne antitumor antibiotics might be important chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. In this article, the pharmacology and anticancer activity of the enediyne antitumor agents that are approved for clinical use and undergoing pre-clinical or clinical evaluation are reviewed. Most enediyne compounds have shown potent activity against the proliferation of various cancer cells, including cells that display resistance to other chemotherapeutic drugs. Enediyne derivatives, such as an immunoconjugate composed of an enediyne compound and monoclonal antibody, reveal stronger activity and selectivity for human cancer cells. The mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of these enediyne antitumor agents may mainly lie in their generation of DNA double-strand breaks. Increasing evidence shows that the enediyne-induced DNA double-strand breaks can engage the activation of DNA damage response proteins, arresting cell cycle progression and eventually leading to apoptotic cell death. Continued investigation of the mechanisms of action and development of new enediyne derivatives and conjugates may provide more effective therapeutics for cancer treatments. PMID:20021423

  10. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar;

    2003-01-01

    levels in people has also come under scrutiny. Antimicrobials are used therapeutically and prophylactically in animals. More controversially, antimicrobials are also used as growth promoters to improve the ability of the animal to convert feed into body mass. Some argue that the impact of use...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... of antibiotics in animals-whether therapeutic or as growth promoters-pales by comparison with human use, and that efforts should be concentrated on the misuse of antibiotics in people. Others warn of the dangers of unregulated and unnecessary use of antibiotics, especially growth promoters in animal husbandry...

  11. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Amy; Crook, Nathan; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in the past 80 years has saved millions of human lives, facilitated technological progress and killed incalculable numbers of microbes, both pathogenic and commensal. Human-associated microbes perform an array of important functions, and we are now just beginning to understand the ways in which antibiotics have reshaped their ecology and the functional consequences of these changes. Mounting evidence shows that antibiotics influence the function of the immune system, our ability to resist infection, and our capacity for processing food. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to revisit how we use antibiotics. This review summarizes current research on the short-term and long-term consequences of antibiotic use on the human microbiome, from early life to adulthood, and its effect on diseases such as malnutrition, obesity, diabetes, and Clostridium difficile infection. Motivated by the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use, we explore recent progress in the development of antivirulence approaches for resisting infection while minimizing resistance to therapy. We close the article by discussing probiotics and fecal microbiota transplants, which promise to restore the microbiota after damage of the microbiome. Together, the results of studies in this field emphasize the importance of developing a mechanistic understanding of gut ecology to enable the development of new therapeutic strategies and to rationally limit the use of antibiotic compounds. PMID:27074706

  12. Optimizing Antibiotic Use in Nursing Homes Through Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Huslage, Kirk; Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is becoming a requirement for nursing homes. Programs should be interdisciplinary and multifaceted; should have support from nursing home administrators; and should aim to promote antibiotics only when needed, not just in case. Recommended components include use of evidence-based guidelines; ongoing monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, cultures, and study results; monitoring of health outcomes; use of nursing home-specific antibiograms; regular reporting and feedback to medical providers and nurses; and education of residents and families. PMID:27621341

  13. Trends in antibiotic use among outpatients in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloway Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall volume of antibiotic consumption in the community is one of the foremost causes of antimicrobial resistance. There is much ad-hoc information about the inappropriate consumption of antibiotics, over-the-counter availability, and inadequate dosage but there is very little actual evidence of community practices. Methods This study surveyed antibiotic use in the community (December 2007-November 2008 using the established methodology of patient exit interviews at three types of facilities: 20 private retail pharmacies, 10 public sector facilities, and 20 private clinics to obtain a complete picture of community antibiotic use over a year. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. Antibiotic use was measured as DDD/1000 patients visiting the facility and also as percent of patients receiving an antibiotic. Results During the data collection period, 17995, 9205, and 5922 patients visiting private retail pharmacies, public facilities and private clinics, respectively, were included in our study. 39% of the patients attending private retail pharmacies and public facilities and 43% of patients visiting private clinics were prescribed at least one antibiotic. Consumption patterns of antibiotics were similar at private retail pharmacies and private clinics where fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and extended spectrum penicillins were the three most commonly prescribed groups of antibiotics. At public facilities, there was a more even use of all the major antibiotic groups including penicillins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, and cotrimoxazole. Newer members from each class of antibiotics were prescribed. Not much seasonal variation was seen although slightly higher consumption of some antibiotics in winter and slightly higher consumption of fluoroquinolones during the rainy season were observed

  14. Sub-therapeutic Antibiotics and Productivity in U.S. Hog Production

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, William D.; Key, Nigel D.; Mathews, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are fed to hogs at sub-therapeutic levels to prevent disease and promote growth. However, there is concern that the presence of antimicrobial drugs in hog feed is a factor promoting the development of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study uses a sample-selection model to examine the impact that use has on the productivity of U.S. hog operations. The analysis did not find a relationship between productivity and sub-therapeutic antibiotics fed during finishing, b...

  15. Use of Antibiotics in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune;

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe the use of systemic antibiotics among children in Denmark. Methods: National data on drug use in Denmark were extracted from the Danish National Prescription Database. We used prescription data for all children in Denmark aged 0 to 11 years from January 1, 2000 to...

  16. Antibiotic use in Lithuania, 2003 - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Beržanskytė, Aušra

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is mainly caused by inappropriate and abundant use of antibiotics. To enlighten the most relevant problematic areas in antibiotic use, where the decisions should be made, the different levels were analysed in this study: the self-medication with antibiotics of the population, ambulatory and also hospital antibiotic use. The results showed that wrong perception about antibiotics is characteristic to Lithuanian population, as there is lack of privity, while traditions o...

  17. Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Mieler, William F

    2016-01-01

    The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) provided ophthalmologists with evidence-based management strategies to deal with endophthalmitis for the first time. However, since the completion of the EVS, numerous unresolved issues remain. The use of oral antibiotics has important implications for the ophthalmologist, particularly in the prophylaxis and/or management of postoperative, posttraumatic, or bleb-associated bacterial endophthalmitis. One can reasonably conclude that significant intraocular penetration of an antibiotic after oral administration may be a property unique to the newer-generation fluoroquinolones. Prophylactic use of mupirocin nasal ointment resulted in significant reduction of conjunctival flora with or without preoperative topical 5% povidone-iodine preparation. Ocular fungal infections have traditionally been very difficult to treat due to limited therapeutic options both systemically and intravitreally. Because of its broad spectrum of coverage, low MIC90 levels for the organisms of concern, good tolerability, and excellent bioavailability, voriconazole through various routes of administration may be useful to the ophthalmologist in the primary treatment of or as an adjunct to the current management of ocular fungal infections. PMID:26501865

  18. Rapid diagnostics and appropriate antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Louis B

    2011-05-01

    Most antibiotics are prescribed by physicians lacking postgraduate training in infectious diseases. As such, prescribing physicians have varying levels of interest and sophistication in thinking about how to use molecular and microbiological data to inform therapeutic choices. Strategies designed to modify physician antimicrobial-prescribing practices must therefore choose simplicity over complexity and must acknowledge our fundamental ignorance of many of the specifics of antibiotic-microorganism interactions. They must also acknowledge the critical nature of bacterial illnesses in hospitalized patients and the importance of delivering effective antimicrobial therapy early in the illness. "Back-end" strategies that evaluate therapy at defined intervals will be more readily accepted than strategies limiting physician choices early in the illness. It is therefore critical that we develop rapid and reliable microbiological assays, evidence-based recommendations on appropriate durations of therapy, and accurate surrogate markers of infection resolution. PMID:21460296

  19. [Influence of personal attitude of the manager on antibiotic use in pig production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, J; Kaufmann, G; Hirsiger, P; Kümmerlen, D; Arnold, C; Spring, P; Sidler, X

    2015-12-01

    The attitude as well as the expertise of a person affect the behavior and actions in daily life. To investigate the influence of attitude and knowledge of pig producers on the use of antibiotics in farms, 220 Swiss pig producers were questioned on health awareness, attitude towards sustainable production, risk behavior, intrinsic motivation and knowledge about antibiotics and resistance development. In addition, the strategy of antibiotic use (therapeutic or prophylactic) and the business practice (single or group therapy) for the amount of antibiotics on one hand and for the risk of antibiotic resistance development on the other hand, were determined in a personal interview. Farmers using antibiotics only therapeutically had a better business practice. A direct link between the personal attitude and the antibiotic use or a higher risk of development of antibiotic resistance was not found in this investigation. PMID:26891573

  20. Use of antibiotics in plant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, V O; Duffy, B

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are essential for control of bacterial diseases of plants, especially fire blight of pear and apple and bacterial spot of peach. Streptomycin is used in several countries; the use of oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and gentamicin is limited to only a few countries. Springtime antibiotic sprays suppress pathogen growth on flowers and leaf surfaces before infection; after infection, antibiotics are ineffective. Antibiotics are applied when disease risk is high, and consequently the majority of orchards are not treated annually. In 2009 in the United States, 16,465 kg (active ingredient) was applied to orchards, which is 0.12% of the total antibiotics used in animal agriculture. Antibiotics are active on plants for less than a week, and significant residues have not been found on harvested fruit. Antibiotics have been indispensable for crop protection in the United States for more than 50 years without reports of adverse effects on human health or persistent impacts on the environment. PMID:22849276

  1. Beyond Antibiotics: New Therapeutic Approaches for Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Alan R; Mecsas, Joan; Moir, Donald T

    2016-07-01

    The utility of conventional antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections has become increasingly strained due to increased rates of resistance coupled with reduced rates of development of new agents. As a result, multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant bacterial strains are now frequently encountered. This has led to fears of a "postantibiotic era" in which many bacterial infections will be untreatable. Alternative nonantibiotic treatment strategies need to be explored to ensure that a robust pipeline of effective therapies is available to clinicians. In this review, we highlight some of the recent developments in this area, such as the targeting of bacterial virulence factors, utilization of bacteriophages to kill bacteria, and manipulation of the microbiome to combat infections. PMID:27025826

  2. The effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the risk of therapeutic antibiotic treatment in Danish farrow-to-finish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Larsen, P.B.; Andreasen, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    proportion of days per farm where treatment was performed (PDT) and (2) the proportion of pigs treated per day per farm at days where treatment was performed (PPT) before and after duAGPs at 68 farrow-to-finish farms. The farms were selected using, a two-stage (veterinarian/farm) convenience sampling. On...

  3. Evaluation of antibiotic use in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qalab; Ul Haq, Anwar; Kumar, Raman; Ali, Syed Asad; Hussain, Kashif; Shakoor, Sadia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) patients are often prescribed antibiotics with a low threshold in comparison to patients elsewhere. Irrational antibiotics use can lead to rapid emergence of drug resistance, so surveillance of their use is important. Objectives: To evaluate the use of antibiotics in relation to bacteriological findings in PICU of a Tertiary Hospital. Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of all children (age 1 month–16 years) admitted in our closed multidisciplinary-cardiothoracic PICU from January to June 2013 was performed, after approval from Ethical Review Committee. For each antibiotic, indication (prophylactic, empiric, therapeutic) and duration of use were recorded. All diagnoses of infections were recorded according to diagnostic criteria of IPSCC 2005. Results are presented as frequency and percentages and median with inter quartile range using SPSS version 19. Results: All of the total 240 patients admitted in PICU during the study period received antibiotics: 43% (n = 104) prophylactically, 42% (n = 102) empirically, and 15% (n = 15) therapeutically. Median number of antibiotic use per patient in PICU was 3, with range of 1–7. 25% received 1 antibiotic, 23% received 2 antibiotics, 29% received 3 antibiotics, and rest received ≥4 antibiotics. Most commonly used antibiotics were cefazolin, meropenem, vancomycin and ceftriaxone, and most frequently used combination was meropenem and vancomycin. In majority of the cases, (70%) empiric antibiotic combinations were stopped in 72 h. Conclusion: This is the first report of antibiotics use in PICU from our country, which shows that antibiotics are prescribed universally in our PICU. Strategies to assess the need for antibiotic use are needed.

  4. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  5. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  6. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y.; Manning, Sara A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J.; Samuels, Amanda N.; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Goulian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role

  7. ADJUNCTIVE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PERIODONTAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Barça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases with a mixed microbial aetiology and marked inflammatory response leading to destruction of underlying tissue. Periodontal therapy aims to eliminate pathogens associated with the disease and attain periodontal health. Periodontitis is generally treated by nonsurgical mechanical debridement and regular periodontal maintenance care. Periodontal surgery may be indicated for some patients to improve access to the root surface; however, mechanical debridement alone may not be helpful in all cases. In such cases, adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy remains the treatment of choice. It can reach microorganisms at the base of the deep periodontal pockets and furcation areas via serum, and also affects organisms residing within gingival epithelium and connective tissue. This review aims to provide an update on clinical issues regarding when and how to prescribe systemic antibiotics in periodontal therapy. The points discussed are the mode of antibiotic action, susceptible periodontal pathogens, antibiotic dosage, antibiotic use in treatment of periodontal disease, and mechanism of bacterial resistance to each antibiotic.

  8. Antibiotic resistance and therapeutic management of sepsis in a Malaysian public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Bayat Nejad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to document the microbial profile and pattern of use of antibiotics in the government hospital of Penang state, Malaysia. An audit was conducted in 2007 in the general medical ward of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The mortality rate was 54.22% with severesepsis or septicaemia. Mithicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus caused 37% of deaths, while 33% of deaths involved Klebsiella Spp. Commonly prescribed antibiotics included; cloxacillin 500mg (qid 20%, tazocin 2gm (bid1.1%, and vancomycin 1gm (od 27%. We report the useof high doses of antibiotics in the six months prior to anotable rise in resistant infections.

  9. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

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    Richard William Meek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted.

  10. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Richard William; Vyas, Hrushi; Piddock, Laura Jane Violet

    2015-10-01

    The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted. PMID:26444324

  11. Rational use of antibiotics: a quality improvement initiative in hospital setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To minimise irrational use of antibiotics by implementing guidelines for antibiotic usage in obstetrics and Gynaecology. Methods: The observational study was conducted from January to December 2010 at the maternity unit of Aga Khan Hospital for Women and children, Kharadar, a secondary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected from medical records related to the study period. Prophylactic antibiotics were given according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists recommendation 2009. Surveillance was done by surgical site infection rates and infectious morbidity. Data was analysed on SPSS 13. Results: Therapeutic antibiotic use was rationalized, reducing the use of therapeutic antibiotics from 97% (n= 160/165) in January 2010 to 8% (n=10/125) in December 2010. Surgical site infection rates were less than 5%. Cost of antibiotics per patient decreased by 90%. Decrease in the length of stay and workload on nursing staff was also observed. Conclusion: Implementing guidelines for antibiotic use in obstetrics and gynaecology and translating it into our protocols was effective in decreasing the irrational antibiotic consumption and increasing the rational use of antibiotics in the hospital. (author)

  12. Patterns of antibiotic use in the community in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muscat, Mark; Monnet, Dominique L.; Klemmensen, Thomas; Grigoryan, Larissa; Jensen, Maria Hummelshoj; Andersen, Morten; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive population survey was conducted in 2003 to examine epidemiological characteristics of antibiotic use in the community in Denmark and particularly in the area of self-medication with antibiotics. Self-medication with antibiotics was rare in Denmark. 97% of antibiotics us

  13. Identification of Antibiotic Use Pattern as an Effort to Control Antibiotic Resistance

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    Ivan S. Pradipta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in hospitalized patients at one of Bandung’s private hospital that can give benefit in control of antibiotic resistance and procurement planning of antibiotic. Data of antibiotic consumption were obtained from hospital pharmacy department on February–September 2011. Data were processed using the ATC/DDD and DU90% method. There were 390,98 DDD/100 bed days and 381,34 DDD/100 bed days total of an-tbiotic use in 2009 and 2010. Thirty nine antibiotic were consumed in 2009 within 11 kind of antibiotics in DU90% segment (ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, cefixime, doxycycline, thiamphenicol, cefodoxime, cefalexin and 44 antibiotic were consumed in 2010 within 18 kind of antibiotics in DU90% segment (ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, cefixime, levofloxacin, cefadroxil, cefotaxime, metronidazole, thiamphenicol, doxycycline, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, sulbactam, gentamycin, streptomycin, cefoperazone, canamycin. There were decline of antibiotic use that followed decline number of bed days/year in 2009–2010, but in both antibiotic kind and quantity of DU90% antibiotic group were increased.

  14. A Review of Antibiotic Use in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Bland, Christopher M; Griffin, Brooke; Stover, Kayla R; Eiland, Lea S; McLaughlin, Milena

    2015-11-01

    During pregnancy, untreated sexually transmitted or urinary tract infections are associated with significant morbidity, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortion. Approximately one in four women will be prescribed an antibiotic during pregnancy, accounting for nearly 80% of prescription medications in pregnant women. Antibiotic exposures during pregnancy have been associated with both short-term (e.g., congenital abnormalities) and long-term effects (e.g., changes in gut microbiome, asthma, atopic dermatitis) in the newborn. However, it is estimated that only 10% of medications have sufficient data related to safe and effective use in pregnancy. Antibiotics such as beta-lactams, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, clindamycin, and fosfomycin are generally considered safe and effective in pregnancy. Fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are generally avoided in pregnancy. Physiologic changes in pregnancy lead to an increase in glomerular filtration rate, increase in total body volume, and enhanced cardiac output. These changes may lead to pharmacokinetic alterations in antibiotics that require dose adjustment or careful monitoring and assessment. PMID:26598097

  15. Intensive Care Unit Infections and Antibiotic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yeşilkaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infections is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn trauma patients. Although burn wound is sterile at the beginning, because of risk factors such as prolonged hospital stay, immunesuppression and burn affecting large body surface area, colonisation firstly with Staphylococcus aureus and then Pseudomonas aeruginosa will occur later. Delay in wound closure and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic will result wound colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To control colonization and to prevent burn wound infection topical antimicrobial dressings are used. The criteria used for the diagnosis of sepsis and wound infections are different in burn victims. Surface swabs from burn wounds must be cultured for the early assestment of infection. Although histopathological examination and quantitative culture of wound tissue biopsy has been known as the gold standard for the verification of invasive burn wound infection, many burn centers cannot do histopathological examination. When the traditional treatment modalities such as debridement of necrotic tissue, cleaning of wound and topical antimicrobial dressing application fails in the management of burn patient, cultures must be taken from possible foci of infection for the early diagnosis. After specimen collection, empirical bactericidal systemic antibiotic treatment should be started promptly. Inappropriate utilization of antibiotics may cause selection of resistant bacteria in the flora of the patient and of the burn unit which facilitates an infection or an outbreak at the end. Infection control in the burn unit includes surveillance cultures, cohort patient care staff, standard isolation precautions, strict hand hygiene compliance and appropariate antibiotic utilization. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 55-61

  16. Identification of Antibiotic Use Pattern as an Effort to Control Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan S. Pradipta; Ellin Febrina; Muhammad H. Ridwan; Rani Ratnawati

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in hospitalized patients at one of Bandung’s private hospital that can give benefit in control of antibiotic resistance and procurement planning of antibiotic. Data of antibiotic consumption were obtained from hospital pharmacy department on February–September 2011. Data were processed using the ATC/DDD and DU90% method. There were 390,98 DDD/100 bed days and 381,34 DDD/100 bed days total of an-tbiotic use i...

  17. Antibióticos em tonsilectomias: terapêutico ou profilático? Necessário ou abusivo? Antibiotic use in tonsillectomies: therapeutic or prophylactic? Required or excessive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bejzman Piltcher

    2005-10-01

    minimize the local inflammation, stimulate the healing process and hasten recovery triggered a considerable number of studies addressing the relation between the use of perioperative antibiotics and postoperative morbidity of adenotonsillectomy. In spite of the fact that those studies claim to perform an assessment of the surgical prophylactic use of antibiotics, their outline is not in compliance with the worldwide-accepted principles of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. By performing a critical review of the literature, the authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using antibiotics in tonsillectomies or adenotonsillectomies, as well as the most appropriate definition for its utilization.

  18. New tricks for old dogs: countering antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis with host-directed therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawn, Thomas R; Shah, Javeed A; Kalman, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Despite the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs for over 50 years, tuberculosis (TB) remains at pandemic levels. New drugs are urgently needed for resistant strains, shortening duration of treatment, and targeting different stages of the disease, especially for treatment during human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. One solution to the conundrum that antibiotics kill the bacillus yet select for resistance is to target the host rather than the pathogen. Here, we discuss recent progress in so-called 'host-directed therapeutics' (HDTs), focusing on two general mechanistic strategies: (i) HDTs that disrupt Mtb pathogenesis in macrophages and (ii) immunomodulatory HDTs that facilitate protective immune responses that kill Mtb or reduce deleterious responses that exacerbate disease. HDTs hold significant promise as adjunctive therapies in that they are less likely to engender resistance, will likely have efficacy against antibiotic-resistant strains, and may have activity against non-replicating Mtb. However, TB is a complex and variegated disease, and human populations exhibit significant diversity in their immune responses to it, which presents a complicated landscape for HDTs to navigate. Nevertheless, we suggest that a detailed mechanistic understanding of drug action, together with careful selection of disease stage targets and dosing strategies may overcome such limitations and allow the development of HDTs as effective adjunctive treatment options for TB. PMID:25703571

  19. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society: Part 1: Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns, Sources of Antibiotic Exposure, Antibiotic Consumption and Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance, Impact of Alterations in Antibiotic Prescribing, and Clinical Sequelae of Antibiotic Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Webster, Guy F; Rosen, Ted; Thiboutot, Diane; Leyden, James J; Gallo, Richard; Walker, Clay; Zhanel, George; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Oral and topical antibiotics are commonly prescribed in dermatologie practice, often for noninfectious disorders, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea. Concerns related to antibiotic exposure from both medical and nonmedical sources require that clinicians consider in each case why and how antibiotics are being used and to make appropriate adjustments to limit antibiotic exposure whenever possible. This first article of a three-part series discusses prescribing patterns in dermatology, provides an overview of sources of antibiotic exposure, reviews the relative correlations between the magnitude of antibiotic consumption and emergence of antibiotic resistance patterns, evaluates the impact of alterations in antibiotic prescribing, and discusses the potential relevance and clinical sequelae of antibiotic use, with emphasis on how antibiotics are used in dermatology. PMID:27462384

  20. Reprogrammable microbial cell-based therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Young; Koh, Elvin; Kim, Hye Rim; Yew, Wen Shan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of antimicrobial drugs and their subsequent use has offered an effective treatment option for bacterial infections, reducing morbidity and mortality over the past 60 years. However, the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in the clinical, community and agricultural settings has resulted in selection for multidrug-resistant bacteria, which has led to the prediction of possible re-entrance to the pre-antibiotic era. The situation is further exacerbated by significantly reduced antimicrobial drug discovery efforts by large pharmaceutical companies, resulting in a steady decline in the number of new antimicrobial agents brought to the market in the past several decades. Consequently, there is a pressing need for new antimicrobial therapies that can be readily designed and implemented. Recently, it has become clear that the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to collateral damage to the human commensal microbiota, which plays several key roles in host health. Advances in genetic engineering have opened the possibility of reprogramming commensal bacteria that are in symbiotic existence throughout the human body to implement antimicrobial drugs with high versatility and efficacy against pathogenic bacteria. In this review, we discuss recent advances and potentialities of engineered bacteria in providing a novel antimicrobial strategy against antibiotic resistance. PMID:27449598

  1. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction. PMID:24701869

  2. Surveillance of antibiotic consumption using the "focus of infection" approach in 2 hospitals in Ujjain, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Pathak

    Full Text Available Antibiotic surveillance initiatives are limited in resource-constrained settings. In the present study, a quantitative comparison of antibiotic use rates for suspected infections in 2 hospitals in India was performed using the "focus of infection" approach to identify targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prescription patterns in hospitalized patients.This observational study was carried out in one teaching and one nonteaching hospital. All the patients with suspected bacterial etiology were included. Data on the prescribed antibiotics and the focus of infection were prospectively collected using a structured questionnaire. Each diagnosis was further reviewed and confirmed by an independent consultant. The prescribed antibiotics were coded according to the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Classification (ATC index with the defined daily dose (DDD methodology. Focus-specific DDDs were calculated per hundred patient days (DDD/HPD.A total of 6026 patients were included from 72 participating physicians out of available 75 physicians. Overall antibiotic prescribing was higher by 5 percentage points in the teaching hospital (95% than in the nonteaching hospital (90%. Quinolones (ciprofloxacin constituting 86% of DDD/HPD were the highest prescribed class in the teaching hospital, and third-generation cephalosporins (with ceftriaxone and ceftriaxone/sulbactam constituting 40% and 28% of the DDD/HPD, respectively, in the nonteaching hospital. The targets identified for improvement were the following: longer than recommended duration of prophylaxis and lack of distinction between prophylaxis and therapy among surgical patients; irrational antibiotic prescribing in gastroenteritis; overuse of quinolones and lack of use of penicillin in pneumonia; overuse of quinolones and lack of use of doxycycline and macrolides in genital infections; and overreliance on antibiotics for treating skin and soft tissue infections.Providing a

  3. Use of antibiotic agents in a large teaching hospital. The impact of Antibiotic Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, K; Stewart, R; Hemming, M; Moulds, R

    1983-09-01

    Three surveys of antibiotic use have been conducted at The Royal Melbourne Hospital. The first was conducted in 1978, before the introduction of the booklet, Antibiotic Guidelines; the second was conducted eight months after, and the most recent, four years after, its distribution. In 1978, 30% of 563 patients surveyed were receiving antibiotic therapy; this proportion declined to 28% of 967 patients studied in 1982. At the beginning of 1978, 52% of all treatments audited were judged appropriate when compared with those recommended in the Guidelines; this proportion rose to 72% in the second survey and was maintained at 70% in 1982. Certain inappropriate prescribing patterns persisted, such as the use of amoxycillin for the treatment of primary pneumonia, surgical antibiotic prophylaxis which was started too late, and the failure to simplify therapy when the results of microbiological investigations became available. Antibiotic guidelines facilitate the auditing of antibiotic usage and aid rational prescribing. Nevertheless, additional measures appear necessary if specific patterns of misuse of antibiotic agents are to be corrected. PMID:6678384

  4. Use of Antibiotics in Pediatrics: 8-Years Survey in Italian Hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Buccellato

    Full Text Available To evaluate antibiotic consumption in the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna Region, from 2004 to 2011, with a focus on the antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections, and to analyse the ADRs reported for antibiotics by the pediatric wards of Emilia-Romagna hospitals.Reference population was represented by all the patients (0-14 years old admitted to the pediatric wards of all the hospitals of Emilia-Romagna Region. Drug consumption was expressed as number of DDDs per 100 Bed-Days (BD and data were analysed by active substance, by therapeutic subgroups or by ward type. The time trends of antibiotic consumption were statistically analysed by linear regression. All the suspected ADR reports associated with antibiotics, reported between January 2004 and December 2011 were drawn by the Italian Spontaneous Reporting Database.Overall antibiotic consumption showed only a slight increase (p = 0.224. Among the pediatric wards, pediatric surgery showed the highest increase from 2004 to 2011 (p = 0.011. Penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors was the first therapeutic group with a statistically significant increase over years (p = 0.038, whereas penicillins with extended spectrum presented a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.008. Moreover, only 5 drugs out of the 8 antibiotics reserved to the most serious infections were used. Pharmacovigilance data showed 27 spontaneous ADR reports associated to ATC J01 drugs. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid had the highest number of ADR reports (n = 7.The steadily increasing consumption in penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors, in association with a considerable decrease of plain penicillins, raises a serious concern. Pharmacovigilance reports seem to suggest a safe use of antibiotics in the hospital setting of Emilia-Romagna. Further studies to investigate the reason for prescribing antibiotics in children inpatients are needed.

  5. Use of antibiotics by primary care doctors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the use of antibiotics by primary care doctors. Methods General practitioners in Hong Kong were invited to fill in a short questionnaire on every patient with infection that they had seen on the first full working day once every three months for four consecutive quarters starting from December 2005. Results Forty six primary care doctors took part and a total of 3096 completed questionnaires were returned. The top three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (46.7%, gastrointestinal infection (8.2% and pharyngitis (7.1%. Thirty percent of patient encounters with infections were prescribed antibiotics but only 5.2% of patient encounters with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were prescribed antibiotics. Amino-penicillins were the most commonly used antibiotics while beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs were the second most commonly used antibiotics and they accounted for 16.5% and 14.0% of all antibiotics used respectively. Of all patients or their carers, those who demanded or wished for antibiotics were far more likely to be prescribed antibiotics (Pearson chi-square test, p Conclusion The antibiotic prescribing patterns of primary care doctors in Hong Kong are broadly similar to primary care doctors in other developed countries but a relatively low rate of antibiotics is used for URTI.

  6. A Prospective Study of Inpatients to Determine Microbial Etiology and Therapeutic Outcome of Antibiotics for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Rehman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is among the common diseases that causes illness and death world-wide. Limited data is available for the treatment of patients with CAP and/or medical outcome of CAP patients in Pakistan. This cross-sectional and prospective study was done to determine etiology of CAP patients and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of antibiotics commonly used in treating CAP patients in two different inner-city hospitals, Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted on 200 hospitalized patients presenting clinical and radiographic evidences of CAP. The patients were assessed for the causative pathogen and their prescriptions were analyzed for the management and treatment of CAP and associated symptoms of pneumonia. Finally the medical outcomes were evaluated. Results: On establishing the microbial etiology of pneumonia among different CAP causing pathogens, K. pneumoniae was found to be the most identified causative agent (30% followed by S. pneumoniae (23%. Majority of the patients received cephalosporin antibiotics (80% followed by aminoglycosides (65% and penicillins (50% either as monotherapy or combination treatment. Therapeutic success was observed to occur in majority of the patients. The recovery of CAP patients occurred probably because they received antibiotics which are recommended by WHO and American Thoracic Society. Another reason for successful therapeutic outcome was found to be the significant patient compliance for treatment. Conclusion: There is a great need for such types of investigational studies to be conducted in developing countries which may guide the empirical therapy and help in defining proper treatment guidelines.

  7. [Radioimmunotargeting: diagnosis and therapeutic use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillez, J P

    2000-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies labeled with a radionuclide make feasible the in vivo radioimmunotargeting of tumor cells. This targeting could be performed for diagnosis, using gamma emitters, or for therapeutic purpose when antibodies are labeled with beta- and in the future alpha-emitters. Diagnosis applications (tumor detection and caracterization), i.e. immunoscintigraphy, have been widely investigated during 20 last years. This technic appeared quite interesting, complementary of morphological imaging, and clinically useful, but difficult on a practical point of view because of several pharmacological and immunological limitations. For these reasons, despite several consequent improvements (especially two-steps or pre-targeting methods), immunoscintigraphy is currently not widely used; furthermore, other scintigraphic methods, mainly positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, are efficient and easier to perform. On the other hand, knowledge of the biodistribution of radiolabeled antibodies allows the development of their therapeutic use, i.e. radioimmunotherapy, which represents a new method of cancer treatment. Radioimmunotherapy has several particular radiobiological and dosimetric aspects, which remain widely under investigation. Understanding of these aspects, together with a better delineation of the indications, allow to be really optimist concerning this new way of cancer treatment, as shown by clinical results that have been obtained in non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radiolabeled immunoconjugates appears as a growing field in nuclear medicine, which sustains numerous preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:11125290

  8. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bywater, R.; Walters, J.; Lipsitch, M.

    2003-01-01

    meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of...... antibiotic resistance really does come through the food chain, will it be too late for action? In this forum, we present different perspectives from both human and animal medicine, to better understand the complexity of the problem of antibiotic resistance and examine the challenges that lie ahead....

  9. Therapeutical uses of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiology of thyroid gland, pathology of thyroid , papillary, follicular cancer is considered together as differentiated thyroid cancer with very good results under therapy with iodine, invitro determination of calcitonin, search of metastasis, anaplastic carcinoma, as indifferentiated carcinoma with similar results as medullary carcinoma. This work gives a protocol for therapeutical use of 131I , in hyperthyroidism due to Graves-Basedow disease, thyrotoxic adenoma or Plummer disease, toxic multi nodular goiter, subacute thyroiditis. Is studied too the treatment with pharmaceuticals, surgery and radioactive iodine. A recommended use of each and protocol for iodine administration, fixed dose technique, dose estimation,absorbed dose, recommendations about when to use and not use 131I are included in this work

  10. Even Apparently Insignificant Chemical Deviations among Bioequivalent Generic Antibiotics Can Lead to Therapeutic Nonequivalence: the Case of Meropenem

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo, M.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Pelaez, C. A.; Vesga, O.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies with animal models have demonstrated that bioequivalence of generic products of antibiotics like vancomycin, as currently defined, do not guarantee therapeutic equivalence. However, the amounts and characteristics of impurities and degradation products in these formulations do not violate the requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP). Here, we provide experimental data with three generic products of meropenem that help in understanding how these apparently insignificant chem...

  11. Intensive Care Unit Infections and Antibiotic Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Yeşilkaya; Hande Arslan

    2011-01-01

    Burn wound infections is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn trauma patients. Although burn wound is sterile at the beginning, because of risk factors such as prolonged hospital stay, immunesuppression and burn affecting large body surface area, colonisation firstly with Staphylococcus aureus and then Pseudomonas aeruginosa will occur later. Delay in wound closure and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic will result wound colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. T...

  12. Correlation of pharmacodynamic parameters of five beta-lactam antibiotics with therapeutic efficacies in an animal model.

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, F; García-Corbeira, P; Ponte, C; Fernández-Roblas, R.; Gadea, I.

    1996-01-01

    The MIC is the main microbiologic parameter used to predict the efficacies of antibiotics. However, it is well known that MICs may vary according to the inoculum size used (inoculum effect), especially with some beta-lactam antibiotics. In order to correlate the pharmacologic and microbiologic properties of some beta-lactams, an experimental model of intraperitoneal infection caused by Escherichia coli in nonneutropenic and neutro-penic mice was developed. The animals were treated with three ...

  13. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

    2014-06-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers. PMID:25076655

  14. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  15. Attitudes and behaviors of Family Physicians regarding use of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Çakır

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Antimicrobials are the most widely used drug groups and antibiotic resistance due to irrational antimicrobial usage is a major problem in the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate attitudes of family physicians antimicrobial prescribing.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in November 2006 in Bolu and Duzce provinces where the first family physician practices were initiated in Turkey. The records of family physicians were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ data, social security institution of the patients, the diagnosis and prescribed antibiotics, duration, dosage and routes of antibiotic administration were recorded.Results: A total of 4,497 patients were included in the study consisting of 1,752 (39% men, and 2,745 (61% women. The mean age of the patients was 36.6 ± 22.7 years. Antimicrobials were prescribed to 1,167 patients (25.9%. Among 1,167 antibiotics, 1,064 (91.2% were administered orally, 77 (6.6% were paranteral and 26 (2.2% were taken through other routes. In 39 (3.3% patients, there was no indication for antimicrobial use. In 103 patients (9.1% from the accurate antibiotic indication group, the choice of the agent was not consistent with the guidelines. In 273 patients (23.4% on antimicrobial therapy, duration of the antibiotic was inappropriate. The most common indication of the antibiotic prescription was tonsillopharyngitis and the most prescribed antibiotics for this diagnosis were beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitors.Conclusions: In conclusion, there is still considerable overuse of antibiotics by primary care patients, especially the ones suffering respiratory tract infections. Educational interventions on antimicrobial use could be useful. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(2: 53-57

  16. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe S. Ferreira; Nalba L. G. Silva; Edinardo F.F Matias; Samuel V. Brito; Francisco G. Oliveira; José G. M. Costa; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Waltécio O. Almeida; Alves, Rômulo R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional rem...

  17. Questions about the use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Jose

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective The use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis despite recent clinical trials remains controversial. The aim of this study is to review the latest clinical trials and guidelines about antibiotics in acute pancreatitis and determine its proper use. Methods Through a Medline search, we selected and analyzed pertinent randomized clinical trials and guidelines that evaluated the use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis. We answered the most frequent questions about this topic. Results and conclusion Based on these clinical trials and guidelines, we conclude that the best treatment currently is the use of antibiotics in patients with severe acute pancreatitis with more than 30% of pancreatic necrosis. The best option for the treatment is Imipenem 3 × 500 mg/day i.v. for 14 days. Alternatively, Ciprofloxacin 2 × 400 mg/day i.v. associated with Metronidazole 3 × 500 mg for 14 days can also be considered as an option.

  18. Time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of antibiotics used in endodontic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Beloti Ferreira; Suely Myiagi; Carlos Goes Nogales; Marcia Sampaio Campos; José Luiz Lage-Marques

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: New drugs have to be assessed in endodontic therapy due to the presence of microorganisms resistant to therapeutic procedures. Thus, this study evaluated the time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of different antibiotics used in endodontic therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human gingival fibroblasts were treated and divided into the following experimental groups: Group I - control; Group II - ciprofoxacin hydrochloride; Group III - clyndamicin hydrochloride; and Group IV - me...

  19. Neurotoxic effects associated with antibiotic use: management considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, Marie F; Maganti, Rama K.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of antibiotic-induced neurotoxic effects, the underlying mechanisms and management strategies have been reviewed. PubMed and OVID searches (January 1960–June 2010) were conducted using search terms such as antibiotics, side effects, neurotoxicity and encephalopathy which yielded approximately 300 articles. All relevant case reports, case series, letters and retrospective reviews describing neurotoxic effects and those discussing mechanisms of neurotoxicity were inc...

  20. Overview on the Current Antibiotic Containing Agents Used in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramta Bansal; Aditya Jain

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are systemically and locally used extensively in endodontics. However, local antibiotic application mode is considered more effective than systemic administration. The local mode enables the dentist to target bacteria in every nook and corner of root canal system, which is otherwise beyond reach if targeted by instrumentation or conventional root canal treatment protocols. Therefore, they are an important adjunct to conventional treatment of root canal. The present study reviews t...

  1. Etiological diagnosis reduces the use of antibiotics in infants with bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Esposito Ferronato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acute bronchiolitis is a leading cause of infant hospitalization and is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Etiological tests are not required for its diagnosis, but the influence of viral screening on the therapeutic approach for acute bronchiolitis remains unclear. METHODS: A historical cohort was performed to assess the impact of viral screening on drug prescriptions. The study included infants up to one year of age who were hospitalized for bronchiolitis. Virus screening was performed using immunofluorescence assays in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The clinical data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Therapeutic changes were considered to be associated with viral screening when made within 24 hours of the release of the results. RESULTS: The frequency of prescriptions for beta agonists, corticosteroids and antibiotics was high at the time of admission and was similar among the 230 patients. The diagnosis of pneumonia and otitis was associated with the introduction of antibiotics but did not influence antibiotics maintenance after the results of the virus screening were obtained. Changes in the prescriptions were more frequent for the respiratory syncytial virus patients compared to patients who had negative viral screening results (p =0.004, especially the discontinuation of antibiotics (p<0.001. The identification of respiratory syncytial virus was associated with the suspension of antibiotics (p= 0.003, even after adjusting for confounding variables (p = 0.004; however, it did not influence the suspension of beta-agonists or corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: The identification of respiratory syncytial virus in infants with bronchiolitis was independently associated with the discontinuation of antibiotics during hospitalization

  2. Use of Antibiotics and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Knop, Filip Krag; Frost, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    risk, slightly higher ORs for type 2 diabetes were seen with narrow-spectrum and bactericidal antibiotics (OR 1.55 and 1.48) compared to broad-spectrum and bacteriostatic types of antibiotics (OR 1.31 and 1.39), respectively. A clear dose-response effect was seen with increasing cumulative load of......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Evidence that bacteria in the human gut may influence nutrient metabolism is accumulating. We investigated whether use of antibiotics influences the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and whether the effect can be attributed to specific types of antibiotics. METHODS: We...... conducted a population-based case-control study of incident type 2 diabetes cases in Denmark (population 5.6 million) between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2012. Data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, the Danish National Prescription Registry, and the Danish Person Registry were combined...

  3. New Developments in Vaccines, Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxins, and Antibiotic Therapeutics for Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Beierlein, J.M.; Anderson, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent responsible for anthrax infections, poses a significant biodefense threat. There is a high mortality rate associated with untreated anthrax infections; specifically, inhalation anthrax is a particularly virulent form of infection with mortality rates close to 100%, even with aggressive treatment. Currently, a vaccine is not available to the general public and few antibiotics have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of inhalation anthrax. With the...

  4. Rapid determination of antibiotic resistance in E. coli using dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria such as methillicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli are on the rise, and with them the demand for rapid antibiotic testing is also rising. Conventional tests, such as disc diffusion testing, require a primary sample to be tested in the presence of a number of antibiotics to verify which antibiotics suppress growth, which take approximately 24 h to complete and potentially place the patient at severe risk. In this paper we describe the use of dielectrophoresis as a rapid marker of cell death, by detecting changes in the electrophysiology of the cell caused by the administration of an antibiotic. In contrast to other markers, the electrophysiology of the cell changes rapidly during cell death allowing live cells to be distinguished from dead (or dying) cells without the need for culturing. Using polymyxin B as an example antibiotic, our studies indicate that significant changes in cell characteristics can be observed as soon as 1 h passes after isolating a culture from nutrient broth

  5. Rapid determination of antibiotic resistance in E. coli using dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoettges, Kai F [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Dale, Jeremy W [School of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hughes, Michael P [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    In recent years, infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria such as methillicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli are on the rise, and with them the demand for rapid antibiotic testing is also rising. Conventional tests, such as disc diffusion testing, require a primary sample to be tested in the presence of a number of antibiotics to verify which antibiotics suppress growth, which take approximately 24 h to complete and potentially place the patient at severe risk. In this paper we describe the use of dielectrophoresis as a rapid marker of cell death, by detecting changes in the electrophysiology of the cell caused by the administration of an antibiotic. In contrast to other markers, the electrophysiology of the cell changes rapidly during cell death allowing live cells to be distinguished from dead (or dying) cells without the need for culturing. Using polymyxin B as an example antibiotic, our studies indicate that significant changes in cell characteristics can be observed as soon as 1 h passes after isolating a culture from nutrient broth.

  6. [Sanitary safety of GMOs used in therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvin, Jean-Hugues

    2002-01-01

    The recent progress in human therapeutics has been made possible thanks to molecular biology and its use in producing proteins having the same sequence and structure as that of human proteins. The use of GMOs allows production of proteins with high added value in therapeutics, which are of satisfactory quality. GMOs may also be directly administered to patients as gene therapy vectors. However, the use of GMOs in therapeutics must take into consideration some risks, particularly those of microbiological contamination, of neo-antigenicity as well as environmental risks with regard to the way of use of the GMO. Nevertheless, those risks are taken in due consideration in the development of those new medicinal products; solutions have been found to allow their use in therapeutics with a very positive benefit/risk ratio. Medicinal products from biotechnology have permitted considerable therapeutic progress without compromising health security. PMID:12669359

  7. Antibiotic use and its consequences for the normal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J

    2016-04-29

    Anti-infectives, including antibiotics, are essentially different from all other drugs; they not only affect the individual to whom they are given but also the entire community, through selection for resistance to their own action. Thus, their use resides at the intersection of personal and public health. Antibiotics can be likened to a four-edged sword against bacteria. The first two edges of the antibiotic sword were identified immediately after their discovery and deployment in that they not only benefit an individual in treating their infection but also benefit the community in preventing the spread of that infectious agent. The third edge was already recognized by Alexander Fleming in 1945 in his Nobel acceptance speech, which warned about the cost to the community of antibiotic resistance that would inevitably evolve and be selected for during clinical practice. We have seen this cost mount up, as resistance curtails or precludes the activities of some of our most effective drugs for clinically important infections. But the fourth edge of the antibiotic sword remained unappreciated until recently, i.e., the cost that an antibiotic exerts on an individual's own health via the collateral damage of the drug on bacteria that normally live on or in healthy humans: our microbiota. These organisms, their genes, metabolites, and interactions with one another, as well as with their host collectively, represent our microbiome. Our relationship with these symbiotic bacteria is especially important during the early years of life, when the adult microbiome has not yet formed. PMID:27126037

  8. Therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics inhibit Shiga toxin release from enterohemorrhagic E. coli O104:H4 from the 2011 German outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corogeanu Diana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O104:H4 caused a major outbreak in Germany in spring 2011. STEC are usually susceptible to common antibiotics. However, antibiotic treatment of STEC-infected patients is not recommended because STEC may enhance production and release of shiga toxins (STX in response to antibiotics, which eventually enhances the frequency and severity of clinical symptoms, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS and fatalities. Results We characterized the response to antibiotics of STEC O104:H4 isolates from two HUS patients during the German STEC outbreak in spring 2011 in comparison to the common STEC O157:H7. Liquid cultures of STEC O157:H7 and O104:H4 were incubated with graded dilutions of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, fosfomycin, gentamicin, rifampicin, and chloramphenicol. At defined times of antibiotic treatment, transcriptional activation of the STX2 gene, contents of STX and STX-activity in the culture supernatants were quantified. Unlike the common serotype O157:H7, STEC O104:H4 does not release STX in response to therapeutic concentrations of ciprofloxacin, meropenem, fosfomycin, and chloramphenicol. Conclusions In future outbreaks, the response of the respective epidemiologic STEC strain to antibiotics should be rapidly characterized in order to identify antibiotics that do not enhance the release of STX. This will eventually allow clinical studies tackling the question whether antibiotic treatment impacts on the eradication of STEC, clinical course of disease, and frequency of carriers.

  9. Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genetic determinants during manure storage, treatment, and land application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in swine production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at sub-therapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that ca.75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occur...

  10. Antibiotics dispensing for URTIs by community pharmacists and general medical practitioners in Penang, Malaysia: A comparative study using simulated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alabid, Alamin Hassan M.A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Malaysia, doctors in private clinics (often called dispensing doctors) are permitted to dispense medicines. This potentially may compromise rational dispensing of medicines in general and antibiotics in particular. Aim: This study explored, assessed and compared dispensing of antibiotics between Community Pharmacist (CP) and General Practitioners (GPs) regarding symptomatic diagnosis, antibiotic categories, adherence to therapeutic doses and promotion of generic antibiotics...

  11. Marker-free plasmids for gene therapeutic applications--lack of antibiotic resistance gene substantially improves the manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairhofer, Jürgen; Cserjan-Puschmann, Monika; Striedner, Gerald; Nöbauer, Katharina; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Grabherr, Reingard

    2010-04-01

    Plasmid DNA is being considered as a promising alternative to traditional protein vaccines or viral delivery methods for gene therapeutic applications. DNA-based products are highly flexible, stable, are easily stored and can be manufactured on a large scale. Although, much safer than viral approaches, issues have been raised with regard to safety due to possible integration of plasmid DNA into cellular DNA or spread of antibiotic resistance genes to intestinal bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, there is interest in methods for the production of plasmid DNA that lacks the antibiotic resistance gene to further improve their safety profile. Here, we report for the first time the gram-scale manufacturing of a minimized plasmid that is devoid of any additional sequence elements on the plasmid backbone, and merely consists of the target expression cassette and the bacterial origin of replication. Three different host/vector combinations were cultivated in a fed-batch fermentation process, comparing the progenitor strain JM108 to modified strains JM108murselect, hosting a plasmid either containing the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase which provides kanamycin resistance, or a marker-free variant of the same plasmid. The metabolic load exerted by expression of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase was monitored by measuring ppGpp- and cAMP-levels. Moreover, we revealed that JM108 is deficient of the Lon protease and thereby refined the genotype of JM108. The main consequences of Lon-deficiency with regard to plasmid DNA production are discussed herein. Additionally, we found that the expression of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, conferring resistance to kanamycin, was very high in plasmid DNA producing processes that actually inclusion bodies were formed. Thereby, a severe metabolic load on the host cell was imposed, detrimental for overall plasmid yield. Hence, deleting the antibiotic resistance gene from the vector backbone is not only beneficial

  12. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  14. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Ates, Sezen Canim; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Miraloglu, Meral; Elcicek, Serhat; Yaman, Serkan; Unal, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin - isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis - and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be

  15. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional remedy. Oil (OBC was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of B. constrictor using hexane as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of OBC was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines, either alone and in combination with antibiotics. OBC did not demonstrate any relevant antibacterial activity against standard or multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. OBC showed synergistic activity when combined with the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results indicate that the body fat of Boa constrictor does not possess bactericidal activity, from the clinical point of view, but when combined with an antibiotic, the fat demonstrated a significant synergistic activity.

  16. THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF SYMBIOTICS

    OpenAIRE

    FLESCH, Aline Gamarra Taborda; POZIOMYCK, Aline Kirjner; DAMIN, Daniel De Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Functional foods are health promoters and their use is associated with reduced risk of chronic degenerative and non-transmissible diseases. Examples are symbiotic. The association of one (or more) probiotic with a one (or more) prebiotic is called symbiotic, being the prebiotics complementary and probiotics synergistic, thus presenting a multiplicative factor on their individual actions. Objective To assess the evidences on the benefits of the use of symbiotics in the treatment o...

  17. The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati eSengupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are chemotherapeutic agents, which have been a very powerful tool in the clinical management of bacterial diseases since the 1940s. However, benefits offered by these magic bullets have been substantially lost in subsequent days following the widespread emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains. While it is obvious that excessive and imprudent use of antibiotics significantly contributes to the emergence of resistant strains, antibiotic-resistance is also observed in natural bacteria of remote places unlikely to be impacted by human intervention. Both antibiotic biosynthetic genes and resistance-conferring genes have been known to evolve billions of years ago, long before clinical use of antibiotics. Hence it appears that antibiotics and antibiotics resistance determinants have some other roles in nature, which often elude our attention because of overemphasis on the therapeutic importance of antibiotics and the crisis imposed by the antibiotic-resistance in pathogens. In the natural milieu, antibiotics are often found to be present in subinhibitory concentrations acting as signalling molecules supporting quorum sensing and biofilm formation. They also play an important role in the production of virulence factors and influence host-parasite interactions (e.g., phagocytosis, adherence to the target cell and so on. The evolutionary and ecological aspects of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance in the naturally occurring microbial community are little understood. Therefore, the actual role of antibiotics in nature warrants in-depth investigations. Studies on such an intriguing behaviour of the microorganisms promise insight into the intricacies of the microbial physiology and are likely to provide some lead in controlling the emergence and subsequent dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This article highlights some of the recent findings on the role of antibiotics and genes that confer resistance to antibiotics in

  18. 21 CFR 510.106 - Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing... ANIMAL DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.106 Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals. Whenever the labeling of...

  19. Educational interventions to improve antibiotic use in the community: report from the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance (IFAR) colloquium, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Roger G; Metlay, Joshua P; Davey, Peter G; Baker, Lee J

    2004-01-01

    National and international strategies for the control of antibiotic resistance recommend education for health-care professionals and the public to promote prudent antibiotic use. This paper, based on discussions at the 2002 colloquium of the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance (IFAR), provides an international discourse between theoretical approaches to behaviour change and practical experience gained in large-scale antibiotic use educational campaigns. Interventions are more likely to be effective if their aim is to change behaviour, rather than provide information. They should target all relevant groups, especially parents, children, day-care staff, and health-care professionals. They should use clear and consistent messages concerning bacterial versus viral infection, prudent antibiotic use, symptomatic treatment, and infection-control measures (eg, handwashing). Campaigns should use a range of communications using pilot-testing, strong branding, and sociocultural adaptation. Prime-time television is likely to be the most effective public medium, while academic detailing is especially useful for health-care professionals. Multifaceted interventions can improve antibiotic prescribing to some degree. However, there are few data on their effects on resistance patterns and patient outcomes, and on their cost-effectiveness. Current research aims include the application of behaviour-change models, the development and validation of prudent antibiotic prescribing standards, and the refinement of tools to assess educational interventions. PMID:14720568

  20. Therapeutic use of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    In December, researchers from ISOLDE-CERN, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) published the results of an in vivo study which successfully proved the effectiveness of four terbium isotopes for diagnosing and treating cancerous tumours.   Four terbium isotopes suitable for clinical purposes. “ISOLDE is the only installation capable of supplying terbium isotopes of such purity and intensity in the case of three out of the four types used in this study,” explains Karl Johnson, a physicist at ISOLDE.  “Producing over a thousand different isotopes, our equipment offers the widest choice of isotopes in the world!” Initially intended for fundamental physics research, ISOLDE has diversified its activities over time to invest in various projects in the materials science, biochemistry and nuclear medicine fields. The proof-of-concept study has confirmed that the four terbium isotopes 149Tb, 152Tb, 155Tb produ...

  1. Community Intervention Model to Reduce Inappropriate Antibiotic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Stephen; Wuthrich, Amy; Haddadin, Bassam; Donnelly, Sharon; Hannah, Elizabeth Lyon; Stoddard, Greg; Benuzillo, Jose; Bateman, Kim; Samore, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Inter-Mountain Project on Antibiotic Resistance and Therapy (IMPART) is an intervention that addresses emerging antimicrobial resistance and the reduction of unnecessary antimicrobial use. Purpose: This study assesses the design and implementation of the community intervention component of IMPART. Methods: The study was conducted…

  2. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdiyev AM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adil M Allahverdiyev,1 Melahat Bagirova,1 Emrah Sefik Abamor,1 Sezen Canim Ates,1 Rabia Cakir Koc,2 Meral Miraloglu,3 Serhat Elcicek,4 Serkan Yaman,1 Gokce Unal1 1Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yeni Yuzyil University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Vocational School of Health Services, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey; 4Department of Bioengineering, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Abstract: Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin – isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis – and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin

  3. Chronic plaque psoriasis: streptococcus pyogenes throat carriage rate and therapeutic response to oral antibiotics in comparison with oral methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the throat carriage rate of Streptococcus pyogenes in patients having chronic plaque psoriasis and the effect of antibiotics as compared with that of oral methotrexate. Forty patients and 40 age and gender-matched controls were selected. Throat swab for culture of Streptococcus pyogenes was taken from each patient and control. All patients were treated with oral Penicillin V 250 mg, 6 hourly, and oral Rifampicin, 600 mg daily, for 10 days. Pre- and post therapy 'Psoriasis Area and Severity Index' (PASI) were compared. Thirty of these 40 patients were later given oral methotrexate, 5-10 mg weekly, for 04 weeks and pre- and post-therapy PASI were compared. Chi-square and paired-samples t-test were used for data analysis. Throat swab cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes in 05 (12.5%) patients and none (0%) of the controls (p=0.02). Mean pre- and postantibiotic therapy PASI were 15.92 + 05.94 and 15.19 + 06.17 respectively (p=0.078). Mean pre- and postmethotrexate PASI were 15.81+ 5.55 and 8.79 + 4.19 respectively (p <0.01). Throat carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes is common in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Short-term antibiotic treatment has no role in routine treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. However, it would be worthwhile to consider the effects of long term antibiotics on chronic plaque psoriasis. (author)

  4. 慎用抗生素%Using Antibiotics with Caution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽丽

    2012-01-01

    中国是抗生素生产大国,也是抗生素使用大国。抗生素不仅能杀灭细菌而且对霉菌、支原体、衣原体等其它致病微生物也有良好的抑制和杀灭作用。但是近年来,抗生素滥用的情况日益突出。本文对抗生素滥用的原因、滥用的危害和如何合理使用抗生素作一简单的阐述。%China is not only a biggest producer of antibiotics, but also a biggest consumer of it. Due to its merits that exhibit good inhibition on mould, mycoplasma, Chlamydia and other pathogenic microorganism while sterilizing bacteria, problem of antibiotics abuse has become increasingly prominent. This paper summarizes the reasons and harm for antibiotics abuse, and discusses how to use antibiotics reasonably.

  5. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun Su; Guangshan Zhang; Peng Wang; Shixiong Li; Ryan M. Ravenelle; JOHN C. CRITTENDEN

    2015-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBC) are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW). The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%....

  6. Investigating the Extremes of Antibiotic Use with an Epidemiologic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheetz, Marc H; Crew, Page E; Miglis, Cristina; Gilbert, Elise M; Sutton, Sarah H; O'Donnell, J Nick; Postelnick, Michael; Zembower, Teresa; Rhodes, Nathaniel J

    2016-06-01

    Benchmarks for judicious use of antimicrobials are needed. Metrics such as defined daily doses (DDDs) and days of therapy (DOTs) quantify antimicrobial consumption. However, benchmarking with these metrics is complicated by interhospital variability. Thus, it is important for each hospital to monitor its own temporal consumption trends. Time series analyses allow trends to be detected; however, many of these methods are complex. We present simple regressive methods and caveats in using them to define potential antibiotic over- and underutilizations. PMID:27001807

  7. Dragon's blood: botany, chemistry and therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bleakley, Bruce; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2008-02-12

    Dragon's blood is one of the renowned traditional medicines used in different cultures of world. It has got several therapeutic uses: haemostatic, antidiarrhetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antiviral, wound healing, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Besides these medicinal applications, it is used as a coloring material, varnish and also has got applications in folk magic. These red saps and resins are derived from a number of disparate taxa. Despite its wide uses, little research has been done to know about its true source, quality control and clinical applications. In this review, we have tried to overview different sources of Dragon's blood, its source wise chemical constituents and therapeutic uses. As well as, a little attempt has been done to review the techniques used for its quality control and safety. PMID:18060708

  8. Attitudes and behaviors of Family Physicians regarding use of antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    KARABAY, Oğuz; Özdemir, Davut; GÜÇLÜ, ERTUĞRUL; Yıldırım, Mustafa; İnce, Nevin; Küçükbayrak, Abdulkadir; Çakır, Selma; Gülenç, Mustafa; İnce, Mehmet; Demirli, Keziban

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Antimicrobials are the most widely used drug groups and antibiotic resistance due to irrational antimicrobial usage is a major problem in the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate attitudes of family physicians antimicrobial prescribing. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in November 2006 in Bolu and Duzce provinces where the first family physician practices were initiated in Turkey. The records of family physicians were reviewed retrospectively. Patients\\' ...

  9. Attitudes and behaviors of Family Physicians regarding use of antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Çakır; Keziban Demirli; Mehmet İnce; Mustafa Gülenç; Abdulkadir Küçükbayrak; Nevin İnce; Ertuğrul Güçlü; Mustafa Yıldırım; Davut Özdemir; Oğuz Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Antimicrobials are the most widely used drug groups and antibiotic resistance due to irrational antimicrobial usage is a major problem in the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate attitudes of family physicians antimicrobial prescribing.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in November 2006 in Bolu and Duzce provinces where the first family physician practices were initiated in Turkey. The records of family physicians were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ data, ...

  10. Time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of antibiotics used in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Beloti Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: New drugs have to be assessed in endodontic therapy due to the presence of microorganisms resistant to therapeutic procedures. Thus, this study evaluated the time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of different antibiotics used in endodontic therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human gingival fibroblasts were treated and divided into the following experimental groups: Group I - control; Group II - ciprofoxacin hydrochloride; Group III - clyndamicin hydrochloride; and Group IV - metronidazole. Each drug was used at concentrations of 5, 50, 150, and 300 mg/L for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and spectrophotometric reading of ELISA plates. The results were analyzed by BioEstat 4.0 software using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at a signifcance level of 5%. Cell viability was assessed for the different concentrations and times. RESULTS: All drugs presented dose-dependent cytotoxicity. Concentrations of 5 and 50 mgjL produced viable fibroblasts at all experimental times in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Cell viability at 24 h was greater than in the other experimental times. Comparison between the same concentrations of antibiotics at different times showed that metronidazole presented the highest cell viability at 72 and 96 h compared to the other antibiotics, whereas clyndamicin hydrochloride showed higher cell viability at 72 h than ciprofoxacin hydrochloride.

  11. Monitoring Antibiotic Use and Residue in Freshwater Aquaculture for Domestic Use in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dang Kim; Chu, Jacqueline; Do, Nga Thuy; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Delahaut, Philippe; De Pauw, Edwin; Douny, Caroline; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Vu, Ton Dinh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2015-09-01

    Vietnam is an important producer of aquaculture products, and aquatic products are essential to the Vietnamese diet. However, Vietnam also has very little enforced regulation pertaining to antibiotic usage in domestic aquaculture, which raises concerns for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, analysis was conducted on the presence of antibiotic residues in domestically sold fish and shrimp raised in freshwater farms in Vietnam, and an assessment of farmers' knowledge of proper antibiotics usage was performed. The results indicated that a quarter of tested aquaculture products were antibiotic screening test positive, and there is a general lack of knowledge about the purpose and proper usage of antibiotics by aquaculture producers. Farmers' decision-making processes about antimicrobial use are influenced by biased sources of information, such as drug manufacturers and sellers, and by financial incentives. PMID:25561382

  12. Immunomodulatory actions of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antimicrob drugs and immune system interaction has been studied since the pioneer works of Metchnikoff. After the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice this area has attracted little attention of investigators, because of the lack of standards. This is the reason that the studying of the influence of antibiotics on immune system is still at its beginning. Aim: To point out the immunomodulatory action of some antibiotics on certain components of immune system. Methods and results. The literaure findings show that antibiotics exspress immunomodulatory action on some components of immune system such as fagocytes (polymorphonucleary, macrophages, monocytes, cytokines, immunoglobulines, and on cellular immunity. The principles of antibiotics action on phagocyte are the inhibition of chemotaxis and oxidants production. Macrolides applied for a short time enchance the phagocytic functions while their long use leads to immunosupression. Some cephalosporines and rifampicin in therapeutic doses inhibit the oxydative metabolism of macrophages. Tetracyclines, clindamycines, chloramphenicol and tobramycin inhibit the synthesis of superoxyd anione. The action of some antibiotics on cytokine and specific antibodies is also important. Cellular immunity can be affected as well. After administration of certain antibiotics it takes 1-2 weeks to reestablish normal cellular immunity, and for other even more. Conclusion. There is still no clear standing on real effects of antibiotics on the immune system. Clinicians should search for more information from this new-old field of investigation in order to give more adequate therapy to patients.

  13. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  14. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Oliveira, R.; McDonough, S.; Matser, A.; Khatikarn, J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Domingues, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxy

  15. Surveillance of antibiotic and analgesic use in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliti NR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Naim R Haliti,1 Fehim R Haliti,2 Ferit K Koçani,3 Ali A Gashi,4 Shefqet I Mrasori,3 Valon I Hyseni,5 Samir I Bytyqi,5 Lumnije L Krasniqi,2 Ardiana F Murtezani,5 Shaip L Krasniqi5 1Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, 2Department of Children Dentistry, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 3Department of Oral Disease, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 4Department of Oral Surgery, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtina, Kosovo Background: Because Kosovo has no reliable information on antimicrobial and analgesic use in dental practice, the survey reported here evaluated the antibiotic and analgesic prescriptions in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo (UDCCK.Methods: The data of 2,442 registered patients for a 1-year period were screened and analyzed concerning antibiotic and analgesic use as per standards of rational prescription.Results: Dentistry doctors prescribed antibiotics significantly more often than analgesics. Antibiotics were prescribed in 8.11% of all cases, while only 1.35% of total prescriptions were for analgesics. The total consumption of antibiotic drugs in the UDCCK was 4.53 Defined Daily Doses [DDD]/1,000 inhabitants/day, compared with only 0.216 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day for analgesics. From a total number of 117 patients, 32 patients received combinations of two antibiotics.Conclusion: Pharmacotherapy analysis showed that the prescription rates of antibiotics and analgesics in the UDCCK are not rational in terms of the qualitative aspects of treatment. For the qualitative improvement of prescription of these drug groups, we recommend the implementation of treatment guidelines following rational standards. Keywords: antibiotic, analgesics

  16. POSSIBLE CARDIAC ADVERSE EFFECTS OF THERAPEUTIC DOSES OF MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS (AZITHROMYCIN AND CLARITHROMYCIN IN HEALTHY JUVENILE RATS: BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Hassoon Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The macrolides antibiotics inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by an effect on translocation. They include erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin . Their antimicrobial spectrum is varied. The drugs are associated with QT interval prolongation and cardiac dysrhythmias. This study was designed to determine whether or not a therapeutic oral dose of either azithromycin or clarithromycin administered for 5 or 10 days, respectively have cardiac adverse effects in healthy juvenile rats by assessing serum enzymes (CK-MB, LDH, AST and ALT, as markers of cardiac function. Twenty-eight healthy juvenile rats of both sexes weighing approximately 30gm were utilized and were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, control group orally-administered distilled water (DW every 12hrs for 5 days via gavage tube, azithromycin suspension 12 mg/ kg every 12 hrs for 5 days via gavage tube, control group orally-administered DW every 12 hrs for 10 days via gavage tube and clarithromycin suspension 7.5 mg per kg for every 12 hrs for10 days via gavage tube. After scarification of animals by cervical dislocation, blood samples were taken by intra-cardiac puncture and utilized immediately to get serum in order to assess enzymes activities {heart creatin kinase isoform (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT}.The results of the present study demonstrated that were significant increase in serum activities of both CK-MB and LDH in group of animals treated with therapeutic oral dose of (12mg/kg azithromycin for 5 days compared to the corresponding serum enzyme activities of control animals. While, there were no significant increase in serum activities of both AST and ALT in group of animals treated with therapeutic oral dose of (12mg/kg azithromycin for 5 days compared to the corresponding serum enzyme activities of control group. Moreover, in groups of animals treated with therapeutic oral dose of (7

  17. Reduced oral contraceptive effectiveness with concurrent antibiotic use: a protocol for prescribing antibiotics to women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, T G; Smith, R F; Roy, B

    1990-06-01

    A brief literature review and update on the effect of concurrent antibiotic administration with oral contraceptive use is presented for dentists, with advice on how to manage antibiotic prescription to minimize legal repercussions in case of contraceptive failure. In the U.S. approximately 30% of women of childbearing age are using oral contraceptives, so it is quite likely that a dentist prescribing antibiotics may encounter patients on these agents. Since 1971 reports of breakthrough bleeding or contraceptive failure have concerned rifampicin, penicillins, tetracyclines, erythromycin, metronidazlole, sulfonamides, griseofulvin and cephalosporins. There have been 63 reported contraceptive failures to the British Committee on Safety of Medicine, and 29 reports to the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. A case of contraceptive failure in a woman prescribed antibiotics by her dentist has been ruled in favor of the woman, making the dentist responsible for child support. The probable mechanisms for these failures are diminished enterohepatic re-circulation due to elimination of bacteria that regenerate active estrogens from conjugated estrogens in the gut, and induction of liver cytochrome P450 enzymes resulting in faster catabolism of the drugs. There are conflicting reports in the literature on how or whether these mechanisms are active in clinical situations. For the working dental practitioner it is recommended that a history of contraceptive use be taken and signed by the patient; that the dentist inform the patient of possible lower contraceptive efficacy; that the woman taking antibiotics be advised to use additional means of contraception throughout the cycle; and that women on long-term antibiotics be urged to consult their physician about increasing the does of oral contraceptives. All this advice and the antibiotic prescription should be documented in the patient's chart. PMID:2083416

  18. Therapeutic effect of antibiotics in the compromised host : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Roosendaal (Robert)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe present study was performed in a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia and septicemia in rats. This experimental model was used because in leukopenic patients septicemia is a real threat, and K.pneumoniae is one of the pathogens that may be recovered [68, 74, 99, 116, 122, 124]. T

  19. Antibiotic therapeutic options for infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwan, K; Senok, A C; Rotimi, V O

    2009-01-01

    Serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria are currently difficult to treat because many of these pathogens are now resistant to standard antimicrobial agents. As a result of the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed for clinical use. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of drugs that have activity against these Gram-positive pathogens. Daptomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and dalbavancin are five antimicrobial agents that are useful for the treatment of infections due to drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci. This review focuses on their mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical effectiveness, drug interaction and safety. These antimicrobial agents provide the clinician with additional treatment options among the limited therapies for resistant Gram-positive bacterial infection. PMID:20701863

  20. Evaluation of antibiotic use in a Lebanese hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global health problem. Misuse of antibiotics is associated with antimicrobial resistance which presents clinicians with treatment challenges and increases the complexity of the decision making process related to the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic resistant organisms can often lead to nosocomial infections (NIs) and undoubtedly causes patient harm and increases healthcare costs. According to the National Insti...

  1. Combined audit of hospital antibiotic use and a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2010-05-01

    Appropriate antibiotic use improves patient outcome and prevents the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A point-prevalence audit of antibiotic use at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin was carried out during the collection of data for the 2006 Hospital Infection Society (HIS) Prevalence Survey of Healthcare-Associated Infection. All inpatients who met the HIS survey entry criteria were included in the HIS survey, and all inpatients who were receiving antibiotics at the time of the survey were included in the point-prevalence audit of antibiotic use. Among these, 7.18% and 36.8% of patients had a healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and were on antibiotics, respectively. Unnecessary collection of duplicate data was avoided by conducting an audit of antibiotic use and a national survey of HCAI simultaneously.

  2. Ondansetron. Therapeutic use as an antiemetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, R.J.; Heel, R.C. (Adis Drug Information Services, Auckland (New Zealand))

    1991-04-01

    Ondansetron (GR 38032F) is a highly selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, one of a new class of compounds which may have several therapeutic applications. Animal and clinical studies show that ondansetron reduces the 24-hour incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic drugs, including cisplatin, and by single exposure, high dose radiation. Ondansetron is more effective than high dose metoclopramide in the 24 hours following chemotherapy, and preliminary clinical evidence suggests that it is equally effective in the following 4 days. It is also more effective than the moderate doses of metoclopramide used to suppress emesis following radiotherapy. The antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron is enhanced by dexamethasone in cisplatin-treated patients. Importantly, extrapyramidal effects have not been reported with ondansetron. Further comparisons are required with standard combination antiemetic therapy to complement the data presently available. Thus, ondansetron is a promising new agent for prophylaxis against nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It may be particularly useful in young and elderly patients who are more susceptible to extrapyramidal symptoms induced by high dose metoclopramide. With its improved tolerability and clinical response profiles, ondansetron represents an important advance in a difficult area of therapeutics. 101 refs.

  3. Ondansetron. Therapeutic use as an antiemetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondansetron (GR 38032F) is a highly selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, one of a new class of compounds which may have several therapeutic applications. Animal and clinical studies show that ondansetron reduces the 24-hour incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic drugs, including cisplatin, and by single exposure, high dose radiation. Ondansetron is more effective than high dose metoclopramide in the 24 hours following chemotherapy, and preliminary clinical evidence suggests that it is equally effective in the following 4 days. It is also more effective than the moderate doses of metoclopramide used to suppress emesis following radiotherapy. The antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron is enhanced by dexamethasone in cisplatin-treated patients. Importantly, extrapyramidal effects have not been reported with ondansetron. Further comparisons are required with standard combination antiemetic therapy to complement the data presently available. Thus, ondansetron is a promising new agent for prophylaxis against nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It may be particularly useful in young and elderly patients who are more susceptible to extrapyramidal symptoms induced by high dose metoclopramide. With its improved tolerability and clinical response profiles, ondansetron represents an important advance in a difficult area of therapeutics. 101 refs

  4. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the...... significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity......, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate....

  5. Antibiotic Use as a Tragedy of the Commons: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran S. O'Brien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many believe antibiotic use results in a tragedy of the commons, since overuse may lead to antibiotic resistance and limiting use would benefit society. In contrast, mass antibiotic treatment programs are thought to result in community-wide benefits. A survey was conducted to learn the views of infectious disease experts on the individual- and societal-level consequences of antibiotic use. Methods. The survey instrument was designed to elicit opinions on antibiotic use and resistance. It was sent via SurveyMonkey to infectious disease professionals identified through literature searches. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A total of 1,530 responses were received for a response rate of 9.9%. Nearly all participants believed antibiotic use could result in a tragedy of the commons, at least in certain circumstances (96.0%. Most participants did not believe mass antibiotic treatment programs could produce societal benefits in an antibiotic-free society (91.4% or in the United States (94.2%, though more believed such programs would benefit antibiotic-free societies compared to the United States (P<0.001. Conclusions. The experts surveyed believe that antibiotic use can result in a tragedy of the commons and do not believe that mass treatment programs benefit individuals or society.

  6. Antibiotic use during the intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags into fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of antibiotics, in particular, the use of a single dose of antibiotics during electronic tag implantation is of unproven value, and carries with it the potential for the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the alteration of the immune response of the fish. Antibiotic use during electronic tag implantation must conform to relevant drug laws and regulations in the country where work is being done, including the requirements for withdrawal times before human consumption is a possibility. Currently, the choice of antibiotics (most often tetracycline or oxytetracycline) and the use of a single dose of the drug are decisions made without knowledge of the basic need for antibiotic usage and of the bacteria involved in infections that occur following electronic tag implantation. Correct perioperative use of an antibiotic is to apply the drug to the animal before surgery begins, to assure serum and tissue levels of the drug are adequate before the incision is made. However, the most common perioperative application of antibiotics during implantation of an electronic tag is to delay the administration of the drug, injecting it into the coelom after the electronic tag is inserted, just prior to closure of the incision. There is little empirical evidence that the present application of antibiotics in fish being implanted with electronic tags is of value. Improvements should first be made to surgical techniques, especially the use of aseptic techniques and sterilized instruments and electronic tags, before resorting to antibiotics. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  7. Indications of a new antibiotic in clinical practice: results of the tigecycline initial use registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curcio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tigecycline is the first of a new class of antibiotics named glycylcyclines and it was approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated skin and skin structure infections. Notwithstanding this, tigecycline's pharmacological and microbiological profile which includes multidrug-resistant pathogens encourages physicians' use of the drug in other infections. We analyzed, during the first months after its launch, the tigecycline prescriptions for 113 patients in 12 institutions. Twenty-five patients (22% received tigecycline for approved indications, and 88 (78% for "off label" indications (56% with scientific support and 22% with limited or without any scientific support. The most frequent "off label" use was ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP (63 patients. The etiology of infections was established in 105 patients (93%. MDR-Acinetobacter spp. was the microorganism most frequently isolated (50% of the cases. Overall, attending physicians reported clinical success in 86 of the 113 patients (76%. Our study shows that the "off label" use of tigecycline is frequent, especially in VAP. due to MDR-Acinetobacter spp., where the therapeutic options are limited (eg: colistin. Physicians must evaluate the benefits/risks of using this antibiotic for indications that lack rigorous scientific support.

  8. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, J; Schjørring, S; Eskildsen, C E; Pedersen, L; Bischoff, A L; Følsgaard, N; Carson, C G; Chawes, B L K; Bønnelykke, K; Mølgaard, A; Jacobsson, B; Krogfelt, K A; Bisgaard, H

    2014-07-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) pregnancy cohort participated in this analysis. Detailed information on oral antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy filled at the pharmacy was obtained and verified prospectively. Vaginal samples were obtained at pregnancy week 36 and cultured for bacteria. Women who received oral antibiotics during any pregnancy trimester had an increased rate of colonization by Staphylococcus species in the vaginal samples as compared with samples obtained from women without any antibiotic treatment during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.52, p 0.028). Oral antibiotic administration in the third trimester were also associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus species (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.04-3.76, p 0.037). These bacteriological changes were associated with urinary tract infection antibiotics. Women treated in the third trimester of pregnancy were more often colonized by Escherichia coli than women without antibiotic treatment in the third trimester (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.52, p 0.038). This change was associated with respiratory tract infection (RTI) antibiotics. We did not observe any significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate. PMID:24118384

  9. Analysis of antibiotics from liquid sample using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The reduced mobilities of 18 antibiotics are determined. ► Establishing antibiotic mass-mobility correlation using (12,4) potential model. ► Multi-component characteristics of antibiotics can be revealed using ESI-IMS. ► Most mixtures of antibiotics can be analyzed using ESI-IMS. ► The detection limit of amoxicillin is 70 pg. - Abstract: The recent findings of antibiotic residues in aquatic environment at trace level have gained much concern for the detrimental effect on ecological and human health due to bacterial resistance. Here, the feasibility of using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for analysis antibiotics in liquid sample is demonstrated. Reduced mobilities and collision cross sections of 18 antibiotics are experimentally measured and compared with theoretical values according to mass-mobility correlation. Gentamicin is used as an example to investigate the capability of ESI-IMS for multi-component analysis of antibiotics. Mixtures of antibiotics at different concentrations are analyzed. The estimated detection limit for amoxicillin is 0.7 mg L−1 (70 pg) and the linear range of response maintains over two orders. This method will be a potential technique for the analysis of antibiotics in aquatic environment.

  10. Analysis of antibiotics from liquid sample using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shu; Jia Jian; Gao Xiaoguang; He Xiuli [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li Jianping, E-mail: jpli@mail.ie.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced mobilities of 18 antibiotics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishing antibiotic mass-mobility correlation using (12,4) potential model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-component characteristics of antibiotics can be revealed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most mixtures of antibiotics can be analyzed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit of amoxicillin is 70 pg. - Abstract: The recent findings of antibiotic residues in aquatic environment at trace level have gained much concern for the detrimental effect on ecological and human health due to bacterial resistance. Here, the feasibility of using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for analysis antibiotics in liquid sample is demonstrated. Reduced mobilities and collision cross sections of 18 antibiotics are experimentally measured and compared with theoretical values according to mass-mobility correlation. Gentamicin is used as an example to investigate the capability of ESI-IMS for multi-component analysis of antibiotics. Mixtures of antibiotics at different concentrations are analyzed. The estimated detection limit for amoxicillin is 0.7 mg L{sup -1} (70 pg) and the linear range of response maintains over two orders. This method will be a potential technique for the analysis of antibiotics in aquatic environment.

  11. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  12. 'Smartening' anticancer therapeutic nanosystems using biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Lozano, Rebeca; Cano, Manuel; Pimentel, Belén; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, anticancer agents must induce cell killing in a selective manner, something that is proving difficult to achieve. Drug delivery systems could help to solve problems associated with the lack of selectivity of classical chemotherapeutic agents. However, to realize this, such systems must overcome multiple physiological barriers. For instance, they must evade surveillance by the immune system, attach selectively to target cells, and gain access to their interior. Furthermore, there they must escape endosomal entrapment, and release their cargoes in a controlled manner, without affecting their functionality. Here we review recent efforts aiming at using biomolecules to confer these abilities to bare nanoparticles, to transform them into smart anticancer therapeutic nanosystems. PMID:26277646

  13. Combination of therapeutic ultrasound with antibiotics interfere with the growth of bacterial culture that colonizes skin ulcers: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirro, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de; Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves de; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are among the major bacterial species that colonize skin ulcers. Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) produces biophysical effects that are relevant to wound healing; however, its application over a contaminated injury is not evidence-based. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of TUS on in vitro-isolated S. aureus and E. coli, including the combination of ultrasound and antibiotics, in order to assess their antibiotic action on bacterial susceptibility. For the experiments, the bacterial strains were suspended in saline, then diluted (10(4)CFU/mL) for irradiation (at 1 and 3MHz, 0.5 and 0.8W/cm(2) for 0 and 15min) and the combination treatment of ultrasonication and antibiotics was administered by adding nalidixic acid (S. aureus) and tetracycline (E. coli) at concentrations equivalent to 50% of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The experiments were carried out in duplicate with six repetitions. The suspensions were inoculated on to Petri plates and incubated at 37°C and the colony forming units (CFUs) were counted after 24h. The results were subjected to the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, followed by parametric ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 1%. The results demonstrated that the action of TUS at 1MHz inhibited bacterial growth while at 3MHz, bacterial growth was observed in both species. However, the synergistic combination of ultrasound and antibiotics was able to inhibit the growth of both bacteria completely after 15min of ultrasonication. The results suggest that the action of ultrasound on S. aureus and E. coli are dependent on the oscillation frequency as well as the intensity and time of application. The combination of ultrasound with antibiotics was able to inhibit bacterial growth fully at all frequencies and doses in both species. PMID:27150772

  14. [Study toward practical use of oligonucleotide therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Yoshida, Tokuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, oligonucleotide-based therapeutics such as antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been developed extensively. For example, mipomersen (Kynamro; ISIS Pharmaceuticals), which is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide administered by subcutaneous injection, has recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. On the other hands, methods for the evaluation of quality, efficacy and safety of oligonucleotide therapeutics have not been fully discussed. Furthermore, the regulatory guidance specific for oligonucleotide therapeutics has not been established yet. Under these circumstances, we started to collaborate with Osaka University and PMDA to discuss regulatory science focused on oligonucleotide therapeutics. Through the collaboration, we would like to propose the possible design of quality evaluation and preclinical safety-evaluation of oligonucleotide therapeutics. PMID:25707197

  15. Health management with reduced antibiotic use - the U.S. experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Since World War II the use of antimicrobial products associated with food animal production has increased. Antimicrobials along with evolving production practices have significantly increased throughput, animal welfare, and improved health. Concerns surrounding the growing significance of emerging and in some cases rapidly disseminating antibiotic (antimicrobial) resistant bacterial pathogens among human and livestock populations has stimulated a reassessment of this application. The negative publicity has led many consumers and activist groups to believe that protein derived from food animals grown in the absence of those drugs is safer than products derived from the conventionally reared. There is a general fear that antimicrobial usage in agriculture threatens the sustainability of human therapeutic agents and the public wellbeing. The issue has gradually emerged from "fringe group paranoia" to mainstream - finally impacting consumer choices. Antimicrobial resistance concerns have stimulated a significant reaction by the US animal agriculture industry. Numerous pig production entities, large and small, have attempted to create additional pork product value by developing niche marketing opportunities. Thus far most of the subtherapeutic in-feed antimicrobial reduction has been voluntary in the US. Two production areas have developed where reduced usage occurs. First is the growth of antibiotic free production (ABF) and second is an increased use of treatment levels which avoids subtherapeutic criticism. The bulk of this article is directed at new production practices, pig health management, disease elimination, and biosecurity efforts that result from early industry attempts at reduced or excluded antimicrobial pig production. Raising antimicrobial (antibiotic) free (ABF) pork from birth is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these challenges can be cost effectively dealt with while others are difficult if not impossible to control in modern production

  16. Reducing antibiotic use in marine larviculture by probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; D'Alvise, Paul; Grotkjær, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    control strategies,especially at the larval stages.The objective of our work is to reduce the need for antibiotics in marine larviculture by developingprobiotic strategies; probiotics being defined by WHO as “live microbial cultures that excert a beneficialeffect on the host”. Rearing of marine larvae is...... pathogen-antagonism. However, othermolecules and mechanisms are likely also involved. Understanding the spectrum of mechanisms of action isimportant to determine where and how the probionts should be applied and also in determining potentialside effects that could arise for the probiotic bacteria.......Other studies have focused on fish pathogens and it has been suggested that introducing lactic acidbacteria that are used as human probiotics (and have GRAS status) could be a way forward. However, webelieve that re-introducing (or boosting) a potential probiotic bacterium already present in the fish larvaefeed...

  17. A Bayesian Belief Network to Infer Incentive Mechanisms to Reduce Antibiotic Use in Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, L.; Asseldonk, van, N.; Valeeva, N.I.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient policy intervention to reduce antibiotic use in livestock production requires knowledge about the rationale underlying antibiotic usage. Animal health status and management quality are considered the two most important factors that influence farmersâ¿¿ decision-making concerning antibiotic use. Information on these two factors is therefore crucial in designing incentive mechanisms. In this paper, a Bayesian belief network (BBN) is built to represent the knowledge on how these factor...

  18. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Greta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study

  19. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    2008-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were

  20. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Ylä-Pelto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these “viral” receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy.

  1. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Tripathi, Lav; Susi, Petri

    2016-03-01

    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these "viral" receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy. PMID:26907330

  2. Country-specific antibiotic use practices impact the human gut resistome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Kristoffer; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kultima, Jens Roat;

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing concerns over inappropriate use of antibiotics in medicine and food production, population-level resistance transfer into the human gut microbiota has not been demonstrated beyond individual case studies. To determine the "antibiotic resistance potential" for entire microbial...... communities, we employ metagenomic data and quantify the totality of known resistance genes in each community (its resistome) for 68 classes and subclasses of antibiotics. In 252 fecal metagenomes from three countries, we show that the most abundant resistance determinants are those for antibiotics also used...

  3. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Guy F.; Rosen, Ted; Thiboutot, Diane; Leyden, James J.; Gallo, Richard; Walker, Clay; Zhanel, George; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Oral and topical antibiotics are commonly prescribed in dermatologie practice, often for noninfectious disorders, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea. Concerns related to antibiotic exposure from both medical and nonmedical sources require that clinicians consider in each case why and how antibiotics are being used and to make appropriate adjustments to limit antibiotic exposure whenever possible. This first article of a three-part series discusses prescribing patterns in dermatology, provides an overview of sources of antibiotic exposure, reviews the relative correlations between the magnitude of antibiotic consumption and emergence of antibiotic resistance patterns, evaluates the impact of alterations in antibiotic prescribing, and discusses the potential relevance and clinical sequelae of antibiotic use, with emphasis on how antibiotics are used in dermatology. PMID:27462384

  4. Antibiotic use and resistance : Assessing and improving utilisation and provision of antibiotics and other drugs in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Mattias

    2003-01-01

    Background: In Vietnam there were shortages of drugs until the end of the 1980's. In 1986 the "Doi Moi" economic reforms towards market economy were initiated. An expanding private health care sector emerged and the per capita drug consumption has increased dramatically. Aim: To assess drug provision in the public and private sectors, antibiotic use and resistance in the community, as well as the effect of an intervention package aimed at improving case management in private...

  5. Recent government regulations in the United States seek to ensure the effectiveness of antibiotics by limiting their agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    The development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is viewed as a medical health threat. Because thousands of people die every year due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, efforts are underway to reduce antibiotic usage which in turn will reduce the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the United States, the use of antibiotics in the production of food animals to enhance animal growth has been identified as contributing to resistance. In 2015, a veterinary feed directive was adopted by the U.S. federal government prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals that should reduce usage. The continued usage of antibiotics by producers for preventing disease may mean the directive is insufficient to reduce nontherapeutic antibiotic administration. This may lead some consumers to seek meat products from animals raised without antibiotics. A governmentally-sponsored labeling program could encourage reduction in antibiotic usage. PMID:27182666

  6. The use of trypanocides and antibiotics by Maasai pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, S; Stevenson, P; Mwendia, C; Okech, G

    2000-12-01

    Information was collected on the use of veterinary drugs by Maasai pastoralists in an area of Kenya where tsetse flies and trypanosomosis occur. Three herds of cattle were followed for between 4 and 5 years and records were kept of every veterinary drug treatment given by the livestock owners. Almost all treatments were either with the trypanocides homidium or diminazene, or with oxytetracycline by intramuscular injection. The rate of trypanocide use varied between 0.66 and 1.56 treatments per animal per year, while oxytetracycline use was between 0.20 and 1.00 treatments per animal per year. Farmers were injecting these drugs in the absence of veterinary supervision, obtaining their supplies mainly from local village shops or informal traders. Underdosing with trypanocides appeared to be uncommon and the indications were that farmers generally gave the drugs at dosage rates above the recommended standard dose. Accurate information on the dose rates of oxytetracycline could not be obtained, but it was noted that in most cases farmers gave a single injection rather than a course of treatment. In a proportion of cases, trypanocides and antibiotics were mixed together before injection. The farmers administered the drugs when disease was recognized and were rarely using trypanocides as prophylactics. Although necessity forces the livestock owners to obtain and use these drugs without veterinary supervision, there are concerns with regard to the possibility of drug misuse and the development of drug resistance. PMID:11147276

  7. Antibiotic therapy for cat-scratch disease: clinical study of therapeutic outcome in 268 patients and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margileth, A M

    1992-06-01

    During 24 months in an uncontrolled, retrospective study of 268 patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), 202 were treated with 18 different antimicrobial agents. Criteria for antibiotic effectiveness were established. One or two antibiotics were taken separately for at least 3 to 5 days by 202 patients with CSD. Outcome was determined by follow-up examinations and telephone. Effectiveness of antibiotic therapy was based upon 3 or more days of therapy and clinical improvement of the patient with absence of and/or a decrease in malaise, fatigue, fever, headache, anorexia, lymphadenopathy and, in 90 patients, a declining or normal sedimentation rate. Of 18 different antimicrobials prescribed, 14 commonly used antibiotics were judged to be of little or no value in treatment of CSD. Four antimicrobials were efficacious. Efficacy of the three oral drugs in decreasing order was: rifampin 87%, ciprofloxacin 84%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 58%. Gentamicin sulfate intramuscular was 73% effective. Antibiotic therapy can be considered for patients with severe cat scratch disease. Conservative, symptomatic treatment is recommended for the majority of patients with mild or moderate CSD. PMID:1608685

  8. Evaluating antibiotics for use in medicine using a poloxamer biofilm model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Christine A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound infections, due to biofilms, are a constant problem because of their recalcitrant nature towards antibiotics. Appropriate antibiotic selection for the treatment of these biofilm infections is important. The traditional in vitro disc diffusion method for antibiotic selection uses bacterial cultures grown on agar plates. However, the form of bacterial growth on agar is not representative of how bacteria grow in wounds and other tissue sites as here bacteria grow naturally in a biofilm. The aim of this research was to test a more appropriate method for testing antimicrobial efficacy on biofilms and compare with the standard methods used for antibiotic sensitivity testing. Methods Outer Membrane Protein analysis was performed on E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter juni when grown on Mueller Hinton agar ('quasi-biofilm state' and 30% Poloxamer hydrogel ('true- biofilm state. Susceptibility to antibiotics on 28 clinical isolates was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, on agar and 30% Poloxamer. Results Similar outer membrane proteins [OMPs] were identified in bacteria grown in a biofilm state and on a 30% poloxamer hydrogel, which were very different to the OMPs identified in bacteria grown on Mueller-Hinton agar and broth. There was a significant difference between the means of the clearance zones around the antibiotic discs on standard agar and poloxamer gels [P 0.05]. Conclusion The findings of this experiment suggest that poloxamer gel could be used as an appropriate medium on which to conduct biofilm antibiotic susceptibility tests as it enables bacteria to be grown in a state representative of the infected surface from which the culture was taken.

  9. Pro/Con debate: Is procalcitonin useful for guiding antibiotic decision making in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabi, Yahya; Seppelt, Ian

    2008-01-01

    You are concerned about the escalating use of antibiotics in your intensive care unit (ICU). This has put a strain on the ICU budget and is possibly resulting in the emergence of resistant bacteria. You review the situation with your team and one suggestion is to consider using biomarkers such as procalcitonin to better guide appropriate antibiotic decision making. PMID:18466649

  10. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data. (a) An ad hoc committee, Committee on the...

  11. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  12. Is self-medication with antibiotics in Europe driven by prescribed use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Monnet, Dominique L.; Di Matteo, Antonella; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Bara, Ana-Claudia; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Birkin, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of inappropriate use and the selection of resistant bacteria. One of the triggers for using self-medication may be past experience with antibiotics prescribed by health professionals. We examined the association between prescribed us

  13. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENR), were monitored in river water and sediment samples. Moreover, we assessed the toxicity of OTC and ENR on tropical freshwater invertebrates and performed a risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems. All interviewed tilapia farmers reported to routinely use antibiotics. Peak water concentrations for OTC and ENR were 49 and 1.6 μg/L, respectively. Antibiotics were most frequently detected in sediments with concentrations up to 6908 μg/kg d.w. for OTC, and 2339 μg/kg d.w. for ENR. The results of this study indicate insignificant short-term risks for primary producers and invertebrates, but suggest that the studied aquaculture farms constitute an important source of antibiotic pollution. - Highlights: • First study assessing the risks of antibiotics applied in freshwater tilapia cages. • Ten antibiotics were reported to be used by tilapia cage farmers in two Thai rivers. • Peak oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin concentrations were in the order of μg/L. • Antibiotic concentrations in river sediments next to cages were up to several mg/kg. • Antibiotics are not posing a short-term risk for pelagic aquatic organisms. - Antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems and constitute an important source of environmental pollution

  14. Antibiotic Use, Its Resistance in Nepal and Recommendations for Action: A Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnyat, B; Pokharel, P; Dixit, S; Giri, S

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are crucial, life-saving medicines in the fight against infectious disease, but resistance to these drugs is growing all over. This article presents key findings from a detailed situation analysis produced by the Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP)-Nepal working group. In the absence of nationally-representative surveillance, it is not possible to fully describe antibiotic resistance in the country, but many important bacterial pathogens are highly resistant to most first-line and some second-line antibiotics, according to available reports. In credible studies, more than half of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates tested, and over 30 percent of some Shigella spp. and Vibrio cholerae isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics. The findings for Neisseria gonorrheae and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus are similar. Antibiotic use in animal food is poorly documented in Nepal, but it is commonly acknowledged to be widespread, contributing to the overall antibiotic resistance burden. The volume of veterinary antibiotic sales in Nepal rose over 50 percent from 2008 to 2012, most through retailers without veterinarian prescription. Antibiotics are necessary to treat infections in animals, but they are also used extensively for preventing disease, a use that can be restricted without jeopardizing animal or human health. They may also be used for promoting animal growth, which can be eliminated with no health consequences. Nepal has made important advances in reducing mortality and morbidity and increasing health coverage, but has not yet taken steps to address antibiotic resistance. The GARP-Nepal working group outlines the components of a national strategy on antibiotic resistance, consistent with the recent call by the World Health Organization for national action plans, to be developed collaboratively with stakeholders and partners from government and all relevant sectors. PMID:26744193

  15. 21 CFR 510.110 - Antibiotics used in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Register of August 23, 1966 (31 FR 11141), asking sponsors of drugs containing any antibiotic intended for use in food-producing animals to submit data to establish whether such antibiotic and its metabolites are present as residues in edible tissues, milk, and eggs from treated animals. The data on...

  16. Maternal antibiotic use and risk of asthma in offspring--Authors' reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid;

    2014-01-01

    registries.2,3 We interpreted this association between use of antibiotics in pregnancy and the child's risk of asthma as one that was mediated through changes in the microbiome. In our study we aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating the temporal associations between maternal antibiotics and childhood...

  17. Understanding Antibiotic Use in Minya District, Egypt: Physician and Pharmacist Prescribing and the Factors Influencing Their Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Dooling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Overuse of antibiotics has contributed to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria globally. In Egypt, patients can purchase antibiotics without a prescription, and we hypothesized frequent inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and dispensing. We interviewed physicians (n = 236 and pharmacists (n = 483 and conducted focus groups in Minya, Egypt, to assess attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic prescribing for outpatient acute respiratory infections (ARI. Antibiotics were reportedly prescribed most of the time or sometimes for colds by 150 (64% physicians and 326 (81% pharmacists. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were β-lactams. Macrolides were the second most commonly prescribed for colds and sinusitis. The prescription of more than one antibiotic to treat pneumonia was reported by 85% of physicians. Most respondents thought antibiotic overuse contributes to resistance and reported “patient self-medication” as the biggest driver of overuse. Fifty physicians (21% reported that they had prescribed antibiotics unnecessarily, citing patient over-the-counter access as the reason. Physicians <40 years of age and those who treat adults were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for colds. Overall, we found a high rate of unwarranted outpatient antibiotic prescribing and dispensing for ARIs. Patient access to OTC antibiotics contributes to over-prescribing. National guidelines for ARI treatment, provider education and national policy requiring a physician’s prescription for antibiotics may improve appropriate antibiotic use in Egypt.

  18. Frequency of wound infection in non-perforated appendicitis with use of single dose perforative antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are used both pre and post-operatively in acute appendicitis for preventing wound infection. It has been observed that the routine use of post-operative antibiotics is not necessary in cases of non-perforated appendicitis as only prophylactic antibiotics are sufficient to prevent wound infection. The aim of this study was to see the frequency of wound infection in non-perforated appendicitis with single dose preoperative antibiotics only. Method: This observational study was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from May to November 2014. A total of 121 patients with non-perforated appendicitis were included in the study. Only single dose preoperative antibiotics were used. The patients were followed for wound infection till 8th post-operative day. Results: 121 patients, 56(46.28%) male and 65(53.72%) female were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 27.41 ± 7.12 years with an age range of 18 to 45 years. In the entire series, 7(5.78%) patients developed wound infection. The infection was minor which settled with conservative therapy. Prophylactic antibiotics were found efficacious in 114(94.21%) patients. There was no significant association between wound infection and age and gender. Conclusion: Single dose preoperative antibiotics were found effective in controlling post-operative wound infection without the need of extending the antibiotics to post-operative period in cases of non-perforated appendicitis. (author)

  19. Ethical considerations when using video games as therapeutic tools

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Jason; Gnanayutham, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Video games have been used in a variety of therapeutic and rehabilitative contexts. However, there are health risks associated with playing video games, including the risk of epileptic seizure. Additionally, video games have been criticised for reasons including their portrayal of women and minorities. For games to be accepted as an ethically valid therapeutic tool, these concerns must be addressed. The authors believe that video games can be used as therapeutic tools when used responsibly

  20. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams. PMID:26395288

  1. A method for determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Scott E; McWhinney, Brett C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2012-10-15

    With the clinical imperative to further research in the area of optimising antibiotic dosing in the intensive care setting, a simple high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routinely determining the free (unbound) concentration of ten beta-lactam antibiotics in 200 μL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined include three cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cephazolin and cephalotin); two carbapenems (meropenem and ertapenem); and five penicillins (ampicillin, piperacillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin). There was a single common sample preparation method involving ultracentrifugation and stabilisation. Chromatography was performed on a Waters XBridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of four acetonitrile-phosphate buffered mobile phases. Peaks of interest were detected via ultraviolet absorbance at 210, 260 and 304 nm. The method has been validated and used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients. The significant variability in the level of protein binding that is common with antibiotics traditionally considered to have high protein binding (e.g. ceftriaxone, cephazolin, ertapenem, flucloxacillin and dicloxacillin) suggests that this assay should be preferred for measuring the pharmacologically active concentration of beta-lactam antibiotics in a therapeutic drug monitoring programme. PMID:23026224

  2. Antibiotic prophylaxis in infective endocarditis: Use or abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The American Heart Association (AHA recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis for infective endocarditis (IE are controversial. According to the new guidelines released by the AHA now, the only patients to receive antibiotics will be those at highest risk, i.e. those with a prosthetic heart valve, a history of endocarditis, certain forms of congenital heart disease or valvulopathy after heart transplantation, and only before certain dental procedures. Unfortunately, these guidelines are still based largely on expert opinion, with very little hard evidence to show that antibiotic therapy actually prevents IE. The Hypothesis: The reported incidence of bacteremia during dental intervention ranges from 10% to 100% and, with daily brushing and flossing, from 20% to 68%. Because bacteremia also occurs during brushing and flossing of teeth, why give prophylaxis just for dental procedures? Moreover, the risks of causing adverse or anaphylactic reactions from antibiotics as well as contributing to the nationwide antibiotic resistance problem are issues not to be taken lightly. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The hypothesis discusses the AHA recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis for IE, indicating some inherent limitations associated with it, and stresses upon the fact that these recommendation should also be updated, if not completely changed, to cope up with the advancements in the proper treatment plan.

  3. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  4. The use of machine learning methodologies to analyse antibiotic and biocide susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Rosado Coelho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a significant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Resistance is usually selected by the antibiotic itself; however, biocides might also co-select for resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance to biocides is poorly defined, different in vitro studies have shown that mutants presenting low susceptibility to biocides also have reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. However, studies with natural bacterial isolates are more limited and there are no clear conclusions as to whether the use of biocides results in the development of multidrug resistant bacteria. METHODS: The main goal is to perform an unbiased blind-based evaluation of the relationship between antibiotic and biocide reduced susceptibility in natural isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. One of the largest data sets ever studied comprising 1632 human clinical isolates of S. aureus originated worldwide was analysed. The phenotypic characterization of 13 antibiotics and 4 biocides was performed for all the strains. Complex links between reduced susceptibility to biocides and antibiotics are difficult to elucidate using the standard statistical approaches in phenotypic data. Therefore, machine learning techniques were applied to explore the data. RESULTS: In this pioneer study, we demonstrated that reduced susceptibility to two common biocides, chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride, which belong to different structural families, is associated to multidrug resistance. We have consistently found that a minimum inhibitory concentration greater than 2 mg/L for both biocides is related to antibiotic non-susceptibility in S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Two important results emerged from our work, one methodological and one other with relevance in the field of antibiotic resistance. We could not conclude on whether the use of antibiotics selects for biocide resistance or vice versa. However, the observation of

  5. Complementary or alternative? The use of homeopathic products and antibiotics amongst pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Jackie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any intervention to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics for infections in children has the potential to reduce the selective pressure on antimicrobial resistance and minimise the medicalisation of self-limiting illness. Little is known about whether homeopathic products might be used by some families as an alternative to antibiotics or the characteristics of such families. We used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC observational dataset to explore the hypothesis that the use of homeopathic products is associated with reduced antibiotic use in pre-school children and to identify characteristics of the families of pre-school children given homeopathic products. Methods Questionnaires data were completed by the parents of 9723 children while aged between 3–4.5 years in Bristol UK. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to explore the relationships between antibiotic and homeopathic product use. Results Six percent of children had received one or more homeopathic products and 62% one or more antibiotics between the ages of 3 and 4.5 years. After adjustment for factors associated with antibiotic use, there was no association between homeopathic product and antibiotic use (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84, 1.24. Factors independently associated with child homeopathic product use were: higher maternal education, maternal use of homeopathic products, maternal lack of confidence in doctors, mothers reporting that they were less likely to see doctor when the child was ill, children being given vitamins, watching less television and suffering from wheeze and food allergies. Conclusion In this observational study, the use of homeopathic products was not associated with decreased antibiotic consumption, suggesting the use of homeopathic product complements rather than competes with the use of antibiotics in pre-school children. The characteristics of mothers giving homeopathic products to their

  6. Use of antibiotics in ambulatory care patients and at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan-Mikić Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Optimal pharmacotherapy includes utilization of the right drug at the right time, right duration of therapy and adequate dosage. This study analyzed utilization of antimicrobial drugs at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad and in outpatients of the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman. Material and methods Utilization of anti-infective agents was examined according to Anatomic-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification (group J. Drug utilization data were presented in Defined Daily Doses at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad in Defined Daily Doses per 100 bed-days, and in the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman in Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants per day. Results At the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad penicillins susceptible to beta-lactamase were established as most frequently used (39.33% namely: benzylpenicillin (32.18%, quinolone antibacterial agents ciprofloxacin (12.44% and cephalosporins, cephalexin (8.25%. In the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman most frequently used were extended-spectrum penicillins (24.20% namely tetracyclines, doxycycline (18.98%, amoxicillin (18.27%, macrolides roxithromycin (17.56%. At the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad the decision on using antibiotics and establishing whether it was bacterial or virus infection in 92.13% cases was made on the basis of following analyses: throat and nasal swabs, urine culture, virus complement-binding reaction. In Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman it was done only in 18.46%. Conclusion Although treatment performed based on clinical picture and experience usually proves to be correct, antibiotic prescription policy should include antibiograms to provide optimal treatment and decrease the degree of resistance. Thus medicine would be

  7. The Use of Therapeutic Cloning in Transplantations: An Aristotelian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Labrou, C.

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic cloning for transplantations is one of the most complex issues in Bioethics. This is because it involves two of the most controversial subjects in today's medicine: cloning and transplantations. Although therapeutic cloning is a modern issue in the scope of transplantations, we consider Aristotle's contribution to be of high importance. On a first level, we will describe the modem phenomenon of therapeutic cloning, concerning the medical technique itself, its aim, its use in trans...

  8. Therapeutic Uses of Active Videogames: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Flynn, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active videogames (AVGs) may be useful for promoting physical activity for therapeutic uses, including for balance, rehabilitation, and management of illness or disease. The literature from 64 peer-reviewed publications that assessed health outcomes of AVGs for therapeutic purposes was synthesized.

  9. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities using a structured validated questionnaire. The study was initiated following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and interns, junior residents and faculty members of various departments in dentistry were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. A structured validated questionnaire was developed to assess the above-mentioned objectives. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for representing each category of response and kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability in the initial cohort. Chi-square test for independence was used to evaluate the difference in proportion between different professional cadres. Results: A total of 120 participants were recruited out of which 81.6% (98/120 of the participants accepted their frequent antibiotic usage. The most common dental indication of antibiotics among dentists was post dental extraction, attributing to 30.8% (37/120, followed by dental abscess 21.6% (26/120 and 60% (72/120 prescribed antibiotics after most minor surgical procedures. Surprisingly, 37.5% (45/120 of the participants opined that they use antibiotics against viral infection. Regarding the spectrum of antibiotic usage, 74.1% (89/120 preferred broad spectrum instead of narrow spectrum 25.8% (31/120. The commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin 71.7% (86/120, metronidazole 33.3% (40/120, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 26.6% (32/120. A total of (43/120 35.8% opted generic name for mentioning the

  10. Drug Utilization Study on Antibiotics Use in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Govind Naik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for the lower respiratory tract infection. But if antibiotics are not used rationally then there will be increase chances of resistance of bacteria as well as increase in the total cost of treatment. This study was conducted to see the antibiotics utilization pattern. Aim: This drug utilization study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of antibiotics use in Medicine Department of a Krishna Hospital, Karad, Maharashtra, India. 96 case records were examined, of which 46.87% were LRTI (nonspecific LRTI and acute bronchitis and 51% were pneumonia. Female accounted for 53.12% and male for 46.87 % of total cases. The World Health Organization (WHO indicators (utilization in defined daily doses (DDD; DDD/1000inhibitant/day were used and the ATC/DDD method was implemented. The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was ceftriaxone, followed by Azithromycin. The DDD/1000inhibitant/day of Azithromycin was the highest (5.74. Average treatment period was found to be 5.42 and 6.52 for LRTI (nonspecific LRTI and Acute Bronchitis and pneumonia respectively. A total of 96 cases studied; in which 33 cases had mono-antibiotic therapy (33.37% and rest contained poly-antibiotics therapy (66.63%. Prescribing by generic names has to be encouraged. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 324-327

  11. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  12. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  13. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use-A One Year Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  14. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays...... for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was...... determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic...

  15. The appraise of positions of obeying to the antibiotic using principles of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurten Kırcan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was done crosscutly and definely to appraise the position of obeying the principles of antibioticusing of mothers who has children between the age of 0 and 6. 160 mothers whose children between the age of 0-6 andhospitalized at the service of child in Mula State Hospital and Mula Social Insurance Institution Hospital betweenthe dates of 15.11.2002 and 15.01.2003 formed this research precedent, A questionnaie form which was defined by17 datas determined the mother’s obeying to the antibiotic using principles and a sociodemografic data form which has8 guestions related to mothers and children were used. [4]When the sociodemografic features of mothers who were in this research were studied, ıt was determined that66% of them were at the age of 25-34, 62.5 of them graduated from a primary school, 86.9% were housewives,53.8% had two children and 95.0% had health insurance. [5]When the positions of mother’s knowing the principles of antibiotic using were studied, it was determinedthat 55.6% of them knew what the antibiotic is. It was determined that 73.7% of them use it at the antibioticaccording to the doctor’s prescription, 77.5% of them use it at the right dosage, 68.7% use the antibiotic till itfinished, 68.1% keep it in the fridge, 80.6% of them use to waste antibiotic, 14.4% pray attention to the using dateof the antibiotic, 94.4% of them don’t use another child’s antibiotic, for hers, 93.1% dont use her own antibiotic forher child, 93.7% of them don’t use antibiotic without doctor’s prescription, 86.3% of them pay attention to thehunger-full principle, 99.4% of them shake the suspension antibiotics before using them and 67.5% take her child tothe doctor’s control after the antibiotic is finished.

  16. Irrational antibiotic use among secondary school teachers and university faculty members in Shiraz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Askarian; Najmeh Maharlouie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of university faculty members and high school teachers regarding irrational antibiotic use and self-medication. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 320 university teaching staff and 150 high school teachers received a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the use of antibiotics and self-medication. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed with Cronbac...

  17. Determination of the stability of antibiotics in matrix and reference solutions using a straightforward procedure applying mass spectrometric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The stability of an antibiotic is a very important characteristic, especially in the field of antibiotic residue analysis. During method development or validation, the stability of the antibiotic has to be demonstrated no matter if the method is used for screening, confirmation, qualitative or quant

  18. Cost of Illness and Cost Containment Analysis Using Empirical Antibiotic Therapy in Sepsis Patients in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rano K. Sinuraya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze cost of illness (COI and cost containment analysis using empirical antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients with respiratory infection in a hospital in Bandung. A cross sectional method was conducted retrospectively. Data were collected from medical record of inpatients sepsis patients with respiratory infections with empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin or cefotaxime-erythromycin. Direct and indirect cost were calculated and analyzed in this study. The result showed that the average COI for patients with combination ceftazidime-levofloxaxin was 13,369,055 IDR whereas combination of cefotaxime-erythromycin was 22,250,495 IDR. In summary, the COI empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin was lower than cefotaxime-erythromycin. Cost containment using empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin which without reducing the service quality was 8,881,440 IDR.

  19. Concurrent acute illness and comorbid conditions poorly predict antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perencevich Eli N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

  20. Toggled RNA Aptamers Against Aminoglycosides Allowing Facile Detection of Antibiotics Using Gold Nanoparticle Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Derbyshire, Nicola; White, Simon J.; Bunka, David H. J.; Song, Lei; Stead, Sara; Tarbin, Jonathan; Sharman, Matthew; Zhou, Dejian; Stockley, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    We have used systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) to isolate RNA aptamers against aminoglycoside antibiotics. The SELEX rounds were toggled against four pairs of aminoglycosides with the goal of isolating reagents that recognize conserved structural features. The resulting aptamers bind both of their selection targets with nanomolar affinities. They also bind the less structurally related targets, although they show clear specificity for this class of antibiotics....

  1. Induction of changes in antibiotic susceptibility of certain Bacteria using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotic sensitivity tests of cultures isolated from environment of high radiation intensity of the facility were studied. Standard strains of ATCC, NTCC and those from air of clean area in the vicinity of the facility were used for comparison. The following isolated cultures from the environment of the radiation facility were studied in the present work B. Cereus, B. Licheniformis and Staph Aureus. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed before and after exposure to radiation doses in the range from 0.1 kGy to 2.5 kGy depending on the radiation resistance of the studied strain. The obtained results showed changes in the antibiotic sensitivities of the studied isolates after their exposure to certain doses of gamma radiation. These induced changes were found to have similar trend for all strains except in the case of Staph Aureus with the antibiotic tetracycline

  2. Detection of 36 antibiotics in coastal waters using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NA Guangshui; GU Jia; GE Linke; ZHANG Peng; WANG Zhen; LIU Chunyang; ZHANG Lin

    2011-01-01

    Among pharmaceuticals and personal care products released into the aquatic environment,antibiotics are of particular concern,because of their ubiquity and health effects.Although scientists have recently paid more attention to the threat of antibiotics to coastal ecosystems,researchers have often focused on relatively few antibiotics,because of the absence of suitable analytical methods.We have therefore developed a method for the rapid detection of 36 antibiotic residues in coastal waters,including tetracyclines (TCs),sulfanilamides (SAs),and quinolones (QLs).The method consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis,using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode.The SPE was performed with Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX cartridges.Chromatographic separation on a C18 column was achieved using a binary eluent containing methanol and water with 0.1% formic acid.Typical recoveries of the analytes ranged from 67.4% to 109.3% at a fortification level of 100 ng/L.The precision of the method,calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD),was below 14.6% for all the compounds.The limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.45 pg to 7.97 pg.The method was applied to determine the target analytes in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea in Liaoning,China.Among the tested antibiotics,31 were found in coastal waters,with their concentrations between the LOD and 212.5 ng/L.These data indicate that this method is valid for analysis of antibiotics in coastal waters.The study first reports such a large number of antibiotics along the Yellow Sea coast of Liaoning,and should facilitate future comprehensive evaluation of antibiotics in coastal ecosystems.

  3. On the use of antibiotics to reduce rhizoplane microbial populations in root physiology and ecology investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Ferro, A.; Ritchie, K.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    No straightforward method exists for separating the proportion of ion exchange and respiration due to rhizoplane microbial organisms from that of root ion exchange and respiration. We examined several antibiotics that might be used for the temporary elimination of rhizoplane bacteria from hydroponically grown wheat roots (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10). Each antibiotic was tested for herbicidal activity and plate counts were used to enumerate bacteria and evaluate antibiotic kinetics. Only lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) did not reduce wheat growth rates. Aminoglycosides, the pyrimidine trimethoprim, colistin and rifampicin reduced growth rates substantially. Antibiotics acted slowly, with maximum reductions in rhizoplane bacteria occurring after more than 48 h of exposure. Combinations of nonphytotoxic antibiotics reduced platable rhizoplane bacteria by as much as 98%; however, this was generally a reduction from about 10(9) to 10(6) colony forming units per gram of dry root mass, so that many viable bacteria remained on root surfaces. We present evidence which suggests that insufficient bacterial biomass exists on root surfaces of nonstressed plants grown under well-aerated conditions to quantitatively interfere with root nitrogen absorption measurements.

  4. Therapeutic uses ofCurcuma longa (turmeric)

    OpenAIRE

    Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Singh, Rambir; Chandra, Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    Curcuma longa commonly known as tumeric is traditionally used as a spice in Indian food. A wide range of biological activities e.g. anticancer, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of the plant suggests a logical basis for its traditional use in foodstuff. Various phytothreapeutic uses ofCurcuma longa have been reviewed.

  5. Biolubricant Polypeptides and Therapeutic Uses Thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SHARMA PRASHANT, KUMAR; HERRMANN, ANDREAS; KOLBE, ANKE; HALENAHALLY VEEREGOWDA, DEEPAK; VEEREGOWDA DEEPAK, HALENAHALLY

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. In particular, it relates to recombinant cationic polypeptides and their use as biolubricant. Provided is a biolubricant substance comprising the amino acid sequence[(GKGVP)9]n, wherein n is >=5.

  6. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Ylä-Pelto; Lav Tripathi; Petri Susi

    2016-01-01

    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these “viral” receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i...

  7. Etanercept (Enbrel): update on therapeutic use

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer-Green, G.

    2000-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is an important inflammatory disease mediator in a wide spectrum of articular diseases, including adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (RA, JRA). Etanercept (Enbrel), approved in the United States and in Europe for use in patients with RA and JRA, is an effective inhibitor of TNF that has been shown to provide rapid and sustained improvement in both of these diseases. Long term studies continue to show that etanercept controls signs and symptoms of RA and JRA w...

  8. Toxicity of three antibiotics used in aquaculture on the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin Butch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Seoane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture facilities are a potential source of antibiotics to the aquatic ecosystems. The presence of these compounds in the environment may have deleterious effects on non-target aquatic organisms such as microalgae, which are often used as biological indicators of pollution. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity induced by chloramphenicol (CHL, florfenicol (FLO and oxytetracycline (OTC, three antibiotics widely used in aquaculture, on the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, a species also used in aquacultural practices. Toxicity was evaluated taking into account alterations on growth and cellular viability and activity, being these parameters monitored using flow cytometry technique. Results showed that all three antibiotics assayed inhibit growth of T. suecica with 96 h IC50 values of 11.16, 9.03 and 17.25 mg l-1 for CHL, FLO and OTC, respectively. After 24 hours of exposure, the integrity of the cell membrane, related with cellular viability and assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI, was not altered; therefore cells remained viable. However, FLO and OTC were found to significant reduce the metabolic activity at higher concentrations assayed, as indicated the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA. Since growth inhibition and significant physiological alterations were observed, it can be concluded that T. suecica was sensitive to the three antibiotics tested, thus the use of these antibiotics should be carefully monitored to reduce the potential risk of contamination of the marine environment.

  9. Detoxification of the veterinary antibiotic chloramphenicol using electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Hwang, Seon Ah

    2015-07-01

    Electron beam irradiation has shown potential as an alternative process for the treatment of industrial effluents that contain toxic organic chemicals. This study investigated the effectiveness of electron beam in degrading chloramphenicol (CAP) in aqueous solution. The degradation efficiency was 32.4% at 1 kGy, 86.9% at 5 kGy, and 100% at 10 kGy. The total organic carbon (TOC) of CAP in aqueous solution declined 4.6% at 1 kGy, 12.1% at 5 kGy, and 17.1% at 10 kGy of irradiation with electron beam. The CAP degradation products after irradiation were CAP1 ([M + H] m/z 307.1), CAP2 ([M + H] m/z 291.1), and CAP3 ([M + H] m/z 321.1). The degradation products were tested for microbial toxicity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus subtilis and did not show any toxic antimicrobial effects caused by the CAP degradation products after irradiation with electron beam. The results of this study suggest that electron beam irradiation is the best technology for the comprehensive treatment of veterinary antibiotics at wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25616384

  10. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  11. Characteristics of dairy calf ranches: morbidity, mortality, antibiotic use practices, and biosecurity and biocontainment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W L; Epperson, W B; Wittum, T E; Lord, L K; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Lakritz, J

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of farming operations specializing in rearing dairy heifer calves has increased since the early 1990s. However, these operations have not been as well characterized as US dairy operations with respect to demographic and health-related measures, particularly during the preweaning period. The objective of this study was to characterize morbidity, mortality, antibiotic use, and biosecurity and biocontainment practices on operations rearing preweaned heifers only or preweaned heifer and bull calves (mixed) in the United States. A cross-sectional survey was performed using a standardized method that included a preletter, initial survey, postcard follow-up, and second survey delivered by mail. Additional follow-up contacts were attempted by telephone. Descriptive statistics for morbidity, mortality, antibiotic use, and biosecurity and biocontainment practices were computed at both the operation and calf levels. The overall response rate was 50%. Crude yearly mortality averaged 6.9% at the calf level, with the median operation reporting 3.6% mortality. Diarrhea was experienced by 18% of calves, with 73% receiving an antibiotic. The median operation reported 20% diarrhea morbidity with 83% receiving an antibiotic. Respiratory disease was experienced by 9.0% of calves, with 82% receiving an antibiotic. The median operation reported 5.3% respiratory morbidity, with 100% receiving an antibiotic. Heifer-only and mixed operations did not differ in operation median morbidity, mortality, or antibiotic treatment rates. Written antibiotic protocols were available on 65% of operations. Medicated milk replacer was used by 56% of operations. Passive immunity was routinely measured by 46% of operations. Direct contact between calves in housing units was not allowed by 45% of operations. Of all farms informed of disease concerns at the source farm, 76% changed their daily routine as a result. Almost all operations uniquely identified calves and recorded mortality. The

  12. Estimation of the use of antibiotics in the small ruminant industry in The Netherlands in 2011 and 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Santman-Berends

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of antibiotics and classes of antibiotics used in the small ruminant industry in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. Twelve large veterinary practices, located throughout the Netherlands were selected for this study. All small ruminant farms associated with these practices that had complete records on the quantity of antibiotics prescribed were included. The veterinary practices provided data on all antibiotics prescribed, and the estimated animal used daily dose of antibiotics per year (AUDD/Y was calculated for each farm. The median AUDD/Y in small ruminant farms was zero in both years (mean 0.60 in 2011, and 0.62 in 2012. The largest quantity of antibiotic use was observed in the professional goat industry (herds of ≥32 goats with a median AUDD/Y of 1.22 in 2011 and 0.73 in 2012. In the professional sheep industry (flocks of ≥32 sheep, the median AUDD/Y was 0 in 2011 and 0.10 in 2012. In the small scale industry (flocks or herds of <32 sheep or goats, the median AUDD/Y never exceeded 0. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics in the small scale industry and professional sheep farms belonged to the penicillin class. In professional goat farms, antibiotics of the aminoglycoside class were most frequently prescribed. This study provides the first assessment on the quantity of antibiotic use in the small ruminant industry. Given a comparable attitude towards antibiotic use, these results might be valid for small ruminant populations in other north-western European countries as well. The antibiotic use in the small ruminant industry appeared to be low, and is expected to play a minor role in the development of antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, several major zoonotic bacterial pathogens are associated with the small ruminant industry, and it remains important that antibiotics are used in a prudent way.

  13. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Jason A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. Methods DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. Discussion The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  14. Urinary tract infection diagnosis and response to antibiotics using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Constantinos

    2009-02-01

    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.

  15. APPROPRIATE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SEPSIS IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiya Nazeer Khan* and Siby Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolongation of hospital stay. Clinical features of sepsis are non-specific in neonates and a high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis. Antibiotics are a very important group of drugs for the sick neonate and have undoubtedly played a role in their improved survival. But they come with a set of risks like other drugs used in critical care which must be carefully considered and weighed against the benefits in any decision to commence antibiotics. Prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in almost all situations in neonatology. There is high level of evidence to show that they are not useful for the prevention of infection following umbilical vessel or central venous catheterization. Traditionally, the selection of antibiotics for empirical therapy is based on the local policy, and the duration of therapy is decided by the treating physician based on clinical symptoms and blood culture results. In this paper, we discuss briefly about the causative organisms of neonatal sepsis in both the developed and developing countries; with a special focus on antibiotic therapy in neonates with suspected sepsis, culture proven sepsis, and meningitis.

  16. Rational Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Functional Bowel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fasulo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such us bloating, fullness, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were recently attributed to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a condition depending on the presence of an increased number of bacteria in the small bowel. However, the methodology used to describe this association may be harshly criticized, since it has already been shown to be quite inaccurate. As a result an inappropriate use of antibiotics was consequently generated. In fact, antibiotics could be effective in the treatment of functional complaints, but only in a limited subgroup of patients, characterized by an increase of fermentation at colonic level. In this review, we have examined the papers suggesting a pathophysiological link between IBS and small bowel bacterial overgrowth, underlining its inappropriateness, and put forth our personal view on the rationale for antibiotic use in IBS.

  17. Minocycline: far beyond an antibiotic

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido-Mesa, N; Zarzuelo, A; Gálvez, J

    2013-01-01

    Minocycline is a second-generation, semi-synthetic tetracycline that has been in therapeutic use for over 30 years because of its antibiotic properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is mainly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris and some sexually transmitted diseases. Recently, it has been reported that tetracyclines can exert a variety of biological actions that are independent of their anti-microbial activity, including anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic acti...

  18. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  19. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sory Diarra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics in feed (growth promoters need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2,600 regulated chicken producers. There are several antibiotics approved as feed additives available for poultry farmers. Feed recipes and mixtures greatly vary geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While sporadic reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno

  20. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  1. A severely infected diabetic foot treated successfully without using systemic antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Jiang, Yu-Zhi; Niu, Yi-Wen; Xiao, Yu-Rui; Lu, Shu-Liang; Wang, Xi-Qiao

    2012-12-01

    About 50% to 70% of all lower extremity amputations are related to diabetes infection. And antibiotic therapy is routinely used for all infected wounds to reduce the mortality of diabetic foot. Here, we report a case of diabetic foot with acute and deep severe infection. During hospital therapy, we used negative pressure therapy and extensive debridement without systemic antibiotic application, and we successfully rescued a foot from amputation. Negative pressure therapy and extensive debridement are very important and effective methods to control infection and promote wound healing in diabetes foot. PMID:23089961

  2. Use of Antibiotics during pregnancy increases the risk of Asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother's use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Severe...... verified eczema. All children were followed to age 5 years in a cohort study design. RESULTS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood data showed increased risk of asthma exacerbation (hazard ratio 1.98 [95% CI 1.08-3.63]) if mothers had used antibiotics during third trimester. The Danish...

  3. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  4. Does a drop in the bucket make a splash? Assessing the impact of antibiotic use on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Patricia S

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotics are applied to plants to prevent bacterial diseases, although the diversity of antibiotics and total amounts used are dwarfed by antibiotic use in animal agriculture. Nevertheless, the release of antibiotics into the open environment during crop treatment draws scrutiny for its potential impact on the global pool of resistance genes. The main use of antibiotics on plants is application of streptomycin to prevent fire blight, a serious disease of apple and pear trees. A series of recent studies identified and quantified antibiotic resistance genes and profiled bacterial communities in apple orchard plots that were or were not sprayed with streptomycin. While the specific objectives and methods varied, the results of these studies suggest that streptomycin application for fire blight control does not influence bacterial community structure or increase the abundance of resistance genes in orchards. PMID:25006016

  5. Surveillance of Antibiotic Consumption Using the “Focus of Infection” Approach in 2 Hospitals in Ujjain, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Ashish; Mahadik, Kalpana; Dhaneria, Surya Prakesh; Sharma, Ashish; Eriksson, Bo; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic surveillance initiatives are limited in resource-constrained settings. In the present study, a quantitative comparison of antibiotic use rates for suspected infections in 2 hospitals in India was performed using the “focus of infection” approach to identify targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prescription patterns in hospitalized patients. Methods This observational study was carried out in one teaching and one nonteaching hospital. All the patients with suspected bacteri...

  6. Antibiotic microbial assay using kinetic-reading microplate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rebello Lourenço

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal experimental conditions to develop a methodology for microbiological assay of apramycin employing microplate and kinetic reading mode, and to validate the developed method, through evaluation of parameters of selectivity, linearity, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy and precision. The turbidimetric assay principle is simple: the test solution is added to a suspension of test microorganism in culture media, the mixture is incubated under appropriate conditions and the microbial growth is measured by photometric reading. Microplate with kinetic reading mode employed in antibiotic assay is of considerable interest since it allows reduction of material and analysis time and enables a large number of samples to be analyzed simultaneously, with automated reading and calculating. Established conditions considered the standard-curve of apramycin at concentrations from 5.0 to 35.0 μg mL-1, and tryptic soy broth inoculated with 5% Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739 suspension. Satisfactory results were obtained with 2 hours of incubation. The developed method showed appropriate selectivity, linearity in the range from 5.0 to 35.0 μg mL-1, limits of detection and quantification of 0.1 and 0.4 μg mL-1, respectively, as well as satisfactory accuracy (recuperation = 98.5% and precision (RSD = 6.0%. Microplate assay combined the characteristics of microbiological (evaluation of antibiotic activity against sensitive test microorganism and physico-chemical (operationally straightforward and faster results assays.O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar as condições experimentais ideais para o desenvolvimento de metodologia para a dosagem microbiológica de apramicina empregando microplacas e modo de leitura cinético e validar o método desenvolvido, através da avaliação dos parâmetros de especificidade e seletividade, linearidade, faixa ou intervalo linear, limite de detecção e

  7. Use of a radiorespirometric assay for testing the antibiotic sensitivity of catheter-associated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14C-radiorespirometric assay was used to show the sensitivity of fixed-film (sessile), catheter-associated and free-living (planktonic) cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to varying concentrations (100 micrograms/mL to 1000 micrograms/mL) tobramycin sulfate. This strain of P. aeruginosa has an MIC of 0.6 microgram/ml and an MBC of 50 micrograms/mL when tested by conventional methods. When 14C-glutamic acid was used as a substrate in this radiorespirometric assay, it could be completed in less than one hour and planktonic samples showed a significant reduction in mineralization activity (evolution of 14CO2) within eight hours of the antibiotic challenge. These changes in respiratory activity appeared to be dose and time dependent. Within 18 hr. at 1000 micrograms/mL, there was no significant residual respiratory activity in planktonic samples. Some residual respiratory activity was detected, however, in samples exposed to 100 micrograms/mL for 36 hours. The mineralization activity of sessile catheter-associated bacteria was unaffected by four hr. and eight hr. exposures to 1000 micrograms/mL of the antibiotic. A significant reduction in respiratory activity was recorded in catheter samples exposed for 18 hr. or more at each concentration examined. Unlike the planktonic samples, however, the antibiotic challenge failed to eradicate the metabolic activity of the attached bacteria. Antibiotic stressed, catheter-associated bacteria transferred to a post-exposure enrichment broth showed a limited ability to re-establish respiratory activity. This apparent recovery was limited to antibiotic exposures less than 24 hr. and was not observed in planktonic samples. The radioisotopic assay is a non-culture method which can be used to assess the antibiotic sensitivity of both planktonic bacteria and in situ biofilm populations

  8. Antibiotic use from conception to diagnosis of child leukaemia as compared to the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Kaerlev, Linda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of infection in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia is unknown. We used prescriptions of antibiotics from Danish pharmacies as a proxy measure for the occurrence of infections. PROCEDURE: We investigated the association between exposure to antibiotics, from conception to...... leukaemia diagnosis, and the risk of leukaemia. Incident cases of leukaemia among children in Denmark, 1995-2008, with mothers having their earliest conception date in 1995, were individually matched to population controls by age, sex and municipality. Conditional logistic regression analyses assessed...... antibiotic redemptions in different time periods from conception up to 6 months before the diagnoses of all leukaemia types, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia [ALL] and ALL in 2- to 5-year-old children, adjusting for several potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 120/360 (33.3%) leukaemia mothers and 1...

  9. Antibiotic use in rural China: a cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices among caregivers in Shandong province

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lilu; Sun, Qiang; Sun, Weishuai; Du, Yihui; Li, Yue; Bian, Xuefeng; He, Guiqin; Bai, Huidong; Dyar, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve antibiotic use globally, we must deepen our understanding of the public’s knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) concerning antibiotics. Children are frequent users of antibiotics, and their caregivers play important roles in determining how antibiotics are used. The purpose of this study was to describe caregivers’ KAP in a rural province in eastern China, and to identify socio-demographic factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic use. Methods A cross-sectional...

  10. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Van Der Kelen, Greta; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The a

  11. Differences in outpatient antibiotic use between a Spanish region and a Nordic country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo-Fumanal, Sara; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José; Feja-Solana, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic use and misuse are linked to pathogen resistance and, as such, both constitute a public health issue with local, national, and global dimensions. Early studies have shown striking variations in the use of these drugs between Nordic and Mediterranean countries. The aim of the present st...

  12. Antibiotic and anti-inflammatory use and the risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Stephen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate inflammation or infection may increase the risk of prostate cancer. Antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used to treat prostatitis and urinary tract infections (UTIs. The objective of our study was to assess whether their use decreases the risk of prostate cancer. Methods We conducted a case-control study among men with incident prostate cancer (N = 65 cases and without prostate cancer (N = 195 controls at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs medical center (VAMC between June 1996 and June 2006. Cases were all patients who had prostate biopsies positive for cancer. We matched controls to cases on age group and race at a 3:1 ratio, and each matched pair was given an identical index date. Total antibiotic, aspirin, and NSAID use (number of prescriptions was computed for each participant by drug type and was restricted to a fill date at least 1 year before the index date. Logistic regression was used for analysis. We adjusted for the matching variables (age group and race and potential confounders (years of VAMC enrollment and number of clinic visits. Results Neither total antibiotic use nor total anti-inflammatory use reduces the risk of prostate cancer (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our analysis did not reveal a relation between use of antibiotics, aspirin, or NSAIDs and the risk of prostate cancer.

  13. The routine use of antibiotics to promote animal growth does little to benefit protein undernutrition in the developing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Braam, P.; Butler, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Some persons argue that the routine addition of antibiotics to animal feed will help alleviate protein undernutrition in developing countries by increasing meat production. In contrast, we estimate that, if all routine antibiotic use in animal feed were ceased, there would be negligible effects in...... these countries. Poultry and pork production are unlikely to decrease by more than 2%. Average daily protein supply would decrease by no more than 0.1 g per person (or 0.2% of total protein intake). Eliminating the routine use of in-feed antibiotics will improve human and animal health, by reducing the...... development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria....

  14. [International strategies and campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics by health professionals and patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Oteo, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    International agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Union (EU), the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have carried out various strategies to fight the emergency and spread of antimicrobial resistance. These strategies include surveillance of resistance and use, reduction of the disease burden through vaccination, and measures to control infection and to educate citizens and health professionals. Understanding of antibiotics among the general population is usually poor, so educational activities directed at the public and at health professionals are parts of the majority of campaigns to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics. From 1990 to 2007, 22 large campaigns have been executed; in Spain, 2 national campaigns were launched in the autumn of 2006 and 2007 with the slogan, "Responsible use of antibiotics. Using them well today will protect us tomorrow". The EU and the WHO recommend the creation of interdisciplinary work groups, supported by the authorities, to promote the development of action plans and national strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. To be effective, the national campaigns for prudent use of antibiotics should be continuous and carried out within a national strategy for improving the use of antimicrobials. PMID:21458702

  15. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and cefalexin, gentamicin and norfloxacin. Amoxicillin use increased by 35% during winter/spring compared with summer/autumn, and AMC use increased by 21%. No seasonal variation in quinolone use or resistance was detected. The low levels of antimicrobial resistance identified may relate to Tasmania's isolated geographical location. Significant seasonal variation in amoxicillin and AMC use is likely to be due to increased use of these antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified. PMID:26187365

  16. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  17. Multi-bacteria multi-antibiotic testing using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kastanos, Evdokia; Pitris, Costas

    2013-06-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance, which is a major health care problem. The current method for determination of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics requires overnight cultures. However most of the infections cannot wait for the results to receive treatment, so physicians administer general spectrum antibiotics. This results in ineffective treatments and aggravates the rising problem of antibiotic resistance. In this work, a rapid method for diagnosis and antibiogram for a bacterial infection was developed using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles. The advantages of this novel method include its rapidness and efficiency which will potentially allow doctors to prescribe the most appropriate antibiotic for an infection. SERS spectra of three species of gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella spp. were obtained after 0 and 4 hour exposure to the seven different antibiotics. Bacterial strains were diluted in order to reach the concentration of (2x105 cfu/ml), cells/ml which is equivalent to the minimum concentration found in urine samples from UTIs. Even though the concentration of bacteria was low, species classification was achieved with 94% accuracy using spectra obtained at 0 hours. Sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics was predicted with 81%-100% accuracy from spectra obtained after 4 hours of exposure to the different antibiotics. This technique can be applied directly to urine samples, and with the enhancement provided by SERS, this method has the potential to be developed into a rapid method for same day UTI diagnosis and antibiogram.

  18. Comparison of three microbial screening methods for antibiotics using routine monitoring samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Rapallini, M.; Oostra, S.; Elferink, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring large numbers of slaughter animals for the presence of antimicrobial residues is preferably carried out using microbiological screening methods, because of their high cost-effectiveness. An evaluation of the Nouws antibiotic test (NAT) was performed on routine monitoring samples and the p

  19. Impact of PCR for respiratory viruses on antibiotic use : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Alma C.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Tacke, Carline E. A.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P.; Forster, Johannes; van Loon, Anton M.; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Rossen, John W. A.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses is more sensitive, yet more expensive, than conventionally used direct immunofluorescence (DIF). We determined the impact of real-time PCR, additional to DIF, on antibiotic prescription in ventilated children

  20. Seasonal and temporal variation in release of antibiotics in hospital wastewater: estimation using continuous and grab sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Diwan

    Full Text Available The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on resistance development has raised concerns globally. Hospitals are a major source of antibiotics released into the environment. To reduce these residues, research to improve knowledge of the dynamics of antibiotic release from hospitals is essential. Therefore, we undertook a study to estimate seasonal and temporal variation in antibiotic release from two hospitals in India over a period of two years. For this, 6 sampling sessions of 24 hours each were conducted in the three prominent seasons of India, at all wastewater outlets of the two hospitals, using continuous and grab sampling methods. An in-house wastewater sampler was designed for continuous sampling. Eight antibiotics from four major antibiotic groups were selected for the study. To understand the temporal pattern of antibiotic release, each of the 24-hour sessions were divided in three sub-sampling sessions of 8 hours each. Solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to determine the antibiotic residues. Six of the eight antibiotics studied were detected in the wastewater samples. Both continuous and grab sampling methods indicated that the highest quantities of fluoroquinolones were released in winter followed by the rainy season and the summer. No temporal pattern in antibiotic release was detected. In general, in a common timeframe, continuous sampling showed less concentration of antibiotics in wastewater as compared to grab sampling. It is suggested that continuous sampling should be the method of choice as grab sampling gives erroneous results, it being indicative of the quantities of antibiotics present in wastewater only at the time of sampling. Based on our studies, calculations indicate that from hospitals in India, an estimated 89, 1 and 25 ng/L/day of fluroquinolones, metronidazole and sulfamethoxazole respectively, might be getting

  1. Antibiotic resistant in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial agents are necessary for use in veterinary medicine including the production of food producing animals. Antibiotic use is indicated for the treatment of bacterial target organisms and/or disease for which the antibiotic was developed. However, an unintended consequence of antibiotic ...

  2. Outpatient Antibiotic Use and Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Pneumococci in France and Germany: A Sociocultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Harbarth, Stephan; Albrich, Werner; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci is sharply divided between France (43%) and Germany (7%). These differences may be explained on different levels: antibiotic- prescribing practices for respiratory tract infections; patient-demand factors and health-belief differences; social determinants, including differing child-care practices; and differences in regulatory practices. Understanding these determinants is crucial for the success of possible interventions. Finally, we em...

  3. Antibiotic use in dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, A; Koops, W J; Wemmenhove, H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variation in antibiotic use and the effects of external factors on trends in antibiotic use at the herd level by using the number of daily dosages as an indicator for antibiotic use. For this purpose, antibiotic use was analyzed in 94 dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012. The herds were divided into 3 groups of farmers: one group was guided in their antibiotic use from 2008 to 2010 as part of the project, whereas the other 2 groups were not actively guided. The farms were located in 10 of the 12 provinces and were clients of 32 of the 300 veterinary practices that treat cattle. Sales invoices from the veterinary practices provided the antibiotic and cost data for the participating farmers. The number of animal-defined daily dosages (ADDD) indicates the number of days per year that the average cow in a herd is given antibiotic treatment. The average ADDD for all farms from 2005 to 2012 was 5.86 (standard deviation=2.14); 68% of ADDD were used for udder health, 24% for clinical mastitis and 44% for dry-cow therapy. Variation in ADDD among herds decreased during the study period. The trend in ADDD can be described as having 3 phases: (1) a period of increasing use coinciding with little public concern about antibiotic use (2005-2007), (2) a period of growing awareness and stabilization of use (2007-2010), and (3) a period of decreasing use coinciding with increasing societal concerns (2010-2012). The greatest reduction in use was for drugs other than those used to treat the udder. Drug use for mastitis treatment fell considerably in the final year of the study period, whereas farmers were reluctant to reduce use for dry-cow therapy. Almost 40% of the herds were given less than 2.5 ADDD for dry-cow therapy, which is equivalent to 2.5 tubes per average cow in the herd, and 20% used more than 3 tubes per cow. Use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones dropped from 18% of ADDD during 2005 to

  4. Management of Antibiotic Residues from Agricultural Sources: Use of Composting to Reduce Chlortetracycline Residues in Beef Manure from Treated Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlortetracycline (CTC) is one of only ten antibiotics licensed in the U.S.A. for use as a growth promoter for livestock. The widespread use of CTC may contribute to development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of composting on the fate of C...

  5. Antibiotics Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  6. Using Therapeutic Toys to Facilitate Venipuncture Procedure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children. PMID:27254974

  7. First case of Helicobacter pylori infection resistant to seven antibiotics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with common antibiotics is typically recommended for several digestive conditions, including peptic ulcers. However, reports of resistant H. pylori isolates are increasing, and unfortunately, these do not respond to currently available therapeutic regimens. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with two peptic ulcers in the duodenal antrum. An H. pylori strain was isolated, and tested for antibiotic resistance using agar dilution and disk diffusion. The isolated strain was found to be resistant to all seven antibiotics that were tested. Therefore, constant monitoring for antibiotic resistance should be performed prior to initiating antibiotic therapy.

  8. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tamoxifen using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchu, Simone M; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used widely in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (ER+). Therapeutic monitoring of tamoxifen, and its metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDTam) and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen), may be clinically useful for guiding treatment decisions. Two significant barriers to tamoxifen efficacy are: (1) variability in conversion of tamoxifen into the potent antiestrogenic metabolite, endoxifen, and (2) poor compliance and adherence to tamoxifen therapy. Therapeutic monitoring can be used to address both of these issues. Low levels of endoxifen indicate either poor compliance or poor metabolism of tamoxifen. Low tamoxifen levels would suggest poor compliance while a low ratio of endoxifen to NDTam would be indicative of poor metabolism. Solid phase extraction of patient serum followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection enables rapid, accurate, detection of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, and endoxifen. PMID:22767121

  9. The Influence of a Continuing Medical Education Campaign on New Strategies to Improve Appropriate Use of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda A. Bucklin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Widespread use of antibiotics has led to drug-resistant bacteria and reports of drug-resistant infections. A continuing medical education (CME campaign was used to improve antibiotic use among primary care providers. Methods. The Office of CME and Professional Development at the University of Colorado School of Medicine produces a semiannual, week-long course for primary care providers. A 2-year multifaceted CME campaign consisted of course content on antibiotic use, a practice audit, and two surveys to measure perceptions of the problem of antibiotic overuse, potential barriers to achieving appropriate use, and strategies to overcome barriers. Results. The overall response rate in the 2nd part of the campaign was 68.4%. Sixty-six percent of respondents had implemented at least one strategy to reduce antibiotic overuse. The rate was significantly higher among those who had attended previous reviews (81.0% compared with those who had attended neither (54%, p=0.0002. However, there was no “dose effect” on the rate of implementing a new strategy. Conclusions. Overuse of antibiotic therapy has important public health implications. Results suggest that mixed interactive and didactic CME program was effective in increasing awareness of antibiotic overuse and strategies for reducing antibiotic administration.

  10. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture. PMID:27038482

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility of members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using broth microdilution and molecular identification of their resistance determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayrhofer, S.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Mair, C.; Huys, G.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Kneifel, W.; Domig, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    The range of antibiotic susceptibility to 13 antibiotics in 101 strains of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group was examined using the lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test medium (LSM) and broth microdilution. Additionally, microarray analysis and PCR were applied to identify resistance genes res

  12. Use of garenoxacin: a new generation antibiotic for surgical infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: Administration of garenoxacin used as empirical therapy for surgical prophylaxis and as switch therapy in patients with DFU s and post-surgical infectious wounds for the period of 5-7 days has been found effective indicating its wide spectrum of action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 144-147

  13. Using wildlife activity and antibiotic resistance analysis to model bacterial water quality in coastal ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Pullaro, Thomas C.; Pan, Wei; Chiovarou, Erica D.; Daugomah, James W.; Shea, Norman R.; Siewicki, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Models that help predict fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels in environmental waters can be important tools for resource managers. In this study, we used animal activity along with antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA), land cover, and other variables to build models that predict bacteria levels in coastal ponds that discharge into an estuary. Photographic wildlife monitoring was used to estimate terrestrial and aquatic wildlife activity prior to sampling. Increased duck activity was an impor...

  14. [Immunotropic effects of probiotic complex bactistatin used simultaneously with antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeĭchikov, E V; Stepanov, A V; Volkov, M Iu; Vasilenko, A Zh; Ponomarenko, V M; Sinitsa, A V

    2008-01-01

    The immunotropic effects of the probiotic complex Bactistatin (the complex contains metabolites of Bacillus subtilis) used simultaneously with oral doxycycline during different periods of time (1, 5, 10 and 20 days) were estimated. The dynamics of the changes in the nonspecific immunity factors under the effect of the above mentioned products or their combination (bactistatin + doxycycline) during the treatment of different duration was demonstrated. It was found that the oral administration of the metabolic probiotic bactistatin to experimental animals during 1-10 days increased the activity of the nonspecific resistance factors. The immunotropic effects of the product were evident at the level of the cells of the blood phagocytic system and the processes related to synthesis of such enzymes as lysozyme and myeloperoxidase and their release into the blood stream. Comparatively rapid increase of the functional activity of the factors was registered even after a single administration of the product. When the combination of the products (bactistatin + doxycycline) was administered to the animals during a fixed period of time (10 days) significant activation of the nonspecific immunity factors was observed. In perspective the findings will allow to optimize the basic regimens of antibacterial therapy and urgent (postcontact) prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:18942386

  15. Prophylactic antibiotics for variceal hemorrhage: Clostridium difficile infection still can be a risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naohiro Okano; Kentaro Iwata

    2011-01-01

    Bron et al presented a retrospective study regarding the prophylactic use of antibiotics for variceal hemorrhage. Antibiotics appeared to improve the survival rate of patients without increasing clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We argue against the conclusion of the authors and consider that this result may be simply due to concurrent use of metronidazole, a therapeutic agent against CDI.

  16. Use of the lambda Red recombinase system to produce recombinant prophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofre Juan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Red recombinase system of bacteriophage lambda has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12 through homologous recombination using linear PCR products. The aim of this study was to induce mutations in the genome of some temperate Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages. When phage genes are in the prophage state, they behave like chromosomal genes. This enables marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes, to be incorporated into the stx gene. Once the phages' lytic cycle is activated, recombinant Shiga toxin converting phages are produced. These phages can transfer the marker genes to the bacteria that they infect and convert. As the Red system's effectiveness decreased when used for our purposes, we had to introduce significant variations to the original method. These modifications included: confirming the stability of the target stx gene increasing the number of cells to be transformed and using a three-step PCR method to produce the amplimer containing the antibiotic resistance gene. Results Seven phages carrying two different antibiotic resistance genes were derived from phages that are directly involved in the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing strains, using this modified protocol. Conclusion This approach facilitates exploration of the transduction processes and is a valuable tool for studying phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  17. Successful treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis with combination therapy using linezolid and rifampicin under therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Yasuhiro; Kawago, Koyomi; Higashi, Yoshitsugu; Tashiro, Masato; Nogami, Makiko; Gejo, Ryuichi; Narukawa, Munetoshi; Kimura, Tomoatsu; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Linezolid is an effective antibiotic against most gram-positive bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although linezolid therapy is known to result in thrombocytopenia, dosage adjustment or therapeutic drug monitoring of linezolid is not generally necessary. In this report, however, we describe the case of a 79-year-old woman with recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus osteomyelitis that was successfully treated via surgery and combination therapy using linezolid and rifampicin under therapeutic drug monitoring for maintaining an appropriate serum linezolid concentration. The patient underwent surgery for the removal of the artificial left knee joint and placement of vancomycin-impregnated bone cement beads against methicillin-resistant S. aureus after total left knee implant arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. We also initiated linezolid administration at a conventional dose of 600 mg/h at 12-h intervals, but reduced it to 300 mg/h at 12-h intervals on day 9 because of a decrease in platelet count and an increase in serum linezolid trough concentration. However, when the infection exacerbated, we again increased the linezolid dose to 600 mg/h at 12-h intervals and performed combination therapy with rifampicin, considering their synergistic effects and the control of serum linezolid trough concentration via drug interaction. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection improved without reducing the dose of or discontinuing linezolid. The findings in the present case suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful for ensuring the therapeutic efficacy and safety of combination therapy even in patients with osteomyelitis who require long-term antibiotic administration. PMID:26732509

  18. Expansion of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli by Use of Bovine Antibiotic Growth Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Chui, Linda; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)–encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli. PMID:27088186

  19. Advances in infectious foci imaging using 99mTc radiolabelled antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional methods of infection diagnosis, relying on experimental tests and culture of organisms from infected foci have continued to developing new technologies and automation. Nuclear medicine is a reliable diagnostic technique capable to detect infectious foci in human disease. A wide range of radiolabeled agents have been evaluated for demonstrating their ability to distinguish microbial infectious lesions. New researches continue to be made on the use of radiolabeled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection would be useful in monitoring of disease treatment. Here, the new approaches of infection scintigraphic imaging by radiolabeled antibiotics are thoroughly discussed in order to assess and compare their diagnostic value as targeting imaging radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. A clinical observation of early short-term use of potent antibiotics in severely burned patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Xin-zhou; ZHANG Wen-zhen; REN Jia-liang; ZHOU Wei-ming

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of early and short-term use of potent antibiotics following extensive severe burn injury. Methods: Seventeen severely burned patients hospitalized in the same period (Nov.,1998 to Oct., 2000) wer esame treatment in Group 2 (n=8) was discontinued until day 15 postburn. The survival rate, blood bacterial culture, body temperature and white blood cell and platelet counts were compared between the 2 groups. Results: All the 17 patients survived and all blood bacterial cultures were negative. No significant difference of body temperature and white blood cell and platelet counts between the 2 groups was observed (P>0.05). Conclusion: Early use of high-potency antibiotics at short treatment course after extensive severe burn is effective to prevent infection and reduce the cost.

  1. Hygromycin B and apramycin antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cameron

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. In this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin B and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in C. jejuni. First, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-interest, and were bracketed with restriction sites for the facilitation of site-specific cloning. These hygromycin B and apramycin markers are encoded by plasmids pAC1H and pAC1A, respectively. We also modified an insertional gene-delivery vector to create pRRH and pRRA, containing the hygromycin B and apramycin resistance genes, and 3 unique restriction sites for the directional introduction of genes into the conserved multi-copy rRNA gene clusters of the C. jejuni chromosome. We determined the effective antibiotic concentrations required for selection, and established that no harmful effects or fitness costs were associated with carrying hygromycin B or apramycin resistance under standard C. jejuni laboratory conditions. Using these markers, the arylsulfatase reporter gene astA was deleted, and the ability to genetically complement the astA deletion using pRRH and pRRA for astA gene insertion was demonstrated. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression from the endogenous astA promoter were compared to that of polycistronic mRNA expression from the constitutive promoter upstream of the resistance gene. The development of additional antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter will enable multiple gene deletion and expression combinations as well as more in-depth study of multi-gene systems important for the survival and pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

  2. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the fate of antibiotic residues and resistance genes in the environment after land application of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two swine confinement facilities, designated sites A and C were the focus of study. The antibiotic regimens at both sites included chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hog manure at these sites was treated in open, unlined lagoons before being applied as fertilizer to onsite (site A) and offsite (Site C) farm fields. Sites differed in their sub-surface geology, and each site was outfitted with a network of groundwater sampling wells for the monitoring of chemical contaminants, antibiotic residues, bacterial indicators of faecal contamination, and antibiotic resistance genes. Sterile containers were used to collect water from waste lagoons and wells once in 2000, and twice in 2001 and 2002. Additionally, the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was investigated from soil samples collected from 2005 to 2007 from seven different fields that were amended with manure. DNA was extracted from water and soil samples. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes was accomplished by PCR using primers that have been described elsewhere. These primer sets targeted three major groups of antibiotic resistance genes: 1) four classes of genes (tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of ribosomal protection proteins; 2) three classes of genes (tet(C), tet(H), tet(Z)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of efflux pump proteins; 3) eight RNA methylase genes (tlr(B), tlr(D), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(G), erm(Q)) conferring resistance to macrolide antibiotics, including tylosin and erythromycin, as well as to the lincosamide antibiotics and Streptogramin-B. The RNA methylases tlr(B) and tlr(D) have been found in tylosin-producing strains of soil bacteria, while the other six erm genes come from a diversity of pathogenic, human commensal, and environmental bacteria. These genes were selected as targets based on preliminary surveys of lagoon and groundwater and upon the antibiotic usage of the study sites. Presence

  3. Identification of Antibiotics used in Clinical Surgery and Orthopedic Unit from Midsized Hospital in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to identify the pattern of antimicrobial use in a unit and orthopedic surgical clinic of a medium-sized hospital in Mato Grosso. The study based in analysis of 500 medical charts and filling out forms previously prepared from Regional Hospital of Sorriso, between March and April 2012, after approval of the project by CEP Julio Muller University Hospital (Protocol No. 219/2011. It was observed that 69% (345 of the sample were male, with ages ranging between 18 and 112 years. In all the charts can observe the prescription of antibiotics, the most prescribed the cephalothin 49.2% (297, Amikacin 12.27% (74 5.3% Gentamicin (32, Ciprofloxacin 4.31 % (26 and Clindamycin 3.31% (20. Among the 500 records analyzed only 9 (1.8% underwent antimicrobial prophylaxis and 491 (98.2 did not receive prophylaxis. Among the antimicrobials used in surgical prophylaxis met the cephalothin, used in 77.8% of cases and Clindamycin in 22.2% of cases, these drugs of second choice within the parameters of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. The rational use of antibiotics reduce any risk of emergence of resistant microbial strains and still be profitable in terms pharmacoeconomicsKeywords: Antimicrobial; Surgical Clinic, Nursing; Antibiotic.

  4. Optical biosensors. Monitoring studies of glycopeptide antibiotic fermentation using white light interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünnemann, R; Mehlmann, M; Süssmuth, R D; Bühler, B; Pelzer, S; Wohlleben, W; Fiedler, H P; Wiesmüller, K H; Gauglitz, G; Jung, G

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes the design, characterization, and use of an optical biosensor suited for the process control of biotechnological processes. The detector principle is based on reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). RIfS enables a label-free, product-specific monitoring, with a future outline for on-line process control. The potential of the RIfS biosensor is exemplified by the qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the microbial production of vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotics. PMID:11569825

  5. Comparative analysis of antibiotic residue in milk using enzyme and microbiological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Jelena; Katić Vera R.

    2003-01-01

    Antibiotic residue can have a harmful effect on human health and can disrupt the processing of milk and milk products. In order to prevent these unwanted effects of residue, different screening methods are used today. The basic goal of this paper is to compare screening methods performed during the testing of milk from different points of the production chain. In this paper we have comparatively analyzed three screening methods: microbiological methods - the Delvo SP test and the diffusion me...

  6. The pattern of infection and antibiotics use in terminal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Although cancer patients are susceptible to infection, there is no evidence based published guideline on the appropriate use of antimicrobial treatment in this group of patients. Methods: We retrospectively collected medical records of all terminal cancer patients who died in the oncology department over a 15-month period and were reviewed for the pattern of infection and causes of antimicrobial use during the patients’ last admission of life. Results: A total of 258 eligible patients were enrolled, there was an equal distribution of males and females (M/F: 129/129), and the mean age was 60.5 years. 221 patients admitted with fever (85%), 22 patients (8.5%) got fever after hospitalization and 15 patients (5.8%) did not suffer from fever. Among patients with fever, 46 patients (18.9%) had two infection episodes and 197 patients (81.1%) had only one infection episode. The culture results revealed positive in 98 patients (40%) with gram-negative organisms were the dominant organisms. The major infection sites were the respiratory tract, urinary tract and wound. 114 patients (47%) received one antibiotic and 129 patients (53%) received more than one. The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for infected patients than for uninfected patients (8.00 vs. 18.15 days, p= 0.0001). Outcome of antibiotic use revealed 42 patients (17.3%) with symptoms improved 71 patients (29.2%) with stationary symptoms and 130 patients (53.5%) revealed symptom deterioration. Conclusions: Our study revealed that antibiotic therapy for terminal cancer patients should be on a clear rationale. We need further study to clarify if there is survival effect with antibiotic use or not.

  7. Screening Test for Antibiotics in Medicinal Plants (STAMP): Using Powdered Plant Materials Instead of Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Marielle Cascaes Inácio; Fabio Carmona; Tiago Antunes Paz; Maysa Furlan; Fernando Arcanjo da Silva; Bianca Waléria Bertoni; Suzelei de Castro França; Ana Maria Soares Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Plants are a rich source of antibiotics, but screening all the existing plant species for biological activity using current methods can be time and resource consuming. The present study is to investigate whether powdered plant materials would perform as well as plant extracts in the screening of plants with antimicrobial activity. In the new method proposed (STAMP), we compared in vitro antimicrobial activity of powdered plant materials from 12 species against bacteria and fungi. We conf...

  8. APPROPRIATE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SEPSIS IN NEONATES

    OpenAIRE

    Samiya Nazeer Khan* and Siby Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolongation of hospital stay. Clinical features of sepsis are non-specific in neonates and a high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis. Antibiotics are a very important group of drugs for the sick neonate and have undoubtedly played a role in their improved survival. But they come with a set of risks like other drugs used in critical care which must be carefully con...

  9. Evaluating antibiotic stewardship programs in patients with bacteremia using administrative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, J; Søgaard, M; Andreasen, V;

    2015-01-01

    When introducing new antibiotic guidelines for empirical treatment of bacteremia, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of the new guideline. We examined the utility of administrative data to evaluate the effect of new antibiotic guidelines and the prognostic impact of appropriate empirical...... (8 days) did not differ by regimen and neither did the proportion of those receiving appropriate empirical treatment (84.1 % vs. 85.5 %). However, fewer patients with the new regimen were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; 3.8 % vs. 12.0 %) and they had lower 30-day mortality (16.4 % vs. 23.......87–1.25) for the new versus the old regimen. This study demonstrates that administrative data can be useful for evaluating the effect and quality of new bacteremia treatment guidelines...

  10. Use of antibiotics to treat bacteriuria of pregnancy in the Nordic countries. Which antibiotics are appropriate to treat bacteriuria of pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B

    2001-04-01

    Bacteriuria in pregnancy with or without clinical symptoms is frequent and increases the risk of pyelonephritis, preterm labour, and low birth weight infants. Commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (pivampicillin), amoxicillin, trimethoprim, and sulphonamide are currently associated with a high degree of resistance of the most common pathogen in the urinary tract, Escherichia coli. During the past few decades a number of new and efficient antibacterial antibiotics have been developed. The presumption that a specific drug is safe for both the pregnant woman and the foetus depends on how widely the drug has been used. A recent survey among general practitioners and obstetricians in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden confirmed that the beta-lactam antibiotic pivmecillinam and nitrofurantoin are the most commonly used agents in the treatment of bacteriuria in pregnancy in the Nordic countries. However, a surprisingly high number of physicians reported that they prescribe sulphonamides during the first two trimesters in spite of resistance of E. coli and possible adverse effects on the foetus. PMID:11295409

  11. Effective Phages as Green Antimicrobial Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Hospital Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Rana; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Sheikhzadeh, Farzam; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteriophages are viruses that attack bacteria and lead to their lysis in an efficient and highly specific manner. These natural enemies of bacteria were used as therapeutic agents before the advent of antibiotics. Currently, with the rapid spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria, phage therapy can be an effective alternative treatment for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of bacteriophages in removing antibiotic-resistant clinical ...

  12. Antibiotic resistances in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica isolated from foods with animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Baltasar Balsalobre Hernández; Joaquín Hernández-Godoy

    2004-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotics in both human and animal health and in cattle production has generated resistant microorganisms to common antibiotics. Resistances spread caused by human and animal therapeutic is well known, but we know poorly frecuency of resistant bacteria in foods with animal origin and destinated to human consumers. In this paper, sensitivity to nineteen antibiotics was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from foods with animal orig...

  13. Use of antibiotics among outpatients%门诊抗菌药物应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋正立; 朱萍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the antibiotic usage among outpatients in our hospital and provide reference for rational clinical use. METHODS The antibiotic usage was analyzed by amount ranking and frequency in our hospital from 2008 to 2010. RESULTS The sale amount of antibiotics was increased and DDDs were decreased year by year in 3 years. The antibiotic with highest sale amount and DDDs were penicillins. Amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium had in average the highest sale amount in the single drug sale, and ampicillin/sulbactam had in average the highest DDDs. CONCLUSION The use of antimicrobial agents in our hospital is basically reasonable.%目的 了解医院门诊抗菌药物应用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法 采用金额排序法和频度分析法,对2008-2010年抗菌药物使用情况进行统计分析.结果 近3年抗菌药物销售金额呈逐年增长,用药频度呈逐年递减,销售金额和用药频度均排在首位的是青霉素类,单品种药物平均销售金额排在首位的是阿莫西林/克拉维酸、平均DDDs排在首位的是氨苄西林/舒巴坦.结论 调查该医院抗菌药物使用基本合理.

  14. The agricultural use of water treatment plant sludge: pathogens and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Nadal Rocamora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of water treatment plant sludge to restore degraded soils is customary agricultural practice, but it could be dangerous from the point of view of both health and the environment. A transient increase of either pathogenic or indicator microbial populations, whose persistence in time is variable and attributed to the characteristics of the soil (types of materials in the soil, any amendments (origin and treatments it has undergone or the weather (humidity and temperature mainly, has often been detected in soils treated with this kind of waste. Given their origin, water treatment plant sludges could lead to the transmission of a pathogens and b antibiotic-resistant microorganisms to human beings through the food chain and cause the spreading of antibiotic resistances as a result of their increase and persistence in the soil for variable periods of time. However, Spanish legislation regulating the use of sludges in the farming industry is based on a very restricted microbiological criterion. Thus, we believe better parameters should be established to appropriately inform of the state of health of soils treated with water treatment plant sludge, including aspects which are not presently assessed such as antibiotic resistance.

  15. Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Antibiotics for Prophylactic in Patients with Cesarean Section at Hospitals in Surakarta in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Mutmainah; Puri Setyati; Niken Handasari

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics for prophylactic in sectio cesarean can reduce the risk of infection-related complications and postoperative infections. This study aims to describe and evaluate the usage and the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section patients in two hospitals in Surakarta in year 2010. The study used retrospective data from medical records. The analysis was then conducted on the use of antibiotic including the appropriateness of antibiotic (compare...

  16. The Effects of Veterinary Antibiotics On Soil Microbial Community Function in Vegetative Buffers and Cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics administered to livestock for therapeutic or prophylactic uses often pass intact through the G.I. tract of the animal. These antibiotics are often introduced to agricultural ecosystems via land application of animal waste from confined animal feeding operations. Subsequently, the antib...

  17. Pancreatic islet-cell viability, functionality and oxidative status remain unaffected at pharmacological concentrations of commonly used antibiotics in vitro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Shewade; Suraj Tirth; R R Bhonde

    2001-09-01

    Environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, drugs, pollution and life style play an important role in the progression and/or precipitation of diseases like diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disorders. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics to combat infectious diseases is one of the commonest forms of misuse of drugs. Antibiotics seem to have a correlation with diabetes and pancreatic function. There are controversial reports about the effect of antibiotics on the pancreatic islets; some suggesting their harmless action, some depicting a beneficial role and others indicating deleterious effect. Moreover, use of antibiotics is mandatory during islet isolation and cultivation to reduce incidences of microbial contamination. It is likely that antibiotic treatment may adversely affect islet viability and its functioning leading to failure of islet transplantation. The present in vitro study was undertaken to examine the effect of commonly used antibiotics such as gentamycin, penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, neomycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol on islet viability, its functioning and induction of oxidative stress if any. The viability and insulin production data showed that none of the antibiotics used in the present study affect the viability and the functioning of the islets at their pharmacological concentrations. Free radical levels measured in terms of melonyldialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) reveal that except for a marginal increase in lipid peroxidation with tetracycline and slight increase in NO levels with streptomycin, none of these antibiotics affect the oxidative status of the cells. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase remain unaffected after this treatment. Our results reveal the innocuous nature of the antibiotics used at pharmacological concentrations, suggesting their safety whenever prescribed to combat infections and also during islet isolation procedures.

  18. Possible Therapeutic Use of Loperamide for Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Torchinsky, Alick; Colacone, Antoinnette

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine a potential practical therapeutic use of loperamide (Lo) to decrease the symptoms of lactose intolerance.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:  Nineteen (eight men, 11 women) healthy lactose maldigesters (18 of 19 with symptoms) underwent a 25 g lactose challenge on five separate days. Breath hydrogen was measured, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for 4 h, and 4 and 12 h symptom scores were recorded. After establishing baseline measurements, test doses of 4 mg, 8 mg and 12 m...

  19. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and behavior related to antibiotic use among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: There is an urgent need to improve education on antibiotic use in medical curricula. Furthermore, strict policies must be enforced to regulate dispensing of antibiotics. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1156-1162

  20. Impact of using prophylactic antibiotic on prevention of wound infection in inguinal herniorrhaphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo in prevention of wound infection amongst patients undergoing clean open inguinal herniorrhaphy (without mesh). Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Pakistan Air Force Hospital, Faisal Base Karachi from October 2009 to November 2011. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy were included and randomly assigned to one of the two groups using random numbers table. Group A patients were given intravenous antibiotic while those in Group B were given equal volume of normal saline just before the induction of anaesthesia. Patients from both groups were observed for the presence of wound infection. Results: Total seven cases (4.7%) of surgical site infection were detected; two cases (2.7%) occurred in group A whereas five cases (6.7%) occurred in group B. The low frequency of post-operative wound infection was seen in group A as compared to group B but the difference was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Antibiotic prophylaxis has no significant effect on prevention of wound infection in inguinal herniorrhaphy. (author)

  1. Over-the-counter suboptimal dispensing of antibiotics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukonzo JK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jackson K Mukonzo,1,2 Proscovia M Namuwenge,1 Gildo Okure,3 Benjamin Mwesige,1 Olivia K Namusisi,4 David Mukanga4 1Center for Operational Research Africa, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 3School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4African Field Epidemiologist Network, Kampala, Uganda Background: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a serious global problem. While resistance to older antibiotics is increasing, development of newer molecules has stalled. Resistance to the existing antibiotics that is largely driven by their high-volume use is a global public health problem. Uganda is one of the countries where prescription-only drugs, including antibiotics, can be obtained over the counter. We determined the rate of antibiotic dispensing and use in Uganda. Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional study design to determine the number of antibiotic "prescribed" daily doses per 1,000 clients. Data were collected from one health center II, eight general/district hospitals, one national referral hospital, and 62 registered community pharmacies. From each study site, data were collected for five consecutive days over the months of November 2011 to January 2012. Results: The overall antibiotic issue rate was 43.2%. Amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim, cloxacillin, and ampicillin, belonging to the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical classifications of penicillin with extended spectra, imidazole derivatives, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamide–trimethoprim combinations, constituted 70% of the issued antibiotics. About 41% of antibiotics were issued over the counter. At community pharmacies, where 30% of antibiotic dispensing occurred, the number of prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients was 4,169 compared to 6,220, 7,350 and 7,500 at general/district hospitals, the national referral hospital, and the health center, respectively. Conclusion

  2. Effects of Antibiotic Use on the Microbiota of the Gut and Associated Alterations of Immunity and Metabolism

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    M. Pilar Francino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The excessively widespread use of antibiotics has created many threats. A well-known problem is the increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which has clearly become a worldwide challenge to the effective control of infections by many pathogens. But, beyond affecting the pathogenic agents for which it is intended, antibiotic treatment also affects the mutualistic communities of microbes that inhabit the human body. As they inhibit susceptible organisms and select for resistant ones, antibiotics can have strong immediate effects on the composition of these communities, such as the proliferation of resistant opportunists that can cause accute disease. Furthermore, antibiotic-induced microbiota alterations are also likely to have more insidious effects on long-term health. In the case of the gut microbiota, this community interacts with many crucial aspects of human biology, including the regulation of immune and metabolic homeostasis, in the gut and beyond. It follows that antibiotic treatments bear the risk of altering these basic equilibria. Here, we review the growing literature on the effects of antibiotic use on gut microbiota composition and function, and their consequences for immunity, metabolism, and health.

  3. Surveillance of antibiotic and analgesic use in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliti, Naim R; Haliti, Fehim R; Koçani, Ferit K; Gashi, Ali A; Mrasori, Shefqet I; Hyseni, Valon I; Bytyqi, Samir I; Krasniqi, Lumnije L; Murtezani, Ardiana F; Krasniqi, Shaip L

    2015-01-01

    Background Because Kosovo has no reliable information on antimicrobial and analgesic use in dental practice, the survey reported here evaluated the antibiotic and analgesic prescriptions in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo (UDCCK). Methods The data of 2,442 registered patients for a 1-year period were screened and analyzed concerning antibiotic and analgesic use as per standards of rational prescription. Results Dentistry doctors prescribed antibiotics significantly more often than analgesics. Antibiotics were prescribed in 8.11% of all cases, while only 1.35% of total prescriptions were for analgesics. The total consumption of antibiotic drugs in the UDCCK was 4.53 Defined Daily Doses [DDD]/1,000 inhabitants/day, compared with only 0.216 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day for analgesics. From a total number of 117 patients, 32 patients received combinations of two antibiotics. Conclusion Pharmacotherapy analysis showed that the prescription rates of antibiotics and analgesics in the UDCCK are not rational in terms of the qualitative aspects of treatment. For the qualitative improvement of prescription of these drug groups, we recommend the implementation of treatment guidelines following rational standards. PMID:26491336

  4. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotics against Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis. Although indomethacin is generally effective against EPF and considered as a first-line therapy, quite a few patients with indomethacin still suffer from the symptoms. Among other therapeutic options, some antibiotics have been reported to be effective; however, there has been no epidemiological description regarding oral antibiotics use in patients with EPF. In this study, we investigated the frequency of ...

  5. A platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiple, Ian B.; Zhang, Ziyang; Jakubec, Pavol; Langlois-Mercier, Audrey; Wright, Peter M.; Hog, Daniel T.; Yabu, Kazuo; Allu, Senkara Rao; Fukuzaki, Takehiro; Carlsen, Peter N.; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Zhou, Xiang; Condakes, Matthew L.; Szczypiński, Filip T.; Green, William D.; Myers, Andrew G.

    2016-05-01

    The chemical modification of structurally complex fermentation products, a process known as semisynthesis, has been an important tool in the discovery and manufacture of antibiotics for the treatment of various infectious diseases. However, many of the therapeutics obtained in this way are no longer effective, because bacterial resistance to these compounds has developed. Here we present a practical, fully synthetic route to macrolide antibiotics by the convergent assembly of simple chemical building blocks, enabling the synthesis of diverse structures not accessible by traditional semisynthetic approaches. More than 300 new macrolide antibiotic candidates, as well as the clinical candidate solithromycin, have been synthesized using our convergent approach. Evaluation of these compounds against a panel of pathogenic bacteria revealed that the majority of these structures had antibiotic activity, some efficacious against strains resistant to macrolides in current use. The chemistry we describe here provides a platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics and may also serve as the basis for their manufacture.

  6. Antibiotic resistance via the food chain: Fact or fiction?

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    Sabiha Y. Essack

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that bacteria use to acquire additional genetic material, including genes coding for antibiotic resistance, are principally the secondary pathways that have been described as transformation and conjugation pathways. The farming industry often is reported as a hotspot for antibiotic-resistance reservoirs. In this review, we consider the exposure of food animals during the course of their lifespans to preventative, therapeutic or prophylactic treatment with antibiotic agents. In this context, zoonotic bacteria are commonly recognised as a potential threat to human health, with therapeutic treatment of pathogenic organisms on farms increasing the likelihood of selective antibiotic pressure influencing the commensal flora of the intestines. Existing literature indicates, however, that the effective impact on human health of such interventions in the food production process is still subject to debate.

  7. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

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    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  8. The role of bacteria in lactational mastitis and some considerations of the use of antibiotic treatment

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    Hall-Lord Marie

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of bacterial pathogens in lactational mastitis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare bacterial species in breast milk of women with mastitis and of healthy breast milk donors and to evaluate the use of antibiotic therapy, the symptoms of mastitis, number of health care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess, damaged nipples and recurrent symptoms in relation to bacterial counts. Methods In this descriptive study, breast milk from 192 women with mastitis (referred to as cases and 466 breast milk donors (referred to as controls was examined bacteriologically and compared using analytical statistics. Statistical analyses were also carried out to test for relationships between bacteriological content and clinical symptoms as measured on scales, prescription of antibiotics, the number of care contacts, occurrence of breast abscess and recurring symptoms. Results Five main bacterial species were found in both cases and controls: coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, viridans streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Group B streptococci (GBS and Enterococcus faecalis. More women with mastitis had S. aureus and GBS in their breast milk than those without symptoms, although 31% of healthy women harboured S. aureus and 10% had GBS. There were no significant correlations between bacterial counts and the symptoms of mastitis as measured on scales. There were no differences in bacterial counts between those prescribed and not prescribed antibiotics or those with and without breast abscess. GBS in breast milk was associated with increased health care contacts (p = 0.02. Women with ≥ 107 cfu/L CNS or viridans streptococci in their breast milk had increased odds for damaged nipples (p = 0.003. Conclusion Many healthy breastfeeding women have potentially pathogenic bacteria in their breast milk. Increasing bacterial counts did not affect the clinical manifestation of mastitis; thus bacterial counts in

  9. The early use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics in susceptible women for the prevention of preterm birth of infectious etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in high-income countries. The etiology of preterm birth is multifactorial but there is overwhelming evidence to implicate infection as a major cause. Abnormal genital tract flora in early pregnancy is predictive of...... preterm birth so it is logical to consider the use of antibiotics for the prevention of preterm birth. AREAS COVERED: Infection and antibiotics in the etiology, prediction and prevention of preterm birth. EXPERT OPINION: Antibiotics for the prevention of preterm birth have addressed different risk groups...

  10. A Community Intervention to Decrease Antibiotics Used for Self-Medication Among Latino Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mainous, Arch G.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Carnemolla, Mark

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Recent evidence in Latino communities indicates substantial self-medication with antibiotics obtained without a prescription (WORx). We implemented and evaluated a culturally sensitive educational intervention to decrease antibiotic self-medication.

  11. Patients′ awareness of antibiotic use in Bahraini health centers and community pharmacies

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    Sayed Mahmood Alqallaf

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Bahraini patients are mostly aware of 12 antibiotic aspects despite some misconceptions. The public awareness and their expectations warrant further studies on a large scale to understand their self-medication and demand for antibiotic prescriptions.

  12. Pattern of use of antibiotics in hospitalized patients in the medicine department of a tertiary care hospital

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    Muniza Bai

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Ceftriaxone, doxycycline, and metronidazole are commonly used antibiotics and significant proportion of the cost of drugs is spent for antimicrobials in a medicine unit. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 888-894

  13. A history of the therapeutic use of liquorice in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Cristina; Eisenhut, Michael; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Zanchin, Giorgio; Armanini, Decio

    2005-07-14

    Liquorice root has been used in Europe since prehistoric times, and is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. In this review we compare the independent development of medical uses of this botanical drug in several ancient cultures, attempting to show the rationality of specific indications across different ethnic groups with different cultural backgrounds. Identical specific indications in different cultures highlight universally reproducible therapeutic effects that are beyond those of a mere placebo. In the first part of the review, historical sources dealing with liquorice (Scythian, Greek, Roman, and from the Middle Ages in Germany, Italy, Spain, England) have been considered. In the second part, the historical records of diseases treated with liquorice have been presented. Finally, a comparison between traditional use in and outside Europe, with the most important recent scientific studies concerning its use, is presented. PMID:15978760

  14. 3 Certain Shell Hospital Inpatient Antibiotic Uses are Analysed%某三甲医院住院病人抗生素利用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟卿

    2002-01-01

    Objective We appraise the application condition of 3 certain shell hospital antibiotics. Methods According to medicine, we use research method. As the 280 certain courtyard regular inpatients of May 2001 use the condition of antibiotic,investigate. With the survey that DDD studies as medicine use, we worth. Is judgement doctor with DUI reasonable use the standard of medicine? Results 185 examples are used antibiotic, take 66.07%. With penicillins, Quinolones and Aminoglycosides use count frequently highest. Before locating in, 5 antibiotics are in proper order. Penicillin G, Clindamycin,Amikacin, Sodium Cefotaxime, and Ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The most antibiotic DUI ≤ 1, whole, the application ofantibiotic is reasonable.

  15. Determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics using complex compounds of chromotropic acid bisazoderivatives with rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of complex formation of bisazo derivatives of chromotropic acid with rare earth ions and aminoglycoside antibiotics have made it possible to choose carboxyarsenazo, orthanyl R and carboxynitrazo as highly sensitive reagents for determining aminoglycoside antibiotics. Conditions have been found for the formation of precipitates of different-ligand complexes containing rare earth ions, bisazo derivatives of chromotropic acid and aminogylcoside antibiotics. A procedure has been worked out of determining the antibiotics in biological samples with carboxyarsenazo

  16. The Use of Machine Learning Methodologies to Analyse Antibiotic and Biocide Susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Joana Rosado; Carriço, João André; Knight, Daniel; Martínez, Jose-Luis; Morrissey, Ian; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Freitas, Ana Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background The rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a significant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Resistance is usually selected by the antibiotic itself; however, biocides might also co-select for resistance to antibiotics. Although resistance to biocides is poorly defined, different in vitro studies have shown that mutants presenting low susceptibility to biocides also have reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. However, studies with natural bacterial is...

  17. Understanding variation in quality of antibiotic use for community-acquired pneumonia: Effect of patient, professional and hospital factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, Jeroen; Hulscher, Marlies; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Cox, Angela; Gyssens, Inge; Van Der Meer, Jos,; Grol, Richard

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To develop effective and targeted interventions to improve care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), insight is needed into the factors that influence the quality of antibiotic use. Therefore, we measured the performance of nine quality indicators and studied determinants of variation in the quality of antibiotic use. Patients and methods: Data on 498 prospectively included patients with CAP from eight medium-sized Dutch hospitals were extracted from t...

  18. Frontline antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan, Alasdair; Albur, Maha

    2013-06-01

    The need to use front-line antibiotics wisely has never been greater. Antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistant infection, driven by antibiotic use, remain major public health and professional concerns. To overcome these infection problems, use of older antibiotics active against multi drug-resistant pathogens is increasing - for example, colistin, fosfomycin, pivmecillinam, pristinamycin, temocillin and oral tetracyclines. The number of new antibacterials reaching clinical practice has reduced significantly in the last 20 years, most being focused on therapy of Gram-positive infection - eg linezolid, daptomycin, telavancin and ceftaroline. Recent guidance on antibiotic stewardship in NHS trusts in England is likely to provide a backdrop to antibiotic use in hospitals in the next 5 years. PMID:23760700

  19. Enhancing cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit P.; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Simon, Julian A.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) employs heat dissipation from magnetic nanoparticles to elicit a therapeutic outcome in tumor sites, which results in either cell death (>42 °C) or damage (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) synthesized in organic solvents and subsequently transferred to aqueous phase using a biocompatible amphiphilic polymer. Monodisperse MNPs, ˜16 nm diameter, show maximum heating efficiency, or specific loss power (watts/g Fe3O4) in a 373 kHz alternating magnetic field. Our in vitro results, for 15 min of heating, show that only 40% of cells survive for a relatively low dose (490 μg Fe/ml) of these size-optimized MNPs, compared to 80% and 90% survival fraction for 12 and 13 nm MNPs at 600 μg Fe/ml. The significant decrease in cell viability due to MNP-induced hyperthermia from only size-optimized nanoparticles demonstrates the central idea of tailoring size for a specific frequency in order to intrinsically improve the therapeutic potency of MFH by optimizing both dose and time of application.

  20. Enhancing cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit P; Ferguson, R Matthew; Simon, Julian A; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) employs heat dissipation from magnetic nanoparticles to elicit a therapeutic outcome in tumor sites, which results in either cell death (>42 °C) or damage (monodisperse magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (MNPs) synthesized in organic solvents and subsequently transferred to aqueous phase using a biocompatible amphiphilic polymer. Monodisperse MNPs, ∼16 nm diameter, show maximum heating efficiency, or specific loss power (watts/g Fe(3)O(4)) in a 373 kHz alternating magnetic field. Our in vitro results, for 15 min of heating, show that only 40% of cells survive for a relatively low dose (490 μg Fe/ml) of these size-optimized MNPs, compared to 80% and 90% survival fraction for 12 and 13 nm MNPs at 600 μg Fe/ml. The significant decrease in cell viability due to MNP-induced hyperthermia from only size-optimized nanoparticles demonstrates the central idea of tailoring size for a specific frequency in order to intrinsically improve the therapeutic potency of MFH by optimizing both dose and time of application. PMID:22393267

  1. Monitoring Therapeutic Treatments against Burkholderia Infections Using Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M. Mott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, are Category B select agents with biothreat potential, and yet effective therapeutic treatments are lacking. In this study, we showed that CpG administration increased survival, demonstrating protection in the murine glanders model. Bacterial recovery from infected lungs, liver and spleen was significantly reduced in CpG-treated animals as compared with non-treated mice. Reciprocally, lungs of CpG-treated infected animals were infiltrated with higher levels of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, as compared to control animals. Employing the B. mallei bioluminescent strain CSM001 and the Neutrophil-Specific Fluorescent Imaging Agent, bacterial dissemination and neutrophil trafficking were monitored in real-time using multimodal in vivo whole body imaging techniques. CpG-treatment increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs and reduced bioluminescent bacteria, correlating with decreased bacterial burden and increased protection against acute murine glanders. Our results indicate that protection of CpG-treated animals was associated with recruitment of neutrophils prior to infection and demonstrated, for the first time, simultaneous real time in vivo imaging of neutrophils and bacteria. This study provides experimental evidence supporting the importance of incorporating optimized in vivo imaging methods to monitor disease progression and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic treatment during bacterial infections.

  2. Targeted localized use of therapeutic antibodies: a review of non-systemic, topical and oral applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell G A; Martino, Angela

    2016-06-01

    gangrenosum, antibiotic resistant bacterial infections or ulcerated wounds. Diseases confined to the gastrointestinal tract can be targeted directly by applying antibody via the injection-free peroral route. The gastrointestinal tract is unusual in that its natural immuno-tolerant nature ensures the long-term safety of repeatedly ingesting heterologous antiserum or antibody materials. Without the stringent regulatory, purity and clean room requirements of manufacturing parenteral (injectable) antibodies, production costs are minimal, with the potential for more direct low-cost targeting of gastrointestinal diseases, especially with those caused by problematic antibiotic resistant or toxigenic bacteria (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Helicobacter pylori), viruses (e.g. rotavirus, norovirus) or inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease). Use of the oral route has previously been hindered by excessive antibody digestion within the gastrointestinal tract; however, this limitation may be overcome by intelligently applying one or more strategies (i.e. decoy proteins, masking therapeutic antibody cleavage sites, pH modulation, enzyme inhibition or encapsulation). These aspects are additionally discussed in this review and novel insights also provided. With the development of new applications via local injections, topical and peroral routes, it is envisaged that an extended range of ailments will increasingly fall within the clinical scope of therapeutic antibodies further expanding this market. PMID:25600465

  3. Clinical score and rapid antigen detection test to guide antibiotic use for sore throats: randomised controlled trial of PRISM (primary care streptococcal management)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Little; Hobbs, F D R; Moore, M.; Mant, D; Williamson, I.; McNulty, C; Cheng, Y.E.; Leydon, G; McManus, R; Kelly, J; Barnett, J; Glasziou, P.; Mullee, M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of clinical scores that predict streptococcal infection or rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests compared with delayed antibiotic prescribing. DESIGN: Open adaptive pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care in United Kingdom. PATIENTS: Patients aged ?3 with acute sore throat. INTERVENTION: An internet programme randomised patients to targeted antibiotic use according to: delayed antibiotics (the compara...

  4. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, Callie H; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and fema...

  5. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Ted; Thiboutot, Diane; Webster, Guy F.; Gallo, Richard L.; Leyden, James J.; Walker, Clay; Zhanel, George; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In this third article of the three-part series, management of skin and soft tissue infections is reviewed with emphasis on new information on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Due to changes in the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones, previous distinctions between healthcare-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are currently much less clinically relevant. Many nosocomial cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection are now caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with changing patterns of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. Also reviewed are clinical scenarios where antibiotics may not be needed and suggestions for optimal use of antibiotic therapy for dermatologie conditions, including recommendations on perioperative antibiotic use. PMID:27386047

  6. Strategic alliance between the infectious diseases specialist and intensive care unit physician for change in antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, D; Belloni, R

    2005-02-01

    There is a general consensus that antimicrobial use in intensive care units (ICU) is greater than that in general wards. By implementing a strategy of systematic infectious disease consultations in agreement with the ICU chief, we have modified the antibiotic prescription habits of the ICU physician. A reduction was observed in the use of selected antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins, vancomycin, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam), with a significant reduction in the length of hospital stay for ICU patients and lower antibiotic costs without negative impact on patient mortality. Leadership by the infectious diseases consultant in combination with commitment by ICU physicians is a simple and effective method to change antibiotic prescription habits in the ICU. PMID:15828447

  7. A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF PEDALIUM MUREX LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elumalai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional system of medicinal consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Pedalium murex is a small herb distributed in tropical Africa, Ceylon, India and Mexico. It is commonly found in Deccan and some parts of Ceylon and Gujarat and in its costal areas of Southern India. It is commonly called Gokhru (Yaanai Nerinji a member of family Pedaliaceae. The plant is sweet, cooling, mucilaginous, diuretic and inflammatory and used to treat digestive, carminative, tonic, spasmodic affections, amenorrhoea, and vitiated conditions of pita, inflammation and general debility. This review will be helpful to create interest towards Pedalium murex and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value.

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children’s Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kumpu, Minna; Kekkonen, Riina A.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children’s developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children’s microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children’s antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2–7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676 PMID:27111772

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Korpela

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.

  10. Strategies to enhance rational use of antibiotics in hospital: a guideline by the German Society for Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    de With, K.; Allerberger, F.; Amann, S.; Apfalter, P.; Brodt, Hans Reinhard; Eckmanns, Tim; Fellhauer, M.; Geiss, H. K.; Janata, O.; Krause, R; Lemmen, S; Meyer, Elisabeth; Mittermayer, H.; Porsche, U.; Presterl, E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In the time of increasing resistance and paucity of new drug development there is a growing need for strategies to enhance rational use of antibiotics in German and Austrian hospitals. An evidence-based guideline on recommendations for implementation of antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programmes was developed by the German Society for Infectious Diseases in association with the following societies, associations and institutions: German Society of Hospital Pharmacists, German Soc...

  11. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  12. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

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    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral. METHODS AND FINDING: The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined

  13. Coping With Hypertension Using Safer Herbal Medicine ? A Therapeutic Review

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    Lakshmi.T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and if treated can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser cost. our article reviews the efficacy of some of valuable herbs like Allium sativum, Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Crataegus oxycantha, Crataegus monogyna, Passiflora Edulis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Elaeocarpus ganitrus, Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium. They have a history of human use and their Anti hypertensive properties have been evaluated preclinically and clinically. The present literature emphasizes on causes for hypertension, its signs, symptoms, preventive measures as well as its safer options of treatments. Available data suggests that the extracts of most of these herbs or compounds derived from them may provide a safe and effective adjunctive therapeutic approach for the treatment of hypertension

  14. Surgical site infection and pattern of antibiotic use in a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is most common complication following surgical procedures. The objective of the study was to collect information on SSI regarding the most frequent pathogen in cases operated in casualty of Lady Read ing Hospital (LRH) Peshawar, and sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to different antibiotics used. Methods: The study was carried out at surgical 'B' unit (SBU) LRH from Jan 1, 2009 till Dec 31, 2009. A total of 100 patients who developed SSI after being operated for peritonitis following traumatic gut perforations, perforated appendix and enteric perforation. The patients included presented to casualty, operated in casualty OT and were shifted to the SBU, LRH. Children and patients operated on the elective list were excluded. Data was collected on specially designed proforma. Demographic details, details of SSI, culture/sensitivity reports and antibiotic used for prophylaxis and after C/S report were recorded. Results: Out of a total of 100, 72 had superficial, 20 had organ/space and 8 had deep SSI. Organisms were isolated in 77 cases (77%). E. coli being most common pathogen (46%), followed by Pseudomonas (23%), mixed growth of Staph. Aureus or MRSA (13%), MRSA (5%) and Staph aureus (4%) in descending order. No growth was reported in 23% of cases. Conclusion: E.coli was the most common organism involved in SSI in SBU LRH. The incidence of infection with MRSA in our unit is high. Combination of antibiotics like pipreacillin/Tazobactam, Cefoperazone/Sulbactam, were most effective against the isolated organisms, except MRSA where Linezolid, vancomycin and Tiecoplanin were effective. (author)

  15. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society: Part 3: Current Perspectives on Skin and Soft Tissue Infections with Emphasis on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Commonly Encountered Scenarios when Antibiotic Use May Not Be Needed, and Concluding Remarks on Rational Use of Antibiotics in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Rosen, Ted; Thiboutot, Diane; Webster, Guy F; Gallo, Richard L; Leyden, James J; Walker, Clay; Zhanel, George; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    In this third article of the three-part series, management of skin and soft tissue infections is reviewed with emphasis on new information on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Due to changes in the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones, previous distinctions between healthcare-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are currently much less clinically relevant. Many nosocomial cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection are now caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with changing patterns of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. Also reviewed are clinical scenarios where antibiotics may not be needed and suggestions for optimal use of antibiotic therapy for dermatologie conditions, including recommendations on perioperative antibiotic use. PMID:27386047

  16. Beyond Antibiotics?

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    LE Nicolle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMMI Canada meeting in March 2006 hosted a symposium exploring the potential alternatives to antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infection. Four papers summarizing talks from that session are published in this issue of the Journal (1-4. These reviews address the scientific underpinnings for a number of proposed concepts, and summarize the current status of clinical use. The approaches - probiotics, bacteriophage therapy, and manipulation of innate immunity - are all intriguing but are still removed from immediate practical applications.

  17. Therapeutic approaches for treating hemophilia A using embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuda, Shogo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shima, Midori; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked rescessive bleeding disorder that results from F8 gene aberrations. Previously, we established embryonic stem (ES) cells (tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18) that secrete human factor VIII (hFVIII) by introducing the human F8 gene in mouse Ainv18 ES cells. Here, we explored the potential of cell transplantation therapy for hemophilia A using the ES cells. Transplant tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18 ES cells were injected into the spleens of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-pretreated wild-type mice, and CCl4-pretreated hemophilia A mice. F8 expression was induced by doxycycline in drinking water, and hFVIII-antigen production was assessed in all cell transplantation experiments. Injecting the ES cells into SCID mice resulted in an enhanced expression of the hFVIII antigen; however, teratoma generation was confirmed in the spleen. Transplantation of ES cells into wild-type mice after CCl4-induced liver injury facilitated survival and engraftment of transplanted cells without teratoma formation, resulting in hFVIII production in the plasma. Although CCl4 was lethal to most hemophilia A mice, therapeutic levels of FVIII activity, as well as the hFVIII antigen, were detected in surviving hemophilia A mice after cell transplantation. Immunolocalization results for hFVIII suggested that transplanted ES cells might be engrafted at the periportal area in the liver. Although the development of a safer induction method for liver regeneration is required, our results suggested the potential for developing an effective ES-cell transplantation therapeutic model for treating hemophilia A in the future. PMID:27131224

  18. COAGULASE POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI RESISTANCE TO BETALACTAM ANTIBIOTICS: USING IODOMETRIC AND ACIDOMETRIC ASSAY – 1999

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    A TAVAKOLI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is very important to know the resistant bacteria to common used antibiotics in our community. Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the main cause of infection in infectious disease. This study was done to demonstrate the pattern of resistance to batalactamase antibiotics among staphiococci. Methods. During a period of five month, 38 coagulase positive staphylococcus isolates were identified from various clinical specimens from 600 patients at the AI-Zahra university hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Results. Betalactamase production assays using rapid acidometric and iodometric tests showed that 78.9 percent and 73.6 percent of isolates were positive, respectively. The differnce in determination rate between acidometric and iodometric tests was not statistically significant. Moreover the acidometric test was cheaper and more easy to perform than iodometric test. In vitro sensitivity testing using the disc diffusion method showed that all of isolates were resistant to carbenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin, while 7.9 percent and 13.2 percent were resistant to cefazolin and cephalexin, respectively. Discussion. We recommend use of cefazolin, cephalexin and oxacillin for treatment of patients with staphylococcus infections.

  19. Off-label abuse of antibiotics by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V K

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance made news on several fronts in the past year. Many public health organizations, including the CDC, used terms such as "crisis", "catastrophic consequences", and "nightmare scenario" to highlight the rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. A report from the Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, on the fifth anniversary of the publication of its landmark 2008 report, noted that state and federal legislative efforts to limit non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal production were thwarted by drug and food animal industries. In its lobbying disclosures, the Farm Bureau stated that such efforts to limit use of animal antibiotics were "based on emotion and no credible peer reviewed science." Meanwhile, there have been inexorable advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which antibiotics induce diversity and resistance in bacteria. This article reviews one study that probed the role of the bacterial general stress response in sub-inhibitory antibiotic-induced mutagenesis and antibiotic resistance. PMID:24637595

  20. Antibiotics in otorhinolaryngology practice

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    Stefan-Mikić Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study investigated utilization of antibacterial agents at the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman and at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, in the period February - March 2001. Material and methods All antibacterial agents were classified as group J, regarding Anatomic-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification. Data on drug utilization were presented in Defined Daily Doses (DDD. Patients who were under observation were all treated with antibiotics. Results In regard to prescribed treatment in the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, most outpatients were treated with macrolide antibiotics - in 26.21%; combination of penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitors in 20.83% and pyranosides in 16.12%. At the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, macrolides and lincosamines were most frequently used - in 20.46%; cephalosporins in 19.87% and penicillins susceptible to beta-lactamase in 18.85%. It is extremely positive and in agreement with current pharmacotherapeutic principles that in both institutions peroral ampicillins have not been prescribed. Aminoglycosides have been prescribed in less than 1% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, whereas they were much more frequently prescribed at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad - in 11.25%. Although there is a positive postantibiotic effect in regard to these antibiotics and it is recommended to use them once a day, in both examined institutions aminoglycosides were given twice a day. In regard to bacterial identification it was done in 80.76% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, while in the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center

  1. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  2. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

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    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  3. The use of antibiotics in hospitalized adult typhoid patients in an Indonesian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggita Bunga Anggraini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Demam tifoid menduduki peringkat ke tiga dari 10 besar penyakit terbanyak pada pasien rawat inap di rumah sakit (RS di Indonesia pada tahun 2010. Selain itu terdapat peningkatan resistensi dan kasus-kasus karier, dan relaps. Penelitian ini menyajikan hasil analisis data tentang penggunaan antibiotik pada pasien tifoid dewasa rawat inap di suatu RS di Indonesia. Metode: Data penelitian diekstrak dari rekam medik pasien tifoid dewasa yang dirawat inap di RS PMI Bogor periode Juli-Desember 2012. Analisis dilakukan dengan kualitatif (DU90% dan kuantitatif (DDD/shr dengan menggunakan metode ATC/DDD. Hasil: Dari 459 pasien tifoid dewasa rawat inap diperoleh DDD/shr pasien tifoid dewasa rawat inap yang menggunakan antibiotik selama dari Juli sampai Desember 2012 sebesar 6,35 DDD/shr. Seftriakson merupakan antibiotika yang dipakai tertinggi yang setara 4,10 DDD/shr, yang berarti bahwa di antara 100 pasien tifoid, 4 pasien memakai seftriakson 2 g setiap hari. Selanjutnya, obat pada segmen 10% lebih banyak dibandingkan pada segmen 90%. Di antara 26 jenis antibiotika, 7 jenis di antaranya termasuk pada segmen DU 90% yaitu seftriakson (64,54%; levofloksasin (13,90%; ciprofloksasin (3,57%; meropenem (2,80%; metronidazol (2,52%; ampisilin-sulbaktam (1,65%; dan sefditoren pivoksil (1,60%.Kesimpulan:Antibiotik seftriakson yang paling banyak digunakan pada perawatan tifoid pasien dewasa rawat inap di rumah sakit. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:40-3Kata kunci:antibiotik, tifoid, ATC/DDD, DU 90%AbstractBackground: Typhoid fever was the third ranked disease among the top 10 diseases in hospitalized patients in Indonesia in 2011. There were increased drug resistance, increased number of carrier, and number of relapse cases. This study aimed to analyze the use of antibiotics in hospitalized adult typhoid patients in a hospital in Indonesia. Methods: The data were extracted from medical records of drug use in adult typhoid patients hospitalized

  4. Therapeutic use of stem cells for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiella, Whitney; Atoui, Rony

    2016-12-01

    Stem cell treatments are a desirable therapeutic option to regenerate myocardium and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. Several different types of cells have been explored, each with their own benefits and limitations. Induced pluripotent stem cells possess an embryonic-like state and therefore have a high proliferative capacity, but they also pose a risk of teratoma formation. Mesenchymal stem cells have been investigated from both bone marrow and adipose tissue. Their immunomodulatory characteristics may permit the use of allogeneic cells as universal donor cells in the future. Lastly, studies have consistently shown that cardiac stem cells are better able to express markers of cardiogenesis compared to other cell types, as well improve cardiac function. The ideal source of stem cells depends on multiple factors such as the ease of extraction/isolation, effectiveness of engraftment, ability to differentiate into cardiac lineages and effect on cardiac function. Although multiple studies highlight the benefits and limitations of each cell type and reinforce the successful potential use of these cells to regenerate damaged myocardium, more studies are needed to directly compare cells from various sources. It is interesting to note that research using stem cell therapies is also expanding to treat other cardiovascular diseases including non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. PMID:27539581

  5. Comparative analysis of antibiotic residue in milk using enzyme and microbiological methods

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    Petrović Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residue can have a harmful effect on human health and can disrupt the processing of milk and milk products. In order to prevent these unwanted effects of residue, different screening methods are used today. The basic goal of this paper is to compare screening methods performed during the testing of milk from different points of the production chain. In this paper we have comparatively analyzed three screening methods: microbiological methods - the Delvo SP test and the diffusion method with B. stearothermophilus as the test microorganism, and an enzyme method - the Penzym S test. Twenty samples of farm milk from collective tanks were analyzed, as well as 20 samples of milk from transport cisterns, 10 samples of pasteurized milk and 10 samples of sterilized market milk. Based on the comparative analysis of the diffusion method, Delvo SP test and Panzym S test, we conclude that all three methods are in hgih mutual accordance (the kappa value oscillates from nearly ideal to ideal coinciding and thus meet one of the criteria for being included in the systematic control of milk for the presence of antibiotic residue.

  6. Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns and Molecular Typing of Shigella sonnei Strains Using ERIC-PCR.

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    Reza Ranjbar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigella sonnei is considered as a major cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries. Iran is one of the endemic areas of shigellosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility and genetic relatedness of S. sonnei strains isolated from pediatric patients in Tehran, Iran.The study included all S. sonnei strains isolated from pediatric patients with diarrhea admitted to several hospitals in Tehran, Iran, during 2008-2010. Shigella spp. strains were recovered from patients using standard microbiological methods. S. sonnei strains were further studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC - PCR analysis.Eighty nine Shigella isolates were isolated. S. sonnei was themost prevalent Shigella species (60.7% followed by, S. flexneri (31.5%. Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns (R1-R11 were identified among S. sonnei isolates. The majority of the strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftizoxime and chloramphenicol. All strains were typable by ERIC-PCR. Five ERIC-PCR patterns (E1-E5 were found among S. sonnei isolates; however the half of the isolates was clustered in E4 pattern.The antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among S. sonnei strains. Moreover, a predominant clone or limited clones of S. sonnei were responsible for shigellosis caused by this Shigella species in pediatric patients in Tehran, Iran.

  7. Descriptive Study on Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Antibiotic Use and Misuse in Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Cyprus

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    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents’ and pediatricians’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians. Demographic factors associated with antibiotic misuse were identified by backward logistic regression analysis. The parental overall response rate was 69.3%. Parents (N = 1,462 follow pediatricians advice and rarely administer antibiotics acquired over the counter. Although a third expects an antibiotic prescription for URTI symptoms, most deny pressuring their doctors. Low parental education was the most important independent risk factor positively related to antibiotic misuse (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 2.02 to 4.12, p < 0.001. Pediatricians (N = 33 denied prescribing antibiotics after parental pressure but admit that parents ask for antibiotics and believe they expect antibiotic prescriptions even when not needed. In conclusion, Cypriotic parents trust their primary care providers. Although it appears that antibiotic misuse is not driven by parental pressure, the pediatricians’ view differs.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A.Mehr-Movahed; J. Nikkhah

    1987-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  9. Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on the intestinal homeostasis in a computer controlled model of the large intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehman, A.; Heinsen, F.A.; Koenen, M.E.; Venema, K.; Knecht, H.; Hellmig, S.; Schreiber, S.; Ott, S.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly u

  10. Therapeutic Use of MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer

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    Orazio Fortunato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Although the molecular pathways of lung cancer have been partly known, the high mortality rate is not markedly changed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that actively modulate cell physiological processes as apoptosis, cell-cycle control, cell proliferation, DNA repair, and metabolism. Several studies demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of lung diseases including lung cancer and they negatively regulate gene and protein expression by acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs and their target genes in lung tumorigenesis and evaluate their potential use as therapeutic agents in lung cancer. In particular, we describe methodological approaches such as inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs or replacement of tumor suppressor miRNAs, both in in vitro and in vivo assays. Furthermore we discuss new strategies to achieve in vivo tissue specific delivery, potential off-target effects, and safety of miRNAs systemic delivery.

  11. Therapeutic uses of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sujin; Tanaka, Toshio; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine-targeted therapy has generated a paradigm shift in the treatment of several immune-mediated diseases. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was initially identified as B-cell stimulatory factor 2, is a prototypical cytokine with wide-ranging biological effects on immune cells such as B and T cells, on hepatocytes, hematopoietic cells, vascular endothelial cells and on many others. IL-6 is thus crucially involved in the regulation of immune responses, hematopoiesis and inflammation. When infections and tissue injuries occur, IL-6 is promptly synthesized and performs a protective role in host defense against such stresses and traumas. However, excessive production of IL-6 during this emergent process induces potentially fatal complications, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and dysregulated, persistently high expression of IL-6 causes the onset or development of various chronic immune-mediated disorders. For these reasons, IL-6 blockade was expected to become a novel therapeutic strategy for various diseases characterized by IL-6 overproduction. Indeed, worldwide clinical trials of tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, have successfully proved its outstanding efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Castleman disease, leading to the approval of tocilizumab for the treatment of these diseases. Moreover, various reports regarding off-label use of tocilizumab strongly suggest that it will be widely applicable for acute, severe complications such as SIRS and cytokine-release syndrome and other refractory chronic immune-mediated diseases. PMID:25142313

  12. Antibiotics and probiotics in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Gionchetti; Fernando Rizzello; Karen M Lammers; Claudia Morselli; Lucia Sollazzi; Samuel Davies; Rosy Tambasco; Carlo Calabrese; Massimo Campieri

    2006-01-01

    Many experimental and clinical observations suggest that intestinal microflora plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Manipulation of the luminal content using antibiotics or probiotics represents a potentially effective therapeutic option. The available studies do not support the use of antibiotics in ulcerative colitis (UC). Antibiotics are effective in treating septic complications of Crohn's disease (CD) but their use as a primary therapy is more controversial, although this approach is frequently and successfully adopted in clinical practice.There is evidence that probiotic therapy may be effective in the prevention and treatment of mild to moderate UC. In contrast, a lack of successful study data at present precludes the widespread use of probiotics in the treatment of CD.Both antibiotics and probiotics appear to play a beneficial role in the treatment and prevention of pouchitis and further trials are warranted to fully quantify their clinical efficacy.

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

    2013-02-01

    Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

  14. The Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use of Apomorphine

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    Samo Ribarič

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Apomorphine (APO is an aporphine derivative used in human and veterinary medicine. APO activates D1, D2S, D2L, D3, D4, and D5 receptors (and is thus classified as a non-selective dopamine agonist, serotonin receptors (5HT1A, 5HT2A, 5HT2B, and 5HT2C, and α-adrenergic receptors (α1B, α1D, α2A, α2B, and α2C. In veterinary medicine, APO is used to induce vomiting in dogs, an important early treatment for some common orally ingested poisons (e.g., anti-freeze or insecticides. In human medicine, it has been used in a variety of treatments ranging from the treatment of addiction (i.e., to heroin, alcohol or cigarettes, for treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in females to the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Currently, APO is used in patients with advanced PD, for the treatment of persistent and disabling motor fluctuations which do not respond to levodopa or other dopamine agonists, either on its own or in combination with deep brain stimulation. Recently, a new and potentially important therapeutic role for APO in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease has been suggested; APO seems to stimulate Ab catabolism in an animal model and cell culture, thus reducing the rate of Ab oligomerisation and consequent neural cell death.

  15. Short communication: Drug residues in goat milk after prophylactic use of antibiotics in intravaginal sponges for estrus synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, T; Balado, J; Althaus, R L; Beltrán, M C; Molina, M P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the prophylactic use of antibiotics in intravaginal sponges used for estrus synchronization in goats may result in the presence of inhibitors in milk and, therefore, of positive results by microbial screening tests. Ninety-eight Murciano-Granadina goats were used, divided into 7 groups of 14 animals. Intravaginal sponges were placed in 6 groups using 2 concentrations of 3 different antibiotics: doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfathiazole-framycetin. The sponges of the control group were placed without antibiotics. Milk samples were collected daily until 7 d posttreatment and analyzed using 3 microbial tests. Positive samples were retested by specific receptor-binding assays to confirm the positive results. Vaginal status was evaluated by visual assessment of the external aspect of the sponges after removal. The microbial test response was not affected by either day posttreatment or dose of antibiotic used, except for oxytetracycline at the higher concentration. Moreover, no positive results were obtained using receptor-binding assays, suggesting that residues, if present in milk, did not exceed the regulatory (safety) levels established for these drugs. The occurrence of soiled sponges was higher in the control group. With respect to the dose of antibiotics used, no significant differences were found for the lower dose administered. However, a significant increase in the percentage of clean sponges was observed for the higher dose of doxycycline. We conclude that the prophylactic use of low doses of doxycycline, oxytetracycline, or sulfathiazole in intravaginal sponges used for synchronization of estrus helps to reduce clinical vaginitis in dairy goats and does not seem to be the cause of positive results in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in goat milk. PMID:26585470

  16. Tailored Antibiotic Combination Powders for Inhaled Rotational Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Ng, Wai Kiong; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Reginald B H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory lung infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs are on a global upsurge and have very grim clinical outcomes. Their MDR profile makes therapeutic options extremely limited. Although a highly toxic antibiotic, colistin, is favored today as a "last-line" therapeutic against these hard-to-treat MDR pathogens, it is fast losing its effectiveness. This work therefore seeks to identify and tailor-make useful combination regimens (that are potentially rotatable and synergistic) as attractive alternative strategies to address the rising rates of drug resistance. Three potentially rotatable ternary dry powder inhaler constructs (each involving colistin and 2 other different-classed antibiotics chosen from rifampicin, meropenem, and tigecycline) were identified (with distinct complementary killing mechanisms), coformulated via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance using a Next-Generation Impactor and tested for their efficacies against a number of MDR pathogens. The powder particles were of respirable size (d50, 3.1 ± 0.3 μm-3.4 ± 0.1 μm) and predominantly crumpled in morphology. When dispersed via a model dry powder inhaler (Aerolizer(®)) at 60 L/min, the powders showed concomitant in vitro deposition with fine particle fractions of ∼53%-70%. All formulations were successfully tested in the laboratory to be highly effective against the MDR pathogens. In addition, a favorable synergistic interaction was detected across all 3 formulations when tested against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27019964

  17. An Invitation to between-Session Change: The Use of Therapeutic Letters in Couples and Family Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Nelson, Jill R.; Desmond, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic letters (i.e., brief therapeutic messages that are sent to clients between counseling sessions) have been used since the days of Freud and have been shown to have beneficial therapeutic impacts. This article describes the use of therapeutic letters in couples and family counseling. The use of three types of therapeutic letter (letters…

  18. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  19. Using Enzymes to Improve Antibiotic Effectiveness on "Staphylococcus Epidermidis" Biofilm Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candal, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of five different enzymes as treatments against Staphylococcus biofilm growth was measured in the presence of antibiotics and alone. Protease was the least effective enzyme in biofilm removal with all antibiotics, and pectinase was the most effective with dicloxacillin and clindamycin. Also, dicloxacillin was the most effective…

  20. Improvement of production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using fish protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohora, Umme Salma; Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur; Khan, Abdul Wahab; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    To enhance the production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A, nutrient contents of the culture mediums were investigated in both submerged and biofilm fermentations. As a carbon source maltose and as nitrogen source, fish protein was used. In submerged fermentation maltose uptake was found lower (12%) compared to biofilm fermentation (15%) that was associated with higher cellular growth in biofilm. However, requirement of nitrogen (fish protein) concentration was found similar in both submerged and biofilm fermentations. Production of iturin A in submerged fermentation with 12% maltose and 5% fish protein was 4450 mg/L, and in biofilm fermentation it was 5050 mg/L when 15% maltose and 5% fish protein was used. PMID:25078830

  1. New Approaches to Antibiotic Use and Review of Recently Approved Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew W; Jain, Rupali; Spach, David H

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug-resistance continues to force adaptation in our clinical practice. We explore new evidence regarding adjunctive antibiotic therapy for skin and soft tissue abscesses as well as duration of therapy for intra-abdominal abscesses. As new evidence refines optimal practice, it is essential to support clinicians in adopting practice patterns concordant with evidence-based guidelines. We review a simple approach that can 'nudge' clinicians towards concordant practices. Finally, the use of novel antimicrobials will play an increasingly important role in contemporary therapy. We review five new antimicrobials recently FDA-approved for use in drug-resistant infections: dalbavancin, oritavancin, ceftaroline, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. PMID:27235621

  2. The use of anthrax and orthopox therapeutic antibodies from human origin in biodefense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is impossible to protect whole nations from the effects of bioterrorism by preventive vaccination; there are too many possible agents, costs would be exorbitantly high, and the health risks associated with complex mass vaccination programs would be unacceptable. Adequate protection, however, could be provided via a combination of rapid detection and diagnosis and the treatment of those exposed with drugs which would be beneficial in all stages of disease. Monoclonal antibodies, preferably from human origin to prevent severe complications, which neutralize or block the pathological effects of biological agents, are the optimal candidates to be deployed in case of biological warfare or a bioterrorist event. The human body is one of the better and most suitably equipped places for the generation of monoclonal antibodies which are to be used effectively in humans for treatment. Such antibodies will be of optimal physiological specificity, affinity, and pharmacological properties. In addition, the chances on severe adverse effects and cross-reactivity with human tissues will be slim. Therefore the human immune response is used by the Dutch company IQ Therapeutics, a spin-off of the Groningen University, as a basis for selecting the antibodies. People, immunised against or infected with the agent in question, donate blood cells voluntarily, which are used to generate fully human monoclonal antibodies. In this way effective therapeutics against the protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) toxin components of Bacillus anthracis are developed and currently antibodies against orthopox viruses are generated as well from donors, which have been immunized with vaccinia. Other projects are the development of therapeutic antibodies for MRSA (antibiotics resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Enterococcus spp. Both human antibodies against the anthrax toxin components are efficacious in vitro and in pre- and post-exposure settings in mice and rabbits. The anti-LF antibody

  3. Cuban experience with the therapeutic use of adult stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic and clinical researches carried out during past years on the stem cells and its therapeutic possibilities are at present times, one of the most interesting subjects of the contemporaneous medicine. There are advances in the study and application of adult stem cells showing remarkable advantages on the embryonic ones, since its handling is more simple, economic and they are obtained from the own subject to be treated. For the introduction in Cuba of the regenerative cellular therapy in the Institute of Hematology and Immunology the cellular sources selected were the adult stem cells derived from bone marrow and the mobilized ones to the peripheral blood. To make easy the expansion of treatment to other hospital centers, authors standardized a technique for the mobilization of the hematopoietic stem cells to peripheral blood using a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Filgrastim, of national production) developing a simple, economic and more tolerable method for patients. In this way, the cellular therapy has been expanded to 6 Cuban provinces and until April, 2009 562 cases with autologous adult stem cells transplant have been treated, from which the 81.7% to correspond to patients presenting with Angiology diseases with a significant reduction of major amputations. Also, the results have been very promising in the bone lesions and periodontal processes among other diseases treated. The results obtained until now may be considered as a new achievement of revolutionary science and of our national health systems and of science and technique. The method used is an economic and feasible procedure for the institutions with scarce resources

  4. Radiation dosimetry in developing a radioactive stent for therapeutic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Jang Hee; Chung, Wee Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Research Goal: A new radioation therapy protocol of the esophageal carcinoma has been proposed. A metal stent coated with beta-emitting radioisotope would be inserted into the lesion of malignant esophageal obstruction and irradiate it. In this study, dose to the esophageal wall is estimated to suggest the selection of radioisotope, total activity, and the activity distribution pattern over the stent. Result: Dose distribution of the esophageal wall is determined by the energy spectrum of beta particles emitted from the radioisotope used in the stent activation. The endpoint energy of the beta spectrum corresponds to a range in liquid water, which determines the depth into the esophageal wall where the dose is significant. With a stent of constant areal activity density, dose to the esophageal wall increases with an increasing stent height until reaching a saturation value. Dose is maximum at the esophageal wall surface. The degree of dose decreasing as the target moves into the esophageal wall varies among different radioisotopes. However, dose decreases by similar degree among different radioisotopes as the target moves from the stent central height toward the stent end. For a stent of 2 cm in diameter, more than 4 cm in heigh, and 10 {mu}Ci/cm{sup 2} in activity, dose at the esophageal wall surface and at the stent central height is {approx}70 Gy, {approx}60 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}25 Gy, and {approx}15 Gy for {sup 90}Y, {sup 188}Re, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 32}P, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 192}Ir, respectively. Applications: Dose estimates provided in this study and the experimental results from the researchers at Yonsei University, who applied the radioactive stent to animals, will be used to analyze the relationship between the stent design and the corresponding therapeutic effect. This helps utilizing the new protocol of treating the esophageal carcinoma. 37 refs., 18 tabs., 27 figs. (author)

  5. Screening currency notes for microbial pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes using a shotgun metagenomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakshi Jalali

    Full Text Available Fomites are a well-known source of microbial infections and previous studies have provided insights into the sojourning microbiome of fomites from various sources. Paper currency notes are one of the most commonly exchanged objects and its potential to transmit pathogenic organisms has been well recognized. Approaches to identify the microbiome associated with paper currency notes have been largely limited to culture dependent approaches. Subsequent studies portrayed the use of 16S ribosomal RNA based approaches which provided insights into the taxonomical distribution of the microbiome. However, recent techniques including shotgun sequencing provides resolution at gene level and enable estimation of their copy numbers in the metagenome. We investigated the microbiome of Indian paper currency notes using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Metagenomic DNA isolated from samples of frequently circulated denominations of Indian currency notes were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencer. Analysis of the data revealed presence of species belonging to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genera. The taxonomic distribution at kingdom level revealed contigs mapping to eukaryota (70%, bacteria (9%, viruses and archae (~1%. We identified 78 pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Enterococcus faecalis, and 75 cellulose degrading organisms including Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Cellulomonas flavigena and Ruminococcus albus. Additionally, 78 antibiotic resistance genes were identified and 18 of these were found in all the samples. Furthermore, six out of 78 pathogens harbored at least one of the 18 common antibiotic resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of shotgun metagenome sequence dataset of paper currency notes, which can be useful for future applications including as bio-surveillance of exchangeable fomites for infectious agents.

  6. Increasing use of antibiotics in pregnancy during the period 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, A; Pottegård, A; Lamont, Ronald Francis;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the use of antibiotics in a national population-based cohort of pregnant Danish women between 2000 and 2010. DESIGN: Register-based, population-wide, cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, from 2000 to 2010. POPULATION: All pregnancies among Danish....... This proportion increased from 28.4% in 2000 to 37.0% in 2010 among deliveries. The biggest change was seen for pivmecillinam, which increased among deliveries from 6.3% in 2000 to 19.5% in 2010. Obese (odds ratio 1.51; 95% CI 1.47-1.56), young (odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI 1.30-1.39), and low...

  7. The future of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to spread even as society is experiencing a market failure of new antibiotic research and development (R&D). Scientific, economic, and regulatory barriers all contribute to the antibiotic market failure. Scientific solutions to rekindle R&D include finding new screening strategies to identify novel antibiotic scaffolds and transforming the way we think about treating infections, such that the goal is to disarm the pathogen without killing it or modulate the host response to the organism without targeting the organism for destruction. Future economic strategies are likely to focus on 'push' incentives offered by public-private partnerships as well as increasing pricing by focusing development on areas of high unmet need. Such strategies can also help protect new antibiotics from overuse after marketing. Regulatory reform is needed to re-establish feasible and meaningful traditional antibiotic pathways, to create novel limited-use pathways that focus on highly resistant infections, and to harmonize regulatory standards across nations. We need new antibiotics with which to treat our patients. But we also need to protect those new antibiotics from misuse when they become available. If we want to break the cycle of resistance and change the current landscape, disruptive approaches that challenge long-standing dogma will be needed. PMID:25043962

  8. Use of web services for computerized medical decision support, including infection control and antibiotic management, in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurbaut, Kristof; Van Hoecke, Sofie; Colpaert, Kirsten; Lamont, Kristof; Taveirne, Kristof; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominique; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU) requires complex software services, to reduce improper use of antibiotics and inappropriate therapies, and to offer earlier and more accurate detection of infections and antibiotic resistance. We investigated whether web-based software can facilitate the computerization of complex medical processes in the ICU. The COSARA application contains the following modules: Infection overview, Thorax, Microbiology, Antibiotic therapy overview, Admission cause with comorbidity and admission diagnosis, Infection linking and registration, and Feedback. After the implementation and test phase, the COSARA software was installed on a physician's office PC and then on the bedside PCs of the patients. Initial evaluation indicated that the services had been integrated easily into the daily clinical workflow of the medical staff. The use of a service oriented architecture with web service technology for the development of advanced decision support in the ICU offers several advantages over classical software design approaches. PMID:20086264

  9. Monitoring the Use of Antibiotics by the ATC/DDD Method and DU 90%: Observational Studies in Community Health Service Centers in North Gorontalo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarini Pani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrational use of antibiotics may lead to increase morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of antibiotics was required to support government programs, especially The Department of Health stating the use of antibiotics for non-respiratory diseases pneumonia was less than 20%. The evaluation of antibiotics use in this research applied ATC / DDD methods and DU 90%. The antibiotic used for non-pneumonia ARI were 9 types and the antibiotics contained DU 90% were three types namely amoxicillin 500 mg (2,723 DDD/1000 patients-year, ciprofloxacin (0,378 DDD/1000 patients-day and cefadroxil (0,202 DDD/1000 patients-day. Quantitative data analysis using the ATC / DDD indicated that the most used antibiotic was amoxicillin (500 mg 2723 DDD / 1000 patients-day and the least was amoxicillin (125 mg / 5 ml 1.5 DDD / 1000 patients-day. The effects of short-term use of antibiotic prescribing in primary medical care could increase the resistance. Qualitative studies were needed to determine the pattern of irrational antibiotic use in community health service center and to develop the intervention model.

  10. Antibiotic-associated colitis: an in vitro investigation of the effects of antibiotics on intestinal motility.

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, G. M.; Percy, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    1 Nine antibiotic compounds in common use were studied to determine their ability to affect intestinal motility in vitro, in the guinea-pig ileum and rabbit colon. 2 Ampicillin, doxycycline, mecillinam and metronidazole were without effect over a concentration range which included typical serum levels found when these drugs are used therapeutically. 3 Clindamycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, pivmecillinam and trimethoprim were all found to inhibit evoked and reflex responses of the guinea-pig ileu...

  11. Bone grafting and one-stage revision of THR - biological reconstruction and effective antimicrobial treatment using antibiotic impregnated allograft bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Infection of a total hip replacement (THR) is considered one of the most serious complications in orthopaedic surgery. Problems derive from the presence of biofilms with inherent resistance to usual antibiotic treatment and bone defects resulting from infection induced osteolysis. Discussions on the choice of treatment mainly focus on the chance of eradicating the infection in either one or more stages. The advantages of only one operation with regard to patients' satisfaction, functional results and economical burden are evident. However, the fear of re-infection usually leads surgeons to multiple stage procedures, mostly using antibiotic loaded spacers in the interval. Spacers have no effect on biofilms and are associated with a high rate of complications such as breakage or dislocation. Cemented revisions show several disadvantages like reduction of biomechanical properties through added antibiotics, inferior long term results, difficulties of removal in case of recurrence etc. Uncemented implants appear more advantageous but are at risk of becoming colonised by remaining biofilm fragments. To overcome this risk higher local concentrations of antibiotics are needed. Allograft bone may be impregnated with high loads of antibiotics using special incubation techniques, resulting in an antibiotic bone compound (ABC). ABC provides local concentrations exceeding those of cement by more than a 100-fold and efficient release is prolonged for several weeks. At the same time it is likely to restore bone stock, which is usually compromised after removal of an infected endoprosthesis. Based on these considerations new protocols for one-stage exchange of infected THR have been established. Bone voids may be filled with ABC, uncemented implants may be fixed in original healthy bone. Recent studies indicate an overall success rate of more than 90% with one operation, without any adverse side effects. Incorporation of allografts appears as after grafting with unimpregnated bone

  12. College Students, Shared Decision Making, and the Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyer, Kristina; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines shared decision making to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics for college students with respiratory tract infections. Participants/Methods: CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, EBSCO, and PsycNET were searched in October 2014 using the following criteria: English language, human subjects, peer-reviewed, shared…

  13. "The Bug Investigators": Assessment of a School Teaching Resource to Improve Hygiene and Prudent Use of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A. M.; Bowen, Jo; Gelb, David; Charlett, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the "Bug Investigators" pack in improving children's knowledge about micro-organisms, hygiene and antibiotics when it is used within the National Curriculum in junior schools. Design/methodology/approach: Teaching, using the "Bug Investigators" pack, was given by Gloucestershire…

  14. Remission of refractory pyoderma gangrenosum, severe acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome using targeted antibiotic therapy in 4 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join-Lambert, Olivier; Duchatelet, Sabine; Delage, Maïa; Miskinyte, Snaigune; Coignard, Hélène; Lemarchand, Nicolas; Alemy-Carreau, Murielle; Lortholary, Olivier; Nassif, Xavier; Hovnanian, Alain; Nassif, Aude

    2015-11-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum, severe acne, and suppurative hidradenitis (PASH) syndrome can prove refractory to treatment and is characterized by relapses and recurrences. The combination of antibiotic therapy and surgery can produce success in the management of the syndrome. Acute treatment is required, but maintenance therapy is also necessary to prevent disease relapse. The response to antibiotic therapy is hypothesis generating, raising the issue of a modified host response. To date, anecdotal reports support the use of surgery and medical therapy, but controlled investigations with extended follow-up are necessary to substantiate preliminary data observed with individual cases. PMID:26470620

  15. Forgotten antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulcini, Céline; Bush, Karen; Craig, William A;

    2012-01-01

    disease specialists in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. An international expert panel selected systemic antibacterial drugs for their potential to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria or their unique value for specific criteria. Twenty-two of the 33 selected antibiotics were...... available in fewer than 20 of 38 countries. Economic motives were the major cause for discontinuation of marketing of these antibiotics. Fourteen of 33 antibiotics are potentially active against either resistant Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Urgent measures are then needed to ensure better...

  16. Therapeutic methods used in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnarska, Olga; Plaskota, Karolina

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Eisenmenger syndrome form a small percentage of congenital heart disease patients. The rarity of this syndrome, combined with its complex pathophysiology, account for the insufficient understanding of the principles underlying its proper treatment. The main clinical symptoms are: cyanosis due to secondary erythrocytosis, resulting in increased blood viscosity, iron deficiency anemia (enhanced by unnecessary phlebotomies), blood clotting disturbances, heart failure and serious supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Recent decades have seen developments in pulmonary hypertension pathophysiology which have led to the introduction of new groups of drugs: prostacycline analogs (Epoprostenol, Treprostinil, Beraprost, Illoprost), phosphodiesterase inhibitors (Sildenafil, Tadalafil), endothelin receptor antagonists (Bosentan, Sitaxantan, Ambrisentan) and nitric oxide. These drugs should be administered to patients in III-IV NYHA class. Despite successful early results, the therapeutic effect on patients with Eisenmenger syndrome has not been conclusively established. Our therapeutic efforts should be directed mainly towards preventing complications. As a rule, we should avoid agents with no established therapeutic efficacy and try to alleviate symptoms without any additional risk, so as not to disrupt the existing clinical balance. PMID:19950085

  17. Combining physical and virtual contexts through augmented reality: design and evaluation of a prototype using a drug box as a marker for antibiotic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifakos, Sokratis; Tomson, Tanja; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue. Studies have shown that improved antibiotic prescription education among healthcare professionals reduces mistakes during the antibiotic prescription process. The aim of this study was to investigate novel educational approaches that through the use of Augmented Reality technology could make use of the real physical context and thereby enrich the educational process of antibiotics prescription. The objective is to investigate which type of information related to antibiotics could be used in an augmented reality application for antibiotics education. Methods. This study followed the Design-Based Research Methodology composed of the following main steps: problem analysis, investigation of information that should be visualized for the training session, and finally the involvement of the end users the development and evaluation processes of the prototype. Results. Two of the most important aspects in the antibiotic prescription process, to represent in an augmented reality application, are the antibiotic guidelines and the side effects. Moreover, this study showed how this information could be visualized from a mobile device using an Augmented Reality scanner and antibiotic drug boxes as markers. Discussion. In this study we investigated the usage of objects from a real physical context such as drug boxes and how they could be used as educational resources. The logical next steps are to examine how this approach of combining physical and virtual contexts through Augmented Reality applications could contribute to the improvement of competencies among healthcare professionals and its impact on the decrease of antibiotics resistance. PMID:25548733

  18. Combining physical and virtual contexts through augmented reality: design and evaluation of a prototype using a drug box as a marker for antibiotic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokratis Nifakos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue. Studies have shown that improved antibiotic prescription education among healthcare professionals reduces mistakes during the antibiotic prescription process. The aim of this study was to investigate novel educational approaches that through the use of Augmented Reality technology could make use of the real physical context and thereby enrich the educational process of antibiotics prescription. The objective is to investigate which type of information related to antibiotics could be used in an augmented reality application for antibiotics education. Methods. This study followed the Design-Based Research Methodology composed of the following main steps: problem analysis, investigation of information that should be visualized for the training session, and finally the involvement of the end users the development and evaluation processes of the prototype. Results. Two of the most important aspects in the antibiotic prescription process, to represent in an augmented reality application, are the antibiotic guidelines and the side effects. Moreover, this study showed how this information could be visualized from a mobile device using an Augmented Reality scanner and antibiotic drug boxes as markers. Discussion. In this study we investigated the usage of objects from a real physical context such as drug boxes and how they could be used as educational resources. The logical next steps are to examine how this approach of combining physical and virtual contexts through Augmented Reality applications could contribute to the improvement of competencies among healthcare professionals and its impact on the decrease of antibiotics resistance.

  19. High variability in the dosing of commonly used antibiotics revealed by a Europe-wide point prevalence study: implications for research and dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Metsvaht, Tuuli; Nellis, Georgi; Varendi, Heili; Nunn, Anthony J.; Graham, Susan; Rieutord, Andre; Storme, Thomas; McElnay, James; Mulla, Hussain; Turner, Mark A; Lutsar, Irja

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic dosing in neonates varies between countries and centres, suggesting suboptimal exposures for some neonates. We aimed to describe variations and factors influencing the variability in the dosing of frequently used antibiotics in European NICUs to help define strategies for improvement. Methods A sub-analysis of the European Study of Neonatal Exposure to Excipients point prevalence study was undertaken. Demographic data of neonates receiving any antibiotic on the study day...

  20. Antibiotic prescriptions and cycles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in Norway: can a nationwide prescription register be used for surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, H S; Vestrheim, D F; Hjellvik, V; Skaare, D; Christensen, A; Steinbakk, M

    2015-07-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreaks cause increased use of macrolides and tetracyclines. We aimed to investigate whether drug use data, in addition to laboratory data, could improve understanding of the spread of M. pneumoniae epidemics. Number of users of Mycoplasma antibiotics (erythromycin, doxycycline, clarithromycin) per week and county of residence in an indicator age group (6-12 years) was retrieved from the Norwegian prescription database for the epidemic season 2011-2012 and compared to non-epidemic seasons. In 2011, increased use of Mycoplasma antibiotics was first observed in September on the west coast of Norway. The Norwegian laboratory-based surveillance system showed the first increase in positive tests in August 2011 and an epidemic was announced on 25 October 2011. At that time the use of Mycoplasma antibiotics had already exceeded three times the use in non-epidemic periods. Data for three counties from the regional microbiological laboratories showed that the increase in number of positive samples coincided in time with the increase in prescription data. Laboratory data cannot accurately determine the extent of an epidemic, and drug use data cannot identify the cause. Establishing a systematic interaction between the two monitoring systems will enhance surveillance and probably contribute to improved infection control and prudent antibiotic prescribing. PMID:25388750

  1. Guidelines to rational use of antibiotics in acute upper respiratory tract infections in Chinese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) is the most common disease afflicting Chinese children and ranks first in numbers of outpatients, hospitalization and fatality rate. ARTI is also the most frequent reason that antibiotics are prescribed.

  2. Design of a 2D MRI compatible robot for performing prostate cancer treatment using therapeutic ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Yiallouras, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is a promising treatment method for many common cancers, including prostate cancer. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) guidance of therapeutic ultrasound permits targeting and monitoring of therapy. In this thesis a prototype MRI compatible positioning device for the treatment of prostate cancer using therapeutic ultrasound is presented. The accuracy, MRI compatibility and functionality of the positioning device was evaluated in in vitro experiments (using gel phantoms and ...

  3. [The combined use of specific phages and antibiotics in different infectious allergoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakandelidze, V M

    1991-03-01

    Complex treatment with antibiotics, specific phages and autovaccine was carried out in 1340 patients with different infectious allergoses. These agents proved effective in 48.0-82.5% of cases. It was established that most effective was the complex of specific phages and antibiotics which controlled intoxication while inclusion of autovaccination in the treatment increased the treatment efficiency to 82.5% of cases. PMID:2042352

  4. STUDY ON PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF ANTIBIOTICS USED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VARIOUS INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN ANDRAPRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    M.Preeth; J.Shobana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the pattern of physicians' prescription of antibiotics and its possible effects on infectious diseases as well as physicians' compliance with recommended guidelines. Records of 110 patients (67 males and 43 females) aged 20-89 years (mean: 52.6±14.6) and patients suffering with various Infectious diseases at Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, over a period of 9 months were randomly selected. Information on antibiotics prescriptions was recorded. The patients were distr...

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. Polylactide-polyglycolide antibiotic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kevin; Feschuk, Connie

    2005-08-01

    Surgeons continually struggle to reduce orthopaedic infections, but no current treatment offers minimum side effects with maximum effectiveness. Antibiotics mixed in plaster of paris have been successful in treating large bony defects in patients with chronic osteomyelitis, and have the advantage of being well tolerated and absorbed by the body. Antibiotics impregnated in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have offered local antibiotic delivery with some success. However, the effect of the antibiotic on the bone cement, the inconsistent elution of the antibiotic, and the need to remove the PMMA implant drives the need for a better system of antibiotic delivery. Polymers or copolymers of antibiotic-impregnated polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid or polyparadioxanone may provide an absorbable system for localized antibiotic delivery. Similar biodegradable systems used to treat small bone fractures have been successful with minimal side effects. In vitro studies have shown promising results of antibiotic elution from bioabsorbable microspheres and beads. Animal in vivo tests have shown that antibiotic impregnated polymers can successfully treat induced osteomyelitis in rabbits and dogs. These studies have provided consistent reproducible results, and now it is time to plan human trials to assess the efficacy of antibiotic microspheres implanted in infected bone and to plan in vivo and in vitro animal testing to investigate the feasibility of antibiotic-polymer-coated components. PMID:16056034

  7. Use and misuse of antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzialla, C; Borghesi, A; Perotti, G F; Garofoli, F; Manzoni, P; Stronati, M

    2012-10-01

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and in industrialized countries about 1% of neonates are exposed to antibiotic therapy. Signs and symptoms of sepsis are nonspecific, and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated after obtaining appropriate cultures in order to prevent deleterious consequences. However, many preterm infants who do not have infection receive antimicrobial agents during hospital stay and antibiotic treatment in the setting of negative cultures can have serious adverse effects like: promotion of bacterial antibiotic resistance, alteration of gut colonization, increase risk of Candida colonization and subsequent invasive candidiasis, increase risk of death, necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis. Appropriate choice of antimicrobial agents and optimal duration of therapy in neonates with suspected or culture-proven sepsis is essential in order to prevent serious consequences. Moreover the establishment of an antibiotic stewardship programme in the NICUs is the best way of ensuring neonatal infections remain treatable while efforts are made for the developing of optimal antibiotic prescribing. PMID:22958010

  8. Studies on the purification, characterization and structure of antibiotics from centipede using RI labelled compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Key Seung; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jin Sung; Hong, Sa Weon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The substance which has antibiotic properties was extracted by diethyl ether and purified from a centipede S. subspinipes by the silicic acid and high S column chromatography. This antibiotics named {sup C}entipedin{sup h}as exhibited a significant antibiotic activity against a variety of microorganism, such as Gram{sup +}, Gram{sup -}, fungi etc. In connection with the antibiotic property, it was confirmed that its inhibitory effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was related with the transcriptional level of DNA and RNA polymerase. The centipedin was measured quantitatively by GC methods and molecular weight was confirmed as 162 Da by mass-spec. Also, molecular formular was identified to C{sub 9}O{sub 3}H{sub 6} by the method of UV, IR and NMR. Antibiotics from centipede did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines, such as HL-60 cell and myeloma cell. It was confirmed that centipedin antibiotics was biosynthesized from {sup 14}C-acetate in vivo experiment. 12 refs., 23 figs. (author)

  9. Genetic improvement through selective breeding: Part of an integrated strategy to reduce disease loss and Antibiotic use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout, and outbreaks often require the use of antibiotic treatment. Since antimicrobial resistance is of concern, additional control methods are desirable. Family-based selective breeding offers new opportuniti...

  10. Infectious diseases and the use of antibiotics in outpatients at the emergency department of the University Hospital of Leon, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Engelsen, C.; van der Werf, C.; Matute, A. J.; Delgado, E.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to develop guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents, it is necessary to obtain detailed information on the prevalence of infectious diseases and antibiotic usage. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among outpatients with acute infections visiting the emergency de

  11. The routine use of antibiotics to promote animal growth does little to benefit protein undernutrition in the developing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Braam, P.;

    2005-01-01

    these countries. Poultry and pork production are unlikely to decrease by more than 2%. Average daily protein supply would decrease by no more than 0.1 g per person (or 0.2% of total protein intake). Eliminating the routine use of in-feed antibiotics will improve human and animal health, by reducing the...

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kumpu, Minna; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Vos, De Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life- Threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in p

  13. Maternal use of antibiotics and the risk of childhood febrile seizures: a Danish population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Miller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In a large population-based cohort in Denmark to examine if maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy, as a marker of infection, increases the risk of febrile seizures in childhood in a large population-based cohort in Denmark. METHODS: All live-born singletons born in Denmark between January 1, 1996 and September 25, 2004 and who were alive on the 90(th day of life were identified from the Danish National Birth Registry. Diagnoses of febrile seizures were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register and maternal use of antibiotics was obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: We followed 551,518 singletons for up to 5 years and identified a total of 21,779 children with a diagnosis of febrile seizures. Slightly increased hazard ratios were observed among most exposure groups when compared to the unexposed group, ex. HR 1.08 95% CI: 1.05-1.11 for use of any systemic antibiotic during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: We found weak associations between the use of pharmacologically different antibiotics during pregnancy and febrile seizures in early childhood which may indicate that some infections, or causes or effects of infections, during pregnancy could affect the fetal brain and induce susceptibility to febrile seizures.

  14. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis. PMID:26022411

  15. Occurrence of Antibiotics and Emerging Contaminants in Dairy Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of a variety of emerging contaminants including pathogens, naturally occurring and synthetic steroid hormones, and various pharmaceuticals, particularly antibiotics. For example, more than twenty million pounds of antibiotics are sold for use in animal husbandry with 95% going towards therapeutic use. Here, we focus on the application and potential environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals and disinfectants on dairies. Recommended drug applications are available from national databases. Statistical data on actual usage, however, are not available. We complement national data with interviews and dairy visits for further evaluation of drug and chemical usage (not including pesticides used on crops and fertilizer) and an overall assessment of the potential antibiotics output in dairy waste. We find that aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and coccidiostats make up much of the total mass of antibiotics used. On dairies using the ionophoric antibiotic monensin as feed additive, monensin makes up a large fraction of the total antibiotics use (by mass). Other chemicals of potential concern include disinfectants used to prevent mastitis, detergents used in the milking parlor, footbath reagents to prevent and treat lameness, and insecticides used to control flies and mites.

  16. [GnRH analogs in gynecology. Possibilities for therapeutic use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesert, S

    1990-09-10

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are synthetic peptide analogues of the natural gonadotropin releasing hormone with a stronger and more prolonged effect than the natural GnRH. Repeated administration of GnRH agonists induces pituitary desensitization followed by a decrease in gonadotropin secretion and estradiol synthesis. Thus reversible hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is produced. Consequently, estrogen-dependent diseases can be treated successfully with GnRH analogues. The therapeutic results obtained in patients with endometriosis, leiomyoma, pubertas praecox, and metastatic breast cancer are discussed. Furthermore the contraceptive properties of GnRH analogues, and combination treatment with HMG to induce ovulation is reviewed. PMID:2262188

  17. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  18. Background antibiotic resistance patterns in antibiotic-free pastured poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a significant public health issue, and agroecosystems are often viewed as major environmental sources of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens. While the use of antibiotics in agroecosystems can potentially increase AR, appropriate background resistance levels in th...

  19. Multiclass determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in honey using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mayda I; Pettis, Jeffery S; Smith, I Barton; Chu, Pak-Sin

    2008-03-12

    A multiclass method has been developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lincomycin), aminoglycosides (streptomycin), sulfonamides (sulfathiazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), and fumagillin residues using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Erythromycin (a macrolide) and monensin (an ionophore) can be detected and confirmed but not quantitated. Honey samples (approximately 2 g) are dissolved in 10 mL of water and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant is used to determine streptomycin. The remaining supernatant is filtered through a fine-mesh nylon fabric and cleaned up by solid phase extraction. After solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution, 15 antibiotics are assayed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode. Afterward, chloramphenicol is assayed using ESI in negative ion mode. The method has been validated at the low part per billion levels for most of the drugs with accuracies between 65 and 104% and coefficients of variation less than 17%. The evaluation of matrix effects caused by honey of different floral origin is presented. PMID:18257525

  20. Understanding Antibiotic Use in Minya District, Egypt: Physician and Pharmacist Prescribing and the Factors Influencing Their Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dooling, Kathleen L.; Amr Kandeel; Hicks, Lauri A.; Waleed El-Shoubary; Khaled Fawzi; Yasser Kandeel; Ahmad Etman; Anna Leena Lohiniva; Maha Talaat

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of antibiotics has contributed to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria globally. In Egypt, patients can purchase antibiotics without a prescription, and we hypothesized frequent inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and dispensing. We interviewed physicians (n = 236) and pharmacists (n = 483) and conducted focus groups in Minya, Egypt, to assess attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic prescribing for outpatient acute respiratory infections (ARI). Antibiotics were reporte...

  1. Therapeutic Assessment in Psychological Triage Using the PAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua D; Morey, Leslie C

    2016-01-01

    This case illustrates the utility of incorporating therapeutic assessment in a triage context that typically involves a focus on gathering information. A man referred to our clinic by a local mental health center was seen by our assessment team for a triage that includes the administration of a single psychological test, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Although this triage must rapidly gather information to determine client suitability and treatment assignment, we still attempt to work with clients to collaboratively develop goals for this assessment that include addressing questions that are central concerns for the clients. In this case, the test results suggested a severe disorder that accounted for many phenomena that he had been experiencing but had apparently been reluctant to share. The information gathered led to a referral to a different treatment program that could provide pharmacological and more intensive forms of treatment. However, the collaborative bond formed between the assessor and the client during this triage was sufficiently strong that it was our assessor to whom the client turned in a subsequent crisis precipitated by a symptomatic exacerbation. This case illustrates complementary information gathering and therapeutic goals of assessment even in the context of a brief assessment. PMID:26730992

  2. Removal and degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in water using didodecyldimethylammonium bromide-modified montmorillonite organoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Tohru; Shibayama, Takayoshi

    2016-11-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, nafcillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and oxacilline in water were rapidly removed and degraded by using didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)-montmorillonite (MT) organoclay. Removal of antibiotics increased with increasing the amount of organoclay added and the amount of DDAB sorbed on MT. Extents of organoclay sorption of antibiotics were represented by the binding constants to DDAB molecules and correlated to the aqueous-octanol distribution coefficients. The degradation rate of β-lactam antibiotics was found to significantly increase by the organoclay sorption. Even under the mild conditions (25°C and pH 7), penicillin G (m/z=335) nearly completely (>98%) degraded into penicilloic acid (m/z=353) missing β-lactam ring within 2h. The first-order reaction rate of the primary degradation increased with increasing in temperature. The activation energy estimated from the Arrhenius plot was 49kJmol(-1) and lower than the value (83.5kJmol(-1)) in water, strongly suggesting catalytic activity of DDAB-MT organoclay. The applicability to wastewater treatment was demonstrated by using secondary effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants and synthesized hospital wastewaters. PMID:27339949

  3. Phytocompounds and modulatory effects of Anacardium microcarpum (cajui on antibiotic drugs used in clinical infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa-Filho VM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Valter M Barbosa-Filho,1,2 Emily P Waczuk,2 Nadghia F Leite,3 Irwin RA Menezes,1 José GM da Costa,1 Sírleis R Lacerda,1 Isaac A Adedara,2 Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho,4 Thais Posser,5 Jean P Kamdem2,6 1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica Toxicológica, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; 3Departamento de Química Biológica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, 4Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 5Campus São Gabriel, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil; 6Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básica da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: The challenge of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of new infections have generated considerable interest in the exploration of natural products from plant origins as combination therapy. In this context, crude ethanolic extract (CEE, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, and methanolic fraction (MF from Anacardium microcarpum were tested alone or in combination with antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Antibiotic resistance-modifying activity was performed using the microdilution method by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, phytochemical prospecting analyses of tested samples were carried out. Results: Our results indicated that all the extracts showed low antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains (MIC =512 µg/mL. However, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 µg/mL significantly modulated

  4. August 2014 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: the use of macrolide antibiotics in chronic respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. This month's journal club reviewed the role of macrolide antibiotics in chronic respiratory disease. Macrolide usage was suggested from observational studies in Japan in diffuse panbroncholitis, a disorder associated with chronic respiratory infection, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1. Clinical improvement was noted despite doses of antibiotics well below the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the antibiotic. This suggested the antibiotic was likely working by an anti-inflammatory effect. These observations were extended to cystic fibrosis (CF where prophylactic macrolide therapy in CF patients infected with Pseudomonas has become standard therapy (2. More recently, low dose macrolide therapy has been applied to non-CF lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, bronchiectasis and asthma. Time did not permit a review of all studies so a representative sample was discussed. In patients with COPD, the four randomized, placebo-controlled trials reviewed all suggested that chronic therapy with macrolide antibiotics reduced COPD exacerbations (3-5. This ...

  5. A prospective cohort study of the use of domiciliary intravenous antibiotics in bronchiectasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Pallavi; Sidhu, Manjit K; Donaldson, Lucienne S; Chalmers, James D; Smith, Maeve P; Turnbull, Kim; Pentland, Joanna L; Scott, Jenny; Hill, Adam T

    2014-01-01

    Background: We introduced domiciliary intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy in patients with bronchiectasis to promote patient-centred domiciliary treatment instead of hospital inpatient treatment. Aim: To assess the efficacy and safety of domiciliary IV antibiotic therapy in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Methods: In this prospective study conducted over 5 years, we assessed patients’ eligibility for receiving domiciliary treatment. All patients received 14 days of IV antibiotic therapy and were monitored at baseline/day 7/day 14. We assessed the treatment outcome, morbidity, mortality and 30-day readmission rates. Results: A total of 116 patients received 196 courses of IV antibiotics. Eighty courses were delivered as inpatient treatment, 32 as early supported discharge (ESD) and 84 as domiciliary therapy. There was significant clinical and quality of life improvement in all groups, with resolution of infection in 76% in the inpatient group, 80% in the ESD group and 80% in the domiciliary group. Morbidity was recorded in 13.8% in the inpatient group, 9.4% in the ESD group and 14.2% in the domiciliary IV group. No mortality was recorded in either group. Thirty-day readmission rates were 13.8% in the inpatient group, 12.5% in the ESD group and 14.2% in the domiciliary group. Total bed days saved was 1443. Conclusion: Domiciliary IV antibiotic therapy in bronchiectasis is clinically effective and was safe in our cohort of patients. PMID:25340361

  6. High throughput LSPR and SERS analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeating, Kristy S; Couture, Maxime; Dinel, Marie-Pier; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Masson, Jean-Francois

    2016-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, and are often dispensed only in severe cases due to their adverse side effects. Patients undergoing treatment with these antibiotics are therefore commonly subjected to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to ensure a safe and effective personalised dosage. The ability to detect these antibiotics in a rapid and sensitive manner in human fluids is therefore of the utmost importance in order to provide effective monitoring of these drugs, which could potentially allow for a more widespread use of this class of antibiotics. Herein, we report on the detection of various aminoglycosides, by exploiting their ability to aggregate gold nanoparticles. The number and position of the amino groups of aminoglycoside antibiotics controlled the aggregation process. We investigated the complementary techniques of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for dual detection of these aminoglycoside antibiotics and performed an in-depth study of the feasibility of carrying out TDM of tobramycin using a platform amenable to high throughput analysis. Herein, we also demonstrate dual detection of tobramycin using both LSPR and SERS in a single platform and within the clinically relevant concentration range needed for TDM of this particular aminoglycoside. Additionally we provide evidence that tobramycin can be detected in spiked human serum using only functionalised nanoparticles and SERS analysis. PMID:27412506

  7. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of nanosilver particles synthesised using aloin in experimental murine mastitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, Thota Venkata; Muralidhar, Yegireddy; Prasad, Pagadala Eswara; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Alpha Raj, Mekapogu

    2013-09-01

    Nanobiotechnology is an emerging biological branch of nanotechnology. Application of nanoparticles with specific size and shape in biology has already shown unforeseen and interesting results. A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytogenically derived aloin mediated nanosilver particles (AAgNPs), prepared by reduction of silver nitrate with aloin, in Staphylococcus aureus induced murine mastitis. A total of 40 female mice were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group I served as lactating control, groups II-V were inoculated with 20 μl of 24 h broth culture of S. aureus containing 4.0 × 105 cfu/quarter under ketamine anaesthesia. After 6 h post inoculation, groups III and IV received 20 μl of aloin nanosilver (AAgNPs) through intramammary and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. Group V received antibiotic cefepime at 1 mg/kg body weight through the intra-peritoneal route. After 18 h post-treatment, serum C reactive protein, weights of mammary glands, mammary gland bacterial load, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity and histopathology were determined. The compound showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 21.8 ng/ml against S. aureus. Significant reduction (98%) in poly-morpho nuclear cell infiltration was observed with AAgNPs than antibiotic (50%). PMID:24028805

  8. Electrochemical Detection of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Milk Using a Magneto Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Pinacho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric magneto-immunosensor (AMIS for the detection of residues of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in milk samples is described for the first time. The immunosensor presented combines magnetic beads biomodified with an antibody with a broad recognition profile of fluoroquinolones, a haptenized enzyme and a magnetic graphite–epoxy composite (m-GEC electrode. After the immunochemical reaction with specific enzyme tracer, the antibody biomodified magnetic beads are easily captured by an electrode made of graphite-epoxy composite containing a magnet, which also acts as transducer for the electrochemical detection. In spite of the complexity of milk, the use of magnetic beads allows elimination of potential interferences caused by the matrix components; hence the AMIS could perform quantitative measurements, directly in these samples, without any additional sample cleanup or extraction step. The immunosensor is able to detect up to seven different fluoroquinolones far below the MRLs defined by the UE for milk; for example ciprofloxacin is detected directly in milk with an IC50 of 0.74 µg/L and a LOD of 0.009 µg/L. This strategy offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective, and on-site analysis fluoroquinolones in complex samples.

  9. Antibiotic toxicity and absorption in zebrafish using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    Full Text Available Evaluation of drug toxicity is necessary for drug safety, but in vivo drug absorption is varied; therefore, a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for measuring drugs is needed. Zebrafish are acceptable drug toxicity screening models; we used these animals with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method in a multiple reaction monitoring mode to quantify drug uptake in zebrafish to better estimate drug toxicity. Analytes were recovered from zebrafish homogenate by collecting supernatant. Measurements were confirmed for drugs in the range of 10-1,000 ng/mL. Four antibiotics with different polarities were tested to explore any correlation of drug polarity, absorption, and toxicity. Zebrafish at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf absorbed more drug than those at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf, and different developmental periods appeared to be differentially sensitive to the same compound. By observing abnormal embryos and LD50 values, zebrafish embryos at 6 hpf were considered to be suitable for evaluating embryotoxicity. Also, larvae at 3 dpf were adapted to measure acute drug toxicity in adult mammals. Thus, we can exploit zebrafish to study drug toxicity and can reliably quantify drug uptake with LC-MS/MS. This approach will be helpful for future studies of toxicology in zebrafish.

  10. Determining the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast cancer surgeries: a survey of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acuna Sergio A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic antibiotics (PAs are beneficial to breast cancer patients undergoing surgery because they prevent surgical site infection (SSI, but limited information regarding their use has been published. This study aims to determine the use of PAs prior to breast cancer surgery amongst breast surgeons in Colombia. Methods An online survey was distributed amongst the breast surgeon members of the Colombian Association of Mastology, the only breast surgery society of Colombia. The scope of the questions included demographics, clinical practice characteristics, PA prescription characteristics, and the use of PAs in common breast surgical procedures. Results The survey was distributed amongst eighty-eight breast surgeons of whom forty-seven responded (response rate: 53.4%. Forty surgeons (85.1% reported using PAs prior to surgery of which >60% used PAs during mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and/or breast reconstruction. Surgeons reported they targeted the use of PAs in cases in which patients had any of the following SSI risk factors: diabetes mellitus, drains in situ, obesity, and neoadjuvant therapy. The distribution of the self-reported PA dosing regimens was as follows: single pre-operative fixed-dose (27.7%, single preoperative dose followed by a second dose if the surgery was prolonged (44.7%, single preoperative dose followed by one or more postoperative doses for >24 hours (10.6%, and single preoperative weight-adjusted dose (2.1%. Conclusion Although this group of breast surgeons is aware of the importance of PAs in breast cancer surgery there is a discrepancy in how they use it, specifically with regards to prescription and timeliness of drug administration. Our findings call for targeted quality-improvement initiatives, such as standardized national guidelines, which can provide sufficient evidence for all stakeholders and therefore facilitate best practice medicine for breast cancer surgery.

  11. Modulation of RNA function by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R; Waldsich, C; Wank, H

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important families of antibiotics are the aminoglycosides, including drugs such as neomycin B, paromomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. With the discovery of the catalytic potential of RNA, these antibiotics became very popular due to their RNA-binding capacity. They serve for the analysis of RNA function as well as for the study of RNA as a potential therapeutic target. Improvements in RNA structure determination recently provided first insights into the decoding site of the ribosome at high resolution and how aminoglycosides might induce misreading of the genetic code. In addition to inhibiting prokaryotic translation, aminoglycosides inhibit several catalytic RNAs such as self-splicing group I introns, RNase P and small ribozymes in vitro. Furthermore, these antibiotics interfere with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by disrupting essential RNA-protein contacts. Most exciting is the potential of many RNA-binding antibiotics to stimulate RNA activities, conceiving small-molecule partners for the hypothesis of an ancient RNA world. SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) has been used in this evolutionary game leading to small synthetic RNAs, whose NMR structures gave valuable information on how aminoglycosides interact with RNA, which could possibly be used in applied science. PMID:10619838

  12. Relationship between level of antibiotic use and resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from integrated multi-site cohorts of humans and swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this longitudinal ecological study was to examine the relationship between the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant (AR) commensal E. coli isolates from both monthly human wastewater and composite swine fecal samples, and the concurrent aggregated monthly antibiotic use recorded withi...

  13. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website w...

  14. Antibiotics for the Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Patidar, Kavish R.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is complex and therapeutic regimens vary according to the acuity of presentation and the goals of therapy. Most treatments for HE rely on manipulating the intestinal milieu and therefore antibiotics that act on the gut form a key treatment strategy. Prominent antibiotics studied in HE are neomycin, metronidazole, vancomycin and rifaximin. For the management of the acute episode, all antibiotics have been tested. However the limited numbers studied,...

  15. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayon White Richard T

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources of...... antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug...

  17. Inhaled Antibiotics for Gram-Negative Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Eric; Fraidenburg, Dustin R; Scardina, Tonya; Danziger, Larry H

    2016-07-01

    Gram-negative organisms comprise a large portion of the pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections, especially those that are nosocomially acquired, and the rate of antibiotic resistance among these organisms continues to rise. Systemically administered antibiotics used to treat these infections often have poor penetration into the lung parenchyma and narrow therapeutic windows between efficacy and toxicity. The use of inhaled antibiotics allows for maximization of target site concentrations and optimization of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. This review is a comprehensive discussion of formulation and drug delivery aspects, in vitro and microbiological considerations, pharmacokinetics, and clinical outcomes with inhaled antibiotics as they apply to disease states other than cystic fibrosis. In reviewing the literature surrounding the use of inhaled antibiotics, we also highlight the complexities related to this route of administration and the shortcomings in the available evidence. The lack of novel anti-Gram-negative antibiotics in the developmental pipeline will encourage the innovative use of our existing agents, and the inhaled route is one that deserves to be further studied and adopted in the clinical arena. PMID:27226088

  18. [Antibiotics to treat streptococcal pharyngitis in Swiss children: is it still useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verolet, Charlotte M; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2016-02-17

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is a common pediatric infectious disease in school-aged children. After the detection of the bacteria in the pharynx, treatment with 10 days of antibiotics is recommended in Switzerland. The rationale to treat is based on studies from the 1950s, when the epidemiology of GAS strain was very different and the incidence of acute rheumatic fever significantly higher than today in developed countries. This article explores the current national recommendations, as well as the benefits of antibiotic treatment in the management of this infection. A reevaluation, as in other countries, of the management and treatment of GAS pharyngitis in Switzerland is considered. PMID:27039456

  19. Use of Antibiotic Resistance Analysis To Identify Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, B A; Andrews, R. W.; Conway, R. A.; Corr, C. L.; Dobratz, E. J.; Dougherty, D. P.; Eppard, J. R.; Knupp, S. R.; Limjoco, M. C.; Mettenburg, J. M.; Rinehardt, J. M.; Sonsino, J.; Torrijos, R. L.; Zimmerman, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the reliability and repeatability of antibiotic resistance analysis as a method of identifying the sources of fecal pollution in surface water and groundwater. Four large sets of isolates of fecal streptococci (from 2,635 to 5,990 isolates per set) were obtained from 236 samples of human sewage and septage, cattle and poultry feces, and pristine waters. The patterns of resistance of the isolates to each of four concentrations of up to nine antibiotics were a...

  20. [Analysis of antibiotic usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balpataki, R; Balogh, J; Zelkó, R; Vincze, Z

    2001-01-01

    Economic analysis is founded on the assumption that resources are limited and that should be used in a way that maximizes the benefits gained. Pharmacoeconomics extends these assumptions to drug treatment. Therefore, a full pharmacoeconomic analysis must consider two or more alternative treatments and should be founded on measurement of incremental cost, incremental efficacy, and the value of successful outcome. Antibiotic policy based only on administrative restrictions is failed, instead of it disease formularies and infectologist consultation system are needed. Equally important are various programmes that encourage the cost-conscious use of the antibiotics chosen. Some of the methods evaluated in the literature include: streamlining from combination therapy to a single agent, early switching from parenteral to oral therapy, initiating treatment with oral agents, administering parenteral antibiotic at home from outset of therapy, and antibiotic streamlining programmes that are partnered with infectious disease physicians. The solution is the rational and adequate use of antibiotics, based on the modern theory and practice of antibiotic policy and infection control, that cannot be carried out without the activities of experts in this field. PMID:11769090

  1. [Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, G; Iacob, Simona; Cojocaru, Inimioara

    2007-01-01

    Because of a low risk of infection (around 2-3%), prophylactic use of antibiotics in neurosurgery is a controversial issue. Some neurosurgeons consider that there are strong arguments against the use of antimicrobials (promotion of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, superinfection and adverse drug reactions) and meticulous aseptic techniques could be more usefully than prophylactic antibiotics. On the other hand, despite of being rare, the consequences of a neurosurgical infection can be dramatic and may result in a rapid death, caused by meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation or sepsis. Clinical studies emphasized that the most important factors influencing the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery is the patient's immune status, virulence of the pathogens and the type of surgery ("clean contaminated"--procedure that crosses the cranial sinuses, "clean non-implant"--procedure that does not cross the cranial sinuses, CSF shunt surgery, skull fracture). Prophylaxis has become the standard of care for contaminated and clean-contaminated surgery, also for surgery involving insertion of artificial devices. The antibiotic (first/second generation of cephalosporins or vancomycin in allergic patients) should recover only the cutaneous possibly contaminating flora (S. aureus, S. epidermidis) and should be administrated 30' before the surgical incision, intravenously in a single dose. Most studies pointed that identification of the risk factors for infections, correct asepsis and minimal prophylactic antibiotic regimen, help neurosurgeons to improve patient care and to decrease mortality without selecting resistant bacteria. PMID:18293694

  2. Role and Potential Therapeutic Use of TRAIL in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahter Dilsad Sanlioglu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a TNF superfamily member, defined by its high homology to CD95L/FasL and TNF-alpha. It is known for its strong selective apoptotic effect on many transformed cell lines and tumor cells but not in most normal cell types. TRAIL appears to be a more complex molecule than predicted, with a higher therapeutic potential than previously anticipated. This is mainly because it has 5 different receptors that it can bind to in contrast to other TNF family members with one or two receptors; it is expressed widely in human tissues; and it has anti-inflammatory effects. For instance, type 1 diabetes (T1D development was exacarbated in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice when TRAIL function was blocked, and TRAIL-/- C57BL/6 mice developed T1D at a much earlier stage following streptozotocin (STZ injection, compared to mice which displayed normal TRAIL expression. Furthermore, TRAIL displayed a pro-angiogenic effect in primary human vascular endothelial cells.

  3. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A. [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Yap, Sook Fan [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Ngeow, Yun Fong [Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chin, Khew-Voon, E-mail: khew-voon.chin@utoledo.edu [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  4. New antibiotic agents for bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-11-01

    Infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens have shown a dramatic worldwide increase in prevalence. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients. Research in the field led to the introduction of several novel antibiotic agents in the fight against bacterial pathogens. New antibiotics used against Gram-positive bacteria, mainly meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, include daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and semisynthetic lipoglycopeptides. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as well as highly resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates are of particular concern. Doripenem is a recently approved carbapenem. Polymyxins are reconsidered as valuable therapeutic options for Gram-negative infections. Tigecycline, a glycylcycline, and ceftobiprole, a novel cephalosporin under investigation, have activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In addition to the above agents, alternative treatment approaches that require further investigation have also been introduced into clinical practice. These include antibiotic lock therapy and continuous intravenous administration of antibiotics. In this article, we review the above treatment options for BSIs based on current clinical evidence. Comparative trials specifically focusing on patients with bacteraemia were generally not performed; however, a proportion of patients from the reported studies did have bacteraemia. PMID:18723329

  5. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. ► Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. ► Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  6. Effectiveness of Nalidixic Acid and Commonly Used Antibiotics Against Pathogens of Urinary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramettin Yanik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Medicines for treatment Urinary tractinfections in common population are ineffective due to long usage and developing resistance. Nowadays quinolones are first choise for empiric treatment this infections. Nalidixic acid is first used quinolone type antimicrobial in this group. Because of developing resistance and side effects new quinolones have found treatment instead of nalidixic acid. For urinary system infections. In our study we aimed to compare resistance to nalidixic acid, fosfomycin and other frequently used oral antimicrobials. Material and Method: We studied 314 urine specimens from Medical Faculty Hospital%u2019s various clinic in microbiology laboratory. After 24 hours incubation the bacteria%u2019s media that cultured were examined. Bacteria were identified with conventional and automatic systems (Vitec® 2 Compact - bioMérieux, France. Antibiotic suseptibility tested were made with Cirby-Bauer method and evaluateda eccording to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards. Results: 241 (79,8% E.coli, 53 (16,9% Klebsiella spp. 11 (3,5% Proteus spp. and 9 Enterobacter spp. bacteria were identified from urine samples.. All strains resistant rate belong to Enterobacteriaceae to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin were given 42.3% 41.4 %, 32.8 %, 28.6%, 31.5 %, 14.6% 8.5 % respectively. Mostly isolated bacterial from urine was E.coli with high potency to fosfomycin with 2.9% resistance rate was followed by nitrofurantion (resistance rate 6,9%, Cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid resistance rate were 6.2%, 30.2%, %32.3, %35.3, %46.4, %46.8 in order. Discussion: As result resistance to nalidixic acide not decreased despite not being in use for a long time and were determined that fosfomycin more susceptible fortreatment urinary tract infections.

  7. Antibiotic prescriptions and cycles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in Norway: can a nationwide prescription register be used for surveillance?

    OpenAIRE

    BLIX, H. S.; Vestrheim, D. F.; HJELLVIK, V.; SKAARE, D.; Christensen, A.; Steinbakk, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreaks cause increased use of macrolides and tetracyclines. We aimed to investigate whether drug use data, in addition to laboratory data, could improve understanding of the spread of M. pneumoniae epidemics. Number of users of Mycoplasma antibiotics (erythromycin, doxycycline, clarithromycin) per week and county of residence in an indicator age group (6–12 years) was retrieved from the Norwegian prescription database for the epidemic season 2011–2012 and comp...

  8. Vertebral endplate (modic) changes and the treatment of back pain using antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral end-plate changes/modic changes are the MRI-image of inflammatory vertebral endplate damage, most often related to general disc degeneration. However, in a subgroup of patients disc infection may be the causal factor. In patients with prolonged back pain, the prevalence of modic changes......'. Most commonly, Propionibacterium acnes is involved. Long-term antibiotics may be effective....

  9. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  10. Antibiotic administration and the development of obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotics are the most common prescription drugs administered at the paediatric age, however their administration can cause unwanted problems. Among these issues, antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis has appeared as an emerging issue and has been associated with obesity. This problem is particularly relevant in children because they are frequently treated with antibiotics. Early development of obesity increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with the emergence of very severe clinical problems. Dysbiosis induced in the first periods of life can have the most relevant practical consequences because a decrease in the number of microbes and their substitution with other microbes dramatically modifies the development of the immune system as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Unfortunately, not all of the mechanisms that could explain the relationship between gut microbiota modification and the development of obesity have been defined. Consequently, no definitive therapeutic approach has been elucidated. Probiotics and prebiotics could play a role in treating microbial dysbiosis because the addition of specific bacterial strains has been associated with normal weight and has been demonstrated to be useful in clinical conditions other than obesity that are caused by microbiota disruption. Considering that antibiotics are commonly prescribed and that obesity is increasing in paediatric patients, further studies specifically designed to evaluate how to disrupt the relationship between antibiotics and dysbiosis are urgently needed. Presently, paediatricians have to consider dysbiosis to be a new and serious reason for the judicious use of antibiotics in clinical practice. PMID:26895606

  11. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILE OF LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI-1 ISOLATED FROM REGIONAL YOGURTS OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummay Honi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 was identified from traditional yogurts of Khulna region, Bangladesh and its enzyme and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. A commercially available API Zym kit was employed to determine the activities of 19 different enzymes. We found that L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 showed strong activities for several enzymes, viz. leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, α –Glucosidase, N-Acetyl- β- glucosaminidase while activities for other enzymes were absent. Antibiotic resistance profile was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test for 61 major antibiotics and 4 antifungal agents obtained from commercial sources in MRS Agar media. The strain generally showed resistance to gram negative spectrum antibiotic while it showed susceptibility towards β-lactam antibiotic to gram positive spectrum antibiotic. The findings provide the therapeutic basis of using L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 in finished food products.

  12. Evaluation of resistance of commonly used antibiotics on clinical case of Staphylococcus capitis from Assir region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar M Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus capitis is a coagulase-negative species (CoNS of Staphylococcus. It causes antimicrobial resistance for nosocomial infections as well as for community-acquired infections. This case report involves a 51-year-old, married Saudi patient. He got admitted to the male medical ward of Aseer Central Hospital, with severe chest infection. Clinical examination, X-ray, and laboratory investigations were performed which involved bactech, culture media, antibiotic sensitivity test using disk diffusion [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC] and molecular [polymerase chain reaction (PCR] for detection of CoNS of Staphylococcus species and detection of the mecA gene. Laboratory data were recorded in special formats and analyzed by statistical computer program (SPSS. Results showed the resistance of isolated S. capitis to many commonly used antibiotics.

  13. A Comprehensive Insight into Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Kailong Huang; Junying Tang; Xu-Xiang Zhang; Ke Xu; Hongqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehensively investigate tetracycline resistance in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sludge cultured with different concentrations of tetracycline. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that tetracycline treatment greatly affected the bacterial community structure of the sludge. Nine genera cons...

  14. Use of Staby® technology for development and production of DNA vaccines free of antibiotic resistance gene

    OpenAIRE

    Reschner; Scohy, S.; Vandermeulen, G.; Daukandt, M.; Jacques, C; Michel, B; Nauwynck, Hans; Xhonneux, F.; Preat, V; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Szpirer, C

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of new viruses and the cost of developing certain vaccines require that new vaccination strategies now have to be developed. DNA vaccination seems to be a particularly promising method. For this application, plasmid DNA is injected into the subject (man or animal). This plasmid DNA encodes an antigen that will be expressed by the cells of the subject. In addition to the antigen, the plasmid also encodes a resistance to an antibiotic, which is used during the construction and pr...

  15. Isolation of antibiotic resistance mutations in the rRNA by using an in vitro selection system

    OpenAIRE

    Cochella, Luisa; Green, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Genetic, biochemical, and structural data support an essential role for the ribosomal RNA in all steps of the translation process. Although in vivo genetic selection techniques have been used to identify mutations in the rRNAs that result in various miscoding phenotypes and resistance to known ribosome-targeted antibiotics, these are limited because the resulting mutant ribosomes must be only marginally disabled if they are able to support growth of the cell. Furthermore, in vivo, it is not p...

  16. Evaluation of the functional state of the small intestine of patients using antibiotics for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Y. M. Vahrushev; N. N. Shulyateva

    2015-01-01

    Processes of hydrolysis and absorbtion in small intestine were assessed with 60 of patients using amoxicillin/ clavulanate for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia. It is established that when carrying out an antibiotikoterapiya band digestion and absorption at the kept parietal digestion is broken. Further analysis of the factors presented will allow to work out practical recommendations on prevention of side effects of antibiotics usage in small intestine.

  17. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications after cataract surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of intracameral and topical antibiotics on the prevention of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL......, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases revealed one randomized trial and 17 observational studies concerning the prophylactic effect of intracameral antibiotic administration on the rate of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The effect of topical antibiotics on endophthalmitis rate was reported by one...... with the use of intracameral antibiotic administration of cefazolin, cefuroxime and moxifloxacin, whereas no effect was found with the use of topical antibiotics or intracameral vancomycin. Endophthalmitis occurred on average in one of 2855 surgeries when intracameral antibiotics were used compared to...

  18. Effect of Special Rectification Activities of Antibiotics on The Antibiotic Use among The Inpatients%抗菌药物专项整治活动对住院患者抗菌药物应用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 陈耀升; 冯玉凤; 王军慈

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of the special antibiotic rectification activities on antibiotic use in the inpatients and evaluate the clinical antibiotic use after policy implementation so as to provide reference for carrying out special rectification.METHODS:Retrospectively, the antibiotic use in the inpatients in our hospital from 2010 to 2014 was analyzed with consumption amount, antibiotic use density ( AUD) , rate of antibiotic use, defined daily cost ( DDC) , medication frequency ( DDDs ) , rate of preventive antibiotic use in patients undergoing type Ⅰ incision operation and rate of pathogen test as the key monitoring indicators, with inpatient antibiotic use before and after the special rectification activities evaluated.RESULTS:Over the 5 years, the rate of antibiotic use, the AUD, the DDC and other indicators showed downward trend, with the number of antibacterial drugs available down from 50 varieties (78 specifications) to 34 varieties (53 specifications), the proportion of antibiotic consumption sum in total drug consumption sum down from 27.7%to 11.3%, the rate of antibiotic use down from 89.5% to 52.1%, AUD down from 69.5 DDD/(100 person per day) to 36.2 DDD/(100 person per day) , rate of pathogen test up year by year and rate of prophylactic antibiotic use in patients undergoing typeⅠincision operation down from 85.6%to 29.7%.The rate of rational antibiotic use in terms of drug varieties in prophylactic use, delivery time and course of treatment etc was up from 11.6% to 82.5%.The choice of prophylactic antibiotic in variety and the drug delivery time were significantly improved with the special rectification activities; however, the course of treatment needs to be standardized.CONCLUSIONS:Special rectification activities on antibiotic use significantly improved the rationality in clinical antibiotic use, however, the limitations of drug varieties of antibiotics, screening of drug resistance and the importance of pathogen test of different

  19. Low Concentrations of Nitric Oxide Modulate Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Metabolism and Antibiotic Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Raymond N; Morgan, Samantha; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sanjita; Skipp, Paul; Feelisch, Martin; Hayes, Stephen M; Hellier, William; Clarke, Stuart C; Stoodley, Paul; Burgess, Andrea; Ismail-Koch, Hasnaa; Salib, Rami J; Webb, Jeremy S; Faust, Saul N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniaeis one of the key pathogens responsible for otitis media (OM), the most common infection in children and the largest cause of childhood antibiotic prescription. Novel therapeutic strategies that reduce the overall antibiotic consumption due to OM are required because, although widespread pneumococcal conjugate immunization has controlled invasive pneumococcal disease, overall OM incidence has not decreased. Biofilm formation represents an important phenotype contributing to the antibiotic tolerance and persistence ofS. pneumoniaein chronic or recurrent OM. We investigated the treatment of pneumococcal biofilms with nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous signaling molecule and therapeutic agent that has been demonstrated to trigger biofilm dispersal in other bacterial species. We hypothesized that addition of low concentrations of NO to pneumococcal biofilms would improve antibiotic efficacy and that higher concentrations exert direct antibacterial effects. Unlike in many other bacterial species, low concentrations of NO did not result inS. pneumoniaebiofilm dispersal. Instead, treatment of bothin vitrobiofilms andex vivoadenoid tissue samples (a reservoir forS. pneumoniaebiofilms) with low concentrations of NO enhanced pneumococcal killing when combined with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, an antibiotic commonly used to treat chronic OM. Quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) identified 13 proteins that were differentially expressed following low-concentration NO treatment, 85% of which function in metabolism or translation. Treatment with low-concentration NO, therefore, appears to modulate pneumococcal metabolism and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to reduce antibiotic tolerance in pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:26856845

  20. Optimized removal of antibiotic drugs from aqueous solutions using single, double and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncibi, Mohamed Chaker; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-11-15

    In this study, experiments were carried out to investigate the use of as-synthesized single-walled (SWCNT), double-walled (DWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) agglomerates for the removal of two antibiotics, Oxytetracycline (OXY) and Ciprofloxacin (CIP) from aqueous solution. The variations of key operating parameters on the removal process were assessed in order to find out the optimum conditions. It includes exposure time, solution pH, temperature, ultrasound assistance and desorption assays. The experimental results revealed that a moderate increase in adsorption was registered between pH 3 and 7 for both antibiotics. The application of ultrasound helped enhancing the removal capacities of OXY for all tested CNTs. For the case of MWCNTs, 1h of ultrasonication increased the adsorption capacity by 44.6%. As for CIP, the ultrasonic treatment did not enhance the overall adsorption, especially for the case of DWCNTS. The Brouers-Sotolongo equation was the best fitting isotherm model. The highest removal capacities were registered using SWCNTS for both antibiotics (724 mg/g for CIP and 554 mg/g for OXY). In addition, ethanol was the solvent that induced the highest desorption percent for the case of CIP (52% for MWCNTs). However, the desorption of OXY was negligible for all solvents (maximum 3.3% for DWCNTs using ethanol). PMID:26024613

  1. Differences in antibiotic use and knowledge between adolescent and adult mothers in Ecuador [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1c4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Quizhpe P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the differences in antibiotic use and knowledge between adolescent and adult mothers of children under the age of 5 years in Ecuador. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed in four health centers and hospitals. Mothers of children under five years, seeking medical attention their child's upper respiratory tract infection (URI, were included. The data was collected through interviews, using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the topics knowledge of antibiotic treatment, risk and resistance.  Results: 777 mothers were included in the study, of which 15.8% were adolescent and 84.1% adult mothers. There were significant differences in the social and economic characteristics of the mothers (p ≤ 0.05, with adolescent mothers being more likely to have an incomplete high school education and lack of basic services in their home. Significant differences between these groups were found in adherence to treatment, knowledge about risks associated with antibiotic use, and having heard of antibiotic resistance. Among the adult mothers, 83.5% reported correct adherence, 28.5% were knowledgeable about risks associated with antibiotic use, and 29.3% had heard of antibiotic resistance. Among the adolescent mothers, these numbers were 75.4%, 15.0%, and 19.8%, respectively. Conclusions: To develop successful interventions, it is crucial to understand the factors causing differences in antibiotic use and knowledge between mothers.

  2. [Health economics and antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, P; Bigdéli, M

    1995-01-01

    In the field of antibiotic therapy, particularly the methods of economic evaluation hold one's attention within the wide range of health economics' applications. Several tools allow a comparison of the outcomes of alternative strategies and thereby guide choices to the most appropriate solutions. After a brief recall of the methods classically used to evaluate health care strategy, the authors stress the importance and difficulty of fixing and applying a correct and satisfactory procedure for evaluation. An evaluation example of antibiotic therapy allows to illustrate the application of the principles confronting a field in which competition is intense and economic stakes stay large--a fact which naturally yields to seek after objective decision making criteria. The health care policies drawn by public authorities as well as the marketing strategies of the health sector trade are partly based on such evaluations. If these techniques are not intended for the practitioner in the first place, they should not be indifferent to him since they influence health authorities and thereby indirectly affect the therapeutic freedom of the physician. PMID:7481251

  3. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases. PMID:23355488

  4. A method for the detection of antibiotic resistance markers in clinical strains of Escherichia coli using MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Philippa J; Wey, Emmanuel; McHugh, Timothy D; Balakrishnan, Indran; Belgacem, Omar

    2015-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is one of the most widely used mass spectrometry based approaches for bacterial identification and classification. The relatively simple sample preparation requirements and the speed of analysis which can usually be completed within a few minutes have resulted in the adoption and assimilation of MALDI-TOF MS into the routine diagnostic workflow of Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide. This study describes the facilitation of bacterial discrimination based on antibiotic resistance markers through the implementation of MALDI-TOF MS. The periplasmic compartment of whole bacterial cells contains several proteins which confer antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae. In order to reduce the complexity of the sample to be analysed via MALDI-TOF MS, the periplasm was extracted and subjected to in solution tryptic digestion followed by nano-LC separation. This method, established that peptide sequence biomarkers from several classes of antibiotic resistance proteins could be predicted using protein/peptide database tools such as Mascot. Biomarkers for a CTX-M-1 group extended spectrum β-lactamase, CMY-2 an Amp-C β-lactamase, VIM a metallo-β-lactamase, TEM a β-lactamase and KanR an aminoglycoside modifying enzyme were detected. This allowed for discrimination at a species level and at an almost identical strain level where the only difference between strains was the carriage of a modified antibiotic resistance carrying plasmid. This method also was able to detect some of these biomarkers in clinical strains where multiple resistance mechanisms were present. PMID:25633625

  5. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  6. [Assessment of disease severity and outcome of dietary, antibiotic, and immunosuppressive interventions by use of the canine IBD activity index in 21 dogs with chronic inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Michael; Hörauf, Angelika; Bilzer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    dogs in group D, four of five dogs in group M, and six from ten dogs in group I went into remission. Poor therapeutic response (1 dog in group M and 5 dogs in group I; one dog died) was seen in 6 dogs, where as 15 dogs showed good therapeutic response. There was no significant association between efficacy of therapy and age (p = 0.8455), CIBDAI score (p = 0.3293), or serum albumin concentraton (p = 0.8455). Poor therapeutic response was weekly associated with HPEG score > or =2 (p = 0.0635). Using CIBDAI in dogs with IBD as a single parameter to assess the severity of illness and the therapeutic response, misinterpretations are possible. The assessment of the severity of illness by the combination of CIBAI, HPEG, and serum albumin concentration is leading to adaequate therapeutic results. Dogs with low grade IBD benefit from hypoallergenic diet, whereas dogs with high grade IBD benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. The effect of antibiotic treatment is questionable. PMID:17172138

  7. The Use of Therapeutic Rituals in Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Becky L.

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the use of rituals in substance abuse counseling. Data were obtained from a total of 25 mental health workers in the substance abuse field from the northern region of Utah. Four research questions were asked about rituals and their use in substance abuse counseling: (I) Are addictions therapists using rituals? (2) How did therapists determine when to use rituals? (3) What types of rituals do they use? and (4) How do therapists assess ritual effectiveness? Results indicated...

  8. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value awareness about the health and economic hazards of antibiotic resistance are also required. PMID:26752329

  9. Antibacterial activity of bee honey and its therapeutic usefulness against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, O F H; Shafii, S S A; Tharwat, E E; Kamal, A M

    2004-12-01

    The authors studied the effect of storage period and heat on the physical and chemical properties of honey and proceeded to study the antibacterial effect of honey on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In samples of honey (Egyptian clover honey) that were heat-treated and stored over a long period of time, water content decreased, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) was produced and increased in concentration, and enzyme activity decreased. Colour, measured in optical density, was markedly affected in honey samples stored over long periods of time, as was the refractive index, but electrical conductivity remained unaffected by storage or heating. Similarly, the storage period had no effect on pH value. To study the therapeutic effect of honey on E.coli and S. typhimurium, 25 isolates of E. coil O157:H7 (18.5%) and 49 isolates of S. typhimurium (36.2%) were isolated from 135 samples taken from children and calves (30 stool samples from children and 105 samples from calf organs and faecal swabs). Most E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium isolates were highly resistant to most antibiotic discs. In vitro, the antibacterial effect of honey was more pronounced on E. coil O157:H7 than on S. typhimurium. Water content, pH value, HMF and the presence of H2O, all played an important role in the potency of olover honey as an antibacterial agent. In vivo, mice were used as a model for studying the parenteral usefulness of honey as an antibacterial agent against both pathogens. The antibacterial activity of honey that had been stored over a long period of time decreased and high concentrations of honey proved more effective as antibacterial agents. In this study there was lower mortality among mice treated with honey but the parenteral application of honey and its therapeutic properties require further investigation. PMID:15861897

  10. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    De Briyne, N.; J. Atkinson; Pokludová, L.; Borriello, S P; S. Price

    2013-01-01

    The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain a better insight into the decision-making process of veterinarians in Europe when deciding which antibiotics to prescribe. The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Analysis was to the level of different types of practitioner (food producing (FP) animals, companion animals, equines) and country for Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and...

  11. Prescribing pattern and pharmacoeconomics of antibiotic use in the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care medical college hospital in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravika Kanish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic antibiotics account for more than one third of all prescriptions for children; hence, antibiotic prescriptions for children lead to major public health concerns. Moreover, data regarding rational antibiotic use in children are very limited. Hence, it is essential that the antibiotic prescribing pattern be evaluated periodically to determine the rationality of its use and cost. Objectives: The aim of our study is to identify the prescribing pattern and to carry out the cost-identification analysis of antibiotic use in the patients admitted in the pediatrics department of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 2 months in the pediatric ward and intensive care unit (ICU. The data regarding patient demographics and antibiotic use were collected daily in a structured pro forma. A descriptive analysis of the data was done. Results: A total of 191 patients were enrolled, most of them belonging to the age group of 2-14 years. Majority of the patients were males (75.9%. On an average, 1.9 antimicrobial agents (AMAs were prescribed per patient. The most common AMAs prescribed were cephalosporins followed by aminoglycosides. The preferred route of administration was parenteral (92%. The average cost of treatment per patient was estimated to be `3,338. The percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 58%. Conclusions: Since our hospital is a major referral center of the state, newer generation of antibiotics are more commonly prescribed here. Hence, the cost of therapy is high. This baseline study will help in formulating an antibiotic policy and the standard treatment guidelines (STG for appropriate use of antibiotics.

  12. Monitoring of biogenic amines and drugs of various therapeutic groups in urine samples with use of HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, Irena; Płonka, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous separation and determination of biogenic amines [dopamine, epinephrine, serotonin and its six metabolites (normetanephrine, metanephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol, homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoloacetic acid)] with drugs from different therapeutically groups [analgesics (paracetamol, metamizol), diuretics (furosemide) and antibiotics (cefazolin, fluconazole)] was developed. A chromatographic column with pre-column with octadecylsilane phase (C18e ) and two detectors - diode array serial connected and fluorescence - was used. Gradient elution of mixture of acetate buffer (pH 4.66) and methanol as a mobile phase was applied. The limit of detection (LOD) of 8-10 ng/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 24-30 ng/mL for biogenic amines, as well as the LOD of 50-100 ng/mL and the LOQ of 150-300 ng/mL for drugs, were determined. The applied sample preparation method allowed recoveries of 93% for the biogenic amines and 92% for the drugs to be achieved. The developed procedure has been applied to simultaneous determination of the examined compounds in urine samples and could be used in clinical analysis. PMID:26362402

  13. Therapeutic manuka honey: no longer so alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dee A Carter; Blair, Shona E.; Nural eCokcetin; Daniel eBouzo; Peter eBrooks; Schlothauer, Ralf C.; Elizabeth J. Harry

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as alternative, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliabl...

  14. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dee A Carter; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Elizabeth J. Harry

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliabl...

  15. Comparison of alterations in frequency and cost of antibiotic use in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a hospital following protocol to an education and research hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Dogan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AiM: The objective of this study is to show the alterations in frequency and cost of antibiotic use in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a state hospital after it started to service as an education and research hospital. We also aimed to raise an awareness related to rational antibiotic use. METHODS: The surveillance of antibiotic use and comparison of costs were evaluated in 392 patients in between August 2013-January 2014. The rate and cost of antibiotic use during last 90 days before the protocol of state hospital to research and education hospital and the first 90 days after protocol were evaluated. Antibiotics were assessed according to the treatment protocols of the Committee of Rational Drug Use, Infection Control Committee and Antibiotic Control Committee. Antibiotics were provided from administrative system and the data related to costs were obtained from Ministry of Health and Ministry of Finance. The demographic data and the data related to indication for admission to intensive care units, antibiotic dosages and pathogens causing infections were also obtained. For statistical analysis, SPSS program was used and descriptive analysis were made. In comparison of the groups, Mann Whitney U and chi-square tests were used. The data were evaluated within a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: In first and second period, 143 patients were hospitalized for 3.18+/-1.13 days and 105 patients were hospitalized for 2.69+/-4.14 days in pediatric intensive care unit(PICU; 79 patients were hospitalized for 17.29+/-3.61 days and 65 patients stayed for 21.29+/-3.29 days in neonatal intensive care unit(NICU, respectively. In the first and second period, cost of antibiotics in PICU was found 341.81+/-744.49 (med:14.91 and 585.35+/-796.62 (med:256.44 (p=0.02 Turkish Liras (TL; in NICU 137.92+/-178.78 (med:14.59 and 247.40+/-370.13(med:19.23 (p=0.76 TL respectively. CONCLUSiON: In the second period, in PICU, duration of hospitalization was found

  16. Misuse of antibiotics reserved for hospital settings in outpatients: a prospective clinical audit in a university hospital in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Manon; Bornet, Charléric; Monges, Philippe; Stein, Andreas; Gensollen, Sophie; Seng, Piseth

    2016-07-01

    Some antibiotics are reserved essentially for hospital settings owing to cost effectiveness and in order to fight the emerging antibiotic resistance crisis. In some cases, antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals may be prescribed in outpatients for serious infections or in the absence of a therapeutic alternative. A 30-day prospective audit of outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions by measuring appropriateness according to guidelines. During the study period, 53 prescriptions were included, only 40% of which were appropriate. Among the 32 inappropriate prescriptions, 4 cases lacked microbial arguments, 1 case was not adequate for the infection type, 1 case involved an incorrect antibiotic dosage, 1 case involved an incorrect interval of dose administration, 3 cases had a therapeutic alternative and 22 cases were not recommended. Of the 53 prescriptions, 66% were started in hospital and 34% in outpatients. Only 25% of cases were prescribed with infectious diseases specialist (IDS) advice, 64% were based on microbiological documentation and 13% had a negative bacterial culture. Inappropriate prescriptions were usually observed in antibiotic lock therapy, skin infections, Clostridium difficile colitis, intra-abdominal infections and intravascular catheter-related infections. Outpatient prescriptions of antimicrobial drugs reserved exclusively for use in hospitals are frequently inappropriate. We recommend a real-time analysis algorithm with the involvement of an IDS for monitoring prescriptions to improve the quality of these prescriptions and possibly to prevent antibiotic resistance. PMID:27234677

  17. Hypnotherapy: A Useful Adjunctive Therapeutic Modality in Hansen's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Latheef, En; Riyaz, Najeeba

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is a useful adjunctive psychotherapeutic procedure used in various conditions such as pain disorders, atopic dermatitis, and alopecia areata. However, it is less utilized in the field of dermatology. Only limited data exist on its role in the management of various skin diseases. There is dearth of literature on the role of hypnotherapy in Hansen's disease (HD). We report two cases of HD, one with very resistant neuralgia and the other with recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Both the patients were assessed using hospital anxiety and depression scale, dermatology life quality index and the neuralgia was assessed using the visual analog scale. Three sessions of hypnotherapy were given to both the patients. There was dramatic improvement in the incidence of ENL and neuralgia and we could rapidly reduce the dose of drugs used for both conditions. PMID:24700936

  18. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD90/45

  19. Application of a liquid chromatographic procedure for the analysis of penicillin antibiotics in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations using sodium dodecyl sulphate/propanol mobile phases and direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Martí-Centelles, Rosa; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Carda-Broch, Samuel

    2011-07-29

    A direct injection liquid chromatography procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of four penicillin antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin) in pharmaceutical formulations and physiological fluids (urine) using hybrid micellar mobile phases. These antimicrobials are used to treat gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The four penicillins were analysed using a Zorbax C18 reversed-phase column and detected at 210 nm. These antibiotics were separated by an interpretive optimisation procedure based on the accurate description of the retention and shape of the chromatographic peaks. Antibiotics were eluted in less than 16 min with no interference by the urine protein band or endogenous compounds using the mobile phase 0.11 M sodium dodecyl sulphate-6% propanol-0.01 M NaH(2)PO(4) buffered at pH 3. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration guideline, including analytical parameters such as linearity (R(2)>0.993), intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD, %: 0.1-4.4 and 1.2-5.9, respectively), and robustness for the four compounds. This method is sensitive enough for the routine analysis of penicillins at therapeutic urine levels, with limits of detection in the 1.5-15 ng mL(-1) range and limits of quantification of 50 ng mL(-1). Recoveries in a micellar medium and a spiked urine matrix were in the 92.4-108.2% and 96-110% ranges, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determine these antibiotics in urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:21190691

  20. Therapeutic Approach of Wrist Ganglion Using Electroacupuncture: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Sung Hoon; Jung, A Young; Nam, Doo Hyoun; Cheon, Ji Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A ganglion cyst is a relatively common benign tumor on the wrist. Conservative and surgical approaches have been used for its treatment. Various conservative treatment methods have been suggested such as reassurance, aspiration, sclerosant injection, and direct compression. But, there is no acceptable treatment of choice yet because each suggested method has a relatively high recurrence rate. We want to report two cases in which the size of the wrist ganglion was decreased by using electroacu...

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Eight β-Lactam Antibiotics, Amoxicillin, Cefazolin, Cefepime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Cloxacillin, Oxacillin, and Piperacillin, in Human Plasma by Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Tiphaine; Vodovar, Dominique; Tournier, Nicolas; Khoudour, Nihel; Hulin, Anne

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method using UV detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma, including four penicillins, amoxicillin (AMX), cloxacillin (CLX), oxacillin (OXA), and piperacillin (PIP), and four cephalosporins, cefazolin (CFZ), cefepime (FEP), cefotaxime (CTX), and ceftazidime (CAZ). One hundred-microliter samples were spiked with thiopental as an internal standard, and proteins were precipitated by acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Separation was achieved on a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column with a mobile phase composed of phosphoric acid (10 mM) and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 500 μl/min. Detection was performed at 230 nm for AMX, CLX, OXA, and PIP and 260 nm for CFZ, FEP, CTX, and CAZ. The total analysis time did not exceed 13 min. The method was found to be linear at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100 mg/liter for each compound, and all validation parameters fulfilled international requirements. Between- and within-run accuracy errors ranged from -5.2% to 11.4%, and precision was lower than 14.2%. This simple method requires small-volume samples and can easily be implemented in most clinical laboratories to promote the therapeutic drug monitoring of β-lactam antibiotics. The simultaneous determination of several antibiotics considerably reduces the time to results for clinicians, which may improve treatment efficiency, especially in critically ill patients. PMID:27216076

  2. Measurement of dose distributions using film in therapeutic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using film dosimetry data as the input data for patient treatment planning was evaluated. The central-axis depth dose and the off-axis ratios obtained from film measurements in a solid phantom were compared with those of ion-chamber measurements in water. Two techniques were used to generate isodose distributions. The first technique used only the film data, i.e., the central-axis depth dose and the off-axis ratios used for the reconstruction were determined from the film optical density (corrected for film nonlinearity). In the second technique, the central-axis depth dose measured by an ion chamber in a water phantom was combined with the off-axis ratios measured using film in the ''solid water'' phantom. The resulting isodose distributions from both techniques were compared with the ion-chamber measurements in water for 7-, 12-, and 18-MeV electrons, and the second technique showed better agreement with the ion-chamber measurements than did the first technique. The differences were within a clinically acceptable range

  3. Situation Songs - Therapeutic Intentions and Use in Music Therapy with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Kolar-Borsky; Ulla Holck

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch-Temming the term situation song describes an improvised song, which is sung by the therapist or/and the child and which relates to the actual occurrence and the therapeutic relationship. The presented study ...

  4. Ecological antibiotic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiby, N

    2000-09-01

    Development of resistance to antibiotics is a major problem worldwide. The normal oropharyngeal flora, the intestinal flora and the skin flora play important roles in this development. Within a few days after the onset of antibiotic therapy, resistant Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus epidermidis can be detected in the normal flora of volunteers or patients. Horizontal spread of the resistance genes to other species, e.g. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, occurs by conjugation or transformation. An ecologically sound antibiotic policy favours the use of antibiotics with little or no impact on the normal flora. Prodrug antibiotics which are not active against the bacteria in the mouth and the intestine (before absorption) and which are not excreted to a significant degree via the intestine, saliva or skin are therefore preferred. Prodrugs such as pivampicillin, bacampicillin, pivmecillinam and cefuroxime axetil are favourable from an ecological point of view. Experience from Scandinavia supports this, since resistance to mecillinam after 20 years of use is low (about 5%) and stable. PMID:11051626

  5. Are There Differences in Antibiotic Use Between the Recent-Immigrants from Mainland China and the Local-Born in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wun, Yuk Tsan; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Ho, Pak Leung; Yung, Wai Hung Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Immigrants, especially the first-generation, were thought to have different knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) with antibiotics. Doctors often perceived extra pressure from them to prescribe antibiotics. To test these perceptions, we studied the difference in KAP with antibiotics between the recent-immigrants from mainland China and the local-born of Hong Kong-places with significantly different healthcare and socio-economic systems. Focus groups (including one specific group of recent-immigrants) with 56 participants and territory-wide telephone questionnaire survey with 2,471 randomly selected respondents. Recent-immigrants shared similar KAP with the local-born. After adjustment for age, sex and education, the main significant difference was the new-immigrants' behaviour of acquiring antibiotics without prescription and keeping the leftover. They, like the local-born, preferred doctors who prescribed antibiotics cautiously. Immigration status could be the surrogate for age, sex and education in the KAP with antibiotics. For antibiotic use, health education and patient care could be similar between the recent-immigrants and the local-born. PMID:24969039

  6. The Therapeutic Use of Animals with the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

    Green Chimneys, a residential center for emotionally disturbed and learning disabled children in New York, uses farm animals in the treatment program. Children learn horseback riding, animal husbandry, gardening, and farming on a working farm. The program seeks to involve the community and provide training to volunteers, interns, and learning…

  7. Endoscopic Therapeutic Device Using Focused Ultrasonic Small Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Akihiro; Haga, Yoichi; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Iseki, Hiroshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Wada, Hiroshi

    In this research, an ultrasonic probe (5.5 mm in diameter), which has a concave PZT transducer at its tip, was fabricated for ultrasonic treatments such as sonoporation and sonodynamic therapy in the human body using a catheter and/or endoscope. Ultrasound has the potential to enhance cytotoxicity of drugs such as porphyrins, a process referred to as sonodynamic therapy, and also to deliver macromolecules such as plasmid DNA, a process referred to as sonoporation. The fabricated probe was then experimentally characterized by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution around the focal point, using a PVDF needle-type ultrasonic hydrophone. When the PZT transducer was driven by a 120 Volts peak-to-peak AC signal at 1.83 MHz, the ultrasound output was successfully focused at the focal point, with a peak intensity of 24.9 W/cm2 (0.87 MPa). Using the fabricated probe, cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to ultrasound (1.83 MHz, continuous wave, peak acoustic pressure of 0.5 MPa) for 2 s in the presence of microbubbles MB-3 and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) plasmid DNA. As a result of sonication, the expression of GFP was observed in CHO cells.

  8. PLANTS OF THE SAVANNA OF THERAPEUTIC USE: ETNOBOTANICAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cartaxo Vilar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants of the northeastern savanna are used thoroughly in the popular medicine by the local communities. Though, little it is known abo.ut use of these natural resources, their effects natural therapy and their active beginnings. The present work is part of a project etnobotanical in the Valley of San Francisco that has as initial objective to survey medicinal plants and the traditional practices of therapies used in the free markets, to evaluate his importance for the local populations. The collection of data was accomplished in six free markets at county of Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, at counties of Juazeiro and Sento-Sé, state of Bahia, Brazil, through a questionnaire, being interviewed 17 merchants. The botanical material was collected, prepared and deposited at the Laboratory of Vegetable Production of CEFET/Petrolina. 111 plants of 53 species were classified, belonging to 28 families and 50 goods. The family Leguminosae represented 19% of the sample, with ten species. The species Erytrina mulungu (mulungú, Bauhinia forficata (mororó, Bowdichia virgilioides (sucupira, Anadenthera (angico, Amburana cearensis (smell umburana and Myracrotrum urundeuva (aroeira they were found in all of the free markets. These species are native of the savanna and they have high medicinal potential, the collection of their peels, roots and fruits feel irrational and intense form could provoke the disappearance of these species in the Valley of San Francisco.

  9. Therapeutic use of sport climbing for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ožura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport climbing is a form of exercise that requires complex and variable movement. Because of the use of the so-called "top-rope system", this is a safe activity appropriate for individuals with physical disabilities. Therefore, climbing might prove to be an effective form of therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological disease that may include motor and cognitive deficits as well as affective disturbances. The illness is characterized by multifocal areas of brain damage (plaques, as consequence of autoimmune inflammation. Sport climbing might be a potentially useful activity for treating spasticity, improving a person's self image and certain aspects of cognition, such as attention and executive functions, as well as for managing emotional disturbances. All of the above are areas where patients with multiple sclerosis might be in need of assistance. The article also describes the experience of a patient with multiple sclerosis who was enrolled in our climbing program. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of climbing therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis.

  10. [Release of antibiotics into urban wastewater: A secondary-data based analysis for the input assessment using the city of Dresden as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpel, Patrick; Gurke, Robert; Marx, Conrad; Knoth, Holger; Fauler, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotics are essential for the successful treatment of bacterial infections. Recently, the increasing number of resistant bacteria and the occurrence of residues of antibiotics in the environment has become the focus of scientific interest. The aim of the cooperative project ANTI-Resist was to investigate the release of antibiotics and the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance in the urban waste water system of the city of Dresden.This article presents the main results of the secondary data analysis for the determination of outpatient and inpatient antibiotic consumption and provides an insight into the complexity of the topic antibiotics in waste water.Based on the data of outpatient prescriptions provided by the AOK PLUS for the period 2005 to 2013, thirteen focus substances were identified to estimate antibiotic consumption. Furthermore, delivery data from the pharmacies of three hospitals in Dresden were available.Depending on the substances investigated, seasonality and age dependency were determined. The results at a regional level were mostly in good accordance with general trends throughout Germany. It should be noted that the total amount of antibiotics used remained nearly constant over the whole period investigated, but the prescription of fluoroquinolones increased. This must be questioned when taking into account the increasingly critical situation in the treatment of Gram-negative bacteria in particular. Examinations of waste water conducted indicated that sewage treatment plants are not able to remove antibiotics or their metabolites completely from waste water. The residues are released into surface waters via the treatment plants. The impact cannot be assessed at the moment and further investigations are necessary. PMID:26642957

  11. Oxidative stress in psoriasis and potential therapeutic use of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiran; Huang, Tian

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology of psoriasis is complex and dynamic. Recently, the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been proposed. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, leading to a disruption of redox signaling and control and/or molecular damage. In this article, the published studies on the role of oxidative stress in psoriasis pathogenesis are reviewed, focusing on the impacts of oxidative stress on dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, and keratinocytes, on angiogenesis and on inflammatory signaling (mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription). As there is compelling evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the possibility of using this information to develop novel strategies for treatment of patients with psoriasis is of considerable interest. In this article, we also review the published studies on treating psoriasis with antioxidants and drugs with antioxidant activity. PMID:27098416

  12. [Biological properties and therapeutic use of interleukin 2 (IL-2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, T

    1995-01-01

    A cytokine produced by the subpopulation of activated helper lymphocytes T has been called interleukin-2 (IL-2). The obtaining of recombinant cytokine has facilitated the study of its biological properties and its application in the treatment of certain neoplastic and infectious diseases. IL-2 affects the target cells by means of a receptor of great affinity consisting of three independent chains: alpha, beta, gamma. The cytokine is the most important growth factor of lymphocytes T, conditioning their clonal expansion. Antigen stimulation is the condition for the expression of IL-2 does not, however, affect resting lymphocytes T. The expression of the receptor for this cytokine on NK cells is, however, continuous in character but only a very small percentage of these cells has receptors of great affinity. IL-2 plays a great role in adoptive immunotherapy consisting in intravenous administration of cells with cytotoxic properties. Cells obtained from peripheral blood and grown in vitro are called LAK cells (lymphocyte activated killer cells), while cells obtained from neoplasms and grown in similar conditions are named TIL cells (tumor infiltrated lymphocytes). LAK and TIL cells reveal a similar antineoplastic activity in vivo. At present, however, recombinant IL-2 alone is used more often, either intravenously or subcutaneously. The cytokine is effective in the treatment of patients with disseminate cancer of the kidney and melanoma, and in adjuvant therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Attempts have been made to apply it in the treatment of AIDS and leprosy. The toxic effect of IL-2 depends on the dose and the mode of administration. In the majority of patients parainfluenza symptoms appear. Most undesirable effects are connected with multisystemic syndrome of capillary vessels hyperpermeability leading to the increased fluid retention into extravascular spaces, oedema, hypotonia and oliguria. PMID:8657637

  13. Perfil de prescrições e uso de antibióticos em infecções comunitárias Prescription patterns and antibiotic use in community-based infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Sá Del Fiol

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer os padrões de utilização de antibióticos no município de Sorocaba, avaliando o diagnóstico referido, a terapêutica empregada e sua utilização. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um instrumento de avaliação aplicado por 12 meses em usuários de antibióticos. Foram coletados dados de 403 usuários e referiram-se à: informações sociodemográficas e de saúde, diagnóstico e terapêutica. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se grande utilização e a maior utilização prévia na faixa etária de 0-10 anos (pINTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to find out about the patterns of antibiotic use in the municipality of Sorocaba, through evaluating the reported diagnosis and the therapy used. METHODS: An evaluation tool was applied among antibiotic users over a 12-month period. Sociodemographic data and information relating to health, diagnosis and therapeutics were gathered in relation to 403 users. RESULTS: Great present use and the greatest previous use was found in the 0-10 year-old age group (p < 0.05. Infections with lung involvement were the ones most mentioned (p < 0.05 and penicillins were the drugs most used, present in 45.1% of the prescriptions. The mean duration of therapy for otitis (8.9 days was below the recommendation. For sinusitis, 22% of the prescriptions did not give guidance regarding recommended use (10 days. CONCLUSIONS: The lack and/or nonuse of therapeutic protocols resulted in great differences in prescription patterns, thereby leading to therapeutic failure and recurrence of infections, which were situations frequently found in this study.

  14. Procalcitonin-guided protocol is not useful to manage antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Stella Sala Soares; Nobre, Vandack; de Castro Romanelli, Roberta Maia; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; da Silva Bittencourt, Henrique Neves; Melo, Ana Catarina Mourão; Salomão, Luciana Caetano Botelho; Serufo, José Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) requires immediate use of antibiotics (ATB), and procalcitonin (PCT) is proven to be useful in guiding antibiotic therapy in different settings. This study investigated the use of PCT as a guide for the duration of ATB in FN. A randomized controlled trial was carried out from January-December 2010. A total of 62 hematological adult patients with FN were randomized, in 1:1 ratio, into two groups: (1) PCT group: length of ATB guided by institutional protocol plus PCT dynamics, and (2) control group: duration of ATB in accordance with institutional protocol. There was no difference between groups regarding the use of ATB for the first episode of fever (HR 1.14, 95 % CI 0.66-1.95, p = 0.641), with equivalent median duration of ATB therapy (PCT group 9.0 days and control group 8.0 days, p = 0.67), and median number of days without ATB (0 days, IQR 0-2 days for both groups, p = 0.96). We observed no difference in clinical cure rate (p = 0.68), infection relapse (p = 1.0), superinfection (p = 0.85), length of hospitalization (p = 0.64), and mortality at 28 days (p = 0.39) and at 90 days (p = 0.72). Considering the cut-off of 0.5 ng/ml, PCT was correlated with bacteremia (sensitivity of 51.9 % and specificity of 76.5 %). In this randomized controlled trial, adding a PCT-guided protocol to the standard recommendations did not reduce the use of antibiotics in febrile neutropenia, although no apparent harm was caused. PCT proved to be a marker of bacteremia in this setting. PMID:27118539

  15. Antibiotic resistances in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica isolated from foods with animal origin Resistencias a antibióticos en Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella enterica aislados de alimentos de origen animal

    OpenAIRE

    Baltasar Balsalobre Hernández; Joaquín Hernández-Godoy

    2004-01-01

    Extensive use of antibiotics in both human and animal health and in cattle production has generated resistant microorganisms to common antibiotics. Resistances spread caused by human and animal therapeutic is well known, but we know poorly frecuency of resistant bacteria in foods with animal origin and destinated to human consumers. In this paper, sensitivity to nineteen antibiotics was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from foods with animal orig...

  16. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihad Fejzic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx, Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb. In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR. Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  17. New Algorithm for Managing Childhood Illness Using Mobile Technology (ALMANACH): A Controlled Non-Inferiority Study on Clinical Outcome and Antibiotic Use in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Amani Flexson; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; Samaka, Josephine; Faustine, Allen Festo; Perri-Moore, Seneca; Swai, Ndeniria; Mitchell, Marc; Genton, Blaise; D’Acremont, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The decline of malaria and scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests calls for a revision of IMCI. A new algorithm (ALMANACH) running on mobile technology was developed based on the latest evidence. The objective was to ensure that ALMANACH was safe, while keeping a low rate of antibiotic prescription. Methods Consecutive children aged 2–59 months with acute illness were managed using ALMANACH (2 intervention facilities), or standard practice (2 control facilities) in Tanzania. Primary outcomes were proportion of children cured at day 7 and who received antibiotics on day 0. Results 130/842 (15∙4%) in ALMANACH and 241/623 (38∙7%) in control arm were diagnosed with an infection in need for antibiotic, while 3∙8% and 9∙6% had malaria. 815/838 (97∙3%;96∙1–98.4%) were cured at D7 using ALMANACH versus 573/623 (92∙0%;89∙8–94∙1%) using standard practice (pantibiotics were prescribed to 15∙4% (12∙9–17∙9%) using ALMANACH versus 84∙3% (81∙4–87∙1%) using standard practice (pantibiotic secondarily. Conclusion Management of children using ALMANACH improve clinical outcome and reduce antibiotic prescription by 80%. This was achieved through more accurate diagnoses and hence better identification of children in need of antibiotic treatment or not. The building on mobile technology allows easy access and rapid update of the decision chart. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201011000262218 PMID:26161535

  18. Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Antibiotics for Prophylactic in Patients with Cesarean Section at Hospitals in Surakarta in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Mutmainah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics for prophylactic in sectio cesarean can reduce the risk of infection-related complications and postoperative infections. This study aims to describe and evaluate the usage and the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section patients in two hospitals in Surakarta in year 2010. The study used retrospective data from medical records. The analysis was then conducted on the use of antibiotic including the appropriateness of antibiotic (compare to the standard of WHO, the appropriateness of dose and the time of administration. The data from two hundred of patients showed that 76% of patients were between 20–35 years old and the patients with aterm pregnancy were 90.5%, 46.5% of patients had the length of stay in hospital more than 5 days and 29% of cesarean delivery indicated by amniotic premature rupture. Antibiotics that used for prophylactic were ampicillin (24%, ampicillin-sulbactam (23%, ceftriaxone (19.5%, cefotaxime (16%, amoxicillin-clavulanate (11%, and cefazolin (6.5%. It was found that 30,5% of drugs were selected based on standard, 6.5% of drugs were given in the appropriate dose and 52% of drugs were administrated on-time. In conclusion, the antibiotics are 100% effective to prevent the incidence of surgical wound infection.

  19. Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158316.html Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs: Study Individual farm ... HealthDay News) -- Use of antibiotics in farm animal feed is helping drive the worldwide increase in antibiotic- ...

  20. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    necessity for political leadership to encourage clinically grounded antibiotic use; over-the-counter sale of antibiotics; designation of antibiotics as reimbursable medications; supervision by external oversight institutions; lack of guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections; and...

  1. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Davydova N.V.; Suyetenkov D.Ye.; Firsova I.V.; Oleynikova N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Identify options for the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis in children's dental reception. The analysis of publications shows that the basis of current trends prevention of postoperative wound infection in pediatric surgery should be measures aimed at eliminating or reducing the influence of risk factors, as well as the use of antibiotic prophylaxis

  2. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova N.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identify options for the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis in children's dental reception. The analysis of publications shows that the basis of current trends prevention of postoperative wound infection in pediatric surgery should be measures aimed at eliminating or reducing the influence of risk factors, as well as the use of antibiotic prophylaxis

  3. The Antibiotic Resistance Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The term "antibiotic" was first proposed by Vuillemin in 1889 but was first used in the current sense by Walksman in 1941. An antibiotic is defined as a "derivative produced by the metabolism of microorganisms that possess antibacterial activity at low concentrations and is not toxic to the host." In this article, the author describes how…

  4. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge. PMID:27033714

  5. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it. PMID:27092975

  6. Production parameters of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using medium energy cyclotron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mayeen Uddin Khandaker; Kwangsoo Kim; Guinyun Kim

    2012-08-01

    Production cross-sections of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium target were measured using stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution -ray spectrometry at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. Note that cyclotron production of the 105Rh radionuclide from natural palladium target was measured here for the first time. Results are compared with the theoretical values obtained using the model codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE. Thick target integral yields for the investigated 105Rh radionuclide were deduced from the threshold energy to 40 MeV. Measured data of the 105Rh radionuclide are important because of its potential applications in nuclear medicine and/or therapeutic purposes. Optimal production circumstances for the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using a cyclotron are discussed elaborately.

  7. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  8. Antibiotic use in otitis media: patient simulations as an aid to audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput de Saintonge, D M; Hathaway, N R

    1981-10-01

    Diagnostic and prescribing practices in otitis media vary, and audit is difficult because doctors may not see comparable cases. Seven general practitioners took part in a pilot study to discover if simulated patients evoked the same diagnostic and treatment responses as reveal patients. Forty-eight patients entered the study over three weeks and provided data for two simulations; one included the doctor's description of the ear and the other a photograph instead. Each doctor was shown the two sets of simulations and asked to state his diagnosis and treatment. The diagnoses each doctor reached agreed significantly with those reached on the simulations of the same patients. The decisions to prescribe antibiotics also showed good agreement. PMID:6793159

  9. The use of lectin microarray for assessing glycosylation of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-04-01

    Glycans or carbohydrates attached to therapeutic glycoproteins can directly affect product quality, safety and efficacy, and therefore must be adequately analyzed and controlled throughout product life cycles. However, the complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a lectin microarray for assessing protein glycans. Using commercial lectin chips, which contain 45 lectins toward distinct glycan structures, we were able to determine the lectin binding patterns of a panel of 15 therapeutic proteins, including 8 monoclonal antibodies. Lectin binding signals were analyzed to generate glycan profiles that were generally consistent with the known glycan patterns for these glycoproteins. In particular, the lectin-based microarray was found to be highly sensitive to variations in the terminal carbohydrate structures such as galactose versus sialic acid epitopes. These data suggest that lectin microarray could be used for screening glycan patterns of therapeutic glycoproteins. PMID:26918373

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using broth microdilution and molecular identification of their resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Sigrid; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Mair, Christiane; Huys, Geert; Aarts, Henk J M; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2010-11-15

    The range of antibiotic susceptibility to 13 antibiotics in 101 strains of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group was examined using the lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test medium (LSM) and broth microdilution. Additionally, microarray analysis and PCR were applied to identify resistance genes responsible for the displayed resistant phenotypes in a selection of strains. In general, narrow as well as broad unimodal and bimodal MIC distributions were observed for the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and the tested antimicrobial agents. Atypically resistant strains could be determined by visual inspection of the obtained MIC ranges for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, streptomycin and tetracycline. For most of these atypically resistant strains underlying resistance determinants were found. To our knowledge erm(A) was detected in lactobacilli for the first time within this study. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing present microbiological breakpoints for categorization of susceptible and resistant strains within the Lactobacillus acidophilus group to assess the safety of microorganisms intended for use in food and feed applications. PMID:20888656

  11. A Comprehensive Insight into Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailong Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively investigate tetracycline resistance in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in sludge cultured with different concentrations of tetracycline. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that tetracycline treatment greatly affected the bacterial community structure of the sludge. Nine genera consisting of Sulfuritalea, Armatimonas, Prosthecobacter, Hyphomicrobium, Azonexus, Longilinea, Paracoccus, Novosphingobium and Rhodobacter were identified as potential TRB in the sludge. Results of qPCR, molecular cloning and metagenomic analysis consistently indicated that tetracycline treatment could increase both the abundance and diversity of the tet genes, but decreased the occurrence and diversity of non-tetracycline ARG, especially sulfonamide resistance gene sul2. Cluster analysis showed that tetracycline treatment at subinhibitory concentrations (5 mg/L was found to pose greater effects on the bacterial community composition, which may be responsible for the variations of the ARGs abundance. This study indicated that joint use of 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used to explore ARB and ARGs in the environment, and future studies should include an in-depth investigation of the relationship between microbial community, ARGs and antibiotics in sewage treatment plant (STP sludge.

  12. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chloramphenicol antibiotics in animal feeds using subcritical water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linling; Yang, Hai; Zhang, Chunwei; Mo, Yulin; Lu, Xiaohua

    2008-06-30

    A rapid analytical method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chloramphenicol (CAP) antibiotics in animal feeds has been developed based on subcritical water extraction (SWE) without further sample clean-up followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. On extracting target antibiotics from spiked samples, the efficiency of the water extraction device was evaluated in terms of pH and volume of the extractant, temperature and time of the static extraction. The best extraction conditions were obtained by using 5.5 mL of water adjusted to pH 2 with hydrochloric acid as the extractant at 100 degrees C with 5-min static extraction. After filtration, 20 microL of the aqueous extract was directly injected into the HPLC column. Recoveries between 82.1% and 90.0% with relative standard deviations ranging between 1.6% and 4.8% were achieved from spiked animal feed samples by using this method. Compared with the traditional ultrasonic extraction, this procedure was remarkably more efficient in extracting OTC, TC and CAP, simpler to perform, and there was no use of toxic organic solvents. PMID:18539174

  13. Synthesis of crosslinked hydrogel polyethylene oxide and immobilization of antibiotic induced by using gamma radiation for wound dressing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study of the physico properties of crosslinked poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrogel produced by gamma and its potential use for drug release in order to be applied as a wound dressing. A crosslinked PEO hydrogel was prepared in the matrix form using PEO polymer via radiation polymerization. A series of PEO hydrogels with different compositions (1-7 % w/v) at an irradiation dose of 20-40 kGy were prepared. The gel content and swelling ratio studies were conducted by gravimetry. The maximum gel content of hydrogel ∼ 95 % at a dose of 40 kGy, and the swelling ratio maximum of 10-15 g/g was reached in about 8 h at the dose of 20 kGy. Drug release experiments were performed in a continually release system using model drug (tetracycline) loaded PEO hydrogel measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. A specific PEO hydrogel formulation possessing the highest PEO content (7 % w/v) and loaded with 10 mg antibiotic released range of 80-90 % of the total loaded drug in 24 h at pH 7.4 in distilled water. This hydrogels could be considered as a potential candidate for antibiotic carrier in wound dressing and or transdermal applications. (author)

  14. The study on the use of fragmented antibody for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was designed to develop the therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for therapy and diagnosis of cancer using fragmented antibodies. The major activities to be carried out are as follows: - exploration of the key angiogenic factors involved in cancer, - development of radiolabeled-compounds using antibody fragments for minimal toxicity - In vitro/vivo investigation on the targeting ability of RI labeled antibody fragment

  15. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. PMID:27252395

  16. Early Antibiotic Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis: More News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J De Waele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Early antibiotic treatment still remains a therapeutic challenge in the clinical management of acute pancreatitis and several papers have been published in this field [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. In particular, the antibiotic of choice in preventing the infection of pancreatic necrosis seems to be imipenem [4, 9, 10, 11, 13]. Subsequently, Manes et al. [15] have reported that meropenem, an antibiotic of the same family as imipenem having considerable stability in the presence of renal dehydropeptidase-I and enhanced activity against gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has an efficacy similar to imipenem in terms of the incidence of pancreatic infection and extrapancreatic infections. We have previously emphasized that further studies should be carried out to specifically decide on the optimal doses of meropenem in patients with acute pancreatitis and that there is a need for studies which answer the following questions. What should the timing of early antibiotic treatment be?. What are the resistant strains selected by meropenem?. Which are the nosocomial infections and fungal superinfections resulting from this new treatment? [16, 17]. These questions are still open and the study from Manes et al. is welcome to attempt to answer some of the aforementioned questions [18]. In this study, the authors compared antibiotic prophylaxis with early antibiotic treatment started after the demonstration of pancreatic necrosis. They studied 215 consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis who were randomized to either Group A (n=108, who started antibiotic therapy (meropenem 500 mg tid at admission, or Group B (n=107, who received antibiotics after computed tomography showed necrosis. C-reactive protein was determined in all patients within 48 hours from the onset of symptoms and computed tomography was performed in both groups after at least 48 h of hospitalization; the clinical course of disease was also compared

  17. Low in vitro third-body wear on total hip prostheses induced by calcium sulphate used for local antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, R; Wahl, P; Krieg, J; Gautier, E

    2014-01-01

    In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied - preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear. PMID:25340804

  18. Low in vitro third-body wear on total hip prostheses induced by calcium sulphate used for local antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Heuberger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied – preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear.

  19. [Antibiotical prophylaxy in gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhumenský, J; Menzlová, E; Zmrhal, J; Kučera, E

    2013-08-01

    Gynecological surgery is considered to be clear with possible contamination by gram-positive cocci from the skin, gram-negatives from the perineum or groins or polymicrobial biocenosis from vagina, depending on the surgical approach. Antibiotical prophylaxy enforces the natural mechanisms of immunity and helps to exclude present infection. There were presented many studies comparing useful effect of prophylaxis in gynecological surgery. The benefits of antibiotical prophylaxy before IUD insertion, before the cervical surgery and before hysteroscopies were not verified. On the other hand the prophylaxy of vaginal surgery including vaginal hysterectomy decreases the number of postoperative febrile complications. The positive influence of prophylaxis before the simple laparoscopy and laparoscopy without bowel injury or the opening of the vagina was not evidently verified. In abdominal hysterectomy the antibiotical prophylaxy decreases the incidence of postoperative complications significantly. The administration of 2 g of cefazolin can be recommended. In procedures taking more than 3 hours the repeated administration of cefazolin is suitable. New urogynecological procedures, using mesh implants, were not sufficiently evaluated as for postoperative infections and the posible antibiotical effect. The presence of implant in possibly non sterile area should be considered as high risc of postoperative complications. PMID:24040985

  20. Antibiotics in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range and number of interventional procedures is rapidly increasing each year. A major complication associated with many procedures is infection, which can result in serious adverse outcomes for the patient. Consequently, antibiotics are amongst the most common pharmaceuticals used by the interventionist, particularly for non-vascular procedures, yet almost no randomized controlled trial data exist to inform our decision when formulating appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the utilization of antibiotics for common interventional radiology procedures, focusing on timing and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis. - Highlights: • Prophylaxis when necessary should be given immediately prior to the procedure for optimum effect. • Where possible single agents with a narrow spectrum of activity should be used. • Account should be taken of the clinical circumstances of the patient, including surgical history. • Continuous review of agents is necessary, ideally with input from the local microbiology department. • The importance of maximum sterile precautions cannot be overstated

  1. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  2. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  3. Optimizing Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods for Protein Quality, Cost, and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jacklyn; Callaghan, Meghan

    2016-03-01

    This article describes current research on the development of alternative ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) in the treatment of severe acute malnutrition. An innovative and versatile linear programming tool has been developed to facilitate the creation of therapeutic formulas that are determined acceptable on multiple levels: costs, ingredient acceptability, availability and stability, nutrient requirements, and personal preferences. The formulas are analyzed for ease of production by Washington University team members and for organoleptic properties acceptability to target populations. In the future, RUTF products that are cost-effective, acceptable, sustainable, and widely available will become a reality. PMID:26864957

  4. Synergistic antimicrobial activity between pentacyclic triterpenoids and antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaratnam Parasakthi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable effort to discover plant-derived antibacterials against methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA which have developed resistance to most existing antibiotics, including the last line of defence, vancomycin. Pentacyclic triterpenoid, a biologically diverse plant-derived natural product, has been reported to show anti-staphylococcal activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between three pentacyclic triterpenoid and standard antibiotics (methicillin and vancomycin against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods and Results The activity of the standard antibiotics and compounds on reference methicillin-sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus were determined using the macrodilution broth method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the compounds was compared with that of the standard antibiotics. The interaction between any two antimicrobial agents was estimated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of the combination. The various combinations of antibiotics and compounds reduced the MIC to a range of 0.05 to 50%. Conclusion Pentacyclic triterpenoids have shown anti-staphylococcal activities and although individually weaker than common antibiotics produced from bacteria and fungi, synergistically these compounds may use different mechanism of action or pathways to exert their antimicrobial effects, as implicated in the lowered MICs. Therefore, the use of current antibiotics could be maintained in their combination with plant-derived antibacterial agents as a therapeutic option in the treatment of S. aureus infections.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mehr-Movahed

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  6. [Co-occurrent cannabis and tobacco uses: Clinical knowledge and therapeutic prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Gillet, Claudine; Bisch, Michaël; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis and tobacco are two of the most prevalent addictive drugs used worldwide. Concurrent use of cannabis and tobacco is common, whether simultaneous in joints or not. In France, cannabis is mainly used in joints also containing tobacco. According to the current literature, combined use of cannabis and tobacco exacerbates on additive or multiplicative mode the somatic, psychological and social consequences of each drug. In addition, concurrent use of cannabis and tobacco potentiates tobacco and cannabis dependence, which maintains the use of both drugs, increases the risk of relapse and reduces motivation to care. Combined use thus leads to a reduced likelihood of therapeutic success. We discuss the usefulness of simultaneous cessation treatment together with the use of currently available pharmacological and psychological help as valuable therapeutic tools. PMID:27235655

  7. Advanced trends in controlling Helicobacter pylori infections using functional and therapeutically supplements in baby milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Gamal M; Taha, Tarek H; El-Deeb, Nehal M; Alshehri, Ali M A

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen infecting about 30 % of children and 60 % of adults worldwide. It is responsible for diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori treatment based on antibiotics with proton pump inhibitor, but therapy failure is shown to be higher than 20 % and is essentially due to an increasing in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which has led to the search for alternative therapies. In this study, we discuss the usage of natural extracts mixture as alternative or complementary agents in controlling H. pylori infection so here, we focused on the plant extracts of (Cloves, Pepper, Cumin, Sage, Pomegranate peel, Ginger, Myrrh and Licorice). To that end, Phytochemical constituents detection like Tannins, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Saponins, Phenolic compounds, Reducing sugars, Volatile oils, Amino acids and Proteins was demonstrated. Each plant extract was examined individually or in combination for its antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. Out of the used extracts, four mixes were prepared and tested against H. pylori. The antibacterial activities of the four mixes, represented by the diameter of inhibition clear zone, recorded 21, 39, 23 and 28 mm. The most potent mix (mix2) was chosen and mixed with baby milk as a new combination for H. pylori infections treatment in babies. PMID:26604389

  8. Modulation of RNA function by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, R; Waldsich, C; Wank, H

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important families of antibiotics are the aminoglycosides, including drugs such as neomycin B, paromomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. With the discovery of the catalytic potential of RNA, these antibiotics became very popular due to their RNA-binding capacity. They serve for the analysis of RNA function as well as for the study of RNA as a potential therapeutic target. Improvements in RNA structure determination recently provided first insights into the decoding site of the...

  9. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick I. Mackie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  10. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  11. The Use of Therapeutic Stories in Counseling Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse…

  12. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children: Lessons learned from ready-to-use therapeutic foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are solid foods that were developed by changing the formulation of the existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The ...

  13. Differences in abuse potential of ADHD drugs measured by contrasting poison centre and therapeutic use data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Dalhoff, Kim Peder

    2015-01-01

    that of methylphenidate (MPH). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data on enquiries were extracted from the Danish Poison Information Centre database (January 2006 to June 2012), while data on therapeutic use were provided by the Danish State Serum Institute (2007-2011). RESULTS: The study included 28 ATX and 394...

  14. Methadone: The Drug and Its Therapeutic Uses In the Treatment of Addiction. Series 31, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This fact sheet from the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information discusses methadone, a therapeutic drug for the treatment of narcotic addiction. It reviews the pharmacology of the drug as well as physiological and psychological effects, patterns of use, and adverse effects (toxicity and poisoning). It examines the success rates of…

  15. Is degradable antibiotic coating for synthetic meshes provide protection against experimental animal infection after fascia repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letouzey, Vincent; Lavigne, Jean Philippe; Garric, Xavier; Coudane, Jean; de Tayrac, Renaud; Callaghan, David O

    2012-02-01

    The surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse using synthetic mesh can fail because of slow or partial implant integration due to poor biocompatibility or infection. As systemic antibiotic prophylaxis has only limited success, we have developed a system that coats standard polypropylene mesh with clinically relevant antibiotics. Amoxicillin and ofloxacin are both released from the mesh in vitro at high levels over 3 days, preventing adhesion and biofilm formation by a clinical isolate of E. coli. In an in vivo incisional hernia repair model in rats, the antibiotic-coated mesh results in appropriate tissue integration with adequate vascularization and collagen formation. When implanted animals are infected with virulent E. coli, both antibiotic coatings provide full protection against infection (as assessed both clinically and microbiologically), thus demonstrating their bioavailability. This method is a specific approach for producing a therapeutic coating that could reduce postsurgical infections. PMID:22102417

  16. The therapeutic use of endoscopic ultrasonography in pediatric patients is safe: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Despite the safety and high diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA for the evaluation of gastrointestinal diseases in adults, literature discussing the therapeutic use of EUS FNA in pediatrics remains limited. This study reports our experience with the use of EUS in children with pancreaticobiliary disorders. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate safety, clinical utility, and impact of therapeutic EUS on the management of children (<18 years at a tertiary referral center. Data were collected from January 1, 2011, to April 30, 2014. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and EUS procedure data were reviewed. Continuous variables were described using the mean and standard deviation. Categorical variables were described using frequencies and percentages. Results: A total of 6 therapeutic EUS procedures were performed in 5 children (3 F/2 M. The mean age was 13 years (range 6–17 with a mean body mass index of 28.2 (range 18.5–38.8. The indications for EUS procedures were abdominal pain with chronic pancreatitis (3 and management of symptomatic pancreaticobiliary cysts/pseudocysts observed on previous imaging (3. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. The 6 therapeutic procedures performed were celiac plexus block (3, cyst gastrostomy with stents placement (2, and cyst aspiration using EUS FNA (1. A celiac plexus block effectively relieved abdominal pain in 2 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Cyst gastrostomy successfully resulted in pseudocyst resolution in the follow up imaging of 2 patients (up to 6 months after the procedure. Cyst aspiration with EUS guided FNA resulted in cyst resolution and confirmation of the benign nature of the cyst in 1 patient. All the procedures were successfully completed with no reported complications. Conclusion: The therapeutic use of endoscopic ultrasound in the pediatric population is safe and

  17. Transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria from animals to man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Bager, Flemming

    Antibiotic resistance develops in zoonotic bacteria in response to antibiotics used in food animals. A close association exists between the amounts of antibiotics used and the levels of resistance observed. The classes of antibiotics routinely used for treatment of human infections are also used ...

  18. Use of antibiotic cement-impregnated intramedullary nail in treatment of infected non-union of long bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In cases with infected non-union, the primary step is eradication of the infection before attempting to achieve union. Release of antibiotics from the bone cement at a high concentration and its penetration to the surrounding tissues, including cortical and cancellous bone, prompted the use of antibiotic cement in the control of bone infection. The aim of this study is to summarize our experience with the use of antibiotic cement-impregnated intramedullary nail (ACIIN for control of infection in cases of infected non-union with bone defect. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 25 cases of infected non-union (23 femora and two tibiae. There were 24 males and one female, with the mean age being 33 years (range, 21-58 years. All patients had high-velocity road traffic accidents except one patient who had farmland injury. There were seven closed fractures, one grade I compound, two grade II compound fractures, five grade IIIA compound fractures, and 10 grade IIIB compound fractures. ACIIN was used in all cases after adequate debridement. Patients were classified according to the amount of bone defect present after debridement: group 1 with bone defect < 4 cm (n=13, group 2 with bone defect ≥4-< 6 cm (n=7, and group 3 with bone defect ≥6 cm (n=5. Infection control was judged on the basis of discharge through the wound and laboratory parameters. All patients were followed-up, with an average follow-up time of 29 months (range, 18-40 months. The mean duration of retention of the intramedullary rod was 8 weeks (range, 6-12 weeks. Results: In group 1, all cases achieved infection control, with three patients achieving bone union without any need of secondary procedure. In group 2, all cases achieved infection control but the time taken was significantly longer than for group 1 (p-value 0.0002. All the cases required a secondary procedure in the form of either interlocking intramedullary nailing with iliac crest bone graft or

  19. Antibiotic use and clinical outcomes in the acute setting under management by an infectious diseases acute physician versus other clinical teams: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicola; Mistry, Vikash; Crook, Derrick; Peto, Tim; Walker, A Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the magnitude of difference in antibiotic use between clinical teams in the acute setting and assess evidence for any adverse consequences to patient safety or healthcare delivery. Design Prospective cohort study (1 week) and analysis of linked electronic health records (3 years). Setting UK tertiary care centre. Participants All patients admitted sequentially to the acute medical service under an infectious diseases acute physician (IDP) and other medical teams during 1 week in 2013 (n=297), and 3 years 2012–2014 (n=47 585). Primary outcome measure Antibiotic use in days of therapy (DOT): raw group metrics and regression analysis adjusted for case mix. Secondary outcome measures 30-day all-cause mortality, treatment failure and length of stay. Results Antibiotic use was 173 vs 282 DOT/100 admissions in the IDP versus non-IDP group. Using case mix-adjusted zero-inflated Poisson regression, IDP patients were significantly less likely to receive an antibiotic (adjusted OR=0.25 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.84), p=0.03) and received shorter courses (adjusted rate ratio (RR)=0.71 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.93), p=0.01). Clinically stable IDP patients of uncertain diagnosis were more likely to have antibiotics held (87% vs 55%; p=0.02). There was no significant difference in treatment failure or mortality (adjusted p>0.5; also in the 3-year data set), but IDP patients were more likely to be admitted overnight (adjusted OR=3.53 (95% CI 1.24 to 10.03), p=0.03) and have longer length of stay (adjusted RR=1.19 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.36), p=0.007). Conclusions The IDP-led group used 30% less antibiotic therapy with no adverse clinical outcome, suggesting antibiotic use can be reduced safely in the acute setting. This may be achieved in part by holding antibiotics and admitting the patient for observation rather than prescribing, which has implications for costs and hospital occupancy. More information is needed to indicate whether any such longer admission will

  20. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP, can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.

  1. Antibiotic use: a cross-sectional survey assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices amongst students of a school of medicine in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Scaioli

    Full Text Available Since antibiotic resistance has become a worldwide public health concern and is in part related to physicians' lack of knowledge, it is essential to focus our attention on healthcare profession students. The present study aims at evaluating the knowledge and attitudes of the School of Medicine's students towards antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance.In December 2013, a cross sectional study was conducted amongst medical, dental, nursing and other health care profession students of the School of Medicine at the University of Torino. Students of all the academic years took part in this study. Questionnaires were submitted during regular lectures (only students who attended courses on one specific day were surveyed and the data collected was analyzed using StataMP11 statistical software.Overall, 1,050 students were interviewed. The response rate was 100%. Around 20% of the sample stated that antibiotics are appropriate for viral infections and 15% of the students that they stop taking those drugs when symptoms decrease. Results of the multivariate analyses showed that females were more likely than males to take antibiotics only when prescribed (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.04-1.98. Interestingly, students with a relative working in a health-related field, as well as those who took at least one course of antibiotics in the last year, had a lower probability of taking those drugs only under prescription (OR = 0.69 95% CI: 0.49-0.97 and OR = 0.38 95% CI: 0.27-0.53, respectively.The present paper shows how healthcare profession students do not practice what they know. Since those students will be a behavioral model for citizens and patients, it is important to generate more awareness around this issue throughout their studies. It would be advisable to introduce a specific course and training on antibiotics in the core curriculum of the School of Medicine.

  2. Predicting antibiotic prescription after symptomatic treatment for urinary tract infection: development of a model using data from an RCT in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gágyor, Ildikó; Haasenritter, Jörg; Bleidorn, Jutta; McIsaac, Warren; Schmiemann, Guido; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is often treated with antibiotics, resulting in increasing resistance levels. A randomised controlled trial showed that two-thirds of females with UTI treated symptomatically recovered without subsequent antibiotic treatment. Aim To investigate whether there are differences between females with a UTI who were subsequently prescribed antibiotics and those who recovered with symptomatic treatment only, and to develop a model to predict those who can safely and effectively be treated symptomatically. Design and setting This is a subgroup analysis of females assigned to ibuprofen in a UTI trial in general practices. Method Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to select variables for a prediction model, The discriminative value of the model was estimated by the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) and the effects of different thresholds were calculated within the model predicting antibiotic prescription and need for follow-up visits. Results Of the 235 females in the ibuprofen group, 79 were subsequently prescribed antibiotics within 28 days of follow-up. The final model included five predictors: urgency/frequency, impaired daily activities, and positive dipstick test results for erythrocytes, leucocytes, and nitrite. The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.80). A reasonable threshold for antibiotic initiation would result in 58% of females presenting with UTI being treated with antibiotics. Of the remaining females, only 6% would return to the practice because of symptomatic treatment failure. Conclusion The present model revealed moderately good accuracy and could be the basis for a decision aid for GPs and females to find the treatment option that fits best. PMID:26965031

  3. [History of the therapeutic uses of the tinder polypore, Fomes fomentarius (L. : Fr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Bertrand; Rapior, Sylvie; Charlot, Colette; Masson, Christian-Louis; Boutié, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the major therapeutic uses of Fomes fomentarius (L. : Fr.) Fr., tinder polypore. The context of this fungus is a wooly and soft material so called amadou (tinder). During the XVIII and XIXth centuries, the fungal material was used as haemostatic dressing and bandage to keep the temperature and compress parts of the body. It was also used as cautery for moxibustion and was reported in several traditional pharmacopoeias (Hungarian, Chinese, Indian). PMID:12712985

  4. Asklepian dreaming and the spirit of transformational healing: linking the placebo response to therapeutic uses of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mick

    2013-03-01

    Asklepian medicine - as an archetype of healing - was underpinned by therapeutic uses of self, which, if understood, could be beneficial to modern healthcare. It is being proposed in this article that therapeutic uses of self from instrumental, authentic and transpersonal perspectives could support the process of endogenous healing. Such therapeutic uses of self could play a pivotal role in activating and enhancing the potential for placebo responses, with spiritual significance. PMID:22610757

  5. Offline Controlling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resistant to protein Inhibitor Antibiotics Using Combination of EDTA and Na- citrate or Disinfectant (s)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amro Abd Al Fattah Amara; Mohamed Zakaria Hussein

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa recognized as opportunistic pathogen causes severe infections for hospitalized patients, survive in and resist many antimicrobial agents like antibiotics and disinfectants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of EDTA in improving the sensitivity of resistant P. aeruginosa strains to disinfectants and Na-citrate. The strains used in this study were selected in house from Tanta University hospital, Egypt and tested for the synergistic effect of EDTA with Na-citrate or disinfectant (s). The results showed a significant effect ofEDTA in improving P. aeruginosa sensitivity. In conclusion, we proposed that using EDTA in combination with different sanitization compounds and antimicrobial agentsespecially in hospitals aiming to control the spreading of infections.

  6. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners. PMID:17046966

  7. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  8. Detecting bacteria and Determining Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Stochastic Confinement in Nanoliter Droplets using Plug-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R

    2008-01-01

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  9. Manual on therapeutic uses of iodine-131. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is part of practical radiation safety manual series for different fields of application aimed primarily at persons handling radiation sources on a daily routine basis, which could at same time be used by the competent authorities, supporting their efforts in the radiation protection training of workers or medical assistance personnel or helping on-site management to set up local radiation protection rules. It is dedicated to therapeutic uses of Iodine-131: its application and procedures guides

  10. Prescription audit of patients attendees in public health facilities in Maharashtra, India with special reference to rational use of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddhao Gawande

    2015-12-01

    Results: This exercise showed that there is a scope for improvement in prescribing patterns in areas of writing generic names of drugs, essential drugs, writing legible and complete prescriptions. Conclusions: The present study clearly indicates that there is a great need of interventions like distribution of antibiotic guidelines and running workshops and seminars on rational drug use to prescribers to improve the prescribing behaviour in the state of Maharashtra. This can be enforced through introducing such concepts and those of rational prescribing in curriculum of medical schools. E-prescriptions can be started in E-Aushadhi software with periodic clinical meetings to learn from the evidence. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3655-3664

  11. Determination of selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River, South China using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Weihai [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510250 (China); Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Post-graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]. E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.cn; Zou Shichun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510250 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu Yuchun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510250 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Nine selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour of Hong Kong and the Pearl River at Guangzhou, South China, were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of antibiotics were mainly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the marine water of Victoria Harbour. However, except for amoxicillin, all of the antibiotics were detected in the Pearl River during high and low water seasons with the median concentrations ranging from 11 to 67 ng/L, and from 66 to 460 ng/L, respectively; and the concentrations in early spring were about 2-15 times higher than that in summer with clearer diurnal variations. It was suggested that the concentrations of antibiotics in the high water season were more affected by wastewater production cycles due to quick refreshing rate, while those in the low water season may be more sensitive to the water column dynamics controlled by tidal processes in the river. - Antibiotics were found at high concentrations in an urban reach of Pearl River in southern China with contrast diurnal variations between the high and low water seasons.

  12. Determination of selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River, South China using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour of Hong Kong and the Pearl River at Guangzhou, South China, were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of antibiotics were mainly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the marine water of Victoria Harbour. However, except for amoxicillin, all of the antibiotics were detected in the Pearl River during high and low water seasons with the median concentrations ranging from 11 to 67 ng/L, and from 66 to 460 ng/L, respectively; and the concentrations in early spring were about 2-15 times higher than that in summer with clearer diurnal variations. It was suggested that the concentrations of antibiotics in the high water season were more affected by wastewater production cycles due to quick refreshing rate, while those in the low water season may be more sensitive to the water column dynamics controlled by tidal processes in the river. - Antibiotics were found at high concentrations in an urban reach of Pearl River in southern China with contrast diurnal variations between the high and low water seasons

  13. Is the medical use of cannabis a therapeutic option for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a psychoactive compound with a long history of recreational and therapeutic use. Current considerations regarding cannabis use for medical purposes in children have been stimulated by recent case reports describing its beneficial effect with refractory epilepsy. Overall, there are insufficient data to support either the efficacy or safety of cannabis use for any indications in children, and an increasing body of data suggests possible harm, most importantly in specific conditions. The potential for cannabis as a therapeutic agent must be evaluated carefully for both efficacy and safety in treating specific paediatric health conditions. Smoking is not an acceptable mode of drug delivery for children. The use of cannabis for medical purposes in specific cases should not be construed as a justification for recreational cannabis use by adolescents. Recommendations for therapeutic use in exceptional paediatric cases are offered, always providing that this treatment course is carefully evaluated in individuals and in ongoing, well-designed research studies to determine safety and efficacy. PMID:26941559

  14. Veterinary antibiotics in animal waste, its distribution in soil and uptake by plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasho, Reep Pandi; Cho, Jae Yong

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock farming is and has been, a common practice worldwide. These bioactive organic compounds have short retention period and partial uptake into the animal system. The uptake effects of this pharmaceutics, with plants as the primary focus, has not been reviewed so far. This review addresses three main concerns 1) the extensive use of veterinary antibiotics in livestock farming, 2) disposal of animal waste containing active biosolids and 3) effects of veterinary antibiotics in plants. Depending upon the plant species and the antibiotic used, the response can be phytotoxic, hormetic as well as mutational. Additionally, the physiological interactions that make the uptake of these compounds relatively easy have also been discussed. High water solubility, longer half-lives, and continued introduction make them relatively persistent in the environment. Lastly, some prevention measures that can help limit their impact on the environment have been reviewed. There are three methods of control: treatment of animal manure before field application, an alternative bio-agent for disease treatment and a well targeted legalized use of antibiotics. Limiting the movement of these biosolids in the environment can be a challenge because of their varying physiological interactions. Electron irradiation and supervised inoculation of beneficial microorganisms can be effective remediation strategies. Thus, extensive future research should be focused in this area. PMID:27139307

  15. Should India Use Commercially Produced Ready To Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF For Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    radha holla

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, nearly 20 million children under five suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM, a condition which contributes to one million child deaths annually. In India 48% of children under five years of age are stunted and 43 percent are underweight; almost 8 million suffer from SAM. Malnutrition is not a new problem in India, nor is SAM. Several hospitals and non-government organizations are engaged in community-based management of malnutrition using locally produced/procured and locally processed foods along with intensive nutrition education. These programs enable parents to meet the nutritional requirements of their children with foods that are available at low cost. The Supreme Court of India has also directed the government to universalize the Integrated Child Development Scheme and provide one hot cooked meal to children under six years of age to supplement their nutrition. The blame for the increasing number of severely malnourish children can be laid at the door of policies that have destroyed poor people’s access to food. Nonetheless, there is urgent need to ensure that these children do not die; that they recover and maintain a healthy nutritional status. The current thinking – that a centrally produced and processed Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF should supplant the locally prepared indigenous foods in treatment of SAM – ignores the multiple causes of malnutrition and destroys the diversity of potential solutions based on locally available foods. This position paper has been drafted by Dr. Vandana Prasad, Radha Holla and Dr. Arun Gupta, members of the Working Group for Children Under Six – a joint effort of Jan Swasthya Abhiyan (People’s Health Movement – India and the Right to Food Campaign which been advocating for the last three years with the Indian government for decentralized and community-based strategies to combat and prevent malnutrition in children.

  16. Antibiotics in dental practice

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The oral cavity and it surrounding tissue are habitats for many bacteria. Therefore a rationale for the use of antibacterial agents rises. During my time as a dental student, me often meet conditions were antibiotics are pointed out as the treatment of chose, as indicated or not recommended. According to Norwegian drug regulations (Tørisen 2007) dentists have: The right to requisition necessary medical agents in connection with dental treatment and prevention and treatment of diseases in the...

  17. Situation Songs - Therapeutic Intentions and Use in Music Therapy with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kolar-Borsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180. According to Plahl & Koch-Temming the term situation song describes an improvised song, which is sung by the therapist or/and the child and which relates to the actual occurrence and the therapeutic relationship. The presented study focuses on the therapist’s singing only. The study was conducted in stages: An elaboration of the first author’s clinical experience with situation songs (preunderstandings, a systematic analysis of relevant literature, followed by semi-structured interviews with three music therapists from Denmark, Austria and Germany. A flexible investigation approach was used, following hermeneutic principles. The findings of the study show that situation songs are regularly used by pediatric music therapists, especially during the work with children at an early developmental age. The various intentions behind the use of situation songs can be summarized as such: to create a therapeutic space; to support the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process of the master thesis.

  18. Tracking and quantifying polymer therapeutic distribution on a cellular level using 3D dSTORM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jonathan M; Zhang, Rui; Gudheti, Manasa; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2016-06-10

    We used a single-molecule localization technique called direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to quantify both colocalization and spatial distribution on a cellular level for two conceptually different N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates. Microscopy images were acquired of entire cells with resolutions as high as 25nm revealing the nanoscale distribution of the fluorescently labeled therapeutic components. Drug-free macromolecular therapeutics consisting of two self-assembling nanoconjugates showed slight increase in nanoclusters on the cell surface with time. Additionally, dSTORM provided high resolution images of the nanoscale organization of the self-assembling conjugates at the interface between two cells. A conjugate designed for treating ovarian cancer showed that the model drug (Cy3) and polymer bound to Cy5 were colocalized at an early time point before the model drug was enzymatically cleaved from the polymer. Using spatial descriptive statistics it was found that the drug was randomly distributed after 24h while the polymer bound dye remained in clusters. Four different fluorescent dyes were used and two different therapeutic systems were tested to demonstrate the versatility and possible general applicability of dSTORM for use in studying drug delivery systems. PMID:26855050

  19. Penetration barrier contributes to bacterial biofilm-associated resistance against only select antibiotics, and exhibits genus-, strain- and antibiotic-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rachna; Sahore, Simmi; Kaur, Preetinder; Rani, Alka; Ray, Pallab

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are implicated in a wide range of implant-based and chronic infections. These infections are often associated with adverse therapeutic outcomes, owing to the decreased antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms compared with their planktonic counterparts. This altered biofilm susceptibility has been attributed to multiple factors, including a reduced antibiotic penetration. Although several studies have addressed the role of penetration barrier in biofilm-associated drug resistance, it remains inconclusive. This study was done to elucidate antibiotic penetration through biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using an agar disk diffusion assay. Penetration capacity of six antimicrobial drugs from different classes (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, fluoroquinolones and glycopeptides) through biofilms formed by standard strains and clinical isolates from catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was elucidated by measuring their growth-inhibition zones in lawn cultures on Mueller-Hinton agar, following diffusion of an antibiotic from an overlying disk through their biofilm to the agar medium. Penetration of only select antimicrobials (vancomycin and chloramphenicol) was hindered through biofilms. There was considerable variation in biofilm-permeating capacity depending upon the genus, strain/CRBSI isolate and antibiotic tested. Furthermore, antibiotics failed to kill the biofilm cells independent of penetration, indicating that other factors contributed substantially to biofilm resistance. PMID:27402781

  20. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  1. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ihara@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  2. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  3. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli, A; Rubini, A.; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases...

  4. Therapeutic techniques and their use for children with disabilities at school age

    OpenAIRE

    Kolářová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis are therapheutical techniques and the way they are used in helping school-age children with disabilities. The theoretical part of this thesis defines the terms "therapy", "therapist" and ?comprehensive rehabilitation system?. Comprehensive rehabilitation system comprises not only occupational, social and pedagogical resources, but primarily also therapeutic resources that include (but are not limited to) therapies (e.g. ergotherapy, animal-assisted therapy, m...

  5. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-08-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097

  6. Using Decision Trees to Characterize Verbal Communication During Change and Stuck Episodes in the Therapeutic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo eMasías

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for creating models to characterize verbal communication between therapists and their patients that are suitable for teaching purposes without losing analytical potential. A technique meeting these twin requirements is proposed that uses decision trees to identify both change and stuck episodes in therapist-patient communication. Three decision tree algorithms (C4.5, NBtree, and REPtree are applied to the problem of characterizing verbal responses into change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process. The data for the problem is derived from a corpus of 8 successful individual therapy sessions with 1,760 speaking turns in a psychodynamic context. The decision tree model that performed best was generated by the C4.5 algorithm. It delivered 15 rules characterizing the verbal communication in the two types of episodes. Decision trees are a promising technique for analyzing verbal communication during significant therapy events and have much potential for use in teaching practice on changes in therapeutic communication. The development of pedagogical methods using decision trees can support the transmission of academic knowledge to therapeutic practice.

  7. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  8. Reducing Parental Demand for Antibiotics by Promoting Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Stephen C.; Trunnell, Eric P.; White, George L., Jr.; Lyon, Joseph L.; Reading, James P.; Samore, Matthew H.; Magill, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria are continuing to emerge as high rates of antibiotic use persist. Children are among the highest users of antibiotics, with parents influencing physician decision-making regarding antibiotic prescription. An intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to reduce parents' expectations for antibiotics…

  9. Penetration of an artificial arterial thromboembolism in a live animal using an intravascular therapeutic microrobot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Semi; Choi, Hyunchul; Go, Gwangjun; Lee, Cheong; Lim, Kyung Seob; Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho

    2016-04-01

    The biomedical applications of wireless robots are an active area of study. In addition to moving to a target lesion, wireless locomotive robots can deliver a therapeutic drug for a specific disease. Thus, they hold great potential as therapeutic devices in blood vessel diseases, such as thrombi and occlusions, and in other diseases, such as cancer and inflammation. During a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), surgeons wear a heavy shielding cloth. However, they cannot escape severe radiation exposure owing to unstable shielding. They may also suffer from joint pains because of the weight of the shielding cloth. In addition, the catheters in PCIs are controlled by the surgeon's hand. Thus, they lack steering ability. A new intravascular therapeutic system is needed to address these problems in conventional PCIs. We developed an intravascular therapeutic microrobot system (ITMS) using an electromagnetic actuation (EMA) system with bi-plane X-ray devices that can remotely control a robot in blood vessels. Using this proposed ITMS, we demonstrated the locomotion of the robot in abdominal and iliac arteries of a live pig by the master-slave method. After producing an arterial thromboembolism in a live pig in a partial iliac artery, the robot moved to the target lesion and penetrated by specific motions (twisting and hammering) of the robot using the proposed ITMS. The results reveal that the proposed ITMS can realize stable locomotion (alignment and propulsion) of a robot in abdominal and iliac arteries of a live pig. This can be considered the first preclinical trial of the treatment of an artificial arterial thromboembolism by penetration of a blood clot. PMID:26857290

  10. Biomaterial constructs for delivery of multiple therapeutic genes: a spatiotemporal evaluation of efficacy using molecular beacons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Alexander

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is emerging as a potential therapeutic approach for cardiovascular pathogenesis. An appropriate therapy may require multiple genes to enhance therapeutic outcome by modulating inflammatory response and angiogenesis in a controlled and time-dependent manner. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the spatiotemporal efficacy of a dual-gene therapy model based on 3D collagen scaffolds loaded with the therapeutic genes interleukin 10 (IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, a promoter of angiogenesis. A collagen-based scaffold loaded with plasmid IL-10 polyplexes and plasmid eNOS polyplexes encapsulated into microspheres was used to transfect HUVECs and HMSCs cells.The therapeutic efficacy of the system was monitored at 2, 7 and 14 days for eNOS and IL-10 mRNA expression using RT-PCR and live cell imaging molecular beacon technology. The dual gene releasing collagen-based scaffold provided both sustained and delayed release of functional polyplexes in vitro over a 14 day period which was corroborated with variation in expression levels seen using RT-PCR and MB imaging. Maximum fold increases in IL-10 mRNA and eNOS mRNA expression levels occurred at day 7 in HMSCs and HUVECs. However, IL-10 mRNA expression levels seemed dependent on frequency of media changes and/or ease of transfection of the cell type. It was demonstrated that molecular beacons are able to monitor changes in mRNA levels at various time points, in the presence of a 3D scaffolding gene carrier system and the results complemented those of RT-PCR.

  11. Epidemiological Interpretation of Studies Examining the Effect of Antibiotic Usage on Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Schechner, V.; Temkin, E.; Harbarth, S.; Carmeli, Y; Schwaber, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing clinical problem and public health threat. Antibiotic use is a known risk factor for the emergence of antibiotic resistance, but demonstrating the causal link between antibiotic use and resistance is challenging. This review describes different study designs for assessing the association between antibiotic use and resistance and discusses strengths and limitations of each. Approaches to measuring antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance are pre...

  12. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kapoor; Ranjan Malhotra; Vishakha Grover; Deepak Grover

    2012-01-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, pr...

  13. Antibiotic Adjuvants: Diverse Strategies for Controlling Drug-Resistant Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Erin E.; Franco, Octavio L.; Robert E. W. Hancock

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to numerous antibiotics is a cause for concern around the globe. There have been no new broad-spectrum antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, and the drugs we have currently are quickly becoming ineffective. In this article, we explore a range of therapeutic strategies that could be employed in conjunction with antibiotics and may help to prolong the life span of these life-saving drugs. Discussed topics include antiresistance ...

  14. New therapeutic approaches for treatment of tularaemia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eBOISSET

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic treatment of tularaemia is based on a few drugs, including the fluoroquinolones, the tetracyclines and the aminoglycosides. Because no effective and safe vaccine is currently available, tularaemia prophylaxis following proven exposure to F. tularensis also relies on administration of antibiotics. A number of reasons make it necessary to search for new therapeutic alternatives: the potential toxicity of first-line drugs, especially in children and pregnant women; a high rate of treatment relapses and failures, especially for severe and/or suppurated forms of the disease; and the possible use of antibiotic-resistant strains in the context of a biological threat. This review presents novel therapeutic approaches that have been explored in recent years to improve tularaemia patients’ management and prognosis. First, the activities of newly available antibiotic compounds were evaluated against F. tularensis, including tigecycline (a glycylcycline, ketolides (telithromycin and cethromycin and fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin. The liposome delivery of some antibiotics was evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial peptides against F. tularensis was also considered. Other drugs were evaluated for their ability to suppress the intracellular multiplication of F. tularensis. The effects of the modulation of the innate immune response (especially via TLR receptors on the course of F. tularensis infection were characterized. Another approach was the administration of specific antibodies to induce passive resistance to F. tularensis infection. All of these studies highlight the need to develop new therapeutic strategies to improve the management of patients with tularaemia. Many possibilities exist, some unexplored. Moreover, it is likely that new therapeutic alternatives that are effective against this intracellular pathogen could be, at least partially, extrapolated to other human pathogens.

  15. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R; Panda, S; Singh, D V

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure. PMID:23183460

  16. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.;

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal beta-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute...... to the survival of biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. A promising strategy may be the use of enzymes that can dissolve the biofilm matrix (e.g. DNase and alginate lyase) as well as quorum...

  17. Erythemal and therapeutic response of psoriasis to PUVA using high-dose UVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In PUVA treatment of psoriasis, clinical observation suggests that uninvolved skin is more susceptible to PUVA erythema than lesions of psoriasis. If this is the case, then the efficacy of PUVA treatment might be increased by using localized high-dose UVA restricted to lesional skin. We have therefore studied the erythemal and therapeutic response of psoriasis to PUVA using high-dose UVA and, for comparison, the erythemal response to UVB. This study demonstrates that psoriasis may clear rapidly, without burning, using high-dose UVA. Availability of a suitable irradiation apparatus would allow rapid and effective PUVA treatment to be used for localized, resistant disease. (author)

  18. Empirical use of antibiotic therapy in the prevention of early onset sepsis in neonates: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Manan, Mohamed Mansor; Ibrahim, Nazedah Ain; Aziz, Noorizan Abd; Zulkifly, Hanis Hanum; Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed Ali; Long, Chiau Ming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To identify and assess the characteristics, risk and outcome of neonates treated with empiric antibiotics for suspected early onset sepsis (EOS). Material and methods This is a retrospective study conducted at a Malaysian government hospital. Records of neonatal patients admitted within 72 h of life and prescribed with empirical antibiotic therapy for suspected EOS were reviewed. Results Three hundred and twenty-three cases met the inclusion criteria and were divided into gestati...

  19. Use of Hydrogen as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy Against Photoreceptor Degeneration in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Geng, Lei; Wang, Liqiang; Xu, Weiwei; Qin, Limin; Peng, Guanghua; Huang, Yi Fei; Yang, Ji xue

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by progressive photoreceptor apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as critical initiators of the photoreceptor apoptosis in RP. Photoreceptor survival in RP mutants will not only require the inhibition of effectors of apoptotic machinery, but also the elimination of the initiating upstream signals, such as ROS. These cytotoxic ROS should be neutralized by the antioxidant defense system, otherwise they would interact with the macromolecules essential for photoreceptor survival. Hydrogen is a promising gaseous agent that has come to the forefront of therapeutic research over the last few years. It has been verified that hydrogen is capable of neutralizing the cytotoxic ROS selectively, rectifying abnormities in the apoptotic cascades, and attenuating the related inflammatory response. Hydrogen is so mild that it does not disturb the metabolic oxidation-reduction reactions or disrupt the physiologic ROS involved in cell signaling. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that hydrogen might be an effective therapeutic agent to slow or prevent photoreceptor degeneration in RP retinas. It is a logical step to test hydrogen for therapeutic use in multiple RP animal models, and ultimately in human RP patients. PMID:26952558

  20. What is the evidence to support the use of therapeutic gardens for the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B; Sharma, Taral; Detweiler, Jonna G; Murphy, Pamela F; Lane, Sandra; Carman, Jack; Chudhary, Amara S; Halling, Mary H; Kim, Kye Y

    2012-06-01

    Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging. PMID:22707959