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Sample records for antibiotics carbomycin spiramycin

  1. Inhibition of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction by the mycarose moiety of the antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin and tylosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S M; Kofoed, C; Vester, B

    2000-01-01

    Many antibiotics, including the macrolides, inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes. Only some of the macrolides affect the peptidyl transferase reaction. The 16-member ring macrolide antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin inhibit peptidyl transferase. All these have...

  2. Inhibition of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction by the mycarose moiety of the antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin and tylosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S M; Kofoed, C; Vester, B

    2000-01-01

    Many antibiotics, including the macrolides, inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes. Only some of the macrolides affect the peptidyl transferase reaction. The 16-member ring macrolide antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin inhibit peptidyl transferase. All these have a disaccha......Many antibiotics, including the macrolides, inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes. Only some of the macrolides affect the peptidyl transferase reaction. The 16-member ring macrolide antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin inhibit peptidyl transferase. All these have...... with hairpin 35 in domain II. Competitive footprinting of ribosomal binding of hygromycin A and macrolides showed that tylosin and spiramycin reduce the hygromycin A protections of nucleotides in 23 S rRNA and that carbomycin abolishes its binding. In contrast, the macrolides that do not inhibit the peptidyl...

  3. Hydrolysis of amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spiramycin, and tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotics that enter the environment can present human and ecological health risks. An understanding of antibiotic hydrolysis rates is important for predicting their environmental persistence as biologically active contaminants. In this study, hydrolysis rates and Arrhenius constants were determined as a function of pH and temperature for two amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) and two macrolide (spiramycin and tylosin) antibiotics. Antibiotic hydrolysis rates in pH 4-9 buffer solutions at 25°C, 50°C, and 60°C were quantified, and degradation products were characterized. All of the antibiotics tested remained stable and exhibited no observable hydrolysis under ambient conditions typical of aquatic ecosystems. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis occurred at elevated temperatures (50-60°C), and hydrolysis rates increased considerably below pH 5 and above pH 8. Hydrolysis rates also increased approximately 1.5- to 2.9-fold for each 10°C increase in temperature. Based on the degradation product masses found, the functional groups that underwent hydrolysis were alkyl fluoride, amide, and cyclic ester (lactone) moieties; some of the resultant degradation products may remain bioactive, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. The results of this research demonstrate that amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics persist in aquatic systems under ambient temperature and pH conditions typical of natural waters. Thus, these antibiotics may present a risk in aquatic ecosystems depending on the concentration present. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1660a - Oxytetracycline and carbomycin in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bacterial organisms associated with chronic respiratory disease such as E. coli. (3) Limitations. Administer... antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. (2) Carbomycin: The antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces halstedii...

  5. Abundance and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in a full-scale anaerobic-aerobic system alternately treating ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Dou, Xiaomin; Wang, Chunyan; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has been intensively investigated for wastewater treatment systems treating single class of antibiotic in recent years. However, the impacts of alternately occurring antibiotics in antibiotic production wastewater on the behavior of ARGs in biological treatment systems were not well understood yet. Herein, techniques including high-capacity quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to investigate the behavior of ARGs in an anaerobic-aerobic full-scale system. The system alternately treated three kinds of antibiotic production wastewater including ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin, which referred to stages 1, 2 and 3. The aminoglycoside ARGs (52.1-79.3%) determined using high-capacity quantitative PCR were the most abundant species in all sludge samples of the three stages. The total relative abundances of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes and aminoglycoside resistance genes measured using qPCR were significantly higher (P  0.05) in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge samples. In aerobic sludge, one acetyltransferase gene (aacA4) and the other three nucleotidyltransferase genes (aadB, aadA and aadE) exhibited positive correlations with intI1 (r 2  = 0.83-0.94; P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. These results and facts will be helpful to understand the abundance and distribution of ARGs from antibiotic production wastewater treatment systems.

  6. Bronchial asthma due to spiramycin and adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, G; Naldi, L; Candura, F

    1984-07-01

    Two cases of bronchial asthma due to spiramycin in workers of a pharmaceutical factory are reported. The subjects complained of cough, breathlessness and symptoms of asthma at work when coming into contact with spiramycin's powder. The symptoms cleared when away from work for more than 3 or 4 days. Inhalation challenge tests by aerosolization of solutions of spiramycin reproduced asthmatic reactions dual in type in both patients, the immediate component of the response has not been previously described for this antibiotic. Furthermore, one of the patients developed an immediate asthmatic reaction also after inhalation of a solution of adipic acid, and additive to bind spiramycin and diminish its irritant action. The reaction was obtained at a non-irritant concentration of the acid, was reproducible and inhibited by previous administration of sodium cromoglycate: this finding and the failure to elicit the reaction in the other patient suggest a hypersensitivity reaction to this substance.

  7. Reaction of some macrolide antibiotics with the ribosome. Labeling of the binding site components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, F.; Ballesta, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive carbomycin A, niddamycin, tylosin, and spiramycin, but not erythromycin, can be covalently bound to Escherichia coli ribosomes by incubation at 37 degrees C. The incorporation of radioactivity into the particles is inhibited by SH- and activated double bond containing compounds but not by amino groups, suggesting that the reactions may take place by addition to the double bond present in the reactive antibiotics. This thermic reaction must be different from the photoreaction described for some of these macrolides [Tejedor, F., and Ballesta, J. P. G. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 467-472] since tylosin, which is not photoincorporated, is thermically bound to ribosomes. Most of the radioactivity is incorporated into the ribosomal proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled by carbomycin A, niddamycin, and tylosin indicates that about 40% of the radioactivity is bound to protein L27; the rest is distributed among several other proteins such as L8, L2, and S12, to differing extents depending on the drug used. These results indicate, in accordance with previous data, that protein L27 plays an important role in the macrolide binding site, confirming that these drugs bind near the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome

  8. Reaction of some macrolide antibiotics with the ribosome. Labeling of the binding site components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, F.; Ballesta, J.P.

    1986-11-18

    Radioactive carbomycin A, niddamycin, tylosin, and spiramycin, but not erythromycin, can be covalently bound to Escherichia coli ribosomes by incubation at 37 degrees C. The incorporation of radioactivity into the particles is inhibited by SH- and activated double bond containing compounds but not by amino groups, suggesting that the reactions may take place by addition to the double bond present in the reactive antibiotics. This thermic reaction must be different from the photoreaction described for some of these macrolides (Tejedor, F., and Ballesta, J. P. G. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 467-472) since tylosin, which is not photoincorporated, is thermically bound to ribosomes. Most of the radioactivity is incorporated into the ribosomal proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled by carbomycin A, niddamycin, and tylosin indicates that about 40% of the radioactivity is bound to protein L27; the rest is distributed among several other proteins such as L8, L2, and S12, to differing extents depending on the drug used. These results indicate, in accordance with previous data, that protein L27 plays an important role in the macrolide binding site, confirming that these drugs bind near the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome.

  9. Identification of 4″-isovaleryl-spiramycin III produced by Bacillus sp. fmbJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Ju, Yanjuan; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lu, Fengxia; Yan, Dong; Bie, Xiaomei

    2014-02-01

    The production of secondary metabolites with antibiotic properties is a common characteristic to Bacillus spp. These metabolites not only have diverse chemical structures but also have a wide range of bioactivities with medicinal and agricultural interests such as antibiotic. Bacillus sp. fmbJ has been found to produce lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in accordance with our previous report. In this study, another antimicrobial substance was separated and purified from the culture supernatant of strain fmbJ using the silica gel column chromatography and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. By means of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, the antagonistic compound was determined to be 4″-isovaleryl-spiramycin III with the molecular weight of 982 Da. This report is the first to introduce the finding of spiramycin produced from Bacillus sp. The study provides a novel source for the production of spiramycin in pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Spiramycin resistance in human periodontitis microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Dujardin, Sebastien; Sautter, Jacqueline D; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    Purpose: The occurrence of in vitro resistance to therapeutic concentrations of spiramycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole was determined for putative periodontal pathogens isolated in the United States. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque specimens from 37 consecutive adults with untreated

  11. Resistance to the macrolide antibiotic tylosin is conferred by single methylations at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058 acting in synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfu; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotic tylosin has been used extensively in veterinary medicine and exerts potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Tylosin-synthesizing strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces fradiae protect themselves from their own product by differential expression of four resistance determinants, tlrA, tlrB, tlrC, and tlrD. The tlrB and tlrD genes encode methyltransferases that add single methyl groups at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058, respectively. Here we show that methylation by neither TlrB nor TlrD is sufficient on its own to give tylosin resistance, and resistance is conferred by the G748 and A2058 methylations acting together in synergy. This synergistic mechanism of resistance is specific for the macrolides tylosin and mycinamycin that possess sugars extending from the 5- and 14-positions of the macrolactone ring and is not observed for macrolides, such as carbomycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin, that have different constellations of sugars. The manner in which the G748 and A2058 methylations coincide with the glycosylation patterns of tylosin and mycinamycin reflects unambiguously how these macrolides fit into their binding site within the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit. PMID:12417742

  12. Comparative Adsorption of Spiramycin on Veegum ® , Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the adsorptive interaction of Garcinia kola with spiramycin, since the kola is widely chewed as a tonic and spiramycin attains high concentrations in saliva. ... For each of the adsorbents, pH and ionic strength affected the extent of adsorption, due to their effect on adsorbent surface charge.

  13. Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, P; Buonsenso, D; Barone, G; Serranti, D; Calzedda, R; Ceccarelli, M; Speziale, D; Ricci, R; Masini, L

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effectiviness of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole (Sp/C) versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide (Pyr/Sul) and spiramycin alone (Spy) on mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Retrospective study of pregnant women evaluated for suspected toxoplasmosis between 1992 and 2011. A total of 120 mothers and their 123 newborns were included. Prenatal treatment consisted of spiramycin in 43 mothers (35%), spiramycin/cotrimoxazole in 70 (56.9%) and pyrimethamine/sulfonamide in 10 (8.1%). A trend toward reduction in toxoplasmosis transmission was found when Sp/C was compared with Pyr/Sul and particularly with Spy alone (P=0.014). In particular, Spy increased the risk of congenital infection when compared with Sp/C (odds ratio (OR) 4.368; 95% CI: 1.253 to 15.219), but there was no significant reduction when Sp/C was compared with Pyr/Sul (OR 1.83; 95% CI: 0.184 to 18.274). The treatment based on Sp/C has significant efficacy in reducing maternal-fetal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii when compared with Pyr/Sul and particularly to Spy. Randomized controlled trials would be required.

  14. Spiramycin vs. placebo for treatment of acute diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, X; Odio, C M; Umaña, M A; Morales, M V

    1989-03-01

    The efficacy of spiramycin was evaluated in a double blind, placebo-controlled study of 44 immunocompetent infants ages 2 to 13 months who had acute diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium. Twenty-one patients received spiramycin (100 mg/kg/day) for 10 days and 23 received placebo. On admission the patients in both groups were comparable regarding demographic and clinical characteristics. The infants who were treated with spiramycin had a shorter duration of diarrhea (mean, 5.2 vs. 7.3 days; P = 0.002) and a shorter duration of excretion of oocysts in the stools (7.1 vs. 8.5 days; P = 0.032) compared with those treated with placebo. No clinical or parasitologic relapses were seen in patients of both groups. Mild adverse effects to spiramycin were observed in 2 patients (10%). Spiramycin appeared to hasten clinical recovery and decrease the duration of oocyst excretion in immunocompetent children with diarrheal illness caused by Cryptosporidium.

  15. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [fr

  16. Development and Characterization of In Situ Oral Gel of Spiramycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the optimization, formulation, and characterization of oral in situ gel of spiramycin. Sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were used as cross-linking and viscosifying agents, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a floating agent. In preformulation studies, the melting point, pH, and partition coefficient were found to be 133°C, 9.5, and 0.193, respectively. The drug had retention time at around 2.65 minutes in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. During compatibility studies of drug with all polymers, we observed that there were no changes in the FTIR spectra of a mixture of drug and polymers. All the formulations showed good pourability. Floating time and total floating time were ~30 sec and >12 hours, respectively. During in vitro drug release studies, the drug was released from the formulation around 80–100% for 12–16 hrs. In TEM analysis, we found that the drug molecules were well entrapped in the polymer and the drug was released slowly for up to 12 hrs. In these studies, we found that the concentration of sodium alginate and HPMC had significant influence on floating lag time, gelling capacity, and cumulative percentage drug release. During antimicrobial studies, we found that the formulation containing spiramycin showed good zone of inhibition against different microbial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  17. Development and Characterization of In Situ Oral Gel of Spiramycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Avinash; Sharma, Jyoti; Kaur, Rupinder; Saini, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the optimization, formulation, and characterization of oral in situ gel of spiramycin. Sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were used as cross-linking and viscosifying agents, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a floating agent. In preformulation studies, the melting point, pH, and partition coefficient were found to be 133°C, 9.5, and 0.193, respectively. The drug had retention time at around 2.65 minutes in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). During compatibility studies of drug with all polymers, we observed that there were no changes in the FTIR spectra of a mixture of drug and polymers. All the formulations showed good pourability. Floating time and total floating time were ~30 sec and >12 hours, respectively. During in vitro drug release studies, the drug was released from the formulation around 80–100% for 12–16 hrs. In TEM analysis, we found that the drug molecules were well entrapped in the polymer and the drug was released slowly for up to 12 hrs. In these studies, we found that the concentration of sodium alginate and HPMC had significant influence on floating lag time, gelling capacity, and cumulative percentage drug release. During antimicrobial studies, we found that the formulation containing spiramycin showed good zone of inhibition against different microbial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). PMID:25050376

  18. Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...

  19. Antioxidant responses and degradation of two antibiotic contaminants in Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Guan, Yuntao; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2012-12-01

    Cyanobacteria may interact with antibiotic contaminants in aquatic environments, but the interaction effects and mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, aqueous culture of Microcystis aeruginosa was exposed to 50ng/l-1μg/l of spiramycin and amoxicillin for seven days. The influences of antibiotics on the antioxidant system of M. aeruginosa and the degradation of antibiotics by M. aeruginosa were investigated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in spiramycin-treated M. aeruginosa were stimulated by up to 2.2 folds, while the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were inhibited by spiramycin at test concentrations of 500ng/l-1μg/l, with a decrease of up to 71% and 76% compared to the control, respectively. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT in M. aeruginosa were stimulated by amoxicillin during the whole exposure period, with respective increases of up to 60%, 30% and 120% relative to the control. At test concentrations of 500ng/l-1μg/l, the higher MDA contents in spiramycin-treated M. aeruginosa indicated a higher toxicity of spiramycin than amoxicillin, possibly due to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide caused by the inhibited activities of POD and CAT under exposure to spiramycin. The increase of glutathione content, the stimulation of glutathione S-transferase activity and the degradation of each antibiotic were observed in M. aeruginosa during the 7-day exposure. At the end of exposure, 12.5%-32.9% of spiramycin and 30.5%-33.6% of amoxicillin could be degraded by M. aeruginosa from the culture medium, indicating the ability of M. aeruginosa to eliminate coexisting contaminants via detoxification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Mieler, William F

    2016-01-01

    The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) provided ophthalmologists with evidence-based management strategies to deal with endophthalmitis for the first time. However, since the completion of the EVS, numerous unresolved issues remain. The use of oral antibiotics has important implications for the ophthalmologist, particularly in the prophylaxis and/or management of postoperative, posttraumatic, or bleb-associated bacterial endophthalmitis. One can reasonably conclude that significant intraocular penetration of an antibiotic after oral administration may be a property unique to the newer-generation fluoroquinolones. Prophylactic use of mupirocin nasal ointment resulted in significant reduction of conjunctival flora with or without preoperative topical 5% povidone-iodine preparation. Ocular fungal infections have traditionally been very difficult to treat due to limited therapeutic options both systemically and intravitreally. Because of its broad spectrum of coverage, low MIC90 levels for the organisms of concern, good tolerability, and excellent bioavailability, voriconazole through various routes of administration may be useful to the ophthalmologist in the primary treatment of or as an adjunct to the current management of ocular fungal infections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Heat treatment effects on the antimicrobial activity of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2011-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk can cause serious problems for consumers and the dairy industry. Heat treatment of milk may diminish the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotic residues. This study analyzed the effect of milk processing (60 °C for 30 min, 120 °C for 20 min, and 140 °C for 10 s) on the antimicrobial activity of milk samples fortified with three concentrations of three macrolides (erythromycin: 20, 40 and 80 μg/liter; spiramycin: 100, 200, and 400 μg/liter; and tylosin: 500, 1,000, and 2,000 μg/liter) and one lincosamide (lincomycin: 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 μg/liter). To measure the loss of antimicrobial activity, a bioassay based on the growth inhibition of Micrococcus luteus was done. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. The results indicate that treatment at 120 °C for 20 min produces inactivation percentages of 93% (erythromycin), 64% (spiramycin), 51% (tylosin), and 5% (lincomycin), while treatment at 140 °C for 10 s results in generally lower percentages (30% erythromycin, 35% spiramycin, 12% tylosin, and 5% lincomycin). The lowest loss or lowest reduction of antimicrobial activity (21% erythromycin and 13% spiramycin) was obtained by treatment at 60 °C for 30 min. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  2. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172

  3. Simultaneous determination of metronidazole and spiramycin I in human plasma, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Cyriaque; Salvador, Arnaud; Dubreuil, Didier; Poulet, Pierre P; Duffaut, D; Brumpt, Ivan

    2005-06-15

    An analytical validation of a new liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of metronidazole and spiramycin I concentrations in human plasma, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is presented. Ornidazole was used as an internal standard, and sample pre-treatment consisted of a liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5 microm Kromasil C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 microm), with a gradient using acetonitrile, water and formic acid at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min. The methods were validated in terms of intra- and inter-batch precision (methods are applicable for accurate and simultaneous monitoring of the plasma, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid levels of metronidazole and spiramycin I from pharmacokinetic studies.

  4. Localization of Five Antibiotic Resistances at the Subunit Level in Chloroplast Ribosomes of Chlamydomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanger, Gladys; Sager, Ruth

    1974-01-01

    The chloroplast ribosomes from five antibiotic resistant strains of Chlamydomonas, each carrying one mutant gene mapping in chloroplast DNA, have been shown to be resistant to the corresponding antibiotic in a poly(U)-directed amino-acid incorporating assay system. The alteration conferring resistance was localized to the 30S subunit in ribosomes from streptomycin, neamine, and spectinomycin resistant strains, and to the 50S subunit in ribosomes from cleocin and carbomycin resistant strains. Spectinomycin resistant ribosomes showed no cross-resistance to any other drugs, but limited cross-resistance was noted with the other mutant ribosomes. The similarity between these findings and results reported by others with bacterial ribosomes supports our hypothesis that at least some chloroplast ribosomal proteins are coded by genes in chloroplast DNA. Images PMID:4275942

  5. [Effect of antenatal spiramycin treatment on the frequency of retinochoroiditis due to congenital toxoplasmosis in a Colombian cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Liliana María; Hernández, John Camilo; Castaño, Carlos Felipe; Donado, Jorge Hernando

    2017-04-01

    Gestational toxoplasmosis is frequent and severe. There is still debate about the benefits of treatment against ocular manifestations in the newborn. Spiramycin treatment is used for this purpose, unfortunately prenatal diagnosis is sometimes delayed and pregnant women are not treated. To describe the relationship between treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy in mothers with gestational toxoplasmosis and development of ocular toxoplasmosis in newborns. We conducted a descriptive study of a case series. We evaluated a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with gestational toxoplasmosis during three years at the Retinology Service at the Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in Medellín. Gestational toxoplasmosis was found in 23 mothers; 15 (65%) were treated during pregnancy with 3 g per day of spiramycin, eight (35%) patients were untreated. In the treated group just one newborn developed ocular toxoplasmosis (6.6%), in contrast with five (62.5%) of the eight patients who did not receive treatment. These results suggest that pregnancy treatment reduces the relative risk of ocular toxoplasmosis in the newborn by 96% (95% CI: 33 - 100%). Only two (14%) of the patients who were evaluated, had nervous system involvement related to toxoplasmosis in CT scan or cerebral ultrasound. These two patients also developed ocular pathology and were diagnosed at the time of birth, so they did not received antenatal treatment. A protective effect was found against the ocular involvement in patients whose mother received treatment with spiramycin (OR=0.04;95% CI: 0.00-0.67), p<0.01 (Fisher's Exact Test).

  6. In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae to oxytetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin-spectinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, G R; Sammartino, C; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2003-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline, enrofloxacin, tylosin, spiramycin and a lincomycin:spectinomycin 1:2 combination, against 24 Sicilian isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae, the causative organism of contagious agalactia were determined in vitro by a broth dilution method. Enrofloxacin was the most effective antimicrobial in vitro with a range of MIC values from 0.125 to 0.500 microg/ml and an MIC(50) of 0.203 and MIC(90) of 0.365 microg/ml. Using the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values the remaining four antimicrobials are ranked in order of in vitro effectiveness as follows: tylosin (MIC(50)0.292; MIC(90)0.525 microg/ml) was slightly more effective than tetracycline (MIC(50)0.296; MIC(90)0.533 microg/ml), followed by lincomycin:spectinomycin (MIC(50)0.521; MIC(90)0.938 microg/ml) and spiramycin (MIC(50)1.583; MIC(90)2.850 microg/ml). MIC values above 1.000 microg/ml were obtained using tetracycline, tylosin and spiramycin for some M. agalactiae isolates.

  7. Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods This was a community-based, cross-sectional study of acute toxoplasmosis in newborns at risk of acquiring congenital infection. Participating newborns were born in the Clinical Hospital Maternity Ward of the Federal University of Goiás. Eligible participants were divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 44 newborns born to mothers treated with spiramycin during pregnancy and group 2 consisted of 24 newborns born to mothers not treated with spiramycin during pregnancy because the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was not performed. The sensitivity and specifity of PCR for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood and serological testing for specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA, and the effects of maternal spiramycin treatment on these parameters, were determined by associating test results with clinical manifestations of disease. Results The sensitivity of the markers (T. gondii DNA detected by PCR, and the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA) for congenital toxoplasmosis was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.6, 68.4, 36.8% and 3.7, 25.9, 11.1% respectively). Even with a low PCR sensitivity, the group 2 results indicate the importance of developing new techniques for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. Within group 1, 70.4% of the infected newborns were asymptomatic and, in group 2, 68.4% showed clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis. Conclusions The higher proportion of infants without clinical symptoms in group 1 (70.4%) suggests the

  8. Gamma irradiation increase the sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Miloud, Najla; Barkallah, Insaf

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the resistance of Salmonella to antibiotics, four strains of Salmonella were isolated from foods, The different strains used in the present study are (S. Hadar isolate 287, S. Hadar isolate 63, S. Cerro isolate 291, S. Zanzibar isolate 1103), antibiogram analyses were made to test the in vitro-sensitivity of irradiated Salmonella isolates to different antibiotics.The analyse of Control and exposed antibiograms showed that gamma radiation have increased the sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to Cefalotin, Chloramphenicol, Nalidixic acid, Spiramycin and Gentamycin excepted S. Hadar isolate 287 that was resistant to Cefalotin and became sensitive after irradiation. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of different irradiation dose treatment on the antibiotic sensitivity is increasingly significant. The irradiation didn't induce modifications of the sensitivity to other antibiotics,probably because of their nature, of their penetration mode inside the cell or their action way

  9. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of spiramycin, virginiamycin and tylosin in feeding-stuffs bij thin-layer chromatography and bio-autography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, U.; Gizzi, G.; Holst, von C.; Jong, de J.; Michard, J.

    2007-01-01

    An inter-laboratory validation was carried out to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method based on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled to microbiological detection (bio-autography) for screening feed samples for the presence of spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin.

  10. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Buying & Using Medicine Safely Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotics ... Antibiotic Resistance and Protect Public Health The White House Blog FDA’s Take on the Executive Order and ...

  11. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams.

  12. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro effects of four macrolides (roxithromycin, spiramycin, azithromycin (CP-62,993), and A-56268) on Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.R.; Pechere, J.C.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of four macrolides against intracellular Toxoplasma gondii was determined in three different in vitro systems. Unactivated murine peritoneal macrophages were infected with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. The activity of the macrolides was first measured with (/sup 3/H)uracil, which is incorporated by the parasite but not the host cell. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) and 95% confidence limits were calculated at 54 (38 to 73), 140 (98 to 201), 147 (101 to 214), and 246 (187 to 325) micron for roxithromycin, azithromycin (CP-62,993), A-56268, and spiramycin, respectively. Inhibition of Toxoplasma growth was confirmed by microscopic examination of the infected macrophages after treatment with roxithromycin. Compared with untreated controls, roxithromycin concentrations near the IC50s decreased the number of infected cells, the number of tachyzoites per vacuole, and the number of cells containing rosettes (i.e., clusters of more than eight tachyzoites). After treatment with the four macrolides, tachyzoites were released from the macrophages and subcultured in HeLa cells, which are nonprofessional phagocytes, to assess the viability of the remaining parasites. This showed that the macrolides at concentrations corresponding to four times their 90% inhibitory concentrations (IC90s) had no significant killing effect. At 8 times the IC90, roxithromycin showed an incomplete killing effect, similar to that of the combination of pyrimethamine (0.41 microM)-sulfadiazine (99.42 microM). All macrolides tested showed inhibitory effects against intracellular T. gondii, but amounts of azithromycin and A-56268 corresponding to the IC90 appeared to be toxic against the host macrophages, which might have had nonspecific activity against Toxoplasma metabolism.

  14. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  15. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics; Structure des antibiotiques polysaccharidiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [French] Etude de la structure des antibiotiques qui possedent dans leur molecule deux ou plusieurs sucres. On distingue: les antibiotiques polysaccharidiques proprement dits, constitues de deux eu plusieurs sucres azotes ou non, tels que streptomycines, neomycines, paromomycines, kanamycine, chalcomycine; les antibiotiques heteropolysaccharidiques formes d'une partie saccharidique liee glycosidiquement a un aglycone de nature diverse: macrolide - pigment - purine pyrimidine. On compte parmi ceux-ci: erythroraycine rnagnamycine, spiromycine, oleandomycine, cinerubine et amicetine. Dans le pouvoir antimicrobien de ces antibiotiques les sucres peuvent jouer soit un role direct dans les reactions biochimiques, soit agir comme solubilisant. (auteur)

  16. Liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method for multi-residue determination of macrolide antibiotics in sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayor, M A; Garcinuño, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P; Durand-Alegría, J S

    2006-07-28

    A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven macrolides (erythromycin, oleandomycin, roxithromycin, josamycin, spiramycin, tylosin and ivermectin) in sheep's milk. The column, mobile phase, temperature and flow rate were optimised to provide the best resolution of these analytes. The extraction of the antibiotic residues involves the treatment of protein-free samples with a combination of concentrated sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. Necessary defatting is achieved by alkaline hydrolysis. The recovery of each antibiotic was between 55% and 77%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1% to 6.5%. The limit of quantification was 72.4 microg/kg for ivermectin, 48.3 microg/kg for roxithromycin, and 24.1 microg/kg for erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, josamycin and tylosin. The procedure was successfully used in the multi-residue determination of these macrolides at levels below the maximum concentrations legally allowed in milk samples.

  17. Antibiotic prescription in the treatment of odontogenic infection by health professionals: a factor to consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Raquel; Cortell-Ballester, Isidoro; Herráez-Vilas, José-María; Arnau-de Bolós, José-María; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-05-01

    To observe the attitude of dentists and family doctors in prescribing antibiotics for the treatment of dental infections. A poll was performed to determine the differences in the prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of odontogenic infection by dentists and family doctors of the primary care department of the Catalan Health Care Service. A hundred polls were distributed among family doctors, and another 100 ones among primary care dentists assigned to the Catalan Health Care Service of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Of the total of questionnaires distributed, 63 were retuned and answered from dentists and 71 from family doctors. Eighty-one percent of dentists included in the opinion poll considered amoxicillin as the first antibiotic choice for the treatment of odontogenic infections, while 73.2% of family doctors preferred the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. With regard to antibiotics of choice in patients allergic to penicillin, 67.7% of family doctors preferred macrolides (25.4% opted for clarithromycin, 25.4% for erythromycin and 16.9% for spiramycin). However, clindamycin was the antibiotic most frequently prescribed by dentists (66.7%), followed by erythromycin (28.6%). The results of this study show a large discrepancy in the criteria for the treatment of odontogenic infections on the part of leading professionals involved in the management of this condition. Although the most common prescription involved beta-lactam antibiotics in both groups, several significant differences have been detected with regard to the second antibiotic choice.

  18. EFFECT OF MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS ON VARIOUS CELL CULTURES IN VITRO: 1. CELL MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Kováčová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of macrolide antibiotics (tilmicosin, tylosin and spiramycin of various concentrations on different cell cultures in vitro. Cellular lines from animal tissues (VERO cells - kidney cells of Macacus rhesus, FE cells - feline embryonal cells, BHK 21 cellular line from young hamster kidneys were used. Tilmicosin effect: BHK cells are most sensitive, significant decrease in vital cells occurs already at the concentration of 50 μg.ml-1. VERO cells were most resistant, significant decrease of vital cells was observed only at the concentration of 300 μg.ml-1. Tylosin effect: BHK cells can be considered most sensitive, since at concentrations higher than 500 μg.ml-1, no vital cells were observed. At the concentration of 1000 μg.ml-1 were 3.13% of vital and 70.52% of subvital FE cells. In Vero cells, we observed a significant decrease at the concentration of 750 μg.ml-1. Spiramycin effect: Significant decrease of vital BHK cells was observed at the concentration of 150 μg.ml-1, at the concentration of 300 μg.ml-1, no vital cells and only 7.53% of subvital cells were observed. At the concentration of 500 μg.ml-1 reported 10.34% of vital FE cells. At the concentration of 500 μg.ml-1 22.48% of vital and 71.16% of subvital VERO cells were recorded.

  19. Synergy of four macrolide antibiotics with chloroquine against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, P; Howells, R E

    1986-01-01

    The antimalarial activity of four macrolide antibiotics was investigated against the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. ID50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values for erythromycin, spiramycin, tylosin tartrate and oleandomycin phosphate in 48-hour assays were 1.6 X 10(-4)M, 2.5 X 10(-5)M, 1.2 X 10(-5)M and 9 X 10(-6)M respectively, and in 96 hour assays were 10(-5)M, 2.6 X 10(-6)M, 2.6 X 10(-6) and 3 X 10(-6)M, respectively. Comparable values were obtained in assays in which drug effect was quantified from either parasite counts or 14C isoleucine incorporation. Each of the four macrolides displayed synergy with chloroquine at the IC90 (90% inhibitory concentration) level, but at the IC50 level synergy was either less pronounced or absent. For each combination this difference in the degree of synergy was significant at the 95% level of confidence. In replicate assays in which 3H hypoxanthine was the marker of drug effect, synergy between chloroquine and either erythromycin or spiramycin could not be detected.

  20. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  1. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  2. Prescribing Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Jepsen, Kim Sune

    2018-01-01

    The medical professions will lose an indispensable tool in clinical practice if even simple infections cannot be cured because antibiotics have lost effectiveness. This article presents results from an exploratory enquiry into “good doctoring” in the case of antibiotic prescribing at a time when...

  3. Forgotten antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulcini, Céline; Bush, Karen; Craig, William A

    2012-01-01

    In view of the alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance in the absence of new antibiotics, this study aimed at assessing the availability of potentially useful older antibiotics. A survey was performed in 38 countries among experts including hospital pharmacists, microbiologists, and infectious...

  4. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous opportunities are available in primary care for alleviating the crisis of increasing antibiotic resistance. Preventing patients from developing an acute respiratory infection (ARI) will obviate any need for antibiotic use downstream. Hygiene measures such as physical barriers and hand...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....... antibiotic prescribing are a major factor in the prescribing for ARIs. Professional interventions with educational components are effective, although they have modest effects, and are expensive. GPs' perceptions - that mistakenly assume as a default that patients want antibiotics for their ARIs - are often...

  5. Antibiotic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antibiotics www.healthsci.tufts.edu Georgia-Pacific Health Smart Institute www.gphealthsmart.com Special thanks to Rhonda ... effectiveness of other medications such as birth control pills? 7. Are there any possible adverse reactions if ...

  6. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. Materials and Methods: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA. Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively. Results: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn2+ > Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+. Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of

  7. Antibiotic allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Lombardi, E; Crisafulli, G; Franceschini, F; Ricci, G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly injected during the perioperative period and are responsible of 15 percent of the anaphylactic reactions. Anaphylaxis triggered by antibiotics primarily involves penicillin and cephalosporin. The management of patients with histories of allergic reactions to antibiotics is a common situation in clinical practice. The confirmation or invalidation of the allergic nature of the reported reaction is not based on in vitro tests, but on a rigorous allergological work-up based on detailed analysis of clinical history, skin tests and drug provocation test. Considering a possible cross-reactivity between penicillins, once an immediate penicillin allergy has been diagnosed, skin testing with the alternative molecule (cephalosporin, carbapenem, aztreonam) is mandatory and, if negative, the relevant drug should be given in an appropriate setting at increasing doses.

  8. In vitro impact of macrolide antibiotics on the viability of selected mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of different concentrations of macrolide  antibiotics (tilmicosin-TILM, tylosin-TYL and spiramycin-SPI on selected animal cell cultures. VERO cells (kidney cells from Macacus rhesus, FE cells (feline embryonal cells and BHK 21 cells (cell line from young hamster kidneys were used in the study and subjected to concentrations of macrolides ranging 50-1000 µg/mL, depending on the specific antibiotic and cell line. The cell viability expressed as the mitochondrial activity of living cells was assessed using the metabolic mitochondrial MTT test. The effect of tilmicosin: FE cells were the most sensitive with a significant decrease of mitochondrial activity at 100-150 µg/mL (P<0.001 TILM. VERO cells were the most resistant, as no significant decrease of viability was observed at any TILM dose. The effect of tylosin: FE cells showed the highest sensitivity to TYL, as 1000 µg/mL reduced the cell viability to a half (P<0.001 when compared to the untreated control. Similarly, a decreased viability of BHK 21 cells was observed following the supplementation of 1500 (P<0.001 and 900 (P<0.05 µg/mL TYL. VERO cells exhibited the highest resilience to the TYL treatment, with no significant differences of viability in comparison to the control. The effect of spiramycin: BHK 21 cells exhibited the highest sensitivity to the antibiotic, as all concentrations (150, 200, 300 µg/mL SPI led to a significant decrease (P<0.001 of the mitochondrial activity.  Similarly, the viability of FE cells significantly (P<0.05 decreased after the administration of 350 and 540 µg/mL SPI. On the other hand, VERO cells revealed the highest resistance to the antibiotic, with no significant effects in comparison to the control. Our data reveal that macrolides have a significant adverse negative effect on the cell viability, and may provide more information to our knowledge on the specific effects medication has on

  9. Hydrid Antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Běhal, Vladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2003), s. 17-25 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/1004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : hydrid * antibiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  10. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Farm Animals FDA: Cutting-Edge Technology Sheds Light on Antibiotic Resistance For More Information Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Information for Consumers and Health Professionals CDC: Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work More in Consumer Updates ...

  11. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I......Bacteria can avoid extinction during antimicrobial exposure by becoming resistant. They achieve this either via adaptive mutations or horizontally acquired resistance genes. If resistance emerges in clinical relevant species, it can lead to treatment failure and ultimately result in increasing...... morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...

  12. Effet de la photocatalyse hétérogène sur l’activité antibactérienne de la spiramycine et sur la biomasse bactérienne de

    OpenAIRE

    Hindili, R.; Ben Said, O.; Alatrache, A.; Tajouri, T.; Aissa, P.

    2013-01-01

    De nos jours, l’utilisation immodérée et massive des antibiotiques a conduit à l’accroissement du phénomène de l’antibiorésistance pouvant induire la réapparition des épidémies incurables. Dans ce cadre apparait la photocatalyse hétérogène comme une technologie alternative pour dépolluer les eaux contaminées par de telles molécules. Pour cela on a étudié la dégradation photocatalytique de la spiramycine, antibiotique fréquemment utilisé dans la médecine vétérinaire. Nous avons évalué par l...

  13. Performance characterization of a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for 12 macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in salmon, shrimp and tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Leslie C

    2014-09-15

    This paper describes an extension and performance characterization of a quantitative confirmatory multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for residues of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics, originally validated for application to bovine kidney tissues, to tissues of salmon, shrimp and tilapia. The 12 analytes include clindamycin, erythromycin A, gamithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, neospiramycin 1, oleandomycin, pirlimycin, spiramycin 1, tildipirosin, tilmicosin and tylosin A. The limit of detection was 0.5 μg/kg. Within-laboratory precision evaluated over the analytical range of 5.0-50.0 μg/kg ranged from 4 to 17%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 80 to 112%. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 99% with all but one recovery above 60%. This is the first report of a quantitative confirmatory method for gamithromycin, pirlimycin and tildipirosin in fish and shrimp. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Agents Active against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 from a Clinical Compound Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Niu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA poses a significant threat for effective treatment of several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. To identify potential new treatment options for MRSA infections, we screened a clinical compound library consisting of 1524 compounds using a growth inhibition assay in 96-well plates. We identified 34 agents which are either bacteriostatic or bactericidal against log-phase clinical MRSA strain USA300. Among them, 9 candidates (thonzonium, cetylpyridinium, trilocarban, benzododecinium, bithionol, brilliant green, chlorquinaldol, methylbenzethonium and green violet are known antiseptics, 11 candidates are known antibiotics currently recommended for the treatment of MRSA. We identified 9 new drug candidates, 5 of which (thiostrepton, carbomycin, spiramycin, clofazimine and chloroxine are antibiotics used for treating other infections than S. aureus infections; 4 of which (quinaldine blue, closantel, dithiazanine iodide and pyrvinium pamoate are drugs used for treating parasitic diseases or cancer. We ranked these new drug candidates according to their MICs against the MRSA strain USA300. Our findings may have implications for more effective treatment of MRSA infections.

  15. Antibiotic Adjuvants: Rescuing Antibiotics from Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerard D

    2016-11-01

    Rooted in the mechanism of action of antibiotics and subject to bacterial evolution, antibiotic resistance is difficult and perhaps impossible to overcome. Nevertheless, strategies can be used to minimize the emergence and impact of resistance. Antibiotic adjuvants offer one such approach. These are compounds that have little or no antibiotic activity themselves but act to block resistance or otherwise enhance antibiotic action. Antibiotic adjuvants are therefore delivered in combination with antibiotics and can be divided into two groups: Class I agents that act on the pathogen, and Class II agents that act on the host. Adjuvants offer a means to both suppress the emergence of resistance and rescue the activity of existing drugs, offering an orthogonal strategy complimentary to new antibiotic discovery VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Threat Gonorrhea has progressively developed resistance to the antibiotic drugs prescribed to treat it. Following the spread ...

  17. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Contact Us ABOUT THE ISSUE What is Antibiotic Resistance? General Background Science of Resistance Glossary References ... for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Project (ROAR) INTERNATIONAL CHAPTERS APUA Chapter Network ...

  18. Know When Antibiotics Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-15

    This podcast provides a brief background about antibiotics and quick tips to help prevent antibiotic resistance.  Created: 4/15/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  19. Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotic-associated colitis, which can occur after the antibiotic therapy upsets the balance of good and bad bacteria in your intestinal tract. Besides loose stools, C. difficile infection can ... and symptoms of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. These signs and symptoms are common ...

  20. Antibiotics and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; de Cássia Bergamaschi, Cristiane; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Gauthier, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    During the breastfeeding period, bacterial infections can occur in the nursing mother, requiring the use of antibiotics. A lack of accurate information may lead health care professionals and mothers to suspend breastfeeding, which may be unnecessary. This article provides information on the main antibiotics that are appropriate for clinical use and the interference of these antibiotics with the infant to support medical decisions regarding the discontinuation of breastfeeding. We aim to provide information on the pharmacokinetic factors that interfere with the passage of antibiotics into breast milk and the toxicological implications of absorption by the infant. Publications related to the 20 most frequently employed antibiotics and their transfer into breast milk were evaluated. The results demonstrate that most antibiotics in clinical use are considered suitable during breastfeeding; however, the pharmacokinetic profile of each drug must be observed to ensure the resolution of the maternal infection and the safety of the infant. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Demographics of antibiotic persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollerova, Silvia; Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Persister cells, cells that can survive antibiotic exposure but lack heritable antibiotic resistance, are assumed to play a crucial role for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Persistence is a stage associated with reduced metabolic activity. Most previous studies have been done on batch...... cultures, rather than the individual level. Here, we used individual level bacteria data to confirm previous studies in how fast cells switch into a persistence stage, but our results challenge the fundamental idea that persistence comes with major costs of reduced growth (cell elongation) and division due...... even play a more prominent role for the evolution of resistance and failures of medical treatment by antibiotics as currently assumed....

  2. [Antibiotic treatments in urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussade, H; Sunder, S; Bernard, L; Coloby, P; Guy, L; Karsenty, G; Bastide, C; Bruyère, F

    2013-11-01

    To define prescription modalities for the use of antibiotics in urology. A bibliographic research was performed using the MEDLINE database concerning all the antibiotics usable in urology. Treatments were classified by families; modes of action, indications in urology and adverse events have been detailed. Administrative files for commercial use have been consulted and associated with literature analysis. About 8 classes of antibiotics are usable in urology in a routine use. How they work, indications in urology and adverse events are discussed. Knowing that bacterial resistance to quinilones is increasing dramatically, it seems imperative to control the use of 8 classes of antibiotics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotics: Miracle Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    The overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of resistance among bacteria, making antibiotics ineffective in treating certain conditions. This podcast discusses the importance of talking to your healthcare professional about whether or not antibiotics will be beneficial if you’ve been diagnosed with an infectious disease.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  4. Handling Time-dependent Variables : Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz-Price, L. Silvia; Frencken, Jos F.; Tarima, Sergey; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating quantitative associations between antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance development is important. In the absence of randomized trials, observational studies are the next best alternative to derive such estimates. Yet, as antibiotics are prescribed for varying time periods,

  5. The future of antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to spread even as society is experiencing a market failure of new antibiotic research and development (R&D). Scientific, economic, and regulatory barriers all contribute to the antibiotic market failure. Scientific solutions to rekindle R&D include finding new screening strategies to identify novel antibiotic scaffolds and transforming the way we think about treating infections, such that the goal is to disarm the pathogen without killing it or modulate the host response to the organism without targeting the organism for destruction. Future economic strategies are likely to focus on ‘push’ incentives offered by public-private partnerships as well as increasing pricing by focusing development on areas of high unmet need. Such strategies can also help protect new antibiotics from overuse after marketing. Regulatory reform is needed to re-establish feasible and meaningful traditional antibiotic pathways, to create novel limited-use pathways that focus on highly resistant infections, and to harmonize regulatory standards across nations. We need new antibiotics with which to treat our patients. But we also need to protect those new antibiotics from misuse when they become available. If we want to break the cycle of resistance and change the current landscape, disruptive approaches that challenge long-standing dogma will be needed. PMID:25043962

  6. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  7. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea (ARG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Basic Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea: An Overview Antibiotic resistance is the ...

  8. History of Antibiotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Kathrin I

    2016-01-01

    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  9. Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael G; Heil, Emily L; Hayes, Bryan D

    2017-02-01

    Prescribing antibiotics is an essential component of initial therapy in sepsis. Early antibiotics are an important component of therapy, but speed of administration should not overshadow the patient-specific characteristics that determine the optimal breadth of antimicrobial therapy. Cultures should be drawn before antibiotic therapy if it does not significantly delay administration. Combination antibiotic therapy against gram-negative infections is not routinely required, and combination therapy involving vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam is associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Emergency practitioners should be aware of special considerations in the administration and dosing of antibiotics in order to deliver optimal care to septic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of 27 antibiotic residues in raw cow's milk and milk-based products--validation of Delvotest® T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bion, Cindy; Beck Henzelin, Andrea; Qu, Yajuan; Pizzocri, Giuseppe; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Buffoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Delvotest® T was evaluated for its capability at detecting residues of 27 antibiotics in raw cow's milk and in some dairy ingredients (skimmed and full-cream milk powders). The kit was used as a screening tool for the qualitative determination of antibiotics from different families in a single test. Results delivered by such a method are expressed as 'positive' or 'negative', referring to the claimed screening target concentration (STC). Validation was conducted according to the European Community Reference Laboratories' (CRLs) residues guidelines of 20 January 2010 and performed by two laboratories, one located in Europe and the other in Asia. Five criteria were evaluated including detection capability at STC, false-positive (FP) rate, false-negative (FN) rate, robustness and cross-reactivity using visual reading and Delvoscan®. STCs were set at or below the corresponding maximum residue limit (MRL), as fixed by European Regulation EC No. 37/2010. Four antibiotics (nafcillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and rifaximin) out of 27 had a false-negative rate ranging from 1.7% to 4.9%; however, it was still compliant with the CRLs' requirements. Globally, Delvotest T can be recommended for the analysis of the surveyed antibiotics in raw cow's milk, skimmed and full-cream milk powders. Additional compounds were tested such as sulfamethazine, spiramycin and erythromycin; however, detection at the corresponding MRL was not achievable and these compounds were removed from the validation. Other drugs from the sulfonamide, aminoglycoside or macrolide families not detected by the test at the MRL were not evaluated in this study. Regarding the reliability of this rapid test to milk-based preparations, additional experiments should be performed on a larger range of compounds and samples to validate the Delvotest T in such matrices.

  11. Solving the Antibiotic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerard D

    2015-02-13

    Antibiotics are essential for both treating and preventing infectious diseases. Paradoxically, despite their importance as pillars of modern medicine, we are in danger of losing antibiotics because of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms throughout all pathogenic microbes. This fact, coupled with an inability to bring new drugs to market at a pace that matches resistance, has resulted in a crisis of global proportion. Solving this crisis requires the actions of many stakeholders, but chemists, chemical biologists, and microbiologists must drive the scientific innovation that is required to maintain our antibiotic arsenal. This innovation requires (1) a deep understanding of the evolution and reservoirs of resistance; (2) full knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance; (3) the discovery of chemical and genetic probes of antibiotic action and resistance; (4) the integration of systems biology into antibiotic discovery; and (5) the discovery of new antimicrobial chemical matter. Addressing these pressing scientific gaps will ensure that we can meet the antibiotic crisis with creativity and purpose.

  12. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This

  13. Fighting antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit using antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; van Duijn, Pleun J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to classical infection prevention protocols and surveillance programs, counterintuitive interventions, such as selective decontamination with antibiotics and antibiotic rotation have been applied and investigated to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review provides an overview of selective oropharyngeal and digestive tract decontamination, decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic rotation as strategies to modulate antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit.

  14. Antibiotics for uncomplicated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel M; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Diverticulitis is an inflammatory complication to the very common condition diverticulosis. Uncomplicated diverticulitis has traditionally been treated with antibiotics with reference to the microbiology, extrapolation from trials on complicated intra-abdominal infections and clinical experience....

  15. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    as their exposure to antibiotics. Data on outpatient prescribing of antimicrobials (ATC J01) in 2010 were obtained from a prescription database covering Aragón (northeastern Spain). The antimicrobial consumption at the individual level was analysed both according to the volume of DDD and the number of packages...... purchased per year. Heavy antibiotic users were identified according to Lorenz curves and characterized by age, gender, and their antimicrobial prescription profile. Lorenz curves demonstrated substantial differences in the individual use of antimicrobials. Heavy antibiotic users (5% of individuals...... with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received a high...

  16. Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-01-01

    It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really ...

  17. EFFECT OF MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS ON VARIOUS CELL CULTURES IN VITRO: 2. CELL BIOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kováčik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available he aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of macrolide antibiotics (tilmicosin, tylosin and spiramycin on the cellular biochemistry using different cell cultures in vitro. Cellular lines from animal tissues (VERO cells - kidney cells of Macacus Rhesus, FE cells - feline embryonal cells and BHK21 - cellular line from young hamster kidneys were used. The effect was assessed after 24 hours of culture. We studied the concentration of calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorides (Cl, total proteins (TP and cholesterol (Chol. Biochemical analysis of BHK21 cells cultivated with tilmicosin showed a significant decrease in the concentration of Ca, Cl and TP in almost all experimental groups. No significant differences were found in the FE cells. The highest concentrations of tilmicosin led to a significant increase of all analyzed elements and TP in medium in the VERO cells. The effect of tylosin on the BHK21 cell metabolism showed a significant decrease in the concentration of Na and Cl in the all experimental groups and a significant decrease in the concentration of TP in the groups to which more than 700 µg.ml-1 was added. No significant differences were found in the FE and VERO cells. Biochemical analysis of BHK21 cells with spyramicin showed a significant decrease in the concentration of Na in the all experimental groups and a significant decrease in the concentration of Cl and TP in the cell cultures with 100 µg.ml-1, 150 µg.ml-1, 200 µg.ml-1, 300 µg.ml-1 concentrations of spyramycin. The highest concentrations of spyramycin caused a significant increase of Na and a significant decrease of Chol in the FE cells. No significant differences were found in the VERO cells except increased total proteins at the highest concentration of spyramycin.

  18. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  19. Comparative Adsorption of Spiramycin on Veegum , Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... The adsorption data obtained for the three adsorbents were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich's plots. Results: At neutral pH, drug adsorprtion by Garcinia kola, activated charcoal and Veegum® were 67,. 54 and 71 %, respectively; differences in adsorption was not significant (p = 0.09). However, the ...

  20. Assessment of Antibiotic Resistant Commensal Bacteria in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    ban the application of certain antimicrobial agents ( tylosin , spiramycin, bacitracin, and virginiamycin) as growth promoters in food animal...by homogenization and centrifugation. The supernatant aliquots from two extracts were combined (total of 1.3 ml) and the total DNA was precipitated...accomplished the time necessary to screen for specific genes could be greatly reduced. The key would be to find the proper combination of primers

  1. Peptidyl transferase antibiotics perturb the relative positioning of the 3'-terminal adenosine of P/P'-site-bound tRNA and 23S rRNA in the ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirillov, S V; Porse, B T; Garrett, R A

    1999-01-01

    A range of antibiotic inhibitors that act within the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome were examined for their capacity to perturb the relative positioning of the 3' end of P/P'-site-bound tRNA and the Escherichia coli ribosome. The 3'-terminal adenosines of deacylated tRNA and N......' at nucleotides C2601/A2602, U2584/U2585 (F1'), U2506 (F2'), and A2062/C2063 (F4'). Each of these nucleotides lies within the peptidyl transferase loop region of the 23S rRNA. Cross-links were also formed with ribosomal proteins L27 (strong) and L33 (weak), as shown earlier. The antibiotics sparsomycin......, chloramphenicol, the streptogramins pristinamycin IA and IIA, gougerotin, lincomycin, and spiramycin were tested for their capacity to alter the identities or yields of each of the cross-links. Although no new cross-links were detected, each of the drugs produced major changes in cross-linking yields, mainly...

  2. The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati eSengupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are chemotherapeutic agents, which have been a very powerful tool in the clinical management of bacterial diseases since the 1940s. However, benefits offered by these magic bullets have been substantially lost in subsequent days following the widespread emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains. While it is obvious that excessive and imprudent use of antibiotics significantly contributes to the emergence of resistant strains, antibiotic-resistance is also observed in natural bacteria of remote places unlikely to be impacted by human intervention. Both antibiotic biosynthetic genes and resistance-conferring genes have been known to evolve billions of years ago, long before clinical use of antibiotics. Hence it appears that antibiotics and antibiotics resistance determinants have some other roles in nature, which often elude our attention because of overemphasis on the therapeutic importance of antibiotics and the crisis imposed by the antibiotic-resistance in pathogens. In the natural milieu, antibiotics are often found to be present in subinhibitory concentrations acting as signalling molecules supporting quorum sensing and biofilm formation. They also play an important role in the production of virulence factors and influence host-parasite interactions (e.g., phagocytosis, adherence to the target cell and so on. The evolutionary and ecological aspects of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance in the naturally occurring microbial community are little understood. Therefore, the actual role of antibiotics in nature warrants in-depth investigations. Studies on such an intriguing behaviour of the microorganisms promise insight into the intricacies of the microbial physiology and are likely to provide some lead in controlling the emergence and subsequent dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This article highlights some of the recent findings on the role of antibiotics and genes that confer resistance to antibiotics in

  3. Tetracycline Antibiotics and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Trudy H

    2016-04-01

    Tetracyclines possess many properties considered ideal for antibiotic drugs, including activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens, proven clinical safety, acceptable tolerability, and the availability of intravenous (IV) and oral formulations for most members of the class. As with all antibiotic classes, the antimicrobial activities of tetracyclines are subject to both class-specific and intrinsic antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Since the discovery of the first tetracyclines more than 60 years ago, ongoing optimization of the core scaffold has produced tetracyclines in clinical use and development that are capable of thwarting many of these resistance mechanisms. New chemistry approaches have enabled the creation of synthetic derivatives with improved in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, ensuring that the full potential of the class can be explored for use against current and emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Improving antibiotic use in daily hospital practice : The antibiotic checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, F.V.

    2018-01-01

    Better use of current antibiotic agents is necessary to help control antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) are introduced to coordinate activities to measure and improve appropriate antibiotic use in daily hospital practice. This thesis shows how the introduction of

  5. Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  6. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  7. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo, A.T.T.

    2007-01-01

    Immediately after their introduction in the beginning of the fourties of the previous century, the agents used to combat infectious diseases caused by bacteria were regarded with suspicion, but not long thereafter antibiotics had the status of miracle drugs. For decades mankind has lived under the

  8. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from environmental

  9. Antibiotics in laboratory medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorian, Victor

    2005-01-01

    ... in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S. government employees are not covered by the above-mentioned copyright. Printed in the USA Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Antibiotics in laboratory medicine / [edited by] Victor Lorian. - 5th ed...

  10. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic therapy of cholera*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbaum, John; Greenough, William B.; Islam, M. R.

    1967-01-01

    Recent clinical trials having established the value of tetracycline as an adjunct to fluid and electrolyte replacement in cholera treatment, a controlled trial of antibiotic therapy was conducted in Dacca on 318 adults hospitalized for cholera. The effects of 4 antibiotics orally administered in varying dosage schedules were studied. Cholera therapy with tetracycline or chloramphenicol caused a highly significant reduction in the duration of diarrhoea and of positive culture, in stool volume, and in intravenous fluid requirement as compared with the results in controls who received intravenous fluid therapy only. Streptomycin was also effective, but to a lesser degree; paromomycin was of little value. The severity of dehydration on admission was significantly related to subsequent duration of diarrhoea regardless of whether antibiotics were given. Increasing age was associated with more prolonged purging in patients receiving antibiotics. Increasing the dose of tetracycline to 2 to 3 times that usually administered, or prolonging treatment from 2 to 4 days, did not enhance the therapeutic results. The effect of tetracycline was apparent within a few hours of administration. Bacteriological relapses were seen after discontinuation of therapy in all treatment groups, but were not due to the development of resistant bacteria. PMID:4865453

  12. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  14. When and How to Take Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us General Background: When & How to take Antibiotics When should you take antibiotics? What is the proper dosage? How safe are antibiotics? How does a physician decide which antibiotic to ...

  15. Antibiotics for leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett-Major, David M; Coldren, Rodney

    2012-02-15

    Leptospirosis has a wide-ranging clinical and public health impact. Leptospira are globally distributed. Case attack rates are as high as 1:4 to 2:5 persons in exposed populations. In some settings mortality has exceeded 10% of infected people. The benefit of antibiotic therapy in the disease has been unclear. We sought to characterise the risks and benefits associated with use of antibiotic therapy in the management of leptospirosis. We searched the The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded regardless of study language. This was augmented by a manual search. The last date of search was November, 2011. To be included in assessment of benefits, trials had to specifically assess the use of antibiotics in a randomised clinical trial. A broad range of study types were incorporated to seek potential harms. Included trials were systematically abstracted, as were excluded studies for the purposes of assessing harms. Analyses were conducted in accordance with The Cochrane Handbook and practices of The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group. Seven randomised trials were included.  Four trials with 403 patients compared an antibiotic with placebo or no intervention. Three trials compared at least one antibiotic regimen with another antibiotic regimen. The trials all had high risk of bias. The trials varied in the severity of leptospirosis among trial patients. The ability to group data for meta-analysis was limited. While all four trials that compared antibiotics with placebo reported mortality and used parenteral penicillin, there were no deaths in two of them. Since odds ratio calculations cannot employ zero-event trials, only two trials contributed to this estimate. The number of deaths were 16/200 (8.0%) in the antibiotic arm versus 11/203 (5.4%) in the placebo arm giving a fixed-effect OR 1.56 (95% CI 0.70 to 3.46). The

  16. Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-01-01

    It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really replace antibiotics remains a controversial issue. This review summarizes recent development and perspectives of alternatives to antibiotics. The mechanism of actions, applications, and prospectives of the alternatives such as immunity modulating agents, bacteriophages and their lysins, antimicrobial peptides, pro-, pre-, and synbiotics, plant extracts, inhibitors targeting pathogenicity (bacterial quorum sensing, biofilm, and virulence), and feeding enzymes are thoroughly discussed. Lastly, the feasibility of alternatives to antibiotics is deeply analyzed. It is hard to conclude that the alternatives might substitute antibiotics in veterinary medicine in the foreseeable future. At the present time, prudent use of antibiotics and the establishment of scientific monitoring systems are the best and fastest way to limit the adverse effects of the abuse of antibiotics and to ensure the safety of animal-derived food and environment.

  17. Antibiotic Alternatives: The Substitution of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyue eCheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could relly replace antibiotics remains a controversial issue. This review summarizes recent development and perspectives of alternatives to antibiotics. The mechanism of actions, applications, and prospectives of the alternatives such as immunity modulating agents, bacteriophages and their lysins, antimicrobial peptides, pro-, pre- and synbiotics, plant extracts, inhibitors targeting pathogenicity (bacterial quorum sensing, biofilm and virulence, and feeding enzymes are thoroughly discussed. Lastly, the feasibility of alternatives to antibiotics is deeply analyzed. It is hard to conclude that the alternatives might substitute antibiotics in veterinary medicine in the foreseeable future. At the present time, prudent use of antibiotics and the establishment of scientific monitoring systems are the best and fastest way to limit the adverse effects of the abuse of antibiotics and to ensure the safety of animal-derived food and environment.

  18. Selection of antibiotic resistance at very low antibiotic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandegren, Linus

    2014-05-01

    Human use of antibiotics has driven the selective enrichment of pathogenic bacteria resistant to clinically used drugs. Traditionally, the selection of resistance has been considered to occur mainly at high, therapeutic levels of antibiotics, but we are now beginning to understand better the importance of selection of resistance at low levels of antibiotics. The concentration of an antibiotic varies in different body compartments during treatment, and low concentrations of antibiotics are found in sewage water, soils, and many water environments due to natural production and contamination from human activities. Selection of resistance at non-lethal antibiotic concentrations (below the wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration) occurs due to differences in growth rate at the particular antibiotic concentration between cells with different tolerance levels to the antibiotic. The minimum selective concentration for a particular antibiotic is reached when its reducing effect on growth of the susceptible strain balances the reducing effect (fitness cost) of the resistance determinant in the resistant strain. Recent studies have shown that resistant bacteria can be selected at concentrations several hundred-fold below the lethal concentrations for susceptible cells. Resistant mutants selected at low antibiotic concentrations are generally more fit than those selected at high concentrations but can still be highly resistant. The characteristics of selection at low antibiotic concentrations, the potential clinical problems of this mode of selection, and potential solutions will be discussed.

  19. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  20. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose Luis, E-mail: jlmtnez@cnb.csic.e [Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, and CIBERESP (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  1. Antibiotic use and microbiome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Manuel; Méndez-García, Celia; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Moya, Andrés

    2017-06-15

    Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops. We have begun to appreciate that not all bacteria within our microbiota are vulnerable or reactive to different antibiotic interventions, and that their influence on both microbial composition and metabolism may differ. Antibiotics are being used worldwide on a huge scale and the prescription of antibiotics is continuing to rise; however, their effects on our microbiota have been reported for only a limited number of them. This article presents a critical review of the antibiotics or antibiotic cocktails whose use in humans has been linked to changes in the composition of our microbial communities, with a particular focus on the gut, oral, respiratory, skin and vaginal microbiota, and on their molecular agents (genes, proteins and metabolites). We review the state of the art as of June 2016, and cover a total of circa 68 different antibiotics. The data herein are the first to compile information about the bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses most influenced by the main antibiotic treatments prescribed nowadays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Andrew G.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Nizam, Fazmin; Yan, Austin; Azad, Marisa A.; Baylay, Alison J.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Canova, Marc J.; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Ejim, Linda; Kalan, Lindsay; King, Andrew M.; Koteva, Kalinka; Morar, Mariya; Mulvey, Michael R.; O'Brien, Jonathan S.; Pawlowski, Andrew C.; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Sutherland, Arlene D.; Tang, Irene; Taylor, Patricia L.; Thaker, Maulik; Wang, Wenliang; Yan, Marie; Yu, Tennison

    2013-01-01

    The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:23650175

  3. Prescribing antibiotics in general practice:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene

    Objectives The majority of antibiotics are prescribed from general practice. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics increases the risk of development of bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment. In spite of guidelines aiming to minimize the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics we see an increase...... in the use of these agents. The overall aim of the project is to explore factors influencing the decision process and the prescribing behaviour of the GPs when prescribing antibiotics. We will study the impact of microbiological testing on the choice of antibiotic. Furthermore the project will explore how......) and the Danish Microbiology Database (performed microbiological testing). We will assess and quantify the use of microbiological testing prior to antibiotic prescription. Furthermore we will investigate associations between GP characteristics, use of microbiological investigations and description patterns...

  4. ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS ON ESTOMATOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alfaro, Miguel; Responsable de la cátedra de Farmacología de la Facultad de Odontología UNMSM.; Burga Sánchez, Jonny; Catedrático de Farmacología de la Facultad de Odontología UNMSM.; Chumpitaz Cerrate, Víctor; Catedrático de Farmacología de la Facultad de Odontología UNMSM.; Varas Hilario, Roberto; Catedrático de Farmacología de la Facultad de Odontología UNMSM.; Guerra Sanguinetti, Jaime; Cirujano Dentista de la Facultad de Odontología UNMSM.; López Bellido, Roger; Bachiller de la Facultad de Odontología UNMSM.; Zegarra Cuya, Juan; Interno de la Facultad de OdontoIogia UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis consists in the use of an antimicrobial drug in a preventive way, that must be active against microorganisms that in high frequency causes posterior infections of our surgical wounds and maintain effective tissue concentrations along the surgery procedure and the posterior time when appears the bacteremia. To reach a successful treatment is necessary to have the knowledge of the resident bactemial flora and the pathogenous flora that infects our surgical wounds...

  5. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  6. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies....... This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should...... be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized...

  7. Suppression of antibiotic resistance acquisition by combined use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Horinouchi, Takaaki; Furusawa, Chikara

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the effect of combinatorial use of antibiotics with a trade-off relationship of resistance, i.e., resistance acquisition to one drug causes susceptibility to the other drug, and vice versa, on the evolution of antibiotic resistance. We demonstrated that this combinatorial use of antibiotics significantly suppressed the acquisition of resistance. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rationalizing antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India+

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, a global concern, is particularly pressing in developing nations, including India, where the burden of infectious disease is high and healthcare spending is low. The Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) was established to develop actionable policy recommendations specifically relevant to low- and middle-income countries where suboptimal access to antibiotics - not a major concern in high-income countries - is possibly as severe a problem as is the spread of resistant organisms. This report summarizes the situation as it is known regarding antibiotic use and growing resistance in India and recommends short and long term actions. Recommendations aim at (i) reducing the need for antibiotics; (ii) lowering resistance-enhancing drug pressure through improved antibiotic targeting, and (iii) eliminating antibiotic use for growth promotion in agriculture. The highest priority needs to be given to (i) national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use - better information to underpin decisions on standard treatment guidelines, education and other actions, as well as to monitor changes over time; (ii) increasing the use of diagnostic tests, which necessitates behavioural changes and improvements in microbiology laboratory capacity; (iii) setting up and/or strengthening infection control committees in hospitals; and (iv) restricting the use of antibiotics for non-therapeutic uses in agriculture. These interventions should help to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance, improve public health directly, benefit the populace and reduce pressure on the healthcare system. Finally, increasing the types and coverage of childhood vaccines offered by the government would reduce the disease burden enormously and spare antibiotics. PMID:21985810

  9. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes from antibiotic producers to pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinglin; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim; Charusanti, Pep

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) found in pathogenic bacteria derive from antibiotic-producing actinobacteria. Here we provide bioinformatic and experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis. We identify genes in proteobacteria, including some pathogens......, that appear to be closely related to actinobacterial ARGs known to confer resistance against clinically important antibiotics. Furthermore, we identify two potential examples of recent horizontal transfer of actinobacterial ARGs to proteobacterial pathogens. Based on this bioinformatic evidence, we propose...... results support the existence of ancient and, possibly, recent transfers of ARGs from antibiotic-producing actinobacteria to proteobacteria, and provide evidence for a defined mechanism....

  10. Antibiotics in late clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Martens, Evan

    2017-06-01

    Most pharmaceutical companies have stopped or have severely limited investments to discover and develop new antibiotics to treat the increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria, because the return on investment has been mostly negative for antibiotics that received marketing approved in the last few decades. In contrast, a few small companies have taken on this challenge and are developing new antibiotics. This review describes those antibiotics in late-stage clinical development. Most of them belong to existing antibiotic classes and a few with a narrow spectrum of activity are novel compounds directed against novel targets. The reasons for some of the past failures to find new molecules and a path forward to help attract investments to fund discovery of new antibiotics are described. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The macrolide antibiotic renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinos, George P

    2017-09-01

    Macrolides represent a large family of protein synthesis inhibitors of great clinical interest due to their applicability to human medicine. Macrolides are composed of a macrocyclic lactone of different ring sizes, to which one or more deoxy-sugar or amino sugar residues are attached. Macrolides act as antibiotics by binding to bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and interfering with protein synthesis. The high affinity of macrolides for bacterial ribosomes, together with the highly conserved structure of ribosomes across virtually all of the bacterial species, is consistent with their broad-spectrum activity. Since the discovery of the progenitor macrolide, erythromycin, in 1950, many derivatives have been synthesised, leading to compounds with better bioavailability and acid stability and improved pharmacokinetics. These efforts led to the second generation of macrolides, including well-known members such as azithromycin and clarithromycin. Subsequently, in order to address increasing antibiotic resistance, a third generation of macrolides displaying improved activity against many macrolide resistant strains was developed. However, these improvements were accompanied with serious side effects, leading to disappointment and causing many researchers to stop working on macrolide derivatives, assuming that this procedure had reached the end. In contrast, a recent published breakthrough introduced a new chemical platform for synthesis and discovery of a wide range of diverse macrolide antibiotics. This chemical synthesis revolution, in combination with reduction in the side effects, namely, 'Ketek effects', has led to a macrolide renaissance, increasing the hope for novel and safe therapeutic agents to combat serious human infectious diseases. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Ultrathin antibiotic walled microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopade, Ajay J; Arulsudar, N; Khopade, Surekha A; Hartmann, J

    2005-01-01

    Ultrathin microcapsules comprised of anionic polyelectrolytes (PE) and a polycationic aminoglycoside (AmG) antibiotic drug were prepared by depositing PE/AmG multilayers on zinc oxide (ZnO) colloid particles using the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique and subsequently dissolving the ZnO templated cores. The polyelectrolytes, dextran sulfate sodium (DxS) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS), were selected owing to their different backbone structure. An aminoglycoside, tobramycin sulfate (TbS), was used for studying DxS/TbS or PSS/TbS multilayer films. The multilayer growth on ZnO cores was characterized by alternating zeta potential values that were different for the DxS/TbS and PSS/TbS multilayers due to the PE chemistry and its interaction with Zn(2+) ions. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy provide evidence of PE/TbS multilayer coating on ZnO core particles. The slow acid-decomposition of the ZnO cores using weak organic acids and the presence of sufficient quantity of Zn(2+) in the dispersion were required to produce antibiotic multilayer capsules. There was no difference in the morphological characteristics of the two types of capsules; although, the yield for [PSS/TbS](5) capsules was significantly higher than for [DxS/TbS](5) capsules which was related to the physicochemical properties of DxS/TbS/Zn(2+) and PSS/TbS/Zn(2+) complexes forming the capsule wall. The TbS quantity in the multilayer films was determined using a quartz crystal microbalance and high performance liquid chromatography techniques which showed less TbS loading in both, capsules and multilayers on planar gold substrate, than the theoretical DxS:TbS or PSS:TbS stoichiometric ratio. The decomposition of the [PE/TbS](6) multilayers was fastest in physiological buffer followed by mannitol and water. The decomposition rate of the [PSS/TbS](6) multilayers was slower than [DxS/TbS](6) monolayers. The incomplete decomposition of DxS/TbS under saline conditions suggests the major role of

  13. Antibiotics from predatory bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Korp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism.

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Nephrological Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Taran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to the global public health and requires action by both the state and the public. The World Health Organization identified 15 most dangerous and prevalent superbugs, which it ranked based on three levels of threat they present to the public health. At the heart of the fight against antibiotic resistance lies the increased awareness of the health professionals and general public that incorrect and excessive use of antibiotics amid poor practices in infection prevention and control contributes to the acceleration of antibiotic resistance.

  15. Antibiotics and Pregnancy: What's Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion. CMAJ. 2017;189:625. American College of Obstetricians ... Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  16. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  17. High-throughput method for macrolides and lincosamides antibiotics residues analysis in milk and muscle using a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Campos Motta, Tanara Magalhães; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-11-01

    A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Cardiac surgery antibiotic prophylaxis and calculated empiric antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Armin; Hamouda, Khaled; Özkur, Mehmet; Leistner, Markus; Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Leyh, Rainer; Schimmer, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Ongoing debate exists concerning the optimal choice and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis as well as the reasonable calculated empiric antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired infections in critically ill cardiac surgery patients. A nationwide questionnaire was distributed to all German heart surgery centers concerning antibiotic prophylaxis and the calculated empiric antibiotic therapy. The response to the questionnaire was 87.3%. All clinics that responded use antibiotic prophylaxis, 79% perform it not longer than 24 h (single-shot: 23%; 2 doses: 29%; 3 doses: 27%; 4 doses: 13%; and >5 doses: 8%). Cephalosporin was used in 89% of clinics (46% second-generation, 43% first-generation cephalosporin). If sepsis is suspected, the following diagnostics are performed routinely: wound inspection 100%; white blood cell count 100%; radiography 99%; C-reactive protein 97%; microbiological testing of urine 91%, blood 81%, and bronchial secretion 81%; procalcitonin 74%; and echocardiography 75%. The calculated empiric antibiotic therapy (depending on the suspected focus) consists of a multidrug combination with broad-spectrum agents. This survey shows that existing national guidelines and recommendations concerning perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and calculated empiric antibiotic therapy are well applied in almost all German heart centers. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Fighting antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit using antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Nienke L.; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; Van Duijn, Pleun J.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to

  20. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  1. Biosynthesis of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gong-Li; Tang, Man-Cheng; Song, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) alkaloids are naturally occurring antibiotics isolated from a variety of microorganisms and marine invertebrates. This family of natural products exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial and strong antitumor activities, and the potency of clinical application has been validated by the marketing of ecteinascidin 743 (ET-743) as anticancer drug. In the past 20 years, the biosynthetic gene cluster of six THIQ antibiotics has been characterized including saframycin Mx1 from Myxococcus xanthus, safracin-B from Pseudomonas fluorescens, saframycin A, naphthyridinomycin, and quinocarcin from Streptomyces, as well as ET-743 from Ecteinascidia turbinata. This review gives a brief summary of the current status in understanding the molecular logic for the biosynthesis of these natural products, which provides new insights on the biosynthetic machinery involved in the nonribosomal peptide synthetase system. The proposal of the THIQ biosynthetic pathway not only shows nature's route to generate such complex molecules, but also set the stage to develop a different process for production of ET-743 by synthetic biology.

  2. Bacterial meningitis antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R; Raymond, J; Hees, L; Pinquier, D; Grimprel, E; Levy, C

    2017-12-01

    The implementation of pneumococal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) 7 then 13 valent (Prevenar13 ®) in 2010-2011 has significantly changed the profile of pneumococcal meningitis. Since 3 years, the National Pediatric Meningitis Network of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the National Reference Centre of Pneumococci have reported no cases of meningitis due to pneumococcus resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC): cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. In the light of these new data, vancomycin should no longer be prescribed at the initial phase of pneumococcal meningitis treatment (confirmed or only suspected) and this antibiotic should only be added when 3GC minimum inhibitory concentration of the strain isolated is greater than 0.5mg/L. For meningococcal meningitis, nearly 20% of strains have decreased susceptibility to penicillin and amoxicillin, but all remain susceptible to 3GC. The National Pediatric Meningitis Network is a valuable tool because it has been sufficiently exhaustive and sustainable over 15 years. Maintaining this epidemiologic surveillance will allow us to adapt, if necessary, new regimens for subsequent changes that could be induced by vaccination and/or antibiotic uses. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  3. Antibiotic adjuvants - A strategy to unlock bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bello, Concepción

    2017-09-15

    Resistance to available antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria is currently a global challenge since the number of strains that are resistant to multiple types of antibiotics has increased dramatically each year and has spread worldwide. To unlock this problem, the use of an 'antibiotic adjuvant' in combination with an antibiotic is now being exploited. This approach enables us to prolong the lifespan of these life-saving drugs. This digests review provides an overview of the main types of antibiotic adjuvants, the basis of their operation and the remaining issues to be tackled in this field. Particular emphasis is placed on those compounds that are already in clinical development, namely β-lactamase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Incentivizing Antibiotic Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Scandlen-Finken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic Resistance is an international threat, killing thousands and infecting millions. Although certain populations may be at an increased risk for infections, anyone can find themselves compromised with a multi-drug resistant infection. Treatments are becoming more complicated as the bacteria becomes more elusive. Cures are becoming less certain, and the future antibiotic arsenal is looking thin. Although there are many talented scientists and capable drug development entities, the funding and returns on investment are not sufficient to entice antibiotic research and development. This paper explores the current situation regarding antibiotic resistance and its casualties, as well as the mechanisms being employed to overcome the increase in resistance, and decrease in antibiotic effectiveness. Through analysis of antibiotic research, development, and regulation, this paper adds to the discussion by filling in the current gaps regarding the procurement of sustainable funding via an insurance model framework. By incentivizing the pharmaceutical industry to invest in antibiotic research, and by guaranteeing returns on investment, a global solution to the current antibiotic resistance problem can be contained.   Type: Student Project

  5. EAMJ Antibiotic May 2010.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-01

    May 1, 2010 ... of E. coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp and antibiotic resistance genes from these bacteria may be co-transferred to humans (4,5). The shedding of pathogens by asymptomatic animals is increasing concern as a source, distribution of food borne diseases. (FBDs) and antibiotic resistance (6-8).

  6. The Antibiotic Resistance Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The term "antibiotic" was first proposed by Vuillemin in 1889 but was first used in the current sense by Walksman in 1941. An antibiotic is defined as a "derivative produced by the metabolism of microorganisms that possess antibacterial activity at low concentrations and is not toxic to the host." In this article, the author describes how…

  7. Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Next to the beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction. Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition ofthe stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.

  8. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. M Brand, D Bisoz. Abstract. Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among ...

  9. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Borisenko, Oleg V; Kovanen, Niina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expert opinions vary on the appropriate role of antibiotics for sinusitis, one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions among adults in ambulatory care. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether antibiotics are effective in treating acute sinusitis, and if so, which antibiotic classes...... are the most effective. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 3); MEDLINE (1950 to May 2007) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2007). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics with placebo...... or antibiotics from different classes for acute maxillary sinusitis in adults. We included trials with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, whether or not confirmed by radiography or bacterial culture. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened search results, extracted...

  10. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due...... to multiple tolerance mechanisms (phenotypic resistance). This causes persistence of biofilm infections in spite of antibiotic exposure which predisposes to antibiotic resistance development (genetic resistance). Understanding the interplay between phenotypic and genetic resistance mechanisms acting...... on biofilms, as well as appreciating the diversity of environmental conditions of biofilm infections which influence the effect of antibiotics are required in order to optimize the antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections. Here, we review the current knowledge on phenotypic and genetic resistance...

  12. Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half......-day reduction in duration of cough. However, at follow-up there are no significant differences in overall clinical improvement inpatients treated with antibiotics compared with those receiving placebo. Despite this, antibiotics are administered to approximately two thirds of these patients. This review...... discusses the reason for this antibiotic overprescription. Other therapies targeted to control symptoms have also demonstrated a marginal or no effect. EXPERT COMMENTARY: Clinicians should be aware of the marginal effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Some strategies like the use of rapid tests, delayed...

  13. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  14. Enteropathogens and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralba, Ana; García-Esteban, Coral; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis remains a public health problem. The most severe cases are of bacterial origin. In Spain, Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most prevalent bacterial genus, while Yersinia and Shigella are much less frequent. Most cases are usually self-limiting and antibiotic therapy is not generally indicated, unless patients have risk factors for severe infection and shigellosis. Ciprofloxacin, third generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and doxycycline are the most recommended drugs. The susceptibility pattern of the different bacteria determines the choice of the most appropriate treatment. The aim of this review is to analyse the current situation, developments, and evolution of resistance and multidrug resistance in these 4 enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. WITHDRAWN. Antibiotics for treating leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidugli, Fábio; Castro, Aldemar A; Atallah, Alvaro N; Araújo, Maurício G

    2010-01-20

    Leptospirosis is a parasitic disease transmitted by animals. Severe leptospirosis may result in hospitalisation and about five per cent of the patients die. In clinical practice, penicillin is widely used for treating leptospirosis. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antibiotics versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in treating leptospirosis. We addressed the following clinical questions: a) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics more efficient than placebo for leptospirosis? b) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics safe when compared to placebo for leptospirosis? c) Which antibiotic regimen is the most efficient and safest in treating leptospirosis? Electronic searches and searches of the identified articles were combined. Randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as treatment for leptospirosis. Language, date, or other restrictions were not applied. Patients with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis. Any antibiotic regimen compared with a control group (placebo or another antibiotic regimen). Data and methodological quality of each trial were independently extracted and assessed by two reviewers. The random effects model was used irrespective of significant statistical heterogeneity. Three trials met inclusion criteria. Allocation concealment and double blind methods were not clearly described in two. Of the patients enrolled, 75 were treated with placebo and 75 with antibiotics: 61 (81.3%) penicillin and 14 (18.6%) doxycycline. The patients assigned to antibiotics compared to placebo showed: a) Mortality: 1% (1/75) versus 4% (3/75); risk difference -2%, 95% confidence interval -8% to 4%. b) Duration of hospital stay (days): weighted mean difference 0.30, 95% confidence interval -1.26 to 1.86. c) Prolonged hospital stay (> seven days): 30% (7/23) versus 74% (14/19); risk difference -43%, 95% confidence interval -70% to -16%. Number needed-to-treat 3, 95% confidence interval 2 to 7. d) Period of disappearance of fever (days

  16. Curing bacteria of antibiotic resistance: reverse antibiotics, a novel class of antibiotics in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Morimoto, Yuh; Baba, Tadashi; Umekita, Maya; Akamatsu, Yuzuru

    2012-06-01

    By screening cultures of soil bacteria, we re-discovered an old antibiotic (nybomycin) as an antibiotic with a novel feature. Nybomycin is active against quinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with mutated gyrA genes but not against those with intact gyrA genes against which quinolone antibiotics are effective. Nybomycin-resistant mutant strains were generated from a quinolone-resistant, nybomycin-susceptible, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain Mu 50. The mutants, occurring at an extremely low rate (generation), were found to have their gyrA genes back-mutated and to have lost quinolone resistance. Here we describe nybomycin as the first member of a novel class of antibiotics designated 'reverse antibiotics'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  18. Antibiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Maria Lia; Prantera, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by an altered composition of gut microbiota (dysbiosis) that may contribute to their development. Antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora, and a link between antibiotic use and onset of Crohn's disease (CD), but not ulcerative colitis, has been reported. The hypothesis that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) could be an etiologic agent of CD has not been confirmed by a large study on patients treated by an association of antibiotics active against MAP. The observations supporting a role of intestinal microbiota in CD pathogenesis provide the rationale for a therapeutic manipulation of the intestinal flora through the employment of antibiotics. However, current data do not strongly support a therapeutic benefit from antibiotics, and there is still controversy regarding their use as primary therapy for treatment of acute flares of CD, and for postoperative recurrence prevention. Nevertheless, clinical practice and some studies suggest that a subgroup of patients with colonic involvement, early disease, and abnormal laboratory test of inflammation may respond better to antibiotic treatment. Since their long-term use is frequently complicated by a high rate of side effects, the use of antibiotics that work locally appears to be promising.

  19. Antibiotics and the resistant microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery and clinical application of antibiotics, pathogens and the human microbiota have faced a near continuous exposure to these selective agents. A well-established consequence of this exposure is the evolution of multidrug-resistant pathogens, which can become virtually untreatable....... Less appreciated are the concomitant changes in the human microbiome in response to these assaults and their contribution to clinical resistance problems. Studies have shown that pervasive changes to the human microbiota result from antibiotic treatment and that resistant strains can persist for years...... expand our understanding of the interplay between antibiotics and the microbiome....

  20. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP, can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.

  1. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  2. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  3. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Antibiotic Cycling and Antibiotic Mixing: Which One Best Mitigates Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Miller, Rafael; Gori, Fabio; Iredell, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Can we exploit our burgeoning understanding of molecular evolution to slow the progress of drug resistance? One role of an infection clinician is exactly that: to foresee trajectories to resistance during antibiotic treatment and to hinder that evolutionary course. But can this be done at a hospital-wide scale? Clinicians and theoreticians tried to when they proposed two conflicting behavioral strategies that are expected to curb resistance evolution in the clinic, these are known as “antibiotic cycling” and “antibiotic mixing.” However, the accumulated data from clinical trials, now approaching 4 million patient days of treatment, is too variable for cycling or mixing to be deemed successful. The former implements the restriction and prioritization of different antibiotics at different times in hospitals in a manner said to “cycle” between them. In antibiotic mixing, appropriate antibiotics are allocated to patients but randomly. Mixing results in no correlation, in time or across patients, in the drugs used for treatment which is why theorists saw this as an optimal behavioral strategy. So while cycling and mixing were proposed as ways of controlling evolution, we show there is good reason why clinical datasets cannot choose between them: by re-examining the theoretical literature we show prior support for the theoretical optimality of mixing was misplaced. Our analysis is consistent with a pattern emerging in data: neither cycling or mixing is a priori better than the other at mitigating selection for antibiotic resistance in the clinic. Key words: antibiotic cycling, antibiotic mixing, optimal control, stochastic models. PMID:28096304

  5. Antibiotic Cycling and Antibiotic Mixing: Which One Best Mitigates Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, Robert Eric; Peña-Miller, Rafael; Gori, Fabio; Iredell, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Can we exploit our burgeoning understanding of molecular evolution to slow the progress of drug resistance? One role of an infection clinician is exactly that: to foresee trajectories to resistance during antibiotic treatment and to hinder that evolutionary course. But can this be done at a hospital-wide scale? Clinicians and theoreticians tried to when they proposed two conflicting behavioral strategies that are expected to curb resistance evolution in the clinic, these are known as "antibiotic cycling" and "antibiotic mixing." However, the accumulated data from clinical trials, now approaching 4 million patient days of treatment, is too variable for cycling or mixing to be deemed successful. The former implements the restriction and prioritization of different antibiotics at different times in hospitals in a manner said to "cycle" between them. In antibiotic mixing, appropriate antibiotics are allocated to patients but randomly. Mixing results in no correlation, in time or across patients, in the drugs used for treatment which is why theorists saw this as an optimal behavioral strategy. So while cycling and mixing were proposed as ways of controlling evolution, we show there is good reason why clinical datasets cannot choose between them: by re-examining the theoretical literature we show prior support for the theoretical optimality of mixing was misplaced. Our analysis is consistent with a pattern emerging in data: neither cycling or mixing is a priori better than the other at mitigating selection for antibiotic resistance in the clinic. : antibiotic cycling, antibiotic mixing, optimal control, stochastic models. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal beta-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute...... to the survival of biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. A promising strategy may be the use of enzymes that can dissolve the biofilm matrix (e.g. DNase and alginate lyase) as well as quorum...

  7. [Self-medication with antibiotics in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olczak, A.; Grzesiowski, P.; Hryniewicz, W.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, the important public health threat, depends on antibiotic overuse/misuse. Self-medication with antibiotics is of serious medical concern. The aim of the study, as a part of SAR project (Self-medication with antibiotic in Europe) was to survey the incidence of this phenomenon.

  8. Antibiotic utilisation for hospitalised paediatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinge, K; Kimpen, JLL; van Houten, M.A.

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in paediatrics. Because of an overall rise in health care costs, lack of uniformity in drug prescribing and the emergence of antibiotic resistance, monitoring and control of antibiotic use is of growing concern and strict antibiotic policies

  9. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Beatriz Espinosa; Altagracia Martínez, Marina; Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. We conducted a MedLine search using the key words "determinants", "antibiotic", and "antibiotic resistance" to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.

  10. Assessment of antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics and biofilm formation abilities of antibiotic-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus KACC 13236 (SAS), multiple antibiotic-resistant S. aureus CCARM 3080 (SAR), antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 40253 (STS) and ...

  11. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Antibiotics Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Cecilia; Tertis, Mihaela; Galatus, Ramona

    2017-05-24

    Widespread use of antibiotics has led to pollution of waterways, potentially creating resistance among freshwater bacterial communities. Microorganisms resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics (superbug) have dramatically increased over the last decades. The presence of antibiotics in waters, in food and beverages in both their un-metabolized and metabolized forms are of interest for humans. This is due to daily exposure in small quantities, that, when accumulated, could lead to development of drug resistance to antibiotics, or multiply the risk of allergic reaction. Conventional analytical methods used to quantify antibiotics are relatively expensive and generally require long analysis time associated with the difficulties to perform field analyses. In this context, electrochemical and optical based sensing devices are of interest, offering great potentials for a broad range of analytical applications. This review will focus on the application of magnetic nanoparticles in the design of different analytical methods, mainly sensors, used for the detection of antibiotics in different matrices (human fluids, the environmental, food and beverages samples).

  12. Expedient antibiotics production: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Byers, C.H.; Lee, D.D.

    1988-05-01

    The literature on the manufacture, separation and purification, and clinical uses of antibiotics was reviewed, and a bibliography of the pertinent material was completed. Five antimicrobial drugs, penicillin V and G, (and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), Cephalexin (a cephalosporin), tetracycline and oxytetracycline, Bacitracin (topical), and sulfonamide (chemically produced) were identified for emergency production. Plants that manufacture antibiotics in the continental United States, Mexico, and Puerto Rico have been identified along with potential alternate sites such as those where SCP, enzyme, and fermentation ethanol are produced. Detailed process flow sheets and process descriptions have been derived from the literature and documented. This investigation revealed that a typical antibiotic-manufacturing facility is composed of two main sections: (1) a highly specialized, but generic, fermentation unit and (2) a multistep, complex separation and purification unit which is specific to a particular antibiotic product. The fermentation section requires specialized equipment for operation in a sterile environment which is not usually available in other industries. The emergency production of antibiotics under austere conditions will be feasible only if a substantial reduction in the complexity and degree of separation and purity normally required can be realized. Detailed instructions were developed to assist state and federal officials who would be directing the resumption of antibiotic production after a nuclear attack. 182 refs., 54 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Dielectrophoretic assay of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari, Juliana; Huebner, Yvonne; Hull, Judith C; Dale, Jeremy W; Hughes, Michael P

    2003-01-01

    The dielectrophoretic collection spectra of antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have been determined. These indicate that in the absence of antibiotic treatment there is a strong similarity between the dielectric properties of sensitive and resistant strains, and that there is a significant difference between the sensitive strains before and after treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin after 24 h exposure. This method offers possibilities for the assessment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. (note)

  14. Macrolide antibiotics and the airway: antibiotic or non-antibiotic effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, D M

    2010-03-01

    The macrolides are a class of antibiotics widely prescribed in infectious disease. More recently, there has been considerable interest in potential indications for these agents, in addition to their simple antibacterial indications, in a number of lung pathophysiologies.

  15. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Geoffrey Kp; Del Mar, Chris B; Dooley, Liz; Foxlee, Ruth; Farley, Rebecca

    2017-09-07

    Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections. For this 2017 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2017), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialised Register; Ovid MEDLINE (2013 to 25 May 2017); Ovid Embase (2013 to 2017 Week 21); EBSCO CINAHL Plus (1984 to 25 May 2017); Web of Science (2013 to 25 May 2017); WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (1 September 2017); and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 September 2017). Randomised controlled trials involving participants of all ages defined as having an RTI, where delayed antibiotics were compared to immediate antibiotics or no antibiotics. We defined a delayed antibiotic as advice to delay the filling of an antibiotic prescription by at least 48 hours. We considered all RTIs regardless of whether antibiotics were recommended or not. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Three review authors independently extracted and collated data. We assessed the risk of bias of all included trials. We contacted trial authors to obtain missing information. For this 2017 update we added one new trial involving 405 participants with uncomplicated acute respiratory infection. Overall, this review included 11 studies with a total of 3555 participants. These 11 studies involved acute respiratory infections including acute otitis media (three studies

  16. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  17. Background antibiotic resistance patterns in antibiotic-free pastured poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a significant public health issue, and agroecosystems are often viewed as major environmental sources of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens. While the use of antibiotics in agroecosystems can potentially increase AR, appropriate background resistance levels in th...

  18. Antibiotic resistance: the Iowa experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy

    2002-11-01

    In the past 10 years, the number of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other common respiratory pathogens that are resistant to penicillin has increased. The Iowa Department of Public Health convened a multidisciplinary task force in January 1998 to develop strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in the state because they were alarmed by these reports. Within 18 months, the task force implemented statewide surveillance of resistant organisms and posted information about the surveillance on the Internet, distributed a public health guide on judicious antibiotic use and infection control measures to 7500 healthcare providers, and held a press conference to inform the public about antibiotic resistance. The task force collaborated with several major insurers in the state to profile the top prescribers of antibiotic agents in their plan. The profiling and educational interventions led to a substantial decrease in both overall antibiotic prescribing and drug costs. Other states may want to undertake similar programs to help protect their citizens from infections caused by resistant pathogens.

  19. [Antibiotic resistance: A global crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice represented one of the most important interventions for the control of infectious diseases. Antibiotics have saved millions of lives and have also brought a revolution in medicine. However, an increasing threat has deteriorated the effectiveness of these drugs, that of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which is defined here as the ability of bacteria to survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit/kill others of the same species. In this review some recent and important examples of resistance in pathogens of concern for mankind are mentioned. It is explained, according to present knowledge, the process that led to the current situation in a short time, evolutionarily speaking. It begins with the resistance genes, continues with clones and genetic elements involved in the maintenance and dissemination, and ends with other factors that contribute to its spread. Possible responses to the problem are also reviewed, with special reference to the development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. [New antibiotics - standstill or progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, J; Welte, T

    2017-04-01

    The development of resistance to antibiotics has been ignored for a long time. But nowadays, increasing resistance is an important topic. For a decade no new antibiotics had been developed and it is not possible to quickly close this gap of new resistance and no new drugs. This work presents six new antibiotics (ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, solithromycin, tedizolid, ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam). In part, only expert opinions are given due to lack of study results.The two 5th generation cephalosporins ceftaroline and ceftobiprole have beside their equivalent efficacy to ceftriaxone (ceftaroline) and cefipim (ceftobiprole) high activity against MRSA. The fluoroketolide solithromycin should help against macrolide-resistant pathogens and has been shown to be noninferior to the fluorochinolones. The oxazolidinone tedizolid is effective against linezolid-resistant MRSA. The two cephalosporins ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are not only effective against gram-negative pathogens, but they have a very broad spectrum. Due to the efficacy against extended-spectrum β‑lactamases, they can relieve the selection pressure of the carbapenems. We benefit from all new antibiotics which can take the selection pressure from other often used antibiotics. The increasing number of resistant gram-negative pathogens worldwide is alarming. Thus, focusing on the development of new drugs is extremely important.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article brings up the topic not only vital and urgent for further development of modern medical science, but also affecting the interests of mankind as a whole and of every inhabitant of the Earth in particular: that is the irrational use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance which rate is growing rapidly. We investigate the reasons for the epidemic of antibiotic resistance and discuss in detail all the necessary measures in order to cope with this problem. The shocking data on the almost universal irrational use of antibiotics by both medical workers and parents is provided. We demonstrate the microbiome changes that follow antibacterial drugs application resulting in the development of severe chronic pediatric diseases which cause severe disability or life-threatening conditions in children with long-term results in adult age. In conclusion, we summarize the evidence-based research in phytomedicine that present the phytopreparations as a serious alternative to antibiotics in a number of clinical settings. 

  2. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  3. Adverse consequences of neonatal antibiotic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics have not only saved lives and improved outcomes, but they also influence the evolving microbiome. This review summarizes reports on neonatal infections and variation in antibiotic utilization, discusses the emergence of resistant organisms, and presents data from human neonates and animal models demonstrating the impact of antibiotics on the microbiome, and how microbiome alterations impact health. The importance of antibiotic stewardship is also discussed. Infections increase neonatal morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of infections can be subtle, prompting clinicians to empirically start antibiotics when infection is a possibility. Antibiotic-resistant infections are a growing problem. Cohort studies have identified extensive center variations in antibiotic usage and associations between antibiotic exposures and outcomes. Studies of antibiotic-induced microbiome alterations and downstream effects on the developing immune system have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between antibiotics and adverse outcomes. The emergence of resistant microorganisms and recent evidence linking antibiotic practice variations with health outcomes has led to the initiation of antibiotic stewardship programs. The review encourages practitioners to assess local antibiotic use with regard to local microbiology, and to adopt steps to reduce infections and use antibiotics wisely.

  4. Antibiotic prophylaxis in genitourinary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, S J; Wood, P D; Kosola, J W

    1981-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery, particularly genitourinary surgery, has been controversial for years. At best, the results have been more testimonial than scientific because of the failure to observe proper experimental design. A survey of the literature indicates that antibiotic prophylaxis in genitourinary surgery probably has little influence on postoperative fever; it appears to favorably affect the incidence of postoperative bacteriuria and bacteremia in the short term without encouraging nosocomial or resistant infections. The regimen for prophylaxis must be perioperative and continued for no longer than 24 hours postoperatively. Given that antibiotic prophylaxis in elective genitourinary surgery has merit, a comparison between cefazolin and cefotaxime was undertaken. Of 160 evaluable cases, a total of 23 patients had positive cultures within the first nine days; only two occurred within the first five days. When cefazolin and cefotaxime were administered in the same dosage regimen, the infection rate for cefazolin was 19% compared with 10% for cefotaxime.

  5. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    of 485 surgeries when intracameral antibiotics were not used. The relative risk (95% CI) of endophthalmitis was reduced to 0.12 (0.08; 0.18) when intracameral antibiotics were used. The difference was highly significant (p preventing......Endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications after cataract surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of intracameral and topical antibiotics on the prevention of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL...... randomized trial and one observational study. The quality and design of the included studies were analysed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using the GRADE approach. We found high-to-moderate quality evidence for a marked reduction in the risk of endophthalmitis...

  6. Peptide Antibiotics for ESKAPE Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thomas Thyge

    Multi-drug resistance to antibiotics represents a global health challenge that results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. The annual death-toll is >700.000 people world-wide, rising to ~10 million by 2050. New antibiotics are lacking, and few are under development as return on investment...... is considered poor compared to medicines for lifestyle diseases. According to the WHO we could be moving towards a post-antibiotic era in which previously treatable infections become fatal. Of special importance are multidrug resistant bacteria from the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus...... and toxicity by utilizing of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a whole animal model. This was carried out by testing of antimicrobial peptides targeting Gram-positive bacteria exemplified by the important human pathogen methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The peptide BP214 was developed from...

  7. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Antibiotic Policies in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Saltoglu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial management of patients in the Intensive Care Units are complex. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem. Effective strategies for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in ICUs have focused on limiting the unnecessary use of antibiotics and increasing compliance with infection control practices. Antibiotic policies have been implemented to modify antibiotic use, including national or regional formulary manipulations, antibiotic restriction forms, care plans, antibiotic cycling and computer assigned antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, infectious diseases consultation is a simple way to limit antibiotic use in ICU units. To improve rational antimicrobial using a multidisiplinary approach is suggested. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 299-309

  9. Mathematical analysis of multi-antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-09-15

    Multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections is a growing threat to public health. Some experiments were carried out to study the multi-antibiotic resistance. The changes of the multi-antibiotic resistance with time were achieved by numerical simulations and the mathematical models, with the calculated temperature field, velocity field, and the antibiotic concentration field. The computed results and experimental results are compared. Both numerical simulations and the analytic models suggest that minor low concentrations of antibiotics could induce antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption of antibiotics on microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Kaina; Zhang, Hua

    2018-03-03

    Microplastics and antibiotics are two classes of emerging contaminants with proposed negative impacts to aqueous ecosystems. Adsorption of antibiotics on microplastics may result in their long-range transport and may cause compound combination effects. In this study, we investigated the adsorption of 5 antibiotics [sulfadiazine (SDZ), amoxicillin (AMX), tetracycline (TC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and trimethoprim (TMP)] on 5 types of microplastics [polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] in the freshwater and seawater systems. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis revealed that microplastics have different surface characterizes and various degrees of crystalline. Adsorption isotherms demonstrated that PA had the strongest adsorption capacity for antibiotics with distribution coefficient (K d ) values ranged from 7.36 ± 0.257 to 756 ± 48.0 L kg -1 in the freshwater system, which can be attributed to its porous structure and hydrogen bonding. Relatively low adsorption capacity was observed on other four microplastics. The adsorption amounts of 5 antibiotics on PS, PE, PP, and PVC decreased in the order of CIP > AMX > TMP > SDZ > TC with K f correlated positively with octanol-water partition coefficients (Log K ow ). Comparing to freshwater system, adsorption capacity in seawater decreased significantly and no adsorption was observed for CIP and AMX. Our results indicated that commonly observed polyamide particles can serve as a carrier of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunaiji, S; Kukuruzovic, R; Curtis, N; Massie, J

    2007-07-18

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease. Infants are at highest risk of severe disease and death. Erythromycin for 14 days is currently recommended for treatment and contact prophylaxis, but is of uncertain benefit. To study the benefits and risks of antibiotic treatment of and contact prophylaxis against whooping cough. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2007); MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2007); EMBASE (January 1974 to March 2007). All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotics for treatment of, and contact prophylaxis against, whooping cough. Three to four review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial. Thirteen trials with 2197 participants met the inclusion criteria: 11 trials investigated treatment regimens; 2 investigated prophylaxis regimens. The quality of the trials was variable.Short-term antibiotics (azithromycin for three to five days, or clarithromycin or erythromycin for seven days) were as effective as long-term (erythromycin for 10 to 14 days) in eradicating Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) from the nasopharynx (relative risk (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.05), but had fewer side effects (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for seven days was also effective. Nor were there differences in clinical outcomes or microbiological relapse between short and long-term antibiotics. Contact prophylaxis of contacts older than six months of age with antibiotics did not significantly improve clinical symptoms or the number of cases developing culture-positive B. pertussis. Although antibiotics were effective in eliminating B. pertussis, they did not alter the subsequent clinical course of the illness. There is insufficient evidence to determine the benefit of prophylactic treatment of pertussis contacts.

  12. WITHDRAWN: Antibiotics for preventing leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidugli, Fábio; Castro, Aldemar A; Atallah, Alvaro N

    2009-07-08

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease transmitted by animals. Death occurs in about five per cent of the patients. In clinical practice, doxycycline is widely used for prevention. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any antibiotic regimen versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in the prophylaxis of leptospirosis. The sources used were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, bibliographies of published papers, and personal communication with authors. There were no language or date restrictions in any of the searches. All randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as prophylactic regimen for leptospirosis. People potentially exposed to leptospirosis, such as people in endemic areas during the rainy season, health professionals and other professionals with high risk of infection. Any antibiotic regimen compared with a control group (placebo or another antibiotic regimen). Infection (primary outcome) and adverse events (secondary outcome). Data were independently extracted and methodological quality of each trial was assessed by two reviewers as well as cross-checked. Details of the randomisation (generation and concealment), blinding, and the number of patients lost to follow-up were recorded. The results of each trial were summarised on an intention-to-treat basis in 2 x 2 tables for each outcome. Two trials comparing doxycycline with placebo met the inclusion criteria. We did not find trials comparing doxycycline versus other antibiotics, or other antibiotics versus placebo. One of the trials had excellent methodological quality. In the other trial, the allocation concealment process, generation of allocation sequence, and blinding methods were not described.Of the 1022 participants enrolled, 509 were treated with doxycycline and 513 with placebo. Of these, 940 participants were soldiers included in one trial. The patients assigned to the

  13. The Pharmacodynamics of Antibiotic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mudassar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive models of the effects of periodic, discrete dosing or constant dosing of antibiotics on a bacterial population whose growth is checked by nutrient-limitation and possibly by host defenses. Mathematically rigorous results providing sufficient conditions for treatment success, i.e. the elimination of the bacteria, as well as for treatment failure, are obtained. Our models can exhibit bi-stability where the infection-free state and an infection-state are locally stable when antibiotic dosing is marginal. In this case, treatment success may occur only for sub-threshold level infections.

  14. Recent updates of carbapenem antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Brahim, Imen; Hisham, Noorhan; Aladdin, Rand; Mohammed, Haneen; Bahaaeldin, Amany

    2017-05-05

    Carbapenems are among the most commonly used and the most efficient antibiotics since they are relatively resistant to hydrolysis by most β-lactamases, they target penicillin-binding proteins, and generally have broad-spectrum antibacterial effect. In this review, we described the initial discovery and development of carbapenems, chemical characteristics, in vitro/in vivo activities, resistance studies, and clinical investigations for traditional carbapenem antibiotics in the market; imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem, biapenem, panipenem/betamipron in addition to newer carbapenems such as razupenem, tebipenem, tomopenem, and sanfetrinem. We focused on the literature published from 2010 to 2016. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotics prescription in Nigerian dental healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Ojehanon, P I

    2014-09-01

    Inappropriate antibiotics prescription in dental healthcare delivery that may result in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, is a worldwide concern. The objective of the study was to determine the antibiotics knowledge and prescription patterns among dentists in Nigeria. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed to dentists attending continuing education courses organized by two organizations in Southern and Northern parts of Nigeria. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 146 questionnaires were returned, properly filled, out of 160 questionnaires, giving an overall response rate 91.3%. The clinical factors predominantly influenced the choice of therapeutic antibiotics among the respondents. In this study, the most commonly prescribed antibiotics among the respondents was a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. Of the respondents, 136 (93.2%) of them considered antibiotic resistance as a major problem in Nigeria and 102 (69.9%) have experienced antibiotics resistance in dental practice. The major reported conditions for prophylactic antibiotics among the respondents were diabetic mellitus, HIV/AIDS, history of rheumatic fever, other heart anomalies presenting with heart murmur and presence of prosthetic hip. The knowledge of adverse effects of antibiotics was greatest for tooth discoloration which is related to tetracycline. Data from this study revealed the most commonly prescribed antibiotics as a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. There existed gaps in prophylactic antibiotic prescription, consideration in the choice of therapeutic antibiotics and knowledge of adverse effects of antibiotics among the studied dentists.

  16. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it.

  17. Effects of ultraviolet disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater: inactivation, antibiotic resistance profiles and antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Xu, Li-Mei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhuang, Kai; Liu, Qiang-Qiang

    2017-04-29

    To evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant and subjected to UV disinfection. The effect of UV disinfection on the antibiotic resistance profiles and the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of antibiotic-resistant E. coli was evaluated by a combination of antibiotic susceptibility analysis and molecular methods. Results indicated that multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) E. coli were more resistant at low UV doses and required a higher UV dose (20 mJ cm -2 ) to enter the tailing phase compared with those of antibiotic-sensitive E. coli (8 mJ cm -2 ). UV disinfection caused a selective change in the inhibition zone diameters of surviving antibiotic-resistant E. coli and a slight damage to ARGs. The inhibition zone diameters of the strains resistant to antibiotics were more difficult to alter than those susceptible to antibiotics because of the existence and persistence of corresponding ARGs. The resistance of MAR bacteria to UV disinfection at low UV doses and the changes in inhibition zone diameters could potentially contribute to the selection of ARB in wastewater treatment after UV disinfection. The risk of spread of antibiotic resistance still exists owing to the persistence of ARGs. Our study highlights the acquisition of other methods to control the spread of ARGs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Collective antibiotic tolerance: mechanisms, dynamics and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Hannah R; Srimani, Jaydeep K; Lee, Anna J; Lopatkin, Allison J; You, Lingchong

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria have developed resistance against every antibiotic at a rate that is alarming considering the timescale at which new antibiotics are developed. Thus, there is a critical need to use antibiotics more effectively, extend the shelf life of existing antibiotics and minimize their side effects. This requires understanding the mechanisms underlying bacterial drug responses. Past studies have focused on survival in the presence of antibiotics by individual cells, as genetic mutants or persisters. Also important, however, is the fact that a population of bacterial cells can collectively survive antibiotic treatments lethal to individual cells. This tolerance can arise by diverse mechanisms, including resistance-conferring enzyme production, titration-mediated bistable growth inhibition, swarming and interpopulation interactions. These strategies can enable rapid population recovery after antibiotic treatment and provide a time window during which otherwise susceptible bacteria can acquire inheritable genetic resistance. Here, we emphasize the potential for targeting collective antibiotic tolerance behaviors as an antibacterial treatment strategy.

  19. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Role What CDC is Doing: AR Solutions Initiative Investing in States: Map Antibiotic Resistance Lab Network Antibiotic ... CDC and Partners Tackle Drug-Resistant TB in India Newly Reported Gene, mcr -1, Threatens Last-Resort ...

  20. Antibiotic Prescription in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov

    2016-01-01

    will explore how the GPs prescription behaviour is influenced by selected factors. Antibiotics are essential when treating potentially lethal infections. An increasing development of resistant bacteria is considered one of the primary threats to public health. The majority of antibiotics (90%) are prescribed...... from general practice. The prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics can cause unnecessary side effects for the individual and increases the risk of development of bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment. Both the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and the level of resistant bacteria......1. Background & Aim The overall aim of the project is to describe antibiotic consumption in Danish general practice with emphasis on specific types of antibiotics. The project will shed light on the impact of microbiological diagnostic methods (MDM) on the choice of antibiotic and the project...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Human Chronic Periodontitis Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E.; Degener, John E.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    Background: Patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) may yield multiple species of putative periodontal bacterial pathogens that vary in their antibiotic drug susceptibility. This study determines the occurrence of in vitro antibiotic resistance among selected subgingival periodontal pathogens in

  2. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 mars 2015 ... strategy to prevent the spread of this resistance. Keywords: Staphylococci; Staphylococcus aureus; Oxacillin; Antibiotic resistance; Disc diffusion. Author Correspondence, e-mail: mn.boukhatem@yahoo.fr. ICID: 1142924. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at.

  3. Use of Antibiotics in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe the use of systemic antibiotics among children in Denmark. Methods: National data on drug use in Denmark were extracted from the Danish National Prescription Database. We used prescription data for all children in Denmark aged 0 to 11 years from January 1, 2000...

  4. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C f...

  5. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eGueimonde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue.

  6. Endophytes as sources of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Klimova, Elena; Rodríguez-Peña, Karol; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    Until a viable alternative can be accessible, the emergence of resistance to antimicrobials requires the constant development of new antibiotics. Recent scientific efforts have been aimed at the bioprospecting of microorganisms' secondary metabolites, with special emphasis on the search for antimicrobial natural products derived from endophytes. Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of plants without causing apparent harm to the plant. The present review article compiles recent (2006-2016) literature to provide an update on endophyte research aimed at finding metabolites with antibiotic activities. We have included exclusively information on endophytes that produce metabolites capable of inhibiting the growth of bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens of humans, animals and plants. Where available, the identified metabolites have been listed. In this review, we have also compiled a list of the bacterial and fungal phyla that have been isolated as endophytes as well as the plant families from which the endophytes were isolated. The majority of endophytes that produce antibiotic metabolites belong to either phylum Ascomycota (kingdom Fungi) or to phylum Actinobacteria (superkingdom Bacteria). Endophytes that produce antibiotic metabolites were predominant, but certainly not exclusively, from the plant families Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Araceae, suggesting that endophytes that produce antimicrobial metabolites are not restricted to a reduced number of plant families. The locations where plants (and inhabiting endophytes) were collected from, according to the literature, have been mapped, showing that endophytes that produce bioactive compounds have been collected globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of antibiotic prescribing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Radzeviciene-Jurgute, R.; Jurgutis, A.

    2012-01-01

    clinically or pharmacologically. Methods. 22 Lithuanian and 29 Russian GPs participated in five focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results. We identified four main thematic categories: patients' faith in antibiotics as medication for upper respiratory tract infections...

  8. Prophylactic Antibiotics and Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; M.A., Yousif; El-Sayed, Ahmed S.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery.

  9. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibodies: an alternative for antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R; Abi-Ghanem, D; Waghela, S D; Ricke, S C

    2005-04-01

    In 1967, the success of vaccination programs, combined with the seemingly unstoppable triumph of antibiotics, prompted the US Surgeon General to declare that "it was time to close the books on infectious diseases." We now know that the prediction was overly optimistic and that the fight against infectious diseases is here to stay. During the last 20 yr, infectious diseases have indeed made a staggering comeback for a variety of reasons, including resistance against existing antibiotics. As a consequence, several alternatives to antibiotics are currently being considered or reconsidered. Passive immunization (i.e., the administration of more or less pathogen-specific antibodies to the patient) prior to or after exposure to the disease-causing agent is one of those alternative strategies that was almost entirely abandoned with the introduction of chemical antibiotics but that is now gaining interest again. This review will discuss the early successes and limitations of passive immunization, formerly referred to as "serum therapy," the current use of antibody administration for prophylaxis or treatment of infectious diseases in agriculture, and, finally, recent developments in the field of antibody engineering and "molecular farming" of antibodies in various expression systems. Especially the potential of producing therapeutic antibodies in crops that are routine dietary components of farm animals, such as corn and soy beans, seems to hold promise for future application in the fight against infectious diseases.

  11. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM, Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community.Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem.Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded.Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance.Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.Keywords: antibiotic drug resistance

  12. Response to "Antibiotic Use and Resistance"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; Rabanaque, María José; Feja, Christina

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned, antibiotic consumption in heavy users, especially in children, is really striking. Certainly, our results revealed an antibiotic use in this age group higher than published in previous studies, and in line with different reports repeatedly presenting the high antibiotic consumption...... of antibiotics, as observed in heavy users, could also be due to factors related to the GP, patient and parents' expectations or the influence exerted by the pharmaceutical industry (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Empiric antibiotic prescription among febrile under-five Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limiting viral infection and therefore, would not require antibiotics. Over prescription of antibiotics increases antibiotics exposure and development of resistance among patients. There is need to evaluate empiric antibiotic prescription in order to limit ...

  14. Trends in Antibiotic Prescribing in Adults in Dutch General Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Haeseker (Michiel); N.H.T.M. Dukers-Muijrers (Nicole); C.J.P.A. Hoebe (Christian); C.A. Bruggeman (Cathrien); J.W.L. Cals (Jochen); A. Verbon (Annelies)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Antibiotic consumption is associated with adverse drug events (ADE) and increasing antibiotic resistance. Detailed information of antibiotic prescribing in different age categories is scarce, but necessary to develop strategies for prudent antibiotic use. The aim of this

  15. Shift in antibiotic prescribing patterns in relation to antibiotic expenditure in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimpen, JLL; van Houten, M.A.

    In paediatrics, antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs. Because of an overall rise in health care costs, lack of uniformity in drug prescribing and the emergence of antibiotic resistance, monitoring and control of antibiotic use is of growing concern and strict antibiotic policies

  16. Implementation of an antibiotic checklist increased appropriate antibiotic use in the hospital on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, Frederike Vera; Lagerburg, Anouk; de Kort, Jaclyn; Sànchez Rivas, Elena; Geerlings, Suzanne Eugenie

    2017-01-01

    No interventions have yet been implemented to improve antibiotic use on Aruba. In the Netherlands, the introduction of an antibiotic checklist resulted in more appropriate antibiotic use in nine hospitals. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibiotic checklist on Aruba, test its

  17. [Antibiotic therapy in patients with renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, H; Rose, K G

    1985-06-01

    For the otolaryngologist (ENT specialist), too, antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. This article gives the essential fundamentals for the antibiotic treatment of patients with restricted kidney functions, as well as advice for antibiotic therapy in clinics and in medical practice.

  18. Overcoming the current deadlock in antibiotic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Hack, Ingrid M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat bacterial infections. The situation is aggravated by the shrinking of the antibiotic development pipeline. To finance urgently needed incentives for antibiotic research, creative financing solutions are needed. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a successful model for moving forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New business models for antibiotic innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Anthony D; Shah, Tejen A

    2014-05-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistance and the dearth of novel antibiotics have become a growing concern among policy-makers. A combination of financial, scientific, and regulatory challenges poses barriers to antibiotic innovation. However, each of these three challenges provides an opportunity to develop pathways for new business models to bring novel antibiotics to market. Pull-incentives that pay for the outputs of research and development (R&D) and push-incentives that pay for the inputs of R&D can be used to increase innovation for antibiotics. Financial incentives might be structured to promote delinkage of a company's return on investment from revenues of antibiotics. This delinkage strategy might not only increase innovation, but also reinforce rational use of antibiotics. Regulatory approval, however, should not and need not compromise safety and efficacy standards to bring antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action to market. Instead regulatory agencies could encourage development of companion diagnostics, test antibiotic combinations in parallel, and pool and make transparent clinical trial data to lower R&D costs. A tax on non-human use of antibiotics might also create a disincentive for non-therapeutic use of these drugs. Finally, the new business model for antibiotic innovation should apply the 3Rs strategy for encouraging collaborative approaches to R&D in innovating novel antibiotics: sharing resources, risks, and rewards.

  20. Antibiotic use: how to improve it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotics are an extremely important weapon in the fight against infections. However, antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem. That is why the appropriate use of antibiotics is of great importance. A proper analysis of factors influencing appropriate antibiotic use is at the heart of an

  1. Antibiotic prescribing patterns among healthcare professionals at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Countries have come to place heavy reliance on antibiotics, a phenomena that has contributed to widespread resistant bacteria. Unless antibiotic prescribing patterns are kept in check, the spread of resistant bacteria will lead to a proliferation of dreadful diseases. In this study, antibiotic prescribing patterns at Van Velden ...

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, Gerwin; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema - Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested

  3. Can over-the-counter antibiotics coerce people for self-medication with antibiotics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current communication, based upon the previous published papers in various scientific web-based journals, states the scenario of over-the-counter sales of antibiotics, including many other factors, that enhance people practice antibiotic self-medication world-wide, which in the developed countries the situation is little different having some resolution with the antibiotic self-medication problems. This paper also states about the prudent use of antibiotics through medical supervision and prescription in order to combat the unwanted antibiotic side effects including emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria from antibiotic misusage.

  4. Antibiotics from bacillus subtilis AECL90 - effect of trace elements and carbohydrates on antibiotic production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.; Shaukat, G.A.; Ahmed, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Three types of antibiotics S, X and F characteristically bioactive against staphylococcic, xanthomonas and fungi are elaborated by Bacillus Subtilis AECL 69 when grown in molasses peptone malt extract sucrose. No antibiotic production was observed when molasses was omitted from the growth medium. A mineral salt mixture was devised that could replace molasses and restore the production of antibiotics. Influence of various carbohydrates on the production of antibiotics was also studied. Mannose and mannitol had inhibitory effect on the antibiotic production. (author)

  5. Assessment of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae exposed to sequential in vitro antibiotic treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeongjin; Jo, Ara; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Ahn, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacteria treated with different classes of antibiotics exhibit changes in susceptibility to successive antibiotic treatments. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of sequential antibiotic treatments on the development of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with ?-lactamase and efflux pump activities. Methods The antibiotic susceptibility, ?-lactamase activity, and efflux activity were determined in K. pneumoniae grown at 37??C by adding initial (0...

  6. Screening Of Antibiotic Producing Microorganism From Rhizoshphere Soil, Their Antibiotic Production And Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwambhar V. Bhandare; Sandip Mahadev Chavre

    2011-01-01

    Rhizosphere soil samples were preferred as it contains most of the prospective antibiotic producers. In an attempt to screen out new potent antibiotic producers from soil, the Rhizobium species was isolated. Antibiotic produced by shake flask culture is found to be effective against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. This product was found to be a very promising antibiotic when assayed biologically. UV treatment showed positive effect on antibiotic production. The molecular struc...

  7. Overcoming resistance to β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roberta J; Melander, Christian

    2013-05-03

    β-Lactam antibiotics are one of the most important antibiotic classes but are plagued by problems of resistance, and the development of new β-lactam antibiotics through side-chain modification of existing β-lactam classes is not keeping pace with resistance development. In this JOCSynopsis, we summarize small molecule strategies to overcome resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. These approaches include the development of β-lactamase inhibitors and compounds that interfere with the ability of the bacteria to sense an antibiotic threat and activate their resistance mechanisms.

  8. Practical Management of Antibiotic Hypersensitivity in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Eric; Romano, Antonino; Khan, David

    Antibiotics are the most common class of medications that individuals report allergy or intolerance to. Adverse reactions are reported at a predictable rate with all antibiotic use that vary by antibiotic. Antibiotic allergy incidence rates are sex dependent, higher in females than in males. Most of these events are not reproducible or immunologically mediated. Antibiotic allergy prevalence increases with increasing age and is more common in hospitalized populations and in populations that use more antibiotics. Determining potential mechanisms for the observed symptoms of the adverse reactions is the starting point for effective management of antibiotic hypersensitivity. Skin testing and direct challenges are the primary tools used to determine acute tolerance in 2017. Commercially available in vitro testing is not currently clinically useful in determining antibiotic hypersensitivity, with rare exceptions. Desensitization can be used when acute-onset immunologically mediated hypersensitivity is confirmed to safely administer a needed antibiotic. Desensitization is not possible when clinically significant T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity is present. Effective management of antibiotic allergy is an important part of a comprehensive antibiotic stewardship program. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacterial biofilms and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Caldas-Arias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms give to bacteria micro-environmental benefits; confers protection against antimicrobials. Bacteria have antibiotic resistance by conventional and unusual mechanisms leading to delayed wound healing, to increase recurrent chronic infections and nosocomial contamination of medical devices. Objective: This narrative review aims to introduce the characteristics of Bacteria-biofilms, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and potential alternatives for prevention and control of its formation. Methods: Search strategy was performed on records: PubMed / Medline, Lilacs, Redalyc; with suppliers such as EBSCO and thesaurus MeSH and DeCS. Conclusions: Knowledge and research performance of biofilm bacteria are relevant in the search of technology for detection and measuring sensitivity to antibiotics. The identification of Bacterial-biofilms needs no-traditional microbiological diagnosis.

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Christiansen, H.M.; Ehlers, D

    1984-01-01

    The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greate...... of infection and the few side effects of the infections that did occur, prophylactic treatment with an antibiotic is not indicated for transurethral prostatectomy in patients with sterile urine....

  11. Antibiotic stewardship: overcoming implementation barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Abhijit M; Gould, Ian M

    2011-08-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is now recognized as a formal strategy for curbing the upward trend in antibiotic resistance. Literature on antimicrobial stewardship has focused on areas of strategic importance and operational delivery. A number of barriers have been recognized in the implementation of successful programs. These include lack of physician participation, lack of diagnostic facility, absence of formal mechanism of data collection, variation between countries, and lack of cooperative strategies. In this review, we suggest strategies to overcome these barriers. In the last few years, it has been recognized that an executive program is necessary for successful implementation of strategies to control the growing antibiotic resistance. Efforts have been made at higher levels of government through organizations such as the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The need for community healthcare involvement has also been recognized. At a local level, strategies to promote cooperation between various committees (e.g. infection control and antimicrobial management teams) have been proposed and adopting antibiotic care bundles as part of patient safety and healthcare is being explored. We suggest that executive level planning, local cooperation, sustained education, emphasis on de-escalation, and use of care bundles could stem the tide of growing resistance.

  12. Management options for reducing the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruden, Amy; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; Amézquita, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance...... of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little...... associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action....

  13. Predation and selection for antibiotic resistance in natural environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Niels O. G.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding resistance to antibiotics appear, like the antibiotics themselves, to be ancient, originating long before the rise of the era of anthropogenic antibiotics. However, detailed understanding of the specific biological advantages of antibiotic resistance in natural environments is still......, predation is potentially an important mechanism for driving antibiotic resistance during slow or stationary phase of growth when nutrients are deprived. This adds to explain the ancient nature and widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistance in natural environments unaffected by anthropogenic antibiotics...

  14. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotry, Anirudha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; van Zuuren, Esther J; Farman, Allan G; Al-Langawi, Jassim Hasan

    2016-02-17

    Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2013. To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 27 January 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 12); MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 27 January 2016); EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 27 January 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (to 27 January 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to 27 January 2016). There were no language restrictions in the searches of the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials which compared pain relief with systemic antibiotics and analgesics, against placebo and analgesics in the acute preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. Two review authors screened studies and extracted data independently. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADEpro software. Pooling of data was not possible and a descriptive summary is presented. One trial assessed at low risk of bias, involving 40 participants was included in this update of the review. The quality of the body of evidence was rated low for the different outcomes. There was a close parallel distribution of the pain ratings in both the intervention and placebo groups over the seven-day study period. There was insufficient evidence to claim or refute a benefit for penicillin for pain intensity. There was no significant difference in the mean total number of ibuprofen tablets over the

  15. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bulajić Snežana; Mijačević Zora; Savić-Radovanović Radoslava

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolat...

  16. An underappreciated hotspot of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-Lin; Li, Hu; Zhou, Xin-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Landfills are so far the most common practice for the disposals of municipal solid waste (MSW) worldwide. Since MSW landfill receives miscellaneous wastes, including unused/expired antibiotics and bioactive wastes, it gradually becomes a huge potential bioreactor for breeding antibiotic resistance...... be the potential hosts of ARGs. These findings provide evidence that groundwater near MSW landfill is an underappreciated hotspot of antibiotic resistance and contribute to the spread of ARGs via the flowing contaminated groundwater....

  17. How Economic Development Affects Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Horowitz; H. Brian Moehring

    2014-01-01

    Initially, economic development increases resistance because migration of people to urban areas in developing countries increases incomes, crowding and the use of antibiotics. Also, developing countries often don't require prescriptions or distribute high quality antibiotics. In developed countries, antibiotic resistance often falls or there is a decline in the rate of growth of resistance because infections decline with improvements in water quality, sanitation, housing and nutrition. Howeve...

  18. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients wer...

  19. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Christiansen, H.M.; Ehlers, D

    1984-01-01

    than 10(5) colonies per ml urine); 6 patients (13.3%) in the cefotaxime group had postoperative infections during hospital stay as compared to 8 patients (18.6%) in the control group (0.5 greater than p greater than 0.3). Those in the cefotaxime group who had infections were tested for resistance...... of infection and the few side effects of the infections that did occur, prophylactic treatment with an antibiotic is not indicated for transurethral prostatectomy in patients with sterile urine....

  20. Incorporation of different antibiotics into carbonated hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium implants, release and antibiotic efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, M.; Bezemer, J.M.; de Groot, K.; Layrolle, P.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) coatings were applied onto titanium implants by using a biomimetic precipitation method. Different antibiotics were incorporated into the CHA coatings and their release and efficacy against bacteria growth were studied in vitro. The following antibiotics were used

  1. European Antibiotic Awareness Day 2012: general practitioners encouraged to TARGET antibiotics through guidance, education and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2012-11-01

    On 18 November 2012, the UK will once again support the annual European Antibiotic Awareness Day (EAAD). In particular, hospitals will be asked to promote the Start Smart-Then Focus guidance for hospitals launched in 2011, while the Royal College of General Practitioners will publish the TARGET Antibiotics toolkit on their web site. TARGET (Treat Antibiotics Responsibly, Guidance, Education, Tools) emphasizes the need for both primary care staff and the public to use antibiotics responsibly, and provides guidance, education and tools. The web site has been developed by a multiprofessional group and hosts national antibiotic guidance, an antibiotic app, leaflets designed to be shared by patients during consultations, a presentation for clinicians, an interactive self-assessment tool, audit tools, posters and videos for the waiting room and links to other materials. The EAAD is still very relevant and worth promoting enthusiastically through all clinical professionals in an effort to encourage responsible use of antibiotics and thereby control antibiotic resistance.

  2. Ileumycin, a new antibiotic against Glomerella Cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Y; Matsuwaka, S; Otani, T; Kondo, H; Nakamura, S

    1978-02-01

    A new antifungal antibiotic, named ileumycin, was isolated from culture broth of streptomyces H 698-SY2, which was identified as S. lavendulae. The antibiotic was recovered from the culture filtrate by adsorption on Amberlite XAD-II and elution with aqueous methanol and was further purified by ion-exchange column chromatography on SE-cellulose and followed by partition chromatography on silica gel. The antibiotic was named ileumycin, because isoleucine was detected in the acid hydrolyzate of the antibiotic. Ileumycin exhibited antimicrobial activity against only a few species of fungi.

  3. Self-medication with antibiotics in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzanskyte, Ausra; Valinteliene, Rolanda; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Gurevicius, Romualdas; Grigoryan, Larissa

    2006-01-01

    Excessive and not always proper use of antibiotic give rise to numerous problems, of which antimicrobial resistance, currently cause for worldwide concern, is the major one. Few single studies of antibiotic use have been carried out in some countries. This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of antibiotic use in the general population of Lithuania with special interest in self-medication with antibiotics and sources of their acquisition. Structured questionnaires on antibiotic use during the last 12 months were mailed to randomly selected adults and 746 of them were finally analyzed. It was found that 39.9% of respondents reported antibiotic use during the last 12 months preceding the study and 53.2% of those used them in self-medication. In general, 22.0% (95%CI: 19.1-25.1) of respondents used antibiotics without prescription, whereas 45.0% (95%CI: 41.3-48.7) of them used antibiotics for intended self-administration. Adjustment for all the factors revealed the impact of the occupation, place of residence and presence of chronic disease on self-medication with antibiotics. Representatives of managerial, executive and professional occupations used non-prescribed antibiotics 8.38 times more often (95% CI: 1.76-39.91, p = 0.01) than retired people. Healthy people showed the tendency to self-medication 2.04 times more frequently than those with chronic diseases (95%CI: 1.11-3.75, p = 0.02). Rural people used non-prescribed antibiotics 1.79 times more often than inhabitants of urban areas (95%CI: 1.00-3.18, p = 0.049). Community pharmacies proved to be the most frequent (86.0%) source of over-the-counter antibiotics. Tonsillitis, bronchitis, and upper respiratory infections were the major reasons for self-medication with antibiotics. The high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics was found in Lithuania. The study indicated the need for more strict control of antibiotic sales and promotion of education of the correct use of antibiotic among Lithuanian

  4. Antibiotic research and development: business as usual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbarth, S; Theuretzbacher, U; Hackett, J

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of antibiotic resistance is tremendous and, without new anti-infective strategies, will continue to increase in the coming decades. Despite the growing need for new antibiotics, few pharmaceutical companies today retain active antibacterial drug discovery programmes. One reason is that it is scientifically challenging to discover new antibiotics that are active against the antibiotic-resistant bacteria of current clinical concern. However, the main hurdle is diminishing economic incentives. Increased global calls to minimize the overuse of antibiotics, the cost of meeting regulatory requirements and the low prices of currently marketed antibiotics are strong deterrents to antibacterial drug development programmes. New economic models that create incentives for the discovery of new antibiotics and yet reconcile these incentives with responsible antibiotic use are long overdue. DRIVE-AB is a €9.4 million public-private consortium, funded by the EU Innovative Medicines Initiative, that aims to define a standard for the responsible use of antibiotics and to develop, test and recommend new economic models to incentivize investment in producing new anti-infective agents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Maya; Miyata, Sarah T; Unterweger, Daniel; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    As the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae represents an enormous public health burden, especially in developing countries around the world. Cholera is a self-limiting illness; however, antibiotics are commonly administered as part of the treatment regimen. Here we review the initial identification and subsequent evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains of V. cholerae. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including efflux pumps, spontaneous chromosomal mutation, conjugative plasmids, SXT elements and integrons, are also discussed. Numerous multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae have been isolated from both clinical and environmental settings, indicating that antibiotic use has to be restricted and alternative methods for treating cholera have to be implemented.

  6. Bactericidal antibiotics induce programmed metabolic toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn D. Rowan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The misuse of antibiotics has led to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in clinically important pathogens. These resistant infections are having a significant impact on treatment outcomes and contribute to approximately 25,000 deaths in the U.S. annually. If additional therapeutic options are not identified, the number of annual deaths is predicted to rise to 317,000 in North America and 10,000,000 worldwide by 2050. Identifying therapeutic methodologies that utilize our antibiotic arsenal more effectively is one potential way to extend the useful lifespan of our current antibiotics. Recent studies have indicated that modulating metabolic activity is one possible strategy that can impact the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. In this review, we will address recent advances in our knowledge about the impacts of bacterial metabolism on antibiotic effectiveness and the impacts of antibiotics on bacterial metabolism. We will particularly focus on two studies, Lobritz, et al. (PNAS, 112(27: 8173-8180 and Belenky et al. (Cell Reports, 13(5: 968–980 that together demonstrate that bactericidal antibiotics induce metabolic perturbations that are linked to and required for bactericidal antibiotic toxicity.

  7. 9 CFR 114.10 - Antibiotics as preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antibiotics as preservatives. 114.10... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.10 Antibiotics as preservatives. Antibiotics are authorized for use as... section. (a) When an antibiotic or combination of antibiotics, with or without a fungistat is to be used...

  8. Newly approved antibiotics and antibiotics reserved for resistant infections: Implications for emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Pourmand, Ali; May, Larissa

    2017-01-01

    Millions of patients are evaluated every year in the emergency department (ED) for bacterial infections. Emergency physicians often diagnose and prescribe initial antibiotic therapy for a variety of bacterial infections, ranging from simple urinary tract infections to severe sepsis. In life-threatening infections, inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. As such, initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy on the part of the emergency physician is critical. Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, drug allergies, and antibiotic shortages further complicates the choice of antibiotics. Patients may have a history of prior resistant infections or culture data indicating that common first-line antibiotics used in the ED may be ineffective. In recent years, there have been several new antibiotic approvals as well as renewed interest in second and third line antibiotics because of the aforementioned concerns. In addition, several newly approved antibiotics have the advantage of being administered once weekly or even as a single infusion, which has the potential to decrease hospitalizations and healthcare costs. This article reviews newly approved antibiotics and antibiotics used to treat resistant infections with a focus on implications for emergency medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. World alliance against antibiotic resistance: The WAAAR declaration against antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We must change how antibiotics are used and adopt proactive strategies, similar to those used to save endangered species. Preservation of the efficacy of antibiotics and to stabilization of antibiotic-susceptible bacterial ecosystems should be global goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of tailored antibiotic stewardship programmes on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buul, L.W. van; Steen, J.T. van der; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Essink, R.T.G.M.; Greeff, S.C. de; Natsch, S.; Sloane, P.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of tailored interventions on the appropriateness of decisions to prescribe or withhold antibiotics, antibiotic use and guideline-adherent antibiotic selection in nursing homes (NHs). Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 10 NHs in the Netherlands. A

  11. Effect of tailored antibiotic stewardship programmes on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buul, L.W. van; Steen, J.T. van der; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Essink, R.T.; Greeff, S.C. de; Natsch, S.S.; Sloane, P.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Hertogh, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of tailored interventions on the appropriateness of decisions to prescribe or withhold antibiotics, antibiotic use and guideline-adherent antibiotic selection in nursing homes (NHs). METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 10 NHs in the Netherlands. A

  12. Effect of tailored antibiotic stewardship programmes on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buul, L.W.; van der Steen, J.T.; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Essink, R.T.G.M.; de Greeff, S.C.; Natsch, S.; Sloane, P.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of tailored interventions on the appropriateness of decisions to prescribe or withhold antibiotics, antibiotic use and guideline-adherent antibiotic selection in nursing homes (NHs). Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 10 NHs in the Netherlands. A

  13. Antibiotic interaction with phospholipid monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambinossi, F.; Mecheri, B.; Caminati, G.; Nocentini, M.; Puggelli, M.; Gabrielli, G

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interactions of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic molecules with phospholipid monolayers with the two-fold aim of elucidating the mechanism of action and providing a first step for the realization of bio-mimetic sensors for such drugs by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We examined spreading monolayers of three phospholipids in the presence of tetracycline in the subphase by means of surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as a function of bulk pH. We selected phospholipids with hydrophobic chains of the same length but polar head groups differing either in dimensions and protonation equilibria, i.e. dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA). The interaction of tetracycline with the three phospholipids was found to be highly dependent on the electric charge of the antibiotic and on the ionization state of the lipid. Significant interactions are established between the negatively charged form of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and the zwitterionic form of tetracycline. The drug was found to migrate at the interface where it is adsorbed underneath or/and among the head groups, depending on the surface pressure of the film, whereas penetration through the hydrophobic layer was excluded for all the three phospholipids.

  14. Superbugs and antibiotics in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borghesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become an urgent and global issue, with 700,000 deaths attributable to multidrug-resistance occurring each year worldwide. The overuse of antibiotics, both in animal industry and in clinical settings, and the generated selective pressure, are the main factors implicated in the emergence of resistant strains. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have pointed out that more than half of hospital patients receive an antibiotic during their stay, and nearly a third receive a broad-spectrum antibiotic. In neonatal units, previous antibiotic exposure to third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem were identified as independent risk factors for infection caused by multi-drug resistant strains. While resistant ‘superbugs’ emerge, the arsenal to fight these microorganisms is progressively shrinking, as the number of newly discovered antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug administration each year is dropping. In face of global spread of antibiotic resistance and of the limited development of new drugs, policies and rules are under study by agencies (CDC, World Health Organization and governments, in order to: i facilitate and foster the discovery of new antibiotic compounds; ii develop new, alternative therapies able to potentiate or modulate the host immune response or to abrogate the resistance and virulence factors in the microorganisms; and iii prevent the emergence of resistance through antibiotic stewardship programs, educational programs, and reduction of antibiotic use in livestock; the field of neonatal medicine will need its own, newborn-tailored, antibiotic stewardship programs to be implemented in the NICUs. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai

  15. Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance: Trends Over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G Lahaie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics can be a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. As the use of antibiotics increases, bacterial resistance to these agents is rising and in many cases is responsible for the failure of treatment regimens. Although the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection requires the use of more than one antibiotic to obtain adequate eradication rates, the efficacy of the currently used antibiotic combinations has been shown to be decreased by resistance to one of the antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in regimens for the treatment of H pylori is increasing in many countries, including Canada. This increase is both in the use of these antibiotics alone for the treatment of nongastrointestinal infections and in their use in association with proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of H pylori infection. In several European and Asian countries, where resistance to antibiotics is being monitored, it has been demonstrated that H pylori resistance to metronidazole and to clarithromycin increased throughout the 1990s. Thus far, the data available in Canada do not show increased resistance to either of these antibiotics. As for other antibiotics used in the treatment of H pylori infection, such as tetracycline and amoxicillin, the rate of resistance to these agents is still very low and does not constitute a significant problem. Because the efficacy of the regimens used in the treatment of H pylori infection is compromised by resistance to the antibiotics used, it is important that H pylori resistance rates in Canada and throughout the world continue to be monitored. Only with such reliable data can the most optimal regimens be recommended.

  16. Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Risk for Postoperative Antibiotic-Resistant Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Margot E; Salmasian, Hojjat; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Jianfang; Zachariah, Philip; Wright, Jason D; Freedberg, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections have high rates of morbidity and mortality, and exposure to antibiotics is the crucial risk factor for development of antibiotic resistance. If surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) increases risk for antibiotic-resistant infections, prophylaxis may cause net harm, even if it decreases overall infection rates. This retrospective cohort study included adults who underwent elective surgical procedures and developed infections within 30 postoperative days. Procedures from multiple disciplines were included if SAP was considered discretionary by current guidelines. Postoperative antibiotic-resistant infections were defined as positive culture results from any site within 30 postoperative days, showing intermediate or nonsusceptibility across 1 or more antibiotic classes. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis included use of antibiotics within any class and at any dose from 1 hour before first incision until the end of the operation. Among 689 adults with postoperative infections, 338 (49%) had postoperative resistant infections. Use of SAP was not associated with postoperative antibiotic-resistant infections (odds ratio [OR] 0.99; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.46). This result remained robust when the SAP definition was extended to antibiotics given within 4 hours before first incision (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.40) and when the follow-up window was narrowed to 14 days (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.50 to 1.34). Previous antibiotic-resistant infections were associated with risk for postoperative antibiotic-resistant infections (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.83). Use of SAP was not associated with risk for postoperative antibiotic-resistant infections in a large cohort of patients with postoperative infections. This provides important reassurance regarding use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in patients followed by family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, A; Nguyen, Y; Bajolet, O; Vuillemin, B; Defoin, B; Vernet-Garnier, V; Drame, M; Bani-Sadr, F

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate factors associated with knowledge of antibiotics and drug resistance. A questionnaire was handed out by 14 family physicians to their patients between December 20, 2014 and April 20, 2015 in Rethel (North-East of France). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a logistical regression model to assess factors associated with antibiotic knowledge. Three criteria were used to assess that knowledge. Overall, 293 questionnaires were analysed; 48% of patients had received antibiotics in the previous 12 months. Only 44% and 26% gave a correct answer for the statements "Antibiotics are effective against bacteria and ineffective against viruses" and "Antibiotic resistance decreases if the antibiotic use decreases", respectively. Characteristics such as female sex, age>30 years, high level of education, high professional categories, and having received antibiotic information by the media were associated with high level of knowledge about antibiotics and/or antibiotic resistance. In contrast, having received antibiotic information from family physicians was not associated with good knowledge. Although media awareness campaigns had an independent impact on a higher public knowledge of antibiotics, the overall public knowledge remains low. It would be necessary to strengthen antibiotic campaigns with clearer information on the relation between the excessive use of antibiotics and the increased risk of antibiotic resistance. Family physicians should be more involved to improve antibiotic knowledge among target groups such as men, young patients, and people from a poor social and cultural background. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility of probiotic strains: Is it reasonable to combine probiotics with antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neut, C; Mahieux, S; Dubreuil, L J

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of strains collected from marketed probiotics to antibiotics used to treat community-acquired infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 antibiotics were determined using a gradient strip (E test) or the agar dilution method for fidaxomicin. The probiotics demonstrated various antibiotic patterns. Bacterial probiotics are generally susceptible to most prescribed antibiotics orally administered, whereas yeast probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, are resistant. Special attention must be paid to co-prescriptions of antibiotics and probiotics to ensure that the probiotic strain is not susceptible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Snort Sniffle Sneeze: No Antibiotics Please

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-29

    Antibiotics aren't always the answer for sneezes or sore throats. This podcast discusses ways to feel better without antibiotics.  Created: 9/29/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2009.

  20. Antibiotic resistance: a physicist’s view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rosalind; Waclaw, Bartłomiej

    2016-08-01

    The problem of antibiotic resistance poses challenges across many disciplines. One such challenge is to understand the fundamental science of how antibiotics work, and how resistance to them can emerge. This is an area where physicists can make important contributions. Here, we highlight cases where this is already happening, and suggest directions for further physics involvement in antimicrobial research.

  1. Natural bioactive compounds: antibiotics | Dezfully | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics are powerful therapeutic agents that are produced by diverse living organisms. Over the last several decades, natural bioactive products particularly antibiotics have continued to play a significant role in drug discovery and has expanded the process for developing drugs with high degree of therapeutic index and ...

  2. Antibiotics: Precious Goods in Changing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics represent a first line of defense of diverse microorganisms, which produce and use antibiotics to counteract natural enemies or competitors for nutritional resources in their nearby environment. For antimicrobial activity, nature has invented a great variety of mechanisms of antibiotic action that involve the perturbation of essential bacterial structures or biosynthesis pathways of macromolecules such as the bacterial cell wall, DNA, RNA, or proteins, thereby threatening the specific microbial lifestyle and eventually even survival. However, along with highly inventive modes of antibiotic action, nature also developed a comparable set of resistance mechanisms that help the bacteria to circumvent antibiotic action. Microorganisms have evolved specific adaptive responses that allow appropriately reacting to the presence of antimicrobial agents, ensuring survival during antimicrobial stress. In times of rapid development and spread of antibiotic (multi-)resistance, we need to explore new, resistance-breaking strategies to counteract bacterial infections. This chapter intends to give an overview of common antibiotics and their target pathways. It will also discuss recent advances in finding new antibiotics with novel modes of action, illustrating that nature's repertoire of innovative new antimicrobial agents has not been fully exploited yet, and we still might find new drugs that help to evade established antimicrobial resistance strategies.

  3. Alternatives to antibiotics: why and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antibiotic resistance problem is the mobilization of genes that confer resistance to medically important antibiotics into human pathogens. The acquisition of such resistance genes by pathogens prevents disease treatment, increases health care costs, and increases morbidity and mortality. As ant...

  4. ANTIBIOTIC USE AND INFECTION IN SNAKEBITE VICTIMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the incidence of infection in snakebite patients, the bacterial species involved, and the indication for antibiotics. Method. A prospective trial was undertaken at Eshowe. Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal, involving 363 snakebite patients. (records available for 310 patients). It was protocol not to give antibiotics ...

  5. Antibiotic information application offers nurses quick support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van Drie-Pierik, Regine; Nijdam, Lars; Geesing, Jos; Sanderman, Robbert; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nurses can be crucial contributors to antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs), interventions aimed at improving antibiotic use, but nurse empowerment in ASPs adds to their job complexity. Nurses work in complex settings with high cognitive loads, which ask for easily accessible

  6. Antibiotic information application offers nurses quick support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, M.J.; Drie-Pierik, Regine; Nijdam, Lars; Geesing, Jos; Sanderman, Robbert; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurses can be crucial contributors to antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs), interventions aimed at improving antibiotic use, but nurse empowerment in ASPs adds to their job complexity. Nurses work in complex settings with high cognitive loads, which ask for easily accessible

  7. Antibiotic RX in Hospitals: Proceed with Caution

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-04

    This podcast is based on the March 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotics save lives, but poor prescribing practices can put patients at risk for health problems. Learn how to protect patients by protecting antibiotics.  Created: 3/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/4/2014.

  8. Antibiotics: Pharmacists Can Make the Difference

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    In this podcast, a pharmacist counsels a frustrated father about appropriate antibiotic use and symptomatic relief options for his son's cold.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistance identified by atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vincenzo Ierardi

    2017-10-03

    Oct 3, 2017 ... In the last decade the detection of the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics treatment, developed by different kind of bacteria, is becoming a huge problem. We hereby present a different approach to the current problem of detection of bacteria resistance to antibiotics. Our aims were to use the atomic force ...

  10. Antibiotic research and development: business as usual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbarth, S.; Theuretzbacher, U.; Hackett, J.; Hulscher, M.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of antibiotic resistance is tremendous and, without new anti-infective strategies, will continue to increase in the coming decades. Despite the growing need for new antibiotics, few pharmaceutical companies today retain active antibacterial drug discovery programmes. One reason is

  11. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can affect

  12. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can

  13. [Should doses of antibiotics be adjusted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lastours, V

    2018-03-01

    While we are confronted with the major increase in antibiotic resistance, the preservation of existing antibiotics has become an absolute necessity both to achieve therapeutic success and to limit the risks of the emergence of resistance. The optimization of antibiotic use and dosages must have a threefold objective: guarantee antibacterial efficacy, limit toxicities and limit emergence of resistant strains. However, with the increase in the number of multipathological patients, particularly those with renal or hepatic impairment, the increase in the number of patients with extreme weights and the use of antibiotics with narrower therapeutic margins, the adaptation of antibiotic dosages is becoming increasingly important. By reminding some principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics (PK/PD), the necessary objectives for clinical effectiveness of most antibiotic classes are reviewed and several examples of situations where dosage adjustments are necessary will be given. In particular, adjustment of antibiotic dosages in obese patients will be discussed. Adaptation is not limited to the adaptation of the total daily dose. The PK/PD parameters also tell us that the mode of administration (intermittent versus continuous, number of injections per day, etc.) is also an essential point to consider. By taking examples concerning some molecules, infections and difficult clinical situations, we review situations in which dosage adjustments appear necessary. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China. ... biofilm formation abilities of antibiotic-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus KACC 13236 (SAS), multiple ... useful information for the comparison of antibiotic resistance patterns and biofilm formation abilities.

  15. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella serovars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Salmonella isolates tested displayed multiple antibiotic resistance to a number of antibiotics used to treat both humans and animals. No resistance was seen to disinfectants used at the manufacturer\\'s recommended rate of dilution. The bacteria were resistant, though, at lower dilutions, highlighting the necessity of ...

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant bacterium that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in patients with burns and bedsore. This was a cross- sectional ...

  17. Antibiotic residues and resistance in the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Yassin, H.; Fels-Klerkx, H.J.; Berendsen, B.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic usage has benefited the animal industry and helped providing affordable animal proteins to the growing human population. However, since extensive use of antibiotics results in the inhibition of susceptible organisms while selecting for the resistant ones, agricultural use is contributing

  18. Nanoformulation and antibiotic releasing property of cefotaxime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to design nano-antibiotic to enhance their release from biomaterial agents. Cefotaxime was used as a model antibiotic substance in this carrier system. These nanoparticles were preformulated using different concentrations of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly (vinyl alcohol) as coating material ...

  19. Repairing the broken market for antibiotic innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outterson, Kevin; Powers, John H; Daniel, Gregory W; McClellan, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial diseases pose serious and growing threats to human health. While innovation is important to all areas of health research, it is uniquely important in antibiotics. Resistance destroys the fruit of prior research, making it necessary to constantly innovate to avoid falling back into a pre-antibiotic era. But investment is declining in antibiotics, driven by competition from older antibiotics, the cost and uncertainty of the development process, and limited reimbursement incentives. Good public health practices curb inappropriate antibiotic use, making return on investment challenging in payment systems based on sales volume. We assess the impact of recent initiatives to improve antibiotic innovation, reflecting experience with all sixty-seven new molecular entity antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug Administration since 1980. Our analysis incorporates data and insights derived from several multistakeholder initiatives under way involving governments and the private sector on both sides of the Atlantic. We propose three specific reforms that could revitalize innovations that protect public health, while promoting long-term sustainability: increased incentives for antibiotic research and development, surveillance, and stewardship; greater targeting of incentives to high-priority public health needs, including reimbursement that is delinked from volume of drug use; and enhanced global collaboration, including a global treaty. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: There is Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Argues that reduction in the use of antibiotics would enable antibiotic-sensitive bacteria to flourish. Presents an activity designed to show students how a small, seemingly unimportant difference in doubling time can, over a period of time, make an enormous difference in population size. (DDR)

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean general surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Asghar, I.; Mansoor, N.

    2007-01-01

    To find out the incidence of surgical site infection in clean general surgery cases operated without prophylactic antibiotics. One hundred and twenty-four clean surgical cases operated without antibiotic prophylaxis between July 2003 and December 2004, were studied and these were compared with similar number of cases who received antibiotics. The data was collected and analyzed using software SPSS (version 10.0). Chi-square and student-t test were used to analyze the association between antibiotics and wound infection. The most frequent operation was repair of various hernias, 69.3% in group A and 75% in group B. More operations were carried out between 21-30 years, 38.7% in group A and 41.9% in group B. Surgical site infection occurred in one patient (0.8%) in each group. Chi-square test (0.636) applied to group A and B showed no association of infection and administration/ no administration of antibiotics (p > 0.25). The t-test applied on group A and B (t=0) also showed no significant difference between administration of antibiotics/ no-antibiotics and infection (p > 0.25). The use of prophylactic antibiotic in clean, non implant and elective cases is unnecessary. (author)

  2. Antibiotic tolerance and resistance in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important features of microbial biofilms is their tolerance to antimicrobial agents and components of the host immune system. The difficulty of treating biofilm infections with antibiotics is a major clinical problem. Although antibiotics may decrease the number of bacteria...

  3. Antibiotic prophylaxis in craniotomy : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Weiming; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Yuewei; Groen, Rob J. M.

    The effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) in craniotomies has been clarified through the accumulation of evidence and increased antibiotic knowledge. This paper focuses on the use of AP in craniotomies during different historical periods and collects highly relevant evidence on this issue.

  4. Optimising Antibiotic Usage to Treat Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Iona K.; Hoyle, Andy; Ochoa, Gabriela; Baker-Austin, Craig; Taylor, Nick G. H.

    2016-11-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria poses a threat to the continued use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics has been identified as a significant driver in the emergence of resistance. Finding optimal treatment regimens is therefore critical in ensuring the prolonged effectiveness of these antibiotics. This study uses mathematical modelling to analyse the effect traditional treatment regimens have on the dynamics of a bacterial infection. Using a novel approach, a genetic algorithm, the study then identifies improved treatment regimens. Using a single antibiotic the genetic algorithm identifies regimens which minimise the amount of antibiotic used while maximising bacterial eradication. Although exact treatments are highly dependent on parameter values and initial bacterial load, a significant common trend is identified throughout the results. A treatment regimen consisting of a high initial dose followed by an extended tapering of doses is found to optimise the use of antibiotics. This consistently improves the success of eradicating infections, uses less antibiotic than traditional regimens and reduces the time to eradication. The use of genetic algorithms to optimise treatment regimens enables an extensive search of possible regimens, with previous regimens directing the search into regions of better performance.

  5. [Biorhythms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Perunova, N B; Fadeev, S B; Timokhina, T Kh; Iavnova, S V

    2008-01-01

    To study of circadian dynamics of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Circadian dynamics of antibiotic susceptibility was studied on clinical strains of enterobacteria, non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, and staphylococci which were isolated and identified by common methods. During a day, with 3-hours intervals, studied strains were tested on susceptibility to ampicillin, oxacillin, ceftriaxone, meropenem, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin using method of serial dilutions in agar. Circadian biorhythms of resistance to antibiotics in studied microorganisms were revealed. Along with common patterns, differences in temporal changes of microrganisms' susceptibility to antibacterial drugs were noted. Chronobiologic approach allowed to reveal significant amplitude of changes of minimal inhibitoryconcentration (MIC) of antibiotics versus resistant Gram-positive cocci reflecting presence of susceptibility periods, whereas in susceptible Gram-negative bacteria peaks of resistance were observed. Circadian dynamics of MIC of majority of antibiotics versus resistant Gram-negative bacteria and susceptible Gram-positive cocci was characterized by lower amplitude of changes without shifts from antibiotic resistance to susceptibility and vice versa. Obtained data open perspective of using biorhythmological approach in study of susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics during the elucidation of mechanisms of pathogens adaptation to environmental conditions and creation of new strategies of control for antibiotic resistance strains.

  6. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistance identified by atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular, we studied Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria provided by the Lavagna Hospital ASL4Liguria (Italy), where there are cases linked with antibiotics resistance of the Klebsiella pneumoniae. By comparing AFMimages of bacteria strains treated with different antibiotics is possible to identify unambiguously the ...

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistance identified by atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last decade the detection of the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics treatment, developed by different kind of bacteria,is becoming a huge problem. We hereby present a different approach to the current problem of detection of bacteriaresistance to antibiotics. Our aims were to use the atomic force microscopy (AFM) to ...

  9. What Attitudes Could Influence Antibiotic Dispensing without Prescription?

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, Fátima; Soares, Sara; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics, are attributed to inadequate prescription and self-medication with antibiotics obtained from leftovers from previous courses or self-medication with antibiotics dispensed in pharmacies without prescription.

  10. Incorporation of different antibiotics into carbonated hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium implants, release and antibiotic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, M; Bezemer, J; de Groot, K; Layrolle, P

    2004-09-14

    Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) coatings were applied onto titanium implants by using a biomimetic precipitation method. Different antibiotics were incorporated into the CHA coatings and their release and efficacy against bacteria growth were studied in vitro. The following antibiotics were used within this study: cephalothin, carbenicillin, amoxicillin, cefamandol, tobramycin, gentamicin and vancomycin. Increased concentrations of antibiotics in the coating solution led to a higher quantity of antibiotic incorporated into the CHA coating. Some antibiotics were better incorporated than others depending on their chemical structure. Antibiotics, containing carboxylic groups such as cephalothin, carbenicillin and cefamandol, were better incorporated than antibiotics lacking these groups. A bacterial inhibition test on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria showed inhibition of growth for all antibiotics that were released from the CHA coating. A release test was conducted in phosphate buffer saline PBS at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C and showed that antibiotics containing carboxylic groups like cephalothin were slower released from the CHA coating than others. These results suggest that certain antibiotics are able to bind/chelate with calcium, resulting in a better incorporation into the CHA coating and a slower release. Antibiotics incorporated in CHA coatings on titanium implants might be used to prevent post-surgical infections and to promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  11. Combating antibiotic resistance - A Policy Roadmap to Reduce Use of Medically Important Antibiotics in Livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Lance B.; Newland, Jason; Bole, Aparna

    edical and public health organizations around the world agree that more prudent use of antibiotics in human medicine and in livestock production is paramount to slow the spread of antibiotic resistance. Of particular concern is the widespread use of antibiotics important to human medicine in food...... animals. In the U.S., such use accounts for 70% of all sales of medically important antibiotics. It is against this backdrop that 12 antibiotic resistance experts from the fields of infectious disease medicine, veterinary medicine, microbiology, epidemiology and public health joined to craft a policy...... roadmap to help move the U.S. forward in addressing the contribution of livestock antibiotic use to the growing global threat of antibiotic resistance. The policy roadmap consists of 11 core policy recommendations that are aimed at a broad set of stakeholders: federal, state and local policymakers, food...

  12. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  13. Retapamulin: A newer topical antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dhingra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application.

  14. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C...... for maximum 34 days. Using LC-MS/MS for chemical analysis, lasalocid was not found to hydrolyse in any of the tested environments. Monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were all stable in neutral or alkaline solution but hydrolysed in the solution with a pH of 4. Half-lives at 25 °C were calculated to be 13, 0.......6, and 0.7 days for monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Absorbance spectra from each compound indicated that only lasalocid is degraded by photolysis (half-life below 1 h) due to an absorbance maximum around 303 nm, and monensin, salinomycin, and narasin are resistant to direct photolysis...

  15. An International Model for Antibiotics Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Emilie

    We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals. This problem will only worsen with the significant projected growth in meat consumption and production expected in emerging economies in the near future. Although individual countries regulating antibiotics can have important effects, one country alone cannot insulate itself entirely from the effects of antibiotic resistance, nor can one country solve the crisis for itself or for the world. The global nature of the food system and the urgency of the problem require immediate global solutions. Adapting a democratic experimentalist approach at the international level can help achieve this goal. Using an international democratic experimentalist framework in conjunction with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) would provide for increased systematized data collection and lead to heightened, scientifically informed OIE standards, enforceable by the World Trade Organization (WTO), which could have a significant impact on the reduction of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics internationally. International democratic experimentalism addresses the global intricacy, time sensitivity, context- and culture-specificity, and knowledgeintensiveness of this problem. By encouraging more countries to experiment to solve this problem, the democratic experimentalist model would help develop a larger database of solutions to enable more meaningful cross-country comparisons across a wider range of contexts. This approach maintains democratic governance and

  16. Ecological and Clinical Consequences of Antibiotic Subsistence by Environmental Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Environmental Origins of Resistance: The Producer Hypothesis Resistome of other Soil Bacteria: Response to the Producers? Early Reports of Antibiotic Catabolism by Soil Bacteria The Antibiotic Subsistome: Who and how much? Antibiotic Subsistence...... as a Scavenger Phenotype Ecological Consequences of the Antibiotic Subsistome Investigating Connections Between Subsistomes and Resistomes Metagenomic Functional Selections for Discovering Genes Enabling Antibiotic Subsistence and Resistance Antibiotic Subsistence by Pathogenic Bacteria Concluding Remarks...

  17. Solithromycin: A novel ketolide antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buege, Michael J; Brown, Jack E; Aitken, Samuel L

    2017-06-15

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance. Phase III clinical trials of solithromycin demonstrated noninferiority of both oral and i.v.-to-oral regimens of 5-7 days' duration compared with moxifloxacin for patients with moderately severe CABP. Nearly one third of patients receiving i.v. solithromycin experienced infusion-site reactions. Although no liver-related adverse events were reported in patients receiving oral solithromycin, more patients receiving i.v.-to-oral solithromycin experienced asymptomatic, transient transaminitis, with alanine transaminase levels of >3 to >5 times the upper limit, compared with those treated with moxifloxacin. These results led the Food and Drug Administration to conclude that the solithromycin new drug application was not approvable as filed, adding that the risk of hepatotoxicity had not yet been adequately characterized. The agency further recommended a comparative study of patients with CABP to include approximately 9,000 patients exposed to solithromycin in order to exclude drug-induced liver injury events occurring at a rate of 1 in 3,000 with 95% probability. Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic with activity against a broad spectrum of intracellular organisms, including those displaying macrolide resistance. While demonstrating noninferiority to a current first-line agent in the treatment of CABP, concerns for drug-induced liver injury and infusion-site reactions have placed its regulatory future in doubt. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of

  18. Antibiotic Capture by Bacterial Lipocalins Uncovers an Extracellular Mechanism of Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Halfawy, Omar M; Klett, Javier; Ingram, Rebecca J; Loutet, Slade A; Murphy, Michael E P; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles; Valvano, Miguel A

    2017-03-14

    The potential for microbes to overcome antibiotics of different classes before they reach bacterial cells is largely unexplored. Here we show that a soluble bacterial lipocalin produced by Burkholderia cenocepacia upon exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations increases resistance to diverse antibiotics in vitro and in vivo These phenotypes were recapitulated by heterologous expression in B. cenocepacia of lipocalin genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Purified lipocalin bound different classes of bactericidal antibiotics and contributed to bacterial survival in vivo Experimental and X-ray crystal structure-guided computational studies revealed that lipocalins counteract antibiotic action by capturing antibiotics in the extracellular space. We also demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamins prevent antibiotic capture by binding bacterial lipocalin with higher affinity than antibiotics. Therefore, bacterial lipocalins contribute to antimicrobial resistance by capturing diverse antibiotics in the extracellular space at the site of infection, which can be counteracted by known vitamins. IMPORTANCE Current research on antibiotic action and resistance focuses on targeting essential functions within bacterial cells. We discovered a previously unrecognized mode of general bacterial antibiotic resistance operating in the extracellular space, which depends on bacterial protein molecules called lipocalins. These molecules are highly conserved in most bacteria and have the ability to capture different classes of antibiotics outside bacterial cells. We also discovered that liposoluble vitamins, such as vitamin E, overcome in vitro and in vivo antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial lipocalins, providing an unexpected new alternative to combat resistance by using this vitamin or its derivatives as antibiotic adjuvants. Copyright © 2017 El-Halfawy et al.

  19. Do antibiotics have environmental side-effects? Impact of synthetic antibiotics on biogeochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose-Amsaleg, Céline; Laverman, Anniet M

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic use in the early 1900 vastly improved human health but at the same time started an arms race of antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in ubiquitous trace concentrations of many antibiotics in most environments. Little is known about the impact of these antibiotics on microbial processes or "non-target" organisms. This mini-review summarizes our knowledge of the effect of synthetically produced antibiotics on microorganisms involved in biogeochemical cycling. We found only 31 articles that dealt with the effects of antibiotics on such processes in soil, sediment, or freshwater. We compare the processes, antibiotics, concentration range, source, environment, and experimental approach of these studies. Examining the effects of antibiotics on biogeochemical processes should involve environmentally relevant concentrations (instead of therapeutic), chronic exposure (versus acute), and monitoring of the administered antibiotics. Furthermore, the lack of standardized tests hinders generalizations regarding the effects of antibiotics on biogeochemical processes. We investigated the effects of antibiotics on biogeochemical N cycling, specifically nitrification, denitrification, and anammox. We found that environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides could partially inhibit denitrification. So far, the only documented effects of antibiotic inhibitions were at therapeutic doses on anammox activities. The most studied and inhibited was nitrification (25-100 %) mainly at therapeutic doses and rarely environmentally relevant. We recommend that firm conclusions regarding inhibition of antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations remain difficult due to the lack of studies testing low concentrations at chronic exposure. There is thus a need to test the effects of these environmental concentrations on biogeochemical processes to further establish the possible effects on ecosystem functioning.

  20. Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in waters associated with a hospital in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marothi Yogyata

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised about the public health implications of the presence of antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment and their effect on the development of bacterial resistance. While there is information on antibiotic residue levels in hospital effluent from some other countries, information on antibiotic residue levels in effluent from Indian hospitals is not available. Also, concurrent studies on antibiotic prescription quantity in a hospital and antibiotic residue levels and resistant bacteria in the effluent of the same hospital are few. Therefore, we quantified antibiotic residues in waters associated with a hospital in India and assessed their association, if any, with quantities of antibiotic prescribed in the hospital and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli found in the hospital effluent. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital outside the city of Ujjain in India. Seven antibiotics - amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, amikacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin - were selected. Prescribed quantities were obtained from hospital records. The samples of the hospital associated water were analysed for the above mentioned antibiotics using well developed and validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique after selectively isolating the analytes from the matrix using solid phase extraction. Escherichia coli isolates from these waters were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Results Ciprofloxacin was the highest prescribed antibiotic in the hospital and its residue levels in the hospital wastewater were also the highest. In samples of the municipal water supply and the groundwater, no antibiotics were detected. There was a positive correlation between the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in the hospital and antibiotic residue levels in

  1. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment: a cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Garde, Ewoudt M. W.; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; van der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  2. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment : A cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Garde, Ewoudt M W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841528; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; Van Der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  3. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment: a cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde, E.M. van de; Natsch, S.S.; Prins, J.M.; Linden, P.D. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  4. Linking microbial community structure and function to characterize antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes from cattle feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is widespread interest in monitoring the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in agriculturally impacted environments, however little is known about the relationships between bacterial community structure, and antibiotic resistance gene profiles. Cattl...

  5. Overview: Global and Local Impact of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Richard R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    The rapid and ongoing spread of antibiotic resistance poses a serious threat to global public health. The indiscriminant use of antibiotics in agriculture and human medicine along with increasingly connected societies has fueled the distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These factors together have led to rising numbers of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant bacteria, with increases in morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the trends in antibiotic resistance, discusses the impact of antibiotic resistance on society, and reviews the use of antibiotics in agriculture. Feasible ways to tackle antibiotic resistance to avert a post-antibiotic era are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibiotics involved in the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a nationwide multilevel study suggests differences within antibiotic classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Dumartin, Catherine; L'Hériteau, François; Péfau, Muriel; Hocquet, Didier; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bertrand, Xavier

    2013-02-01

    To identify the antibiotics potentially the most involved in the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from an ecological perspective in French healthcare facilities (HCFs). This study was based on data from the French antimicrobial surveillance network (ATB-RAISIN, 2007-09). Antibiotics were expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were considered as count data adjusted for patient-days. These were third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ceftazidime-, imipenem- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three-level negative binomial regression models were built to take into account the hierarchical structure of data: level 1, repeated measures each year (count outcome, time, antibiotics); level 2, HCFs (type and size); and level 3, regions (geographical area). A total of 701 HCFs from 20 French regions and up to 1339 HCF-years were analysed. The use of ceftriaxone, but not of cefotaxime, was positively correlated with incidence rates of 3GC- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. In contrast, both 3GCs were positively correlated with the incidence rate of cefotaxime-resistant E. cloacae. Higher levels of use of ciprofloxacin and/or ofloxacin, but not of levofloxacin, were associated with higher incidence rates of 3GC- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, cefotaxime-resistant E. cloacae, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and ceftazidime- and ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa. Our study suggests differences within antibiotic classes in promoting antibiotic resistance. We identified ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin as priority targets in public health strategies designed to reduce antibiotic use and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in French HCFs.

  7. Banning antibiotics, reducing resistance, preventing and fighting infections : White paper on research enabling an 'antibiotic-free' animal husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Kimman, T.G.; Smits, M.A.; Kemp, B.; Wever, P.; Verheijden, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics in animal husbandry is increasing and a point of growing concern. The large use of antibiotics in agriculture undoubtedly leads to the development of antibiotic resistance. This has resulted in a growing public concern on the rise of antibiotic resistance, and in particular on the transmission of resistant bacteria and resistance markers from animals to humans. Large antibiotic use in animal husbandry and antibiotic resistance threatens the health and wel...

  8. "Practical knowledge" and perceptions of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among drugsellers in Tanzanian private drugstores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomson Göran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies indicate that antibiotics are sold against regulation and without prescription in private drugstores in rural Tanzania. The objective of the study was to explore and describe antibiotics sale and dispensing practices and link it to drugseller knowledge and perceptions of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Methods Exit customers of private drugstores in eight districts were interviewed about the drugstore encounter and drugs bought. Drugsellers filled in a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended questions about antibiotics and resistance. Data were analyzed using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Of 350 interviewed exit customers, 24% had bought antibiotics. Thirty percent had seen a health worker before coming and almost all of these had a prescription. Antibiotics were dispensed mainly for cough, stomachache, genital complaints and diarrhea but not for malaria or headache. Dispensed drugs were assessed as relevant for the symptoms or disease presented in 83% of all cases and 51% for antibiotics specifically. Non-prescribed drugs were assessed as more relevant than the prescribed. The knowledge level of the drugseller was ranked as high or very high by 75% of the respondents. Seventy-five drugsellers from three districts participated. Seventy-nine percent stated that diseases caused by bacteria can be treated with antibiotics but 24% of these also said that antibiotics can be used for treating viral disease. Most (85% said that STI can be treated with antibiotics while 1% said the same about headache, 4% general weakness and 3% 'all diseases'. Seventy-two percent had heard of antibiotic resistance. When describing what an antibiotic is, the respondents used six different kinds of keywords. Descriptions of what antibiotic resistance is and how it occurs were quite rational from a biomedical point of view with some exceptions. They gave rise to five categories and one theme: Perceiving antibiotic

  9. Hybrid antibiotics - clinical progress and novel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alastair L; Yule, Ian A

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing need for new antibacterial agents, but success in development of antibiotics in recent years has been limited. This has led researchers to investigate novel approaches to finding compounds that are effective against multi-drug resistant bacteria, and that delay onset of resistance. One such strategy has been to link antibiotics to produce hybrids designed to overcome resistance mechanisms. The concept of dual-acting hybrid antibiotics was introduced and reviewed in this journal in 2010. In the present review the authors sought to discover how clinical candidates described had progressed, and to examine how the field has developed. In three sections the authors cover the clinical progress of hybrid antibiotics, novel agents produced from hybridisation of two or more small-molecule antibiotics, and novel agents produced from hybridisation of antibiotics with small-molecules that have complementary activity. Many key questions regarding dual-acting hybrid antibiotics remain to be answered, and the proposed benefits of this approach are yet to be demonstrated. While Cadazolid in particular continues to progress in the clinic, suggesting that there is promise in hybridisation through covalent linkage, it may be that properties other than antibacterial activity are key when choosing a partner molecule.

  10. Reassessment of antibiotic therapy in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M; Germain, J-M; Rémy, E; Lottin, M; Etienne, M; Czernichow, P; Merle, V

    2017-09-01

    French national guidelines state that antibiotic therapies should be reassessed between 48 and 72hours after treatment initiation and that reassessment of antibiotic therapy (RA) must be recorded in patients' files. To determine whether RA is performed and recorded in patients' files in hospitals in a region of France. Setting: hospitals participating in the National nosocomial infection point- prevalence survey (NPS) in Upper-Normandy, France. Patients included those receiving antibiotic therapy (excluding antibiotic prophylaxis) on NPS day, started in the hospital in which the survey was conducted and ongoing for more than 72hours. Data collected included characteristics of participating hospitals and, for each included patient, characteristics of ward, infection and antibiotic therapy, and mention in the patients' files of explicit or implicit RA. The rate of explicit and implicit RA was calculated and factors associated with explicit or implicit RA were evaluated using a univariate analysis. Thirty-three hospitals representing 87% of hospital beds region-wide were included in the study. In addition, 933 prescriptions were assessed for 724 infections in 676 patients. The overall rate of RA was 67.6% (49.3% of explicit RA and 18.3% of implicit RA). The rate of RA differed significantly according to infection and antibiotic class but not according to hospital or ward characteristics. Our study provides new and reassuring results regarding reassessment of antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotics-Induced Obesity: A Mitochondrial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Melisa J; Jayaprakash, Chinchu; Bhat, Smitha; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-12-15

    Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against infections and have contributed immensely to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, extensive use of antibiotics has led to alterations of the gut microbiome, predisposition to various diseases and most importantly, increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a major threat to global public health. Another major issue faced worldwide due to unregulated use of antibiotics in children as well as in adults is the influence of metabolism and body weight homeostasis, leading to obesity. Apart from the involvement of biosocial causes influencing diet, physical activity, and antibiotic use, pathogenesis of obesity is linked to interconnected functional alterations in cells, tissues and organs due to biochemical, epigenetic and genetic factors. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one such factor, which is becoming the primary focus of various aspects of research on multifactorial complex diseases and is providing new perspectives on etiology, biomarker-based diagnosis, and drug sensitivity. Through this review, we have made an attempt to present the interplay between use of antibiotics, obesity, and associated mitochondrial dysfunction. This may provide insights into the molecular basis, genetic predisposition and environmental triggers, which in turn may have potential clinical applications in the management of antibiotic use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Molecular Regulation of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes. PMID:23471619

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Sepsis Patients: Evaluation and Recommendation of Antibiotic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradipta, Ivan Surya; Sodik, Dian Chairunnisa; Lestari, Keri; Parwati, Ida; Halimah, Eli; Diantini, Ajeng; Abdulah, Rizky

    2013-01-01

    Background: The appropriate selection of empirical antibiotics based on the pattern of local antibiotic resistance can reduce the mortality rate and increase the rational use of antibiotics. Aims: We analyze the pattern of antibiotic use and the sensitivity patterns of antibiotics to support the rational use of antibiotics in patients with sepsis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in adult sepsis patient at one of Indonesian hospital during January-December 2011. Data were collected from the hospital medical record department. Descriptive analysis was used in the processing and interpretation of data. Results: A total of 76 patients were included as research subjects. Lung infection was the highest source of infection. In the 66.3% of clinical specimens that were culture positive for microbes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus hominis were detected with the highest frequency. The six most frequently used antibiotics, levofloxacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin, showed an average resistance above 50%. Conclusions: The high use of antibiotic with a high level resistance requires a policy to support its rational use. Local microbial pattern based on site infection and pattern of antibiotics sensitivity test can be used as supporting data to optimize appropriateness of empirical antibiotics therapy in sepsis patients. PMID:23923107

  14. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS.

  15. Fungal treatment for the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in veterinary hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D; Badia-Fabregat, M; Vicent, T; Caminal, G; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Balcázar, J L; Barceló, D

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important public health concerns and has been linked to the widespread use of antibiotics in veterinary and human medicine. The overall elimination of antibiotics in conventional wastewater treatment plants is quite low; therefore, residual amounts of these compounds are continuously discharged to receiving surface waters, which may promote the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In this study, the ability of a fungal treatment as an alternative wastewater treatment for the elimination of forty-seven antibiotics belonging to seven different groups (β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, metronidazoles, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) was evaluated. 77% of antibiotics were removed after the fungal treatment, which is higher than removal obtained in conventional treatment plants. Moreover, the effect of fungal treatment on the removal of some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was evaluated. The fungal treatment was also efficient in removing ARGs, such as ermB (resistance to macrolides), tetW (resistance to tetracyclines), blaTEM (resistance to β-lactams), sulI (resistance to sulfonamides) and qnrS (reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones). However, it was not possible to establish a clear link between concentrations of antibiotics and corresponding ARGs in wastewater, which leads to the conclusion that there are other factors that should be taken into consideration besides the antibiotic concentrations that reach aquatic ecosystems in order to explain the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inducing optimal substitution between antibiotics under open access to the resource of antibiotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Markus; Nkuiya, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    This paper designs a bio-economic model to examine the use of substitute antibiotic drugs (analogs) sold by an industry that has open access to the resource of the antibiotic class's susceptibility (treatment effectiveness). Antibiotics are characterized by different expected recovery rates and production costs, which in conjunction with the class's treatment susceptibility determines their relative effectiveness. Our analysis reveals that the high-quality antibiotic drug loses its comparative advantage over time making the low-quality drug the treatment of last resort in the market equilibrium and the social optimum when antibiotic susceptibility cannot replenish. However, when antibiotic susceptibility is renewable, both antibiotics may be used in the long run, and the comparative advantage of the high-quality drug may be restored in the social optimum that allows lowering infection in the long run. We develop the optimal tax/subsidy scheme that would induce antibiotic producers under open access to behave optimally and account for the social cost of infection and value of antibiotic susceptibility. We show that the welfare loss associated with the uncorrected open-access allocation is highest; when the resource of antibiotic susceptibility is non-renewable, high morbidity costs are incurred by individuals, and low social discount rates apply. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:26356096

  18. Implementation of an antibiotic checklist increased appropriate antibiotic use in the hospital on Aruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, Frederike Vera; Lagerburg, Anouk; de Kort, Jaclyn; Sànchez Rivas, Elena; Geerlings, Suzanne Eugenie

    2017-06-01

    No interventions have yet been implemented to improve antibiotic use on Aruba. In the Netherlands, the introduction of an antibiotic checklist resulted in more appropriate antibiotic use in nine hospitals. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibiotic checklist on Aruba, test its effectiveness, and evaluate the possibility of implementing this checklist outside the Netherlands. The antibiotic checklist includes seven quality indicators (QIs) that define appropriate antibiotic use. It applies to adult patients with a suspected bacterial infection, treated with intravenous antibiotics. The primary endpoint was the QI sum score, calculated by the patient's sum of performed checklist-items divided by the total number of QIs that applied to that specific patient. Outcomes before and after the introduction of the checklist were compared. The percentage of patients with a QI sum score ≥50% increased significantly during the intervention (n=173) compared to baseline (n=150) (odds ratio 3.67, pchecklist was used in 63.3% of the eligible patients. The introduction of the antibiotic checklist increased appropriate antibiotic use on Aruba. Additional initiatives are necessary for further improvement per QI. These results suggest that the antibiotic checklist could be used internationally. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of antibiotics without medical prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Espíndola Volpato

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections is a worldwide problem that has implications for the cost of treatment and the development of resistant strains of bacteria. The use of antibiotics should follow specific criteria; they are on top of the list of self-medication drugs in countries that do not control their commercialization. OBJECTIVES: To determine the percentage of pharmacies that attend the public and sell antibiotics without medical prescription in a medium-sized city in Brazil, and analyze the variables involved in this procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 107 of the 136 pharmacies registered in our city were evaluated. These pharmacies were visited by actresses who simulated having a sister with symptoms of a non-complicated rhino-sinusitis, so that they could obtain antibiotics without a medical prescription. Each pharmacy was visited only once; the only variable in the simulated clinical setting was the report of fever temperature, which was randomly assigned between 38.5 and 40 degrees Celsius. RESULTS: Antibiotics were offered in 58% of the pharmacies, and this offer was increased to 74% after the actresses insisted on having them. In 65.4% of the pharmacies, the actresses were attended by a pharmacist, and 84.2% of them said they would sell antibiotics. When the request for antibiotics was denied (26%, only 7.5% was due to absence of prescription. The most frequent reason for refusal to sell antibiotics, was because the attendant deemed it unnecessary (46.6% CONCLUSION: Antibiotics can be easily bought in the great majority of the pharmacies in our town without a medical prescription and a clear indication. Fever temperature did not modify the attendant's indication of the drug.

  20. Developing New Antibiotics with Combinatorial Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Nicola L.

    2000-11-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs), a class of enzymes found in soil bacteria that produce antibiotics such as erythromycin, string together acetate units using basic organic reactions. The manipulation of the sequence of these reactions at the genetic level has resulted in an alteration of the corresponding chemical structure of the antibiotic produced by the bacteria. This process, called combinatorial biosynthesis, allows the generation of many presently unknown complex structures that can be tested for antibacterial activity, thereby contributing to the race against antibiotic-resistant infectious bacteria.

  1. The effect of antibiotics on diatom communities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Anil, A.C.

    environment – a review – Part II. Chemosphere, 2009, 75, 435–441. 21. Martinez, J. L., Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants. Environ. Pollut., 2009, 157, 2893–2902. 22. Gavalchin, J. and Katz, S. E... CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 102, NO. 11, 10 JUNE 2012 1552 *For correspondence. (e-mail: acanil@nio.org) The effect of antibiotics on diatom communities Priya M. D’Costa and Arga Chandrashekar Anil* CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa...

  2. Reductive methods for isotopic labeling of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the reductive methylation of the amino groups of eight different antibiotics using 3 HCOH or H 14 COH are presented. The reductive labeling of an additional seven antibiotics by NaB 3 H 4 is also described. The specific activity of the methyl-labeled drugs was determined by a phosphocellulose paper binding assay. Two quantitative assays for these compounds based on the reactivity of the antibiotic amino groups with fluorescamine and of the aldehyde and ketone groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine are also presented. Data on the cellular uptake and ribosome binding of these labeled compounds are also presented

  3. Countermeasures to Antibiotics Crisis: a Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria for Research and Development of New Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial

    2017-01-01

    On 27 Feb., 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the first list of important antibiotic-resistant bacteria (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/bacteria-antibiotics-needed/en/), which tremendously threat human-being’s health. This list included 12 kinds of bacteria that were categorized into three priority tiers: Critical, High and Medium. In the first tier, Critical, three Gram negative bacteria were included: Acinetobacter baumannii with carbapenem-resis...

  4. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first identified in the 1940s, but while new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. Today, the excessive use of antibiotics compounded by the paucity of new agents on the market has...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...

  5. Effects on combination of antibiotic-resistant bifidobacteria and corresponding antibiotics of survival of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, V.M.; Pinegin, B.V.; Ivanova, N.P.; Maltsev, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Elimination of intestinal dysbacteriosis in irradiated animals by combining antibiotics and peparations of bifidobacteria resistant to these antibiotics prolonging the life of these animals was investigated. Broad spectrum antibiotics are used to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis. Bifidobacterial preparations are used to restore the microbial cenosis and their administration is started after antibiotics are discontinued. There are some flaws to deferred administration of bifidobacteria, since the process of colonization of the intestine with commercial bifidobacterial preparations is rather lengthy, and there is slow elevation of bifidobacterium level in the intestinal tract, whereas exogenous recontamination of the intestine by conditionally pathogenic bacteria is possible after antibiotic therapy is discontinued. Use of antibiotics alone could be the cause of intestinal dysbacteriosis

  6. Impact of antibiotics on necrotizing enterocolitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael A.; Konnikova, Liza; Gerber, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Antibiotics induce changes or dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome. These antibiotic-induce changes may contribute to the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Studies are beginning to unravel the contribution of specific groups of microbes to these diseases—most notably Gammaproteobacteria for NEC and bile acid- and carbohydrate-metabolizing microbes for AAD. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea occurs when antibiotic treatment induces diarrhea by altering the metabolic function of the patient’s intestinal microbiota leading to either an osmotic or infectious diarrhea, most notably Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Antibiotic therapy impairs the host microbiota’s ability to resist colonization or expansion of pathogenic bacteria. In the case of CDI, there is growing evidence that microbiota-mediated bile acid metabolism is critical in the pathogenesis of this infection. Probiotics or other microbiota-targeted therapies may provide effective strategies to prevent and treat NEC and AAD. PMID:28164853

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  8. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnák, R; Hanke, I; Hansliánová, M; Kala, Z; Sevcíková, A

    2009-06-01

    Antibiotic (ATB) prophylaxis is generaly recommended in surgery. There is an important role in colorectal surgery especially. Colorectal surgery is associated with a particularly high risk of post-operative infection because of contamination of the wound with faecal bacteria. ATB prophylaxis decreases surgical wound infection, morbidity and mortality as well. Morbidity and mortality are associated with longer hospital stays and increased costs of care. At surgical department of Faculty hospital Brno, during March-June 2008 an 88 patients were operated because of different diagnoses in colorectum. Both an emergent and schedule operations were made. Type of ATBs, time of application before operation, reapplication after operation and surgical site infection (SSI), in - hospital stay were followed up prospectively. SSI were divided into superficial, deep and intraabdominal. Data were analyse statistically. The most used combination of ATBs, almost in 91%, were Cefazoline and Metronidazole. In 50% were time of application till 20 minutes before incision. Only in 17% were time of application in interval 20-30 minutes before incision, which is recommended. We noticed 25 SSI. We prove that patients with SSI has almost two-times longer in-hospital stay. Enterococcus and enterobacterias were the most common etiological agents. ATB prophylaxis is indicated in colorectal surgery. It has to be applied in correct dose and right time before operation to decrease SSI.

  9. Antibiotic Consumption and Antibiotic Resistance Across Organisms, Drugs, and Consumer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Scott; Barnett, Michael; MacFadden, Derek; Lipsitch, Marc; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotic consumption is considered a major driver of antibiotic resistance, but it remains unclear whether the consumption–resistance relationship is apparent for many organisms and drugs, and whether aggregate consumption is the best predictor of resistance. Methods We conducted a landscape assessment of the consumption-resistance relationship by comparing a 20% sample of Medicare Part D outpatient antibiotic pharmacy claims with a nationwide survey of hospital antibiotic susceptibility reports. Antibiotic consumption was summarized in individual states and hospital-referral regions (HRRs) using traditional, aggregate consumption or by metrics that account for the concentration of consumption in a few individuals (Gini coefficient). The consumption–resistance relationships for 17 organism–drug combinations were simultaneously evaluated (Spearman’s rho; linear models predicting resistance from aggregate consumption and Gini coefficient) and corrected for multiple-hypothesis testing (Benjamini–Hochberg). Results We identified a significant correlation between aggregate consumption of an antibiotic and an organism’s reported resistance to that antibiotic in only a few cases: quinolones and E. coli (Spearman’s rho = 0.65, adjusted P < 10−4) and E. cloacae (rho = 0.50, adjusted P = 0.006). In other cases, notably E. coli with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, the distribution of antibiotic consumption among consumers has a marginal relationship with antibiotic resistance (−1.0 p.p. resistance per p.p. Gini coefficient of consumption among consumers, unadjusted P < 0.001). Conclusion There is a clear correlation between aggregate consumption of an antibiotic and resistance of an organism to that antibiotic in only a few cases, suggesting that antibiotic steward efforts might maximize their effectiveness by focusing on particular organisms, drugs, and consumer groups rather than overall, aggregate consumption

  10. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered orally to treat bacterial infections not necessarily related to the gastrointestinal system. This has adverse effects on the commensal gut microbial community, by disrupting the intricate balance between specific bacterial groups within this ecosystem...... potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  11. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-10

    This podcast answers questions from the public about appropriate antibiotic use.  Created: 9/10/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/15/2008.

  12. Inhaled Antibiotics for Ventilator-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lucy B

    2017-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant organisms are creating a challenge for physicians treating the critically ill. As new antibiotics lag behind the emergence of worsening resistance, intensivists in countries with high rates of extensively drug-resistant bacteria are turning to inhaled antibiotics as adjunctive therapy. These drugs can provide high concentrations of drug in the lung that could not be achieved with intravenous antibiotics without significant systemic toxicity. This article summarizes current evidence describing the use of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. Preliminary data suggest aerosolized antimicrobials may effectively treat resistant pathogens with high minimum inhibitory concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Health Topics → Antibiotic Resistance URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/antibioticresistance. ...

  14. Nanoformulation and antibiotic releasing property of cefotaxime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-06

    -antibiotics to control bacterial colonization and infection and potentially ... different approaches were used to combine antibacterial materials to achieve desirable effects. Nanocarriers, such as pH-sensitive nanoparticles, may.

  15. Molecular analysis and antibiotic resistance investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular analysis and antibiotic resistance investigation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with staphylococcal food poisoning and nosocomial infections. Y Zhang, S Cheng, G Ding, M Zhu, X Pan, L Zhang ...

  16. Antibiotic Resistance and the Biology of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2016-12-01

    Beginning in the 1940s, mass production of antibiotics involved the industrial-scale growth of microorganisms to harvest their metabolic products. Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics selects for resistance at answering scale. The turn to the study of antibiotic resistance in microbiology and medicine is examined, focusing on the realization that individual therapies targeted at single pathogens in individual bodies are environmental events affecting bacterial evolution far beyond bodies. In turning to biological manifestations of antibiotic use, sciences fathom material outcomes of their own previous concepts. Archival work with stored soil and clinical samples produces a record described here as 'the biology of history': the physical registration of human history in bacterial life. This account thus foregrounds the importance of understanding both the materiality of history and the historicity of matter in theories and concepts of life today.

  17. Empiric Antibiotic Therapy of Nosocomial Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used by physicians to treat various infections. The source of infection and causative organisms are not always apparent during the initial evaluation of the patient, and antibiotics are often given empirically to patients with suspected sepsis. Fear of attempting cephalosporins and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic septic patients may result in significant decrease in the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage. Empiric antibiotic therapy should sufficiently cover all the suspected pathogens, guided by the bacteriologic susceptibilities of the medical center. It is important to understand the major pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents for proper use and to minimize the development of resistance. In several septic patients, negative cultures do not exclude active infection and positive cultures may not represent the actual infection. This article will review the important differences in the spectrum of commonly used antibiotics for nosocomial bacterial infections with a particular emphasis on culture-negative sepsis and colonization.

  18. Race against time to develop new antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The second part of a series of three news features on antimicrobial resistance looks at how the antibiotics pipeline is drying up while resistance to existing drugs is increasing. Theresa Braine reports.

  19. minimising antibiotic resistance to staphylococcus aureus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-11-02

    (26). Prevention of emergence of antibiotic resistance during treatment is therefore an important goal when prescribing antimicrobials. Problems affecting the operation of laboratories at the peripheral level are widespread.

  20. Antibiotic overprescribing: Still a major concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, David C; Fettic, Lacy P; Wright, Stephanie D; Ferrara, Bonnie R

    2017-12-01

    Despite universal agreement that antibiotic overprescribing is a problem, the practice continues to vex us. Antibiotic use--whether appropriate or not--has been linked to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, disruption of the gut microbiome leading to Clostridium difficile infections, allergic reactions, and increased health care costs. And yet, physicians continue to overprescribe this class of medication. A 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report estimates that at least 30% of antibiotics prescribed in US outpatient settings are unnecessary. Another report cites a slightly higher figure across a variety of health care settings. Pair these findings with the fact that there are currently few new drugs in development to target resistant bacteria, and you have the potential for a post-antibiotic era in which common infections could become lethal. Family practitioners are on the front lines of this battle. Here's what we can do now.

  1. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in enterococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Munita, Jose M; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens and a growing clinical challenge. These organisms have developed resistance to virtually all antimicrobials currently used in clinical practice using a diverse number of genetic strategies. Due to this ability to recruit antibiotic resistance determinants, MDR enterococci display a wide repertoire of antibiotic resistance mechanisms including modification of drug targets, inactivation of therapeutic agents, overexpression of efflux pumps and a sophisticated cell envelope adaptive response that promotes survival in the human host and the nosocomial environment. MDR enterococci are well adapted to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and can become the dominant flora under antibiotic pressure, predisposing the severely ill and immunocompromised patient to invasive infections. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci is the first step for devising strategies to control the spread of these organisms and potentially establish novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25199988

  2. What Can Be Done about Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 300 million to bring a new antibiotic to market. Many efforts to find novel drugs in fungi ... sulbactam are already in use for blocking the beta-lactamase enzymes that destroy the penicillin family of ...

  3. Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob; Penadés, José R; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic...... of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus cells...... are effective in exchanging mobile genetic elements, including antibiotic-resistance genes.During colonization or infection of host organisms, the exchange appears to be particularly effective.Bacteriophage-mediated transfer involves both transduction and autotransduction, which may enable lysogenic S. aureus...

  4. Electromagnetic interactions between antibiotics and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Moqueet, Mohammad M.

    The effect of weak electromagnetic fields on the interaction of the antibiotic erythromycin on E.coli has been studied. Erythromycin is a first derivative antibiotic which is bacteriostatic in nature. E.coli's structure has been well studied and provides a baseline for understanding the interaction. Electromagnetic fields are shown to influence the growth curve of bacterium depending on the field's geometry. The theoretical model discussed in this thesis describes the interaction using a two-fluid model. The basis of this two-fluid model has been tested and shown that the concentration of antibiotics in the fluid environment is proportional to the response seen by the bacterium. The response of the bacterium has been determined using optical density measurements from which the behavior of the antibiotic-cell system has been studied.

  5. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Nienke L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective

  6. Awareness of Rational Medication Use and Antibiotic Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the practice of self-medication and evaluate the knowledge of rational use of antibiotics among ... rational use of antibiotics. Keywords: Antibiotics, Self-medication, Rational use, Undergraduate students, Awareness ..... behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in ...

  7. Genomic and metagenomic diversity of antibiotic resistance in dairy animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic resistance in food animals has received increased scrutiny in recent years due to the increased prevalence of antibiotic resistant infections in the human clinical setting. The extent to which antibiotic usage in food animals is responsible for the burden of antibiotic resistance in human...

  8. Antibiotics in agroecosystems: Introduction to the special section

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of antibiotic drug residues, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in agroecosystems has become a significant area of research in recent years, and is a growing public health concern. While antibiotics are utilized for human medicine and agricultural practices, ...

  9. Coping with antibiotic resistance: combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2011-11-01

    The worldwide escalation of bacterial resistance to conventional medical antibiotics is a serious concern for modern medicine. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria among bacteria-based infections decreases effectiveness of current treatments and causes thousands of deaths. New improvements in present methods and novel strategies are urgently needed to cope with this problem. Owing to their antibacterial activities, metallic nanoparticles represent an effective solution for overcoming bacterial resistance. However, metallic nanoparticles are toxic, which causes restrictions in their use. Recent studies have shown that combining nanoparticles with antibiotics not only reduces the toxicity of both agents towards human cells by decreasing the requirement for high dosages but also enhances their bactericidal properties. Combining antibiotics with nanoparticles also restores their ability to destroy bacteria that have acquired resistance to them. Furthermore, nanoparticles tagged with antibiotics have been shown to increase the concentration of antibiotics at the site of bacterium-antibiotic interaction, and to facilitate binding of antibiotics to bacteria. Likewise, combining nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides and essential oils generates genuine synergy against bacterial resistance. In this article, we aim to summarize recent studies on interactions between nanoparticles and antibiotics, as well as other antibacterial agents to formulate new prospects for future studies. Based on the promising data that demonstrated the synergistic effects of antimicrobial agents with nanoparticles, we believe that this combination is a potential candidate for more research into treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  10. Genetic Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance and the Role of Antibiotic Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Daniela Santos; de Araujo, Rodrigo Santos Aquino; Dantas, Natalina; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; de Moura, Ricardo Olimpio; Mendonca-Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra

    2018-01-01

    The ever increasing number of multidrug-resistant microorganism pathogens has become a great and global public health threat. Antibiotic mechanisms of action and the opposing mechanisms of resistance are intimately associated, but comprehension of the biochemical and molecular functions of such drugs is not a simple exercise. Both the environment, and genetic settings contribute to alterations in phenotypic resistance (natural bacterial evolution), and make it difficult to control the emergence and impacts of antibiotic resistance. Under such circumstances, comprehension of how bacteria develop and/or acquire antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) has a critical role in developing propositions to fight against these superbugs, and to search for new drugs. In this review, we present and discuss both general information and examples of common genetic and molecular mechanisms related to antibiotic resistance, as well as how the expression and interactions of ARGs are important to drug resistance. At the same time, we focus on the recent achievements in the search for antibiotic adjuvants, which help combat antibiotic resistance through deactivation of bacterial mechanisms of action such as β-lactamases. Recent advances involving the use of anti-resistance drugs such as: efflux pump inhibitors; anti-virulence drugs; drugs against quorum sensing; and against type II/III secretion systems are revealed. Such antibiotic adjuvants (as explored herein) collaborate against the problems of antibiotic resistance, and may restore or prolong the therapeutic activity of known antibiotics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Novel antibiotics: are we still in the pre-post-antibiotic era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, R; Seybold, U; Grützner, E; Bogner, J R

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic efficacy and safety in infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria can be improved by the clinical development of new compounds and devising new derivatives of already useful antibiotics. Due to a striking global increase in multidrug-resistant Gram-positive but even more Gram-negative organisms, new antibiotics are urgently needed. This paper provides a review of novel antibiotic compounds which are already in clinical development, mainly in phase III clinical trials. Each of these new trials increases the possibility of new antibiotics receiving approval.

  12. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco; Marina Altagracia Martínez; Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez; Albert I Wertheimer

    2009-01-01

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM), Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a se...

  13. Antibiotic tolerance and resistance in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important features of microbial biofilms is their tolerance to antimicrobial agents and components of the host immune system. The difficulty of treating biofilm infections with antibiotics is a major clinical problem. Although antibiotics may decrease the number of bacteria...... in biofilms, they will not completely eradicate the bacteria in vivo which may have important clinical consequences in form of relapses of the infection....

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Severe Orofacial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; August, Meredith

    2017-05-01

    This study assessed the antibiotic resistance profile in patients with severe orofacial infections treated at a single institution from 2009 through 2014. Factors contributing to resistance were studied. The resistance profile was compared with that of a cohort of similar patients treated a decade previously to identify changes in antibiotic resistance. In addition, the effect of antibiotic resistance on in-hospital course was studied. This was a 5-year retrospective cohort study. Patients were identified through the oral and maxillofacial surgery data registry. Inclusion criteria were patients treated for orofacial infection requiring hospital admission, surgical drainage, and availability of complete medical, surgical, and microbiological data. Patients with incomplete data or treated as outpatients or nonsurgically were excluded. Sixty patient charts were identified for review. Demographic data; medical, dental, and surgical histories; and hospital course and treatment specifics were obtained for each patient. Linear regression and logistic analyses were used to analyze the data. Men composed 60% of the cohort (mean age, 45 yr). Average hospital stay was 5.5 days. Penicillin resistance was found in 32.5% of aerobic isolates and clindamycin resistance was found in 29.3%. Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus species showed increased resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin compared with historic controls. Younger patient age, surgical history, and number of cultured aerobes showed a relevant correlation to antibiotic resistance. The need for changes in antibiotics, repeat surgical drainage, and increased serum urea nitrogen levels correlated with longer hospital stay. A serious increase in clindamycin and erythromycin resistance was found for S viridans and Staphylococcus species. Age, surgical history, and number of cultured aerobes showed a statistically meaningful correlation to antibiotic resistance. Presence of antibiotic resistance failed to show

  15. Antibiotic rezistance genes in soil actinobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Patrmanová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacteria are important members of the soil ecosystems, where they are involved in organic matter decomposition. It is worth mentioning that their secondary metabolism allows them to produce a variety of different compounds. These compounds include antibiotics, among them aminoglycosides have a place in clinical practice. These antibiotics are significant due to a broad spectrum of activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. However, their use currently carries a ri...

  16. Antibiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrendik, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    Mesut OgrendikDivision Physical Therapy and Rheumatology, Nazilli State Hospital, Nazilli, TurkeyAbstract: Antibiotic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) commenced in the 1930s with the use of sulfasalazine. Later, tetracyclines were successfully used for the treatment of RA. In double-blind and randomized studies, levofloxacin and macrolide antibiotics (including clarithromycin and roxithromycin) were also shown to be effective in the treatment of RA. There have been several reports in t...

  17. Antibiotics in pediatrics: Parental knowledge and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trkulja Maja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotics represent the most prescribed class of medication in the pediatric circles. Almost 50% of the medication was prescribed without definite merit. Recently published studies have shown that the level of knowledge, awareness, as well as parents' expectations, play a significant role in the amount of prescribed antibiotics by pediatricians. Aim: To assess the level of parent's education, attitude and behavior, in regard to antibiotic use in pediatric population in Serbia. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study was performed between October 2015 and February 2016. An anonymous survey approach had been used. Demographic data of the participants gave an insight in the level of knowledge and common practice regarding the use of antibiotics in children. The data collected was analyzed by methods of descriptive and analytic statistics. Results: Of 850 recruited, 763 completed and returned the survey. A high level of knowledge was found in 79.5% of the participants. The highest percent of parents answered the questions correctly in regard to reporting drug-related adverse reactions, including allergic reactions (99% and 93% respectively. Almost one third (27% of the parents thought that antibiotics can cure viral infections. More than 20% of participants thought that antibiotics can control pain, and that more expensive medication was more effective. The worrisome is the fact that 15% bought antibiotic at least once without a doctor's prescriptions, while 18% stashed away leftovers for later use. Conclusion: Although study results showed good quality data, parents are still deciding by themselves if they should start antibiotic therapy. Reinforcing established educational programs and encouraging communication with their pediatrician would be highly justified.

  18. DNA-Aptamers Binding Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nikolaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short, single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are able to bind specifically and with high affinity to their non-nucleic acid target molecules. This binding reaction enables their application as biorecognition elements in biosensors and assays. As antibiotic residues pose a problem contributing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and thereby reducing the effectiveness of the drug to fight human infections, we selected aptamers targeted against the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A with the aim of constructing a robust and functional assay that can be used for water analysis. With this work we show that aptamers that were derived from a Capture-SELEX procedure targeting against kanamycin A also display binding to related aminoglycoside antibiotics. The binding patterns differ among all tested aptamers so that there are highly substance specific aptamers and more group specific aptamers binding to a different variety of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Also the region of the aminoglycoside antibiotics responsible for aptamer binding can be estimated. Affinities of the different aptamers for their target substance, kanamycin A, are measured with different approaches and are in the micromolar range. Finally, the proof of principle of an assay for detection of kanamycin A in a real water sample is given.

  19. New antibiotic development: barriers and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercole Concia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance represents a serious threat to public health worldwide, leading to increased healthcare costs, prolonged hospital stays, treatment failures and deaths. To address the emergency of multidrug-resistance, the major international societies of infectious diseases and public health have developed strategies and guidelines to reduce unnecessary antimicrobial use as well as to incite the development of new antibiotics targeting multidrug-resistant pathogens. Even though pharmaceutical companies have been developing new antibiotics since 2010, the global situation is still worrisome. Indeed, the currently available data regarding new antibiotics are limited to microbiological activity and pharmacokinetic profile and their use for the treatment of life-threatening infections (i.e., sepsis is often off-label. The aim of this article is to present the antibiotic molecules recently commercialized and with which clinicians will deal quite often in next years. We describe ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, eravacycline, plazomicin, dalbavancin, oritavancin and tedizolid in terms of mechanism of action, antimicrobial spectrum, trials behind the approval and possible indications for the future. In last few years, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA approved many new antibiotic molecules but, unfortunately, they lack in biological innovation and in wide clinical indications. These agents show appealing properties for off-label use, as we propose in the article, but caution is still needed considering that high-quality clinical data are limited.

  20. Antibiotic prescribing policy and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly intravenous cephalosporins, are associated with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Diarrhoea due to C. difficile is a growing problem in hospitals, especially among elderly patients. AIM: To establish whether changing an antibiotic policy with the aim of reducing the use of injectable cephalosporins leads to a reduction in the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea in elderly patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: A group of patients who were subject to the new antibiotic policy from the period following July 2000, were compared with patients who were admitted prior to July 2000 and were not subject to the new policy. Infections, antibiotic prescriptions and mortality rates were determined from case notes, and C. difficle diarrhoea rates from microbiological data. RESULTS: Intravenous cephalosporin use fell from 210 to 28 defined daily doses (p < 0.001) following the change in antibiotic policy, with a corresponding increase in piperacillin-tazobactam (p < 0.001) and moxifloxacin (p < 0.001) use. The new policy led to a significant reduction in C. difficile diarrhoea cases. The relative risk of developing C. difficile infection with the old policy compared to the new policy was 3.24 (95%CI 1.07-9.84, p = 0.03). DISCUSSION: The antibiotic policy was successfully introduced into an elderly care service. It reduced both intravenous cephalosporin use and C. difficile diarrhoea.

  1. ADJUNCTIVE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PERIODONTAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Barça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases with a mixed microbial aetiology and marked inflammatory response leading to destruction of underlying tissue. Periodontal therapy aims to eliminate pathogens associated with the disease and attain periodontal health. Periodontitis is generally treated by nonsurgical mechanical debridement and regular periodontal maintenance care. Periodontal surgery may be indicated for some patients to improve access to the root surface; however, mechanical debridement alone may not be helpful in all cases. In such cases, adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy remains the treatment of choice. It can reach microorganisms at the base of the deep periodontal pockets and furcation areas via serum, and also affects organisms residing within gingival epithelium and connective tissue. This review aims to provide an update on clinical issues regarding when and how to prescribe systemic antibiotics in periodontal therapy. The points discussed are the mode of antibiotic action, susceptible periodontal pathogens, antibiotic dosage, antibiotic use in treatment of periodontal disease, and mechanism of bacterial resistance to each antibiotic.

  2. Discovery and preclinical development of new antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diarmaid; Karlén, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are the medical wonder of our age, but an increasing frequency of resistance among key pathogens is rendering them less effective. If this trend continues the consequences for cancer patients, organ transplant patients, and indeed the general community could be disastrous. The problem is complex, involving abuse and overuse of antibiotics (selecting for an increasing frequency of resistant bacteria), together with a lack of investment in discovery and development (resulting in an almost dry drug development pipeline). Remedial approaches to the problem should include taking measures to reduce the selective pressures for resistance development, and taking measures to incentivize renewed investment in antibiotic discovery and development. Bringing new antibiotics to the clinic is critical because this is currently the only realistic therapy that can ensure the level of infection control required for many medical procedures. Here we outline the complex process involved in taking a potential novel antibiotic from the initial discovery of a hit molecule, through lead and candidate drug development, up to its entry into phase I clinical trials. The stringent criteria that a successful drug must meet, balancing high efficacy in vivo against a broad spectrum of pathogens, with minimal liabilities against human targets, explain why even with sufficient investment this process is prone to a high failure rate. This emphasizes the need to create a well-funded antibiotic discovery and development pipeline that can sustain the continuous delivery of novel candidate drugs into clinical trials, to ensure the maintenance of the advanced medical procedures we currently take for granted.

  3. Antibiotic-Resistance Genes in Waste Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkman, Antti; Do, Thi Thuy; Walsh, Fiona; Virta, Marko P J

    2018-03-01

    Waste water and waste water treatment plants can act as reservoirs and environmental suppliers of antibiotic resistance. They have also been proposed to be hotspots for horizontal gene transfer, enabling the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between different bacterial species. Waste water contains antibiotics, disinfectants, and metals which can form a selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, even in low concentrations. Our knowledge of antibiotic resistance in waste water has increased tremendously in the past few years with advances in the molecular methods available. However, there are still some gaps in our knowledge on the subject, such as how active is horizontal gene transfer in waste water and what is the role of the waste water treatment plant in the environmental resistome? The purpose of this review is to briefly describe some of the main methods for studying antibiotic resistance in waste waters and the latest research and main knowledge gaps on the issue. In addition, some future research directions are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunostimulation asa method limiting unnecessary antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczukocka-Zych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurring respiratory tract infections are typical of childhood. This results from the fact that children are exposed to pathogens, usually in groups of people, and from the immaturity of the immune system. Most upper and lower respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses. Nevertheless, antibiotics, which target bacteria, are often prescribed. Antibiotic overuse leads to increased microbial resistance to these drugs, resulting in their inefficacy. Improper treatment of respiratory infections with antibiotics ultimately leads to treatment failure. An increase in antibiotic resistance of many bacterial strains is becoming a serious global problem and makes treatment much more difficult. It is a responsibility of each physician to use antibiotics properly and implement adequate prevention of recurring respiratory tract infections. For many years, it has been attempted to find effective agents that improve immunity in children. The pharmaceutical market offers various preparations advertised as immunostimulants, such as bacterial lysates, vitamins, dietary supplements, probiotics or herbal, animal and homeopathic products. The role of immunomodulatory substances is to promote the immune system to fight pathogens, reduce the frequency of infections and decrease the demand for antibiotics. Unfortunately, most immunomodulators do not have sufficiently reliable clinical trials that would confirm their efficacy.

  5. Antibiotic use: how to improve it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulscher, Marlies E J L; van der Meer, Jos W M; Grol, Richard P T M

    2010-08-01

    Antibiotics are an extremely important weapon in the fight against infections. However, antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem. That is why the appropriate use of antibiotics is of great importance. A proper analysis of factors influencing appropriate antibiotic use is at the heart of an effective improvement programme, as interventions can only result in improved medical behaviour if they are well attuned to the problems, the target group, and the setting in which the change is to take place. Determinants of appropriate and inappropriate prescribing are not only found in patient knowledge and behaviour, in the way medical professionals think and act, and in the way in which patient care is organised, but also in the wider, socio-cultural environment of doctors and their patients. We present several relevant factors at each of these 4 levels and various possible measures that could be an effective response to them. The reasons why antibiotic use is inappropriate are complex. This means that any programme to rationalise antibiotic use - if it is to be effective - will have to include activities at all 4 levels discussed above. A national programme for 'appropriate antibiotic use' could be considered, including patient, professional and organisational-oriented activities. In addition, close international cooperation is required involving international guidelines, agreements, monitoring and feedback of information, and implementation programmes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Yousuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients were evaluated for signs of persistent inflammation and signs of dry socket. Presence of persistent inflammation and/or suppuration on the 6th day was considered as wound infection. Results. A total of 146 patients were included in this study. Out of the total sample, 134 (91.8% presented with no postoperative complications and 12 (8.2% had postoperative complications, out of which 11 (7.5% patients presented with dry socket (alveolar osteitis, 5 (3.4% in the antibiotic group and 6 (4.1% in the nonantibiotic group. Only 1 patient (0.7% was reported with infection of the extraction socket in the nonantibiotic group, whereas no case of infection was found in the antibiotic group. Conclusion. Antibiotics are not required after simple extractions in patients who are not medically comprised nor do they have any role in preventing postoperative complications.

  7. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients were evaluated for signs of persistent inflammation and signs of dry socket. Presence of persistent inflammation and/or suppuration on the 6th day was considered as wound infection. Results. A total of 146 patients were included in this study. Out of the total sample, 134 (91.8%) presented with no postoperative complications and 12 (8.2%) had postoperative complications, out of which 11 (7.5%) patients presented with dry socket (alveolar osteitis), 5 (3.4%) in the antibiotic group and 6 (4.1%) in the nonantibiotic group. Only 1 patient (0.7%) was reported with infection of the extraction socket in the nonantibiotic group, whereas no case of infection was found in the antibiotic group. Conclusion. Antibiotics are not required after simple extractions in patients who are not medically comprised nor do they have any role in preventing postoperative complications.

  8. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ali, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  9. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R; Panda, S; Singh, D V

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  10. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K; Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  11. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ihara@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  12. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    of the factors with the ability to promote such changes. Household pets are another contributor which can potentially affect the microbiota of the owner. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the antibiotic usage and vaginal microbiota in pregnant women from the COPSAC2010 pregnancy...... cohort. In study I we described the usage of antibiotics; (1) in pregnancy as oral antibiotics subdivided into groups; urinary tract infection (UTI) antibiotics, beta-lactams and other antibiotics, and (2) during birth as intrapartum antibiotics. Furthermore we examined whether the usage of both oral...... antibiotics during pregnancy and intrapartum antibiotics was associated to social and lifestyle-factors. The prevalence of oral antibiotic administration during pregnancywas higher than a decade ago with more than one-third of pregnant women being treated. Oral antibiotic administration as well as multiple...

  13. The hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance per antibiotic prescribed in the United States: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Fine, Michael J; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Linder, Jeffrey A; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Shields, Ryan K; Zimmerman, Richard K; Smith, Kenneth J

    2016-11-08

    Ambulatory antibiotic prescribing contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance and increases societal costs. Here, we estimate the hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance per antibiotic prescribed in the United States. In an exploratory analysis, we used published data to develop point and range estimates for the hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance (SCAR) attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription in the United States. We developed four estimation methods that focused on the antibiotic-resistance attributable costs of hospitalization, second-line inpatient antibiotic use, second-line outpatient antibiotic use, and antibiotic stewardship, then summed the estimates across all methods. The total SCAR attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription was estimated to be $13 (range: $3-$95). The greatest contributor to the total SCAR was the cost of hospitalization ($9; 69 % of the total SCAR). The costs of second-line inpatient antibiotic use ($1; 8 % of the total SCAR), second-line outpatient antibiotic use ($2; 15 % of the total SCAR) and antibiotic stewardship ($1; 8 %). This apperars to be an error.; of the total SCAR) were modest contributors to the total SCAR. Assuming an average antibiotic cost of $20, the total SCAR attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription would increase antibiotic costs by 65 % (range: 15-475 %) if incorporated into antibiotic costs paid by patients or payers. Each ambulatory antibiotic prescription is associated with a hidden SCAR that substantially increases the cost of an antibiotic prescription in the United States. This finding raises concerns regarding the magnitude of misalignment between individual and societal antibiotic costs.

  14. Banning antibiotics, reducing resistance, preventing and fighting infections : White paper on research enabling an 'antibiotic-free' animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Smits, M.A.; Kemp, B.; Wever, P.; Verheijden, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics in animal husbandry is increasing and a point of growing concern. The large use of antibiotics in agriculture undoubtedly leads to the development of antibiotic resistance. This has resulted in a growing public concern on the rise of antibiotic resistance, and

  15. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venekamp, Roderick P; Sanders, Sharon L; Glasziou, Paul P; Del Mar, Chris B; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2015-06-23

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA, Canada and Australia. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 1, 1997 and previously updated in 1999, 2005, 2009 and 2013. To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to April week 3, 2015), OLDMEDLINE (1958 to 1965), EMBASE (January 1990 to April 2015), Current Contents (1966 to April 2015), CINAHL (2008 to April 2015) and LILACS (2008 to April 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 1) antimicrobial drugs with placebo and 2) immediate antibiotic treatment with expectant observation (including delayed antibiotic prescribing) in children with AOM. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. For the review of antibiotics against placebo, 13 RCTs (3401 children and 3938 AOM episodes) from high-income countries were eligible and had generally low risk of bias. The combined results of the trials revealed that by 24 hours from the start of treatment, 60% of the children had recovered whether or not they had placebo or antibiotics. Pain was not reduced by antibiotics at 24 hours (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.01) but almost a third fewer had residual pain at two to three days (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 20). A quarter fewer had pain at four to seven days (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.91; NNTB 16) and two-thirds fewer had pain at 10 to 12 days (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.66; NNTB 7) compared with placebo. Antibiotics did reduce the number of children with abnormal tympanometry findings at two to four weeks (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.90; NNTB 11), at six to eight weeks (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.00; NNTB 16) and the number of children with tympanic

  16. Some problems of antibiotic therapy in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalnova, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Data on the application of antibiotics and the mechanism of their action in radiation sickness are reviewed. Questions are discussed, such as the effect of antibiotics on the course and outcome of radiation sickness, the development of dysbacteriosis following irradiation, the effect of antibiotics on endogenic infection, the development of resistance of autoflora microbes to antibiotics in an irradiated organism and various aspects of the mechanism of action of antibiotics in radiation sickness. (author)

  17. A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Sojib Bin; Hussain, Muhammed Awlad; Nye, Rachel; Mehta, Varshil; Mamun, Kazi Taib; Hossain, Naznin

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are the ?wonder drugs? to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. The aim of this review is to explore the origin, development, and the current state of antibiotic ...

  18. Antibiotic stewardship er etableret på Herlev Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpi, Magnus; Gjørup, Ida; Boel, Jonas Bredtoft

    2014-01-01

    A high incidence of Clostridium difficile and multiresistant organisms and increasing consumption of cephalosporins and quinolones have required an antibiotic stewardship programme, and antibiotic audits with feedback, revised guidelines and stringent prescription rules have been successful....... The hospital intervention was managed by an antibiotic team combined with contact persons in all departments, a pocket edition of the guideline was available, and monthly commented reports about antibiotic consumption in each department were presented on the intranet. Declining use of restricted antibiotics...

  19. Qualitative evaluation of antibiotic usage in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hindra Irawan Satari; Agus Firmansyah; Theresia Theresia

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drug for pediatric patients. Inappropriate use of antibiotics can increase morbidity, mortality, patient cost and bacterial antibiotic resistence. Antibiotic uses can be evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Objective To qualitatively evaluate antibiotic use in patients using Gyssens algorithm. Methods We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of matient medical records of those admitted to the pediatric ward fro...

  20. Prevalence and correlates of antibiotic sharing in the Philippines: antibiotic misconceptions and community-level access to non-medical sources of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel A; Casquejo, Efren; Ybañez, Purita L; Pinote, Magdaleno T; Casquejo, Luz; Pinote, Lucia S; Estorgio, Magdalena; Young, April M

    2017-05-01

    To identify sociodemographic, knowledge and attitudinal correlates to antibiotic sharing among a community-based sample of adults (age 18 and older) in a low-income setting of the Philippines and to explore community-level data on informal antibiotic distribution in roadside stands (i.e., sari-sari stands). Participants (n = 307) completed self-administered surveys. Correlates to antibiotic sharing were assessed using logistic regression with Firth's bias-adjusted estimates. Study staff also visited 106 roadside stands and collected data on availability and characteristics of antibiotics in the stands. 78% had shared antibiotics in their lifetime, most often with family members. In multivariable analysis, agreement with the belief that it is safe to prematurely stop an antibiotic course (OR: 2.8, CI: 1.3-5.8) and concerns about antibiotic side effects (OR: 2.1, CI: 1.1-4.4) were significantly associated with increased odds of reported antibiotic sharing. Antibiotic sharing was not associated with sociodemographic characteristics or antibiotic knowledge. Antibiotics were widely available in 60% of sampled sari-sari stands, in which 59% of antibiotics were missing expiration dates. Amoxicillin and cephalexin were the most commonly available antibiotics for sale at the stands (60% and 21%, respectively). Antibiotic sharing was common and was associated with misconceptions about proper antibiotic use. Antibiotics were widely available in sari-sari stands, and usually without expiration information. This study suggests that multipronged and locally tailored approaches to curbing informal antibiotic access are needed in the Philippines and similar Southeast-Asian countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pervasive antibiotic misuse in the Cambodian community: antibiotic-seeking behaviour with unrestricted access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhorvoin Om

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic misuse is widespread in resource-limited countries such as Cambodia where the burden of infectious diseases is high and access to antibiotics is unrestricted. We explored healthcare seeking behaviour related to obtaining antibiotics and drivers of antibiotic misuse in the Cambodian community. Methods In-depth interviews were held with family members of patients being admitted in hospitals and private pharmacies termed pharmacy attendants in the catchment areas of the hospitals. Nurses who run community primary healthcare centres located within the hospital catchment areas were invited to attend focus group discussions. Nvivo version 10 was used to code and manage thematic data analysis. Results We conducted individual interviews with 35 family members, 7 untrained pharmacy attendants and 3 trained pharmacists and 6 focus group discussions with 30 nurses. Self-medication with a drug-cocktail was widespread and included broad-spectrum antibiotics for mild illness. Unrestricted access to antibiotics was facilitated by various community enablers including pharmacies or drug outlets, nurse suppliers and unofficial village medical providers referred to as “village Pett” whose healthcare training has historically been in the field and not at university. These enablers supplied the community with various types of antibiotics including broad spectrum fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. When treatment was perceived to be ineffective patients would prescriber-shop various suppliers who would unfailingly provide them with antibiotics. The main driver of the community’s demand for antibiotics was a mistaken belief in the benefits of antibiotics for a common cold, high temperature, pain, malaria and ‘Roleak’ which includes a broad catch-all for perceived inflammatory conditions. For severe illnesses, patients would attend a community healthcare centre, hospital, or when their finances permitted, a private prescriber

  2. At the Nexus of Antibiotics and Metals: The Impact of Cu and Zn on Antibiotic Activity and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2017-10-01

    Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Many classes of antibiotics also form complexes with metal cations, including Cu and Zn, and this can hinder (or enhance) antibiotic activity. This review highlights the ways in which Cu/Zn influence antibiotic resistance development and antibiotic activity, and in so doing impact in vivo antibiotic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sublethal Concentrations of Antibiotics Cause Shift to Anaerobic Metabolism in Listeria monocytogenes and Induce Phenotypes Linked to Antibiotic Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Fromberg, Arvid; Ng, Yin

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is exposed to antibiotics both during clinical treatment and in its saprophytic lifestyle. As one of the keys to successful treatment is continued antibiotic sensitivity, the purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to sublethal...... antibiotic concentrations would affect the bacterial physiology and induce antibiotic tolerance. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that each of the four antibiotics tested caused an antibiotic-specific gene expression pattern related to mode-of-action of the particular antibiotic. All four antibiotics...... in Imo1179 (eutE) encoding an aldehyde oxidoreductase where rerouting caused increased ethanol production was tolerant to three of four antibiotics tested. This shift in metabolism could be a survival strategy in response to antibiotics to avoid generation of ROS production from respiration by oxidation...

  4. Actinomycetes: still a source of novel antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genilloud, Olga

    2017-10-18

    Covering: 2006 to 2017Actinomycetes have been, for decades, one of the most important sources for the discovery of new antibiotics with an important number of drugs and analogs successfully introduced in the market and still used today in clinical practice. The intensive antibacterial discovery effort that generated the large number of highly potent broad-spectrum antibiotics, has seen a dramatic decline in the large pharma industry in the last two decades resulting in a lack of new classes of antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action reaching the clinic. Whereas the decline in the number of new chemical scaffolds and the rediscovery problem of old known molecules has become a hurdle for industrial natural products discovery programs, new actinomycetes compounds and leads have continued to be discovered and developed to the preclinical stages. Actinomycetes are still one of the most important sources of chemical diversity and a reservoir to mine for novel structures that is requiring the integration of diverse disciplines. These can range from novel strategies to isolate species previously not cultivated, innovative whole cell screening approaches and on-site analytical detection and dereplication tools for novel compounds, to in silico biosynthetic predictions from whole gene sequences and novel engineered heterologous expression, that have inspired the isolation of new NPs and shown their potential application in the discovery of novel antibiotics. This review will address the discovery of antibiotics from actinomycetes from two different perspectives including: (1) an update of the most important antibiotics that have only reached the clinical development in the recent years despite their early discovery, and (2) an overview of the most recent classes of antibiotics described from 2006 to 2017 in the framework of the different strategies employed to untap novel compounds previously overlooked with traditional approaches.

  5. Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Kung, Kenny; Au-Doung, Philip Lung Wai; Ip, Margaret; Lee, Nelson; Fung, Alice; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan

    2017-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in primary care. Whilst primary care physicians are called to be antimicrobial stewards, there is limited primary care antibiotic resistance surveillance and physician antibiotic prescription data available in southern Chinese primary care. The study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance rate and antibiotic prescription patterns in female patients with uncomplicated UTI. Factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescrip...

  6. Antibiotics in primary care in England : which antibiotics are prescribed and for which conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, F Christiaan K; Pouwels, Koen B; Smith, David R M; Robotham, Julie V; Smieszek, Timo

    Objectives: To analyse antibiotic prescribing behaviour in English primary care with particular regard to which antibiotics are prescribed and for which conditions. Methods: Primary care data from 2013-15 recorded in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database were analysed. Records with a

  7. Effects of combination of antibiotic-resistant bifidobacteria and corresponding antibiotics on survival of irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, V.M.; Pinegin, B.V.; Ivanova, N.P.; Mal' tsev, V.N.

    1982-05-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis of diverse etiology, including postradiation dysbacteriosis. Antibiotic therapy is instrumental in decontaminating the intestine. In addition to pathogenic microorganisms, there is disappearance of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria which perform several important and useful functions. For this reason, in addition to antibiotics, bifidobacterial preparations are used to restore the microbial cenosis and administration thereof is started after antibiotics are discontinued. There are some flaws to deferred administration of bifidobacteria, since the process of colonization of the intestine with commercial bifidobacterial preparations is rather lengthy, and there is slow elevation of bididobacterium level in the intestinal tract, whereas exogenous recontamination of the intestine by conditionally pathogenic bacteria is possible after antibiotic therapy is discontinued. On the other hand, use of antibiotics alone could, in turn, be the cause of intestinal dysbacteriosis. Our objective was to eliminate intestinal dysbacteriosis in irradiated animals by means of combining antibiotics and preparations of bifidobacteria resistant to these antibiotics, and thus prolong the life of these animals.

  8. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, B.G.; Schellevis, F.; Stobberingh, E.; Goossens, H.; Pringle, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Greater use of antibiotics during the past 50 years has exerted selective pressure on susceptible bacteria and may have favoured the survival of resistant strains. Existing information on antibiotic resistance patterns from pathogens circulating among community-based patients is

  10. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, B.G.; Schellevis, F.; Stobberingh, E.; Goossen, H.; Pringle, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Greater use of antibiotics during the past 50 years has exerted selective pressure on susceptible bacteria and may have favoured the survival of resistant strains. Existing information on antibiotic resistance patterns from pathogens circulating among community-based patients is

  12. RecA Inhibitors Potentiate Antibiotic Activity and Block Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Kausar; Alhhazmi, Areej; DeCoteau, John F; Luo, Yu; Geyer, C Ronald

    2016-03-17

    Antibiotic resistance arises from the maintenance of resistance mutations or genes acquired from the acquisition of adaptive de novo mutations or the transfer of resistance genes. Antibiotic resistance is acquired in response to antibiotic therapy by activating SOS-mediated DNA repair and mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer pathways. Initiation of the SOS pathway promotes activation of RecA, inactivation of LexA repressor, and induction of SOS genes. Here, we have identified and characterized phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid RecA inhibitors that block antibiotic-induced activation of the SOS response. These inhibitors potentiate the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, including members of the quinolone, β-lactam, and aminoglycoside families in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They reduce the ability of bacteria to acquire antibiotic resistance mutations and to transfer mobile genetic elements conferring resistance. This study highlights the advantage of including RecA inhibitors in bactericidal antibiotic therapies and provides a new strategy for prolonging antibiotic shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  14. Enteral Antibiotics are Non-inferior to Intravenous Antibiotics After Complicated Appendicitis in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Rasmussen, Louise; Fonnes, Siv

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonging post-operative antibiotic treatment beyond 3 days does not seem to reduce the incidence of post-operative abscess formation or wound infection after surgery for complicated appendicitis. The route of administration seems to be based on an empirical basis. Using enteral...... antibiotics could reduce length of stay and reduce overall costs. We aimed to examine whether treatment with enteral antibiotics during the first three post-operative days is non-inferior to intravenous antibiotics regarding intra-abdominal abscess formation or wound infection after surgery for complicated...... of surgery. Route of antibiotic administration for the first three post-operative days was registered for all patients. RESULTS: A total of 1141 patients were included in the study. The overall risk of developing an intra-abdominal abscess was 6.7% (95% CI 5.2%; 8.1%), and the risk of wound infection was 1...

  15. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... levels in people has also come under scrutiny. Antimicrobials are used therapeutically and prophylactically in animals. More controversially, antimicrobials are also used as growth promoters to improve the ability of the animal to convert feed into body mass. Some argue that the impact of use...... of antibiotics in animals-whether therapeutic or as growth promoters-pales by comparison with human use, and that efforts should be concentrated on the misuse of antibiotics in people. Others warn of the dangers of unregulated and unnecessary use of antibiotics, especially growth promoters in animal husbandry...

  16. Variability in Antibiotic Use Across PICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Thomas V; Thurm, Cary; Hersh, Adam L; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Smith, Michael J; Shah, Samir S; Courter, Joshua D; Patel, Sameer J; Parker, Sarah K; Kronman, Matthew P; Lee, Brian R; Newland, Jason G

    2018-03-10

    To characterize and compare antibiotic prescribing across PICUs to evaluate the degree of variability. Retrospective analysis from 2010 through 2014 of the Pediatric Health Information System. Forty-one freestanding children's hospital. Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to a PICU in children's hospitals contributing data to Pediatric Health Information System. To normalize for potential differences in disease severity and case mix across centers, a subanalysis was performed of children admitted with one of the 20 All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups and the seven All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups shared by all PICUs with the highest antibiotic use. The study included 3,101,201 hospital discharges from 41 institutions with 386,914 PICU patients. All antibiotic use declined during the study period. The median-adjusted antibiotic use among PICU patients was 1,043 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 977-1,147 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) compared with 893 among non-ICU children (interquartile range, 805-968 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days). For PICU patients, the median adjusted use of broad-spectrum antibiotics was 176 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 152-217 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) and was 302 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 220-351 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) for antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents, compared with 153 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 130-182 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) and 244 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days (interquartile range, 203-270 days of therapy/1,000 patient-days) for non-ICU children. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant institutional variability existed in antibiotic use in PICU patients, in the 20 All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups with the highest antibiotic usage and in the seven All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups shared

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Greater use of antibiotics during the past 50 years has exerted selective pressure on susceptible bacteria and may have favoured the survival of resistant strains. Existing information on antibiotic resistance patterns from pathogens circulating among community-based patients is substantially less than from hospitalized patients on whom guidelines are often based. We therefore chose to assess the relationship between the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria circulating in the community and the consumption of antibiotics in the community. Methods Both gray literature and published scientific literature in English and other European languages was examined. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse whether studies found a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis and meta-regression was conducted for studies for which a common effect size measure (odds ratio) could be calculated. Results Electronic searches identified 974 studies but only 243 studies were considered eligible for inclusion by the two independent reviewers who extracted the data. A binomial test revealed a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance (p resistance than other regions. Conclusions Using a large set of studies we found that antibiotic consumption is associated with the development of antibiotic resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis, with a subsample of the studies, generated several significant predictors. Countries in southern Europe produced a stronger link between consumption and resistance than other regions so efforts at reducing antibiotic consumption may need to be strengthened in this area. Increased consumption of antibiotics may not only produce greater resistance at the individual patient level but may also produce greater resistance at the community, country, and regional levels, which can harm individual patients. PMID:24405683

  18. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes: aerial transport from cattle feed yards via particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachran, Andrew D; Blackwell, Brett R; Hanson, J Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J; Mayer, Gregory D; Cox, Stephen B; Smith, Philip N

    2015-04-01

    Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs.

  19. Pediatric antibiotic stewardship: successful interventions to reduce broad-spectrum antibiotic use on general pediatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitmeyr, Katharina; von Both, Ulrich; Pecar, Alenka; Borde, Johannes P; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Huebner, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) optimize antibiotic usage and combat antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of specific ASP interventions on antibiotic consumption in general pediatric wards. We conducted a prospective study to compare a pre-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2014) and post-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2015) period. An ASP bundle was established including (1) infectious diseases (ID) ward rounds (prospective-audit-with-feedback), (2) ID consultation service, (3) internal guidelines on empiric antibiotic therapy. Medical records on four general pediatric wards were reviewed daily to analyze: (1) antibiotic consumption, (2) antibiotic dosage ranges according to local guidelines, and (3) guideline adherence for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Antibiotic prescribing for 273 patients (pre-intervention) was compared to 263 patients (post-intervention). Antibiotic prescription rate did not change (30.6 vs. 30.5%). However, overall days-of-therapy and length-of-therapy decreased by 10.5 and 7.7%, respectively. Use of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones decreased by 35.5 and 59.9%, whereas the use of penicillins increased by 15.0%. An increase in dosage accuracy was noted (78.8 vs. 97.6%) and guideline adherence for CAP improved from 39.5 to 93.5%. Between the two study periods, no adverse effects regarding length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality were observed. Our data demonstrate that implementation of an ASP was associated with a profound improvement of rational antibiotic use and, therefore, patient safety. Considering the relatively short observation period, the long-term effects of our ASP bundle need to be further investigated.

  20. Effect of tailored antibiotic stewardship programmes on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Laura W; van der Steen, Jenny T; Achterberg, Wilco P; Schellevis, François G; Essink, Rob T G M; de Greeff, Sabine C; Natsch, Stephanie; Sloane, Philip D; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Twisk, Jos W R; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of tailored interventions on the appropriateness of decisions to prescribe or withhold antibiotics, antibiotic use and guideline-adherent antibiotic selection in nursing homes (NHs). We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 10 NHs in the Netherlands. A participatory action research (PAR) approach was applied, with local stakeholders in charge of selecting tailored interventions based on opportunities for improved antibiotic prescribing that they derived from provided baseline data. An algorithm was used to evaluate the appropriateness of prescribing decisions, based on infections recorded by physicians. Effects of the interventions on the appropriateness of prescribing decisions were analysed with a multilevel logistic regression model. Pharmacy data were used to calculate differences in antibiotic use and recorded infections were used to calculate differences in guideline-adherent antibiotic selection. The appropriateness of 1059 prescribing decisions was assessed. Adjusting for pre-test differences in the proportion of appropriate prescribing decisions (intervention, 82%; control, 70%), post-test appropriateness did not differ between groups (crude: P = 0.26; adjusted for covariates: P = 0.35). We observed more appropriate prescribing decisions at the start of data collection and before receiving feedback on prescribing behaviour. No changes in antibiotic use or guideline-adherent antibiotic selection were observed in intervention NHs. The PAR approach, or the way PAR was applied in the study, was not effective in improving antibiotic prescribing behaviour. The study findings suggest that drawing prescribers' attention to prescribing behaviour and monitoring activities, and increasing use of diagnostic resources may be promising interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing in NHs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  1. BIOSYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF ANTIBIOTIC BATUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Klochko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of antistaphylococcal antibiotic batumin under periodic conditions of Pseudomonas batumici growth has been studied. Antibiotic synthesis in fermenter occurred across the culture growth and achieved its maximal value after 50–55 hours. The active oxygen utilization by the producing strain was observed during 20–55 hours of fermentation with maximum after 40–45 hours. Antibiotic yield was 175–180 mg/l and depended on intensity of aeration. contrast to «freshly isolated» antibiotic after fermentation the long-term kept batumin has shown two identical by molecular mass peaks according to the chromato-mass spectrometric analysis. Taking into account of batumin molecule structure the conclusion has been made that the most probable isomerization type is keto-enolic tautomerism. At the same time batumin is diastereoisomer of kalimantacin A which has the same chemical structure. The optic rotation angle is [α]d25 = +56.3° for kalimantacin and [α]d25 = –13.5° for batumin. The simultaneous P. batumici growth and antibiotic biosynthesis and the ability of this molecule to optical isomerisation and keto-enolic forms formation allow us to suppose that batumin plays a certain role in metabolism of the producing strain.

  2. Antibiotics in development targeting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Joyce A

    2011-12-01

    The resolution of antibiotic-ribosomal subunit complexes and antibacterial-protein complexes at the atomic level has provided new insights into modifications of clinically relevant antimicrobials and provided new classes that target the protein cellular apparatus. New chemistry platforms that use fragment-based drug design or allow novel modifications in known structural classes are being used to design new antibiotics that overcome known resistance mechanisms and extend spectrum and potency by circumventing ubiquitous efflux pumps. This review provides details on seven antibiotics in development for treatment of moderate-to-severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and/or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: solithromycin, cethromycin, omadacycline, CEM-102, GSK1322322, radezolid, and tedizolid. Two antibiotics of the oxazolidinone class, PF-02341272 and AZD5847, are being developed as antituberculosis agents. Only three antibiotics that target the protein cellular machinery, TP-434, GSK2251052, and plazomicin, have a spectrum that encompasses multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. These compounds provide hope for treating key pathogens that cause serious disease in both the community and the hospital. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Antibiotic resistance: are we all doomed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, P

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing and worrying problem associated with increased deaths and suffering for people. Overall, there are only two factors that drive antimicrobial resistance, and both can be controlled. These factors are the volumes of antimicrobials used and the spread of resistant micro-organisms and/or the genes encoding for resistance. The One Health concept is important if we want to understand better and control antimicrobial resistance. There are many things we can do to better control antimicrobial resistance. We need to prevent infections. We need to have better surveillance with good data on usage patterns and resistance patterns available across all sectors, both human and agriculture, locally and internationally. We need to act on these results when we see either inappropriate usage or resistance levels rising in bacteria that are of concern for people. We need to ensure that food and water sources do not spread multi-resistant micro-organisms or resistance genes. We need better approaches to restrict successfully what and how antibiotics are used in people. We need to restrict the use of 'critically important' antibiotics in food animals and the entry of these drugs into the environment. We need to ensure that 'One Health' concept is not just a buzz word but implemented. We need to look at all sectors and control not only antibiotic use but also the spread and development of antibiotic resistant bacteria - both locally and internationally. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Utilisation of antibiotic therapy in community practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, B

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to identify outpatient antibiotic consumption between Jan 2000 and Dec 2005 through analysis of the HSE-Primary Care Reimbursement Services (PCRS) database as part of the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Ireland (SARI) project. Total antibiotic consumption on the PCRS scheme between January 2000 and December 2005 expressed in Defined Daily Dose per 1000 PCRS inhabitants per day increased by 26%. The penicillin group represents the highest consumption accounting for approximately 50% of the total outpatient antibiotic use. Total DIDs for this group increased by 25% between 2000 and 2005. Co-amoxiclav and amoxicillin account for 80% of the total consumption of this group of anti-infectives. With the exception of aminoglycosides and sulfonamides which demonstrated a decrease in DID consumption of 47% and 8% respectively, all other groups of anti-infectives had an increase in DID consumption of greater than 25% during the study period. Antibiotic prescribing data is a valuable tool for assessing public health strategies aiming to optimise antibiotic prescribing.

  5. The Biogeography of Putative Microbial Antibiotic Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Morlon

    Full Text Available Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character reconstruction to infer and analyze the spatial distribution of unmeasured traits. We apply this framework to a microbial dataset comprised of 11,732 ketosynthase alpha gene sequences extracted from 144 soil samples from three continents to document the spatial distribution of putative microbial polyketide antibiotic production. Antibiotic production is a key competitive strategy for soil microbial survival and performance. Additionally, novel antibiotic discovery is highly relevant to human health, making natural antibiotic production by soil microorganisms a major target for bioprospecting. Our comparison of trait-based biogeographical patterns to patterns based on taxonomy and phylogeny is relevant to our basic understanding of microbial biogeography as well as the pressing need for new antibiotics.

  6. Antibiotic bonding to polytetrafluoroethylene with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.A.; Alcid, D.V.; Greco, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) treated with the cationic surfactant, triodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC), binds 14 C-penicillin (1.5 to 2 mg antibiotic/cm graft), whereas untreated PTFE or PTFE treated with anionic detergents shows little binding of antibiotic. TDMAC-treated PTFE concomitantly binds penicillin and heparin, generating a surface that potentially can resist both infection and thrombosis. The retention of these biologically active molecules is not due to passive entrapment in the PTFE but reflects an ionic interaction between the anionic ligands and surface-bound TDMAC. Penicillin bound to PTFE is not removed by exhaustive washing in aqueous buffers but is slowly released in the presence of plasma or when the PTFE is placed in a muscle pouch in the rat. Muscle tissue adjacent to the treated PTFE shows elevated levels of antibiotic following implantation. PTFE treated with TDMAC and placed in a muscle pouch binds 14 C-penicillin when it is locally irrigated with antibiotic or when penicillin is administered intravenously. Thus, the TDMAC surface treated either in vitro or in vivo with penicillin provides an effective in situ source for the timed release of antibiotic

  7. No. 247-Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Obstetric Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Julie; Van Eyk, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis for obstetrical procedures. Outcomes evaluated include need and effectiveness of antibiotics to prevent infections in obstetrical procedures. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Library on the topic of antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetrical procedures. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Searches were updated on a regular basis and articles published from January 1978 to June2009 were incorporated in the guideline. Current guidelines published by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology were also incorporated. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Implementation of this guideline should reduce the cost and harm resulting from the administration of antibiotics when they are not required and the harm resulting from failure to administer antibiotics when they would be beneficial. RECOMMENDATIONS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An antibiotic's journey from marketing authorization to use, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Plahte, Jens; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe in detail marketing authorization and reimbursement procedures for medicinal products in Norway, with particular reference to nine novel antibiotics that received marketing authorization between 2005 and 2015. The description illustrates that, in places like Norway, with effective antibiotic stewardship policies and an associated low prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, there is little need for newer, more expensive antibiotics whose therapeutic superiority to existing compounds has not been demonstrated. Since resistance begins to emerge as soon as an antibiotic is used, Norway's practice of leaving newer antibiotics on the shelf is consistent with the goal of prolonging the effectiveness of newer antibiotics. An unintended consequence is that the country has signalled to the private sector that there is little commercial value in novel antibiotics, which may nevertheless still be needed to treat rare or emerging infections. Every country aims to improve infection control and to promote responsible antibiotic use. However, as progress is made, antibiotic-resistant bacteria should become less common and, consequently, the need for, and the commercial value of, novel antibiotics will probably be reduced. Nevertheless, antibiotic innovation continues to be essential. This dilemma will have to be resolved through the introduction of alternative reward systems for antibiotic innovation. The DRIVE-AB (Driving re-investment in research and development and responsible antibiotic use) research consortium in Europe has been tasked with identifying ways of meeting this challenge.

  9. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Callie H.; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning), and 12 (5 weeks after weaning). ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX), macrolide (ermB, ermF), and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2) classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies per gram wet manure) of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes) of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onward, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional nutritional intake applied

  10. Fracture risk associated with use of antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data have pointed at an impaired fracture healing with fluoroquinolones and thus potentially a decreased bone biomechanical competence. OBJECTIVES: To study fracture risk associated with antibiotics. METHODS: Case control study. There were 124,655 fracture cases and 373,962 age...... and gender matched controls. The main exposure was use of various groups of antibiotics. Confounder control was performed for social variables, contacts to hospitals and general practitioners, alcoholism and a number of other variables. RESULTS: An increased risk of any fracture (OR =1. 45, 95% CI: 1. 42 -1...... fractures with dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin. None of the other groups of antibiotics against bacteria, tuberculosis, virus, and fungi were systematically associated with any major change in the risk of fractures. CONCLUSION: Dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin seem associated with an increased risk...

  11. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  12. Antibiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrendik M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesut OgrendikDivision Physical Therapy and Rheumatology, Nazilli State Hospital, Nazilli, TurkeyAbstract: Antibiotic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA commenced in the 1930s with the use of sulfasalazine. Later, tetracyclines were successfully used for the treatment of RA. In double-blind and randomized studies, levofloxacin and macrolide antibiotics (including clarithromycin and roxithromycin were also shown to be effective in the treatment of RA. There have been several reports in the literature indicating that periodontal pathogens are a possible cause of RA. Oral bacteria are one possible cause of RA. In this review, we aimed to investigate the effects of different antibiotics in RA treatment.Keywords: oral bacteria, treatment, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, periodontitis

  13. [European Antibiotic Awareness Day--why needed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, Waleria; Mazińska, Beata

    2009-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major European and global public health problem. There are a number of reasons for its emergence; however, the main reasons are the excessive and improper use of this group of antimicrobial drugs. Several recommendations on the prudent use of antibiotics have been developed by various national and intemational authorities. The main message is to use them more responsibly and rationally, since the very dynamic emergence and spread of resistant microorganisms, plus a lack of new antimicrobial drugs in the pipelines of pharmaceutical companies, may result in our inability to treat infections successfully in the near future. To strengthen the message on prudent use, an initiative of the ECDC resulted in a decision by the European Commission to establish the 18th of November as European Antibiotic Awareness Day every year.

  14. Resistance diagnosis and the changing epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, David

    2017-01-01

    Widespread adoption of point-of-care resistance diagnostics (POCRD) reduces ineffective antibiotic use but could increase overall antibiotic use. Indeed, in the context of a standard susceptible-infected epidemiological model with a single antibiotic, POCRD accelerates the rise of resistance in the disease-causing bacterial population. When multiple antibiotics are available, however, POCRD may slow the rise of resistance even as more patients receive antibiotic treatment, belying the conventional wisdom that antibiotics are "exhaustible resources" whose increased use necessarily promotes the rise of resistance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Antibiotics in dental implants: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemchand Surapaneni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine use of antibiotics in oral implant treatment seems to be widespread. The pre- or post-operative use of antibiotics in conjunction with implant surgery and its correlation with failure and success rates are poorly documented in the literature. The debate regarding overprescription of antibiotics raises the need for a critical evaluation of proper antibiotic coverage in association with implant treatment. The benefits of prophylactic antibiotics are well-recognized in dentistry. However, their routine use in the placement of endosseous dental implants remains controversial. The purpose of this review is to know the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in implant dentistry.

  16. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  17. Efforts to slacken antibiotic resistance: Labeling meat products from animals raised without antibiotics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    As bacteria and diseases spread due to climatic change, greater amounts of antibiotics will be used thereby exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. To help slacken the development of resistant bacteria, the medical community is attempting to reduce unnecessary and excessive usage of antibiotics. One of the targets is the use of antibiotics for enhancing animal growth and promoting feed efficiency in the production of food animals. While governments can adopt regulations prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals and strategies to reduce antibiotic usage, another idea is to publicize when antibiotics are used in food animal production by allowing labeled meat products. This paper builds upon existing labeling and marketing efforts in the United States to show how a government can develop a verified antibiotic-free labeling program that would allow consumers to purchase meat products from animals that had never received antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Parental Misconceptions About Antibiotic Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Louise Elaine; Kleinman, Kenneth P; Lakoma, Matthew D; Dutta-Linn, M Maya; Nahill, Chelsea; Hellinger, James; Finkelstein, Jonathan A

    2015-08-01

    Differences in antibiotic knowledge and attitudes between parents of Medicaid-insured and commercially insured children have been previously reported. It is unknown whether understanding has improved and whether previously identified differences persist. A total of 1500 Massachusetts parents with a child <6 years old insured by a Medicaid managed care or commercial health plan were surveyed in spring 2013. We examined antibiotic-related knowledge and attitudes by using χ(2) tests. Multivariable modeling was used to assess current sociodemographic predictors of knowledge and evaluate changes in predictors from a similar survey in 2000. Medicaid-insured parents in 2013 (n = 345) were younger, were less likely to be white, and had less education than those commercially insured (n = 353), P < .01. Fewer Medicaid-insured parents answered questions correctly except for one related to bronchitis, for which there was no difference (15% Medicaid vs 16% commercial, P < .66). More parents understood that green nasal discharge did not require antibiotics in 2013 compared with 2000, but this increase was smaller among Medicaid-insured (32% vs 22% P = .02) than commercially insured (49% vs 23%, P < .01) parents. Medicaid-insured parents were more likely to request unnecessary antibiotics in 2013 (P < .01). Multivariable models for predictors of knowledge or attitudes demonstrated complex relationships between insurance status and sociodemographic variables. Misconceptions about antibiotic use persist and continue to be more prevalent among parents of Medicaid-insured children. Improvement in understanding has been more pronounced in more advantaged populations. Tailored efforts for socioeconomically disadvantaged populations remain warranted to decrease parental drivers of unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Allergies, antibiotics use, and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinma; Ni, Huijuan; Kim, Minchul; Cooley, Kimberly L; Valenzuela, Reuben M; Asche, Carl V

    2017-08-01

    The associations between allergies, antibiotics use, and multiple sclerosis (MS) remain controversial and their mediating or moderating effects have not yet been examined. We aimed to assess the direct and indirect influences of allergies and antibiotics use on MS development, and their interactions. A 1:3 matched case-control study was performed using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey database from 2006 to 2013 in the USA. Multiple sclerosis was identified based on the ICD-9 code (340.0) in any position. Cases were matched to their controls based on survey year, age, gender, race, payer type, region, and tobacco use. Allergy diseases and antibiotics prescriptions were extracted by ICD-9 code and drug classification code, respectively. Both generalized structural equation model and MacArthur approach were used to examine their intrinsic relationships. The weighted prevalence of MS was 133.7 per 100,000 visits. A total of 829 MS patients and 2441 controls were matched. Both respiratory tract allergies (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.49) and other allergies (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.77) were associated with a reduction of the risk of MS. Patients with respiratory tract allergies were more likely to use penicillin (OR = 8.73, 95% CI: 4.12, 18.53) and other antibiotics (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.72, 5.21), and those with other allergies had a higher likelihood of penicillin use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.27, 13.54); however, the link between antibiotics use and MS was not confirmed although penicillin use might mediate the relationship between allergies and MS. The findings supported allergy as a protective factor for MS development. We also suggest antibiotics use might not be a suitable indicator of bacterial infection to investigate the cause of MS.

  20. Rediscovering the antibiotics of the hive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraâ, Laïd; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2009-11-01

    Honey and other bee products were subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations during the past few decades and the most remarkable discovery was their antibacterial activity. Honey has been used since ancient times for the treatment of some diseases and for the healing of wounds but its use as an anti-infective agent was superseded by modern dressings and antibiotic therapy. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria has confounded the current use of antibiotic therapy leading to the re-examination of former remedies. Honey, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom have a strong antibacterial activity. Even antibiotic-resistant strains such as epidemic strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycine resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have been found to be as sensitive to honey as the antibiotic-sensitive strains of the same species. Sensitivity of bacteria to bee products varies considerably within the product and the varieties of the same product. Botanical origin plays a major role in its antibacterial activity. Propolis has been found to have the strongest action against bacteria. This is probably due to its richness in flavonoids. The most challenging problems of using hive products for medical purposes are dosage and safety. Honey and royal jelly produced as a food often are not well filtered, and may contain various particles. Processed for use in wound care, they are passed through fine filters which remove most of the pollen and other impurities to prevent allergies. Also, although honey does not allow vegetative bacteria to survive, it does contain viable spores, including clostridia. With the increased availability of licensed medical stuffs containing bee products, clinical use is expected to increase and further evidence will become available. Their use in professional care centres should be limited to those which are safe and with certified antibacterial activities. The present article is a short review

  1. Antibiotic policies and control of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Ian M

    2002-08-01

    The current worldwide pandemic of antibiotic resistance shows no signs of abating. It is clear that it is driven mainly by heavy and often inappropriate antibiotic use. Although control measures are widely practised, it is important that we assess their efficacy critically in order to concentrate expensive control efforts where they will be most effective. The past year has seen much activity in this area, with evidence-based assessments of the literature according to strict guidelines, as well as progress in basic science studies of mechanisms of resistance, and their causes and relations to pathogenicity and adaptability. The present review summarizes current developments in the causes of antibiotic resistance, the classification of antibiotic stewardship and control measures, the evidence base for their efficacy, current problems in hospital practice, the adaptability of bacteria, the content of antibiotic policies and anticipated activities. The conclusions from the published literature are that much of it that pertains to changing prescribing practices does not stand up to modern evidence-based analysis concepts. Nevertheless, we can learn from experience in changing other areas of medical practice. We must be pragmatic and must not expect to change the world, but rather take it step by step, recognizing barriers and measuring outcomes and quality indicators. Studies into the molecular basis of resistance confirm the superb genetic adaptability of micro-organisms. They will always be several steps ahead of us. Nevertheless, we are learning how to modify our prescribing habits to minimize resistance, not only by using antibiotics less frequently but also by altering dosing schedules in various ways.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospital Wastewater in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Pham Thi; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Nhung, Pham Hong; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The environmental spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been recognised as a growing public health threat for which hospitals play a significant role. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in Escherichia coli isolates from hospital wastewater in Vietnam. Wastewater samples before and after treatment were collected using continuous sampling every month over a year. Standard disk diffusion and E-test were used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was tested using combined disk diffusion. ARGs were detected by polymerase chain reactions. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 83% of isolates; multidrug resistance was found in 32%. The highest resistance prevalence was found for co-trimoxazole (70%) and the lowest for imipenem (1%). Forty-three percent of isolates were ESBL-producing, with the blaTEM gene being more common than blaCTX-M. Co-harbouring of the blaCTX-M, blaTEM and qepA genes was found in 46% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. The large presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates combined with ARGs in hospital wastewater, even post-treatment, poses a threat to public health. It highlights the need to develop effective processes for hospital wastewater treatment plants to eliminate antibiotic resistant bacteria and ARGs. PMID:28661465

  3. Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospital Wastewater in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Lan, Pham Thi; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Nhung, Pham Hong; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2017-06-29

    The environmental spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been recognised as a growing public health threat for which hospitals play a significant role. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in Escherichia coli isolates from hospital wastewater in Vietnam. Wastewater samples before and after treatment were collected using continuous sampling every month over a year. Standard disk diffusion and E-test were used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was tested using combined disk diffusion. ARGs were detected by polymerase chain reactions. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 83% of isolates; multidrug resistance was found in 32%. The highest resistance prevalence was found for co-trimoxazole (70%) and the lowest for imipenem (1%). Forty-three percent of isolates were ESBL-producing, with the bla TEM gene being more common than bla CTX-M . Co-harbouring of the bla CTX-M , bla TEM and qepA genes was found in 46% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. The large presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates combined with ARGs in hospital wastewater, even post-treatment, poses a threat to public health. It highlights the need to develop effective processes for hospital wastewater treatment plants to eliminate antibiotic resistant bacteria and ARGs.

  4. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role.

  5. How to Fight Back Against Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the exchange of genes between pathogens and nonpathogens offers new ways to understand and manage the spread of drug-resistant strains. In reality, the development of new antibiotics is only part of the solution, as pathogens will inevitably develop resistance to even the most promising new...... compounds. To save the era of antibiotics, scientists must figure out what it is about bacterial pathogens that makes resistance inevitable. Although most studies on drug resistance have focused on disease causing pathogens, recent efforts have shifted attention to the resistomes of nonpathogenic bacteria...

  6. Systemic and topical antibiotics for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Karen; Chong, Lee Yee; Piromchai, Patorn; Hopkins, Claire; Philpott, Carl; Schilder, Anne G M; Burton, Martin J

    2016-04-26

    This review is one of six looking at the primary medical management options for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.Chronic rhinosinusitis is common and is characterised by inflammation of the lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses leading to nasal blockage, nasal discharge, facial pressure/pain and loss of sense of smell. The condition can occur with or without nasal polyps. Systemic and topical antibiotics are used with the aim of eliminating infection in the short term (and some to reduce inflammation in the long term), in order to normalise nasal mucus and improve symptoms. To assess the effects of systemic and topical antibiotics in people with chronic rhinosinusitis. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Trials Register; CENTRAL (2015, Issue 8); MEDLINE; EMBASE; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 29 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up period of at least three months comparing systemic or topical antibiotic treatment to (a) placebo or (b) no treatment or (c) other pharmacological interventions. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL), patient-reported disease severity and the commonest adverse event - gastrointestinal disturbance. Secondary outcomes included general HRQL, endoscopic nasal polyp score, computerised tomography (CT) scan score and the adverse events of suspected allergic reaction (rash or skin irritation) and anaphylaxis or other very serious reactions. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included five RCTs (293 participants), all of which compared systemic antibiotics with placebo or another pharmacological intervention.The varying study characteristics made comparison difficult. Four studies recruited only adults and one only

  7. A Review on Antibiotic Resistance: Alarm Bells are Ringing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Sojib Bin; Hussain, Muhammed Awlad; Nye, Rachel; Mehta, Varshil; Mamun, Kazi Taib; Hossain, Naznin

    2017-06-28

    Antibiotics are the 'wonder drugs' to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. The aim of this review is to explore the origin, development, and the current state of antibiotic resistance, regulation, and challenges by examining available literature. We found that antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate. A growing list of infections i.e., pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea are becoming harder and at times impossible to treat while antibiotics are becoming less effective. Antibiotic-resistant infections correlate with the level of antibiotic consumption. Non-judicial use of antibiotics is mostly responsible for making the microbes resistant. The antibiotic treatment repertoire for existing or emerging hard-to-treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is limited, resulting in high morbidity and mortality report. This review article reiterates the optimal use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health to reduce antibiotic resistance. Evidence from the literature suggests that the knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance in the population is still scarce. Therefore, the need of educating patients and the public is essential to fight against the antimicrobial resistance battle.

  8. Distribution of antibiotic resistance in urban watershed in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Iino, Michiyo; Nomura, Hayashi

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant E. coli concentrations showed large spatial and temporal variations, with greater concentrations observed in tributaries and downstream than in the upstream and midstream. Twenty percent of the geometric mean concentrations of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the Tama River basin (Japan) exceeded the maximum acceptable concentration of indicator E. coli established by the USEPA. The indicator E. coli concentrations were positively correlated with those of antibiotic-resistant E. coli and multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli (resistance to more than two kinds of antibiotics), respectively, but not the detection rate of antibiotic-resistant E. coli, implying that use of antibiotic-resistant E. coli concentration rather than the detection rate can be a better approach for water quality assessment. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli is a useful indicator for estimating the resistance diffusion, water quality degradation and public health risk potential. This assessment provides beneficial information for setting national regulatory or environmental standards and managing integrated watershed areas. - Highlights: ► We extensively observed antibiotic-resistant E. coli (AREc) in Tama River (Japan). ► AREc count rather than the detection rate is better approach for water quality test. ► Multiple-AREc is resistant to the antibiotic to which single-AREc has no resistance. ► Multiple-AREc increase will accelerate the diffusion of antibiotic resistance. - Multiple-antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the watershed can cause the diffusion of conventionally rare antibiotic resistance.

  9. Urine Antibiotic Activity in Patients Presenting to Hospitals in Laos: Implications for Worsening Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Khennavong, Manisone; Davone, Viengmon; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Silisouk, Joy; Rattana, Olay; Mayxay, Mayfong; Castonguay-Vanier, Josée; Moore, Catrin E.; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics may be important in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We estimated the proportion of Lao in- and outpatients who had taken antibiotics before medical consultation by detecting antibiotic activity in their urine added to lawns of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In the retrospective (N = 2,058) and prospective studies (N = 1,153), 49.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 47.4–52.0) and 36.2% (95% CI = 33.4–38.9), respec...

  10. Countermeasures to Antibiotics Crisis: a Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria for Research and Development of New Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On 27 Feb., 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO announced the first list of important antibiotic-resistant bacteria (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/bacteria-antibiotics-needed/en/, which tremendously threat human-being’s health. This list included 12 kinds of bacteria that were categorized into three priority tiers: Critical, High and Medium. In the first tier, Critical, three Gram negative bacteria were included: Acinetobacter baumannii with carbapenem-resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa with carbapenem-resistant; and Enterobacteriaceae with carbapenem-resistant, the third generation cephalosporin-resistant. In the second tier, High, six bacteria were suggested: Enterococcus faecium with vancomycin-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus with methicillin-resistant, vancomycin intermediate and resistant, Helicobacter pylori with clarithromycin-resistant, Campylobacter with fluoroquinolone-resistant, Salmonella spp. with fluoroquinolone-resistant, Neisseria gonorrhoeae with the third generation cephalosporin-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant. In the third tier, Medium, three bacteria were listed: Streptococcus pneumonia with penicillin-non-susceptible, Haemophilus influenza with ampicillin-resistant, and Shigella spp. with fluoroquinolone-resistant. This list was proposed by an expert panel, chaired by Dr. E. Tacconelli from Infectious Diseases, DZIF Center, Tübingen University, Germany and Dr. N. Magrini from EMP Department of WHO. This proposal recommended some key steps to countermeasure the challenges posed by multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant bacteria, including research and development of new classes of antibiotics for the paediatric population, for preventing cross- and co-resistance to existing classes of antibiotics, and for oral formulations for community-acquired diseases with a high morbidity burden. This list will guide our future research and development of new antibiotics in future.

  11. Antibiotics: Misuse Puts You and Others at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Consumer health Find out how overuse of antibiotics has increased the number of medication-resistant germs — ... stop this health threat. By Mayo Clinic Staff Antibiotics are important medications. It would be difficult to ...

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  13. CURRENT ISSUES REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently public concern has increased regarding industrial and environmental substances that may have adverse hormonal effects in human and wildlife populations. This concern has also been expanded to include antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the presence of various antibiotics a...

  14. Reconventionalization following antibiotic decontamination in man and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, D. van der; Vossen, J.M.; Korthals Altes, C.; Hartgrink, C.

    1977-01-01

    Antibiotic decontamination of the digestive tract can suppress or eliminate all microorganisms in this tract that are sensitive to the antibiotics used for decontamination. Experimental work in animals has indicated that colonization resistance (CR) decreases to extremely low values during

  15. Antibiotic use among medical specialties in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogerst, G J; Dippe, S E

    1981-02-27

    Antibiotic use in a community hospital was evaluated to demonstrate specialty variations. A chart review was performed using the Veterans Administration's "Guidelines for Peer Review" to determine appropriate antibiotic use. Of the 1,054 patients discharged in August 1977, three hundred ten (29.4%) received 479 courses of antibiotics of which two hundred eighty-seven (60%) were considered appropriate. Seventy-two percent of the therapeutic courses and 36% of the prophylactic courses were appropriate. Prophylactic antibiotics were used in 12% of the hospitalized patients and accounted for 33% of the total antibiotics. No notable difference in appropriate antibiotic use was found among general surgeons (73%), internists (72%), orthopedists (71%), and family practitioners (67%). Substantially lower levels were found among urologists (54%), otolaryngologists (44%), and obstetricians (36%). Continued education in proper antibiotic use is needed especially for prophylaxis. Educational programs directed at specific specialties may be the most fruitful way to effect improved overall antibiotic use.

  16. Antibiotic use and resistance in long term care facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buul, L.W. van; Steen, J.T. van der; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Essink, R.T.G.M.; Benthem, B.H.B. van; Natsch, S.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The common occurrence of infectious diseases in nursing homes and residential care facilities may result in substantial antibiotic use, and consequently antibiotic resistance. Focusing on these settings, this article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature available

  17. Situational analysis of antibiotic use and resistance in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yevutsey, Saviour Kwame; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Aikins, Moses

    2017-01-01

    mandates Physicians, Physician Assistants, Midwives and trained Nurses to prescribe antimicrobials. However, antibiotics are widely prescribed and dispensed by unauthorised persons, suggesting weak enforcement of the laws. Antibiotics were also supplied to and from unapproved medicine outlets. The Standard...

  18. Microbial resistance to antibiotics | Chinedum | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Microorganisms develop resistance to antibiotics by any of the following mechanisms: selection, mutation, phage transduction, and transference while microbial resistance can either be inherent in the organism or acquired through the environment.

  19. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through cons...... for causing antibiotics resistance when these levels are consumed.......The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...... consumption of uncooked vegetables. Antibiotics in potted plants that had been irrigated with known concentrations of the antibiotics were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed on a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. The plants absorbed the antibiotics from water in all...

  20. Antibiotic resistant pattern of environmental isolates of Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Conner et al., 1986). The pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of L. monocytogenes has been re- ported to be fairly stable for many years (Schald, 1983), though many of the antibiotics are bacteriostatic. (Moellering et al., 1972; ...

  1. Cooperative Antibiotic Resistance in a Multi-Drug Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Dai, Lei; Gore, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. A frequent mechanism of antibiotic resistance involves the production of an enzyme which inactivates the antibiotic. By inactivating the antibiotic, resistant cells can ``share'' their resistance with other cells in the bacterial population, suggesting that it may be possible to observe cooperation between strains that inactivate different antibiotics. Here, we experimentally track the population dynamics of two E. coli strains in the presence of two different antibiotics. We find that together the strains are able to grow in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either of the strains individually. We observe that even when there is stable coexistence between the two strains, the population size of each strain can undergo large oscillations. We expect that our results will provide insight into the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  2. Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal (RSA) ... The possibility of transmission of resistant genes between bacteria (especially pathogenic) which invade human and animal populations within this river poses a health risk ...

  3. Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.M.; Vlami, M.; Souza, de J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Interest in biological control of plant pathogens has been stimulated in recent years by trends in agriculture towards greater sustainability and public concern about the use of hazardous pesticides. There is now unequivocal evidence that antibiotics play a key role in the suppression of various

  4. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A.; Yap, Sook Fan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. ► Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. ► Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  5. Antibiotic resistance profiles of environmental isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resistance in the environment. The strong correlation (r=0.97) between the ARPs of the clinical and the environmental isolates may suggest a link between diarrhoeal incidence and the water quality in the region. It is thus imperative that the determination of antibiotic susceptibility/resistance patterns of isolated microbes is ...

  6. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: A Global Challenge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vealed several aminoglycoside resistances in nonculturable bac- teria. Notwithstanding the availability of so many antimicrobial agents, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide. Eventually, the widespread occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has added a new dimension to the.

  7. Antibiotic stewardship – it starts with you!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a focused day-long meeting on antibiotic resistance. The involvement of the UN underlines the significance of this threat to public health and progress towards the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.[11]. At the local government level in SA, the Department of Health has thrown its support behind a National Strategic ...

  8. Colistin : Revival of an Old Polymyxin Antibiotic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkmans, Anneke C.; Wilms, Erik B.; Kamerling, Ingrid M. C.; Birkhoff, Willem; Ortiz-Zacarias, Natalia V.; van Nieuwkoop, Cees; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Touw, Daan J.

    Colistin (polymyxin E) is a positively charged deca-peptide antibiotic that disrupts the integrity of the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria by binding to the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides, resulting in cell death. The endotoxic activity of lipopolysaccharides is

  9. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A. [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Yap, Sook Fan [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Ngeow, Yun Fong [Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chin, Khew-Voon, E-mail: khew-voon.chin@utoledo.edu [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  10. Synthesis of several new carbapenem antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, M; Watanabe, F; Narisada, M

    1985-05-01

    A synthesis of several carbapenem antibiotics including 9-methoxythienamycin is described. The final deprotection of C-3 esters was accomplished by a novel procedure using aluminum trichloride under a very mild condition. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is shown.

  11. Antibiotic resistance in Candida albicans and Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, vaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis are frequently encountered in medical practice and antibiotic resistance in implicated pathogens has not been reported in Dschang. This study sought to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 198 isolates of Candida albicans and 300 strains of ...

  12. Molecular typing and antibiotic sysceptibility patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular typing and antibiotic sysceptibility patterns of enteropathogenic and shigatoxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from food handlers in three areas of ... These food handlers who carry the STEC and EPEC could potentially infect tourists and other people through food or water contamination in the hotel settings ...

  13. Chronic otorrhoea: Spectrum of microorganisms and antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otorrhoea had a different microbial spectrum compared with international reports, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a single patient. The organisms isolated were susceptible mainly to fluoroquinolones (96%) and aminoglycosides (81%). Conclusion. Amoxicillin is a poor choice of antibiotic due to ...

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Antibiotics susceptibility tests including, ESBL screening and confirmation, were carried out by disc diffusion technique using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria. Results: Ten different types of bacteria genera were observed from nine different clinical samples.

  15. Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen associated with nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. Despite multiple reports on the severity and recurrent nature of S. aureus infection, the pathogenesis as well as antibiotic susceptibility profiles of S. aureus infecting HIV and AIDS patients ...

  16. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and autism: a speculative hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Hari

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been suspected that there is a relationship between therapy with some antibiotics and the onset of autism; but even more curious, some children benefited transiently from a subsequent treatment with a different antibiotic. Here, we speculate how aminoglycoside antibiotics might be associated with autism. Presentation We hypothesize that aminoglycoside antibiotics could a trigger the autism syndrome in susceptible infants by causing the stop codon readthrough, i.e., a misreading of the genetic code of a hypothetical critical gene, and/or b improve autism symptoms by correcting the premature stop codon mutation in a hypothetical polymorphic gene linked to autism. Testing Investigate, retrospectively, whether a link exists between aminoglycoside use (which is not extensive in children and the onset of autism symptoms (hypothesis "a", or between amino glycoside use and improvement of these symptoms (hypothesis "b". Whereas a prospective study to test hypothesis "a" is not ethically justifiable, a study could be designed to test hypothesis "b". Implications It should be stressed that at this stage no direct evidence supports our speculative hypothesis and that its main purpose is to initiate development of new ideas that, eventually, would improve our understanding of the pathobiology of autism.

  17. Neutron irradiation breeding of antibiotics and orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bufa; Lin Xuefeng; Zhang Jiafu

    1985-01-01

    14 MeV neutron beam was used to irradiate gentamycin, medemycin and orange. The yield antibiotics increased by 3% to 20% after irradiation; by irradiation of orange seed, pollen and branch improvement of rate of germination, fruit seed number and scion survival rate were observed and a number of new variety were developed by mutation

  18. Antibiotic Resistance in Children with Bloody Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedi Abdolkarim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial dysentery, aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration is especially indicated whenever malnutrition is present. First-line drugs include ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX; however multidrug-resistance has occurred and careful antibiotic selection must be considered in prescribing .When epidemiologic data indicate a rise in resistancy, fluoroquinolones may be used in adults and oral third-generation cephalosporins and nalidixic acid in children. All children (n=2400 with acute diarrhea who were admitted to the Pediatric department of Dr.sheykh Hospital Mashhad, Iran from March 2004 to March 2005 were selected and their stool culture were obtained, then positive cultures (312 cases,13% were evaluated by antibiogram. This study showed that in heavily populated areas of IRAN like Mashhad, 97% shigella strain isolated from children with bloody diarrhea were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefixime and rarely susceptible to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. There is increasing resistance of Shigella to most of the antibiotics in use, and for this reason, careful selection of antibiotics must use considered in each area. Development and use of new drugs are expensive and have severe limitations in the third world. Simple prophylactic alternatives are therefore, required, such as awareness of hygienic child care practices and early promotion of breast feeding. For treatment of shigellosis in infants Ceftriaxon, and in children Nalidixic Acid is recommended.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... using culture technique. Presumptively positive isolates were further screened biochemically and serologically, using MicrogenTM ...... Aetiology of acute infantile diarrhoea in the south-Eastern Nigeria: An assessment of microbiological and antibiotic sensitivity profile. Internet J. Third. World. Med. 2008;7(1).

  20. Antibiotics to prevent complications following tooth extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Giovanni; Figini, Lara; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Furness, Susan

    2012-11-14

    The most frequent indications for tooth extractions are dental caries and periodontal infections, and these extractions are generally done by general dental practitioners. Antibiotics may be prescribed to patients undergoing extractions to prevent complications due to infection. To determine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the development of infectious complications following tooth extractions. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 25 January 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 25 January 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 25 January 2012) and LILACS via BIREME (1982 to 25 January 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. We included randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing tooth extraction(s) for any indication. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias for the included studies and extracted data. We contacted trial authors for further details where these were unclear. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. For continuous outcomes we used mean differences (MD) with 95% CI using random-effects models. We examined potential sources of heterogeneity. The quality of the body of evidence has been assessed using the GRADE tool. This review included 18 double-blind placebo-controlled trials with a total of 2456 participants. Five trials were assessed at unclear risk of bias, thirteen at high risk, and none at low risk of bias. Compared to placebo, antibiotics probably reduce the risk of infection in patients undergoing third molar extraction(s) by approximately 70% (RR 0.29 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.50) P antibiotics to prevent one infection following extraction of impacted wisdom teeth. There is evidence that antibiotics may reduce

  1. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative

  2. Proficiency test for antibiotics in beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine tissues, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative and

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Survival of Bifidobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bifidobacteria are categorized as health-promoting microorganisms (probiotics) in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Antibiotic susceptibility is a key criterion for probiotic agent selection. Good survival of probiotics during storage at selected storage temperature(s) is highly desirable. Bifidobacteria isolated ...

  4. [Overprescribing of antibiotics outside the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternon, J; Glupczynski, Y

    1999-02-01

    Overprescription of antibiotics is evident in the community as well as in hospital, in veterinary practice or in agriculture. This leads to bacterial multiresistance and treatment failures. The limitation of this overprescription will not be obtained unless diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive guidelines are followed particularly in the management of the upper respiratory tract infections.

  5. Antibiotic resistance properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated from pregnant women with history of recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) and healthy pregnant women. Methods: A total of 485 high vaginal swab specimens were collected from pregnant women with ...

  6. Antibiotic resistance properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus, ..... and Argentina [28]. CONCLUSION. As far as we know, the present study is the first prevalence report on antibiotic resistance pattern of UPEC strains in ... serogroups profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated ...

  7. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of microorganisms isolated from smoked and frozen fishes sold in Benin and Warri metropolis were investigated. Adopting microbiological standard techniques, the results of the bacterial counts and fungal counts ranged from 5.4 x 106 (Ekpan market) to 25.1 x 106 (Ekpan market) and 1.1 x 105 ...

  8. Antibiotics resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a resistant pathogen that can cause bacteremia, endocarditis, respiratory system, central nervous system and urinary tract infections in patients with risk factors like malignancy or neutrope- nia, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics like carbapenem or long-term hospitalization1,2.

  9. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cotrimoxazole but were sensitive to carbapenems and levofloxaccin. Non-ESBL organisms showed increased resistance to .... against various antibiotics, are presented in. Table 3. Most pathogens were resistant to commonly ... negative bacilli mainly of the Enterobacteriaceae. Table 2: Distribution of bacterial pathogens by ...

  10. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This work investigated the prevalence and antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wounds of patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria-Nigeria. One hundred Isolates were characterized and identified from the specimens using standard ...

  11. Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen associated with nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. Despite multiple reports on the severity and recurrent nature of S. aureus infection, the pathogenesis as well as antibiotic susceptibility profiles of S. aureus infecting HIV and AIDS patients has not been well ...

  12. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J. Maselli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: A Global Challenge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    provided a distinct advantage to the physicians in controlling bacterial infections. Discovery of streptomycin, the ... resistance to virtually all the therapeutically useful antibiotics had been evidenced. Emergence of ..... Genomic tools are helping us to select for antibacterial targets and understand bacterial resistance. On the ...

  14. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of. S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...

  15. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  16. Antibiotics profiling of Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constant tracking of the antibiotic susceptibilities of these organisms at different region within each country is of great epidemiological value to formulate well informed and scientific based preventive measures to curtail the spread of drug resistant pathogens through the food chain. We screened 19 Proteus mirabilis and 35 ...

  17. Antibiotics resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BD Phoenixautomated microbiology system (Becton Dickinson, USA) was utilized for species level identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Results: Sixty seven of S. maltophilia strains were isolated from tracheal aspirate isolates, 17 from blood, 10 from sputum, 10 from wound and 14 from other clinical specimens.

  18. Common Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Sensitivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these three drugs can be used in treating most from this study suggest that these three drugs can be used in treating most bacterial infections. This would be particularly useful in health set-ups where culturing and sensitivity testing is impossible, although the availability and cost effectiveness of these antibiotics is in ...

  19. Invasive Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. The range of resistance for gram positive bacteria were 0% to 85.7%, and for gram negative from 0% to 100%. None of the isolates were resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. CONCLUSION: Our study result showed the presence of invasive ...

  20. Helicobacter pylori : Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients, its relationship with gastric pathologies, and associated antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and compared two media to find the appropriate medium that enhances growth and expedites culture and isolation. Methods. Rapid urease and histological tests were used to screen for H. pylori. Culture was performed to test ...

  1. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal antibiotic-Resistant pneumococcal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Pneumococcal resistance was significant in this group of children with easy access to paediatric services and antibiotic use. The implication of such high resistance for the treatment of pneumococcal diseases is that high-dose amoxicillin is the preferred empirical oral therapy for treatment of otitis media.

  2. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...

  3. Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a university Teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Amoxycillin clavunanic acid and ciprofloxacin were most active with MRSA isolates showing 97% and 93.9% susceptibility to the two drugs respectively. Eighteen (54.5%) ...

  4. Chemical ecology of antibiotic production by actinomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meij, Anne; Worsley, Sarah F.; Hutchings, Matthew I.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in

  5. [Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Katarzyna; Kot, Barbara; Piechota, Małgorzata; Frankowska, Aneta

    2013-12-16

    The main problem in the treatment of nosocomial infections is the increasing drug resistance of microorganisms that cause them, limiting the number of effective antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacilli are the cause of many serious hospital-acquired infections occurring primarily in patients within high-risk groups. The most vulnerable are those with weakened immune systems, as well as those with extensive surgical wounds and burn wounds. Infections are usually of the nature of secondary infections, caused by multidrug strains. Due to the high antimicrobial activity, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and quinolones are drugs commonly used in hospitals, both in prevention and treatment of infections with P. aeruginosa. However, their irrational use is associated with selection and spread of strains resistant to these antibiotics. Resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics is the result of a number of independent co-occurring mechanisms. These are: reducing the membrane permeability, the efflux system, and production of enzymes inactivating and degrading antibiotics. The paper devotes special attention to the determination of resistance mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.

  6. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... causes on life and subsequently on the economy, it became necessary to determine its incidence and antibiogram in our environment for adequate control and treatment. Records of microbial cultures and antibiotic sensitivity test results of suspected cases of urinary tract infection (UTI) of the University of.

  7. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records of microbial cultures and antibiotic sensitivity test results of suspected cases of urinary tract infection (UTI) of the University of. Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Benin City from January 1st to 31st December, 2005 were retrieved and statistically analyzed. Two thousand, one hundred and twelve (2,112) early ...

  8. Diversity in Biochemical Characteristics and Antibiotics Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on one hundred and fifty poultry isolates of Escherichia coli using Microscan® Dried Gram-negative Breakpoint Combo Pannels. The microscan panel analysed bacterial isolates for 24 biochemical tests and 23 to 25 antimicrobial agents following ...

  9. Carriage rates, circulating serotypes and antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and disease development are poorly understood in Yei. Availability of affordable antibiotics over the counter, lack of laboratory infrastructure and high rates of penicillin resistance have the potential to aggravate rates of childhood ...

  10. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  11. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  12. Trends in antibiotic use among outpatients in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloway Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall volume of antibiotic consumption in the community is one of the foremost causes of antimicrobial resistance. There is much ad-hoc information about the inappropriate consumption of antibiotics, over-the-counter availability, and inadequate dosage but there is very little actual evidence of community practices. Methods This study surveyed antibiotic use in the community (December 2007-November 2008 using the established methodology of patient exit interviews at three types of facilities: 20 private retail pharmacies, 10 public sector facilities, and 20 private clinics to obtain a complete picture of community antibiotic use over a year. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. Antibiotic use was measured as DDD/1000 patients visiting the facility and also as percent of patients receiving an antibiotic. Results During the data collection period, 17995, 9205, and 5922 patients visiting private retail pharmacies, public facilities and private clinics, respectively, were included in our study. 39% of the patients attending private retail pharmacies and public facilities and 43% of patients visiting private clinics were prescribed at least one antibiotic. Consumption patterns of antibiotics were similar at private retail pharmacies and private clinics where fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and extended spectrum penicillins were the three most commonly prescribed groups of antibiotics. At public facilities, there was a more even use of all the major antibiotic groups including penicillins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, and cotrimoxazole. Newer members from each class of antibiotics were prescribed. Not much seasonal variation was seen although slightly higher consumption of some antibiotics in winter and slightly higher consumption of fluoroquinolones during the rainy season were observed

  13. Assessment of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Transfer in the Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Schjørring; Karen A. Krogfelt

    2011-01-01

    We assessed horizontal gene transfer between bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. During the last decades, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and treatment failures of bacterial infections have increased the public awareness of antibiotic usage. The use of broad spectrum antibiotics creates a selective pressure on the bacterial flora, thus increasing the emergence of multiresistant bacteria, which results in a vicious circle of treatments and emergence of new antibiotic res...

  14. Irrational antibiotic prescribing: a local issue or global concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Shiva; Nasrollah, Azadeh; Rajabi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a major public-health concern and antibiotic use is being ever more recognized as the main discriminatory pressure driving this resistance. The aim was to assess the outpatient usage of antibiotics in teaching hospitals in various parts of capital city of Iran, Tehran and its association with resistance. 600 outpatient antibiotic prescriptions between December 2011 and May 2012 were reviewed in our teaching hospitals. All prescriptions were scrutinized in order...

  15. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė, Vilma

    2017-01-01

    The Use of Antibiotics Based on Prescriptions Dispenced in Pharmacies SUMMARY Baronienė J., Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė V. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies: pharmacy master's thesis. Vilnius University, faculty of medicine – Vilnius, 2017. – 43 p. Antibiotics are not a cure-all. There are many diseases that are insurmountable without antibiotics: these diseases are caused by bacteria. Antibacterial therapy prevents from complications and sometimes saves lives. H...

  16. The use of antibiotic drugs in everyday dental practice

    OpenAIRE

    Terzieva, Olivera; Petrovski, Mihajlo; Maksimov, Zlatko; Markoska, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    produce a severe illness or even become fatal. Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents useful in numerous bacterial infections. Increasingly we're seeing the inappropriate use of antibiotics. The purpose of this our study was to determine which are the most commonly used antibiotics and who are the most frequently antibiotic treated diseases. Materials and methods: For the realization of our purpose in our study were included 20 dental clinics. We registered the total number...

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors.......Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  18. Enabling techniques in the search for new antibiotics: Combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Je Won; Nam, Sang-Jip; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2017-06-15

    Nature has a talent for inventing a vast number of natural products, including hybrids generated by blending different scaffolds, resulting in a myriad of bioactive chemical entities. Herein, we review the highlights and recent trends (2010-2016) in the combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics where nature's structural diversification capabilities are exploited to enable the creation of new anti-infective and anti-proliferative drugs. In this review, we describe the modern combinatorial biosynthetic approaches for polyketide synthase-derived complex and aromatic polyketides, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-directed lipo-/glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, nucleoside antibiotics, and alkaloids, along with their therapeutic potential. Finally, we present the feasible nexus between combinatorial biosynthesis, systems biology, and synthetic biology as a toolbox to provide new antibiotics that will be indispensable in the post-antibiotic era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of fluxes towards antibiotics and the role of primary metabolism in production of antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Nielsen, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Yield improvements in antibiotic-producing strains have classically been obtained through random mutagenesis and screening. An attractive alternative to this strategy is the rational design of producer strains via metabolic engineering, an approach that offers the possibility to increase yields...... in the metabolic network. Here we describe and discuss available methods for identification of these steps, both in antibiotic biosynthesis pathways and in the primary metabolism, which serves as the supplier of precursors and cofactors for the secondary metabolism. Finally, the importance of precursor...... and cofactor supply from primary metabolism in the biosynthesis of different types of antibiotics is discussed and recent developments in metabolic engineering towards increased product yields in antibiotic producing strains are reviewed....

  20. Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics in Europe and its relationship to antibiotic consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megraud, Francis; Coenen, Samuel; Versporten, Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Resistance to antibiotics is the major cause of treatment failure of Helicobacter pylori infection. A study was conducted to assess prospectively the antibacterial resistance rates of H pylori in Europe and to study the link between outpatient antibiotic use and resistance levels...... in different countries. DESIGN: Primary antibiotic resistance rates of H pylori were determined from April 2008 to June 2009 in 18 European countries. Data on yearly and cumulative use over several years of systemic antibacterial agents in ambulatory care for the period 2001-8 were expressed in Defined Daily...... Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day. The fit of models and the degree of ecological association between antibiotic use and resistance data were assessed using generalised linear mixed models. RESULTS: Of 2204 patients included, H pylori resistance rates for adults were 17.5% for clarithromycin, 14...

  1. Control of fluxes towards antibiotics and the role of primary metabolism in production of antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Nielsen, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    in the metabolic network. Here we describe and discuss available methods for identification of these steps, both in antibiotic biosynthesis pathways and in the primary metabolism, which serves as the supplier of precursors and cofactors for the secondary metabolism. Finally, the importance of precursor...... and cofactor supply from primary metabolism in the biosynthesis of different types of antibiotics is discussed and recent developments in metabolic engineering towards increased product yields in antibiotic producing strains are reviewed.......Yield improvements in antibiotic-producing strains have classically been obtained through random mutagenesis and screening. An attractive alternative to this strategy is the rational design of producer strains via metabolic engineering, an approach that offers the possibility to increase yields...

  2. Antibiotics for acute pyelonephritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Yvonne; Hodson, Elisabeth M; Willis, Narelle S; Webster, Angela C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-07-28

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants. The most severe form of UTI is acute pyelonephritis, which results in significant acute morbidity and may cause permanent kidney damage. There remains uncertainty regarding the optimum antibiotic regimen, route of administration and duration of treatment. This is an update of a review that was first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2007. To evaluate the benefits and harms of antibiotics used to treat children with acute pyelonephritis. The aspects of therapy considered were 1) different antibiotics, 2) different dosing regimens of the same antibiotic, 3) different duration of treatment, and 4) different routes of administration. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings without language restriction to 10 April 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing different antibiotic agents, routes, frequencies or durations of therapy in children aged 0 to 18 years with proven UTI and acute pyelonephritis were selected. Four authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This updated review included 27 studies (4452 children). This update included evidence from three new studies, and following re-evaluation, a previously excluded study was included because it now met our inclusion criteria.Risk of bias was assessed as low for sequence generation (12 studies), allocation concealment (six studies), blinding of outcome assessors (17 studies), incomplete outcome reporting (19 studies) and selective outcome reporting (13 studies). No study was blinded for participants or investigators. The 27 included studies evaluated 12 different

  3. Antibiotic use at dental implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Keenan, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Groups Trial Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via OVID and EMBASE via OVID. Databases were searched with no language or date restrictions. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and the abstracts for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. If needed, a third author was consulted. Included were randomised clinical trials with a follow-up of at least three months which evaluated the use of prophylactic antibiotic compared to no antibiotic or a placebo and examined different antibiotics of different doses and durations in patients undergoing dental implant placement. The outcomes were implant failure (considered as implant mobility, removal of implant due to bone loss or infection) and prosthesis failure (prosthesis could not be placed). Standard Cochrane methodology procedures were followed. Risk of bias was completed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) using a random-effects model for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The statistical unit was the participant and not the prosthesis or implant. Heterogeneity including both clinical and methodological factors was investigated. Six randomised clinical trials with 1162 participants were identified for the review. Three trials compared 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (927 participants). One trial compared 3 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (55 participants). Another trial compared 1 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg four times a day for two days versus no antibiotic (80 participants). An additional trial compared four groups: (1) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin; (2) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 1 g twice a day for seven days; (3) 1 g of postoperative amoxicillin twice a day for seven days and (4) no antibiotics (100 participants). The overall body of the evidence was considered moderate.The meta-analysis of the

  4. Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie H. Thames

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning, and 12 (5 weeks after weaning. ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX, macrolide (ermB, ermF, and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies/ g wet manure of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onwards, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P<0.10, even in control calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional

  5. Ceftaroline fosamil: just another intravenous antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Various antibiotics, especially cephalosporins, are used for empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalisation and intravenous treatment, and for serious infections of the skin and soft tissues. When the infection is caused by bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics, some antibiotics such as vancomycin are available. Ceftaroline (Zinforo, AstraZeneca) is a new cephalosporin intended for intravenous administration (as ceftaroline fosamil). It is authorised for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and for serious infections of the skin and soft tissues. In two double-blind, randomised trials of ceftaroline versus ceftriaxone (a cephalosporin), ceftaroline showed no advantage in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Note that the results of these trials are undermined by the use of a suboptimal dose of ceftriaxone. Ceftaroline has not been evaluated versus a first-line treatment for serious skin infections. It has been compared with second-line antibiotics in patients with serious skin infections in four randomised trials. None of these trials showed that ceftaroline has superior efficacy. The known adverse effect profile of ceftaroline is similar to that of all cephalosporins, and comprises hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis) and gastrointestinal disorders (including rare cases of pseudomembranous colitis). A possible excess of haematological and renal adverse effects has also been raised. Given the absence of relevant data, it is best to avoid using ceftaroline during pregnancy. In practice, there is no proof that ceftaroline represents a therapeutic advance for patients with community-acquired pneumonia warranting hospitalisation or with serious skin or soft-tissue infections. It is best to stick with better-known antibiotics.

  6. Development of new antibiotics: taking off finally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Esther; Harbarth, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, awareness of the global threat caused by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has risen considerably and multiple policy and research initiatives have been implemented. Research and development (R&D) of much-needed new antibiotics active against multiresistant pathogens is a key component of all programmes aiming at fighting AMR, but it has been lagging behind owing to scientific, regulatory and economic challenges. Although a few new antibiotics might be available in Switzerland in the next 5 years, these new agents are not based on new mechanisms of action and are not necessarily active against resistant pathogens for which there is the highest unmet medical need, i.e. multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria. Of the three new antibiotics with pending authorisation in Switzerland for systemic treatment of severe infections, oritavancin and tedizolid target Gram-positive pathogens, while only ceftolozane+tazobactam partially covers multiresistant Gram-negative pathogens. Among six antibiotics currently in phase III of clinical development, delafloxacin and solithromycin will also be useful mostly for Gram-positive infections. Importantly, the four other compounds are active against multiresistant Gram-negative pathogens: ceftazidime+avibactam, meropenem+RPX7009, eravacycline and plazomicin. The three last compounds are also active against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). A few compounds active against such pathogens are currently in earlier clinical development, but their number may decrease, considering the risk of failure over the course of clinical development. At last, through public and political awareness of pathogens with high public health impact and unmet medical need, development of innovative economic incentives and updated regulatory guidance, R&D of new antibiotics is slowly taking off again.

  7. Do preoperative antibiotics prevent dental implant complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevi, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Registry, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline and Embase were consulted to find relevant work. Searches were made by hand of numerous journals pertinent to oral implantology. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCT) with a followup of at least 3 months were chosen. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc.). Two reviewers independently assessed the quality and extracted relevant data from included studies. The estimated effect of the intervention was expressed as a risk ratio together with its 95% confidence interval (CI). Numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) were calculated from numbers of patients affected by implant failures. Meta-analysis was done only if there were studies with similar comparisons that reported the same outcome measure. Significance of any discrepancies between studies was assessed by means of the Cochran's test for heterogeneity and the I2 statistic. Only two RCT met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of these two trials showed a statistically significantly higher number of patients experiencing implant failures in the group not receiving antibiotics (relative risk, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.86). The NNT to prevent one patient having an implant failure is 25 (95%CI, 13-100), based on a patient implant failure rate of 6% in people not receiving antibiotics. The following outcomes were not statistically significantly linked with implant failure: prosthesis failure, postoperative infection and adverse events (eg, gastrointestinal effects, hypersensitivity). There is some evidence suggesting that 2 g of amoxicillin given orally 1 h preoperatively significantly reduces failures of dental implants placed in ordinary conditions. It remains unclear whether postoperative antibiotics are beneficial, and which is the most effective antibiotic. One dose of

  8. Evaluation of Outpatient Antibiotic Use in Beijing General Hospitals in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Antibiotic use in Beijing general hospitals is generally low; however, inappropriate antibiotic use still exists. Inappropriately used antibiotics should be subject to rigorous control and management, and public policy initiatives are required to promote the judicious use of antibiotics.

  9. Be Smart: Antibiotics Will Not Help a Cold or the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria. Antibiotics have many different names such as amoxicillin and azithromycin. Antibiotics Will Not Work for a ... are harder to kill. This is called antibiotic resistance. How Can Antibiotic Resistance Affect Me? When bacteria ...

  10. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronological change of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Adachi, Masayo; Yamashita, Masuo; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2011-10-01

    Overuse of antibiotics can cause the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. This study retrospectively investigated recent trends in Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs), focusing on antibiotic use and antibiotic susceptibilities. Patients diagnosed with UTIs caused by E. coli in Akashi Municipal Hospital between April 2004 and March 2010 were enrolled in the study. A total of 858 UTI cases were examined. Antibiotics used in our hospital during that period and the antibiotic susceptibilities of E. coli in UTI cases were assessed. We analyzed the data on a yearly basis, with the year being defined as the period from April to the following March (e.g., in this study the period from April 2004 to March 2005 represents 2004). The first 3 years (2004-2006) were compared to the last 3 years (2007-2009). The use of piperacillin, cephazolin, amikacin, oral cefotiam, and levofloxacin decreased significantly and the use of imipenem, gentamicin (GM), cefcapene, and oral minocycline (MINO) increased significantly in the last 3 years compared to the previous 3 years. The susceptibilities of MINO in complicated cystitis significantly increased and those of GM in uncomplicated pyelonephritis significantly decreased in these 3 years (2007-2009) compared to the previous 3 years (2004-2006) (P changes in our pattern of antibiotic use associated with changes in antibiotic susceptibilities and an increase in ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from our UTI cases. Monitoring of antibiotic use and emergence of resistant strains should be continued.

  12. Duration of antibiotic therapy in the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilahi, Gabor; McMahon, Mary Aisling; Povoa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There are certain well defined clinical situations where prolonged therapy is beneficial, but prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy is associated with increased resistance, medicalising effects, high costs and adverse drug reactions. The best way to decrease antibiotic duration is both to stop antibiotics when not needed (sterile invasive cultures with clinical improvement), not to start antibiotics when not indicated (treating colonization) and keep the antibiotic course as short as possible. The optimal duration of antimicrobial treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is unknown, however, there is a growing evidence that reduction in the length of antibiotic courses to 7–8 days can minimize the consequences of antibiotic overuse in critical care, including antibiotic resistance, adverse effects, collateral damage and costs. Biomarkers like C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) do have a valuable role in helping guide antibiotic duration but should be interpreted cautiously in the context of the clinical situation. On the other hand, microbiological criteria alone are not reliable and should not be used to justify a prolonged antibiotic course, as clinical cure does not equate to microbiological eradication. We do not recommend a ‘one size fits all’ approach and in some clinical situations, including infection with non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical evaluation is needed but shortening the antibiotic course is an effective and safe way to decrease inappropriate antibiotic exposure. PMID:28149576

  13. Are we eliminating cures with antibiotic abuse? A study among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amoxicillin emerged as the most preferred antibiotic for dental procedures both as a therapeutic and a prophylactic drug. 50% of the endodontists and 40% of the general dentists opted to prescribe antibiotics during root canal therapy where ideally operative intervention would have sufficed. Overuse of antibiotics for routine ...

  14. Antibiotic misuse in children by the primary care physicians - an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics were prescribed in 2427 (84.9%) new patients. Misuse of antibiotics was documented in 36.8% patients (no indication in 35.3%, improper selection in 17.9% and incorrect dosage in 7.7%). All medical officers were aware that they overuse antibiotics. The various reasons sited were demand of the parents, ...

  15. The Shared Antibiotic Resistome of Soil Bacteria and Human Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kevin J.; Reyes, Alejandro; Wang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    From Farm to Clinic?Soil organisms have long been assumed to be an important source of antibiotic resistance genes, in part because of antibiotic-treated livestock and in part because of the natural ecology of antibiotic production in the soil. Forsberg et al. (p. 1107) developed a metagenomic...

  16. Comparative Study on The Potency of Antibiotic Discs With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results showed that antibiotics disc was more effective than the commercially sold antibiotics and that both organisms were resistant to Ampicillin but susceptible to Gentamicin and. Ciprofloxacin. Keywords: Potency, Antibiotics, Disc Isolates, Urinary tract. INTRODUCTION. The urinary system is structured in a way that.

  17. Pattern of prescription of antibiotics among dental practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics by clinicians leads to antibiotic resistance, and is a serious global health concern. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic prescription practices of dental practitioners and their adherence to professional guidelines while treating oral health problems among children.

  18. Parental contribution to over prescription of antibiotics for sore throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Antibiotics are often prescribed by physicians for sore throat in children because of the danger of post streptococcal complications. The role of the parents in over prescription of antibiotics is less well known. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of parents to antibiotic prescription for ...

  19. Antibiotic Misuse among High School Students in Calabar Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred and sixty high school students from five secondary schools in Calabar, Nigeria were studied for antibiotic usage. Questionnaires where administered to determine the following parameters: Knowledge of antibiotics, types of infections for which antibiotics were taken, sources of prescription and procurement of ...

  20. Optimising the administration of antibiotics in critically ill patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of antibiotic stewardship. Fig. 2 illustrates the concept of MPC and potential pitfalls of MIC-based dosing.[8]. Factors impacting on antibiotic exposure. Drug exposure varies according to molecular weight, degree of ionisation, protein binding and lipid solubility. Lipophilic antibiotics,. e.g. the fluoroquinolones, have a large ...