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Sample records for antibiotics antineoplastic

  1. Toxicity classification and evaluation of four pharmaceuticals classes: antibiotics, antineoplastics, cardiovascular, and sex hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four different classes of environmental concern are quantitatively and qualitatively assessed for environmental hazards; antibiotics (n = 226), antineoplastics (n = 81), cardiovascular (n = 272), and sex hormones (n 92). These along with an ECOSAR scan of all pharmaceuticals (n = 2848) were then classified according to the OECD aquatic toxicity classification system. The predicted species susceptibility is: daphnid > fish > algae, and the predicted rank order of relative toxicity: sex hormones > cardiovascular antibiotics > antineoplastics (Table 1). Generally, a relatively large proportion (1/3) of all pharmaceuticals are potentially very toxic to aquatic organisms (Table 2). The qualitative risk assessment ranking relative to probability and potential severity for human and environmental health effects is: antibiotics > sex hormones > cardiovascular > antineoplastics. (Q)SARs and pharmacodynamic information should be used to prioritize and steer experimental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals, and potentially, also be used in new drug discovery optimizing efficacy and in minimising environmental hazards of new products. Nuclear receptors are relatively well conserved in evolution. Currently, antibacterial resistance represents the most significant human health hazard, and potentially the largest non-target organism hazard is sex hormones acting as endocrine modulators in wildlife. Data for the individual compounds are accessible via http://www.uoguelph.ca/~hsander/

  2. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  3. Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...

  4. Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Mieler, William F

    2016-01-01

    The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) provided ophthalmologists with evidence-based management strategies to deal with endophthalmitis for the first time. However, since the completion of the EVS, numerous unresolved issues remain. The use of oral antibiotics has important implications for the ophthalmologist, particularly in the prophylaxis and/or management of postoperative, posttraumatic, or bleb-associated bacterial endophthalmitis. One can reasonably conclude that significant intraocular penetration of an antibiotic after oral administration may be a property unique to the newer-generation fluoroquinolones. Prophylactic use of mupirocin nasal ointment resulted in significant reduction of conjunctival flora with or without preoperative topical 5% povidone-iodine preparation. Ocular fungal infections have traditionally been very difficult to treat due to limited therapeutic options both systemically and intravitreally. Because of its broad spectrum of coverage, low MIC90 levels for the organisms of concern, good tolerability, and excellent bioavailability, voriconazole through various routes of administration may be useful to the ophthalmologist in the primary treatment of or as an adjunct to the current management of ocular fungal infections. PMID:26501865

  5. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  6. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, R S; Virden, J E

    1980-01-01

    Although the clinical toxicity of antineoplastic drugs has been well documented there is little or no information on the problems that may arise on the handling and mishandling of such agents. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of taking precautions to prevent adverse effects resulting from contact with cytotoxic drugs during handling and to suggest a practical guide for the handling of such agents.

  7. Hematological Changes in Nurses Handling Antineoplastic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari-Lari, M; M.Saadat

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs can cause hematologic changes was performed. Blood samples were collected from a group of 24 hematology/oncology nurses who were exposed to antineoplastic drugs during a mean preiod of 5.5 years (standard error =1.1). The control group, matched by sex, and age, consisted of 18 nurses, worked on other sections. Within the normal range we found significant differences between the exposed and the control g...

  8. Hematological Changes in Nurses Handling Antineoplastic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ansari-Lari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study to determine whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs can cause hematologic changes was performed. Blood samples were collected from a group of 24 hematology/oncology nurses who were exposed to antineoplastic drugs during a mean preiod of 5.5 years (standard error =1.1. The control group, matched by sex, and age, consisted of 18 nurses, worked on other sections. Within the normal range we found significant differences between the exposed and the control group in the absolute mean number of the total white blood cells (t=-2.50; df=40; P<0.05 and neutrophils (t=-1.72; df=40; P<0.05; one tailed test. The findings suggested, that the hematologic changes can serve as biological markers for medical surveillance and early detection of health problems due to handling antineoplastic drugs.

  9. Occupational rhinosinusitis due to etoposide, an antineoplastic agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald W; Skov, Per Stahl

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a rare case of an occupational hypersensitivity reaction to an antineoplastic agent.......This paper reports a rare case of an occupational hypersensitivity reaction to an antineoplastic agent....

  10. Antineoplastic drugs: Occupational exposure and health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.

    2006-01-01

    Antineoplastic drugs are pharmaceuticals commonly used to treat cancer (and some non-neoplastic diseases), which are generally referred to as 'chemotherapy'. Oncology nurses are exposed to these drugs via the skin of hands during daily nursing activities, even when protective gloves are being used.

  11. Tumor targeting using liposomal antineoplastic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Huwyler; Jürgen Drewe; Stephan Krähenbühl

    2008-01-01

    Jörg Huwyler1, Jürgen Drewe2, Stephan Krähenbühl21University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Pharma Technology, Muttenz, Switzerland; 2Department of Research and Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: During the last years, liposomes (microparticulate phospholipid vesicles) have beenused with growing success as pharmaceutical carriers for antineoplastic drugs. Fields of applicatio...

  12. Antineoplastic drugs: Occupational exposure and health risks

    OpenAIRE

    Fransman, W.

    2006-01-01

    Antineoplastic drugs are pharmaceuticals commonly used to treat cancer (and some non-neoplastic diseases), which are generally referred to as 'chemotherapy'. Oncology nurses are exposed to these drugs via the skin of hands during daily nursing activities, even when protective gloves are being used. Results of tests on bulk and surface contamination samples confirmed that patients intravenously treated with cyclophosphamide excrete the unmetabolized drug. The introduction of new guidelines and...

  13. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism. PMID:25377470

  14. 75 FR 57044 - NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other... following document entitled ``NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings... Alert: Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health...

  15. Nurses with dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs: Reproductive outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Roeleveld, N.; Peelen, S.; Kort, W.de; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses and other hospital workers are exposed to antineoplastic drugs during daily activities. Previous studies suggest that antineoplastic drugs at occupational exposure levels may be toxic to reproduction, but these studies are not consistent or conclusive. METHODS: Self-administered q

  16. Nurses with dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs: reproductive outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Roeleveld, N.; Peelen, S.J.M.; Kort, W. de; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses and other hospital workers are exposed to antineoplastic drugs during daily activities. Previous studies suggest that antineoplastic drugs at occupational exposure levels may be toxic to reproduction, but these studies are not consistent or conclusive. METHODS: Self-administered q

  17. Tumor targeting using liposomal antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Huwyler

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jörg Huwyler1, Jürgen Drewe2, Stephan Krähenbühl21University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Institute of Pharma Technology, Muttenz, Switzerland; 2Department of Research and Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: During the last years, liposomes (microparticulate phospholipid vesicles have beenused with growing success as pharmaceutical carriers for antineoplastic drugs. Fields of application include lipid-based formulations to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble antitumordrugs, the use of pegylated liposomes for passive targeting of solid tumors as well as vector-conjugated liposomal carriers for active targeting of tumor tissue. Such formulation and drug targeting strategies enhance the effectiveness of anticancer chemotherapy and reduce at the same time the risk of toxic side-effects. The present article reviews the principles of different liposomal technologies and discusses current trends in this field of research.Keywords: tumor targeting, antineoplastic drugs, liposomes, pegylation, steric stabilization, immunoliposomes

  18. Liposomes as delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Luis Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Liposome drug formulations are defined as pharmaceutical products containing active drug substances encapsulated within the lipid bilayer or in the interior aqueous space of the liposomes. The main importance of this drug delivery system is based on its drastic reduction in systemic dose and concomitant systemic toxicity that in comparison with the free drug, results in an improvement of patient compliance and in a more effective treatment. There are several therapeutic drugs that are potential candidates to be encapsulated into liposomes; particular interest has been focused in therapeutic and antineoplastic drugs, which are characterized for its low therapeutic index and high systemic toxicity. The use of liposomes as drug carriers has been extensively justified and the importance of the development of different formulations or techniques to encapsulate therapeutic drugs has an enormous value in benefit of patients affected by neoplastic diseases.

  19. Hospital surfaces contamination with antineoplastic drugs: influence of cleaning procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana Cebola; Pádua, Mário; Viegas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The raising frequency of cancer diseases is leading to a widespread application of antineoplastic drugs, thus increasing the probability of workplace surfaces contamination. Most of these drugs are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known or suspected human carcinogens. Skin absorption is the main route for antineoplastic drugs exposure in occupational settings, therefore cleaning protocols have paramount influence in surfaces contamination and, con...

  20. Antineoplastic Effects of Honey Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabiuni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bee venom (BV, like many other complementary medicines, has been used for thousands of years for the treatment of a range of diseases. More recently, BV is also being considered as an effective composition for the treatment of cancer. Cancer is a major worldwide problem. It is obvious that the identification of compounds that can activate apoptosis could be effective on the treatment of cancer. BV is a very complicated mixture of active peptides, enzymes, and biologically active amines. The two main components of BV are melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2. Of these two components, melittin, the major active ingredient of BV, has been identified to induce apoptosis and to possess anti-tumor effects. We tried to review antineoplastic effects of BV in this study. Materials and Methods: The related articles were derived from different data bases such as PubMed, Elsevier Science, and Google Scholar using keywords including bee venom, cancer, and apoptosis.Results: According to the results of this study, BV can induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell growth and metastasis. Results of in vivo experiments show that the anti-tumor effect of the BV is highly dependent on the manner of injection as well as the distance between the area of injection and the tumor cells.Conclusion: The results obtained from the reported studies revealed that BV has anti-cancer effects and can be used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent against tumors in the future.

  1. Antibiotics Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  2. Taurolidine: cytotoxic and mechanistic evaluation of a novel antineoplastic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabresi, P; Goulette, F A; Darnowski, J W

    2001-09-15

    Bis-(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiadiazinyl-4)methane (taurolidine) is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic that reacts with bacterial cell membrane components to prevent adhesion to epithelial cell surfaces. Reflecting the key role of adhesion in the growth and development of human solid tumors, studies were initiated to assess the antiproliferative activity of this agent in selected human and murine tumor cell lines. A 3-day exposure to Taurolidine inhibited the growth of all of the cell lines evaluated with IC(50)s ranging from 9.6-34.2 microM. Studies to identify the mechanism responsible for this effect were conducted in NIH-3T3 murine fibroblasts and the PA-1 and SKOV-3 human ovarian tumor cells. These studies revealed that a 48-h exposure to taurolidine had little effect on cell cycle distribution in PA-1 and SKOV-3 cells but significantly increased the appearance of DNA debris in the sub-G(0)/G(1) region, an effect consistent with an induction of apoptosis. In contrast, in NIH-3T3 cells, taurolidine exposure did not increase DNA debris in the sub-G(0)/G(1) region. Additional studies assessed phosphotidylserine externalization after a 24-h exposure to taurolidine using annexin-V binding as a cell surface marker. These studies revealed that taurolidine increased the percentage of annexin-V-positive cells by 4-fold and 3-fold in PA-1 and SKOV-3 cells, respectively. In NIH-3T3 cells, taurolidine exposure slightly increased ( approximately 5%) annexin-V binding. Parallel studies revealed that exposure to taurolidine also resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage in both ovarian tumor cell lines but not in NIH-3T3 cells. Finally, murine-based studies were conducted to assess the antineoplastic activity of three consecutive daily i.p. bolus injections of taurolidine at doses ranging from 5-mg injection/mouse to 30-mg injection/mouse. The 20-mg injection dose produced approximately 10% mortality and was identified as the maximally tolerated dose in this model

  3. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  4. Approval of antineoplastic agents in India: comparison with the US and EU regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaven C. Kataria; Dimple S. Mehta; Sunita B Chhaiya

    2012-01-01

    Background: The antineoplastic drugs are prescribed for the treatment of cancer, which is an important cause of mortality in India; therefore, a drug lag in the availability of antineoplastic drugs is a direct threat to life. The present study was undertaken to assess the drug lag for new antineoplastic agents in India compared with that in the United States (US) or European Union (EU). Methods: The new antineoplastic agents approved in the United States, European Union and India between 1999...

  5. 77 FR 38297 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012 AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational... Prevention (CDC) announces the publication of the following document entitled ``NIOSH List of Antineoplastic... Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings...

  6. Genotoxic assessment in different exposure groups working with antineoplastic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ladeira, Carina; Viegas, Susana; Pádua, Mário; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C.; Brito, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Antioneoplastic drugs are widely used in treatment of cancer, and several studies suggest acute and long-term effects associated to antineoplastic drug exposures, namely associating workplace exposure with health effects. Cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay is one promising short-term genotoxicity assays for human risk assessment and their combination is recommended to monitor populations chronically exposed to genotoxic agents. The aim of this investigation is the genotoxicity asse...

  7. The Effect of Genetic Polymorphism upon Antineoplastic Sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liang

    2006-01-01

    In clinical practice, patients undergoing chemotherapy display prominent individual differences, adverse reactions and sensitivity to antineoplastic therapy. Those differences are caused by individual genetic polymorphism of related genes. Genetic variation can induce distinct alterations of drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, drug targets and DNA repair enzymes and thereby influence the ability of the drugs to reach their target sites. This article reviews in detail the potential interactions mentioned above.

  8. Drug Interaction in Psycho-Oncology: Antidepressants and Antineoplastics

    OpenAIRE

    de Miguel, C; E. Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although there is a growing impact of psychiatric and depressive disorders in cancer patients, literature on the idiosyncrasies of antidepressants (ADs) used in those conditions and their interactions with antineoplastic agents (ANs) is scarce. Sharing the same biotransformation pathways enhances the risk of drug interaction between ADs and ANs, specifically when compounds are inducers, inhibitors or substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP 450). In cancer patients, such ...

  9. Oral Antineoplastic Agents: Assessing the Delay in Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi Anders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the length of time between when a prescription for an oral antineoplastic agent is written by the provider and when the medication is received by the patient and to identify risk factors that significantly increase time to medication receipt. First-time fill prescriptions for oral antineoplastic agents were identified. The date the prescription was written and received by the patient was determined. A retrospective review was completed to gather additional information, including prescribed medication, indication, insurance coverage, patient assistance program use, dispensing pharmacy, and prior authorization requirements. The data was analyzed through multivariate statistical analysis and used to identify risk factors that may significantly increase the time to medication receipt. A total of 58 patients were included in the study. A median of 8 days elapsed between when the medication was prescribed and when it was received by the patient. Medication prescribed, absence of a Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategies (REMS program, and insurance type are factors that increased time to medication receipt. An understanding of the median time involved, as well as factors affecting the time to delivery of prescriptions, will help healthcare providers better plan and prepare for the use of oral antineoplastic agents.

  10. Potential antineoplastic effects of Aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruie; Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a bioactive anthraquinone derived from both Aloe vera and Rheum officinale, has recently been demonstrated to have various pharmacological activities. With the widespread popularity of natural products, such as antineoplastic drugs, AE has attracted much attention due to its remarkable antineoplastic activity on multiple tumor cells involving multi-channel mechanisms, including the disruption of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, antiangiogenic, and strengthening of immune function. Experimental data have revealed AE as a potentially potent anti-cancer candidate. Despite this, the pharmaceutical application of AE is still in a fledging period as most research has concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of action of existing treatments, rather than the development of novel formulations. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential toxicity, molecular mechanism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and pharmaceutical development of AE as an antineoplastic agent. This is based on its physicochemical properties, in an attempt to encourage further research on AE as a potential anti-cancer agent. PMID:24707862

  11. Forgotten antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulcini, Céline; Bush, Karen; Craig, William A;

    2012-01-01

    disease specialists in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. An international expert panel selected systemic antibacterial drugs for their potential to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria or their unique value for specific criteria. Twenty-two of the 33 selected antibiotics were...... available in fewer than 20 of 38 countries. Economic motives were the major cause for discontinuation of marketing of these antibiotics. Fourteen of 33 antibiotics are potentially active against either resistant Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Urgent measures are then needed to ensure better...

  12. Monitoring method for surface contamination caused by selected antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R R; Khazaeli, M B; Dillon, H Kenneth

    2002-02-01

    A method of evaluating surface contamination caused by selected antineoplastic agents was studied. The antineoplastic agents tested were cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. Each agent was reconstituted and prepared as a stock solution. A 0.1-mL portion of each solution was spread evenly over a 600-cm2 area of a stainless steel surface, a resin countertop surface, and a vinyl flooring surface. After drying, the surfaces were wiped with each of two types of commercially available wiping materials (What-man no. 42 filters and Kimberly-Clark Kimwipes). A blend of methanol, acetonitrile, and buffered water was used both as the wetting agent for wiping the surfaces and as a desorbing solution. The desorbate was analyzed for drug concentration by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean +/- S.D. percent total recovery ranged from 72.4% +/- 17.6% to 95.3% +/- 2.9% for the vinyl surface wiped with filters, 91.5% +/- 5.4% to 104.7% +/- 0.8% for the resin surface wiped with filters, 73.9% +/- 2.3% to 95.3% +/- 1.7% for the stainless steel surface wiped with filters, and 18.2% +/- 1.4% to 372.8% +/- 8.0% for the stainless steel surface wiped with Kimwipes. Results were best for ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide. Kimwipes were deemed ineffective for this monitoring method because an ingredient interfered with the quantitative analytical tests. A wipe-sampling, desorption, and HPLC method for monitoring surface contamination by selected antineoplastic agents was sufficiently accurate and sensitive to evaluate surfaces typically found in both the pharmacy and drug administration areas of oncology treatment facilities. PMID:11862639

  13. Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  14. A pooled analysis to study trends in exposure to antineoplastic drugs among nurses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Peelen, S.J.M.; Hilhorst, S.; Roeleveld, N.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several studies have shown that exposure to antineoplastic drugs can cause toxic effects on reproductive health as well as carcinogenic effects. Numerous studies have corroborated that hospital workers are exposed to these drugs. This study focused on trends in exposure to antineoplastic

  15. 78 FR 33097 - NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2014: Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2014: Proposed Additions and Deletions to the NIOSH Hazardous Drug... following draft document for public comment entitled ``NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other...

  16. 76 FR 46299 - NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012: Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012: Proposed Additions and Deletions to the NIOSH Hazardous Drug... following draft document for public comment entitled ``NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other...

  17. Misonidazole pretreatment enhances the cytotoxicity of antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, a substantial effort has been devoted to developing methods to overcome the problem of hypoxic cells in radiotherapy, the most recent of which involves the use of heterocyclic nitro compounds that mimic oxygen and interact with radiation to increase specifically the sensitivity of hypoxic cells, while not affecting the response of normal aerated cells. A number of compounds have been identified and studied in experimental systems and one of them, Misonidazole, preferentially cytotoxic to cells deficient in oxygen. The suggestion that the toxicity shown towards hypoxic cells by electron affinic agents might be valuable in combination with antineoplastic agents was based on the premise that they would act in a way that was complementary, but independent, i.e., that the hypoxic mediated drugs would kill the hypoxic cells spared by the conventional chemotherapy agents. There is now good evidence, however, of a direct interaction between electron affinic compounds and other antineoplastic agents. The present investigation extends the range of chemotherapy agents shown to interact with Misonidazole to include Bleomycin, and in particular addresses the question of the mechanism of the interaction

  18. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources of...... antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug...

  19. Approval of antineoplastic agents in India: comparison with the US and EU regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaven C. Kataria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antineoplastic drugs are prescribed for the treatment of cancer, which is an important cause of mortality in India; therefore, a drug lag in the availability of antineoplastic drugs is a direct threat to life. The present study was undertaken to assess the drug lag for new antineoplastic agents in India compared with that in the United States (US or European Union (EU. Methods: The new antineoplastic agents approved in the United States, European Union and India between 1999 and 2011 were identified and information was gathered primarily from the websites of regulatory agencies of the three regions. We assessed absolute and relative drug lag for new antineoplastic agents approved in the three regions. Results: Of the 70 new antineoplastic agents, 64 (91.42% were approved in the United States, 54 (77.14% in the European Union and 44 (62.85% in India. The US was the first to approve 59 (84.28% out of the 70 new antineoplastic agents, the EU was the first to approve 9 (12.85% and India was the first to approve 2 (2.85%. The median approval lag for India (26.35 months was higher as compared to the United States (0 month and European Union (7.3 months. Conclusions: This study confirms that India's drug lag in the case of new antineoplastic agents is higher as compared to the US and EU. Further detailed analyses are necessary to find the reasons and impacts of drug lag for antineoplastic agents in India. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 13-21

  20. Stereocomplex micelle from nonlinear enantiomeric copolymers efficiently transports antineoplastic drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jixue; Shen, Kexin; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Chunxi; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-05-01

    Nanoscale polymeric micelles have attracted more and more attention as a promising nanocarrier for controlled delivery of antineoplastic drugs. Herein, the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(D-lactide)-based micelle (PDM/DOX), poly(L-lactide)-based micelle (PLM/DOX), and stereocomplex micelle (SCM/DOX) from the equimolar mixture of the enantiomeric four-armed poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PEG-PLA) copolymers were successfully fabricated. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4, SCM/DOX exhibited the smallest hydrodynamic diameter ( D h) of 90 ± 4.2 nm and the slowest DOX release compared with PDM/DOX and PLM/DOX. Moreover, PDM/DOX, PLM/DOX, and SCM/DOX exhibited almost stable D hs of around 115, 105, and 90 nm at above normal physiological condition, respectively, which endowed them with great potential in controlled drug delivery. The intracellular DOX fluorescence intensity after the incubation with the laden micelles was different degrees weaker than that incubated with free DOX · HCl within 12 h, probably due to the slow DOX release from micelles. As the incubation time reached to 24 h, all the cells incubated with the laden micelles, especially SCM/DOX, demonstrated a stronger intracellular DOX fluorescence intensity than free DOX · HCl-cultured ones. More importantly, all the DOX-loaded micelles, especially SCM/DOX, exhibited potent antineoplastic efficacy in vitro, excellent serum albumin-tolerance stability, and satisfactory hemocompatibility. These encouraging data indicated that the loading micelles from nonlinear enantiomeric copolymers, especially SCM/DOX, might be promising in clinical systemic chemotherapy through intravenous injection.

  1. "Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Micronuclei in Lymphocyte of Nurses Handling Antineoplastic Drugs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ansari-Lari

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals handling antineoplastic drugs or their wastes may absorb these potent genotoxic agents. The effects of handling antineoplastic drugs were examined in a group of 24 nurses working in the hematology and oncology departments of two different university hospitals in Shiraz (Iran and in a group of 18 unexposed nurses as control group. The cytogenetic repercussions of exposure were assessed by examining sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs and micronuclei (Mn in circulating lymphocytes. A significant increased frequencies of SCE and Mn is observed in circulating lymphocytes. A significant increased frequencies of SCE and Mn is observed in nurses in daily contact with antineoplastic drugs as compared to control group.

  2. List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 68:16.04 Estrogens Not in AHFS (nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen) 76:00 Oxytocics 10:00 Antineoplastic agents ... Raltitrexed Ribavirin Streptozocin Tacrolimus Tamoxifen Temozolomide Teniposide Testolactone Testosterone Thalidomide Thioguanine Thiotepa Topotecan Toremifene citrate Tositumomab Tretinoin ...

  3. 77 FR 41190 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... in the Federal Register June 27, 2012, (77 FR 38297). This notice is corrected as follows: On page... Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012, Correction AGENCY: National Institute...

  4. The Drug Sensitivity of Cyclosporine A Combined with Antineoplastic Drugs in Retinoblastoma in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanli Liu; Zhongyao Wu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study cyclosporine A inhibition on the fresh retinoblastoma cells in vitro and increasing the drug sensitivity after combined with different antineoplastic drugs.Methods: To study the growth curve of cyclosporine A on 27 samples of primary retinoblastoma cells by MTT assay and to study the change of the drug sensitivity by cyclosporine A combined with seven antineoplastic drugs.Results: The average IC50 of cyclosporine A on the 27 retinoblastoma cells is 67.81μg/ml and the average inhibitive rate of these samples is 26.1% when cyclosporine A is in the concentration of 2μg/ml. The inhibitive rates all got improved after the seven antineoplastic drugs combined with cyclosporine A and the increasing average inhibitive rate is more than 5.Conclusion: Cyclosporine A can inhibit retinoblastoma cells in vitro and its inhibitive effect is dose dependent. Moreover it can enhance the inhibition of multiple antineoplastic drugs on retinoblastoma cells.

  5. 392 Lung Toxicity Induced by Novel Antineoplastic Therapies in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Syrigos, Kostas N.; Vassos, Dimitrios; Makrilia, Nektaria; Tsimpoukis, Sotirios; Politi, Ekaterini; Dannos, Ioannis; Syrigou, Ekaterini

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary toxicity and respiratory failure are major adverse events complicating the use of novel antineoplastic agents in the treatment of lung cancer. We aim to investigate the risk and characteristics of cytostatic-induced pulmonary toxicity caused by agents currently used to treat lung cancer. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify relative studies published until June 2011. Results Almost all categories of antineoplastic agents have been associated wit...

  6. Berberine and Coptidis Rhizoma as novel antineoplastic agents: A review of traditional use and biomedical investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Y.; Tsao, S; Tang, J; Wang, N.; Curtain, R; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Coptidis Rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention toward their antineoplastic effects in the recent years. The antineoplastic effects are related to the Chinese Medicine (CM) properties of Huangliang in treating diseases by removing damp-heat and purging fire and counteracting toxicity. Aim of the review: To trace the long history of the traditional use of Huanglian from folk medicines, especially from Chinese medic...

  7. Redox-directed cancer therapeutics: Taurolidine and Piperlongumine as broadly effective antineoplastic agents (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    MÖHLER, HANS; PFIRMAN, ROLF W.; Frei, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the oxygen stress response pathway is considered a promising strategy to exert antineoplastic activity in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Supporting this view, we summarize the mechanism of action of Taurolidine and Piperlongumine, two antineoplastic agents with strikingly broad tumor selectivity. Taurolidine enhances the oxidative stress (ROS) selectively in tumor cells. Its cytotoxicity for various tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, which includes tumor stem cells, is based on the...

  8. Interactive effects of antifungal and antineoplastic agents on yeasts commonly prevalent in cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannoum, M. A.; Motawy, M S; Abu Hatab, M A; Abu Elteen, K H; Criddle, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of combinations of antifungal and antineoplastic drugs on inhibition of the growth of yeasts which commonly infect cancer patients have been analyzed. It was shown that (i) inhibitory drug combinations could be selected in which all drugs were at levels far below their individual MICs; (ii) interactive effects among antineoplastic and antifungal drugs may be very large; (iii) optimum combinations of drugs for inhibition of yeast growth depended upon both the relative and absolute ...

  9. "Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Micronuclei in Lymphocyte of Nurses Handling Antineoplastic Drugs"

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari-Lari, M; M.Saadat; Shahryari, M.; DD Farhud

    2001-01-01

    Individuals handling antineoplastic drugs or their wastes may absorb these potent genotoxic agents. The effects of handling antineoplastic drugs were examined in a group of 24 nurses working in the hematology and oncology departments of two different university hospitals in Shiraz (Iran) and in a group of 18 unexposed nurses as control group. The cytogenetic repercussions of exposure were assessed by examining sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (Mn) in circulating lymphocytes. ...

  10. Side effects of antineoplastic and immunomodulating medications reported by European consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterize adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported by European (EU) consumer for antineoplastic and immunomodulating medications. Methods: ADRs reported by consumers of antineoplastic and immunomodulating medications (anatomical therapeutic chemical [ATC]) group L from 2007 to 2011 and located in the EU ADR database, EudraVigilance, were analyzed. Data were categorized with respect to age and sex, category, and seriousness of reported ADRs and medications. The unit of analysis ...

  11. Evidence for tankyrases as antineoplastic targets in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New pharmacologic targets are urgently needed to treat or prevent lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer death for men and women. This study identified one such target. This is the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which is deregulated in cancers, including those lacking adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin mutations. Two poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzymes regulate canonical Wnt activity: tankyrase (TNKS) 1 and TNKS2. These enzymes poly-ADP-ribosylate (PARsylate) and destabilize axin, a key component of the β-catenin phosphorylation complex. This study used comprehensive gene profiles to uncover deregulation of the Wnt pathway in murine transgenic and human lung cancers, relative to normal lung. Antineoplastic consequences of genetic and pharmacologic targeting of TNKS in murine and human lung cancer cell lines were explored, and validated in vivo in mice by implantation of murine transgenic lung cancer cells engineered with reduced TNKS expression relative to controls. Microarray analyses comparing Wnt pathway members in malignant versus normal tissues of a murine transgenic cyclin E lung cancer model revealed deregulation of Wnt pathway components, including TNKS1 and TNKS2. Real-time PCR assays independently confirmed these results in paired normal-malignant murine and human lung tissues. Individual treatments of a panel of human and murine lung cancer cell lines with the TNKS inhibitors XAV939 and IWR-1 dose-dependently repressed cell growth and increased cellular axin 1 and tankyrase levels. These inhibitors also repressed expression of a Wnt-responsive luciferase construct, implicating the Wnt pathway in conferring these antineoplastic effects. Individual or combined knockdown of TNKS1 and TNKS2 with siRNAs or shRNAs reduced lung cancer cell growth, stabilized axin, and repressed tumor formation in murine xenograft and syngeneic lung cancer models. Findings reported here uncovered deregulation of specific components of the Wnt pathway in both

  12. Beyond Antibiotics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMMI Canada meeting in March 2006 hosted a symposium exploring the potential alternatives to antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infection. Four papers summarizing talks from that session are published in this issue of the Journal (1-4. These reviews address the scientific underpinnings for a number of proposed concepts, and summarize the current status of clinical use. The approaches - probiotics, bacteriophage therapy, and manipulation of innate immunity - are all intriguing but are still removed from immediate practical applications.

  13. Dental anomalies in children submitted to antineoplastic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Merida Carrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the third most frequent cause of death in children in Brazil. Early diagnosis and medical advances have significantly improved treatment outcomes, which has resulted in higher survival rates and the management of late side effects has become increasingly important in caring for these patients. Dental abnormalities are commonly observed as late effects of antineoplastic therapy in the oral cavity. The incidence and severity of the dental abnormalities depend on the child's age at diagnosis and the type of chemotherapeutic agent used, as well as the irradiation dose and area. The treatment duration and aggressivity should also be considered. Disturbances in dental development are characterized by changes in shape, number and root development. Enamel anomalies, such as discoloration, opacities and hypoplasia are also observed in these patients. When severe, these abnormalities can cause functional and esthetic sequelae that have an impact on the children's and adolescents' quality of life. General dentists and pediatric dentists should understand these dental abnormalities and how to identify them aiming for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  14. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papanagnou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer.

  15. Antineoplastic effects of mammalian target of rapamycine inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maurizio

    2012-10-24

    Cancer after transplantation is the third cause of death and one of the more relevant comorbidities. Aim of this review is to verify the role of different pathogenetic mechanisms in cancer development in transplant patients and in general population as well. In particular has been outlined the different role exerted by two different families of drug as calcineurin inhibitor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. The role of mTOR pathways in cell homeostasis is complex but enough clear. As a consequence the mTOR pathway deregulation is involved in the genesis of several cancers. Hence the relevant role of mTOR inhibitors. The authors review the complex mechanism of action of mTOR inhibitors, not only for what concerns the immune system but also other cells as endothelial, smooth muscle and epithelial cells. The mechanism of action is still now not completely defined and understood. It implies the inhibition of mTOR pathway at different levels, but mainly at level of the phosphorylation of several intracellular kinases that contribute to activate mTOR complex. Many prospective and retrospective studies in transplant patients document the antineoplastic role of mTOR inhibition. More recently mTOR inhibitors proven to be effective in the treatment of some cancers also in general population. Kidney cancers, neuroendocrine tumors and liver cancers seem to be the most sensitive to these drugs. Best results are obtained with a combination treatment, targeting the mTOR pathway at different levels. PMID:24175199

  16. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Stivarou, Theodora; Tsironi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone) used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer. PMID:27164115

  17. Antineoplastic Effect of Decoy Oligonucleotide Derived from MGMT Enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refael, Miri; Zrihan, Daniel; Siegal, Tali; Lavon, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1) within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA) modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN). Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25460932

  18. Antineoplastic effect of decoy oligonucleotide derived from MGMT enhancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Canello

    Full Text Available Silencing of O(6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1 within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN. Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy.

  19. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  20. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  1. Efficacy, safety, and lack of interactions with the use of raltegravir in HIV-infected patients undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bañón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Concomitant use of combination antiretroviral regimen (cART and cancer chemotherapy is difficult due to complex interactions and increased toxicity. Raltegravir could be an adequate option through its favourable drug-drug interaction profile. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of HIV patients with cancer, AIDS related or not, undergoing chemotherapy. Patients without resistance or previous failure were switched or initiated raltegravir plus two nucleoside analogues. Plasma trough levels of raltegravir were measured. Results: Overall, 28 patients receiving a raltegravir-based regimen (4 naive with tenofovir-emtricitabine (18 cases or abacavir-lamivudine (10 cases were included. Mean age was 46.2 years (IQR, 39–52.7, and 79% were male. Median time of HIV was 201.7 months, CD4+ nadir was 268 cells/mm3, and 75% had previous AIDS. At the diagnosis of neoplasia, 17 were on protease inhibitors and 4 with efavirenz. Ten patients had a non-HIV-related cancer (three breast, two pancreatic, one Ewing sarcoma, one myeloblastic leukemia, one melanoma, one parotid adenocarcinoma, one lung, and 18 had an HIV-related cancer (nine non-Hodgkin lymphoma, seven Hodgkin disease, two anal. Overall, 43% of patients received more than one line of chemotherapy, including antimetabolites in 12 patients (5-FU, capecitabine, methotrexate, gemcitabine, alkylating agents in 12 cases (ciclophosphamide, iphosphamide, vinca alkaloids in 20 patients (vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine, antitumor antibiotics in 16 cases (adriamycin, cisplatin o carboplatin in six and monoclonal antibodies in six patients (rituximab, trastuzumab, cetuximab. Six patients modified the doses of antineoplastic agents due to toxicity (four neutropenia, not related to raltegravir. During a median follow up of 12.7 patients-year in concomitant therapy, there was only 1 case of virological failure and no patient discontinued raltegravir. Plasma concentrations of raltegravir in eight

  2. Anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak TW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Won Kwak,1,* Hee Jae Shin,2,* Young-Il Jeong,1 Myoung-Eun Han,3 Sae-Ock Oh,3 Hyun-Jung Kim,4 Do Hyung Kim,5 Dae Hwan Kang1 1Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 2Marine Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, 3Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam, 4Genewel Co Ltd. Gyeonggi-do, 5School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: The anticancer activity of streptochlorin was evaluated in vitro in various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for apoptosis, proliferation, invasiveness, and expression of various protein levels. A liver metastasis model was prepared by splenic injection of HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells using a BALB/c nude mouse model to study the systemic antimetastatic efficacy of streptochlorin 5 mg/kg at 8 weeks. The antitumor efficacy of subcutaneously injected streptochlorin was also assessed using a solid tumor xenograft model of SNU478 cells for 22 days in the BALB/c nude mouse. Results: Streptochlorin inhibited growth and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor by cholangiocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in vitro. In addition, streptochlorin effectively inhibited invasion and migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma cells were also suppressed by treatment with streptochlorin. Streptochlorin effectively regulated metastasis of HuCC-T1 cells in a mouse model of liver metastasis. In a tumor xenograft study using SNU478 cells, streptochlorin significantly inhibited tumor growth without changes in body weight

  3. Off-Label and Off-NCCN Guidelines Uses of Antineoplastic Drugs in China

    OpenAIRE

    Weilan Wang; Man Zhu; Daihong Guo; Chao Chen; Dongxiao Wang; Fei Pei; Liang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate off-label and off-NCCN guidelines uses of antineoplastic drugs in a major Chinese hospital. Methods: Totally 1122 patients were selected from July to December 2011. Then, the off-label and off-NCCN guidelines uses of antineoplastic drugs were analyzed. Results: In 798 of 1122 patients (71.12%), drugs were used for off-label. In 317 of 1122 patients (28.25%), the drugs were prescribed for off-label and off-NCCN guidelines. 2591 medical orders for 1122 patients, 1051/2591...

  4. Comet assay as a human biomonitoring tool: application in occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs is associated with genotoxic effects, although comet assay analyzed parameters were higher in exposed comparing with controls, were not significant. Also the study of the susceptibility biomarkers did not show statistical significant differences, the small size of our sample hampered the finding of a possible association, let alone a causality relationship.

  5. Infiltrative Lung Diseases: Complications of Novel Antineoplastic Agents in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbak Vahid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative lung disease is a well-known complication of antineoplastic agents in patients with hematological malignancies. Novel agents are constantly being added to available treatments. The present review discusses different pulmonary syndromes, pathogenesis and management of these novel agents.

  6. Gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in the years 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the

  7. Strengthening Control of Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EthelLu

    2005-01-01

    IT is a well-known fact that buy-ng guns is much easier than purchasing antibiotics in the United States. In China, however, the situation is different. According to a recent WHO survey,about 80 percent of Chinese inpatients take antibiotic medicines, and 58 percent of them are prescribed multifunctional antibiotics,

  8. Know When Antibiotics Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-15

    This podcast provides a brief background about antibiotics and quick tips to help prevent antibiotic resistance.  Created: 4/15/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  9. Antibiotic resistant in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial agents are necessary for use in veterinary medicine including the production of food producing animals. Antibiotic use is indicated for the treatment of bacterial target organisms and/or disease for which the antibiotic was developed. However, an unintended consequence of antibiotic ...

  10. Drug lag for antineoplastic and immunomodulating agent approvals in India compared with the US and EU approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaven C. Kataria

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms that India lag behind the US and EU regions in terms of total number of new drug approvals for antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents. There is a substantial approval delay in India compared to the US and EU regions. Further detailed analyses are necessary to find the reasons and impacts of drug lag for new antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents in India. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 335-340

  11. Antineoplastic effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Carrasco-Legleu, Claudia; Rangel-Lopez, Edgar; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Candelaria, Myrna; Cabrera, Gustavo; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Background Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in a panel of cancer cell lines. Results Hydralazi...

  12. Antineoplastic effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Candelaria Myrna; Gonzalez-Fierro Aurora; Trejo-Becerril Catalina; Taja-Chayeb Lucia; Segura-Pacheco Blanca; Rangel-Lopez Edgar; Carrasco-Legleu Claudia; Perez-Cardenas Enrique; Perez-Plasencia Carlos; Chavez-Blanco Alma; Cabrera Gustavo; Duenas-Gonzalez Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in a panel of cancer cell lines. Results ...

  13. Comet assay as a human biomonitoring tool: application in occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ladeira; Susana Viegas; Gomes, Manuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Antineoplastic drugs are a heterogeneous group of chemicals used in the treatment of cancer, and have been proved by IARC to be mutagens, carcinogens and teratogens agents (Fucic et al., 1998; Burgaz et al., 1999; Sessink & Bos, 1999; Bouraoui et al., 2011; Gulten et al., 2011; Buschini et al., 2013). In general, chemicals that interact directly with DNA by biding covalently or by intercalating, or indirectly by interfering with DNA synthesis, were among the first chemotherapeutics developed ...

  14. Adherence to Safe Handling Guidelines by Health Care Workers Who Administer Antineoplastic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L.; Sweeney, Marie H.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of antineoplastic drugs is well documented. Many are known or suspected human carcinogens where no safe exposure level exists. Authoritative guidelines developed by professional practice organizations and federal agencies for the safe handling of these hazardous drugs have been available for nearly three decades. As a means of evaluating the extent of use of primary prevention practices such as engineering, administrative and work practice controls, personal protective equipment ...

  15. Can occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs increase levels of an inflammatory trigger?

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kamalasundar; Padmaja Udaykumar; Prabin Shah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antineoplastic drugs (AND) are known to cause collateral damage to normal cells by oxidative stress. This study was conducted to check for oxidative stress in occupational exposure to these drugs using advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP). Methods: Cross-sectional comparison of serum AOPP levels of 33 nurses occupationally exposed and serum AOPP levels of 30 nurses not exposed using modified AOPP method. Results: Serum AOPP levels were significantly increased (p

  16. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano-Hernandez, Alejandro D; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L; Laura L. Valdez-Velazquez; Espinoza-Gómez, Francisco; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC ...

  17. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Marilisa Molinaro; Pietro Ameri; Giancarlo Marone; Mario Petretta; Pasquale Abete; Fabio Di Lisa; Sabino De Placido; Domenico Bonaduce; Tocchetti, Carlo G

    2015-01-01

    Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and heart failure (HF). The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed cons...

  18. Enhanced Topical and Transdermal Delivery of Antineoplastic and Antiviral Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate cPr-PMEDAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, K.; Kovaříková, P.; Školová, B.; Líbalová, M.; Roh, J.; Čáp, R.; Holý, Antonín; Hrabálek, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 12 (2011), s. 3105-3115. ISSN 0724-8741 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * antivirals * antineoplastics * permeation enhancer * topical skin application * transdermal delivery Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.093, year: 2011

  19. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome and anti-neoplastic agents: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Farheen M. Shah-Khan; Prabodh Shah; Daryl Pinedo

    2011-01-01

    Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS) is a well recognized entity with a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Recently it has been found to be associated with the use of anti-neoplastic agents including targeted therapies. RPLS occurs rapidly with the use of some drugs and more slowly with others. Combined therapies are associated with a more frequent and more rapid presentation. This review was based on a literature search for English Language articles concerning RP...

  20. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Porifera and Coelenterata

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    An ever increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry has led scientists to search for natural bioactive products. Based on this extensive research, marine invertebrates now represent a rich source of novel substances with significant anti-neoplastic activities. As the current approach of synthesizing new and chemically modifying old drugs seems to have slowed down, and the identification of new anticancer drugs is not too promising, a new approach is clearly needed....

  1. Monitoring of Oxidative Stress in Nurses Occupationally Exposed to Antineoplastic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboob, M.; Rahman, M. F.; Rekhadevi, P. V.; Sailaja, N.; Balasubramanyam, A; Prabhakar, P. V.; Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Reddy, Utkarsh A.; Rao, G. Sankara; Grover, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Antineoplastic drugs (ANDs) have been in clinical usage for more than five decades. The nonselective mechanism of action of ANDs between cancerous and noncancerous cells had well documented side effects such as acute symptoms, reproductive health issues, and potential cancer development in healthcare workers as a result of occupational exposure. The anticancer mechanism of ANDs is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are responsible for various side effects in patients underg...

  2. Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Identification of Job Categories Potentially Exposed throughout the Hospital Medication System

    OpenAIRE

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Chua, Prescillia; Venners, Scott; Nakashima, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Studies examining healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs have focused on the drug preparation or drug administration areas. However, such an approach has probably underestimated the overall exposure risk as the drugs need to be delivered to the facility, transported internally and then disposed. The objective of this study is to determine whether drug contamination occurs throughout a facility and, simultaneously, to identify those job categories that are potentially ...

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) as Potential Inducers of Antineoplastic Effects in CNS Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Tatenhorst; Eric Hahnen; Heneka, Michael T

    2008-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-inducible transcription factors which belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. In recent years it turned out that natural as well as synthetic PPAR agonists exhibit profound antineoplastic as well as redifferentiation effects in tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). The molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still emerging, with partially controverse findings reported by a number of studie...

  4. Cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcome in registered nurses potentially exposed to antineoplastic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Le Nhu D; Teschke Kay; Chow Yat; Lorenzi Maria; Beking Kris; Spinelli John J; Ratner Pamela A; Gallagher Richard P; Dimich-Ward Helen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the relationships of potential occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs with cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a historical prospective cohort study of female registered nurses (RNs) from British Columbia, Canada (BC). Methods Female RNs registered with a professional regulatory body for at least one year between 1974 and 2000 formed the cohort (n = 56,213). The identifier file was linked to Canadian cancer registries. An RN offspring coh...

  5. Low Concentration of Quercetin Antagonizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Anti-Neoplastic Drugs in Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Na Li; Chaoyang Sun; Bo Zhou; Hui Xing; Ding Ma; Gang Chen; Danhui Weng

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The role of Quercetin in ovarian cancer treatment remains controversial, and the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Quercetin in combination with Cisplatin and other anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, along with the molecular mechanism of action. METHODS: Quercetin treatment at various concentrations was examined in combination with Cisplatin, taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fu in human epithelial...

  6. Chromosomal damage among medical staff occupationally exposed to volatile anesthetics, antineoplastic drugs, and formaldehyde

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušák, L.; Šmerhovský, Z.; Halásová, E.; Osina, O.; Letková, L.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Poláková, Veronika; Buchancová, J.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2013), s. 618-630. ISSN 0355-3140 Grant ostatní: MŠVV(SK) 26220220111; UK(SK) 1/0576/10 VEGA; MZd(SK) 2007/48-UK-13; GA MŠMT(CZ) Prvouk-P27/LF1/1 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : anesthesiologist * antineoplastic drug * chromosomal aberration Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.095, year: 2013

  7. Study on Chromosome Damage Among Nurses Occupationally Exposed to Antineoplastic Drugs in an Oncology Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Many antineoplastic agents have been shown to be mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic in experimental animals and in vitro test systems. Epidemiological data on the association of secondary neoplasms with a specific chemotherapeutic treatment are available on some 30 agents. Several previous studies concerning hospital personnel have indicated that occupational exposure to cytostatic drugs may be detected by genotoxicological biomonitoring methods, e.g., comet assay, SCEs, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus test.

  8. The antineoplastic effect of low-molecular-weight heparins – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bochenek, Justyna; Püsküllüoğlu, Mirosława; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    There is some evidence for the antitumor effect of heparins, especially the low-molecular-weight ones. The authors discuss the potential mechanism of this antineoplastic effect and present results from several in vitro and in vivo experiments. The clinical trials concerning the impact of low-molecular-weight heparins on the tumor and on the patients’ survival are described. The objective was to find out if heparins could be administered as an antitumor drug, independently of their anticoagula...

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Antineoplastic Alkaloids from Catharanthus Roseus L. Don. Cultivated in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Khaled A; Nazif, Naglaa M; Abdel Azim, Nahla S; Abdel Shafeek, Khaled A; El-Missiry, Mostafa M.; Ismail, Shams I; Seif El Nasr, Medhat M

    2009-01-01

    Vinblastine and vincristine (the antileukemic agents) were isolated, in a pure form, from Catharanthus roseus L. Don., cultivated in Egypt, by several chromatographic techniques. Five modified methods for the preparation of total alkaloids were carried out. All the isolated mixtures were evaluated by HPLC and HPTLC analyses. The antineoplastic alkaloids; vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated by the use of vacuum liquid chromatographic column on silica gel : aluminium oxide (1:1) mixed be...

  10. Redox-directed cancer therapeutics: Taurolidine and Piperlongumine as broadly effective antineoplastic agents (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Hanns; Pfirrmann, Rolf W; Frei, Karl

    2014-10-01

    Targeting the oxygen stress response pathway is considered a promising strategy to exert antineoplastic activity in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Supporting this view, we summarize the mechanism of action of Taurolidine and Piperlongumine, two antineoplastic agents with strikingly broad tumor selectivity. Taurolidine enhances the oxidative stress (ROS) selectively in tumor cells. Its cytotoxicity for various tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, which includes tumor stem cells, is based on the induction of programmed cell death, largely via apoptosis but also necroptosis and autophagy. The redox-directed mechanism of action of Taurolidine is apparent from the finding that reducing agents e.g., N-acetylcysteine or glutathione impair its cytotoxicity, while its effectiveness is enhanced by agents which inhibit the cellular anti‑oxidant capacity. A similar redox-directed antineoplastic action is shown by Piperlongumine, a recently described experimental drug of plant origin. Taurolidine is particularly advantageous in surgical oncology as this taurine-derivative can be applied perioperatively or systemically with good tolerability as shown in initial clinical applications. PMID:25175943

  11. Cardiotoxicity of copper-based antineoplastic drugs casiopeinas is related to inhibition of energy metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated rat hearts were perfused with glucose, octanoate or glucose + octanoate and different concentrations of the copper-based antineoplastic drugs casiopeina II-gly (CSII) or casiopeina III-i-a (CSIII). In isolated perfused hearts with glucose + octanoate, both casiopeinas induced diminution in cardiac work and O2 consumption with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC5) of 4 (CSII) and 4.6 (CSIII) μM, after 1 h of perfusion. Strong inhibition of the pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenases as well as total creatine kinase by casiopeinas suggested that ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation and its transfer towards myofibrils were targets for these drugs. In consequence, the cellular contents of ATP and phosphocreatine were also lowered by casiopeinas. Remarkably, casiopeinas were less toxic than adriamycin (IC5 = 2.6 μM), a well-known potent cardiotoxic and antineoplastic drug, which has a wide clinical use. In an open-chest animal, which is a more physiological model than the isolated heart, femoral administration of 1 μM drug revealed that CSII was innocuous very likely due to strong binding to serum albumin, whereas adriamycin induced again a potent cardiotoxic effect (diminution in heart rate and severe depression of systolic blood pressure). Thus, it seems that casiopeinas are a group of new antineoplastic drugs with milder secondary toxic effects than proven drugs such as adriamycin

  12. Frontline antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan, Alasdair; Albur, Maha

    2013-06-01

    The need to use front-line antibiotics wisely has never been greater. Antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistant infection, driven by antibiotic use, remain major public health and professional concerns. To overcome these infection problems, use of older antibiotics active against multi drug-resistant pathogens is increasing - for example, colistin, fosfomycin, pivmecillinam, pristinamycin, temocillin and oral tetracyclines. The number of new antibacterials reaching clinical practice has reduced significantly in the last 20 years, most being focused on therapy of Gram-positive infection - eg linezolid, daptomycin, telavancin and ceftaroline. Recent guidance on antibiotic stewardship in NHS trusts in England is likely to provide a backdrop to antibiotic use in hospitals in the next 5 years. PMID:23760700

  13. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    a high proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial...... individuals with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received...... risk of the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, and interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics should therefore primarily be targeted children and elderly people....

  14. Understanding Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart-Touma, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance among bacteria threatens our continued ability to treat infectious diseases. The need for sustainable strategies to cure bacterial infections has never been greater. So far, all attempts to restore susceptibility after resistance arises have been unsuccessful, including restrictions on prescribing antibiotics (Andersson DI et al.2011) and antibiotic cycling (Andersson DI et al. 2005, Bergstrom CT et al. 2004). Part of the problem may be that those effor...

  15. Antibiotics: Miracle Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    The overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of resistance among bacteria, making antibiotics ineffective in treating certain conditions. This podcast discusses the importance of talking to your healthcare professional about whether or not antibiotics will be beneficial if you’ve been diagnosed with an infectious disease.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  16. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author)

  17. The future of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to spread even as society is experiencing a market failure of new antibiotic research and development (R&D). Scientific, economic, and regulatory barriers all contribute to the antibiotic market failure. Scientific solutions to rekindle R&D include finding new screening strategies to identify novel antibiotic scaffolds and transforming the way we think about treating infections, such that the goal is to disarm the pathogen without killing it or modulate the host response to the organism without targeting the organism for destruction. Future economic strategies are likely to focus on 'push' incentives offered by public-private partnerships as well as increasing pricing by focusing development on areas of high unmet need. Such strategies can also help protect new antibiotics from overuse after marketing. Regulatory reform is needed to re-establish feasible and meaningful traditional antibiotic pathways, to create novel limited-use pathways that focus on highly resistant infections, and to harmonize regulatory standards across nations. We need new antibiotics with which to treat our patients. But we also need to protect those new antibiotics from misuse when they become available. If we want to break the cycle of resistance and change the current landscape, disruptive approaches that challenge long-standing dogma will be needed. PMID:25043962

  18. Immunomodulatory actions of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antimicrob drugs and immune system interaction has been studied since the pioneer works of Metchnikoff. After the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice this area has attracted little attention of investigators, because of the lack of standards. This is the reason that the studying of the influence of antibiotics on immune system is still at its beginning. Aim: To point out the immunomodulatory action of some antibiotics on certain components of immune system. Methods and results. The literaure findings show that antibiotics exspress immunomodulatory action on some components of immune system such as fagocytes (polymorphonucleary, macrophages, monocytes, cytokines, immunoglobulines, and on cellular immunity. The principles of antibiotics action on phagocyte are the inhibition of chemotaxis and oxidants production. Macrolides applied for a short time enchance the phagocytic functions while their long use leads to immunosupression. Some cephalosporines and rifampicin in therapeutic doses inhibit the oxydative metabolism of macrophages. Tetracyclines, clindamycines, chloramphenicol and tobramycin inhibit the synthesis of superoxyd anione. The action of some antibiotics on cytokine and specific antibodies is also important. Cellular immunity can be affected as well. After administration of certain antibiotics it takes 1-2 weeks to reestablish normal cellular immunity, and for other even more. Conclusion. There is still no clear standing on real effects of antibiotics on the immune system. Clinicians should search for more information from this new-old field of investigation in order to give more adequate therapy to patients.

  19. Antineoplastic effects of an Aurora B kinase inhibitor in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velazquez-Torres Guermarie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora B kinase is an important mitotic kinase involved in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. It is overexpressed in many cancers and thus may be an important molecular target for chemotherapy. AZD1152 is the prodrug for AZD1152-HQPA, which is a selective inhibitor of Aurora B kinase activity. Preclinical antineoplastic activity of AZD1152 against acute myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma and colorectal cancer has been reported. However, this compound has not been evaluated in breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Results The antineoplastic activity of AZD1152-HQPA in six human breast cancer cell lines, three of which overexpress HER2, is demonstrated. AZD1152-HQPA specifically inhibited Aurora B kinase activity in breast cancer cells, thereby causing mitotic catastrophe, polyploidy and apoptosis, which in turn led to apoptotic death. AZD1152 administration efficiently suppressed the tumor growth in a breast cancer cell xenograft model. In addition, AZD1152 also inhibited pulmonary metastatic nodule formation in a metastatic breast cancer model. Notably, it was also found that the protein level of Aurora B kinase declined after inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity by AZD1152-HQPA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggested that AZD1152-HQPA accelerated protein turnover of Aurora B via enhancing its ubiquitination. Conclusions It was shown that AZD1152 is an effective antineoplastic agent for breast cancer, and our results define a novel mechanism for posttranscriptional regulation of Aurora B after AZD1152 treatment and provide insight into dosing regimen design for this kinase inhibitor in metastatic breast cancer treatment.

  20. Low concentration of quercetin antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The role of Quercetin in ovarian cancer treatment remains controversial, and the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Quercetin in combination with Cisplatin and other anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, along with the molecular mechanism of action. METHODS: Quercetin treatment at various concentrations was examined in combination with Cisplatin, taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fu in human epithelial ovarian cancer C13* and SKOV3 cells. CCK8 assay and Annexin V assay were for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, immunofluorescence assay, DCFDA staining and realtime PCR were used for reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced injury detection and endogenous antioxidant enzymes expression. Athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with C13*cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to evaluate the ROS-induced injury and SOD1 activity of xenograft tumors. RESULTS: Contrary to the pro-apoptotic effect of high concentration (40 µM-100 µM of Quercetin, low concentrations (5 µM-30 µM of Quercetin resulted in varying degrees of attenuation of cytotoxicity of Cisplatin treatment when combined with Cisplatin. Similar anti-apoptotic effects were observed when Quercetin was combined with other anti-neoplastic agents: Taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu. Low concentrations of Quercetin were observed to suppress ROS-induced injury, reduce intracellular ROS level and increase the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suggesting a ROS-mediated mechanism of attenuating anti-neoplastic drugs. In xenogeneic model, Quercetin led to a substantial reduction of therapeutic efficacy of Cisplatin along with enhancing the endogenous antioxidant enzyme expression and reducing ROS-induced damage in xenograft tumor tissue. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data suggest that Quercetin at low concentrations

  1. Can the clinical course of cancer be influenced by non-antineoplastic drugs?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandes, L. J.; Friesen, L A

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory and anecdotal clinical evidence suggests that some common non-antineoplastic drugs may affect the course of cancer. The authors present two cases that appear to be consistent with such a possibility: that of a 63-year-old woman in whom a high-grade angiosarcoma of the forehead improved after discontinuation of lithium therapy and then progressed rapidly when treatment with carbamazepine was started, and that of a 74-year-old woman with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon that re...

  2. Inhibitions of Several Antineoplastic Drugs on Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Mice Bearing Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Da-Yong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Ting-Ren; Wu, Hong-Ying; Xu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Six murine tumors, including ascetic tumors HepA, EC, P388 leukemia, S180 and solid tumor S180, and Lewis lung carcinoma, were employed in this work. The free sialic acid concentrations in both blood and ascites were measured in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that the content of sialic acids in blood was increased in tumor growth and certain tumor types. Higher sialic acid content was observed in ascites than that present in blood. The influence of antineoplastic agents (vincristine, ...

  3. The Effect of Antineoplastic Drugs in a Male Spontaneous Mammary Tumor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Faulkner, Emma B.; Beck, Amanda; Thu A. Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease. The limited number of clinical cases has led to the primary treatments for men being derived from female breast cancer studies. Here the transgenic strain FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyVT)634Mul/J (also known as PyVT) was used as a model system for measuring tumor burden and drug sensitivity of the antineoplastic drugs tamoxifen, cisplatin, and paclitaxel on tumorigenesis at an early stage of mammary carcinoma development in a male mouse model. Cisplatin treatment sign...

  4. Targeting Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellat, Mathieu F; Raguž, Luka; Riedl, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Finding strategies against the development of antibiotic resistance is a major global challenge for the life sciences community and for public health. The past decades have seen a dramatic worldwide increase in human-pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to one or multiple antibiotics. More and more infections caused by resistant microorganisms fail to respond to conventional treatment, and in some cases, even last-resort antibiotics have lost their power. In addition, industry pipelines for the development of novel antibiotics have run dry over the past decades. A recent world health day by the World Health Organization titled "Combat drug resistance: no action today means no cure tomorrow" triggered an increase in research activity, and several promising strategies have been developed to restore treatment options against infections by resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27000559

  5. Antibiotics for uncomplicated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel M; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Diverticulitis is an inflammatory complication to the very common condition diverticulosis. Uncomplicated diverticulitis has traditionally been treated with antibiotics with reference to the microbiology, extrapolation from trials on complicated intra-abdominal infections and clinical experience....

  6. Antineoplastic and apoptotic potential of traditional medicines thymoquinone and diosgenin in squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Das

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ and diosgenin (DG, the active ingredients obtained from black cumin (Nigella sativa and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, respectively, exert potent bioactivity, including anticancer effects. This study investigated the antineoplastic activity of these agents against squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and sarcoma 180-induced tumors in vivo. TQ and DG inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in A431 and Hep2 cells. These agents induced apoptosis by increasing the sub-G(1 population, LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity, chromatin condensation, DNA laddering and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.05. Increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases and cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase were observed in treated cells. These drugs inhibited Akt and JNK phosphorylations, thus inhibiting cell proliferation while inducing apoptosis. In combination, TQ and DG had synergistic effects, resulting in cell viability as low as 10%. In a mouse xenograft model, a combination of TQ and DG significantly (P<0.05 reduced tumor volume, mass and increased apoptosis. TQ and DG, alone and in combination, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma. The combination of TQ and DG is a potential antineoplastic therapy in this common skin cancer.

  7. Antibiotic induced meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with antibiotic induced meningitis, one following penicillin with seven episodes, are reported on--the first well documented description of penicillin induced meningitis. In this patient episodes of headache and nuchal rigidity appeared with and without CSF pleocytosis. Two patients had a total of five episodes of antibiotic induced meningitis after trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) administration. The features common to all three patients were myalgia, confusion ...

  8. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website w...

  9. [Analysis of antibiotic usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balpataki, R; Balogh, J; Zelkó, R; Vincze, Z

    2001-01-01

    Economic analysis is founded on the assumption that resources are limited and that should be used in a way that maximizes the benefits gained. Pharmacoeconomics extends these assumptions to drug treatment. Therefore, a full pharmacoeconomic analysis must consider two or more alternative treatments and should be founded on measurement of incremental cost, incremental efficacy, and the value of successful outcome. Antibiotic policy based only on administrative restrictions is failed, instead of it disease formularies and infectologist consultation system are needed. Equally important are various programmes that encourage the cost-conscious use of the antibiotics chosen. Some of the methods evaluated in the literature include: streamlining from combination therapy to a single agent, early switching from parenteral to oral therapy, initiating treatment with oral agents, administering parenteral antibiotic at home from outset of therapy, and antibiotic streamlining programmes that are partnered with infectious disease physicians. The solution is the rational and adequate use of antibiotics, based on the modern theory and practice of antibiotic policy and infection control, that cannot be carried out without the activities of experts in this field. PMID:11769090

  10. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  11. [Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, G; Iacob, Simona; Cojocaru, Inimioara

    2007-01-01

    Because of a low risk of infection (around 2-3%), prophylactic use of antibiotics in neurosurgery is a controversial issue. Some neurosurgeons consider that there are strong arguments against the use of antimicrobials (promotion of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, superinfection and adverse drug reactions) and meticulous aseptic techniques could be more usefully than prophylactic antibiotics. On the other hand, despite of being rare, the consequences of a neurosurgical infection can be dramatic and may result in a rapid death, caused by meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation or sepsis. Clinical studies emphasized that the most important factors influencing the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery is the patient's immune status, virulence of the pathogens and the type of surgery ("clean contaminated"--procedure that crosses the cranial sinuses, "clean non-implant"--procedure that does not cross the cranial sinuses, CSF shunt surgery, skull fracture). Prophylaxis has become the standard of care for contaminated and clean-contaminated surgery, also for surgery involving insertion of artificial devices. The antibiotic (first/second generation of cephalosporins or vancomycin in allergic patients) should recover only the cutaneous possibly contaminating flora (S. aureus, S. epidermidis) and should be administrated 30' before the surgical incision, intravenously in a single dose. Most studies pointed that identification of the risk factors for infections, correct asepsis and minimal prophylactic antibiotic regimen, help neurosurgeons to improve patient care and to decrease mortality without selecting resistant bacteria. PMID:18293694

  12. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  13. Computerized cyclic voltammetric detection after HPLC of the antineoplastic agents etoposide, teniposide, adriamycin and its metabolite adriamycinol in urine samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ploegmakers, H. H. J. L.; Moritz, P. A.; Toll, P. J. M. M.; Oort, W.J. van

    1989-01-01

    A computerized electrochemical detection system for application after HPLC, provided with a cyclic voltammetric oxidative and reductive module, is described for the on-line qualitative determination of electroactive antineoplastic agents and metabolites in urine samples, collected from cancer patients, following intravenous administration. The application of two cyclic voltammetric detection modes provides an insight into both oxidative and reductive electrode reactions of compounds, passing ...

  14. Off-Label and Off-NCCN Guidelines Uses of Antineoplastic Drugs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilan Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate off-label and off-NCCN guidelines uses of antineoplastic drugs in a major Chinese hospital.Methods: Totally 1122 patients were selected from July to December 2011. Then, the off-label and off-NCCN guidelines uses of antineoplastic drugs were analyzed.Results: In 798 of 1122 patients (71.12%, drugs were used for off-label. In 317 of 1122 patients (28.25%, the drugs were prescribed for off-label and off-NCCN guidelines. 2591 medical orders for 1122 patients, 1051/2591 (40.56% medical orders were off-label; 445/2591(17.17% medical orders were off-label and off-NCCN guidelines. In 445 off-label and off-NCCN medical orders, 399 (89.66% were unapproved indications, 38 (8.54% were unapproved drug concentration and 12 (2.70% were unapproved route of administration. Percentage of off-label and off-NCCN guidelines drug uses in male was higher than that in female (21.92% vs. 11.39%, P<0.01. Compared with other lines of treatment, percentage of off-label and off-NCCN guidelines drug uses in postoperative adjuvant was the smallest (P<0.01 and percentage in three or multi-line treatments was the highest (P<0.01. The pancreatic cancer possessed the highest percentage (38.74% of off-label and off-NCCN guidelines drug uses among all types of cancer (P<0.01.Conclusion: Off-label uses of antineoplastic drugs are generally common in China hospitals based on NCCN guidelines. The fact suggests that anti-tumor treatment was relatively standard in China. Off-label and off-NCCN guidelines drug uses were mainly for individual treatment. Doctors should fully consider the adverse drug reaction, contraindication, cautions and increase the drug security monitoring. Uncorrected drug concentration should be avoided for drug risk

  15. Cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcome in registered nurses potentially exposed to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Nhu D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the relationships of potential occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs with cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a historical prospective cohort study of female registered nurses (RNs from British Columbia, Canada (BC. Methods Female RNs registered with a professional regulatory body for at least one year between 1974 and 2000 formed the cohort (n = 56,213. The identifier file was linked to Canadian cancer registries. An RN offspring cohort from 1986 was created by linkages with the BC Birth and Health Status Registries. Exposure was assessed by work history in oncology or cancer agencies (method 1 and by estimating weighted duration of exposure developed from a survey of pharmacists and nursing unit administrators of all provincial hospitals and treatment centers and the work history of the nurses (method 2. Relative risks (RR were calculated using Poisson regression for cancer incidence and odds ratios (OR were calculated for congenital anomaly, stillbirth, low birth weight, and prematurity incidence, with 95% confidence intervals. Results In comparison with other female RNs, method 1 revealed that RNs who ever worked in a cancer center or in an oncology nursing unit had an increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.03 - 3.23, 12 cases and their offspring were at risk for congenital anomalies of the eye (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.08 - 11.14, 3 cases. Method 2 revealed that RNs classified as having the highest weighted durations of exposure to antineoplastic drugs had an excess risk of cancer of the rectum (RR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07 - 3.29, 14 cases. No statistically significant increased risks of leukemia, other cancers, stillbirth, low birth weight, prematurity, or other congenital anomalies in the RNs' offspring were noted. Conclusions Female RNs having had potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs were not found to have an excess risk of leukemia, stillbirth, or congenital

  16. Experimental study on anti-neoplastic activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate to digestive tract carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Zhi-hua; ZOU Jian; XIAO Shu-dong

    2005-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been demonstrated to have anti-neoplastic activity, but the effective concentration of EGCG and its possible mechanisms are uncertain. The study on the killing effects of EGCG on different digestive tract cancer cell lines can find target sites of its anti-neoplastic effect and provide a theoretical basis for its clinical application in the treatment of cancers. Methods Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) analysis was made to detect the differential sensitivities of eight digestive tract cancer cell lines to EGCG. The effect of EGCG on cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line was measured by flow cytometry. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, the influence of EGCG on telomerase activity of sensitive cancer cell line was also investigated. RT-PCR method was employed to detect the influence of EGCG on the expressions of hTERT, c-myc, p53 and mad1 genes in sensitive cancer cell line. Results EGCG exhibited dose-dependent killing effects on all eight disgestive tract cancer cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SW1116, MKN45, BGC823, SGC7901, AGS, MKN28, HGC27 and LoVo cells were 51.7 μmol/L, 55.9 μmol/L, 68.5 μmol/L, 79.1 μmol/L, 83.8 μmol/L, 119.8 μmol/L, 183.2 μmol/L and 194.6 μmol/L, respectively. There were no apparent changes in cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line MKN45 48 hours after incubating with three different concentrations of EGCG compared with the controls. It was found that EGCG could suppress the telomerase activity of MKN45 cells, and the effects were dose- and time-dependent. After EGCG administration, the expression of hTERT and c-myc genes in MKN45 cells was decreased, that of the mad1 gene increased, and that of the p53 gene unchanged. Conclusions EGCG has dose-dependent killing effects on different digestive tract cancer cell lines. Administration of EGCG has no obvious effect on cell cycle

  17. Ecological antibiotic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiby, N

    2000-09-01

    Development of resistance to antibiotics is a major problem worldwide. The normal oropharyngeal flora, the intestinal flora and the skin flora play important roles in this development. Within a few days after the onset of antibiotic therapy, resistant Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus epidermidis can be detected in the normal flora of volunteers or patients. Horizontal spread of the resistance genes to other species, e.g. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, occurs by conjugation or transformation. An ecologically sound antibiotic policy favours the use of antibiotics with little or no impact on the normal flora. Prodrug antibiotics which are not active against the bacteria in the mouth and the intestine (before absorption) and which are not excreted to a significant degree via the intestine, saliva or skin are therefore preferred. Prodrugs such as pivampicillin, bacampicillin, pivmecillinam and cefuroxime axetil are favourable from an ecological point of view. Experience from Scandinavia supports this, since resistance to mecillinam after 20 years of use is low (about 5%) and stable. PMID:11051626

  18. Surface wipe sampling for antineoplastic (chemotherapy) and other hazardous drug residue in healthcare settings: Methodology and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H; Zock, Matthew D; Snow, Amy H

    2016-09-01

    Surface wipe sampling for various hazardous agents has been employed in many occupational settings over the years for various reasons such as evaluation of potential dermal exposure and health risk, source determination, quality or cleanliness, compliance, and others. Wipe sampling for surface residue of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings is currently the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with these drugs. The purpose of this article is to review published studies of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs, to summarize the methods in use by various organizations and researchers, and to provide some basic guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling for these drugs in healthcare settings.  Recommendations on wipe sampling methodology from several government agencies and organizations were reviewed. Published reports on wipe sampling for hazardous drugs in numerous studies were also examined. The critical elements of a wipe sampling program and related limitations were reviewed and summarized.  Recommendations and guidance are presented concerning the purposes of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in the healthcare setting, technical factors and variables, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The reporting and interpretation of wipe sample results is also discussed.  It is recommended that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled consider wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug "safe handling" program. Although no standards exist for acceptable or allowable surface concentrations for these drugs in the healthcare setting, wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. A comprehensive safe-handling program for antineoplastic drugs may

  19. The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati eSengupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are chemotherapeutic agents, which have been a very powerful tool in the clinical management of bacterial diseases since the 1940s. However, benefits offered by these magic bullets have been substantially lost in subsequent days following the widespread emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains. While it is obvious that excessive and imprudent use of antibiotics significantly contributes to the emergence of resistant strains, antibiotic-resistance is also observed in natural bacteria of remote places unlikely to be impacted by human intervention. Both antibiotic biosynthetic genes and resistance-conferring genes have been known to evolve billions of years ago, long before clinical use of antibiotics. Hence it appears that antibiotics and antibiotics resistance determinants have some other roles in nature, which often elude our attention because of overemphasis on the therapeutic importance of antibiotics and the crisis imposed by the antibiotic-resistance in pathogens. In the natural milieu, antibiotics are often found to be present in subinhibitory concentrations acting as signalling molecules supporting quorum sensing and biofilm formation. They also play an important role in the production of virulence factors and influence host-parasite interactions (e.g., phagocytosis, adherence to the target cell and so on. The evolutionary and ecological aspects of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance in the naturally occurring microbial community are little understood. Therefore, the actual role of antibiotics in nature warrants in-depth investigations. Studies on such an intriguing behaviour of the microorganisms promise insight into the intricacies of the microbial physiology and are likely to provide some lead in controlling the emergence and subsequent dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This article highlights some of the recent findings on the role of antibiotics and genes that confer resistance to antibiotics in

  20. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Molinaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV dysfunction, and heart failure (HF. The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure.

  1. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Porifera and Coelenterata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry has led scientists to search for natural bioactive products. Based on this extensive research, marine invertebrates now represent a rich source of novel substances with significant anti-neoplastic activities. As the current approach of synthesizing new and chemically modifying old drugs seems to have slowed down, and the identification of new anticancer drugs is not too promising, a new approach is clearly needed. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date data on these newer compounds. Based on the data summarized in this short review, it is clear that marine invertebrates represent an extremely important source of compounds with potential anti-cancer effects. Considering that we tested only a tiny number of Porifera and Coelenterata, the best is yet to come.

  2. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Porifera and Coelenterata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-11-10

    An ever increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry has led scientists to search for natural bioactive products. Based on this extensive research, marine invertebrates now represent a rich source of novel substances with significant anti-neoplastic activities. As the current approach of synthesizing new and chemically modifying old drugs seems to have slowed down, and the identification of new anticancer drugs is not too promising, a new approach is clearly needed. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date data on these newer compounds. Based on the data summarized in this short review, it is clear that marine invertebrates represent an extremely important source of compounds with potential anti-cancer effects. Considering that we tested only a tiny number of Porifera and Coelenterata, the best is yet to come. PMID:22087433

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs as Potential Inducers of Antineoplastic Effects in CNS Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tatenhorst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-inducible transcription factors which belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. In recent years it turned out that natural as well as synthetic PPAR agonists exhibit profound antineoplastic as well as redifferentiation effects in tumors of the central nervous system (CNS. The molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still emerging, with partially controverse findings reported by a number of studies dealing with the influence of PPARs on treatment of tumor cells in vitro. Remarkably, studies examining the effects of these drugs in vivo are just beginning to emerge. However, the agonists of PPARs, in particular the thiazolidinediones, seem to be promising candidates for new approaches in human CNS tumor therapy.

  4. [Antibiotical prophylaxy in gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhumenský, J; Menzlová, E; Zmrhal, J; Kučera, E

    2013-08-01

    Gynecological surgery is considered to be clear with possible contamination by gram-positive cocci from the skin, gram-negatives from the perineum or groins or polymicrobial biocenosis from vagina, depending on the surgical approach. Antibiotical prophylaxy enforces the natural mechanisms of immunity and helps to exclude present infection. There were presented many studies comparing useful effect of prophylaxis in gynecological surgery. The benefits of antibiotical prophylaxy before IUD insertion, before the cervical surgery and before hysteroscopies were not verified. On the other hand the prophylaxy of vaginal surgery including vaginal hysterectomy decreases the number of postoperative febrile complications. The positive influence of prophylaxis before the simple laparoscopy and laparoscopy without bowel injury or the opening of the vagina was not evidently verified. In abdominal hysterectomy the antibiotical prophylaxy decreases the incidence of postoperative complications significantly. The administration of 2 g of cefazolin can be recommended. In procedures taking more than 3 hours the repeated administration of cefazolin is suitable. New urogynecological procedures, using mesh implants, were not sufficiently evaluated as for postoperative infections and the posible antibiotical effect. The presence of implant in possibly non sterile area should be considered as high risc of postoperative complications. PMID:24040985

  5. Antibiotics in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range and number of interventional procedures is rapidly increasing each year. A major complication associated with many procedures is infection, which can result in serious adverse outcomes for the patient. Consequently, antibiotics are amongst the most common pharmaceuticals used by the interventionist, particularly for non-vascular procedures, yet almost no randomized controlled trial data exist to inform our decision when formulating appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the utilization of antibiotics for common interventional radiology procedures, focusing on timing and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis. - Highlights: • Prophylaxis when necessary should be given immediately prior to the procedure for optimum effect. • Where possible single agents with a narrow spectrum of activity should be used. • Account should be taken of the clinical circumstances of the patient, including surgical history. • Continuous review of agents is necessary, ideally with input from the local microbiology department. • The importance of maximum sterile precautions cannot be overstated

  6. Polylactide-polyglycolide antibiotic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kevin; Feschuk, Connie

    2005-08-01

    Surgeons continually struggle to reduce orthopaedic infections, but no current treatment offers minimum side effects with maximum effectiveness. Antibiotics mixed in plaster of paris have been successful in treating large bony defects in patients with chronic osteomyelitis, and have the advantage of being well tolerated and absorbed by the body. Antibiotics impregnated in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have offered local antibiotic delivery with some success. However, the effect of the antibiotic on the bone cement, the inconsistent elution of the antibiotic, and the need to remove the PMMA implant drives the need for a better system of antibiotic delivery. Polymers or copolymers of antibiotic-impregnated polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid or polyparadioxanone may provide an absorbable system for localized antibiotic delivery. Similar biodegradable systems used to treat small bone fractures have been successful with minimal side effects. In vitro studies have shown promising results of antibiotic elution from bioabsorbable microspheres and beads. Animal in vivo tests have shown that antibiotic impregnated polymers can successfully treat induced osteomyelitis in rabbits and dogs. These studies have provided consistent reproducible results, and now it is time to plan human trials to assess the efficacy of antibiotic microspheres implanted in infected bone and to plan in vivo and in vitro animal testing to investigate the feasibility of antibiotic-polymer-coated components. PMID:16056034

  7. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  8. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Klugman, K P

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of pneumococci resistant to one or more of the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline appears to be expanding, and there exist foci of resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampin. Multiply resistant pneumococci are being encountered more commonly and are more often community acquired. Factors associated with infection caused by resistant pneumococci include young age, duration of hospitalization, infection with a pneumo...

  9. Antibiotics in dental practice

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The oral cavity and it surrounding tissue are habitats for many bacteria. Therefore a rationale for the use of antibacterial agents rises. During my time as a dental student, me often meet conditions were antibiotics are pointed out as the treatment of chose, as indicated or not recommended. According to Norwegian drug regulations (Tørisen 2007) dentists have: The right to requisition necessary medical agents in connection with dental treatment and prevention and treatment of diseases in the...

  10. Drug lag for antineoplastic and immunomodulating agent approvals in India compared with the US and EU approvals

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaven C. Kataria; Ashna S. Pandya; Ashwin K. Panchasara; Pavan J. Panchal; Mitul R. Parmar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a tremendous amount of research being conducted on development of new drugs for cancer therapies. The drug development of cancer therapies has dramatically increased over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to assess the drug lag for new antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents in India compared with that in the United States (US) or European Union (EU). Methods: The new drugs approved in the US, EU and India between 2011 and 2015 were identified a...

  11. Oxidative Stress Induced in Nurses by Exposure to Preparation and Handling of Antineoplastic Drugs in Mexican Hospitals: A Multicentric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván; Gerardo Daniel Miranda-Mendoza; Paula Anel Cabrera-Galeana; Marcela Galar-Martínez; Hariz Islas-Flores; Nely SanJuan-Reyes; Nadia Neri-Cruz; Sandra García-Medina

    2014-01-01

    The impact of involuntary exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) was studied in a group of nurses in diverse hospitals in Mexico. The results were compared with a group of unexposed nurses. Anthropometric characteristics and the biochemical analysis were analyzed in both groups. Also, lipid peroxidation level (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated in blood of stud...

  12. Multifactorial analysis of effects of interactions among antifungal and antineoplastic drugs on inhibition of Candida albicans growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannoum, M. A.; Motawy, M S; Abu Hatab, M A; Ibrahim, A.S.; Criddle, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions among antineoplastic and antifungal drugs affecting the inhibition of Candida albicans growth are complex functions of the nature of the drugs used in combination, their absolute concentrations, and also their relative concentrations. Studies of drug interactions involving the use of test drugs in fixed concentration ratios can lead to inaccurate conclusions about synergism or antagonism among the drugs. A multifactorial experimental design procedure in which the concentrations o...

  13. Identification of Knowledge Gaps Regarding Healthcare Workers' Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Review of Literature, North America versus Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Barzan, Cris; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-01-01

    We have been examining the issue of healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs for nearly a decade and have observed that there appears to be more publications on the subject matter originating from Europe than from North America. The concern is that findings from Europe may not be generalizable to North America because of differences in handling practices, regulatory requirements, and training. Our objective was to perform a literature review to confirm our observation and, in turn...

  14. Inhibition of basal and TGF beta-induced fibroblast collagen synthesis by antineoplastic agents. Implications for wound healing.

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, T.; Martens, M F; Huyben, C M; Wobbes, T.

    1993-01-01

    Antineoplastic drugs, given in the perioperative period, are thought to be a hazard to wound repair. Since fibroblast collagen synthesis is crucial to healing, we examined the effects of bleomycin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil on collagen synthesis in confluent cultures of fibroblasts from human colon and skin. The drugs were added in final concentrations between 0.1 and 50 microM. Bleomycin did not affect collagen synthesis in colon fibroblasts but inhibited synthesis in skin fibroblasts. Co...

  15. High mobility group A1 protein expression reduces the sensitivity of colon and thyroid cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    D’Angelo, Daniela; Mussnich, Paula; De Rosa, Roberta; Bianco, Roberto; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fusco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of resistance to conventional drugs and novel biological agents often impair long-term chemotherapy. HMGA gene overexpression is often associated with antineoplastic drug resistance and reduced survival. Inhibition of HMGA expression in thyroid cancer cells reduces levels of ATM protein, the main cellular sensor of DNA damage, and enhances cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. HMGA1 overexpression promotes chemoresistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcino...

  16. A Comparative Reverse Docking Strategy to Identify Potential Antineoplastic Targets of Tea Functional Components and Binding Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zheng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main functional components of green tea, such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, epigallocatechin (EGC, epicatechin gallate (ECG and epicatechin (EC, are found to have a broad antineoplastic activity. The discovery of their targets plays an important role in revealing the antineoplastic mechanism. Therefore, to identify potential target proteins for tea polyphenols, we have taken a comparative virtual screening approach using two reverse docking systems, one based on Autodock software and the other on Tarfisdock. Two separate in silico workflows were implemented to derive a set of target proteins related to human diseases and ranked by the binding energy score. Several conventional clinically important proteins with anti-tumor effects are screened out from the PDTD protein database as the potential receptors by both procedures. To further analyze the validity of docking results, we study the binding mode of EGCG and the potential target protein Leukotriene A4 hydrolase in detail. We indicate that interactions mediated by electrostatic and hydrogen bond play a key role in ligand binding. EGCG binds to the enzyme with certain orientation and conformation that is suitable for nucleophilic attacks by several electrical residues inside the enzyme’s activity cavity. This study provides useful information for studying the antitumor mechanism of tea’s functional components. The comparative reverse docking strategy presented generates a tractable set of antineoplastic proteins for future experimental validation as drug targets against tumors.

  17. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices

  18. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome and anti-neoplastic agents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen M. Shah-Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS is a well recognized entity with a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Recently it has been found to be associated with the use of anti-neoplastic agents including targeted therapies. RPLS occurs rapidly with the use of some drugs and more slowly with others. Combined therapies are associated with a more frequent and more rapid presentation. This review was based on a literature search for English Language articles concerning RPLS and chemotherapeutic agents published from June 1996 to March 2007. We used the PubMed database with keywords: “RPLS”, “Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome”, “(PRES”, “Chemotherapy” and “MRI”. This syndrome has classical Clinical-Radiologic features that are easy to recognize. Early recognition and withdrawal of the offending agent is all that is needed in most cases. This review highlights the features of the syndrome. It draws our attention to an entity which is being more frequently recognized and whose exact pathologic mechanisms need to be further studied. This syndrome is associated with the use of neurotoxic as well as non-neurotoxic agents and usually runs a benign course if there is an early diagnosis and management.

  19. Relevance of the OCT1 transporter to the antineoplastic effect of biguanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Eric D.; Yasmeen, Amber; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Rosenblatt, Joshua [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Pollak, Michael [Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gotlieb, Walter H., E-mail: walter.gotlieb@mcgill.ca [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of EOC cells to metformin, but not to another biguanide, phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of OCT1 also affects the activation of AMP kinase in response to metformin, but not to phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct actions of metformin may be limited by low OCT1 expression in EOC tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenformin could be used as an alternative biguanide. -- Abstract: Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggesting that metformin has antineoplastic activity have led to ongoing clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic issues that may influence metformin activity have not been studied in detail. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is known to play an important role in cellular uptake of metformin in the liver. We show that siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to metformin, but interestingly not to another biguanide, phenformin, with respect to both activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of proliferation. We observed that there is heterogeneity between primary human tumors with respect to OCT1 expression. These results suggest that there may be settings where drug uptake limits direct action of metformin on neoplastic cells, raising the possibility that metformin may not be the optimal biguanide for clinical investigation.

  20. The effect of antineoplastic drugs in a male spontaneous mammary tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N Shishido

    Full Text Available Male breast cancer is a rare disease. The limited number of clinical cases has led to the primary treatments for men being derived from female breast cancer studies. Here the transgenic strain FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyVT634Mul/J (also known as PyVT was used as a model system for measuring tumor burden and drug sensitivity of the antineoplastic drugs tamoxifen, cisplatin, and paclitaxel on tumorigenesis at an early stage of mammary carcinoma development in a male mouse model. Cisplatin treatment significantly reduced tumor volume, while paclitaxel and tamoxifen did not attenuate tumor growth. Cisplatin treatment was shown to induce apoptosis, grossly observed by reduced tumor formation, through reduced Bcl-2 and survivin protein expression levels with an increase in caspase 3 expression compared to control tumors. Tamoxifen treatment significantly altered the hormone receptor expression levels of the tumor, while additionally upregulating Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1. This suggests an importance in hormonal signaling in male breast cancer pathogenesis. The results of this study provide valuable information toward the better understanding of male breast cancer and may help guide treatment decisions.

  1. New Trends on Antineoplastic Therapy Research: Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil Nanostructured Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Machado, Lucas; Xavier-Júnior, Francisco H; Rutckeviski, Renata; Morais, Andreza R V; Alencar, Éverton N; Dantas, Teresa R F; Cruz, Ana K M; Genre, Julieta; da Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A; Pedrosa, Matheus F F; Rocha, Hugo A O; Egito, Eryvaldo S T

    2016-01-01

    Bullfrog oil is a natural product extracted from the Rana catesbeiana Shaw adipose tissue and used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extraction process of bullfrog oil, to develop a suitable topical nanoemulsion and to evaluate its efficacy against melanoma cells. The oil samples were obtained by hot and organic solvent extraction processes and were characterized by titration techniques and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The required hydrophile-lipophile balance and the pseudo-ternary phase diagram (PTPD) were assessed to determine the emulsification ability of the bullfrog oil. The anti-tumoral activity of the samples was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for normal fibroblast (3T3) and melanoma (B16F10) cell lines. Both extraction methods produced yielded around 60% and the oil was mainly composed of unsaturated compounds (around 60%). The bullfrog oil nanoemulsion obtained from PTPD presented a droplet size of about 390 nm and polydispersity = 0.05 and a zeta potential of about -25 mV. Both the bullfrog oil itself and its topical nanoemulsion did not show cytotoxicity in 3T3 linage. However, these systems showed growth inhibition in B16F10 cells. Finally, the bullfrog oil presented itself as a candidate for the development of pharmaceutical products free from cytotoxicity and effective for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:27144557

  2. Sesquiterpene lactones: Mechanism of antineoplastic activity; relationship of cellular glutathione to cytotoxicity; and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibited the growth of P388 lymphocytic and L1210 lymphoid leukemia, and Ehrlich ascites and KB carcinoma cells. The L1210 leukemia cells were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of helenalin. Helenalin's antineoplastic effects were due to inhibition of DNA synthesis by suppressing the activities of enzymes involved in this biosynthetic pathway; i.e., IMP dehydrogenase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thioredoxin complex, GSH disulfide oxidoreductase and DNA polymerase α activities. The relationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) to the cytotoxic effects of helanalin was evaluated. L1210 cells, which were more sensitive to helenalin's toxicity, contained lower basal concentrations of GSH. Helenalin decreased the concentration of reduced glutathione in both L1210 and P388 leukemia cells. Concurrent administration of helanalin with agents reported to raise GSH concentrations did not substantially effect GSH levels, nor were survival times of tumor-bearing mice enhanced. Following intraperitoneal administration of 3H-plenolin, no radioactive drug and/or metabolite was sequestered in the organs of BDF1 mice. Approximately 50% of 3H-plenolin and/or its metabolites were eliminated via urine while lesser amounts of radioactive drug and/or metabolites were eliminated in the feces

  3. Antineoplastic effects of Rhodiola crenulata treatment on B16-F10 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Maxine C; Wong, Kaitlyn E; Bassa, Lotfi M; Mora, Maria Carmen; Ser-Dolansky, Jennifer; Henneberry, Jean M; Crisi, Giovanna M; Arenas, Richard B; Schneider, Sallie S

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer with limited treatment options for advanced stage disease. Early detection and wide surgical excision remain the initial mode of treatment for primary tumors thus preventing metastases and leading to improved prognosis. Through this work, we have evaluated the antineoplastic effects of Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) root extracts on the B16-F10 melanoma cell line, both in vitro and in vivo. We observed that R. crenulata treatment resulted in increased cell death as well as a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Additionally, we observed that R. crenulata decreased the expression of integrin β1 and vimentin and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Further, in mice treated with a topical R. crenulata-based cream therapy, tumors were more likely to have a radial growth pattern, a reduction in mitotic activity, and an increase in tumor necrosis. We also observed that mice drinking water supplemented with R. crenulata displayed a reduction of metastatic foci in disseminated models of melanoma. Collectively, these findings suggest that R. crenulata exhibits striking antitumorigenic and antimetastatic properties and that this extract may harbor potential novel adjuvant therapy for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26159852

  4. Relevance of the OCT1 transporter to the antineoplastic effect of biguanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of EOC cells to metformin, but not to another biguanide, phenformin. ► Suppression of OCT1 also affects the activation of AMP kinase in response to metformin, but not to phenformin. ► Direct actions of metformin may be limited by low OCT1 expression in EOC tumors. ► Phenformin could be used as an alternative biguanide. -- Abstract: Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggesting that metformin has antineoplastic activity have led to ongoing clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic issues that may influence metformin activity have not been studied in detail. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is known to play an important role in cellular uptake of metformin in the liver. We show that siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to metformin, but interestingly not to another biguanide, phenformin, with respect to both activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of proliferation. We observed that there is heterogeneity between primary human tumors with respect to OCT1 expression. These results suggest that there may be settings where drug uptake limits direct action of metformin on neoplastic cells, raising the possibility that metformin may not be the optimal biguanide for clinical investigation.

  5. Amido analogs of mitoxantrone: physico-chemical properties, molecular modeling, cellular effects and antineoplastic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagotto, G; Moro, S; Uriarte, E; Ferrazzi, E; Palù, G; Palumbo, M

    1997-03-01

    To assess the effects of amido substitution in the side-chains of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone (MX) two analogs were synthesized, having hydroxyethylaminoacetyl- and hydroxyethylaminopropionyl- substituents at the nitrogens located at positions 1, 4 of the anthracenedione ring system. The novel derivatives exhibit DNA-affinity and redox properties similar to the parent drug. However, unlike MX, they are not able to stimulate DNA cleavage, as shown by alkaline elution experiments. Molecular modeling studies using ab initio quantum mechanical methods show that, while the stereochemistry of the drug molecule is not appreciably affected when an amide group replaces the aromatic amino function, the reverse is true for the electrostatic properties. Indeed, overlapping of electron density of MX with its analogs is very poor. Moreover, a reversal in the direction of MX dipole moment occurs in the amido congeners. This may explain the lack of recognition of the cleavable topoisomerase II-DNA complex and loss of cleavage stimulation. However, the new derivatives exhibit pharmacological activity comparable to that found for MX, as they are remarkably cytotoxic and are active in vivo against P388 murine leukemia. Hence, amido substitution may lead to a different mechanism of cytotoxicity, not related to classical protein or free radical-mediated DNA damage, which points to a novel type of antineoplastic pharmacophore. PMID:9113065

  6. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals

  7. A preliminary analysis of antineoplastic activity of parvovirus MVMp NS—1 proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENXIZHONG; HSIAOCHIENTSUNG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Human gastric cancer MKN-45 cells were transfected with pULB 3238,a plasmid carrying MVMp MS-1 gene with its original P4 promoter replaced by the glucocorticoid inducible promoter MMTV-LTR.After the integration and expression of NS-1 gene,some of the transfectants died,while others remained alive,but the growth features of survived cells were changed.For further study on the antineoplastic function of parvoviral NS-1 protein in vivo,transgenic mice carrying NS-1 genes were established by conventional method.Among 4 founders,one of them was found to be able to transmit the transgene to around 50% of their offsprings.RT-PCR was performed to indicate the expression of NS-1 gene in transgenic mice and its mRNA appeared in a variety of tissues.The expression of integrated NS-1 gene may correlate with the decreased incidence of tumor induced in vivo by chemical carcinogens.

  8. Optimizing Antibiotic Use in Nursing Homes Through Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Huslage, Kirk; Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is becoming a requirement for nursing homes. Programs should be interdisciplinary and multifaceted; should have support from nursing home administrators; and should aim to promote antibiotics only when needed, not just in case. Recommended components include use of evidence-based guidelines; ongoing monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, cultures, and study results; monitoring of health outcomes; use of nursing home-specific antibiograms; regular reporting and feedback to medical providers and nurses; and education of residents and families. PMID:27621341

  9. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications after cataract surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of intracameral and topical antibiotics on the prevention of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL......, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases revealed one randomized trial and 17 observational studies concerning the prophylactic effect of intracameral antibiotic administration on the rate of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The effect of topical antibiotics on endophthalmitis rate was reported by one...... with the use of intracameral antibiotic administration of cefazolin, cefuroxime and moxifloxacin, whereas no effect was found with the use of topical antibiotics or intracameral vancomycin. Endophthalmitis occurred on average in one of 2855 surgeries when intracameral antibiotics were used compared to...

  10. Antibiotics in otorhinolaryngology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan-Mikić Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study investigated utilization of antibacterial agents at the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman and at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, in the period February - March 2001. Material and methods All antibacterial agents were classified as group J, regarding Anatomic-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification. Data on drug utilization were presented in Defined Daily Doses (DDD. Patients who were under observation were all treated with antibiotics. Results In regard to prescribed treatment in the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, most outpatients were treated with macrolide antibiotics - in 26.21%; combination of penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitors in 20.83% and pyranosides in 16.12%. At the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad, macrolides and lincosamines were most frequently used - in 20.46%; cephalosporins in 19.87% and penicillins susceptible to beta-lactamase in 18.85%. It is extremely positive and in agreement with current pharmacotherapeutic principles that in both institutions peroral ampicillins have not been prescribed. Aminoglycosides have been prescribed in less than 1% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, whereas they were much more frequently prescribed at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center Novi Sad - in 11.25%. Although there is a positive postantibiotic effect in regard to these antibiotics and it is recommended to use them once a day, in both examined institutions aminoglycosides were given twice a day. In regard to bacterial identification it was done in 80.76% of patients of the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the Outpatient Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman, while in the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of the Clinical Center

  11. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D F

    1981-04-01

    Dermatologists often prescribe oral tetracycline for the control of acne, primarily, and to a much lesser extent, for the treatment of cutaneous infections. A number of the patients taking tetracycline are also taking birth control pills. A recent article in the British Medical Journal (1980;1:293) indicates that this combination can lead to a failure of the (OC) oral contraceptive. Such failure had been associated with ampicillin as well. It is believed that the mechanism for this was the disturbance in normal gut flora, with consequent effects on bacterial hydrolysis of steroid conjugates. This would interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids, resulting in a less than normal concentration of circulating steroids. It was recommended that women taking low-dose OCs take extra precautions against pregnancy during any cycle in which antibiotics are given. In regard to our care of and responsibilities to our patients, and in an era when malpractice suits for all types of reasons are more common, it certainly behooves dermatologists to recognize and be concerned about this potential consequence of prescribing oral antibiotics. PMID:7212735

  12. The husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae is a source of anti-neoplastic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Koschek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the in vitro anti-tumoral activities of fractions from aqueous extracts of the husk fiber of the typical A and common varieties of Cocos nucifera (Palmae. Cytotoxicity against leukemia cells was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Cells (2 x 104/well were incubated with 0, 5, 50 or 500 µg/mL high- or low-molecular weight fractions for 48 h, treated with MTT and absorbance was measured with an ELISA reader. The results showed that both varieties have almost similar antitumoral activity against the leukemia cell line K562 (60.1 ± 8.5 and 47.5 ± 11.9% for the typical A and common varieties, respectively. Separation of the crude extracts with Amicon membranes yielded fractions with molecular weights ranging in size from 1-3 kDa (fraction A to 3-10 kDa (fraction B and to more than 10 kDa (fraction C. Cells were treated with 500 µg/mL of these fractions and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT. Fractions ranging in molecular weight from 1-10 kDa had higher cytotoxicity. Interestingly, C. nucifera extracts were also active against Lucena 1, a multidrug-resistant leukemia cell line. Their cytotoxicity against this cell line was about 50% (51.9 ± 3.2 and 56.3 ± 2.9 for varieties typical A and common, respectively. Since the common C. nucifera variety is extensively cultured in Brazil and the husk fiber is its industrial by-product, the results obtained in the present study suggest that it might be a very inexpensive source of new antineoplastic and anti-multidrug resistant drugs that warrants further investigation.

  13. Chemomodulation of human dendritic cell function by antineoplastic agents in low noncytotoxic concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourkova Irina L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dose-delivery schedule of conventional chemotherapy, which determines its efficacy and toxicity, is based on the maximum tolerated dose. This strategy has lead to cure and disease control in a significant number of patients but is associated with significant short-term and long-term toxicity. Recent data demonstrate that moderately low-dose chemotherapy may be efficiently combined with immunotherapy, particularly with dendritic cell (DC vaccines, to improve the overall therapeutic efficacy. However, the direct effects of low and ultra-low concentrations on DCs are still unknown. Here we characterized the effects of low noncytotoxic concentrations of different classes of chemotherapeutic agents on human DCs in vitro. DCs treated with antimicrotubule agents vincristine, vinblastine, and paclitaxel or with antimetabolites 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and methotrexate, showed increased expression of CD83 and CD40 molecules. Expression of CD80 on DCs was also stimulated by vinblastine, paclitaxel, azacytidine, methotrexate, and mitomycin C used in low nontoxic concentrations. Furthermore, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, methotrexate, and mitomycin C increased the ability of human DCs to stimulate proliferation of allogeneic T lymphocytes. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that in low noncytotoxic concentrations chemotherapeutic agents do not induce apoptosis of DCs, but directly enhance DC maturation and function. This suggests that modulation of human DCs by noncytotoxic concentrations of antineoplastic drugs, i.e. chemomodulation, might represent a novel approach for up-regulation of functional activity of resident DCs in the tumor microenvironment or improving the efficacy of DCs prepared ex vivo for subsequent vaccinations.

  14. Somatostatin Enhances the Antineoplastic Effects of Tamoxifen on Breast Carcinoma in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGXizhi; YAOZhenxiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the antineoplastic effects of tamoxifen(TAM) in combination with a somatostain analogue(octreotide,OCT) on breast cancer.Methods:Estrogen receptor(ER)-positive(MCF-7) and ER-negative(MDA-MB-435S)human breast carcinoma cell lines were treated with TAM or OCT,or combination of both agents in vitro.Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay,distribu-tion of cell cycle and rate of apoptosis were detemined by flow cytometry.Results:The inhibitory effect of OCT or TAM on proliferation of MCF-7 cells was associated with cell arrest in G0/G1 phase and induction of apoptosis.The inhibitory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells enhanced when treatment of TAM combined with OCT.The increased rate of apoptosis induced by combination of TAM and OCT was much higher than use of either TAM or OCT alone.TAM or OCT also had weak inhibitory effect on MDA-MB435S cell.The cells were arrested at S phase by TAM and at G0/G1 phase by OCT, but the induction of apoptosis was not identified.However,the rate of apoptosis was 22.7% if combined treatment of TAM and OCT applied.Conclusion:TAM and OCT can synergistically inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells.The synergism of TAM and OCT may be of interest in the clinical treatment of breast carcinoma.

  15. Radiobiological studies on the importance of tumor oxygenation for anti-neoplastic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the twelve studies included in the present thesis was to determine the importance of hypoxia for various anti-neoplastic treatment modalities, and to evaluate possible ways of overcoming the hypoxia problem by combined modality therapy. The murine tumor systems were the C3H mammary carcinoma with 5-12% hypoxic cells, and the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma with 2% hypoxic cells. The radiation response was significantly improved by the use of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers such as nimorazole or misonidazole, or by allowing the mice to breathe oxygen or carbogen during irradiation. In contrast, the radiation response was significantly impaired by carbon monoxide breathing at a level comparable to what has been observed in heavy smokers. The clamped TCD50 assay was used to classify cancer chemotherapeutic drugs according to their preferential cytotoxicity towards the different tumor subpopulations. Methotrexate had no effect on hypoxic cells and was only borderline toxic towards aerobic cells. Three drugs had significant effect against oxic cells only (5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatin). Similarly, three drugs were toxic towards hypoxic cells only (etoposide, carmustine, and mitomycin c). Three drugs were effective towards both cell types (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide). Hypoxic cells in areas with insufficient blood supply, poor nutrition and increased acidity is known to be highly sensitive to hyperthermia. In a study where cisplatin, heat and x-rays were given together, the local tumor control was not improved when compared to radiation + heat, apparently due to a lack of enhancement in the killing of hypoxic cells. These studies have demonstrated the influence of tumor oxygenation on tumor response to treatment with drugs, hyperthermia and irradiation. New strategies targeted also against perfusion-limited hypoxia is needed. One of the most important conclusions from the present thesis can be implemented without expensive trials or

  16. [Antibiotic stability in magistral collyria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihărău, A; Voiculescu, E; Vancea, S; Teodorescu, A; Cherecheş, S

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on physicochemical and and microbiological stability of collyria with such antibiotics as: Kanamicin, Oxacilin, Colistin, Erythromycin and Rifampicin. The authors insist on the necessity of preparing the ophthalmic solution with the antibiotics studies, with solvent for eye drops as provided for by RF IX and keeping at +4 degrees C, at dark. PMID:2101048

  17. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Davydova N.V.; Suyetenkov D.Ye.; Firsova I.V.; Oleynikova N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Identify options for the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis in children's dental reception. The analysis of publications shows that the basis of current trends prevention of postoperative wound infection in pediatric surgery should be measures aimed at eliminating or reducing the influence of risk factors, as well as the use of antibiotic prophylaxis

  18. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova N.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identify options for the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis in children's dental reception. The analysis of publications shows that the basis of current trends prevention of postoperative wound infection in pediatric surgery should be measures aimed at eliminating or reducing the influence of risk factors, as well as the use of antibiotic prophylaxis

  19. The Antibiotic Resistance Problem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The term "antibiotic" was first proposed by Vuillemin in 1889 but was first used in the current sense by Walksman in 1941. An antibiotic is defined as a "derivative produced by the metabolism of microorganisms that possess antibacterial activity at low concentrations and is not toxic to the host." In this article, the author describes how…

  20. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. PMID:27252395

  1. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  2. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Borisenko, Oleg V; Kovanen, Niina;

    2008-01-01

    antibiotics from different classes for acute maxillary sinusitis in adults. We included trials with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, whether or not confirmed by radiography or bacterial culture. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened search results, extracted......BACKGROUND: Expert opinions vary on the appropriate role of antibiotics for sinusitis, one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions among adults in ambulatory care. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether antibiotics are effective in treating acute sinusitis, and if so, which antibiotic classes are the...... most effective. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 3); MEDLINE (1950 to May 2007) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2007). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics with placebo or...

  3. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A.Mehr-Movahed; J. Nikkhah

    1987-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  4. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick I. Mackie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  5. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  6. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP, can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.

  7. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  8. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  9. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember antibiotics have side effects. Prevent infections by practicing good hand hygiene and getting recommended vaccines. View ... program that includes, at a minimum, this checklist : Leadership commitment: Dedicate necessary human, financial, and IT resources. ...

  10. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.;

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal beta-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute...... to the survival of biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. A promising strategy may be the use of enzymes that can dissolve the biofilm matrix (e.g. DNase and alginate lyase) as well as quorum...

  11. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari A; Agarwal J; Garg A

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD) is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic ...

  12. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kapoor; Ranjan Malhotra; Vishakha Grover; Deepak Grover

    2012-01-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, pr...

  13. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further...

  14. [Self-medication with antibiotics in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olczak, A.; Grzesiowski, P.; Hryniewicz, W.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, the important public health threat, depends on antibiotic overuse/misuse. Self-medication with antibiotics is of serious medical concern. The aim of the study, as a part of SAR project (Self-medication with antibiotic in Europe) was to survey the incidence of this phenomenon.

  15. Expedient antibiotics production: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Byers, C.H.; Lee, D.D.

    1988-05-01

    The literature on the manufacture, separation and purification, and clinical uses of antibiotics was reviewed, and a bibliography of the pertinent material was completed. Five antimicrobial drugs, penicillin V and G, (and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), Cephalexin (a cephalosporin), tetracycline and oxytetracycline, Bacitracin (topical), and sulfonamide (chemically produced) were identified for emergency production. Plants that manufacture antibiotics in the continental United States, Mexico, and Puerto Rico have been identified along with potential alternate sites such as those where SCP, enzyme, and fermentation ethanol are produced. Detailed process flow sheets and process descriptions have been derived from the literature and documented. This investigation revealed that a typical antibiotic-manufacturing facility is composed of two main sections: (1) a highly specialized, but generic, fermentation unit and (2) a multistep, complex separation and purification unit which is specific to a particular antibiotic product. The fermentation section requires specialized equipment for operation in a sterile environment which is not usually available in other industries. The emergency production of antibiotics under austere conditions will be feasible only if a substantial reduction in the complexity and degree of separation and purity normally required can be realized. Detailed instructions were developed to assist state and federal officials who would be directing the resumption of antibiotic production after a nuclear attack. 182 refs., 54 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Macrolide antibiotics and the airway: antibiotic or non-antibiotic effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, D M

    2010-03-01

    The macrolides are a class of antibiotics widely prescribed in infectious disease. More recently, there has been considerable interest in potential indications for these agents, in addition to their simple antibacterial indications, in a number of lung pathophysiologies.

  17. Antibiotic use in Lithuania, 2003 - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Beržanskytė, Aušra

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is mainly caused by inappropriate and abundant use of antibiotics. To enlighten the most relevant problematic areas in antibiotic use, where the decisions should be made, the different levels were analysed in this study: the self-medication with antibiotics of the population, ambulatory and also hospital antibiotic use. The results showed that wrong perception about antibiotics is characteristic to Lithuanian population, as there is lack of privity, while traditions o...

  18. Antibiotics: Use and misuse in pediatric dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F C Peedikayil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are commonly used in dentistry for prophylactic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Most often antibiotics are used in unwarranted situations, which may give rise to resistant bacterial strains. Dentists want to make their patients well and to prevent unpleasant complications. These desires, coupled with the belief that many oral problems are infectious, stimulate the prescribing of antibiotics. Good knowledge about the indications of antibiotics is the need of the hour in prescribing antibiotics for dental conditions.

  19. The Hepatoprotection Provided by Taurine and Glycine against Antineoplastic Drugs Induced Liver Injury in an Ex Vivo Model of Normothermic Recirculating Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid is a non-protein amino acid found in high concentration in different tissues. Glycine (Amino acetic acid is the simplest amino acid incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several investigations indicate the hepatoprotective properties of these amino acids. On the other hand, antineoplastic agents-induced serum transaminase elevation and liver injury is a clinical complication. The current investigation was designed to screen the possible hepatoprotective properties of taurine and glycine against antineoplastic drugs-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated perfused rat liver. Rat liver was perfused with different concentration (10 μM, 100 μM and 1000 μM of antineoplastic drugs (Mitoxantrone, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, 5 Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine via portal vein. Taurine and glycine were administered to drug-treated livers and liver perfusate samples were collected for biochemical measurements (ALT, LDH, AST, and K+. Markers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione were also assessed in liver tissue. Antineoplastic drugs caused significant pathological changes in perfusate biochemistry. Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in drug treated livers. It was found that taurine (5 and 10 mM and glycine (5 and 10 mM administration significantly mitigated the biomarkers of liver injury and attenuated drug induced oxidative stress. Our data indicate that taurine and glycine supplementation might help as potential therapeutic options to encounter anticancer drugs-induced liver injury.

  20. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of pat

  1. Simultaneous detection of three antineoplastic drugs on gloves by liquid chromatography with diode array detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Maria Pimenta de Pádua Alcântara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a method for simultaneous detection of antineoplastic drugs on gloves since, in occupational exposure, the main contamination route is through dermal contact, which may occur via prolonged contact with contaminated surfaces or materials. The assay was performed by liquid chromatography using the following conditions for the detection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, methotrexate (MTX and paclitaxel (TAX: diode array detection and UV quantification at 195 nm for TAX, at 265 nm for 5-FU and at 302 nm for MTX; ODS column (250 x 4 mm, 5 μm with a similar guard column; mobile phase consisted of water (pH 4-methanol-acetonitrile (35:15:50, v/v/v with a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. The method presented a linear range from 0.25 to 20 μg mL-1 with r² higher than 0.99. Repeatability was 0.25 μg mL-1 in samples, although detection was possible in samples that presented values of around 0.1 μg mL-1. The results obtained suggest that the method developed can be applied for the simultaneous determination of the drugs studied and can be considered useful in exposure assessment for health care workers.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um método para a detecção simultânea de antineoplásicos em luvas, uma vez que, em exposições ocupacionais, a principal via de introdução é a dérmica, por meio de contato prolongado com superfícies e/ou materiais contaminados com tais fármacos. A tecnica de detecção utilizada foi a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com detector de aranjo de diodos, nas seguintes condições: para a detecção de 5-fluorouracila (5-FU, metotrexato (MTX e paclitaxel (TAX: detecção e quantificação de TAX a 195 nm, de 5-FU a 265 nm e de MTX a 302 nm; coluna ODS (250 x 4 mm, 5 μm, com pré-coluna similar; fase móvel constituída de água (pH 4-metanol-acetonitrila (35:15:50, v/v/v, na vazão de 1 mL min-1. O método apresentou uma faixa linear de 0,25-20 mg mL-1, com r² > 0,99. O desvio

  2. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  3. Background antibiotic resistance patterns in antibiotic-free pastured poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a significant public health issue, and agroecosystems are often viewed as major environmental sources of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens. While the use of antibiotics in agroecosystems can potentially increase AR, appropriate background resistance levels in th...

  4. Antibiotic allergy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, J S; Nasser, S

    2005-06-01

    Allergic reactions to antibiotics are more common in cystic fibrosis (CF) than in the general population. This in part is due to the improving survival in adults with CF and the increased use of high dose intravenous antibiotics. While some are immediate anaphylaxis type (IgE mediated) reactions, the majority are late onset and may have non-specific features such as rash and fever. Piperacillin has consistently been found to have the highest rate of reported reactions (30-50%). There is a low risk of cross reactions between penicillins and other non-beta-lactam classes of antibiotics in penicillin skin prick positive patients. Carbapenems should only be used with extreme caution in patients with positive skin prick tests to penicillin. However, aztreonam can be used safely in patients who are penicillin allergic with positive skin prick reactions. The aminoglycosides are a relatively uncommon cause of allergic reactions, but patients who react to one member of the family may cross react with other aminoglycosides. Desensitisation relies on the incremental introduction of small quantities of the allergen and has been used for penicillins, ceftazidime, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin and must be repeated before each course. Personalized cards should be regularly updated for patients who develop allergic reactions. Written instructions on the emergency treatment of allergic reactions should be provided to patients self-administering intravenous antibiotics at home. Further research is required to identify risk factors and predictors for antibiotic allergy. PMID:15923254

  5. An Experience with Managing Cancer Patients Reportedly Previously Informed of the Absence of Additional Available Antineoplastic Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George River

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 5 years, a small group of cancer patients who stated their physicians had determined there were no additional available antineoplastic therapeutic options (including potential investigational strategies were seen for a ‘second opinion' in a cancer hospital-based oncology program and subsequently experienced what can reasonably be characterized as having achieved meaningful ‘clinical benefit' (functioning at a fairly high level for a minimum 1 year in the work, home, and/or family environments following the further delivery of a variety of treatment approaches. While recognized to be limited (or even simply ‘anecdotal', this experience emphasizes several clinically relevant conclusions, including the overall utility of a ‘second-opinion' strategy and the potential that the reported statement of an individual practitioner or cancer program that all rational options have been attempted may be inaccurate.

  6. Relation between DNA damage measured by comet assay and OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in antineoplastic drugs biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antineoplastic drugs are hazardous chemical agents used mostly in the treatment of patients with cancer, however health professionals that handle and administer these drugs can become exposed and develop DNA damage. Comet assay is a standard method for assessing DNA damage in human biomonitoring and, combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG enzyme, it specifically detects DNA oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic effects in workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics (n = 46, as compared to a control group with no exposure (n = 46 at two Portuguese hospitals, by means of the alkaline comet assay. The potential of the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism as a susceptibility biomarker was also investigated. Exposure was evaluated by investigating the contamination of surfaces and genotoxic assessment was done by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes. OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133 polymorphism was studied by Real Time PCR. As for exposure assessment, there were 121 (37% positive samples out of a total of 327 samples analysed from both hospitals. No statistically significant differences (Mann-Whitney test, p > 0.05 were found between subjects with and without exposure, regarding DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage, nevertheless the exposed group exhibited higher values. Moreover, there was no consistent trend regarding the variation of both biomarkers as assessed by comet assay with OGG1 polymorphism. Our study was not statistically significant regarding occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and genetic damage assessed by comet assay. However, health professionals should be monitored for risk behaviour, in order to ensure that safety measures are applied and protection devices are used correctly.

  7. Relation between DNA damage measured by comet assay and OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in antineoplastic drugs biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antineoplastic drugs are hazardous chemical agents used mostly in the treatment of patients with cancer, however health professionals that handle and administer these drugs can become exposed and develop DNA damage. Comet assay is a standard method for assessing DNA damage in human biomonitoring and, combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG enzyme, it specifically detects DNA oxidative damage.The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic effects in workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics (n = 46, as compared to a control group with no exposure (n = 46 at two Portuguese hospitals, by means of the alkaline comet assay. The potential of the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism as a susceptibility biomarker was also investigated. Exposure was evaluated by investigating the contamination of surfaces and genotoxic assessment was done by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes. OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133 polymorphism was studied by Real Time PCR.As for exposure assessment, there were 121 (37% positive samples out of a total of 327 samples analysed from both hospitals. No statistically significant differences (Mann-Whitney test, p > 0.05 were found between subjects with and without exposure, regarding DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage, nevertheless the exposed group exhibited higher values. Moreover, there was no consistent trend regarding the variation of both biomarkers as assessed by comet assay with OGG1 polymorphism.Our study was not statistically significant regarding occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and genetic damage assessed by comet assay. However, health professionals should be monitored for risk behaviour, in order to ensure that safety measures are applied and protection devices are used correctly.

  8. Use of a radiometric system to screen for antineoplastic agents: correlation with a human tumor cloning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid, semiautomated radiometric system is described for screening for new antineoplastic agents. This radiometric system utilizes inhibition of conversion of [14C]glucose to 14CO2 as an index of cytotoxicity. In this study the radiometric system (BACTEC 460) was first optimized using a variety of human and animal tumor cell lines. Overall, there was a clear linear relationship between the number of cells seeded and the production of 14CO2 from [14C]glucose. The BACTEC System easily detected antitumor activity of compounds from all four classes of antineoplastic agents (doxorubicin, vinblastine, cis-platinum, and methotrexate.) Human tumor cell lines were used to compare the antitumor activity of the same four agents measured by the BACTEC System versus the antitumor activity of the same agents measured by a conventional cloning system. For all cell lines tested there was good agreement in comparison of percentage of survival measured by the BACTEC System versus the standard cloning system. This agreement was better for a continuous exposure to drug in both systems (r = 87, P = less than 0.001) than for a 1-h exposure to the drug (r = 0.35, P = 0.036). In addition to determining the effect of drugs on tumor cells, the BACTEC System was successfully utilized to determine the cytotoxic effect on normal bone marrow buffy coat cells. By utilizing a comparison of suppression of 14CO2 production by normal versus tumor cells, a measurement of differential cytotoxicity could be made. Based on these findings, the radiometric BACTEC System represents a simple and rapid method to detect cytostatic or cytocidal activity of new compounds. It is ideal for use as a prescreen for testing a large number of new chemical entities against a large number of human tumor cell lines

  9. Antineoplastic Effect of Calcium Channel Blocker-Verapamil and 5-Fluorouracil Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy on Hepatocarcinoma-Bearing Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the antineoplastic effect of the calcium channel blocker verapamil and 5-fluorouracil intraperitoneal chemotherapy on hepatocarcinoma-bearing rats,and examine the action between calcium channel blockers and cytotoxic drugs. Methods We adopted the method of subcapsular implantation of carcinoma tissues of walker-256 in the left liver lobe as a model of liver carcinoma-bearing rats.All experimental animals were divided into four groups.On the sixth day post implantation,in group A (control group) 6ml of saline was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 3 days.In group B(single chemotherapy group) 6ml of 5-Fu 75 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 3 days.In group C(combination of treatment group)both 5-Fu(75mg/kg) and verapamil (25mg/kg) were administered simultaneously as in A and B.In group D(simple verapamil group)only 6ml of verapamil(25mg/kg)was administered as above. Results Compared with groups A, B and D,The volume of cancer and the contents of liver cancer DNA and protein were significantly reduced.The rates of inhibiting cancer(89.9% in group C and 35.4% in group B)were significantly increased in groupC. Group C had significantly long survival time compared to groups A, B and D(P<0.05).By light microscopy, a number of focal necroses were found in cancer tissue in group C.Conclusion Calcium channel blockers can enhance the antineoplastic effect of 5-Fu intraperitonea chemotherapy to liver cancer;The use of verapamil can not increase the toxicity of 5-Fu.

  10. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  11. Antibiotics and the resistant microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    . Less appreciated are the concomitant changes in the human microbiome in response to these assaults and their contribution to clinical resistance problems. Studies have shown that pervasive changes to the human microbiota result from antibiotic treatment and that resistant strains can persist for years....... Additionally, culture-independent functional characterization of the resistance genes from the microbiome has demonstrated a close evolutionary relationship between resistance genes in the microbiome and in pathogens. Application of these techniques and novel cultivation methods are expected to significantly...... expand our understanding of the interplay between antibiotics and the microbiome....

  12. Antibiotic allergy in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, J.; Nasser, S.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic reactions to antibiotics are more common in cystic fibrosis (CF) than in the general population. This in part is due to the improving survival in adults with CF and the increased use of high dose intravenous antibiotics. While some are immediate anaphylaxis type (IgE mediated) reactions, the majority are late onset and may have non-specific features such as rash and fever. Piperacillin has consistently been found to have the highest rate of reported reactions (30–50%). There is a low...

  13. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it. PMID:27092975

  14. Use of Antibiotics in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune;

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe the use of systemic antibiotics among children in Denmark. Methods: National data on drug use in Denmark were extracted from the Danish National Prescription Database. We used prescription data for all children in Denmark aged 0 to 11 years from January 1, 2000 to...

  15. ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR ENT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Turovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines basic principles of and new approaches to antibiotic therapy for ENT and upper respiratory tract infections, from point of view of the authors, on the basis of the data available in Russian and foreign literature.

  16. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  17. Do We Need New Antibiotics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spížek, Jaroslav; Novotná, Jitka; Janata, Jiří

    Seoul : COEX Convention and Exhibition Center , 2009. s. 218-218. [Annual World Congress of Industrial Biotechnology 2009 /2./. 05.04.2009-07.04.2009, Seoul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : antibiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  19. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta V; Yadav A; Joshi R

    2002-01-01

    Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urina...

  20. A study of antibiotic prescribing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Radzeviciene-Jurgute, R.; Jurgutis, A.; Lazarus, J.V.; Ovhed, I.; Strandberg, E.L.; Bjerrum, L.

    2012-01-01

    clinically or pharmacologically. Methods. 22 Lithuanian and 29 Russian GPs participated in five focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results. We identified four main thematic categories: patients' faith in antibiotics as medication for upper respiratory tract infections...

  1. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelatti Umberto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some industrial hygiene studies have assessed occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs; other epidemiological investigations have detected various toxicological effects in exposure groups labeled with the job title. In no research has the same population been studied both environmentally and epidemiologically. The protocol of the epidemiological study presented here uses an integrated environmental and biological monitoring approach. The aim is to assess in hospital nurses preparing and/or administering therapy to cancer patients the current level of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, DNA and chromosome damage as cancer predictive effects, and the association between the two. Methods/Design About 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses, who job it is to prepare or handle antineoplastic drugs, and a reference group of about 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses not occupationally exposed to chemicals will be examined simultaneously in a cross-sectional study. All the workers will be recruited from five hospitals in northern and central Italy after their informed consent has been obtained. Evaluation of surface contamination and dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs will be assessed by determining cyclophosphamide on selected surfaces (wipes and on the exposed nurses' clothes (pads. The concentration of unmetabolized cyclophosphamide as a biomarker of internal dose will be measured in end-shift urine samples from exposed nurses. Biomarkers of effect and susceptibility will be assessed in exposed and unexposed nurses: urinary concentration of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; DNA damage detected using the single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet assay in peripheral white blood cells; micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Genetic polymorphisms for enzymes involved in metabolic detoxification (i.e. glutathione S-transferases will also be analysed. Using standardized questionnaires

  2. Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159392.html Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome' C-section birth ... microbiomes" are altered by cesarean births, antibiotics and formula feeding. "The microbiome is really important in how ...

  3. Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines into Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160702.html Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines Into Dentists Seeing their prescription rates leads some to change ... 30, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Dentists are less likely to prescribe antibiotics for patients ...

  4. FDA Bolsters Warnings about Class of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html FDA Bolsters Warnings About Class of Antibiotics Fluoroquinolones such as Cipro, Levaquin should be reserved for ... label warnings on a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones because the drugs can lead to disabling side ...

  5. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don’t work against them. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires ... child gets sick? To minimize the risk of bacterial resistance, keep these tips in mind: Take antibiotics only ...

  6. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first- ...

  7. Antibiotics: Use and misuse in pediatric dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    F C Peedikayil

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in dentistry for prophylactic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Most often antibiotics are used in unwarranted situations, which may give rise to resistant bacterial strains. Dentists want to make their patients well and to prevent unpleasant complications. These desires, coupled with the belief that many oral problems are infectious, stimulate the prescribing of antibiotics. Good knowledge about the indications of antibiotics is the need of the hour in prescr...

  8. Squalamine: an aminosterol antibiotic from the shark.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, K.S.; Wehrli, S; Roder, H; Rogers, M.; Forrest, J N; McCrimmon, D; Zasloff, M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of low molecular weight antibiotics have been isolated from diverse animal species. These agents, which include peptides, lipids, and alkaloids, exhibit antibiotic activity against environmental microbes and are thought to play a role in innate immunity. We report here the discovery of a broad-spectrum steroidal antibiotic isolated from tissues of the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias. This water-soluble antibiotic, which we have named squalamine, exhibits potent bact...

  9. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mehr-Movahed

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  10. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, Callie H; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and fema...

  11. Surface modeling of soil antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen-jiao; Yue, Tian-xiang; Du, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zong; Li, Xue-wen

    2016-02-01

    Large numbers of livestock and poultry feces are continuously applied into soils in intensive vegetable cultivation areas, and then some veterinary antibiotics are persistent existed in soils and cause health risk. For the spatial heterogeneity of antibiotic residues, developing a suitable technique to interpolate soil antibiotic residues is still a challenge. In this study, we developed an effective interpolator, high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) combined vegetable types, to predict the spatial patterns of soil antibiotics, using 100 surface soil samples collected from an intensive vegetable cultivation area located in east of China, and the fluoroquinolones (FQs), including ciprofloxacin (CFX), enrofloxacin (EFX) and norfloxacin (NFX), were analyzed as the target antibiotics. The results show that vegetable type is an effective factor to be combined to improve the interpolator performance. HASM achieves less mean absolute errors (MAEs) and root mean square errors (RMSEs) for total FQs (NFX+CFX+EFX), NFX, CFX and EFX than kriging with external drift (KED), stratified kriging (StK), ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW). The MAE of HASM for FQs is 55.1 μg/kg, and the MAEs of KED, StK, OK and IDW are 99.0 μg/kg, 102.8 μg/kg, 106.3 μg/kg and 108.7 μg/kg, respectively. Further, RMSE simulated by HASM for FQs (CFX, EFX and NFX) are 106.2 μg/kg (88.6 μg/kg, 20.4 μg/kg and 39.2 μg/kg), and less 30% (27%, 22% and 36%), 33% (27%, 27% and 43%), 38% (34%, 23% and 41%) and 42% (32%, 35% and 51%) than the ones by KED, StK, OK and IDW, respectively. HASM also provides better maps with more details and more consistent maximum and minimum values of soil antibiotics compared with the measured data. The better performance can be concluded that HASM takes the vegetable type information as global approximate information, and takes local sampling data as its optimum control constraints. PMID:26613514

  12. Frequencies of 23 Functionally Significant Variant Alleles Related with Metabolism of Antineoplastic Drugs in the Chilean Population: Comparison with Caucasian and Asian Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Roco, Ángela; Quiñones, Luis; Agúndez, José A. G.; García-Martín, Elena; Squicciarini, Valentina; Miranda, Carla; Garay, Joselyn; Farfán, Nancy; SAAVEDRA, IVÁN; Cáceres, Dante; Ibarra, Carol; Varela, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic ...

  13. Frequencies of 23 functionally significant variant alleles related with metabolism of antineoplastic drugs in the Chilean population: comparison with Caucasian and Asian populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Margarita Roco; Luis Abel Quiñones; Agúndez, José A. G.; Elena eGarcía-Martín; Valentina eSquicciarini; Carla Estefania Miranda; Joselyn eGaray; Nancy eFarfán; Iván Nicolás Saavedra; Dante Daniel Caceres; Carol eIbarra; Nelson Miguel Varela

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic ...

  14. Relation between DNA damage measured by comet assay and OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in antineoplastic drugs biomonitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ladeira; Susana Viegas; Mário Pádua; Elisabete Carolino; Gomes, Manuel C.; Miguel Brito

    2015-01-01

    Antineoplastic drugs are hazardous chemical agents used mostly in the treatment of patients with cancer, however health professionals that handle and administer these drugs can become exposed and develop DNA damage. Comet assay is a standard method for assessing DNA damage in human biomonitoring and, combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) enzyme, it specifically detects DNA oxidative damage.The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic effects in workers occupationally e...

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Endostar on Liver Cancer through Optical Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Qian ZHANG; Du, Yang; Xue, Zhenwen; Chi, Chongwei; Jia, Xiaohua; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth, progression, and drug treatment response, and it has become an important tool to promote biological studies in recent years. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic effects of Endostar on liver cancer based on the optical molecular imaging systems including micro-computer tomography (Micro-CT), bioluminescence molecular imaging (BLI) and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT...

  16. Chemosensitivity assay in mice prostate tumor: Preliminary report of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods of anti-neoplastic drug monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kline Richard; Sharma Rakesh

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiomateric analysis and NMR peaks characterized drug chemosensitivity of antineoplastic drugs. Hypotheses were: 1. The chemosensitive effect of different cancer cell lines is characteristic; 2. DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric analysis suggest apoptosis status of tumor cells. Methods PC-3 cell lines were compared with DU-145, LNCaP cell lines in culture for the [Na]i and [Ca]i ion sensing dyes, cell death, NMR peaks and apoptosis staining fo...

  17. Quantitative Analysis of the Anti-Proliferative Activity of Combinations of Selected Iron-Chelating Agents and Clinically Used Anti-Neoplastic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Eliska Potuckova; Hana Jansova; Miloslav Machacek; Anna Vavrova; Pavlina Haskova; Lucie Tichotova; Vera Richardson; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.; Tomas Simunek

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that several chelators possess marked potential as potent anti-neoplastic drugs and as agents that can ameliorate some of the adverse effects associated with standard chemotherapy. Anti-cancer treatment employs combinations of several drugs that have different mechanisms of action. However, data regarding the potential interactions between iron chelators and established chemotherapeutics are lacking. Using estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, ...

  18. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project

    OpenAIRE

    Gelatti Umberto; Sabatini Laura; Dominici Luca; Appolloni Massimo; Buschini Annamaria; Carrieri Mariella; Ceretti Elisabetta; Barbieri Anna; Villarini Milena; Grollino Maria G; Mussi Francesca; Pavanello Sofia; Feretti Donatella; Bonfiglioli Roberta; Moretti Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Some industrial hygiene studies have assessed occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs; other epidemiological investigations have detected various toxicological effects in exposure groups labeled with the job title. In no research has the same population been studied both environmentally and epidemiologically. The protocol of the epidemiological study presented here uses an integrated environmental and biological monitoring approach. The aim is to assess in hospital n...

  19. The Hepatoprotection Provided by Taurine and Glycine against Antineoplastic Drugs Induced Liver Injury in an Ex Vivo Model of Normothermic Recirculating Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Heidari; Akram Jamshidzadeh; Hossein Niknahad; Farshad Safari; Hamdollah Azizi; Narges Abdoli; Mohammad Mehdi Ommati; Forouzan Khodaei; Arastoo Saeedi; Asma Najibi

    2016-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) is a non-protein amino acid found in high concentration in different tissues. Glycine (Amino acetic acid) is the simplest amino acid incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several investigations indicate the hepatoprotective properties of these amino acids. On the other hand, antineoplastic agents-induced serum transaminase elevation and liver injury is a clinical complication. The current investigation was designed to screen the possible hepatoprotec...

  20. T-Bet Mediated Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Dendritic Cell-Cytokine Induced Killer Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying T-bet mediated anti-neoplastic effects of cytokine induced killer (CIK cells.Methods: Lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of leukemic children were induced with γ- interferon (IFN-γ, CD3McAb and interluki-2 (IL-2, and co-cultured with dendritic cells (DCs to generate DC-CIK cells. The morphology and immunophenotype of these cells were determined by a light microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. IL-2 and IFN-γ levels released by DC-CIK cells were quantified by ELISA. Cytotoxicity of DC-CIK cells against leukemia cell lines was measured by MTT assay. FCM was used to detect CD4+CD25+Treg cells, while RT-PCR and Western blot were used to determine mRNA and protein expressions of Foxp3 and GATA3 in DC-CIK cells treated with T-bet monoclonal antibody.Findings: Induced DC-CIK cells were regular, round and transparent with variable cell volume and cellular aggregation. The main effector cells in this population were CD3+CD8+ cells and CD3+CD56+ cells. We demonstrated a time dependent increase in IL-2 and IFN-γ levels after induction. DC-CIK cells were cytotoxic to B95 cells, Jhhan cells and M07e cells, with the highest cytotoxicity towards B95 cells. Treatment with mouse anti-human T-bet monoclonal antibody resulted in an increase in the proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg cells and elevation of Foxp3 and GATA3 mRNA and protein levels.Conclusion: DC-CIK cells induced with cytokines were strongly cytotoxic towards a number of cancer cell lines. Foxp3 and GATA3 were implicated in the T-bet mediated anti-neoplastic effects of DC-CIK cells via activation of the Th1 pathway and suppression of the Th2 and Treg pathways.

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  2. Use of antibiotics in plant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, V O; Duffy, B

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are essential for control of bacterial diseases of plants, especially fire blight of pear and apple and bacterial spot of peach. Streptomycin is used in several countries; the use of oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and gentamicin is limited to only a few countries. Springtime antibiotic sprays suppress pathogen growth on flowers and leaf surfaces before infection; after infection, antibiotics are ineffective. Antibiotics are applied when disease risk is high, and consequently the majority of orchards are not treated annually. In 2009 in the United States, 16,465 kg (active ingredient) was applied to orchards, which is 0.12% of the total antibiotics used in animal agriculture. Antibiotics are active on plants for less than a week, and significant residues have not been found on harvested fruit. Antibiotics have been indispensable for crop protection in the United States for more than 50 years without reports of adverse effects on human health or persistent impacts on the environment. PMID:22849276

  3. Biosynthesis of Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lanen, Steven G.; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The enediyne polyketides are secondary metabolites isolated from a variety of Actinomycetes. All members share very potent anticancer and antibiotic activity, and prospects for the clinical application of the enediynes has been validated with the recent marketing of two enediyne derivatives as anticancer agents. The biosynthesis of these compounds is of interest because of the numerous structural features that are unique to the enediyne family. The gene cluster for five enediynes has now been...

  4. Uncialamycin, a new enediyne antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Julian; Wang, Hao; Taylor, Terry; Warabi, Kaoru; Huang, Xin-Hui; Andersen, Raymond J

    2005-11-10

    [structure: see text] Laboratory cultures of an undescribed streptomycete obtained from the surface of a British Columbia lichen produce uncialamycin (1), a new enediyne antibiotic. The structure of uncialamycin (1) has been elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. Uncialamycin (1) exhibits potent in vitro antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens, including Burkholderia cepacia, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:16268546

  5. Minocycline: far beyond an antibiotic

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido-Mesa, N; Zarzuelo, A; Gálvez, J

    2013-01-01

    Minocycline is a second-generation, semi-synthetic tetracycline that has been in therapeutic use for over 30 years because of its antibiotic properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is mainly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris and some sexually transmitted diseases. Recently, it has been reported that tetracyclines can exert a variety of biological actions that are independent of their anti-microbial activity, including anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic acti...

  6. Bacterial infections: antibiotics and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah

    Infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and micro-organisms including the mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and chlamydiae. Most of the infections commonly encountered in the UK are caused either by bacteria or viruses. This article describes bacterial structure and function to explain how antibiotics work and the processes of decontamination such as cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation, which are important in infection control. PMID:15224613

  7. Oxidative Stress Induced in Nurses by Exposure to Preparation and Handling of Antineoplastic Drugs in Mexican Hospitals: A Multicentric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of involuntary exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD was studied in a group of nurses in diverse hospitals in Mexico. The results were compared with a group of unexposed nurses. Anthropometric characteristics and the biochemical analysis were analyzed in both groups. Also, lipid peroxidation level (LPX, protein carbonyl content (PCC, and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were evaluated in blood of study participants as oxidative stress (OS biomarkers. The group of occupationally exposed (OE nurses consisted of 30 individuals ranging in age from 25 to 35 years. The control group included 30 nurses who were not occupationally exposed to the preparation and handling of AD and whose anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of the OE group. All biomarkers evaluated were significantly increased (P<0.5 in OE nurses compared to the control group. Results show that the assessment of OS biomarkers is advisable in order to evaluate exposure to AD in nurses.

  8. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bao, Jin-ku, E-mail: jinkubao@yahoo.com [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. {yields} ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. {yields} ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+}-dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-{kappa}B-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  9. The antineoplastic drug flavopiridol reverses memory impairment induced by Amyloid-ß1-42 oligomers in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Gian Marco; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Puzzo, Daniela; Spatuzza, Michela; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Gulisano, Walter; Torrisi, Sebastiano Alfio; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Piazza, Cateno; Impellizzeri, Agata Rita; Gozzo, Lucia; Navarria, Andrea; Bucolo, Claudio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Palmeri, Agostino; Salomone, Salvatore; Copani, Agata; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    The ectopic re-activation of cell cycle in neurons is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which could lead to synaptic failure and ensuing cognitive deficits before frank neuronal death. Cytostatic drugs that act as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors have been poorly investigated in animal models of AD. In the present study, we examined the effects of flavopiridol, an inhibitor of CDKs currently used as antineoplastic drug, against cell cycle reactivation and memory loss induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aß1-42 oligomers in CD1 mice. Cycling neurons, scored as NeuN-positive cells expressing cyclin A, were found both in the frontal cortex and in the hippocampus of Aβ-injected mice, paralleling memory deficits. Starting from three days after Aβ injection, flavopiridol (0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected daily, for eleven days. Here we show that a treatment with flavopiridol (0.5 and 1mg/kg) was able to rescue the loss of memory induced by Aβ1-42, and to prevent the occurrence of ectopic cell-cycle events in the mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus. This is the first evidence that a cytostatic drug can prevent cognitive deficits in a non-transgenic animal model of AD. PMID:26875816

  10. A Comprehensive Spectroscopic and Computational Investigation to Probe the Interaction of Antineoplastic Drug Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid with Serum Albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusrat, Saima; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Zaman, Masihuz; Zaidi, Nida; Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Alam, Parvez; Qadeer, Atiyatul; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous drugs that are used as antidote against chemotheray, inflammation or viral infection, gets absorbed and interacts reversibly to the major serum transport protein i.e. albumins, upon entering the circulatory system. To have a structural guideline in the rational drug designing and in the synthesis of drugs with greater efficacy, the binding mechanism of an antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory drug Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) with human and bovine serum albumins (HSA & BSA) were examined by spectroscopic and computational methods. NDGA binds to site II of HSA with binding constant (Kb) ~105 M-1 and free energy (ΔG) ~ -7.5 kcal.mol-1. It also binds at site II of BSA but with lesser binding affinity (Kb) ~105 M-1 and ΔG ~ -6.5 kcal.mol-1. The negative value of ΔG, ΔH and ΔS for both the albumins at three different temperatures confirmed that the complex formation process between albumins and NDGA is spontaneous and exothermic. Furthermore, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are the main forces involved in complex formation of NDGA with both the albumins as evaluated from fluorescence and molecular docking results. Binding of NDGA to both the albumins alter the conformation and causes minor change in the secondary structure of proteins as indicated by the CD spectra. PMID:27391941

  11. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. → ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. → ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca2+/Mn2+-dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-κB-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  12. A multicenter study of biological effects assessment of pharmacy workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Bao, Jianan; Wang, Renying; Geng, Zhou; Chen, Yao; Liu, Xinchun; Xie, Yongzhong; Jiang, Ling; Deng, Yufei; Liu, Gaolin; Xu, Rong; Miao, Liyan

    2016-09-01

    This multi-centered study was designed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs) at PIVAS (Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service) across ten Chinese hospitals. 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and lymphocyte apoptosis assays using peripheral lymphocyte cells were used to detect primary DNA damage. The mutagenicity activity was estimated with the Ames fluctuation test. 158 exposed and 143 unexposed workers participated in this study. The urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentrations of the exposed group was 22.05±17.89ng/mg Cr, which was significantly higher than controls of 17.36±13.50ng/mg Cr (P<0.05). The rate of early lymphocyte apoptosis was slightly increased in exposed group than that of the control group (P=0.087). The mutagenic activity was significantly higher in the exposed group relative to the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, while no statistically significant difference was observed, higher concentrations of 8-OHdG/Cr in urine and an early lymphocyte apoptosis rate were found in exposed group II as compared to exposed group I. In addition, a significant correlation between early lymphocyte apoptosis and exposure time to ADs was also observed (P<0.05). In conclusion, our study identified elevated biomarkers in PIVAS workers exposed to ADs. However whether these findings could lead to increased incidence of genotoxic responses remains to be further investigated. PMID:27179702

  13. Diet and tumor LKB1 expression interact to determine sensitivity to anti-neoplastic effects of metformin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algire, C; Amrein, L; Bazile, M; David, S; Zakikhani, M; Pollak, M

    2011-03-10

    Hypothesis-generating epidemiological research has suggested that cancer burden is reduced in diabetics treated with metformin and experimental work has raised questions regarding the role of direct adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated anti-neoplastic effects of metformin as compared with indirect effects attributable to reductions in circulating insulin levels in the host. We treated both tumor LKB1 expression and host diet as variables, and observed that metformin inhibited tumor growth and reduced insulin receptor activation in tumors of mice with diet-induced hyperinsulinemia, independent of tumor LKB1 expression. In the absence of hyperinsulinemia, metformin inhibited only the growth of tumors transfected with short hairpin RNA against LKB1, a finding attributable neither to an effect on host insulin level nor to activation of AMPK within the tumor. Further investigation in vitro showed that cells with reduced LKB1 expression are more sensitive to metformin-induced adenosine triphosphate depletion owing to impaired ability to activate LKB1-AMPK-dependent energy-conservation mechanisms. Thus, loss of function of LKB1 can accelerate proliferation in contexts where it functions as a tumor suppressor, but can also sensitize cells to metformin. These findings predict that any clinical utility of metformin or similar compounds in oncology will be restricted to subpopulations defined by host insulin levels and/or loss of function of LKB1. PMID:21102522

  14. 碱基切除修复与抗肿瘤药物耐药%Base excision repair and antineoplastic drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况里杉; 王宇亮; 周向东

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main methods to treat malignant tumors in clinical practice. Resistance to antineoplastic agents is one of the important reasons for treatment failure. The antineoplastic mechanism of various chemotherapeutic agents is to cause DNA damage, then result in apoptosis of tumor cells. It is suggested that the function of DNA repair is directly associated with the efficacy of antineoplastic agents. Current studies suggest that there are four major DNA repair pathways including BER (base excision repair), NER (nucleotide excision repair), MMR (mismatch repair) and DSBR (double strand break repair). Of these four pathways, BER is one of the main mechanisms of DNA repair and its malfunction is closely related to the resistance to antineoplastic agents. Recently, many kinds of agents and strategies targeting BER have been developed to reverse chemoresistance. This review summarizes the progress in research in this area and discusses the mechanism of resistance to antineoplastic agents and the potential preventive and therapeutic strategies.%化疗是目前临床上治疗肿瘤的主要方法之一,抗肿瘤药物耐药则是导致肿瘤治疗失败的重要原因之一.多种化疗药物抗肿瘤的主要机制是引起DNA损伤,进而导致肿瘤细胞凋亡;因此,DNA修复功能状态与抗肿瘤药物疗效有着直接的关系.目前,已知有4种主要的DNA修复途径:碱基切除修复(base excision repair,BER)、核苷酸切除修复(nucleotide excision repair,NER)、错配修复(mismatch repair,MMR)和双键断裂修复(double strand break repair,DSBR).其中,BER是主要的DNA修复机制之一,其修复功能异常与抗肿瘤药物耐药有着密切的联系.近年来,以BER为靶点开发了多种逆转耐药的药物或方法.本文将简要综述相关的研究进展,深入探讨抗肿瘤药物耐药的发生机制及防治措施.

  15. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott; Porter, Dwayne E.; R. Sean Norman; C. Hart Scott; Miguel Ignacio Uyaguari-Diaz; Keith eMaruya; Steve B. Weisberg; Fulton, Michael H.; Ed F. Wirth; Janet eMooore; Pennington , Paul L.; Daniel eSchlenk; Cobb, George P.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs). CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CEC...

  16. Tailored Antibiotic Combination Powders for Inhaled Rotational Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Ng, Wai Kiong; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Reginald B H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory lung infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs are on a global upsurge and have very grim clinical outcomes. Their MDR profile makes therapeutic options extremely limited. Although a highly toxic antibiotic, colistin, is favored today as a "last-line" therapeutic against these hard-to-treat MDR pathogens, it is fast losing its effectiveness. This work therefore seeks to identify and tailor-make useful combination regimens (that are potentially rotatable and synergistic) as attractive alternative strategies to address the rising rates of drug resistance. Three potentially rotatable ternary dry powder inhaler constructs (each involving colistin and 2 other different-classed antibiotics chosen from rifampicin, meropenem, and tigecycline) were identified (with distinct complementary killing mechanisms), coformulated via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance using a Next-Generation Impactor and tested for their efficacies against a number of MDR pathogens. The powder particles were of respirable size (d50, 3.1 ± 0.3 μm-3.4 ± 0.1 μm) and predominantly crumpled in morphology. When dispersed via a model dry powder inhaler (Aerolizer(®)) at 60 L/min, the powders showed concomitant in vitro deposition with fine particle fractions of ∼53%-70%. All formulations were successfully tested in the laboratory to be highly effective against the MDR pathogens. In addition, a favorable synergistic interaction was detected across all 3 formulations when tested against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27019964

  17. Response to "Antibiotic Use and Resistance"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; Rabanaque, María José; Feja, Christina; Lallana, María Jesús; Aguilar, Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned, antibiotic consumption in heavy users, especially in children, is really striking. Certainly, our results revealed an antibiotic use in this age group higher than published in previous studies, and in line with different reports repeatedly presenting the high antibiotic consumption...... existing in Spain compared with other European countries (1). Determinants involved in antibiotic prescribing are numerous and varied. It is true that therapeutic failures lead to repeated courses of antibiotic treatment. However, it is not probably the only reason. Frequent and high consumption of...... antibiotics, as observed in heavy users, could also be due to factors related to the GP, patient and parents' expectations or the influence exerted by the pharmaceutical industry (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions. Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.

  19. Naphthyridinomycin, a DNA-reactive antibiotic.

    OpenAIRE

    Zmijewski, M J; Miller-Hatch, K; Goebel, M.

    1982-01-01

    Naphthyridinomycin is a novel quinone antibiotic that is produced in liquid shake cultures by Streptomyces lusitanus. Fermentation studies have shown that this antibiotic is produced maximally after 96 h of cell growth. L-[methyl-3H]methionine efficiently labels naphthyridinomycin when it is added to a fermentation mixture 24 h before culture is harvested. Unlabeled and radioactively labeled naphthyridinomycin were used to determine the mechanism of action of this unique antibiotic. Naphthyri...

  20. Antibiotics for the Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Patidar, Kavish R.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is complex and therapeutic regimens vary according to the acuity of presentation and the goals of therapy. Most treatments for HE rely on manipulating the intestinal milieu and therefore antibiotics that act on the gut form a key treatment strategy. Prominent antibiotics studied in HE are neomycin, metronidazole, vancomycin and rifaximin. For the management of the acute episode, all antibiotics have been tested. However the limited numbers studied,...

  1. DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karim

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk and milk products containing antibiotics especially penicillin may present a health hazard to individuals who are super sensitized to penicillin. A total of 620 samples of raw milk which were delivered to Tehran pasteurization plant were examined. 294 samples were antibiotic-negative and 326 samples showed to contain antibiotic. Considering the results obtained, certain recommendations were made to prevent public health hazards and economic losses.

  2. Superbugs and antibiotics in the newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Borghesi; Mauro Stronati

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become an urgent and global issue, with 700,000 deaths attributable to multidrug-resistance occurring each year worldwide. The overuse of antibiotics, both in animal industry and in clinical settings, and the generated selective pressure, are the main factors implicated in the emergence of resistant strains. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have pointed out that more than half of hospital patients receive an antibiotic during their stay, and nearl...

  3. Antibiotic Resistance in Childhood with Pneumococcal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Gunes

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Resistance to antibiotics is better. Between should not be in capitals. Antibiotics resistant has been increasing in pneumococci that cause serious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis in recent years. The resistance rates vary between geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to determine antibiotic resistance rates in pneumococcal infections in our region. Material and Method: This study included 31 pneumococcal strains isolated from blood, CSF and urine samples of patients with me...

  4. Antibiotic research and development: business as usual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbarth, S; Theuretzbacher, U; Hackett, J

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of antibiotic resistance is tremendous and, without new anti-infective strategies, will continue to increase in the coming decades. Despite the growing need for new antibiotics, few pharmaceutical companies today retain active antibacterial drug discovery programmes. One reason is that it is scientifically challenging to discover new antibiotics that are active against the antibiotic-resistant bacteria of current clinical concern. However, the main hurdle is diminishing economic incentives. Increased global calls to minimize the overuse of antibiotics, the cost of meeting regulatory requirements and the low prices of currently marketed antibiotics are strong deterrents to antibacterial drug development programmes. New economic models that create incentives for the discovery of new antibiotics and yet reconcile these incentives with responsible antibiotic use are long overdue. DRIVE-AB is a €9.4 million public-private consortium, funded by the EU Innovative Medicines Initiative, that aims to define a standard for the responsible use of antibiotics and to develop, test and recommend new economic models to incentivize investment in producing new anti-infective agents. PMID:25673635

  5. Deliberations on the impact of antibiotic contamination on dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The great success of antibiotics in treating bacterial infectious diseases has been hampered by the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Not only does antibiotic resistance threaten to increase the difficulty in treating bacterial infectious diseases, but it could also make medical procedures such as routine surgery and organ transplantations very dangerous to perform. Traditionally, antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a strictly clinical problem and studies of the p...

  6. Antibiotic Resistance in Wastewater : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)and antibiotic resistance genes

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    A large part of the antibiotics consumed ends up in wastewater, and in the wastewater the antibiotics may exert selective pressure for or maintain resistance among microorganisms. Antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes encoding antibiotic resistance are commonly detected in wastewater, often at higher rates and concentrations compared to surface water. Wastewater can also provide favourable conditions for the growth of a diverse bacterial community, which constitutes a basis for the selectio...

  7. [Health economics and antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, P; Bigdéli, M

    1995-01-01

    In the field of antibiotic therapy, particularly the methods of economic evaluation hold one's attention within the wide range of health economics' applications. Several tools allow a comparison of the outcomes of alternative strategies and thereby guide choices to the most appropriate solutions. After a brief recall of the methods classically used to evaluate health care strategy, the authors stress the importance and difficulty of fixing and applying a correct and satisfactory procedure for evaluation. An evaluation example of antibiotic therapy allows to illustrate the application of the principles confronting a field in which competition is intense and economic stakes stay large--a fact which naturally yields to seek after objective decision making criteria. The health care policies drawn by public authorities as well as the marketing strategies of the health sector trade are partly based on such evaluations. If these techniques are not intended for the practitioner in the first place, they should not be indifferent to him since they influence health authorities and thereby indirectly affect the therapeutic freedom of the physician. PMID:7481251

  8. Molecular modelling of betalactamic antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antibacterial properties of a compound are the result of its molecular structure. To establish the structural and electronic characteristics makes possible to understand the mechanisms of its action and becomes paramount for the rational design new drugs. Objective: To model some of the molecular properties of betalactamic antibiotics and inhibitors of the betalactamases and to relate them with their pharmacological actions. Method: The molecular structures were optimized with PM3• semiempiric calculus. The structure of the betalactamic ring in the different compounds was compared. The molecular properties were calculated according to the Density Functional Theory at a B3LYP/6-31G(d level. The density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Results There are variations in the calculated properties that make possible to define two groups of compounds: one for the monobactams and the inhibitors of the betalactamases, with less planarity in the ring and less reactivity and another one with the penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, planer, more structurally stable and reactive. Conclusions: The modelled molecular properties of the betalactamic antibiotics and inhibitors of the betalactamases show agreement with its pharmacological action.

  9. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Results Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 μM. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward

  10. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunaka, Misae; Arai, Reina; Ohashi, Ayaka; Koyama, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox) led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia), and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs. PMID:27504186

  11. Superbugs and antibiotics in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borghesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become an urgent and global issue, with 700,000 deaths attributable to multidrug-resistance occurring each year worldwide. The overuse of antibiotics, both in animal industry and in clinical settings, and the generated selective pressure, are the main factors implicated in the emergence of resistant strains. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have pointed out that more than half of hospital patients receive an antibiotic during their stay, and nearly a third receive a broad-spectrum antibiotic. In neonatal units, previous antibiotic exposure to third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem were identified as independent risk factors for infection caused by multi-drug resistant strains. While resistant ‘superbugs’ emerge, the arsenal to fight these microorganisms is progressively shrinking, as the number of newly discovered antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug administration each year is dropping. In face of global spread of antibiotic resistance and of the limited development of new drugs, policies and rules are under study by agencies (CDC, World Health Organization and governments, in order to: i facilitate and foster the discovery of new antibiotic compounds; ii develop new, alternative therapies able to potentiate or modulate the host immune response or to abrogate the resistance and virulence factors in the microorganisms; and iii prevent the emergence of resistance through antibiotic stewardship programs, educational programs, and reduction of antibiotic use in livestock; the field of neonatal medicine will need its own, newborn-tailored, antibiotic stewardship programs to be implemented in the NICUs. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai

  12. Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Siddiqi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Attiya Siddiqi, Sanjay SethiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Western New York Health Care System and University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USAAbstract: Our understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and consequences of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has increased substantially in the last decade. Several new lines of evidence demonstrate that bacterial isolation from sputum during acute exacerbation in many instances reflects a cause-effect relationship. Placebo-controlled antibiotic trials in exacerbations of COPD demonstrate significant clinical benefits of antibiotic treatment in moderate and severe episodes. However, in the multitude of antibiotic comparison trials, the choice of antibiotics does not appear to affect the clinical outcome, which can be explained by several methodological limitations of these trials. Recently, comparison trials with nontraditional end-points have shown differences among antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbations of COPD. Observational studies that have examined clinical outcome of exacerbations have repeatedly demonstrated certain clinical characteristics to be associated with treatment failure or early relapse. Optimal antibiotic selection for exacerbations has therefore incorporated quantifying the risk for a poor outcome of the exacerbation and choosing antibiotics differently for low risk and high risk patients, reserving the broader spectrum drugs for the high risk patients. Though improved outcomes in exacerbations with antibiotic choice based on such risk stratification has not yet been demonstrated in prospective controlled trials, this approach takes into account concerns of disease heterogeneity, antibiotic resistance and judicious antibiotic use in exacerbations.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, bronchitis, antibiotics

  13. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society: Part 1: Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns, Sources of Antibiotic Exposure, Antibiotic Consumption and Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance, Impact of Alterations in Antibiotic Prescribing, and Clinical Sequelae of Antibiotic Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Webster, Guy F; Rosen, Ted; Thiboutot, Diane; Leyden, James J; Gallo, Richard; Walker, Clay; Zhanel, George; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Oral and topical antibiotics are commonly prescribed in dermatologie practice, often for noninfectious disorders, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea. Concerns related to antibiotic exposure from both medical and nonmedical sources require that clinicians consider in each case why and how antibiotics are being used and to make appropriate adjustments to limit antibiotic exposure whenever possible. This first article of a three-part series discusses prescribing patterns in dermatology, provides an overview of sources of antibiotic exposure, reviews the relative correlations between the magnitude of antibiotic consumption and emergence of antibiotic resistance patterns, evaluates the impact of alterations in antibiotic prescribing, and discusses the potential relevance and clinical sequelae of antibiotic use, with emphasis on how antibiotics are used in dermatology. PMID:27462384

  14. MicroRNA-19a/b mediates grape seed procyanidin extract-induced anti-neoplastic effects against lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jenny T; Xue, Bingye; Smoake, Jane; Lu, Qing-Yi; Park, Heesung; Henning, Susanne M; Burns, Windie; Bernabei, Alvise; Elashoff, David; Serio, Kenneth J; Massie, Larry

    2016-08-01

    Oncomirs are microRNAs (miRNA) associated with carcinogenesis and malignant transformation. They have emerged as potential molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy. We hypothesize that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) exerts antineoplastic effects through modulations of oncomirs and their downstream targets. We found that GSE significantly down-regulated oncomirs miR-19a and -19b in a variety of lung neoplastic cells. GSE also increased mRNA and protein levels of insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-2R) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), both predicted targets of miR-19a and -19b. Furthermore, GSE significantly increased PTEN activity and decreased AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Transfection of miR-19a and -19b mimics reversed the up-regulations of IGF2R and PTEN gene expression and abrogated the GSE induced anti-proliferative response. Additionally, oral administration of leucoselect phytosome, comprised of standardized grape seed oligomeric procyanidins complexed with soy phospholipids, to athymic nude mice via gavage, significantly down-regulated miR-19a, -19b and the miR-17-92 cluster host gene (MIR17HG) expressions, increased IGF-2R, PTEN, decreased phosphorylated-AKT in A549 xenograft tumors, and markedly inhibited tumor growth. To confirm the absorption of orally administered GSE, plasma procyanidin B1 levels, between 60 and 90 min after gavage of leucoselect phytosome (400 mg/kg), were measured by LC/MS at week 2 and 8 of treatment; the estimated concentration that was associated with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) (1.3 μg/mL) in vitro was much higher than the IC50 (0.032-0.13 μg/ml) observed in vivo. Our findings reveal novel antineoplastic mechanisms by GSE and support the clinical translation of leucoselect phytosome as an anti-neoplastic and chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. PMID:27289489

  15. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  16. [Modification of antibiotic resistance in microbial symbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznabaeva, L M; Usviatsov, B Ia; Bukharin, O V

    2010-01-01

    In antibiotic therapy it is necessary to use drugs active against the pathogen in its association with the host normal microflora. The aim of the study was to investigate modification of antibiotic resistance under conditions of the pathogen association with the representatives of the host normal microflora and to develop the microbiological criteria for determining effectiveness of antibacterials. Modification of microbial antibiotic resistance was investigated in 408 associations. Various changes in the antibiotic resistance of the strains were revealed: synergism, antagonism and indifference. On the basis of the results it was concluded that in the choice of the antibiotic active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes the preference should be given to oxacillin, gentamicin and levomycetin, since the resistance of the pathogens to these antibiotics under the association conditions did not increase, which could contribute to their destruction, whereas the resistance of the normoflora increased or did not change, which was important for its retention in the biocenosis. The data on changeability of the antibiotic resistance of the microbial strains under the association conditions made it possible to develop microbiological criteria for determining effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of microbial etiology (RF Patent No. 2231554). PMID:21033469

  17. Antibiotics: Pharmacists Can Make the Difference

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    In this podcast, a pharmacist counsels a frustrated father about appropriate antibiotic use and symptomatic relief options for his son's cold.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  18. Mining metagenomic datasets for antibiotic resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are medicines that are used to kill, slow down, or prevent the growth of susceptible bacteria. They became widely used in the mid 20th century for controlling disease in humans, animals, and plants, and for a variety of industrial purposes. Antibiotic resistance is a broad term. There ...

  19. Antibiotic resistance: a physicist’s view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rosalind; Waclaw, Bartłomiej

    2016-08-01

    The problem of antibiotic resistance poses challenges across many disciplines. One such challenge is to understand the fundamental science of how antibiotics work, and how resistance to them can emerge. This is an area where physicists can make important contributions. Here, we highlight cases where this is already happening, and suggest directions for further physics involvement in antimicrobial research.

  20. Antibiotic tolerance and resistance in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    One of the most important features of microbial biofilms is their tolerance to antimicrobial agents and components of the host immune system. The difficulty of treating biofilm infections with antibiotics is a major clinical problem. Although antibiotics may decrease the number of bacteria in...

  1. Snort Sniffle Sneeze: No Antibiotics Please

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-29

    Antibiotics aren't always the answer for sneezes or sore throats. This podcast discusses ways to feel better without antibiotics.  Created: 9/29/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2009.

  2. Antibiotic RX in Hospitals: Proceed with Caution

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-04

    This podcast is based on the March 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotics save lives, but poor prescribing practices can put patients at risk for health problems. Learn how to protect patients by protecting antibiotics.  Created: 3/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/4/2014.

  3. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh; Azimi, Leila; Amani, Laleh; Rastegar Lari, Aida; Alinejad, Faranak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2015-01-01

    Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used. The results indicated that P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment. PMID:26124986

  4. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean general surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the incidence of surgical site infection in clean general surgery cases operated without prophylactic antibiotics. One hundred and twenty-four clean surgical cases operated without antibiotic prophylaxis between July 2003 and December 2004, were studied and these were compared with similar number of cases who received antibiotics. The data was collected and analyzed using software SPSS (version 10.0). Chi-square and student-t test were used to analyze the association between antibiotics and wound infection. The most frequent operation was repair of various hernias, 69.3% in group A and 75% in group B. More operations were carried out between 21-30 years, 38.7% in group A and 41.9% in group B. Surgical site infection occurred in one patient (0.8%) in each group. Chi-square test (0.636) applied to group A and B showed no association of infection and administration/ no administration of antibiotics (p > 0.25). The t-test applied on group A and B (t=0) also showed no significant difference between administration of antibiotics/ no-antibiotics and infection (p > 0.25). The use of prophylactic antibiotic in clean, non implant and elective cases is unnecessary. (author)

  6. Antibiotic research and development: business as usual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbarth, S.; Theuretzbacher, U.; Hackett, J.; Hulscher, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of antibiotic resistance is tremendous and, without new anti-infective strategies, will continue to increase in the coming decades. Despite the growing need for new antibiotics, few pharmaceutical companies today retain active antibacterial drug discovery programmes. One reason is

  7. The 'liaisons dangereuses' between iron and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezraty, Benjamin; Barras, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    The decline in the rate of new antibiotic discovery is of growing concern, and new antibacterial strategies must now be explored. This review brings together research in two fields (metals in biology and antibiotics) in the hope that collaboration between scientists working in these two areas will lead to major advances in understanding and the development of new approaches to tackling microbial pathogens. Metals have been used as antiseptics for centuries. In this review, we focus on iron, an essential trace element that can nevertheless be toxic to bacteria. We review the many situations in which iron and antibiotics have combinatorial effects when used together. Understanding the molecular relationships between iron and antibiotics, from pure chemistry to gene reprogramming via biochemical competition, is important not only to increase basic knowledge, but also for the development of treatments against pathogens, with a view to optimizing antibiotic efficacy. PMID:26945776

  8. Biosynthesis of enediyne antitumor antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The enediyne polyketides are secondary metabolites isolated from a variety of Actinomycetes. All members share very potent anticancer and antibiotic activity, and prospects for the clinical application of the enediynes has been validated with the recent marketing of two enediyne derivatives as anticancer agents. The biosynthesis of these compounds is of interest because of the numerous structural features that are unique to the enediyne family. The gene cluster for five enediynes has now been cloned and sequenced, providing the foundation to understand natures' means to biosynthesize such complex, exotic molecules. Presented here is a review of the current progress in delineating the biosynthesis of the enediynes with an emphasis on the model enediyne, C-1027. PMID:18397168

  9. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Christiansen, H.M.; Ehlers, D

    1984-01-01

    The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greate...... of infection and the few side effects of the infections that did occur, prophylactic treatment with an antibiotic is not indicated for transurethral prostatectomy in patients with sterile urine.......The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greater...

  10. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  11. Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158316.html Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs: Study Individual farm ... HealthDay News) -- Use of antibiotics in farm animal feed is helping drive the worldwide increase in antibiotic- ...

  12. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    necessity for political leadership to encourage clinically grounded antibiotic use; over-the-counter sale of antibiotics; designation of antibiotics as reimbursable medications; supervision by external oversight institutions; lack of guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections; and...

  13. Identification of Antibiotic Use Pattern as an Effort to Control Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S. Pradipta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in hospitalized patients at one of Bandung’s private hospital that can give benefit in control of antibiotic resistance and procurement planning of antibiotic. Data of antibiotic consumption were obtained from hospital pharmacy department on February–September 2011. Data were processed using the ATC/DDD and DU90% method. There were 390,98 DDD/100 bed days and 381,34 DDD/100 bed days total of an-tbiotic use in 2009 and 2010. Thirty nine antibiotic were consumed in 2009 within 11 kind of antibiotics in DU90% segment (ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, cefixime, doxycycline, thiamphenicol, cefodoxime, cefalexin and 44 antibiotic were consumed in 2010 within 18 kind of antibiotics in DU90% segment (ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, cefixime, levofloxacin, cefadroxil, cefotaxime, metronidazole, thiamphenicol, doxycycline, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, sulbactam, gentamycin, streptomycin, cefoperazone, canamycin. There were decline of antibiotic use that followed decline number of bed days/year in 2009–2010, but in both antibiotic kind and quantity of DU90% antibiotic group were increased.

  14. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C for maximum 34 days. Using LC–MS/MS for chemical analysis, lasalocid was not found to hydrolyse in any of the tested environments. Monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were all stable in neutral or alkaline solution but hydrolysed in the solution with a pH of 4. Half-lives at 25 °C were calculated to be 13, 0.6, and 0.7 days for monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Absorbance spectra from each compound indicated that only lasalocid is degraded by photolysis (half-life below 1 h) due to an absorbance maximum around 303 nm, and monensin, salinomycin, and narasin are resistant to direct photolysis because they absorb light of environmentally irrelevant wavelengths. -- Highlights: •Constants for calculation of hydrolysis rates are estimated. •At 25 °C and a pH of 4, monensin hydrolyses with a half-life (t1/2) of 13 days. •Salinomycin and narasin hydrolyse with t1/2 of half a day at 25 °C and a pH of 4. •Lasalocid does not hydrolyse, but is likely to be susceptible to direct photolysis. •Monensin, salinomycin and narasin are not susceptible to direct photolysis. -- Antibiotic ionophores were found to undergo either hydrolysis in acidic environments (monensin, salinomycin, and narasin) or photolysis (lasalocid)

  15. Systems, not pills: The options market for antibiotics seeks to rejuvenate the antibiotic pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing recognition of the increasing growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria and a relative decline in the production of novel antibacterial therapies. The combination of these two forces poses a potentially grave threat to global health, in both developed and developing countries. Current market forces do not provide appropriate incentives to stimulate new antibiotic development, thus we propose a new incentive mechanism: the Options Market for Antibiotics. This mechanism, modelled on the principle of financial call options, allows payers to buy the right, in early stages of development, to purchase antibiotics at a discounted price if and when they ever make it to market approval. This paper demonstrates the effect of such a model on the expected Net Present Value of a typical antibacterial project. As part of an integrated strategy to confront the impending antibiotic crisis, the Options Market for Antibiotics may effectively stimulate corporate and public investment into antibiotic research and development. PMID:26808335

  16. Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in waters associated with a hospital in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marothi Yogyata

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised about the public health implications of the presence of antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment and their effect on the development of bacterial resistance. While there is information on antibiotic residue levels in hospital effluent from some other countries, information on antibiotic residue levels in effluent from Indian hospitals is not available. Also, concurrent studies on antibiotic prescription quantity in a hospital and antibiotic residue levels and resistant bacteria in the effluent of the same hospital are few. Therefore, we quantified antibiotic residues in waters associated with a hospital in India and assessed their association, if any, with quantities of antibiotic prescribed in the hospital and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli found in the hospital effluent. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital outside the city of Ujjain in India. Seven antibiotics - amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, amikacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin - were selected. Prescribed quantities were obtained from hospital records. The samples of the hospital associated water were analysed for the above mentioned antibiotics using well developed and validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique after selectively isolating the analytes from the matrix using solid phase extraction. Escherichia coli isolates from these waters were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Results Ciprofloxacin was the highest prescribed antibiotic in the hospital and its residue levels in the hospital wastewater were also the highest. In samples of the municipal water supply and the groundwater, no antibiotics were detected. There was a positive correlation between the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in the hospital and antibiotic residue levels in

  17. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sinus Infection (Sinusitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  18. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  19. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  20. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  1. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sore Throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  2. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Symptom Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  3. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - What You Can Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Pediatric Treatment Recommendations Inpatient Healthcare Professionals Community Pharmacists Continuing Education & Curriculum Opportunities Weighing in on Antibiotic Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews ...

  4. ET-09DECOY OLIGONUCLEOTIDE DERIVED FROM MGMT ENHANCER HAS AN ANTINEOPLASTIC ACTIVITY IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Tamar; Ovadia, Haim; Refael, Miri; Zrihan, Daniel; Siegal, Tali; Lavon, Iris

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumors, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through binding of p65/NF-kappaB homodimers to the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1) within MGMT enhancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA) modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN). Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to MGMT enhancer, the potential of the MGMT-kB1-LODN to enhance cell killing was studied in vitro in two glioma cell lines (T98G and U87) and a melanoma cell line (A375P). All three cell lines manifested a significant enhanced cell killing effect following exposure to temozolomide (TMZ) when first transfected with MGMT-kb1-LODN, and also induced a significant cell killing when administered as monotherapy. These results were confirmed also in-vivo on A375P Melanoma xenografts. Intratumoral (Intralesional - IL) injection of MGMT-kB1-LODN with or without IP injection of TMZ induced significant tumor growth inhibition either as a monotherapy or in combination with TMZ. The long-term effect of MGMT-kB1-LODN monotherapy was evaluated using a repetitive IL injection every 4 to 5 days for 55 days with either MGMT-κB1 LODN or control ODN or vehicle. A significant difference (p < 0.01) in tumor volume was obtained by MGMT-κB1-LODN compared to both control groups. Moreover, two out of the seven mice treated with MGMT-κB1-LODN demonstrated tumor regression by day 55 and no tumor recurrence was observed five months later. CONCLUSION: The results of these experiments show that the MGMT-kB1-LODN has a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with

  5. "Practical knowledge" and perceptions of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among drugsellers in Tanzanian private drugstores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomson Göran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies indicate that antibiotics are sold against regulation and without prescription in private drugstores in rural Tanzania. The objective of the study was to explore and describe antibiotics sale and dispensing practices and link it to drugseller knowledge and perceptions of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Methods Exit customers of private drugstores in eight districts were interviewed about the drugstore encounter and drugs bought. Drugsellers filled in a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended questions about antibiotics and resistance. Data were analyzed using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Of 350 interviewed exit customers, 24% had bought antibiotics. Thirty percent had seen a health worker before coming and almost all of these had a prescription. Antibiotics were dispensed mainly for cough, stomachache, genital complaints and diarrhea but not for malaria or headache. Dispensed drugs were assessed as relevant for the symptoms or disease presented in 83% of all cases and 51% for antibiotics specifically. Non-prescribed drugs were assessed as more relevant than the prescribed. The knowledge level of the drugseller was ranked as high or very high by 75% of the respondents. Seventy-five drugsellers from three districts participated. Seventy-nine percent stated that diseases caused by bacteria can be treated with antibiotics but 24% of these also said that antibiotics can be used for treating viral disease. Most (85% said that STI can be treated with antibiotics while 1% said the same about headache, 4% general weakness and 3% 'all diseases'. Seventy-two percent had heard of antibiotic resistance. When describing what an antibiotic is, the respondents used six different kinds of keywords. Descriptions of what antibiotic resistance is and how it occurs were quite rational from a biomedical point of view with some exceptions. They gave rise to five categories and one theme: Perceiving antibiotic

  6. [Antibiotic resistance of bacteria to 6 antibiotics in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wei, Bin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2011-11-01

    Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents is concerned as an emerging contaminant. To estimate antibiotic resistance in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, antibiotic tolerance of heterotrophic bacteria, proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and hemi-inhibitory concentrations of six antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and rifampicin) were determined at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing. The results showed that proportions of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in WWTP-G and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in WWTP-Q were highest to 59% and 44%, respectively. The concentrations of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in the effluents of WWTP-G and WWTP-Q were as high as 4.0 x 10(3) CFU x mL(-1) and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively; the concentrations of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were 4.9 x 10(2) CFU x mL(-1) and 4.6 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively. The data also indicated that the hemi-inhibitory concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria to 6 antibiotics were much higher than common concentrations of antibiotics in sewages, which suggested that antibiotic-resistant bacteria could exist over a long period in the effluents with low concentrations of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be a potential microbial risk during sewage effluent reuse or emission into environmental waters. PMID:22295644

  7. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Berglund

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  8. Fungal treatment for the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in veterinary hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D; Badia-Fabregat, M; Vicent, T; Caminal, G; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Balcázar, J L; Barceló, D

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important public health concerns and has been linked to the widespread use of antibiotics in veterinary and human medicine. The overall elimination of antibiotics in conventional wastewater treatment plants is quite low; therefore, residual amounts of these compounds are continuously discharged to receiving surface waters, which may promote the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In this study, the ability of a fungal treatment as an alternative wastewater treatment for the elimination of forty-seven antibiotics belonging to seven different groups (β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, metronidazoles, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) was evaluated. 77% of antibiotics were removed after the fungal treatment, which is higher than removal obtained in conventional treatment plants. Moreover, the effect of fungal treatment on the removal of some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was evaluated. The fungal treatment was also efficient in removing ARGs, such as ermB (resistance to macrolides), tetW (resistance to tetracyclines), blaTEM (resistance to β-lactams), sulI (resistance to sulfonamides) and qnrS (reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones). However, it was not possible to establish a clear link between concentrations of antibiotics and corresponding ARGs in wastewater, which leads to the conclusion that there are other factors that should be taken into consideration besides the antibiotic concentrations that reach aquatic ecosystems in order to explain the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26991378

  9. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles determined with an Escherichia coli gene knockout collection: generating an antibiotic bar code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2010-04-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  10. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  11. Effects of antibiotic treatment of nonlactating dairy cows on antibiotic resistance patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Berghash, S R; Davidson, J. N.; Armstrong, J. C.; Dunny, G M

    1983-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance patterns of the major groups of bovine mastitis pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, other streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were examined by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 different antibiotics against bacterial isolates from dairy cattle. The bacterial strains were obtained from milk samples from each cow in 21 New York state dairy herd surveys. In 12 herd surveys (high antibiotic-use group), all 365 cows...

  12. Metagenomic exploration of antibiotic resistance in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Jean-Michel; Demanèche, Sandrine; Delmont, Tom O; Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2011-06-01

    The ongoing development of metagenomic approaches is providing the means to explore antibiotic resistance in nature and address questions that could not be answered previously with conventional culture-based strategies. The number of available environmental metagenomic sequence datasets is rapidly expanding and henceforth offer the ability to gain a more comprehensive understanding of antibiotic resistance at the global scale. Although there is now evidence that the environment constitutes a vast reservoir of antibiotic resistance gene determinants (ARGDs) and that the majority of ARGDs acquired by human pathogens may have an environmental origin, a better understanding of their diversity, prevalence and ecological significance may help predict the emergence and spreading of newly acquired resistances. Recent applications of metagenomic approaches to the study of ARGDs in natural environments such as soil should help overcome challenges concerning expanding antibiotic resistances. PMID:21601510

  13. Race against time to develop new antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The second part of a series of three news features on antimicrobial resistance looks at how the antibiotics pipeline is drying up while resistance to existing drugs is increasing. Theresa Braine reports.

  14. What Can Be Done about Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WHO issued its Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance , a document aimed at policy-makers that urges ... of existing antibiotics by modifying them so the bacterial enzymes that cause resistance cannot attack them. Alternately, "decoy" molecules can be ...

  15. Do antibiotics decrease effectiveness of oral contraceptives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, C

    1996-09-01

    The number of accidental pregnancies occurring in oral contraceptive (OC) users who are concurrently taking certain antibiotics and antifungal agents exceeds the 1% failure rate associated with OCs, suggesting some form of drug interaction. Two mechanisms of action have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. First, drugs such as rifampin and griseofulvin induce liver enzymes that break down the estrogen and progestin contained in OCs, reducing plasma hormone levels. Second, changes in the intestinal bacterial flora induced by penicillin and tetracycline may reduce the gut's absorption of hormones, also compromising efficacy. Since rifampin and griseofulvin are the medications most frequently implicated in accidental pregnancies in OC users, the induction of liver enzymes is the more probable, potent cause of failure. Although the risk of pregnancy due to OC-antibiotic interactions is extremely small, OC users prescribed antibiotics should be warned to use condoms or spermicides until the antibiotics are discontinued. PMID:9006212

  16. Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fighting infection because of the immunity offered in mother's milk," said Dr. William Muinos, a pediatric gastroenterologist at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami. Antibiotics kill the bacteria in the gut, he said. "If ...

  17. Too Many People Still Take Unneeded Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of short-term respiratory conditions, such as colds, bronchitis, sore throats, and sinus and ear infections, the researchers reported. "About half of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory conditions were unnecessary," Fleming-Dutra said. In ...

  18. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-10

    This podcast answers questions from the public about appropriate antibiotic use.  Created: 9/10/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/15/2008.

  19. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants......-day regimen of post-operative antibiotics, in comparison to a 24-hour regimen, decreases surgical site infections in patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower extremity primary bone tumours. METHODS: We performed a pilot international multi-centre RCT. We used central randomisation to......% at one year (the remainder with partial data or pending queries). In total, 18 participants missed at least one dose of antibiotics or placebo post-operatively, but 93% of all post-operative doses were administered per protocol. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to conduct a definitive multi-centre RCT of...

  20. Controlling antibiotic resistance in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derde, L.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are frequently colonized with (antibiotic-resistant) bacteria, which may lead to healthcare associated infections. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB), such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (V

  1. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Verhoef, J.; Jansen, W. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be longitud......Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be...... various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... development of antibiotic resistance....

  2. Intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A.

    2001-05-01

    I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy has become the mainstay of antibiotic therapy for the majority of patients. I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is inappropriate for critically ill patients who require i.v. antibiotic therapy and should not be considered in patients who have the inability to absorb drugs. These exceptions constitute a very small percentage of hospitalized patients for which i.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is ideal. I.v.-to-p.o. switch therapy is best achieved with antibiotics that have high bioavailability that result in the same blood and tissue concentrations of antibiotic as their intravenous counterpart and have few gastrointestinal side effects. Antibiotics ideal for i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs include chloramphenicol, clindamycin, metronidazole, TMP-SMX, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, doxycycline, minocycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and linezolid. Antibiotics that may be used in i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs that have lower bioavailability but are effective include beta-lactams and macrolides. For antibiotics with no oral formulation, e.g., carbapenems, equivalent coverage must be provided with an oral antibiotic from an unrelated class. Excluding gastrointestinal malabsorptive disorders, disease state is not a determinant of suitability for i.v.-to-p.o. switch programs. I.v.-to-p.o. switch programs should be used in patients with any infectious disease disorder for which there is effective oral therapy and is not limited to certain infectious diseases. Oral absorption of antibiotics is near normal in all but the most critically ill patients. Therefore, even in sick, hospitalized individuals, p.o. therapy is appropriate. I.v-to-p.o. switch therapy has several important advantages including decreasing drug cost (i.v. vs. p.o.), decreasing length of stay permitting earlier discharge and optimal reimbursement and decreasing or eliminating i.v. line phlebitis and sepsis with its cost implications. Clinicians should consider all

  3. Antibiotics Cure Anthrax in Animal Models▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Pass, Avi; Ophir, Yakir; Rothschild, Nili; Tal, Arnon; Schlomovitz, Josef; Altboum, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax. Postexposure prophylaxis (24 h postinfection [p.i.]) of guinea pigs infected intranasally with Bacillus anthracis Vollum spores with doxycycline, ofloxacin, imipenem, and gentamicin conferred protection. However, upon termination of treatment, the animals died from respiratory anthrax. Combi...

  4. DNA-Aptamers Binding Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Nikolaus; Beate Strehlitz

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short, single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are able to bind specifically and with high affinity to their non-nucleic acid target molecules. This binding reaction enables their application as biorecognition elements in biosensors and assays. As antibiotic residues pose a problem contributing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and thereby reducing the effectiveness of the drug to fight human infections, we selected aptamers targeted against the aminog...

  5. Intensive Care Unit Infections and Antibiotic Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Yeşilkaya; Hande Arslan

    2011-01-01

    Burn wound infections is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn trauma patients. Although burn wound is sterile at the beginning, because of risk factors such as prolonged hospital stay, immunesuppression and burn affecting large body surface area, colonisation firstly with Staphylococcus aureus and then Pseudomonas aeruginosa will occur later. Delay in wound closure and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic will result wound colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. T...

  6. Cooperative Electrostatic Polymer-Antibiotic Nanoplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Vadala, Timothy Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria can enter phagocytic cells and replicate in them, and these intracellular bacteria are difficult to treat because the recommended antibiotics do not transport into the cells efficiently. Examples include food-borne bacteria such as Salmonella and Listeria as well as more toxic bacteria such as Brucella and the Mycobacteria that lead to tuberculosis. Current treatments utilize aminoglycoside antibiotics that are polar and positively charged and such drugs do not ente...

  7. Multiple antibiotic resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, A.; Martínez, J L

    1997-01-01

    A cryptic multidrug resistance (MDR) system in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the expression of which is selectable by tetracycline, is described. Tetracycline resistance was the consequence of active efflux of the antibiotic, and it was associated with resistance to quinolones and chloramphenicol, but not to aminoglycosides or beta-lactam antibiotics. MDR is linked to the expression of an outer membrane protein (OMP54) both in a model system and in multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

  8. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Corno, Gianluca; Coci, Manuela; Giardina, Marco; Plechuk, Sonia; Campanile, Floriana; Stefani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The release of antibiotics (AB) into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of AB-resistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and ...

  9. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    ManuelaCoci; MarcoGiardina

    2014-01-01

    The release of antibiotics (AB) into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of ABresistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and p...

  10. Modulation of RNA function by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, R; Waldsich, C; Wank, H

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important families of antibiotics are the aminoglycosides, including drugs such as neomycin B, paromomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. With the discovery of the catalytic potential of RNA, these antibiotics became very popular due to their RNA-binding capacity. They serve for the analysis of RNA function as well as for the study of RNA as a potential therapeutic target. Improvements in RNA structure determination recently provided first insights into the decoding site of the...

  11. Update on the Management of Antibiotic Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2010-01-01

    Drug allergy to antibiotics may occur in the form of immediate or non-immediate (delayed) hypersensitivity reactions. Immediate reactions are usually IgE-mediated whereas non-immediate hypersensitivity reactions are usually non-IgE or T-cell mediated. The clinical manifestations of antibiotic allergy may be cutaneous, organ-specific (e.g., blood dyscracias, hepatitis, interstitial nephritis), systemic (e.g., anaphylaxis, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome) or various combinations of these...

  12. Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P M

    2008-03-01

    Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes).The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation. PMID:18193080

  13. Coping with antibiotic resistance: combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2011-11-01

    The worldwide escalation of bacterial resistance to conventional medical antibiotics is a serious concern for modern medicine. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria among bacteria-based infections decreases effectiveness of current treatments and causes thousands of deaths. New improvements in present methods and novel strategies are urgently needed to cope with this problem. Owing to their antibacterial activities, metallic nanoparticles represent an effective solution for overcoming bacterial resistance. However, metallic nanoparticles are toxic, which causes restrictions in their use. Recent studies have shown that combining nanoparticles with antibiotics not only reduces the toxicity of both agents towards human cells by decreasing the requirement for high dosages but also enhances their bactericidal properties. Combining antibiotics with nanoparticles also restores their ability to destroy bacteria that have acquired resistance to them. Furthermore, nanoparticles tagged with antibiotics have been shown to increase the concentration of antibiotics at the site of bacterium-antibiotic interaction, and to facilitate binding of antibiotics to bacteria. Likewise, combining nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides and essential oils generates genuine synergy against bacterial resistance. In this article, we aim to summarize recent studies on interactions between nanoparticles and antibiotics, as well as other antibacterial agents to formulate new prospects for future studies. Based on the promising data that demonstrated the synergistic effects of antimicrobial agents with nanoparticles, we believe that this combination is a potential candidate for more research into treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:22029522

  14. Identification of Antibiotic Use Pattern as an Effort to Control Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan S. Pradipta; Ellin Febrina; Muhammad H. Ridwan; Rani Ratnawati

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in hospitalized patients at one of Bandung’s private hospital that can give benefit in control of antibiotic resistance and procurement planning of antibiotic. Data of antibiotic consumption were obtained from hospital pharmacy department on February–September 2011. Data were processed using the ATC/DDD and DU90% method. There were 390,98 DDD/100 bed days and 381,34 DDD/100 bed days total of an-tbiotic use i...

  15. Multiple strategies to activate gold nanoparticles as antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuyun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-08-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance calls for new strategies. Nanotechnology provides a chance to overcome antibiotic resistance by multiple antibiotic mechanisms. This paper reviews the progress in activating gold nanoparticles with nonantibiotic or antibiotic molecules to combat bacterial resistance, analyzes the gap between experimental achievements and real clinical application, and suggests some potential directions in developing antibacterial nanodrugs.

  16. Transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria from animals to man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Bager, Flemming

    Antibiotic resistance develops in zoonotic bacteria in response to antibiotics used in food animals. A close association exists between the amounts of antibiotics used and the levels of resistance observed. The classes of antibiotics routinely used for treatment of human infections are also used ...

  17. Reducing Parental Demand for Antibiotics by Promoting Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Stephen C.; Trunnell, Eric P.; White, George L., Jr.; Lyon, Joseph L.; Reading, James P.; Samore, Matthew H.; Magill, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria are continuing to emerge as high rates of antibiotic use persist. Children are among the highest users of antibiotics, with parents influencing physician decision-making regarding antibiotic prescription. An intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to reduce parents' expectations for antibiotics…

  18. Patterns of antibiotic use in the community in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muscat, Mark; Monnet, Dominique L.; Klemmensen, Thomas; Grigoryan, Larissa; Jensen, Maria Hummelshoj; Andersen, Morten; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive population survey was conducted in 2003 to examine epidemiological characteristics of antibiotic use in the community in Denmark and particularly in the area of self-medication with antibiotics. Self-medication with antibiotics was rare in Denmark. 97% of antibiotics us

  19. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients were evaluated for signs of persistent inflammation and signs of dry socket. Presence of persistent inflammation and/or suppuration on the 6th day was considered as wound infection. Results. A total of 146 patients were included in this study. Out of the total sample, 134 (91.8%) presented with no postoperative complications and 12 (8.2%) had postoperative complications, out of which 11 (7.5%) patients presented with dry socket (alveolar osteitis), 5 (3.4%) in the antibiotic group and 6 (4.1%) in the nonantibiotic group. Only 1 patient (0.7%) was reported with infection of the extraction socket in the nonantibiotic group, whereas no case of infection was found in the antibiotic group. Conclusion. Antibiotics are not required after simple extractions in patients who are not medically comprised nor do they have any role in preventing postoperative complications. PMID:27110426

  20. ADJUNCTIVE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PERIODONTAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Barça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases with a mixed microbial aetiology and marked inflammatory response leading to destruction of underlying tissue. Periodontal therapy aims to eliminate pathogens associated with the disease and attain periodontal health. Periodontitis is generally treated by nonsurgical mechanical debridement and regular periodontal maintenance care. Periodontal surgery may be indicated for some patients to improve access to the root surface; however, mechanical debridement alone may not be helpful in all cases. In such cases, adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy remains the treatment of choice. It can reach microorganisms at the base of the deep periodontal pockets and furcation areas via serum, and also affects organisms residing within gingival epithelium and connective tissue. This review aims to provide an update on clinical issues regarding when and how to prescribe systemic antibiotics in periodontal therapy. The points discussed are the mode of antibiotic action, susceptible periodontal pathogens, antibiotic dosage, antibiotic use in treatment of periodontal disease, and mechanism of bacterial resistance to each antibiotic.

  1. DNA-Aptamers Binding Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nikolaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short, single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are able to bind specifically and with high affinity to their non-nucleic acid target molecules. This binding reaction enables their application as biorecognition elements in biosensors and assays. As antibiotic residues pose a problem contributing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and thereby reducing the effectiveness of the drug to fight human infections, we selected aptamers targeted against the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A with the aim of constructing a robust and functional assay that can be used for water analysis. With this work we show that aptamers that were derived from a Capture-SELEX procedure targeting against kanamycin A also display binding to related aminoglycoside antibiotics. The binding patterns differ among all tested aptamers so that there are highly substance specific aptamers and more group specific aptamers binding to a different variety of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Also the region of the aminoglycoside antibiotics responsible for aptamer binding can be estimated. Affinities of the different aptamers for their target substance, kanamycin A, are measured with different approaches and are in the micromolar range. Finally, the proof of principle of an assay for detection of kanamycin A in a real water sample is given.

  2. Squalamine: an aminosterol antibiotic from the shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K S; Wehrli, S; Roder, H; Rogers, M; Forrest, J N; McCrimmon, D; Zasloff, M

    1993-02-15

    In recent years, a variety of low molecular weight antibiotics have been isolated from diverse animal species. These agents, which include peptides, lipids, and alkaloids, exhibit antibiotic activity against environmental microbes and are thought to play a role in innate immunity. We report here the discovery of a broad-spectrum steroidal antibiotic isolated from tissues of the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias. This water-soluble antibiotic, which we have named squalamine, exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, squalamine is fungicidal and induces osmotic lysis of protozoa. The chemical structure of the antibiotic 3 beta-N-1-(N-[3-(4-aminobutyl)]- 1,3-diaminopropane)-7 alpha,24 zeta-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholestane 24-sulfate has been determined by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy and NMR. Squalamine is a cationic steroid characterized by a condensation of an anionic bile salt intermediate with spermidine. The discovery of squalamine in the shark implicates a steroid as a potential host-defense agent in vertebrates and provides insights into the chemical design of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:8433993

  3. Mycobacterium abscessus: a new antibiotic nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessar, Rachid; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Reyrat, Jean Marc; Murray, Alan; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    The intrinsic and acquired resistance of Mycobacterium abscessus to commonly used antibiotics limits the chemotherapeutic options for infections caused by these mycobacteria. Intrinsic resistance is attributed to a combination of the permeability barrier of the complex multilayer cell envelope, drug export systems, antibiotic targets with low affinity and enzymes that neutralize antibiotics in the cytoplasm. To date, acquired resistance has only been observed for aminoglycosides and macrolides, which is conferred by mutations affecting the genes encoding the antibiotic targets (rrs and rrl, respectively). Here we summarize previous and recent findings on the resistance of M. abscessus to antibiotics in light of what has been discovered for other mycobacteria. Since we can now distinguish three groups of strains belonging to M. abscessus (M. abscessus sensu stricto, Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium bolletii), studies on antibiotic susceptibility and resistance should be considered according to this new classification. This review raises the profile of this important pathogen and highlights the work needed to decipher the molecular events responsible for its extensive chemotherapeutic resistance. PMID:22290346

  4. SELF MEDICATION PATTERN AMONG DENTISTS WITH ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Self medication with antibiotics has become a common practice among people, and more so among those with medical background. Dentists are one group who have kno wledge and accessibility to antibiotics. Hence this study was aimed at knowing the prevalence of self medication with antibiotics among dentists reasons for not visiting the physician. RESULT: Prevalence rate of self medication among dentist was 78.18%. Mo st common cause for self medication were common cold, tooth ache and sore throat. Most common antibiotic used was azithromycin next to ampicillin. Most common reason for not visiting doctor was that participants were themselves a doctor. CONCLUSION: Though dentists have knowledge about antibiotics, knowledge on appropriate usage of antibiotics is poor. This may have a bad impact on practice. Hence they have to overcome the ego and take proper advice from physician which may help the community in curbing ant ibiotic resistance The only limitation of the study was small sample size as dentists from only two colleges were considered. There is a need for study in large number of population.

  5. From antiseptics to antibiotics – and back?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadian, Ojan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no straight line to trace the trajectory of antiseptics; rather, this has been manifested more as a fluctuating line, a backwards and forwards movement, seen in the wake of major discoveries but of colossal mistakes too. While today no one would allow their prophylactic policies to be guided by miasma or contagia, there continues to be some uncertainly about how to manage anti-infectives effectively even today. When in 1941 the first human being was successfully treated with penicillin, interest in antiseptics gradually waned. From that time onwards, everything was treated with antibiotics, unleashing a race for the discovery of novel antibiotics, as witnessed decades earlier in the case of antiseptics. The significance of antiseptics declined to such an extent that among physicians they were associated merely with cleaning agents or sanitary disinfection. Today, at the beginning of the 21st century we know that the euphoria generated by antibiotics was just another station along the pathway of discoveries. Bacterial infections and new, hitherto unknown infectious diseases continue to play a major role. Several viral infections continue to be refractory to successful treatment and bacterial antibiotic resistance has become a problem worldwide. The most effective countermeasures no longer entail only the development of new antibiotics but above all responsible management of antibiotics and strict observance of infection control measures in the hospital setting. Set against that background, interest in antiseptics has been rekindled. In that spirit we can look eagerly forward over the coming years to further developments in antisepsis.

  6. Antibiotic prescribing policy and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly intravenous cephalosporins, are associated with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Diarrhoea due to C. difficile is a growing problem in hospitals, especially among elderly patients. AIM: To establish whether changing an antibiotic policy with the aim of reducing the use of injectable cephalosporins leads to a reduction in the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea in elderly patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: A group of patients who were subject to the new antibiotic policy from the period following July 2000, were compared with patients who were admitted prior to July 2000 and were not subject to the new policy. Infections, antibiotic prescriptions and mortality rates were determined from case notes, and C. difficle diarrhoea rates from microbiological data. RESULTS: Intravenous cephalosporin use fell from 210 to 28 defined daily doses (p < 0.001) following the change in antibiotic policy, with a corresponding increase in piperacillin-tazobactam (p < 0.001) and moxifloxacin (p < 0.001) use. The new policy led to a significant reduction in C. difficile diarrhoea cases. The relative risk of developing C. difficile infection with the old policy compared to the new policy was 3.24 (95%CI 1.07-9.84, p = 0.03). DISCUSSION: The antibiotic policy was successfully introduced into an elderly care service. It reduced both intravenous cephalosporin use and C. difficile diarrhoea.

  7. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  8. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  9. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R; Panda, S; Singh, D V

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure. PMID:23183460

  10. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ihara@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  11. Vitamin E succinate is a potent novel antineoplastic agent with high selectivity and cooperativity with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2 ligand) in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, T.; Lu, M.; Anděra, Ladislav; Lahm, H.; Gellert, N.; Fariss, M. W.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Sattler, W.; Ucker, D. S.; Terman, A.; Schroder, A.; Erl, W.; Brunk, U. T.; Coffey, R. J.; Weber, C.; Neuzil, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 863-869. ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA312/99/0348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Vitamin E, Antineoplastic Agent, Tumor Necrosis Factor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.991, year: 2002

  12. Quantitative analysis of the anti-proliferative activity of combinations of selected iron-chelating agents and clinically used anti-neoplastic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Potuckova

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that several chelators possess marked potential as potent anti-neoplastic drugs and as agents that can ameliorate some of the adverse effects associated with standard chemotherapy. Anti-cancer treatment employs combinations of several drugs that have different mechanisms of action. However, data regarding the potential interactions between iron chelators and established chemotherapeutics are lacking. Using estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we explored the combined anti-proliferative potential of four iron chelators, namely: desferrioxamine (DFO, salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH, (E-N'-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylethyliden] isonicotinoyl hydrazone (NHAPI, and di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT, plus six selected anti-neoplastic drugs. These six agents are used for breast cancer treatment and include: paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, methotrexate, tamoxifen and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (an active metabolite of cyclophosphamide. Our quantitative chelator-drug analyses were designed according to the Chou-Talalay method for drug combination assessment. All combinations of these agents yielded concentration-dependent, anti-proliferative effects. The hydrophilic siderophore, DFO, imposed antagonism when used in combination with all six anti-tumor agents and this antagonistic effect increased with increasing dose. Conversely, synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of the lipophilic chelators, NHAPI or Dp44mT, with doxorubicin and also the combinations of SIH, NHAPI or Dp44mT with tamoxifen. The combination of Dp44mT with anti-neoplastic agents was further enhanced following formation of its redox-active iron and especially copper complexes. The most potent combinations of Dp44mT and NHAPI with tamoxifen were confirmed as synergistic using another estrogen receptor-expressing breast cancer cell line, T47D, but not estrogen receptor

  13. Quantitative analysis of the anti-proliferative activity of combinations of selected iron-chelating agents and clinically used anti-neoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potuckova, Eliska; Jansova, Hana; Machacek, Miloslav; Vavrova, Anna; Haskova, Pavlina; Tichotova, Lucie; Richardson, Vera; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R; Simunek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that several chelators possess marked potential as potent anti-neoplastic drugs and as agents that can ameliorate some of the adverse effects associated with standard chemotherapy. Anti-cancer treatment employs combinations of several drugs that have different mechanisms of action. However, data regarding the potential interactions between iron chelators and established chemotherapeutics are lacking. Using estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we explored the combined anti-proliferative potential of four iron chelators, namely: desferrioxamine (DFO), salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH), (E)-N'-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)ethyliden] isonicotinoyl hydrazone (NHAPI), and di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), plus six selected anti-neoplastic drugs. These six agents are used for breast cancer treatment and include: paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, methotrexate, tamoxifen and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (an active metabolite of cyclophosphamide). Our quantitative chelator-drug analyses were designed according to the Chou-Talalay method for drug combination assessment. All combinations of these agents yielded concentration-dependent, anti-proliferative effects. The hydrophilic siderophore, DFO, imposed antagonism when used in combination with all six anti-tumor agents and this antagonistic effect increased with increasing dose. Conversely, synergistic interactions were observed with combinations of the lipophilic chelators, NHAPI or Dp44mT, with doxorubicin and also the combinations of SIH, NHAPI or Dp44mT with tamoxifen. The combination of Dp44mT with anti-neoplastic agents was further enhanced following formation of its redox-active iron and especially copper complexes. The most potent combinations of Dp44mT and NHAPI with tamoxifen were confirmed as synergistic using another estrogen receptor-expressing breast cancer cell line, T47D, but not estrogen receptor-negative MDA

  14. Fate of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance during Digestion and Composting: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Caitlin P; Mitchell, Shannon M; Cogger, Craig G

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) enter the environment through municipal and agricultural waste streams and pose a potential risk to human and livestock health through either direct exposure to antibiotic-resistant pathogens or selective pressure on the soil microbial community. This review summarizes current literature on the fate of antibiotics, ARB, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during anaerobic digestion and composting of manure and wastewater residuals. Studies have shown that removal of antibiotics varies widely during mesophilic anaerobic digestion, even within the same class of antibiotics. Research on ARB shows a wide range of removal under mesophilic conditions, with nearly complete removal under thermophilic conditions. Research on 16 antibiotics in 11 different studies using both bench-scale and farm-scale composting systems demonstrates that composting significantly reduces levels of extractable antibiotics in livestock manure in nearly all cases. Calculated half-lives ranged from 0.9 to 16 d for most antibiotics. There is more limited evidence that levels of ARB are also reduced by composting. Studies of the fate of ARGs show mixed evidence for removal during both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion and during thermophilic composting. Antibiotic resistance genes are DNA structures, so they may persist until the DNA structure is degraded, yet the bacterium may have been rendered nonviable long before the DNA is completely degraded. Additional research would be of value to determine optimum anaerobic digestion and composting conditions for removal of ARB and to increase understanding of the fate of ARGs during anaerobic digestion and composting. PMID:27065401

  15. Preoperative Antibiotics and Mortality in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Jeffrey H.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.; Trudeau, Martha E.; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xuemei; Lorch, Scott A.; Kelz, Rachel Rapaport; Mosher, Rachel E.; Even-Shoshan, Orit

    2005-01-01

    Objective and Background: It is generally thought that the use of preoperative antibiotics reduces the risk of postoperative infection, yet few studies have described the association between preoperative antibiotics and the risk of dying. The objective of this study was to determine whether preoperative antibiotics are associated with a reduced risk of death. Methods: We performed a multivariate matched, population-based, case-control study of death following surgery on 1362 Pennsylvania Medicare patients between 65 and 85 years of age undergoing general and orthopedic surgery. Cases (681 deaths within 60 days from hospital admission) were randomly selected throughout Pennsylvania using claims from 1995 and 1996. Models were developed to scan Medicare claims, looking for controls who did not die and who were the closest matches to the previously selected cases based on preoperative characteristics. Cases and their controls were identified, and charts were abstracted to define antibiotic use and obtain baseline severity adjustment data. Results: For general surgery, the odds of dying within 60 days were less than half in those treated with preoperative antibiotics within 2 hours of incision as compared with those without such treatment: (odds ratio = 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.32–0.60), P < 0.0001). For orthopedic surgery, no significant mortality reduction was observed (OR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–1.32; P < 0.464). Interpretation: Preoperative antibiotics are associated with a substantially lower 60-day mortality rate in elderly patients undergoing general surgery. In patients who appear to be comparable, the risk of death was half as large among those who received preoperative antibiotics. PMID:15973108

  16. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrne, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  17. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture. PMID:27038482

  18. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  19. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  20. RecA Inhibitors Potentiate Antibiotic Activity and Block Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Kausar; Alhhazmi, Areej; DeCoteau, John F; Luo, Yu; Geyer, C Ronald

    2016-03-17

    Antibiotic resistance arises from the maintenance of resistance mutations or genes acquired from the acquisition of adaptive de novo mutations or the transfer of resistance genes. Antibiotic resistance is acquired in response to antibiotic therapy by activating SOS-mediated DNA repair and mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer pathways. Initiation of the SOS pathway promotes activation of RecA, inactivation of LexA repressor, and induction of SOS genes. Here, we have identified and characterized phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid RecA inhibitors that block antibiotic-induced activation of the SOS response. These inhibitors potentiate the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, including members of the quinolone, β-lactam, and aminoglycoside families in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They reduce the ability of bacteria to acquire antibiotic resistance mutations and to transfer mobile genetic elements conferring resistance. This study highlights the advantage of including RecA inhibitors in bactericidal antibiotic therapies and provides a new strategy for prolonging antibiotic shelf life. PMID:26991103

  1. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    , potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (housed in pairs with 6 cages per group) were dosed by oral gavage...

  2. Fate and transport of veterinary antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance gene from fields receiving poultry manure during storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobials are used in production agriculture to treat disease and promote animal growth, but the presence of antibiotics in the environment raises concern about widespread antibiotic resistance. This study documents the occurrence and transport of tylosin, tetracycline, enterococci resistant to...

  3. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar;

    2003-01-01

    levels in people has also come under scrutiny. Antimicrobials are used therapeutically and prophylactically in animals. More controversially, antimicrobials are also used as growth promoters to improve the ability of the animal to convert feed into body mass. Some argue that the impact of use...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... of antibiotics in animals-whether therapeutic or as growth promoters-pales by comparison with human use, and that efforts should be concentrated on the misuse of antibiotics in people. Others warn of the dangers of unregulated and unnecessary use of antibiotics, especially growth promoters in animal husbandry...

  4. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  5. BIOSYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF ANTIBIOTIC BATUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Klochko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of antistaphylococcal antibiotic batumin under periodic conditions of Pseudomonas batumici growth has been studied. Antibiotic synthesis in fermenter occurred across the culture growth and achieved its maximal value after 50–55 hours. The active oxygen utilization by the producing strain was observed during 20–55 hours of fermentation with maximum after 40–45 hours. Antibiotic yield was 175–180 mg/l and depended on intensity of aeration. contrast to «freshly isolated» antibiotic after fermentation the long-term kept batumin has shown two identical by molecular mass peaks according to the chromato-mass spectrometric analysis. Taking into account of batumin molecule structure the conclusion has been made that the most probable isomerization type is keto-enolic tautomerism. At the same time batumin is diastereoisomer of kalimantacin A which has the same chemical structure. The optic rotation angle is [α]d25 = +56.3° for kalimantacin and [α]d25 = –13.5° for batumin. The simultaneous P. batumici growth and antibiotic biosynthesis and the ability of this molecule to optical isomerisation and keto-enolic forms formation allow us to suppose that batumin plays a certain role in metabolism of the producing strain.

  6. Utilisation of antibiotic therapy in community practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, B

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to identify outpatient antibiotic consumption between Jan 2000 and Dec 2005 through analysis of the HSE-Primary Care Reimbursement Services (PCRS) database as part of the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Ireland (SARI) project. Total antibiotic consumption on the PCRS scheme between January 2000 and December 2005 expressed in Defined Daily Dose per 1000 PCRS inhabitants per day increased by 26%. The penicillin group represents the highest consumption accounting for approximately 50% of the total outpatient antibiotic use. Total DIDs for this group increased by 25% between 2000 and 2005. Co-amoxiclav and amoxicillin account for 80% of the total consumption of this group of anti-infectives. With the exception of aminoglycosides and sulfonamides which demonstrated a decrease in DID consumption of 47% and 8% respectively, all other groups of anti-infectives had an increase in DID consumption of greater than 25% during the study period. Antibiotic prescribing data is a valuable tool for assessing public health strategies aiming to optimise antibiotic prescribing.

  7. Antibiotic resistance: are we all doomed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, P

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing and worrying problem associated with increased deaths and suffering for people. Overall, there are only two factors that drive antimicrobial resistance, and both can be controlled. These factors are the volumes of antimicrobials used and the spread of resistant micro-organisms and/or the genes encoding for resistance. The One Health concept is important if we want to understand better and control antimicrobial resistance. There are many things we can do to better control antimicrobial resistance. We need to prevent infections. We need to have better surveillance with good data on usage patterns and resistance patterns available across all sectors, both human and agriculture, locally and internationally. We need to act on these results when we see either inappropriate usage or resistance levels rising in bacteria that are of concern for people. We need to ensure that food and water sources do not spread multi-resistant micro-organisms or resistance genes. We need better approaches to restrict successfully what and how antibiotics are used in people. We need to restrict the use of 'critically important' antibiotics in food animals and the entry of these drugs into the environment. We need to ensure that 'One Health' concept is not just a buzz word but implemented. We need to look at all sectors and control not only antibiotic use but also the spread and development of antibiotic resistant bacteria - both locally and internationally. PMID:26563691

  8. Antibiotic Prescription Practices Among Children with Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch-Osuch, A; Gyrczuk, E; Wardyn, A; Życinska, K; Brydak, L

    2016-01-01

    The important factor in the development of resistance to antibiotics is their overuse, especially for viral respiratory infections. The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of the antibiotic therapy administrated to children with influenza. A total of 114 children younger than 59 months seeking care for the acute respiratory tract infection was enrolled into the study. The patients had influenza-like symptoms: fever > 38 °C, cough, and sore throat of less than 4 days duration. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza A and B virus with a real-time PCR. Thirty six cases of influenza were diagnosed: 34 of influenza A (H3N2) and 2 of influenza B. The rate of influenza infection was 32 % in the study group. The antibiotic therapy was ordered for 58 % patients with influenza. Antibiotics were given less frequently in the outpatient setting (33 %) compared with the hospitalized patients (93 %) (p clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, and amoxicillin. None of the patients received oseltamivir. Antibiotics were overused, while antivirals were underused among children with influenza. To improve health care quality, more efforts in the diagnosis of influenza and the appropriate use of antimicrobials and antivirals are required. PMID:26801146

  9. Antibiotics in development targeting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Joyce A

    2011-12-01

    The resolution of antibiotic-ribosomal subunit complexes and antibacterial-protein complexes at the atomic level has provided new insights into modifications of clinically relevant antimicrobials and provided new classes that target the protein cellular apparatus. New chemistry platforms that use fragment-based drug design or allow novel modifications in known structural classes are being used to design new antibiotics that overcome known resistance mechanisms and extend spectrum and potency by circumventing ubiquitous efflux pumps. This review provides details on seven antibiotics in development for treatment of moderate-to-severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and/or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: solithromycin, cethromycin, omadacycline, CEM-102, GSK1322322, radezolid, and tedizolid. Two antibiotics of the oxazolidinone class, PF-02341272 and AZD5847, are being developed as antituberculosis agents. Only three antibiotics that target the protein cellular machinery, TP-434, GSK2251052, and plazomicin, have a spectrum that encompasses multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. These compounds provide hope for treating key pathogens that cause serious disease in both the community and the hospital. PMID:22191530

  10. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship. PMID:26054209

  11. Tolerance of staphylococci to bactericidal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudaux, Pierre; Lew, Daniel P

    2006-05-01

    Antibiotic therapy for deep-seated staphylococcal infections, especially when they are associated with artificial devices used for orthopedic surgery is often associated with failure. Standard anti-staphylococcal bactericidal antibiotics, such as semi-synthetic penicillins, cephalosporins, or glycopeptides, are effective when given prophylactically in clinical conditions or experimental trials of implant-related infections. However, the efficacy of all anti-staphylococcal agents is seriously diminished on already established implant-related deep-seated infections, which then frequently require surgical implant removal to obtain a cure. The failure of antibiotic therapy to cure established staphylococcal foreign-body infections may arise in part from a broad-spectrum phenotypic tolerance expressed in vivo to different classes of antimicrobial agents. The molecular and physiological mechanisms of this in vivo tolerance remain poorly understood. PMID:16651066

  12. Antibiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrendik M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesut OgrendikDivision Physical Therapy and Rheumatology, Nazilli State Hospital, Nazilli, TurkeyAbstract: Antibiotic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA commenced in the 1930s with the use of sulfasalazine. Later, tetracyclines were successfully used for the treatment of RA. In double-blind and randomized studies, levofloxacin and macrolide antibiotics (including clarithromycin and roxithromycin were also shown to be effective in the treatment of RA. There have been several reports in the literature indicating that periodontal pathogens are a possible cause of RA. Oral bacteria are one possible cause of RA. In this review, we aimed to investigate the effects of different antibiotics in RA treatment.Keywords: oral bacteria, treatment, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, periodontitis

  13. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  14. Efforts to slacken antibiotic resistance: Labeling meat products from animals raised without antibiotics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    As bacteria and diseases spread due to climatic change, greater amounts of antibiotics will be used thereby exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. To help slacken the development of resistant bacteria, the medical community is attempting to reduce unnecessary and excessive usage of antibiotics. One of the targets is the use of antibiotics for enhancing animal growth and promoting feed efficiency in the production of food animals. While governments can adopt regulations prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals and strategies to reduce antibiotic usage, another idea is to publicize when antibiotics are used in food animal production by allowing labeled meat products. This paper builds upon existing labeling and marketing efforts in the United States to show how a government can develop a verified antibiotic-free labeling program that would allow consumers to purchase meat products from animals that had never received antibiotics. PMID:27236477

  15. Antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    The dysbiosis theory of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) posits that there is an alteration in the gut microbiome as an important underpinning of disease etiology. It stands to reason then, that administering agents that could impact on the balance of microbes on the gut could be impactful on the course of IBD. Herein is a review of the controlled trials undertaken to assess the use of antibiotics that would kill or suppress potentially injurious microbes, probiotics that would overpopulate the gut with potentially beneficial microbes or prebiotics that provide a metabolic substrate that enhances the growth of potentially beneficial microbes. With regard to antibiotics, the best data are for the use of nitroimadoles postoperatively in Crohn's disease (CD) to prevent disease recurrence. Otherwise, the data are limited with the regard to any lasting benefit of antibiotics sustaining remission in either CD or ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent meta-analysis concluded that antibiotics are superior to placebo at inducing remission in CD or UC, although the meta-analysis grouped a variety of antibiotics with different spectra of activity. Despite the absence of robust clinical trial data, antibiotics are widely used to treat perineal fistulizing CD and acute and chronic pouchitis. Probiotics have not been shown to have a beneficial role in CD. However, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 has comparable effects to low doses of mesalamine in maintaining remission in UC. VSL#3, a combination of 8 microbes, has been shown to have an effect in inducing remission in UC and preventing pouchitis. Prebiotics have yet to be shown to have an effect in any form of IBD, but to date controlled trials have been small. The use of antibiotics should be balanced against the risks they pose. Even probiotics may pose some risk and should not be assumed to be innocuous especially when ingested by persons with a compromised epithelial barrier. Prebiotics may not be harmful but may cause

  16. Antibiotic residues in milk from Moldavia, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Solcan; Ovidiu Popescu; Andrei C. Grădinaru

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is a study based on the determination of antibiotic residues in milk samplescollected from farms in the NE Romania (Moldavia). Contamination seasonality and the correlations withSCC and TBC values were investigated. Out of 2785 total milk samples, 124 were positive (+) (4.45%)and 130 samples were uncertain (±) (4.67%). The presence of antibiotics was confirmed in 109 positive(+) samples (87.9%) and 24 uncertain (±) samples (18.46%), the difference being false-positivereactio...

  17. Effects of probiotics and antibiotics on biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep, B.; Pandey, P K; S. Ayyappan

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of probiotics and antibiotics on 3-months old biofilms formed on three different substrates, namely glass, granite and fiberglass reinforced plastic. The variations in heterotrophic bacterial populations associated with biofilms were monitored for a period of one month after one-time application of the probiotic Biogreen (Gee Key Marine Pvt. Ltd, Chennai) at 0.2 mg lˉ¹ and the antibiotic tetracycline at 1.0 mg lˉ¹. The variations in heterotrophi...

  18. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangasamy Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization.

  19. How to Fight Back Against Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the exchange of genes between pathogens and nonpathogens offers new ways to understand and manage the spread of drug-resistant strains. In reality, the development of new antibiotics is only part of the solution, as pathogens will inevitably develop resistance to even the most promising new...... compounds. To save the era of antibiotics, scientists must figure out what it is about bacterial pathogens that makes resistance inevitable. Although most studies on drug resistance have focused on disease causing pathogens, recent efforts have shifted attention to the resistomes of nonpathogenic bacteria...

  20. Use of antibiotic agents in a large teaching hospital. The impact of Antibiotic Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, K; Stewart, R; Hemming, M; Moulds, R

    1983-09-01

    Three surveys of antibiotic use have been conducted at The Royal Melbourne Hospital. The first was conducted in 1978, before the introduction of the booklet, Antibiotic Guidelines; the second was conducted eight months after, and the most recent, four years after, its distribution. In 1978, 30% of 563 patients surveyed were receiving antibiotic therapy; this proportion declined to 28% of 967 patients studied in 1982. At the beginning of 1978, 52% of all treatments audited were judged appropriate when compared with those recommended in the Guidelines; this proportion rose to 72% in the second survey and was maintained at 70% in 1982. Certain inappropriate prescribing patterns persisted, such as the use of amoxycillin for the treatment of primary pneumonia, surgical antibiotic prophylaxis which was started too late, and the failure to simplify therapy when the results of microbiological investigations became available. Antibiotic guidelines facilitate the auditing of antibiotic usage and aid rational prescribing. Nevertheless, additional measures appear necessary if specific patterns of misuse of antibiotic agents are to be corrected. PMID:6678384

  1. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role. PMID:26608763

  2. Relationships between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance gene levels in municipal solid waste leachates in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhiting; Yang, Kai; Graham, David; Xie, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Many studies have quantified antibiotics and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) levels in soils, surface waters, and waste treatment plants (WTPs). However, similar work on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachates is limited, which is concerning because antibiotics disposal is often in the MSW stream. Here we quantified 20 sulfonamide (SA), quinolone (FQ), tetracycline (TC), macrolide (ML), and chloramphenicol (CP) antibiotics, and six ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetQ, tetM, ermB, and mefA) in MSW leachates from two Shanghai transfer stations (TS; sites Hulin (HL) and Xupu (XP)) and one landfill reservoir (LR) in April and July 2014. Antibiotic levels were higher in TS than LR leachates (985 ± 1965 ng/L vs 345 ± 932 ng/L, n = 40), which was because of very high levels in the HL leachates (averaging at 1676 ± 5175 ng/L, n = 40). The mean MLs (3561 ± 8377 ng/L, n = 12), FQs (975 ± 1608 ng/L, n = 24), and SAs (402 ± 704 ng/L, n = 42) classes of antibiotics were highest across all samples. ARGs were detected in all leachate samples with normalized sul2 and ermB levels being especially elevated (-1.37 ± 1.2 and -1.76 ± 1.6 log (copies/16S-rDNA), respectively). However, ARG abundances did not correlate with detected antibiotic levels, except for tetW and tetQ with TC levels (r = 0.88 and 0.81, respectively). In contrast, most measured ARGs did significantly correlate with heavy metal levels (p < 0.05), especially with Cd and Cr. This study shows high levels of ARGs and antibiotics can prevail in MSW leachates and landfills may be an underappreciated as a source of antibiotics and ARGs to the environment. PMID:25760223

  3. Combination of essential oils and antibiotics reduce antibiotic resistance in plasmid-conferred multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Lim, Swee Hua Erin; Hu, Cai Ping; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2013-06-15

    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. PMID:23537749

  4. REDUCTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jaiswal et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant bacteria have been posing a major challenge to the effective control of bacterial infections for quite some time. One of the main causes of antibiotics drug resistance is antibiotic overuse, abuse, and in some cases, misuse, due to incorrect diagnosis. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a significant issues faced by various industries, including the food and agricultural industries, the medical and veterinary profession and others. The potential for transfer of antibiotics resistance, or of potentially lethal antibiotic resistant bacteria, for example from a food animal to human consumer, is of particular concern. A method of controlling development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria include changes in antibiotic usage and pattern of usage of different antibiotics. However, the ability of bacteria to adapt to antibiotic usage and to acquire resistance to existing and new antibiotics usage overcomes such conventional measures, and requires the continued development of alternative means of control of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Alternative means for overcoming the tendency of bacteria to acquire resistance to antibiotic control measures have taken various forms. This article explains one method evaluated for control, that is reducing or removing antibiotic resistance is so called “curing” of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is formed in the chromosomal elements. Thus elimination of such drug-resistance plasmids results in loss of antibiotics resistance by the bacterial cell. “Curing” of a microorganism refers to the ability of the organism to spontaneously lose a resistance plasmid under the effect of particular compounds and environmental conditions, thus recovering the antibiotic sensitive state.

  5. Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference to India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Raghunath

    2008-11-01

    The antibiotic era started in the 1940s and changed the profile of infectious diseases and human demography. The burgeoning classes and numbers promised much and elimination of this major cause of human (and animal) morbidity appeared possible. Bacterial antibiotic resistance which was observed soon after antibiotic introduction has been studied extensively. Diverse mechanisms have been demonstrated and the genetic basis elucidated. The resilience of the prokaryote ecosystems to antibiotic stress has been realized. The paper presents these subjects briefly to afford an overview. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is dealt with and community practices in different countries are described. The role of high antibiotic usage environments is indicated. The implication of the wide use of antibiotics in animals has been pointed out. Steadily increasing antibiotic resistance and decreasing numbers of newer antibiotics appear to point to a post-antibiotic period during which treatment of infections would become increasingly difficult. This article attempts to review the global antimicrobial resistance scene and juxtaposes it to the Indian experience. The prevalence in India of antibiotic resistance among major groups of pathogens is described. The factors that determine the prevalent high antibiotic resistance rates have been highlighted. The future research activity to ensure continued utility of antibiotics in the control of infections has been indicated.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance in Children with Bloody Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedi Abdolkarim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial dysentery, aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration is especially indicated whenever malnutrition is present. First-line drugs include ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX; however multidrug-resistance has occurred and careful antibiotic selection must be considered in prescribing .When epidemiologic data indicate a rise in resistancy, fluoroquinolones may be used in adults and oral third-generation cephalosporins and nalidixic acid in children. All children (n=2400 with acute diarrhea who were admitted to the Pediatric department of Dr.sheykh Hospital Mashhad, Iran from March 2004 to March 2005 were selected and their stool culture were obtained, then positive cultures (312 cases,13% were evaluated by antibiogram. This study showed that in heavily populated areas of IRAN like Mashhad, 97% shigella strain isolated from children with bloody diarrhea were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefixime and rarely susceptible to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. There is increasing resistance of Shigella to most of the antibiotics in use, and for this reason, careful selection of antibiotics must use considered in each area. Development and use of new drugs are expensive and have severe limitations in the third world. Simple prophylactic alternatives are therefore, required, such as awareness of hygienic child care practices and early promotion of breast feeding. For treatment of shigellosis in infants Ceftriaxon, and in children Nalidixic Acid is recommended.

  7. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    1995-01-01

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of antibi

  8. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A. [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Yap, Sook Fan [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Ngeow, Yun Fong [Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chin, Khew-Voon, E-mail: khew-voon.chin@utoledo.edu [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  9. New antibiotic agents for bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-11-01

    Infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens have shown a dramatic worldwide increase in prevalence. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients. Research in the field led to the introduction of several novel antibiotic agents in the fight against bacterial pathogens. New antibiotics used against Gram-positive bacteria, mainly meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, include daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and semisynthetic lipoglycopeptides. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as well as highly resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates are of particular concern. Doripenem is a recently approved carbapenem. Polymyxins are reconsidered as valuable therapeutic options for Gram-negative infections. Tigecycline, a glycylcycline, and ceftobiprole, a novel cephalosporin under investigation, have activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In addition to the above agents, alternative treatment approaches that require further investigation have also been introduced into clinical practice. These include antibiotic lock therapy and continuous intravenous administration of antibiotics. In this article, we review the above treatment options for BSIs based on current clinical evidence. Comparative trials specifically focusing on patients with bacteraemia were generally not performed; however, a proportion of patients from the reported studies did have bacteraemia. PMID:18723329

  10. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and autism: a speculative hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Hari

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been suspected that there is a relationship between therapy with some antibiotics and the onset of autism; but even more curious, some children benefited transiently from a subsequent treatment with a different antibiotic. Here, we speculate how aminoglycoside antibiotics might be associated with autism. Presentation We hypothesize that aminoglycoside antibiotics could a trigger the autism syndrome in susceptible infants by causing the stop codon readthrough, i.e., a misreading of the genetic code of a hypothetical critical gene, and/or b improve autism symptoms by correcting the premature stop codon mutation in a hypothetical polymorphic gene linked to autism. Testing Investigate, retrospectively, whether a link exists between aminoglycoside use (which is not extensive in children and the onset of autism symptoms (hypothesis "a", or between amino glycoside use and improvement of these symptoms (hypothesis "b". Whereas a prospective study to test hypothesis "a" is not ethically justifiable, a study could be designed to test hypothesis "b". Implications It should be stressed that at this stage no direct evidence supports our speculative hypothesis and that its main purpose is to initiate development of new ideas that, eventually, would improve our understanding of the pathobiology of autism.

  11. Quality milk and tests for antibiotic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, W M

    1996-06-01

    One goal of total quality management is to prevent the occurrence of antibiotics in raw milk shipped from the farm. An effective approach to meet this goal is the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) procedures, which are part of the Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program for antibiotic avoidance. The program defines 10 critical control points, including screening tests for preventing antibiotic residues. Although milk from individual cows clearly should be tested to ensure that antibiotic-free milk is leaving the farm, it is not clear whether any existing tests can be reliably used on milk samples from individual cows, or even on samples from bulk tanks. The FDA acceptance procedures have not required that bulk milk tests undergo a population evaluation; these tests have not been objectively evaluated for individual cows. Of more concern, detection limits differ among tests, sometimes approaching zero. Despite the intent of the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, milk acceptability definitions vary between states. In addition, the predictive value of test results has not been integrated into the regulatory process. Although largely ignored by the regulatory agencies, these issues cannot be ignored by the dairy industry. Ultimately, the milk testing program should become a component of the quality process that is centered on the farm and that measures the success of the industry in producing high quality milk rather than being a regulatory program that searches for a flawed product. PMID:8827472

  12. Methodology in improving antibiotic implementation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgenç, Onur

    2016-06-26

    The basic requirements of antibiotic prescribing are components of methodology; knowledge, logical reasoning, and analysis. Antimicrobial drugs are valuable but limited resources, different from other drugs and they are among the most commonly prescribed drugs all over the world. They are the only drugs which do not intentionally affect the patient. They affect the pathogens which invade the host. The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens are accelerated by heavy antibiotic usage. The effective antimicrobial stewardship and infection control program have been shown to limit the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. In this respect, education for antibiotic prescribing could be designed by going through the steps of scientific methodology. A defined leadership and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach are necessary for optimizing the indication, selection, dosing, route of administration, and duration of antimicrobial therapy. In scenarios, knowledge is also as important as experience for critical decision making as is designated. In this setting, the prevalence and resistance mechanisms of antimicrobials, and their interactions with other drugs need to be observed. In this respect, infectious disease service should play an important role in improving antimicrobial use by giving advice on the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents, and implementing evidence-based guidelines. PMID:27376019

  13. Polyene antibiotic that inhibits membrane transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Welscher, Yvonne Maria; van Leeuwen, Martin Richard; de Kruijff, Ben; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Breukink, Eefjan

    2012-07-10

    The limited therapeutic arsenal and the increase in reports of fungal resistance to multiple antifungal agents have made fungal infections a major therapeutic challenge. The polyene antibiotics are the only group of antifungal antibiotics that directly target the plasma membrane via a specific interaction with the main fungal sterol, ergosterol, often resulting in membrane permeabilization. In contrast to other polyene antibiotics that form pores in the membrane, the mode of action of natamycin has remained obscure but is not related to membrane permeabilization. Here, we demonstrate that natamycin inhibits growth of yeasts and fungi via the immediate inhibition of amino acid and glucose transport across the plasma membrane. This is attributable to ergosterol-specific and reversible inhibition of membrane transport proteins. It is proposed that ergosterol-dependent inhibition of membrane proteins is a general mode of action of all the polyene antibiotics, of which some have been shown additionally to permeabilize the plasma membrane. Our results imply that sterol-protein interactions are fundamentally important for protein function even for those proteins that are not known to reside in sterol-rich domains. PMID:22733749

  14. A Review of Antibiotic Use in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Bland, Christopher M; Griffin, Brooke; Stover, Kayla R; Eiland, Lea S; McLaughlin, Milena

    2015-11-01

    During pregnancy, untreated sexually transmitted or urinary tract infections are associated with significant morbidity, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortion. Approximately one in four women will be prescribed an antibiotic during pregnancy, accounting for nearly 80% of prescription medications in pregnant women. Antibiotic exposures during pregnancy have been associated with both short-term (e.g., congenital abnormalities) and long-term effects (e.g., changes in gut microbiome, asthma, atopic dermatitis) in the newborn. However, it is estimated that only 10% of medications have sufficient data related to safe and effective use in pregnancy. Antibiotics such as beta-lactams, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, clindamycin, and fosfomycin are generally considered safe and effective in pregnancy. Fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are generally avoided in pregnancy. Physiologic changes in pregnancy lead to an increase in glomerular filtration rate, increase in total body volume, and enhanced cardiac output. These changes may lead to pharmacokinetic alterations in antibiotics that require dose adjustment or careful monitoring and assessment. PMID:26598097

  15. Colistin : Revival of an Old Polymyxin Antibiotic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkmans, Anneke C.; Wilms, Erik B.; Kamerling, Ingrid M. C.; Birkhoff, Willem; Ortiz-Zacarias, Natalia V.; van Nieuwkoop, Cees; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Touw, Daan J.

    2015-01-01

    Colistin (polymyxin E) is a positively charged deca-peptide antibiotic that disrupts the integrity of the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria by binding to the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides, resulting in cell death. The endotoxic activity of lipopolysaccharides is simul

  16. The antibiotic resistance in cave environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Petrásek, Jiří; Jirout, Jiří; Chroňáková, Alica; Kyselková, Martina; Volná, Lucie

    Košice : Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 41-42. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance * cave environments Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Physics and the Production of Antibiotics: 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Robert; Riddle, Wendy; Fairbrother, Neil

    2006-01-01

    In an article in the preceding issue we discussed the design and construction of fermenters in which antibiotics are cultured. For industrial purposes these fermenters can range in size up to 500 m[cube]. They have to be sterilized, filled with sterile culture medium and the culture itself and supplied with oxygen continuously. In some cases they…

  18. Modulation of RNA function by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R; Waldsich, C; Wank, H

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important families of antibiotics are the aminoglycosides, including drugs such as neomycin B, paromomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. With the discovery of the catalytic potential of RNA, these antibiotics became very popular due to their RNA-binding capacity. They serve for the analysis of RNA function as well as for the study of RNA as a potential therapeutic target. Improvements in RNA structure determination recently provided first insights into the decoding site of the ribosome at high resolution and how aminoglycosides might induce misreading of the genetic code. In addition to inhibiting prokaryotic translation, aminoglycosides inhibit several catalytic RNAs such as self-splicing group I introns, RNase P and small ribozymes in vitro. Furthermore, these antibiotics interfere with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by disrupting essential RNA-protein contacts. Most exciting is the potential of many RNA-binding antibiotics to stimulate RNA activities, conceiving small-molecule partners for the hypothesis of an ancient RNA world. SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) has been used in this evolutionary game leading to small synthetic RNAs, whose NMR structures gave valuable information on how aminoglycosides interact with RNA, which could possibly be used in applied science. PMID:10619838

  19. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. ► Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. ► Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  20. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, Roderick P.; Sanders, Sharon L.; Glasziou, Paul P.; Del Mar, Chris B.; Rovers, Maroeska M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for AOM varies from 56% in the Netherlands to 95% in the USA, Canada and Australia. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 1, 1997 a

  1. Distribution of multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio spp across Palk Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sneha, K.G.; Anas, A.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Jasmin, C.; VipinDas, P.V.; Pai, S.S.; Pappu, S.; Nair, M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Sudheesh, K.; Nair, S.

    Presence of multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms in marine systems is increasingly a focus of concern as they pose potential health risk to humans and animals. The present study reports the distribution, diversity, antibiotic resistance...

  2. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Detected in Sewage Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160031.html Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Detected in Sewage Spill 'People need to be ... News) -- Sewer line breaks can release antibiotic-resistant bacteria that pose a public health threat, a new ...

  3. Mild Appendicitis Complication Rates Similar for Surgery, Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157975.html Mild Appendicitis Complication Rates Similar for Surgery, Antibiotics Decision not ... News) -- Antibiotics can be used to treat mild appendicitis, but the condition returns in some patients who ...

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  5. Oral Antibiotics in Acne Vulgaris: Therapeutic Response Over 5 Years

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topical and systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the US Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Antibiotics are powerful tools for fighting illness and disease, ...

  7. Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157809.html Antibiotic Resistance Common in Kids' Urinary Tract Infections Researchers ... coli bacteria are now failing to respond to antibiotic treatment, a new review warns. The culprit, according ...

  8. Cooperative Antibiotic Resistance in a Multi-Drug Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Dai, Lei; Gore, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. A frequent mechanism of antibiotic resistance involves the production of an enzyme which inactivates the antibiotic. By inactivating the antibiotic, resistant cells can ``share'' their resistance with other cells in the bacterial population, suggesting that it may be possible to observe cooperation between strains that inactivate different antibiotics. Here, we experimentally track the population dynamics of two E. coli strains in the presence of two different antibiotics. We find that together the strains are able to grow in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either of the strains individually. We observe that even when there is stable coexistence between the two strains, the population size of each strain can undergo large oscillations. We expect that our results will provide insight into the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  9. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  10. Control of fluxes towards antibiotics and the role of primary metabolism in production of antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Nielsen, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Yield improvements in antibiotic-producing strains have classically been obtained through random mutagenesis and screening. An attractive alternative to this strategy is the rational design of producer strains via metabolic engineering, an approach that offers the possibility to increase yields...... metabolic network. Here we describe and discuss available methods for identification of these steps, both in antibiotic biosynthesis pathways and in the primary metabolism, which serves as the supplier of precursors and cofactors for the secondary metabolism. Finally, the importance of precursor and...... cofactor supply from primary metabolism in the biosynthesis of different types of antibiotics is discussed and recent developments in metabolic engineering towards increased product yields in antibiotic producing strains are reviewed....

  11. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bywater, R.; Walters, J.; Lipsitch, M.

    2003-01-01

    meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of...... antibiotic resistance really does come through the food chain, will it be too late for action? In this forum, we present different perspectives from both human and animal medicine, to better understand the complexity of the problem of antibiotic resistance and examine the challenges that lie ahead....

  12. Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie H. Thames

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning, and 12 (5 weeks after weaning. ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX, macrolide (ermB, ermF, and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies/ g wet manure of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onwards, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P<0.10, even in control calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional

  13. Gene-Drug Interactions and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Adam Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance is shaped by interactions between genes, the chemical environment, and an antibiotic's mechanism of action. This thesis explores these interactions with experiments, theory, and analysis, seeking a mechanistic understanding of how different interactions between genes and drugs can enhance or constrain the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Chapter 1 investigates the effects of the chemical decay of an antibiotic. Tetracycline resistant and sensitive bac...

  14. Trends in antibiotic use among outpatients in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloway Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall volume of antibiotic consumption in the community is one of the foremost causes of antimicrobial resistance. There is much ad-hoc information about the inappropriate consumption of antibiotics, over-the-counter availability, and inadequate dosage but there is very little actual evidence of community practices. Methods This study surveyed antibiotic use in the community (December 2007-November 2008 using the established methodology of patient exit interviews at three types of facilities: 20 private retail pharmacies, 10 public sector facilities, and 20 private clinics to obtain a complete picture of community antibiotic use over a year. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. Antibiotic use was measured as DDD/1000 patients visiting the facility and also as percent of patients receiving an antibiotic. Results During the data collection period, 17995, 9205, and 5922 patients visiting private retail pharmacies, public facilities and private clinics, respectively, were included in our study. 39% of the patients attending private retail pharmacies and public facilities and 43% of patients visiting private clinics were prescribed at least one antibiotic. Consumption patterns of antibiotics were similar at private retail pharmacies and private clinics where fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and extended spectrum penicillins were the three most commonly prescribed groups of antibiotics. At public facilities, there was a more even use of all the major antibiotic groups including penicillins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, and cotrimoxazole. Newer members from each class of antibiotics were prescribed. Not much seasonal variation was seen although slightly higher consumption of some antibiotics in winter and slightly higher consumption of fluoroquinolones during the rainy season were observed

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors.......Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  16. Isolated cell behavior drives the evolution of antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Dudley, Carmel; Vega, Nicole M.; Gore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is typically quantified by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is defined as the minimal concentration of antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth starting from a standard cell density. However, when antibiotic resistance is mediated by degradation, the collective inactivation of antibiotic by the bacterial population can cause the measured MIC to depend strongly on the initial cell density. In cases where this inoculum effect is strong, the rela...

  17. Functional metagenomics for the investigation of antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Mullany, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human health and well-being. To effectively combat this problem we need to understand the range of different resistance genes that allow bacteria to resist antibiotics. To do this the whole microbiota needs to be investigated. As most bacteria cannot be cultivated in the laboratory, the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes in the non-cultivatable majority remains relatively unexplored. Currently the only way to study antibiotic resistance in thes...

  18. Assessment of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Transfer in the Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Schjørring; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed horizontal gene transfer between bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. During the last decades, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and treatment failures of bacterial infections have increased the public awareness of antibiotic usage. The use of broad spectrum antibiotics creates a selective pressure on the bacterial flora, thus increasing the emergence of multiresistant bacteria, which results in a vicious circle of treatments and emergence of new antibiotic res...

  19. Widespread antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Fatahi Sadeghabadi; Ali Ajami; Reza Fadaei; Masoud Zandieh; Elham Heidari; Mahmoud Sadeghi; Behrooz Ataei; Shervin Ghaffari Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance of enteric pathogens particularly Shigella species, is a critical world-wide problem and monitoring their resistant pattern is essential, because the choice of antibiotics is absolutely dependent on regional antibiotic susceptibility patterns. During summer 2013, an unusual increase in number of diarrheal diseases was noticed in Isfahan, a central province of Iran. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species iso...

  20. Antibiotic trials for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey L; Muhlestein, Joseph B

    2004-01-01

    The possibility has been raised in recent years that infection might contribute as an inflammatory stimulus to chronic "noninfectious" degenerative diseases. Within the past decade, serious attention has been given to the possibility of bacterial vectors as causal factors of atherosclerosis. To date, the greatest amount of information has related to the intracellular organism Chlamydia pneumoniae. This interest has been stimulated by the frequent finding of bacterial antigens and, occasionally, recoverable organisms, within human atherosclerotic plaque. Indirect evidence for and against the benefit of anti-Chlamydia antibiotic agents comes from epidemiologic studies. Given the potential for confounding in observational studies, prospective, randomized intervention trials are required. These antibiotic trials have generated enthusiastic expectations for proving (or disproving) the infectious-disease hypothesis of atherosclerosis and establishing new therapies. However, these expectations have been tempered by important limitations and uncertainties. Negative outcomes can be explained not only by an incorrect hypothesis but also by inadequate study size or design or by an ineffective antibiotic regimen. In contrast, if studies are positive, the hypothesis still is not entirely proved, because a nonspecific anti-inflammatory effect or an anti-infective action against other organisms might be operative. The clinical trial data to date have not provided adequate support for the clinical use of antibiotics in primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. New and innovative experimental approaches, in addition to traditionally designed antibiotic trials, should be welcome in our attempts to gain adequate insight into the role of infection in atherosclerosis and its therapy. PMID:15061624

  1. Intensive Care Unit Infections and Antibiotic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yeşilkaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infections is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn trauma patients. Although burn wound is sterile at the beginning, because of risk factors such as prolonged hospital stay, immunesuppression and burn affecting large body surface area, colonisation firstly with Staphylococcus aureus and then Pseudomonas aeruginosa will occur later. Delay in wound closure and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic will result wound colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To control colonization and to prevent burn wound infection topical antimicrobial dressings are used. The criteria used for the diagnosis of sepsis and wound infections are different in burn victims. Surface swabs from burn wounds must be cultured for the early assestment of infection. Although histopathological examination and quantitative culture of wound tissue biopsy has been known as the gold standard for the verification of invasive burn wound infection, many burn centers cannot do histopathological examination. When the traditional treatment modalities such as debridement of necrotic tissue, cleaning of wound and topical antimicrobial dressing application fails in the management of burn patient, cultures must be taken from possible foci of infection for the early diagnosis. After specimen collection, empirical bactericidal systemic antibiotic treatment should be started promptly. Inappropriate utilization of antibiotics may cause selection of resistant bacteria in the flora of the patient and of the burn unit which facilitates an infection or an outbreak at the end. Infection control in the burn unit includes surveillance cultures, cohort patient care staff, standard isolation precautions, strict hand hygiene compliance and appropariate antibiotic utilization. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 55-61

  2. The Shared Antibiotic Resistome of Soil Bacteria and Human Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kevin J.; Reyes, Alejandro; Wang, Bin;

    2012-01-01

    From Farm to Clinic?Soil organisms have long been assumed to be an important source of antibiotic resistance genes, in part because of antibiotic-treated livestock and in part because of the natural ecology of antibiotic production in the soil. Forsberg et al. (p. 1107) developed a metagenomic pr...

  3. Outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from 1992 to 2001 in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, MM; van Balen, FAM; Verheij, TJM

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Although Dutch outpatient antibiotic prescription rates are low compared with other European countries, continuing to scrutinize trends in outpatient antibiotic use is important in order to identify possible increases in antibiotic use or inappropriate increases in the use of particular

  4. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - What Everyone Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age. It’s important to only take antibiotics for bacterial infections since they can put you or your child at risk for harmful side effects and antibiotic-resistant infections. Top of Page Related Links Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance Get Smart for Healthcare Get Smart: Know When ...

  5. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 years. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. Based on metagenomic and qPCR analysis, we show that antibiotic resis...

  6. Evaluation of antibiotic use in a Lebanese hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global health problem. Misuse of antibiotics is associated with antimicrobial resistance which presents clinicians with treatment challenges and increases the complexity of the decision making process related to the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic resistant organisms can often lead to nosocomial infections (NIs) and undoubtedly causes patient harm and increases healthcare costs. According to the National Insti...

  7. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. Results: The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students’ knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. Conclusion: The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine. PMID:27011780

  8. Identifying targets for quality improvement in hospital antibiotic prescribing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreuwel, P.C. van; Blok, H.; Langelaar, M.F.; Kullberg, B.J.; Mouton, J.W.; Natsch, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To audit antibiotic use in a university hospital and to identify targets for quality improvement in a setting with low antibiotic use and resistance rates. METHODOLOGY: A point-prevalence survey (PPS), using a patient-based audit tool for antibiotic use, was executed in the Radboud Unive

  9. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  10. Oral antibiotics for perforated appendicitis is not recommended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob; Alamili, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    In the majority of surgical departments in Denmark, the postoperative treatment for acute perforated appendicitis comprises three days of intravenous antibiotics. Recently, it has been proposed that such antibiotic regimen should be replaced by orally administered antibiotics. The aim of this paper...

  11. COMPARISON OF SINGLE DOSE PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS VERSUS FIVE DAYS ANTIBIOTIC IN CESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare if single dose antibiotic is as effective as multiple doses in prevention of post-operative infection in caesarean section. To compare the cost effectiveness of drugs in both the groups. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of single dose antibiotic versus multiple doses in caesarean section. The study population consisted of 600 patients that were randomly allocated to single or multiple dose groups. All potentially infected cases were excluded from this study. All patients received inj Cefotaxime IV half hour before surgery. In addition the multiple dose group received antibiotics for five days post-operatively. Each patient in the study was observed till discharge for presence of any morbidity like endometritis, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. STATISTICAL ANALYSISIS: Fischer exact test, unpaired t test used for analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significance in the rate of infections in both the groups. The rate of febrile morbidity, endometritis, urinary tract infection and wound infections were statistically not significant. However the difference in cost of antibiotic in both the groups was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Single dose antibiotics are effective as multiple doses in prevention of post-operative infections in caesarean sections Careful periodic surveillance of antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary to detect the emergence of drug resistant strains of bacteria in our institution because it caters to the needs of local population.

  12. Antibiotic concentration and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in two shallow urban lakes after stormwater event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songhe; Pang, Si; Wang, PeiFang; Wang, Chao; Han, Nini; Liu, Bin; Han, Bing; Li, Yi; Anim-Larbi, Kwaku

    2016-05-01

    Stormwater runoff is generally characterized as non-point source pollution. In the present study, antibiotic concentration and antibiotic susceptibilities of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in two small shallow urban lakes before and after strong storm event. Several antibiotics, lactose-fermenting bacteria and cultivable heterotrophic bacteria concentrations increased in surface water and/or surface sediment of two small urban lakes (Lake Xuanwu and Wulongtan) after strong storm event. In general, the frequencies of bacteria showing resistance to nine antibiotics increased after storm event. Based on the 16S rRNA genes of 50 randomly selected isolates from each water sample of two lakes, Aeromonas and Bacillus were dominant genera in samples from two lakes, while genera Proteus and Lysinibacillus were the third abundant genera in Lake Xuanwu and Wulongtu, respectively. Presences of nine antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the 100 isolates were detected and most of these isolates harbored at least two ARGs with different functions. The detection frequency of ARGs in Gram-negative isolates was higher than that in Gram-positive isolates. The most prevalent integron in 100 isolates was int(II) (n = 28), followed by int(I) (n = 17) and int(III) (n = 17). Our results indicate that strong storm events potentially contribute to the transfer of ARGs and antibiotic-resistant bacteria from land-sewer system to the urban Lakes. PMID:26865482

  13. Monitoring Antibiotic Residues and Corresponding Antibiotic Resistance Genes in an Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Awad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs have been commonly reported due to the overuse worldwide of antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse disturbs the environment and threatens public human health. The objective of this study was to measure the residual concentrations of veterinary antibiotics in the tetracycline group (TCs, including tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC, as well as those in the sulfonamide group (SAs, including sulfamethazine (SMT, sulfamethoxazole (SMX, and sulfathiazole (STZ. We also isolated the corresponding ARGs in the agroecosystem. Four sediment samples and two rice paddy soil samples were collected from sites near a swine composting facility along the Naerincheon River in Hongcheon, Korea. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS was employed with a solid-phase extraction method to measure the concentration of each antibiotic. ARGs were identified by the qualitative polymerase chain-reaction using synthetic primers. SAs and their corresponding ARGs were highly detected in sediment samples whereas TCs were not detected except for sediments sample #1. ARGs for TCs and SAs were detected in rice paddy soils, while ARGs for TCs were only found in sediment #2 and #4. Continuous monitoring of antibiotic residue and its comprehensive impact on the environment is needed to ensure environmental health.

  14. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and demand for antibiotics in patients with upper respiratory tract infections is hardly different in female versus male patients as seen in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Kathrine; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics is a major public health concern. General practitioners (GPs) prescribe most antibiotics, often for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and have in general been shown to prescribe antibiotics more often to women. No studies have examined...... unnecessary antibiotics demonstrated a demand for antibiotics, but no gender difference was found in this group. Conclusion: This study indicated a high rate of unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for URTIs in general practice, but overall found no gender differences in receiving unnecessary antibiotic...

  15. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively “target” delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. Materials and methods The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. Results The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10

  16. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sory Diarra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics in feed (growth promoters need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2,600 regulated chicken producers. There are several antibiotics approved as feed additives available for poultry farmers. Feed recipes and mixtures greatly vary geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While sporadic reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno

  17. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  18. Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genetic determinants during manure storage, treatment, and land application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in swine production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at sub-therapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that ca.75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occur...

  19. Determination of Antibiotic Resistance and Synergistic Effect of Multiple Antibiotics on Helicobacter Pylori Isolated from the Stomach Ulcer Biopsy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi Nava, F. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Resistance of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori to antibiotics is the main cause of relapse into Helcobacterial infections. With the use of several antibiotics that have synergistic effect, we can inhibit this antibiotic resistance. Thus, we aimed at determining resistance patterns and assessing the synergy of combining multiple antibiotics on H. pylori. Material and Methods: Biopsy specimens were taken from 100 patients with gastric ulcer referred to Imam Reza hospital in Amol, north of Iran. After isolation and identification of H. Pylori, antibiogram was performed with different antibiotic disks containing one antibiotic, a combination of two antibiotics (metronidazole + clarithromycin and three antibiotics (metronidazole + Claritromycin + Ciprofloxacin. Results: In this study, H. pylori were isolated from 53 (53% biopsy specimens. Of these, 49 (5.92% were resistant to metronidazole, 14 (26% to amoxicillin, 10 (19% to clarithromycin, 7 (13% to tetracycline, 13 (5/24% to furazolidone and 7 (13% to ciprofloxacin. In survey of synergistic effect, an increase in inhibition zone diameter around of combined disks was seen up to 5mm compared to the most effective antibiotic. Conclusion: The inhibition zone diameter of discs containing two and three antibiotics was large, in comparison with one antibiotic. Key words: H. Pylori; Antibiotic Resistance; Synergy Effect

  20. Oral antibiotics for perforated appendicitis is not recommended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, Mahdi; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In the majority of surgical departments in Denmark, the postoperative treatment for acute perforated appendicitis comprises three days of intravenous antibiotics. Recently, it has been proposed that such antibiotic regimen should be replaced by orally administered antibiotics. The aim of this paper...... was to give an overview of studies on acute perforated appendicitis with postoperative oral antibiotics. Five studies were found in a database search covering the 1966-2009 period. There is no evidence to support a conversion of the postoperative antibiotic regimen from intravenous to oral...... administration in patients with acute perforated appendicitis....

  1. Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pieterse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  2. Influence of Antibiotics Added in Milk over Yogurth Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vintila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Large spectrum antibiotics used in different cow diseases leads to their release in milk altering its proprieties during processing. Knowing the inhibitory effect of antibiotics upon lactic bacteria development and multiplying we followed the effect of gentamycin, a large spectrum antibiotic added in different doses in milk used for yogurth processing. In our research, besides the effect of antibiotica we followed also the influence of milk fat content upon milk clotting time, while antibiotics added in milk incease the clotting time of yogurth. Clotting density deceases proportional with the dosis of antibiotics added to milk.

  3. Ready for a world without antibiotics? The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlet Jean

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically over the past few years and has now reached a level that places future patients in real danger. Microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are commensals and pathogens for humans and animals, have become increasingly resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. Moreover, in certain countries, they are also resistant to carbapenems and therefore susceptible only to tigecycline and colistin. Resistance is primarily attributed to the production of beta-lactamase genes located on mobile genetic elements, which facilitate their transfer between different species. In some rare cases, Gram-negative rods are resistant to virtually all known antibiotics. The causes are numerous, but the role of the overuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals is essential, as well as the transmission of these bacteria in both the hospital and the community, notably via the food chain, contaminated hands, and between animals and humans. In addition, there are very few new antibiotics in the pipeline, particularly for Gram-negative bacilli. The situation is slightly better for Gram-positive cocci as some potent and novel antibiotics have been made available in recent years. A strong and coordinated international programme is urgently needed. To meet this challenge, 70 internationally recognized experts met for a two-day meeting in June 2011 in Annecy (France and endorsed a global call to action ("The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action". Bundles of measures that must be implemented simultaneously and worldwide are presented in this document. In particular, antibiotics, which represent a treasure for humanity, must be protected and considered as a special class of drugs.

  4. Lipid II as a target for antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukink, Eefjan; de Kruijff, Ben

    2006-04-01

    Lipid II is a membrane-anchored cell-wall precursor that is essential for bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. The effectiveness of targeting Lipid II as an antibacterial strategy is highlighted by the fact that it is the target for at least four different classes of antibiotic, including the clinically important glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. However, the growing problem of bacterial resistance to many current drugs, including vancomycin, has led to increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of other classes of compound that target Lipid II. Here, we review progress in understanding of the antibacterial activities of these compounds, which include lantibiotics, mannopeptimycins and ramoplanin, and consider factors that will be important in exploiting their potential as new treatments for bacterial infections. PMID:16531990

  5. Rapid diagnostics and appropriate antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Louis B

    2011-05-01

    Most antibiotics are prescribed by physicians lacking postgraduate training in infectious diseases. As such, prescribing physicians have varying levels of interest and sophistication in thinking about how to use molecular and microbiological data to inform therapeutic choices. Strategies designed to modify physician antimicrobial-prescribing practices must therefore choose simplicity over complexity and must acknowledge our fundamental ignorance of many of the specifics of antibiotic-microorganism interactions. They must also acknowledge the critical nature of bacterial illnesses in hospitalized patients and the importance of delivering effective antimicrobial therapy early in the illness. "Back-end" strategies that evaluate therapy at defined intervals will be more readily accepted than strategies limiting physician choices early in the illness. It is therefore critical that we develop rapid and reliable microbiological assays, evidence-based recommendations on appropriate durations of therapy, and accurate surrogate markers of infection resolution. PMID:21460296

  6. Antibiotic Prescription in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov;

    2016-01-01

    explore how the GPs prescription behaviour is influenced by selected factors. Antibiotics are essential when treating potentially lethal infections. An increasing development of resistant bacteria is considered one of the primary threats to public health. The majority of antibiotics (90%) are prescribed...... selected factors (microbiological diagnostics, point-of-care tests, patients’ expectations) in the management of infectious diseases. 3. Results This PhD project is scheduled to be carried out in 2016-2019. The hypotheses and anticipated perspectives will be discussed at the conference. 4. Conclusions The...... project will contribute to existing knowledge with information on the diagnostic approaches to infections in general practice. The results will create a base for targeted interventions aiming to optimize diagnostic approaches to infectious diseases benefitting the individual patient and society as a whole....

  7. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard William Meek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted.

  8. Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics: Time to Restrict Their Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Richard William; Vyas, Hrushi; Piddock, Laura Jane Violet

    2015-10-01

    The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted. PMID:26444324

  9. Antibiotic misuse in the community--a contributor to resistance?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, B

    2012-02-03

    The problem of antibiotic resistance is associated with the indiscriminate usage of antibiotics. Efforts have been directed at encouraging the rational use of these drugs to reduce the volume of antibiotic consumption and decrease resistance rates. There is evidence to suggest that the misuse of antibiotics by patients may also contribute to the problem. We describe a survey of a random selection of patients attending a General Practitioners\\' surgery over a six week period in an effort to estimate the level of non-compliance to antibiotic therapy in the community. The results suggest that there may be a significant level of antibiotic misuse prevalent in the local community. We discuss these results and present evidence in the literature suggesting how antibiotic misuse may affect resistance in the community. The factors affecting patient compliance to therapy are outlined along with suggested measures to improve compliance among patients.

  10. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: A global problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Choudhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  11. Microbiological End-Point Determination of Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rumney, C. J.; Coutts, J. T.; Smith, J. S.; Rowland, I R

    2011-01-01

    There is currently some concern regarding the possibility that consumption, by humans, of small quantities of veterinary antibiotics, present as residues in meat, might adversely alter the indigenous gut microflora. This study aimed to assess the potential effect on the human gut microflora of exposure to low levels of tilmicosin and spiramycin. Four groups of 4 human-flora-associated rats were dosed for 5 days with either water, tilmicosin (400 or 120 µg/kg/day) or spiramycin (500...

  12. Antibiotic residues in milk from Moldavia, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Solcan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a study based on the determination of antibiotic residues in milk samplescollected from farms in the NE Romania (Moldavia. Contamination seasonality and the correlations withSCC and TBC values were investigated. Out of 2785 total milk samples, 124 were positive (+ (4.45%and 130 samples were uncertain (± (4.67%. The presence of antibiotics was confirmed in 109 positive(+ samples (87.9% and 24 uncertain (± samples (18.46%, the difference being false-positivereactions. Betalactams were identified in 27.90% of the samples, at an average concentration of 26.65μg/kg. Gentamicin/neomycin were identified in 25% of samples, at an average concentration of 198.68μg gentamicin/kg and 2048.53 μg neomycin/kg. Tetracyclines were identified in 24.42% of the samples,at an average concentration of 271.43 μg/kg. Gentamicin/streptomycin were identified in 15.11% of thesamples, at an average concentrations of 198.68 μg gentamicin/kg and 280.61 μg streptomycin/kg. Themacrolides were identified in 7.56% of the samples, at an average concentration of 97.87 μg tylosin/kg.The antibiotic contamination of milk was low in January (CSi= 0.51 and July (CSi = 0.59, and increasedin April (CSi = 1.77 and May (CSi = 1.43. The milk contamination with antibiotics was associated withincreased SCC and TBC values.

  13. Pharmacokinetic interactions of the macrolide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, T M

    1985-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin and triacetyloleandomycin (troleandomycin) are prescribed for many types of infections. As such they are often added to other preexisting drug therapy. Thus, there are frequent opportunities for the interaction of these antibiotics with other drugs. Both erythromycin and triacetyloleandomycin appear to have the potential to inhibit drug metabolism in the liver and also drug metabolism by micro-organisms in the gut, either through their antibiotic effect or through complex formation and inactivation of microsomal drug oxidising enzymes. Of the two agents, triacetyloleandomycin appears to be the more potent inhibitor of microsomal drug metabolism. Published studies indicate that triacetyloleandomycin can significantly decrease the metabolism of methylprednisolone, theophylline and carbamazepine. Its ability to cause ergotism in patients receiving ergot alkaloids and cholestatic jaundice in patients on oral contraceptives may also be related to its inhibitory effect on drug metabolism. Erythromycin appears to be a much weaker inhibitor of drug metabolism. There are numerous reports describing apparent interactions of erythromycin with theophylline and a lesser number of reports dealing with carbamazepine, warfarin methylprednisolone and digoxin. There are sufficient data to suggest that erythromycin can, in some individuals, inhibit the elimination of methylprednisolone, theophylline, carbamazepine and warfarin. The mean change in drug clearance is about 20 to 25% in most cases, with some patients having a much larger change than others. Like tetracycline, erythromycin also appears to have the potential for increasing the bioavailability of digoxin in patients who excrete high amounts of reduced digoxin metabolites, apparently through destruction of the gut flora that form these compounds. Concurrent administration of triacetyloleandomycin with drugs whose metabolism is known to be affected or that could potentially be affected

  14. Total Synthesis of the Antitumor Antibiotic Basidalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jaime A M; Muddala, Ramesh; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Boukouvalas, John

    2016-08-01

    The first synthesis of the tetronamide antibiotic basidalin was accomplished in five steps and 39% overall yield from readily available 4-bromo-2-triisopropylsilyloxyfuran and 2-formyl-1,3-dithiane. Highlights include: (i) regio- and stereocontrolled assemblage of a pivotal (Z)-γ-ylidene-β-bromobutenolide intermediate by stereodirected vinylogous aldol condensation (SVAC), (ii) installation of the amino group via aza-Michael addition/elimination, and crucially (iii) facile access to basidalin by late-stage dithiane removal. PMID:27347696

  15. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  16. Cardiac dysrhythmia resulting from antibiotic abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Basil Nwaneri Okeahialam

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used to combat infections and could be used in treating some connective diseases. They are not without side effects especially when used without regard to age, gender, diseases and their severity, comorbidity, and idiosyncrasies. This is more likely to occur when dispensed by unqualified persons to selves or others. Consequences of inappropriate use include various morbidities and in some instances death. This is a report of a middle-aged man with several risk factors...

  17. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant strain Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most widespread multiresistant bacteria. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms by photosensitizers (PS) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of new PS cationic porphyrin Zn-TBut4PyP was tested on two strains of S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus). It is shown that Zn-TBut4PyP has high photodynamic activity against both strains

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro anti-neoplastic activity of novel vic-dioximes bearing thiosemicarbazone side groups and their mononuclear complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babahan, İlknur; Özmen, Ali; Orhan, Nil; Kazar, Didem; Değirmenci, Esin Hafize

    2014-04-01

    Two novel vicinal dioxime ligands containing thiosemicarbazone units, (2E)-2-[4-(diethylamino)benzylidene]-N-[(1Z,2E)-N-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino)ethanimidoyl]hydrazine carbothioamide (L(1)H2) and (2E)-2-[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]-N-[(1Z,2E)-N-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino)ethanimidoyl]hydrazinecarbothioamide (L(2)H2), were synthesized. Using the HL-60 human leukemia cell line, the in vitro anti-neoplastic activity of these thiosemicarbazone-oxime derivatives was evaluated. Mononuclear nickel(II), copper(II), and cobalt(II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for both the L(1)H2 and L(2)H2 ligands were also synthesized. To characterize these compounds, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectrometry (MS), magnetic susceptibility measurements, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMQC), and elemental analysis were performed. For L(1)H2, L(2)H2, and each of their derivatives, antiproliferative effects against HL-60 cells were exhibited and the associated IpC50 values ranged from 5μM to 20μM. Furthermore, L(1)H2 and its derivatives inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells more effectively than L(2)H2, and 5μM [Cu(L(1)H)2] exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity. PMID:24651042

  19. Identification of differential anti-neoplastic activity of copper bis(thiosemicarbazones) that is mediated by intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and lysosomal membrane permeabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Christian; Al-Eisawi, Zaynab; Jansson, Patric J; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R

    2015-11-01

    Bis(thiosemicarbazones) and their copper (Cu) complexes possess unique anti-neoplastic properties. However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the structure-activity relationships of twelve bis(thiosemicarbazones) to elucidate factors regarding their anti-cancer efficacy. Importantly, the alkyl substitutions at the diimine position of the ligand backbone resulted in two distinct groups, namely, unsubstituted/monosubstituted and disubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazones). This alkyl substitution pattern governed their: (1) Cu(II/I) redox potentials; (2) ability to induce cellular (64)Cu release; (3) lipophilicity; and (4) anti-proliferative activity. The potent anti-cancer Cu complex of the unsubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazone) analog, glyoxal bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (GTSM), generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was attenuated by Cu sequestration by a non-toxic Cu chelator, tetrathiomolybdate, and the anti-oxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Fluorescence microscopy suggested that the anti-cancer activity of Cu(GTSM) was due, in part, to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). For the first time, this investigation highlights the role of ROS and LMP in the anti-cancer activity of bis(thiosemicarbazones). PMID:26335599

  20. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria

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    Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolates. Also, the choice of media is problematic, as well as the specification of MIC breakpoint values as a result of the large species variation and the possible resulting variation in MIC values between species and genera. The current investigations in this field showed that we might end up with a range of different species- or genus-specific breakpoint values that may further increase the current complexity. Another problem associated with safety determinations of starter strains is that once a resistance phenotype and an associated resistance determinant have been identified, it becomes difficult to show that this determinant is not transferable, especially if the resistance gene is not located on a plasmid and no standard protocols for showing genetic transfer are available. Encountering those problems, the QPS system should allow leeway for the interpretations of results, especially when these relate to the methodology for resistance phenotype determinations, determinations of MIC breakpoints for certain genera, species, or strains, the nondeterminability of a genetic basis of a resistance phenotype and the transferability of resistance genes.

  1. [Antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzina, E V; Lareva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is considered to mean at least 3 shapeless stool episodes within 2 or more consecutive days when using antibacterial agents. Due to the fact that antibiotics are used most commonly to treat many diseases, AAD is one of the topical problems for different clinical specialists. There has recently been increased interest in this condition due to its higher morbidity and mortality rates and the emergence of novel treatment-resistant virulent strains of Clostridium difficile 027 and 078/126. The paper discusses the possible risk of developing AAD depending on the class of the antibiotic used, as well as the mechanisms of its development. Infectious diarrhea most frequently results from bacterial overgrowth due to that the obligate intestinal microflora is suppressed by antibacterial drugs. C. difficile, Clostridium perfringers, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Candida spp. are etiological factors in the development of this diarrhea. The severest intestinal lesions include pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) caused by C. difficile. The clinical and endoscopic picture and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of PMC are described. Therapy for this menacing condition is traditionally based on the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the new drug fidaxomycin whose superiority over vancomycin has been demonstrated by a recurrence criterion. The paper discusses in detail other treatment options, including the use of probiotics. PMID:23653946

  2. Selective condensation of DNA by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaczynska, M; Schulz, A; Fraczkowska, K; Kraszewski, S; Podbielska, H; Fuhrhop, J H

    2016-05-01

    The condensing effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics on the structure of double-stranded DNA was examined. The selective condensation of DNA by small molecules is an interesting approach in biotechnology. Here, we present the interaction between calf thymus DNA and three types of antibiotic molecules: tobramycin, kanamycin, and neomycin. Several techniques were applied to study this effect. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy images, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed that the interaction of tobramycin with double-stranded DNA caused the rod, toroid, and sphere formation and very strong condensation of DNA strands, which was not observed in the case of other aminoglycosides used in the experiment. Studies on the mechanisms by which small molecules interact with DNA are important in understanding their functioning in cells, in designing new and efficient drugs, or in minimizing their adverse side effects. Specific interactions between tobramycin and DNA double helix was modeled using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation study shows the aminoglycoside specificity to bend DNA double helix, shedding light on the origins of toroid formation. This phenomenon may lighten the ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity issues, but also other adverse reactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the human body. PMID:26646261

  3. Antibiotic Resistance in Childhood with Pneumococcal Infection

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    Ali Gunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Resistance to antibiotics is better. Between should not be in capitals. Antibiotics resistant has been increasing in pneumococci that cause serious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis in recent years. The resistance rates vary between geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to determine antibiotic resistance rates in pneumococcal infections in our region. Material and Method: This study included 31 pneumococcal strains isolated from blood, CSF and urine samples of patients with meningitis, sepsis and urinary tract infections who admitted Dicle University Medicine School Children Clinic and Diyarbakir Pediatric Hospital Between December 2004-April 2007. Reproducing clinical specimens with alpha-hemolysis, optochin-sensitive, bile soluble and gram-positive diplococci morphology was defined as S. pneumoniae. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains were measured by the E-test method. MIC values of penicillin against pneumococci was accepted as <0.06 mg / ml value of the sensitive, 0.12-1μg/ml mid-level resistance, ≥ 2 mg / ml value of the high-level resistance. Results: It was found 16% mid-level penicillin resistance and 3.2% high-level penicillin resistance by E-test method. 80.7% of Strains were percent of the penicillin-sensitive. Seftiriakson resistance was found as 3.2%. there was not Vancomycin resistance. Discussion: We think penicillin therapy is enough effective for pneumococcal infections except serious conditions such as meningitis and sepsis. Also we think it should be supported by multicenter studies.

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

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    María Elena Nader-Macías

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 μg/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 μg/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 μg/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora.

  5. Antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate/gelatin/antibiotic constructs for craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Kretlow, James D; Spicer, Patrick P; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Demian, Nagi; Wong, Mark E; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2011-05-30

    An antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) construct was developed to maintain the bony space and prime the wound site in the initial step of a two-stage regenerative medicine approach toward reconstructing significant bony or composite craniofacial tissue defects. Porous PMMA constructs incorporating gelatin microparticles (GMPs) were fabricated by the sequential assembly of GMPs, the antibiotic colistin, and a clinically used bone cement formulation of PMMA powder and methylmethacrylate liquid. PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs with varying gelatin incorporation and drug content were investigated to elucidate the relationship between material composition and construct properties (porosity and drug release kinetics). The porosity of PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs ranged between 7.6±1.8% and 38.4±1.4% depending on the amount of gelatin incorporated and the drug solution added for gelatin swelling. The constructs released colistin over 10 or 14 days with an average release rate per day above 10 μg/ml. The porosity and in vitro colistin release kinetics of PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs were tuned by varying the material composition and fabrication parameters. This study demonstrates the potential of gelatin-incorporating PMMA constructs as a functional space maintainer for both promoting tissue healing/coverage and addressing local infections, enabling better long-term success of the definitive regenerated tissue construct. PMID:21295086

  6. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

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    Isobel M Blake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is

  7. Public Beliefs about Antibiotics, Infection and Resistance: A Qualitative Study

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    Helen Madden

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of public views and ways of talking about antibiotics. Four focus groups were held with members of the public. In addition, 39 households were recruited and interviews, diaries of medicine taking, diaries of any contact with medication were used to explore understanding and use of medication. Discussions related to antibiotics were identified and analyzed. Participants in this study were worried about adverse effects of antibiotics, particularly for recurrent infections. Some were concerned that antibiotics upset the body’s “balance”, and many used strategies to try to prevent and treat infections without antibiotics. They rarely used military metaphors about infection (e.g., describing bacteria as invading armies but instead spoke of clearing infections. They had little understanding of the concept of antibiotic resistance but they thought that over-using antibiotics was unwise because it would reduce their future effectiveness. Previous studies tend to focus on problems such as lack of knowledge, or belief in the curative powers of antibiotics for viral illness, and neglect the concerns that people have about antibiotics, and the fact that many people try to avoid them. We suggest that these concerns about antibiotics form a resource for educating patients, for health promotion and social marketing strategies.

  8. Use of antibiotics by primary care doctors in Hong Kong

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    Lam Tai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the use of antibiotics by primary care doctors. Methods General practitioners in Hong Kong were invited to fill in a short questionnaire on every patient with infection that they had seen on the first full working day once every three months for four consecutive quarters starting from December 2005. Results Forty six primary care doctors took part and a total of 3096 completed questionnaires were returned. The top three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (46.7%, gastrointestinal infection (8.2% and pharyngitis (7.1%. Thirty percent of patient encounters with infections were prescribed antibiotics but only 5.2% of patient encounters with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were prescribed antibiotics. Amino-penicillins were the most commonly used antibiotics while beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs were the second most commonly used antibiotics and they accounted for 16.5% and 14.0% of all antibiotics used respectively. Of all patients or their carers, those who demanded or wished for antibiotics were far more likely to be prescribed antibiotics (Pearson chi-square test, p Conclusion The antibiotic prescribing patterns of primary care doctors in Hong Kong are broadly similar to primary care doctors in other developed countries but a relatively low rate of antibiotics is used for URTI.

  9. Epidemiological Interpretation of Studies Examining the Effect of Antibiotic Usage on Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Schechner, V.; Temkin, E.; Harbarth, S.; Carmeli, Y; Schwaber, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing clinical problem and public health threat. Antibiotic use is a known risk factor for the emergence of antibiotic resistance, but demonstrating the causal link between antibiotic use and resistance is challenging. This review describes different study designs for assessing the association between antibiotic use and resistance and discusses strengths and limitations of each. Approaches to measuring antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance are pre...

  10. Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiles Determined with an Escherichia coli Gene Knockout Collection: Generating an Antibiotic Bar Code ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Tran, Lillian; Becket, Elinne; Lee, Kim; Chinn, Laney; Park, Eunice; Tran, Katherine; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    We have defined a sensitivity profile for 22 antibiotics by extending previous work testing the entire KEIO collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to 1 of 14 different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin [rifampicin], vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole, streptomycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and triclosan). We screened one or more subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic, generating more than 80,000 data points and allowing a reduction of the entire collection to a set of 283 strains that display significantly increased sensitivity to at least one of the antibiotics. We used this reduced set of strains to determine a profile for eight additional antibiotics (spectinomycin, cephradine, aztreonem, colistin, neomycin, enoxacin, tobramycin, and cefoxitin). The profiles for the 22 antibiotics represent a growing catalog of sensitivity fingerprints that can be separated into two components, multidrug-resistant mutants and those mutants that confer relatively specific sensitivity to the antibiotic or type of antibiotic tested. The latter group can be represented by a set of 20 to 60 strains that can be used for the rapid typing of antibiotics by generating a virtual bar code readout of the specific sensitivities. Taken together, these data reveal the complexity of intrinsic resistance and provide additional targets for the design of codrugs (or combinations of drugs) that potentiate existing antibiotics. PMID:20065048

  11. Antibiotics in acute necrotizing pancreatitis --- perspective of a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prophylactic antibiotics in acute necrotizing pancreatitis is controversial. The mortality of acute necrotizing pancreatitis is 8-25% in the western world. In view of the limited resources available for managing the complications of infected pancreatitis in developing countries, the use of prophylactic antibiotics may be recommended in selected cases. Various antibiotics show good penetration into the pancreatic tissue; imipenem and quinolones have better penetration. Clinical trials on the use of prophylactic antibiotics in necrotizing pancreatitis have been reviewed. Prophylactic antibiotics have been considered if greater than 30% pancreatic necrosis as documented by CT scan. Imipenem can be given for a duration of 10 to 14 days if no systemic complications are present. In a developing country where the cost of managing complications of pancreatitis can be a limiting factor for patients, the use of prophylactic antibiotics early on in the disease in selected cases can be beneficial. (author)

  12. The ionising radiation effect on reactivation of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-radiation on the molecular structure of antibiotics was studied with a view to extending their useful life beyond the current expiration period. The following antibiotics were examined: penicillin, bicillin-3,5, streptomycine, and ampioxe. The samples were irradiated by Co-60 gamma-radiation from a research irradiator. Doses of 0.1, 1, 5, 7, and 10 Gy were applied. The processes were elucidated using the classical method of 2-divisible serial dilutions and IR-spectroscopy. All the measurements were carried out at 300 K. The IR-spectra revealed that the chemical structure of new and old antibiotics is identical; the change in the antibiotic activity is generally a result of deformation of the molecule or change in its conformation; the reactivation process returns the molecule to its previous state and the activity of antibiotic after reactivation meets established standards. Hence, this method can be used for the reactivation of expired antibiotics

  13. OCULAR INFECTIONS: RATIONAL APPROACH TO ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY

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    Mulla Summaiya A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation of common pathogens involved in ocular infection and their in-vitro susceptibility to commonly used ocular antibiotics, as well as the trends in antibiotic resistance developed by these pathogens were investigated. Material/Methods: All patients with suspected bacterial ocular infections presenting between march 2010 and feb 2011 were examined under slit lamp microscope and samples were collected by using aseptic techniques. All samples were processed for direct microscopy, culture and identification by standard methods. Susceptibility testing was done by Kirby-Bauer method as per CLSI guideline. Results: Out of 116 patients with ocular infections 130 samples were collected, from which 38 different organisms were isolated. Gram-positive cocci 21 (55%, gram-negative cocco-bacilli 5(31% and gram-negative bacilli 12 (32% were isolated. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (37% and Pseudomonas species (21% were the most commonly-isolated. Gatifloxacin has highest efficacy (89% against all isolates. Majority of gram positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin, gatifloxacin, cefazolin, gram negative cocco-bacilli to amikacin, tobramycin, fluoroquinolone and gram negative bacilli to gatifloxacin. Conclusion: Majority of ocular infection is caused by gram positive organisms which were susceptible to vancomycin followed by gram negative organisms susceptible to amikacin, fluoroquinolone, gram negative cocco-bacilli to amikacin and tobramycin, and gatifloxacin effective against both type of organisms. The information provided in this article help the clinician in formulating rationale-based empirical antibiotic treatment of bacterial ocular infections. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 22-24

  14. Cardiac dysrhythmia resulting from antibiotic abuse

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    Basil Nwaneri Okeahialam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are commonly used to combat infections and could be used in treating some connective diseases. They are not without side effects especially when used without regard to age, gender, diseases and their severity, comorbidity, and idiosyncrasies. This is more likely to occur when dispensed by unqualified persons to selves or others. Consequences of inappropriate use include various morbidities and in some instances death. This is a report of a middle-aged man with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, who on the side had chronic osteomyelitis. Wound swab grew organisms sensitive to levofloxacin, and he had the drug prescribed to him by the attending orthopedic surgeon. With reduction in discharge to the point that he no longer bound his foot in bandage, he went on using the drug beyond the duration of prescription without reverting to his orthopedic surgeon until he developed sudden onset palpitation and shortness of breath. With this was an unusual tachyarrhythmia which defied initial measures. This prompted further review of his drug history when he admitted to taking levofloxacin for up to 3 months. Suspecting it to be the culprit, he was advised to discontinue it. With this, his symptoms started to abate, alongside gradual improvement in electrocardiograms till eventual normalization. This report is made to highlight the possibility that some antibiotics have the propensity to induce arrhythmias that can be very serious especially in cardiovascular disease-burdened patients. Such patients then go into heart failure and it becomes difficult to tell which came first, the arrhythmia or the heart failure. Resolving the order of onset assists in proper management. As a result, it is being recommended that patients with unexplained arrhythmias with or without heart failure should have their drug histories evaluated. Uncontrolled prescription and use of antibiotics should also be discouraged.

  15. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Gianluca; Coci, Manuela; Giardina, Marco; Plechuk, Sonia; Campanile, Floriana; Stefani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The release of antibiotics (AB) into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of AB-resistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance) in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5-6 fold. These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of the effects of AB

  16. Cystic fibrosis, intravenous antibiotics, and home therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, L J; Caldwell, S; Campbell, P W

    1991-01-01

    The survival rate of patients with cystic fibrosis has improved considerably in the last 20 years. Although not all of the factors accounting for this change are understood, aggressive nutritional management and treatment of pulmonary exacerbations certainly play a role. Home intravenous (IV) antibiotic delivery for pulmonary exacerbation has proved to be as effective as hospital treatment and offers significant advantages to the patient and family. This article examines the microbiology of pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, as well as antimicrobial therapy, methods of IV administration, home IV therapy, and the nurse practitioner's role in this home program in the future. PMID:1990112

  17. Platform for a Technological Leap in Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    NTN Swiss Biotech™ brings together the Swiss Biotech Association SBA, which is involved in regulatory, financial and legal issues, and biotechnet Switzerland, which is active in translational R&D, to provide a technology base for joint projects. Biotechnet aims to push promising domains by creating topic-oriented platforms that enable academia and industry to work together to produce R&D results of major importance to society and the economy. The first activity initiated by biotechnet is the Antibiotics Platform that has now been launched. PMID:26842338

  18. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  19. The global problem of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gootz, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Amid the recent attention justly focused on the potential problem of microbial sources for weapons of bioterrorism, it is also apparent that human pathogens frequently isolated from infections in patients from community and hospital sources have been growing more resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Much of the growth of multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens can be contributed to the overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobial products. However, an equally troubling and often overlooked component of the problem involves the elegant ways in which pathogenic bacteria continually evolve complex genetic systems for acquiring and regulating an endless array of antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Efforts to develop new antimicrobials have over the past two decades been woefully behind the rapid evolution of resistance genes developing among both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. Several new agents that are best suited for use in the hospital environment have been developed to combat staphylococci resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials following acquisition of the mecA gene. However, the dramatic spread in the US of the now common community strain of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 has shifted the therapeutic need for new antibiotics useful against MRSA to the community. As the pharmaceutical industry focused on discovering new agents for use against MRSA, hospitals in many parts of the world have seen the emergence of gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae that are clinically resistant to almost all available antimicrobials. Such MDR isolates usually contain multiple-resistance determinants, including loss of outer membrane porins via gene inactivation by chromosomally encoded insertion sequences, up-regulation of inate efflux pumps, as well as acquisition of drug-inactivating enzymes whose genes are encoded on self-transmissible plasmids, integrons, and complex transposable elements

  20. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyne CP

    2016-08-01

    did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10-9 M and 10-5 M. Rapid increases in antineoplastic cytotoxicity were observed at and between the dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10-9 M and 10-7 M where cancer cell death increased from 7.7% to a maximum of 64.9% (92.3%–35.1% residual survival, respectively, which closely paralleled values for “free” noncovalently bound dexamethasone. Discussion: Organic chemistry reaction regimens were optimized to develop a multiphase synthesis regimen for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR]. Attributes of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR] include a high dexamethasone molar incorporation-index, lack of extraneous chemical group introduction, retained EGFR-binding avidity (“targeted” delivery properties, and potential to enhance long-term pharmaceutical moiety effectiveness. Keywords: dexamethasone, anti-EGFR, organic chemistry reactions, synthesis, selective “targeted” delivery, covalent immunopharmaceuticals, EGFR 

  1. Resistance to last-resort antibiotics in natural environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tacão, Marta Cristina Oliveira Martins

    2014-01-01

    Last-resort antibiotics are the final line of action for treating serious infections caused by multiresistant strains. Over the years the prevalence of resistant bacteria has been increasing. Natural environments are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, highly influenced by human-driven activities. The importance of aquatic systems on the evolution of antibiotic resistance is highlighted from the assumption that clinically-relevant resistance genes have originated in strains ...

  2. Influence of Antibiotics Added in Milk over Yogurth Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Vintila; Adela Marcu; Teodor Vintila; Daniela Roxana Vintilă; Adrian Marcu

    2010-01-01

    Large spectrum antibiotics used in different cow diseases leads to their release in milk altering its proprieties during processing. Knowing the inhibitory effect of antibiotics upon lactic bacteria development and multiplying we followed the effect of gentamycin, a large spectrum antibiotic added in different doses in milk used for yogurth processing. In our research, besides the effect of antibiotica we followed also the influence of milk fat content upon milk clotting time, while antibioti...

  3. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU) regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking ani...

  4. Rifaximin for maintenance therapy in antibiotic-dependent pouchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez A Rocio; Remzi Feza H; Shen Bo; Queener Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pouchitis is the most common long-term complication of in patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Patients often develop antibiotic-dependent form of pouchitis requiring long-term antibiotic therapy for remission maintenance. Rifaximin, an oral, non-systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotic with a favorable safety profile, may be a promising candidate agent for maintenance therapy. This historical cohort open-label study investigated the effic...

  5. Antibiotic Adjuvants: Diverse Strategies for Controlling Drug-Resistant Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Erin E.; Franco, Octavio L.; Robert E. W. Hancock

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to numerous antibiotics is a cause for concern around the globe. There have been no new broad-spectrum antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, and the drugs we have currently are quickly becoming ineffective. In this article, we explore a range of therapeutic strategies that could be employed in conjunction with antibiotics and may help to prolong the life span of these life-saving drugs. Discussed topics include antiresistance ...

  6. Some aspects of genetic control of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    OpenAIRE

    М. P. Teplitskaya; I. E. Sokolova

    2005-01-01

    These work contain a review of basic hypotheses and experimental information in relation to the problem of antibiotic synthesis regulation by the bacteria of the Streptomyces family. Data on cluster organization of antibiotics biosynthesis genes in these microorganisms were generalized. The examples of the positive and negative specific control of antibiotic production genes were resulted. Except for it, proofs that confirm participation of a few genes of more high level in the process of ini...

  7. Comparison of Common Antibiotic Therapies for Haemophilus Pleuropneumonia in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Willson, Philip J.; Osborne, A. Dudley

    1985-01-01

    Three experiments were done to evaluate some antibiotic therapies that are used commonly to treat pigs infected with Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae. Haemophilus-free piglets, 12 weeks of age, were challenged in a chamber with an aerosol of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and were medicated with antibiotics at various times before or after challenge. Antibiotic formulations which are commonly used to treat pneumonia in swine were used. They were chloramphenicol, penicillin, and a long-acting form...

  8. Bordetella avium Antibiotic Resistance, Novel Enrichment Culture, and Antigenic Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Nathan M; Thompson, Seth; Mutnick, Rachel; Brown, Lisa; Kettig, Gina; Puffenbarger, Robyn; Miyamoto, David; Temple, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment cul...

  9. Isolation of lytic phages for clinical antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Diana; Sillankorva, Sanna; Faustino, A.; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a relevant opportunist pathogen involved in noso-comial infections. P. aeruginosa uses an arsenal of virulence factors to cause serious infections and one of the most worrying characteristics of this bacte-rium is its low antibiotic susceptibility. The low susceptibility to antibiotics can be attributed to a concerted action of multidrug efflux pumps with chromo-somally-encoded antibiotic resistance genes and the low permeability of the bacterial cellular envelopes. ...

  10. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Acinetobacter Baumanii Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Aðca

    2013-01-01

         Aim :  In this study it was aimed to investigate the antibiotic susceptibilities of Acinetobacter baumanii strains isolated from various clinical samples sent to Tavsanli State Hospital Microbiology Laboratory retrospectively. Material and Method: All of the cultures were examined for the agent and antibiotic susceptibilities. For the identification of bacteria, various chemical tests and BBL Crystal E/NF (Beckton Dickinson, ABD) system was used. Antibiotic susce...

  11. Prescription of antibiotics and awareness of antibiotic costs by paediatricians in two hospitals in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helena C; Mougkou, Katerina; Iosifidis, Elias; Katerelos, Panos; Roilides, Emmanuel; Theodoridou, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Our aim was to study the antibiotic prescription practices and the knowledge about antibiotic costs, brand and generic drugs of paediatricians working in two hospitals in Greece. The 2007 national guidelines were used as the gold standard for antibiotic prescription. A total of 126 paediatricians participated in the study (50.4% response rate). The mean compliance rate with the guidelines was 50.1% (range per infection: 10.6-84.7%). The mean scores of knowledge about antibiotic costs and about brand name and generic drugs were 35.6 and 60.3%, respectively. Linear regression analysis found a significant association between the mean compliance rate with the national guidelines and the paediatricians' age (mean compliance rates were 49.1, 53.0, and 43.0% in the ≤ 30, 31-40, and > 40 years age-groups, respectively; P  =  0.003). In conclusion, five years after the first national guidelines were issued in Greece only half of the paediatricians working in hospitals comply fully with them. PMID:24410189

  12. Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics in Europe and its relationship to antibiotic consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megraud, Francis; Coenen, Samuel; Versporten, Ann;

    2013-01-01

    in different countries. DESIGN: Primary antibiotic resistance rates of H pylori were determined from April 2008 to June 2009 in 18 European countries. Data on yearly and cumulative use over several years of systemic antibacterial agents in ambulatory care for the period 2001-8 were expressed in Defined Daily...

  13. Sweet antibiotics – the role of glycosidic residues in antibiotic and antitumor activity and their randomization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2008), s. 858-889. ISSN 0168-6445 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA AV ČR IAA400200503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : glycosides * sweet antibiotic s * aglycone Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 7.963, year: 2008

  14. Characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics by a standardized antibiotic susceptibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda D; Nguyen, Oanh T; Deinhard, Rebecca K; White, Teresa M; Harrell, Lee W; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2008-08-01

    Three cohorts of juvenile and subadult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha received multiple treatments with macrolide antibiotics for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) during rearing in a captive broodstock program. A total of 77 mortalities among the cohorts were screened for Renibacterium salmoninarum, the etiologic agent of BKD, by agar culture from kidney, and isolates from 7 fish were suitable for growth testing in the presence of macrolide antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin and azithromycin was determined by a modification of the standardized broth assay using defined medium. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strain 33209 exhibited a MIC of 0.008 microg m(-1) to either erythromycin or azithromycin. Isolates from 3 fish displayed MICs identical to the MICs for the ATCC type strain 33209. In contrast, isolates from 4 fish exhibited higher MICs, ranging between 0.125 and 0.250 microg ml(-1) for erythromycin and between 0.016 and 0.031 microg ml(-1) for azithromycin. Sequence analysis of the mutational hotspots for macrolide resistance in the 23S rDNA gene and the open reading frames of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 found identical sequences among all isolates, indicating that the phenotype was not due to mutations associated with the drug-binding site of 23S rRNA. These results are the first report of R. salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics isolated from fish receiving multiple antibiotic treatments. PMID:18814542

  15. Protective role of E. coli outer membrane vesicles against antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Heramb M; Nagaraj, R; Jagannadham, Medicharla V

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from bacteria are known to posses both defensive and protective functions and thus participate in community related functions. In the present study, outer membrane vesicles have been shown to protect the producer bacterium and two other bacterial species from the growth inhibitory effects of some antibiotics. The OMVs isolated from E. coli MG1655 protected the bacteria against membrane-active antibiotics colistin, melittin. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 could also protect P. aeruginosa NCTC6751 and A. radiodioresistens MMC5 against these membrane-active antibiotics. However, OMVs could not protect any of these bacteria against the other antibiotics ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim. Hence, OMVs appears to protect the bacterial community against membrane-active antibiotics and not other antibiotics, which have different mechanism of actions. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 sequester the antibiotic colistin, whereas their protein components degrade the antimicrobial peptide melittin. Proteomic analysis of OMVs revealed the presence of proteases and peptidases which appear to be involved in this process. Thus, the protection of bacteria by OMVs against antibiotics is situation dependent and the mechanism differs for different situations. These studies suggest that OMVs of bacteria form a common defense for the bacterial community against specific antibiotics. PMID:26640046

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Commensal Bacteria from Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Tseng, Shu-Ying; Huang, Mao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on foodborne or commensal bacteria as vehicles of antibiotic resistance. However, the antibiotic resistance of milk bacteria from healthy donors is still vague in Taiwan. For this purpose, human milk samples were obtained from randomly recruited 19 healthy women between 3 and 360 days post-partum. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria from milk samples was determined. About 20 bacterial species were isolated from milk samples including Staphylococcus (6 species), Streptococcus (4 species), Enterococcus (2 species), Lactobacillus (1 species), and bacteria belonging to other genera (7 species). Some opportunistic or potentially pathogenic bacteria including Kluyvera ascorbata, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Actinomyces bovis, and Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated. Intriguingly, Staphylococcus isolates (22 strains) were resistant to 2–8 of 8 antibiotics, while Streptococcus isolates (3 strains) were resistant to 3–7 of 9 antibiotics, and members of the genus Enterococcus (5 strains) were resistant to 3–8 of 9 antibiotics. Notably, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, S. aureus, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to vancomycin, which is considered as the last-resort antibiotic. Therefore, this study shows that most bacterial strains in human milk demonstrate mild to strong antibiotic resistance. Whether commensal bacteria in milk could serve as vehicles of antibiotic resistance should be further investigated. PMID:26494365

  17. Characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rendered animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacre, C L; White, D G; Maurer, J J; Morales, C; Lobsinger, C; Hudson, C

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotics are used in food animal production to treat diseases and also to improve performance. Antibiotics are not used on all farms, and antibiotic resistance is occasionally found on farms that do not use antibiotics. Rendered animal protein products are often included in poultry feeds and could potentially serve as a source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One hundred sixty-five rendered animal protein products from cattle, poultry, and fish were aseptically collected from poultry feed mills. Fifty-five percent of the poultry meal samples had detectable levels of gram-negative bacteria ranging from 40 to 10,440 colony-forming units/g of sample. Poultry meal and meat and bone meal had the greatest number of samples with bacteria resistant to five or more antibiotics. A high percentage of feed samples (85%) contained bacteria resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, clavulanic acid, or cephalothin, whereas few samples contained bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae were the most commonly isolated antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Isolation for Salmonella was also performed, with 14% of the meat and bone meal samples containing Salmonella sp. Only one of the meat and bone meal isolates, Salmonella livingstone, was resistant to five or more antibiotics. Many of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria contained integrons, genetic elements that mediate multiple drug resistance. PMID:11785899

  18. Antibiotic resistance in food lactic acid bacteria--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Shalini; Singh, Rameshwar

    2005-12-15

    Antibiotics are a major tool utilized by the health care industry to fight bacterial infections; however, bacteria are highly adaptable creatures and are capable of developing resistance to antibiotics. Consequently, decades of antibiotic use, or rather misuse, have resulted in bacterial resistance to many modern antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance can cause significant danger and suffering for many people with common bacterial infections, those once easily treated with antibiotics. For several decades studies on selection and dissemination of antibiotic resistance have focused mainly on clinically relevant species. However, recently many investigators have speculated that commensal bacteria including lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes similar to those found in human pathogens. The main threat associated with these bacteria is that they can transfer resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria. Genes conferring resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and vancomycin have been detected and characterized in Lactococcus lactis, Enterococci and, recently, in Lactobacillus species isolated from fermented meat and milk products. A number of initiatives have been recently launched by various organizations across the globe to address the biosafety concerns of starter cultures and probiotic microorganisms. The studies can lead to better understanding of the role played by the dairy starter microorganisms in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to intestinal microorganisms and food-associated pathogenic bacteria. PMID:16289406

  19. Adaptive Landscapes of Resistance Genes Change as Antibiotic Concentrations Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M; Meza, Juan C; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on the evolution of antibiotic resistance are focused on selection for resistance at lethal antibiotic concentrations, which has allowed the detection of mutant strains that show strong phenotypic traits. However, solely focusing on lethal concentrations of antibiotics narrowly limits our perspective of antibiotic resistance evolution. New high-resolution competition assays have shown that resistant bacteria are selected at relatively low concentrations of antibiotics. This finding is important because sublethal concentrations of antibiotics are found widely in patients undergoing antibiotic therapies, and in nonmedical conditions such as wastewater treatment plants, and food and water used in agriculture and farming. To understand the impacts of sublethal concentrations on selection, we measured 30 adaptive landscapes for a set of TEM β-lactamases containing all combinations of the four amino acid substitutions that exist in TEM-50 for 15 β-lactam antibiotics at multiple concentrations. We found that there are many evolutionary pathways within this collection of landscapes that lead to nearly every TEM-genotype that we studied. While it is known that the pathways change depending on the type of β-lactam, this study demonstrates that the landscapes including fitness optima also change dramatically as the concentrations of antibiotics change. Based on these results we conclude that the presence of multiple concentrations of β-lactams in an environment result in many different adaptive landscapes through which pathways to nearly every genotype are available. Ultimately this may increase the diversity of genotypes in microbial populations. PMID:26113371

  20. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the...... significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity......, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate....

  1. Mitomycin antibiotic reductive potential and related pharmacological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S S; Gonzalez, H

    1990-06-01

    Relationships of reductive potential, kinetics of enzymatic reduction, augmented oxygen consumption, and cytotoxicity were determined for seven clinically relevant mitomycin antibiotics. Potentials for one-electron reduction were obtained by cyclic voltammetry analysis in dimethyl sulfoxide with 0.1 M tetraethyl-ammonium perchlorate. These potentials were -0.55 V for N7-acetylmitomycin C, -0.61 V for mitomycin A, -0.75 V for N7-(p-hydroxyphenyl)mitomycin C, -0.79 V for N7-(dimethylamino-methylene)mitomycin C, -0.81 V for N7-(2-(4-nitrophenyldithio)-ethyl)-mitomycin C, -0.81 V for mitomycin C, and -0.89 V for porfiromycin. All seven antibiotics were reduced by xanthine oxidase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, but the rate of reduction varied for each antibiotic and each enzyme. The less negative the reductive potential of an antibiotic, the more easily that antibiotic was reduced enzymatically. These seven mitomycin antibiotics also augmented oxygen consumption by rat liver microsomes. As with their reduction by xanthine oxidase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, the less negative the reductive potential of an antibiotic, the more it augmented oxygen consumption. Cytotoxicity of each antibiotic was assessed by defining the IC50 against HCT 116 human colon carcinoma cells. A relationship between the reductive potential of these antibiotics and their cytotoxicity against HCT 116 cells was also observed. PMID:2113607

  2. Over-the-counter suboptimal dispensing of antibiotics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukonzo JK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jackson K Mukonzo,1,2 Proscovia M Namuwenge,1 Gildo Okure,3 Benjamin Mwesige,1 Olivia K Namusisi,4 David Mukanga4 1Center for Operational Research Africa, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 3School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4African Field Epidemiologist Network, Kampala, Uganda Background: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a serious global problem. While resistance to older antibiotics is increasing, development of newer molecules has stalled. Resistance to the existing antibiotics that is largely driven by their high-volume use is a global public health problem. Uganda is one of the countries where prescription-only drugs, including antibiotics, can be obtained over the counter. We determined the rate of antibiotic dispensing and use in Uganda. Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional study design to determine the number of antibiotic "prescribed" daily doses per 1,000 clients. Data were collected from one health center II, eight general/district hospitals, one national referral hospital, and 62 registered community pharmacies. From each study site, data were collected for five consecutive days over the months of November 2011 to January 2012. Results: The overall antibiotic issue rate was 43.2%. Amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim, cloxacillin, and ampicillin, belonging to the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical classifications of penicillin with extended spectra, imidazole derivatives, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamide–trimethoprim combinations, constituted 70% of the issued antibiotics. About 41% of antibiotics were issued over the counter. At community pharmacies, where 30% of antibiotic dispensing occurred, the number of prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients was 4,169 compared to 6,220, 7,350 and 7,500 at general/district hospitals, the national referral hospital, and the health center, respectively. Conclusion

  3. Antibiotics as a selective driver for conjugation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, Allison J; Huang, Shuqiang; Smith, Robert P; Srimani, Jaydeep K; Sysoeva, Tatyana A; Bewick, Sharon; Karig, David K; You, Lingchong

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that antibiotics can promote horizontal gene transfer. However, because of a variety of confounding factors that complicate the interpretation of previous studies, the mechanisms by which antibiotics modulate horizontal gene transfer remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether antibiotics directly regulate the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer, serve as a selection force to modulate population dynamics after such gene transfer has occurred, or both. Here, we address this question by quantifying conjugation dynamics in the presence and absence of antibiotic-mediated selection. Surprisingly, we find that sublethal concentrations of antibiotics from the most widely used classes do not significantly increase the conjugation efficiency. Instead, our modelling and experimental results demonstrate that conjugation dynamics are dictated by antibiotic-mediated selection, which can both promote and suppress conjugation dynamics. Our findings suggest that the contribution of antibiotics to the promotion of horizontal gene transfer may have been overestimated. These findings have implications for designing effective antibiotic treatment protocols and for assessing the risks of antibiotic use. PMID:27572835

  4. Supramolecular Antibiotic Switches: A Potential Strategy for Combating Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haotian; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial infectious disease is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Pathogen drug resistance, arising from both rational use and abuse/misuse of germicides, complicates the situation. Aside from developing novel antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, molecular approaches have become another significant method to overcome the problem of pathogen drug resistance. Established supramolecular systems, the antibiotic properties of which can be switched "on" and "off" through host-guest interactions, show great potential in combating issues regarding antibiotic resistance in the long term, as indicated by several recent studies. In this Concept, recently developed strategies for antibacterial regulation are summarized and further directions for research into antibiotic switches are proposed. PMID:27312106

  5. Study of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus with Special Reference to Newer Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Dardi Charan; Chate, Sadhana Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of antibiotic resistance is in danger of ending the golden age of antibiotic therapy. Resistance impacts on all areas of medicine, and is making successful empirical therapy much more difficult to achieve. Staphylococcus aureus demonstrates a unique ability to quickly respond to each new antibiotic with the development of a resistance mechanism, starting with penicillin, until the most recent, linezolid and daptomycin. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become endemic today in hospitals worldwide. Resistance to the newer antimicrobial-agents - linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, and daptomycin are been reported and also the fear of pandrug-resistance. This study was carried out to know the antimicrobial resistant pattern of MRSA to newer antibiotic, to know any isolates are extensively-drug resistant (XDR)/pandrug resistant (PDR), inducible macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B (iMLSB), and mupirocin resistance. Thirty-six MRSA isolates resistant to the routinely tested antibiotic were further tested for list of antibiotic by a group of international experts. Isolates were tested for iMLSB and mupirocin resistance by the disk diffusion method. Of 385 MRSA, 36 (9.35%) isolates of MRSA were resistant to the routinely tested antibiotic. Among these 36 MRSA isolates, none of our isolates were XDR/PDR or showed resistant to anti-MRSA cephalosporins (ceftaroline), phosphonic acids, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, and fucidanes. Lower resistance was seen in oxazolidinones (2.78%), streptogramins (5.56%), lipopeptide (5.56%). Thirty-four (94.44%) isolates showed constitutive MLSB (cMLSB) resistance and two (5.56%) iMLSB phenotypes. High- and low-level mupirocin resistance were seen in 13 (36.11%) and six (16.67%), respectively. In our study, none of our isolates were XDR or PDR. No resistance was observed to ceftaroline, telavancin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin; but the presence of linezolid resistance (1, 2.28%) and daptomycin resistance (2, 5

  6. Antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments of northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Phan Thi Phuong; Managaki, Satoshi; Nakada, Norihide; Takada, Hideshige; Shimizu, Akiko; Anh, Duong Hong; Viet, Pham Hung; Suzuki, Satoru

    2011-07-01

    The ubiquitous application and release of antibiotics to the environment can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, which in turn can be a serious risk to humans and other animals. Southeast Asian countries commonly apply an integrated recycling farm system called VAC (Vegetable, Aquaculture and Caged animal). In the VAC environment, antibiotics are released from animal and human origins, which would cause antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). This study evaluated occurrence of ARB in the VAC environment in northern Vietnam, with quantitative analysis of antibiotic pollution. We found that sulfonamides were commonly detected at all sites. In dry season, while sulfamethazine was a major contaminant in pig farm pond (475-6662 ng/l) and less common in city canal and aquaculture sites, sulfamethoxazole was a major one in city canal (612-4330 ng/l). Erythromycin (154-2246 ng/l) and clarithromycin (2.8-778 ng/ml) were the common macrolides in city canal, but very low concentrations in pig farm pond and aquaculture sites. High frequencies of sulfamethoxazole-resistant bacteria (2.14-94.44%) were found whereas the occurrence rates of erythromycin-resistant bacteria were lower (Aeromonas were the major genera. Twenty three of 25 genera contained sul genes. This study showed specific contamination patterns in city and VAC environments and concluded that ARB occurred not only within contaminated sites but also those less contaminated. Various species can obtain resistance in VAC environment, which would be reservoir of drug resistance genes. Occurrence of ARB is suggested to relate with rainfall condition and horizontal gene transfer in diverse microbial community. PMID:21669325

  7. Fate of antibiotic resistant cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songhe; Han, Bing; Gu, Ju; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Ma, Yanyan; Cao, Jiashun; He, Zhenli

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants of environmental concern. Heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge have an important role in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the fate of cultivable heterotrophic ARB and ARGs in WWPTs process remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antibiotic-resistant phenotypes of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria from influent and effluent water of three WWTPs and analysed thirteen ARGs in ARB and in activated sludge from anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic compartments. From each influent or effluent sample of the three plants, 200 isolates were randomly tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics. In these samples, between 5% and 64% isolates showed resistance to >9 antibiotics and the proportion of >9-drug-resistant bacteria was lower in isolates from effluent than from influent. Eighteen genera were identified in 188 isolates from influent (n=94) and effluent (n=94) of one WWTP. Six genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium, Providencia, and Staphylococcus) were detected in both influent and effluent samples. Gram-negative and -positive isolates dominated in influent and effluent, respectively. The 13 tetracycline-, sulphonamide-, streptomycin- and β-lactam-resistance genes were detected at a higher frequency in ARB from influent than from effluent, except for sulA and CTX-M, while in general, the abundances of ARGs in activated sludge from two of the three plants were higher in aerobic compartments than in anoxic ones, indicating abundant ARGs exit in the excess sledges and/or in uncultivable bacteria. These findings may be useful for elucidating the effect of WWTP on ARB and ARGs. PMID:25950407

  8. The synthesis of a novel octapeptidolipid antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bacillomycins comprise a group of antifungal polypeptide antibiotic compounds closely related in terms of their physico-chemical properties, amino acid and β-amino fatty acid compositions. Iturin A, which belongs to the bacillomycins, consists of seven amino acids. Attempts to produce a β-NC15 fatty acid in acceptable yield proved unsuccessful and was later discarded in favour of the preparation of a β-NC14 fatty acid. The different experimental procedures used and results obtained when preparing both fatty acids are detailed. The method developed in preparing the β-NC14 fatty acid affords a new general synthetic route for the production of β-amino fatty acids in good yield. The strategy considered in selecting which amino acid to commence the peptide synthesis with, the use in the Merrifield procedure of N-protected amino acids, coupling reagents, deprotecting and cleaving agents, and the HPLC purification procedures used for the linear and cyclic octapeptides, are all described. The 1H-NMR spectrum of the synthetic cyclic compound compared favourably with the spectrum of natural iturin A and these results are also presented. This dissertation presents the total synthesis of a novel octapeptidolipid antifungal antibiotic (iturin A analogue), utilising the Merrifield solid phase procedure. The biological activity of the synthesised and purified linear and cyclic iturin A analogues were compared with that of bacillomycin S. The test for biological activity and results obtained are described and illustrated with photographic plates

  9. [Expert systems and antibiotic sensitivity test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandrois, J; Carret, G

    1991-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a part of computer science that deals with programs mimicking intelligence of man. Artificial intelligence is now used to check the quality of the determination of antibiotics susceptibility of bacteria. This application is useful because antibiotic susceptibility is subject to biological and technical variation that have to be detected. Three types of reasoning are used either by the biologist or by expert systems: low level quality checking dealing with individual results, microbiological interpretation of the whole set of results and medical interpretation of the results. The use of artificial intelligence in these fields is sustained by the structured nature of the knowledge. Two type of expert systems are already of routine use, either based on production rules (ATB plus EXPERT, bioMerieux, La Balme-les-Grottes, France and SIR, 12A, Montpellier, France), or on object-oriented representation of the knowledge (EXPRIM from our laboratory). The main problem is, as usually in artificial intelligence applications, to transfer human expertise into an adapted knowledge base. The advantage of experts systems over man are their reproducibility of answer and their availability. PMID:2064087

  10. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria on Rectal Swabs and Factors Affecting Resistance to Antibiotics in Patients Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the factors affecting resistance to antibiotics were evaluated. Materials and Methods Two hundred twenty-three men who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from November 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Rectal swabs were cultured on MacConkey agar to identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rectal flora before TRUS-guide...

  11. The Comparison of Procalcitonin Guidance Administer Antibiotics with Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The empiric antibiotic therapy can result in antibiotic overuse, development of bacterial resistance and increasing costs in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of procalcitonin (PCT guide treatment on antibiotic use and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS.  A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups, cases that underwent antibiotic treatment based on serum level of PCT as PCT group (n=30 and patients who undergoing antibiotic empiric therapy as control group (n=30. Our primary endpoint was the use of antibiotic treatment. Additional endpoints were changed in clinical status and early mortality. Antibiotics use was lower in PCT group compared to control group (P=0.03. Current data showed that difference in SOFA score from the first day to the second day after admitting patients in ICU did not significantly differ (P=0.88. Patients in PCT group had a significantly shorter median ICU stay, four days versus six days (P=0.01. However, hospital stay was not statistically significant different between two groups, 20 days versus 22 days (P=0.23.  Early mortality was similar between two groups. PCT guidance administers antibiotics reduce antibiotics exposure and length of ICU stay, and we found no differences in clinical outcomes and early mortality rates between the two studied groups.

  12. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, J; Schjørring, S; Eskildsen, C E; Pedersen, L; Bischoff, A L; Følsgaard, N; Carson, C G; Chawes, B L K; Bønnelykke, K; Mølgaard, A; Jacobsson, B; Krogfelt, K A; Bisgaard, H

    2014-07-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) pregnancy cohort participated in this analysis. Detailed information on oral antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy filled at the pharmacy was obtained and verified prospectively. Vaginal samples were obtained at pregnancy week 36 and cultured for bacteria. Women who received oral antibiotics during any pregnancy trimester had an increased rate of colonization by Staphylococcus species in the vaginal samples as compared with samples obtained from women without any antibiotic treatment during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.52, p 0.028). Oral antibiotic administration in the third trimester were also associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus species (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.04-3.76, p 0.037). These bacteriological changes were associated with urinary tract infection antibiotics. Women treated in the third trimester of pregnancy were more often colonized by Escherichia coli than women without antibiotic treatment in the third trimester (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.52, p 0.038). This change was associated with respiratory tract infection (RTI) antibiotics. We did not observe any significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate. PMID:24118384

  13. Antineoplastic Activity of New Transition Metal Complexes of 6-Methylpyridine-2-carbaldehyde-N(4-ethylthiosemicarbazone: X-Ray Crystal Structures of [VO2(mpETSC] and [Pt(mpETSCCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia A. Elsayed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New complexes of dioxovanadium(V, zinc(II, ruthenium(II, palladium(II, and platinum(II with 6-methylpyridine-2-carbaldehyde-N(4-ethylthiosemicarbazone (HmpETSC have been synthesized. The composition of these complexes is discussed on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, Raman, NMR (H1, C13, and P31, and electronic spectral data. The X-ray crystal structures of [VO2(mpETSC] and [Pt(mpETSCCl] are also reported. The HmpETSC and its [Zn(HmpETSCCl2] and [Pd(mpETSCCl] complexes exhibit antineoplastic activity against colon cancer human cell lines (HCT 116.

  14. 21 CFR 510.106 - Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing... ANIMAL DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.106 Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals. Whenever the labeling of...

  15. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, J.

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing tranfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  16. Messages about Antibiotic Resistance in Different Newspaper Genres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Nasr

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Poorer people are more likely to use antibiotics; inappropriate antibiotic use causes resistance, and health campaigns attempt to change behaviour through education. However, fuelled by the media, the public think antibiotic resistance is outside their control. Differences in the attribution of blame for antibiotic resistance in two genres of UK newspapers, targeting distinct socioeconomic groups, were examined using a mixed methods approach. Firstly, depiction of blame was categorised as either external to the lay public (outside their control or internal (lay person accountable and subjected to a chi-square test. Secondly, using critical discourse analysis, we examined the portrayal of the main agents through newspaper language. Data from 597 articles (307 broadsheets analysed revealed a significant association between newspaper genre and attribution of blame for antibiotic resistance. While both newspaper types blamed antibiotic resistance predominantly on factors external to the lay public, broadsheets were more likely to acknowledge internal factors than tabloids. Tabloids provided a more skewed representation, exposing readers to inaccurate explanations about antibiotic resistance. They highlighted ineptitude in health professionals, victimising patients and blaming others, while broadsheets used less emotive language. Pharmacists should take special care to communicate the importance of appropriate antibiotic use against this backdrop of distortion.

  17. Enhancement of antibiotic effect via gold:silver-alloy nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy for the development of novel antimicrobials is to combine the stability and pleiotropic effects of inorganic compounds with the specificity and efficiency of organic compounds, such as antibiotics. Here we report on the use of gold:silver-alloy (Au:Ag-alloy) nanoparticles, obtained via a single-step citrate co-reduction method, combined to conventional antibiotics to enhance their antimicrobial effect on bacteria. Addition of the alloy nanoparticles considerably decreased the dose of antibiotic necessary to show antimicrobial effect, both for bacterial cells growing in rich medium in suspension and for bacterial cells resting in a physiological buffer on a humid cellulose surface. The observed effect was more pronounced than the sum of the individual effects of the nanoparticles and antibiotic. We demonstrate the enhancement effect of Au:Ag-alloy nanoparticles with a size distribution of 32.5 ± 7.5 nm mean diameter on the antimicrobial effect of (i) kanamycin on Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium), and (ii) a β-lactam antibiotic on both a sensitive and resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium). Together, these results may pave the way for the combined use of nanoparticle–antibiotic conjugates towards decreasing antibiotic resistance currently observed for certain bacteria and conventional antibiotics.

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment of Selected Antibiotics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alighardashi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the increasing use of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs, especially antibiotics, has become a particular concern because of their undesirable potential ecological and human health effects. This study presents an environmental risk assessment for the aquatic environment of some frequently used antibiotics in Iran in three stages including; a short literature review about antibiotic consumption in Iran, a comprehensive estimation regarding acute toxicity of selected antibiotics and finally calculation of Risk Quotient (RQ using the predicted environmental concentration (PEC and the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC. According to recently published data, the consumption of antibiotics in Iran is several times greater than European countries and in case of antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin is approximately 10 times greater than Scandinavian region. The calculated PECs were ranged from 0.0071 to 0.8570 and the PNECs value based on ecotoxicity data was found for all studied antibiotics (varied from 0.0037 to 177. The RQ exceeded one for Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Sulfamethoxazole, and Erythromycin. Amoxicillin has the highest risk to aquatic organisms based on this study. With respect to the emergence of microbial resistance, it is important to begin monitoring the most frequently used antibiotics

  19. Antibiotics Don't Boost Baby's Weight: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggests. Antibiotics are the most widely used prescription drugs in children, but little has been known about the long-term health effects in people. Meanwhile, animal studies have linked early exposure to antibiotics with increased body fat, the researchers said. The study included data ...

  20. Antibiotics concentrations in a patient with postoperative endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Hirsbein, David; Genevois, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of endophthalmitis who underwent a vitreous biopsy to assess sensitivity and to inject broad-spectrum intraocular antibiotics. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of antibiotics against a coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Proprionibacterium acnes were also assessed. PMID:18025662