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Sample records for antiandrogen flutamide therapy

  1. The efficacy of flutamide, an antiandrogen in idiopathic hirsutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani V

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of flutamide, an antiandrogen in idiopathic hirsutism was studied. The long term effects of. treatment with low doses of flutamide on clinical and hormonal parameters were investigated. Nine patients with idiopathic hirsutism were studied basally and during treatment with 125mg flutamide thrice daily for a period of 9 months. Safety parameters were assessed throughout the study. Hirsutism was graded by Ferriman and Gallwey score and hormones were evaluated basally and later quarterly. After three months of therapy, flutamide had caused a significant alleviation of hirsutism and this continued during the subsequent months. No clinical significant side effects were observed during the period of the study. Biochemical and hormonal parameters remained unchanged after 9 months of flutamide.

  2. Comparative anti-androgenic actions of vinclozolin and flutamide on transgenerational adult onset disease and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D; Rekow, Stephen S; Skinner, Michael K

    2008-10-01

    Exposure of gestating female rats to the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has been shown to induce transgenerational adult onset disease phenotypes. The current study, was designed to compare the actions of vinclozolin to the known anti-androgenic compound flutamide. The gestating female rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections during embryonic day 8-14 (E8-E14) to 100mg/kg/day vinclozolin or flutamide at either 5mg or 20mg/kg/day. As previously observed, vinclozolin induced a transgenerational testis phenotype of increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis and decreased epididymal sperm number. In contrast, the flutamide exposures resulted in a testis phenotype of increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis and decreased epididymal sperm numbers in the F1 generation only, and not the F2 and F3 generation adult males. Interestingly, some of the low dose (5mg/kg) flutamide F2 generation offspring developed spinal agenesis and supernummery development (polymelia) of limbs. Although the actions of vinclozolin and flutamide appear similar in the F1 generation males, the transgenerational effects of vinclozolin do not appear to be acting through the same anti-androgenic mechanism as flutamide.

  3. Comparative anti-androgenic actions of vinclozolin and flutamide on transgenerational adult onset disease and spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Anway, Matthew D.; Rekow, Stephen S.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of gestating female rats to the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has been shown to induce transgenerational adult onset disease phenotypes. The current study, was designed to compare the actions of vinclozolin to the known anti-androgenic compound flutamide. The gestating female rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections during embryonic day 8–14 (E8–E14) to 100 mg/kg/day vinclozolin or flutamide at either 5mg or 20 mg/kg/day. As previously observed, vinclozolin i...

  4. Assessment of combinations of antiandrogenic compounds vinclozolin and flutamide in a yeast based reporter assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Melching-Kollmuss, Stephanie; Krennrich, Gerhard; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2011-08-01

    Humans are exposed to a combination of various substances such as cosmetic ingredients, drugs, biocides, pesticides and natural-occurring substances in food. The combined toxicological effects of two or more substances can simply be additive on the basis of response-addition, or it can be greater (synergistic) or smaller (antagonistic) than this. The need to assess combined effects of compounds with endocrine activity is currently discussed for regulatory risk assessment. We have used a well described yeast based androgen receptor transactivation assay YAS to assess the combinatorial effects of vinclozolin and flutamide; both mediating antiandrogenicity via the androgen receptor. Both vinclozolin and flutamide were antiandrogens of similar potency in the YAS assay. In the concentration range tested the two antiandrogens vinclozolin and flutamide did not act synergistically. Concentration additivity was observed in the linear, non-receptor-saturated concentration range. At high concentrations of one of the two substances tested the contribution of the second at lower concentration levels was less than additive. The combined response of both compounds at high concentration levels was also less than additive (saturation effect). At concentration levels which did not elicit a response of the individual compounds, the combination of these compounds also did not elicit a response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Amphibian Tier 2 Testing Protocol: A 30-Week Exposure of Xenopus Tropicalis to the Antiandrogen Flutamide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knechtges, Paul L; Sprando, Robert L; Porter, Karen L; Brennan, Linda M; Miller, Mark F; Kumsher, David M; Dennis, William E; Brown, Charles C; Clegg Paul L. Knechtges. Robert L. Sprando. Karen L. Potter., Eric D

    2007-01-01

    .... For that reason, a tier 2 testing protocol using Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis and a 30-week, flow-through exposure to the antiandrogen flutamide from stage 46 tadpoles through sexually mature adult frogs were developed and evaluated in this pilot study...

  6. Low dose evaluation of the antiandrogen flutamide following a Mode of Action approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrabay, A.; Hilmi, C.; Tinwell, H.; Schorsch, F.; Pallardy, M.; Bars, R.; Rouquié, D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate which is controversial when exploring the nature of the dose–response curve and the effect at the low-end of the curve. To contribute to this debate we have assessed the effects of a wide range of dose levels of the antiandrogen flutamide (FLU) on 7-week male Wistar rats. FLU was administered by oral gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day for 28 days. To evaluate the reproducibility, the study was performed 3 times. The molecular initiating event (MIE; AR antagonism), the key events (LH increase, Leydig cell proliferation and hyperplasia increases) and associated events involved in the mode of action (MOA) of FLU induced testicular toxicity were characterized to address the dose response concordance. Results showed no effects at low doses (< 0.1 mg/kg/day) for the different key events studied. The histopathological changes (Leydig cell hyperplasia) observed at 1 and 10 mg/kg/day were associated with an increase in steroidogenesis gene expression in the testis from 1 mg/kg/day, as well as an increase in testosterone blood level at 10 mg/kg/day. Each key event dose–response was in good concordance with the MOA of FLU on the testis. From the available results, only monotonic dose–response curves were observed for the MIE, the key events, associated events and in effects observed in other sex related tissues. All the results, so far, show that the reference endocrine disruptor FLU induces threshold effects in a standard 28-day toxicity study on adult male rats. - Highlights: • Dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate. • A wide range of dose levels of flutamide was evaluated on young adult male rats. • Flutamide induces threshold effects using on standard and molecular tools.

  7. Low dose evaluation of the antiandrogen flutamide following a Mode of Action approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrabay, A. [INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry (France); UniverSud, INSERM, UMR-996 “Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology”, Châtenay-Malabry (France); Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France); Hilmi, C.; Tinwell, H.; Schorsch, F. [Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France); Pallardy, M. [INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry (France); UniverSud, INSERM, UMR-996 “Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology”, Châtenay-Malabry (France); Bars, R. [Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France); Rouquié, D., E-mail: david.rouquie@bayer.com [Bayer SAS, 16, rue Jean Marie Leclair, 69009 Lyon (France)

    2015-12-15

    ABSTRACT: The dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate which is controversial when exploring the nature of the dose–response curve and the effect at the low-end of the curve. To contribute to this debate we have assessed the effects of a wide range of dose levels of the antiandrogen flutamide (FLU) on 7-week male Wistar rats. FLU was administered by oral gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day for 28 days. To evaluate the reproducibility, the study was performed 3 times. The molecular initiating event (MIE; AR antagonism), the key events (LH increase, Leydig cell proliferation and hyperplasia increases) and associated events involved in the mode of action (MOA) of FLU induced testicular toxicity were characterized to address the dose response concordance. Results showed no effects at low doses (< 0.1 mg/kg/day) for the different key events studied. The histopathological changes (Leydig cell hyperplasia) observed at 1 and 10 mg/kg/day were associated with an increase in steroidogenesis gene expression in the testis from 1 mg/kg/day, as well as an increase in testosterone blood level at 10 mg/kg/day. Each key event dose–response was in good concordance with the MOA of FLU on the testis. From the available results, only monotonic dose–response curves were observed for the MIE, the key events, associated events and in effects observed in other sex related tissues. All the results, so far, show that the reference endocrine disruptor FLU induces threshold effects in a standard 28-day toxicity study on adult male rats. - Highlights: • Dose–response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate. • A wide range of dose levels of flutamide was evaluated on young adult male rats. • Flutamide induces threshold effects using on standard and molecular tools.

  8. Verification of responses of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to anti-androgens, vinclozolin and flutamide, in short-term assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ataru; Takanobu, Hitomi; Tamura, Ikumi; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2014-05-01

    Various testing methods for the detection of the endocrine disruptive activities of chemicals have been developed in freshwater fish species. However, a few relatively easier specific methods for detecting anti-androgenic activities are available for fish. The aim of this study was to verify the papillary process in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as an indicator of the anti-androgenic activity of chemicals. Japanese medaka were exposed to two types of anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin and flutamide, using two short-term assays; one was conformed to the existing short-term reproduction assay using adult fish (adult test) and the other was a test based on the same methods but using juvenile fish at the beginning of exposure (juvenile test). Significant decreases in male papillary processes were observed in the juvenile test treated with the highest concentration of both antiandrogens (640 µg l(-1) vinclozolin and 1000 µg l(-1) flutamide); however, no significant effects were observed in the adult test. Consequently, our results indicate that papillary processes in Japanese medaka can be used as the end-point for screening the anti-androgenic activity of chemicals using juvenile fish for a specific period based on the existing short-term reproduction assay. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Flutamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in sexual ability or desire breast enlargement in men drowsiness confusion depression anxiety swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs blue-green or orange-colored urine Some side effects can be ... is rare, some men taking flutamide have developed breast cancer. Talk to ...

  10. Does anti-androgen, flutamide cancel out the in vivo effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone on sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) are canceled out by the anti-androgen, flutamide. Fish (60 days post hatch) were exposed to 250ng/L of DHT, 25μg/L of flutamide (Flu-low), 250μg/L of flutamide (Flu-high), DHT+Flu low and DHT+Flu high. After 35 days of exposure, lengths and weights of the fish were measured and the condition factor (CF) calculated; vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were measured in tail tissue; sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol [E2] and 11-keto testosterone [11-KT]) were measured in the head tissue and abdominal regions were used in histological investigation of the gonads. Treatment with DHT reduced the body-length of both male and female fish, an effect which was canceled out by low and high concentrations of flutamide. However, flutamide (low or high) could not nullify the DHT-induced reduction in the CF in either sex. The E2 levels were reduced only in female fish after exposure to DHT but returned to normal after treatment with Flu-high. DHT increased the levels of 11-KT and decreased the E2/11-KT ratio in both sexes. Flu-high, but not Flu-low, could nullify these effects. Both DHT and flutamide (low or high) induced VTG production and this effect persisted when both chemicals were co-administered. Treatment with DHT did not affect gonadal cell development in the testes. However, the female fish treated with DHT contained ovaries in early-vitellogenic stage in comparison to the pre-vitellogenic ovaries in control fish. Co-treatment with flutamide (low or high) resulted in oocyte atresia. The results from the present study suggest that treatment with Flu-high could cancel out DHT-induced effects only on the hormonal profile and body-length in both male and female fish. Juvenile fish co-treated with DHT and flutamide (low or high) had high VTG levels and low CF. In addition, the ovaries

  11. Maternal exposure to anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, has no effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in male rats of subsequent generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Doi, Yuko; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Abe, Jun; Kawamura, Satoshi; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To verify whether anti-androgens cause transgenerational effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in rats, gravid Crl:CD(SD) female rats (4 or 5/group, gestational day (GD) 0 = day sperm detected) were intraperitoneally treated with anti-androgenic compounds, such as vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day), procymidone (100 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (10 mg/kg/day), from GD 8 to GD 15. Testes were collected from F1 male pups at postnatal day (PND) 6 for DNA methylation analysis of the region (210 bp including 7 CpG sites) within the lysophospholipase gene by bisulfite DNA sequencing method. F0 and F1 males underwent the sperm analysis (count, motility and morphology), followed by DNA methylation analysis of the sperm. Remaining F1 males were cohabited with untreated-females to obtain F2 male pups for subsequent DNA methylation analysis of the testes at PND 6. These analyses showed no effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 males of any treatment group. DNA methylation status in testes (F1 and F2 pups at PND 6) or sperms (F1 males at 13 weeks old) of the treatment groups were comparable to the control at all observation points, although DNA methylation rates in testes were slightly lower than those in sperm. In F0 males, no abnormalities in the spermatogenesis, fertility and DNA methylation status of sperm were observed. No transgenerational abnormalities of spermatogenesis and DNA methylation status caused by anti-androgenic compounds were observed.

  12. Maternal exposure to anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, has no effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in male rats of subsequent generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Doi, Yuko; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Abe, Jun; Kawamura, Satoshi; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-06-01

    To verify whether anti-androgens cause transgenerational effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in rats, gravid Crl:CD(SD) female rats (4 or 5/group, gestational day (GD) 0=day sperm detected) were intraperitoneally treated with anti-androgenic compounds, such as vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day), procymidone (100 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (10 mg/kg/day), from GD 8 to GD 15. Testes were collected from F1 male pups at postnatal day (PND) 6 for DNA methylation analysis of the region (210 bp including 7 CpG sites) within the lysophospholipase gene by bisulfite DNA sequencing method. F0 and F1 males underwent the sperm analysis (count, motility and morphology), followed by DNA methylation analysis of the sperm. Remaining F1 males were cohabited with untreated-females to obtain F2 male pups for subsequent DNA methylation analysis of the testes at PND 6. These analyses showed no effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 males of any treatment group. DNA methylation status in testes (F1 and F2 pups at PND 6) or sperms (F1 males at 13 weeks old) of the treatment groups were comparable to the control at all observation points, although DNA methylation rates in testes were slightly lower than those in sperm. In F0 males, no abnormalities in the spermatogenesis, fertility and DNA methylation status of sperm were observed. No transgenerational abnormalities of spermatogenesis and DNA methylation status caused by anti-androgenic compounds were observed.

  13. Comparison of anti-androgenic activity of flutamide, vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and p, p'-DDE in rodent 10-day Hershberger assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il Hyun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Moon, Hyun Ju; Kim, In Young; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kil, Kwang Sup; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi Sook; Han, Soon Young

    2004-07-01

    The rodent Hershberger assay proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is in the process of the validating a test method to detecting the androgenic or anti-androgenic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-androgenic properties of flutamide, vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and p,p'-DDE in a 10-day Hershberger assay. In the present study, we used immature Sprague-Dawley male rats castrated at 6 weeks of age. Testosterone propionate (TP) was subcutaneously injected for 10 consecutive days at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg/kg per day. To compare the anti-androgenic activity of test compounds, flutamide (1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg per day), a pure androgen antagonist was used as a positive control, and administered by oral gavage after TP (0.4 mg/kg per day) treatment. In addition, vinclozolin (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), procymidone (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), linuron (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), and p,p '-DDE (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day) were also administered by oral gavage after TP (0.4 mg/kg per day) treatment. As expected, TP dose-dependently increased accessory sex organ weights, and statistically significant effects were observed at doses of 0.1 (only seminal vesicles) or 0.2mg/kg per day and above. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly at 0.4 mg/kg per day and above, while serum LH levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Flutamide significantly inhibited the TP-induced re-growth of seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, and Levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC) at 1mg/kg per day and above, and Cowper's glands and glans penis at 5mg/kg per day and above. In contrast to accessory sex organ weights, flutamide did not affect the serum testosterone levels compared to the control at any concentration, but serum LH levels were significantly increased at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg per day. Similar to flutamide, vinclozolin caused a statistically significant decrease in

  14. A study of temporal effects of the model anti-androgen flutamide on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) treated with the model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide. Reproductively-mature fish were exposed in a flow-through, meas...

  15. Autophagosomal Sequestration of Mitochondria as an Indicator of Antiandrogen Therapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Prostate Cancer (PCa) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Wilding, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX...Indicator of Antiandrogen Therapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer (PCa) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0509 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030-4009

  16. Low-dose flutamide-metformin therapy for hyperinsulinemic hyperandrogenism in non-obese adolescents and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; de Zegher, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a variable disorder that is characterized in adolescents and young women by a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, body adiposity and low-grade inflammation. At present, there is no approved therapy for PCOS. Recent studies indicate that a low-dose combination of flutamide (Flu; a generic androgen-receptor blocker) and metformin (Met; a generic insulin-sensitizer) normalizes the adolescent PCOS spectrum more than an oral contraceptive (OC); in young women, the PCOS spectrum was found to be more normalized by OC plus Flu-Met than by OC alone. Within the pathophysiological cascade of PCOS, Flu-Met seems to counter upstream anomalies like hyperinsulinemia or hyperandrogenism, thereby preventing or reversing downstream effects. In contrast, an OC essentially masks downstream symptoms like hirsutism, acne or irregular menses, whereas the upstream aberrations remain unaltered or may even be worsened. The available experience with Flu-Met is limited but promising. We emphasize that Flu-Met may (as part of its efficacy) induce ovulation but is contra-indicated post-conception because of potential embryotoxicity; therefore, it seems wise to combine Flu-Met with an oral or a transdermal oestro-progestagen or with a non-endocrine method of contraception. May this update prompt further research into Flu-Met's therapeutic potential in patients with PCOS. Until the abovementioned effects have been broadly confirmed, Flu-Met should not be regarded as a standard therapy for widespread clinical practice.

  17. Alterations in ubiquitin ligase Siah-2 and its corepressor N-CoR after P-MAPA immunotherapy and anti-androgen therapy: new therapeutic opportunities for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrick Vianna; Apolinário, Letícia Montanholi; Böckelmann, Petra Karla; da Silva Nunes, Iseu; Duran, Nelson; Fávaro, Wagner José

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the role of the ubiquitin ligase Siah-2 and corepressor N-CoR in controlling androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) signaling in an appropriate animal model (Fischer 344 female rats) of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), especially under conditions of anti-androgen therapy with flutamide. Furthermore, this study describes the mechanisms of a promising therapeutic alternative for NMIBC based on Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) intravesical immunotherapy combined with flutamide, involving the interaction among steroid hormone receptors, their regulators and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Our results demonstrated that increased Siah-2 and AR protein levels and decreased N-CoR, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and estrogen receptors levels played a critical role in the urothelial carcinogenesis, probably leading to escape of urothelial cancer cells from immune system attack. P-MAPA immunotherapy led to distinct activation of innate immune system TLRs 2 and 4-mediated, resulting in increase of interferon signaling pathway, which was more effective in recovering the immunosuppressive tumor immune microenvironment and in recovering the bladder histology features than BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) treatments. The AR blockade therapy was important in the modulating of downstream molecules of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway, decreasing the inflammatory cytokines signaling and enhancing the interferon signaling pathway when associated with P-MAPA. Taken together, the data obtained suggest that interferon signaling pathway activation and targeting AR and Siah-2 signals by P-MAPA intravesical immunotherapy alone and/ or in combination with AR blockade may provide novel therapeutic approaches for NMIBC.

  18. Antiandrogen monotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolvenbag, G J; Iversen, P; Newling, D W

    2001-01-01

    %) and gynecomastia (49%) are the most common adverse events seen during monotherapy with this drug. In summary, the availability of bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy broadens treatment options for men with locally advanced prostate cancer, offering a viable and attractive alternative to castration in this patient......Nonsteroidal antiandrogens are generally used in conjunction with castration as combined androgen blockade. However, the changing profile of patients with prostate cancer has made monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen an attractive alternative therapeutic approach, offering potential quality...

  19. Histological assessment of follicular delivery of flutamide by solid lipid nanoparticles: potential tool for the treatment of androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamishehkar, Hamed; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Sepehran, Sasan; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Adib, Zahra Mardhiah; Kouhsoltani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen with the several unwanted side effects in systemic administration, therefore, it has attracted special interest in the development of topically applied formulations for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of Flutamide for follicular targeting in the treatment of the androgenic alopecia. Flutamide-loaded SLNs, promising drug carriers for topical application were prepared by hot melt homogenization method. Drug permeation and accumulation in the exercised rat skin and histological study on the male hamsters were performed to assess drug delivery efficiency in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The optimized Flutamide-loaded SLNs (size 198 nm, encapsulation efficiency percentage 65% and loading efficiency percentage 3.27%) exhibited a good stability during the period of at least 2 months. The results of X-ray diffraction showed Flutamide amorphous state confirming uniform drug dispersion in the SLNs structure. Higher skin drug deposition (1.75 times) of SLN formulation compared to Flutamide hydroalcoholic solution represented better localization of the drug in the skin. The in vivo studies showed more new hair follicle growth by utilizing Flutamide-loaded SLNs than Flutamide hydroalcoholic solution which could be due to the higher accumulation of SLNs in the hair follicles as well as slowly and continues release of the Flutamide through the SLNs maximizing hair follicle exposure by antiandrogenic drug. It was concluded Flutamide-loaded SLN formulation can be used as a promising colloidal drug carriers for topical administration of Flutamide in the treatment of androgenic alopecia.

  20. Determination of flutamide and two major metabolites using HPLC-DAD and HPTLC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Nada S; Elshemy, Heba A H; Farid, Nehal F

    2018-01-25

    Flutamide is a potential antineoplastic drug classified as an anti-androgen. It is a therapy for men with advanced prostate cancer, administered orally after which it undergoes extensively first pass metabolism in the liver with the production of several metabolites. These metabolites are predominantly excreted in urine. One of the important metabolites in plasma is 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylamine (Flu-1), while the main metabolite in urine is 2-amino-5-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (Flu-3). In this work the two metabolites, Flu-1 and Flu-3, have been synthesized, and then structural confirmation has been carried out by HNMR analysis. Efforts were exerted to develop chromatographic methods for resolving Flutamide and its metabolites with the use of acceptable solvents without affecting the efficiency of the methods. The drug along with its metabolites were quantitatively analyzed in pure form, human urine, and plasma samples using two chromatographic methods, HPTLC and HPLC-DAD methods. FDA guidelines for bio-analytical method validation were followed and USP recommendations were used for analytical method validation. Interference from excipients has been tested by application of the methods to pharmaceutical tablets. No significant difference was found between the proposed methods and the official one when they were statistically compared at p value of 0.05%.

  1. Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, M.; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2008-01-01

    of several anti-androgenic chemicals. In a mixture (MIX) study with three androgen receptor antagonists, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with several doses of a MIX of the three chemicals or the chemicals alone. External malformations of the male...

  2. ADMINISTRATION OF POTENTIALLY ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDES (PROCYMIDONE, LINURON, IPRODIONE, CHLOZOLINATE, P,P'-DDE AND KETOCONAZOLE) AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES (DIBUTYL-AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, PCB 169, AND ETHANE DIMETHANE SULPHONATE) DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCES DIVERSE PROFILES OF REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and as a consequence, they induce different profiles of effects. For example, in utero treatment with the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, produces ventral prostate agenesis and testicu...

  3. Treatment of female pattern hair loss with oral antiandrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinclair, R; Wewerinke, M; Jolley, D

    Background It has not been conclusively established that female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is either due to androgens or responsive to oral antiandrogen therapy. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of oral antiandrogen therapy in the management of women with FPHL using standardized photographic

  4. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  5. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Wang Ronglin; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bencic, David C.; Lazorchak, Jim; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2011-01-01

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96 h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4 x 44 K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals.

  6. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović-Weigelt, Dalma; Wang, Rong-Lin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Bencic, David C; Lazorchak, Jim; Ankley, Gerald T

    2011-01-25

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4×44K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma, E-mail: dalma@stthomas.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); University of St. Thomas, 2115 Summit Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Wang Ronglin [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research Division, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Villeneuve, Daniel L. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Bencic, David C.; Lazorchak, Jim [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research Division, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Ankley, Gerald T. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96 h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4 x 44 K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals.

  8. [Low-dose flutamide in the treatment of hyperandrogenism in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, A; Borrielli, I; Mastroeni, M T; Fattori, A; Dugo, C; Dugo, N; Dinatale, A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the use of flutamide at low doses for the therapy of the iperandrogenism in adolescents. The study enrolled 35 young women with acne and irsutism; 31 had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 4 periferic iperandrogenism. In other 8 young women, sexually active, the flutamide has been associated with the hormonal contraceptive. On the three young women with iperinsulinism it has been decided to associate the flutamide with the metformina. All the young women were checked each month for the liver functional. Before the beginning of the therapy the menstrual situation, the Body Mass Index (BMI), the Ferriman' s and Cremoncini's score, the ovary's ultrasound aspect, and the hormonal order were evaluated. Follow-up was made after three months and after six months after the beginning of the therapy with flutamide 62.5 mg/die. Only in 4 cases the therapy has been suspended due to collateral effects, soon regressed after one week of the treatment interruption. The results have demonstrated a overwhelming improvement of the peripheral symptoms of iperandrogenism in all patients. The authors hope that flutamide could enter in the list of medicines normally used to treat the beauty flaws of policistic acne and to restore a hormonal order associated to an effective contraception.

  9. Compound list: flutamide [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available flutamide FT 00044 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/flutam...ide.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/flutam...ide.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/flutam...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/flutamide.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  10. Androgen Receptor-Targeted Treatments for Prostate Cancer: 35 Years' Progress with Antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Schellhammer, Paul F; McLeod, David G; Moul, Judd W; Higano, Celestia S; Shore, Neal; Denis, Louis; Iversen, Peter; Eisenberger, Mario A; Labrie, Fernand

    2018-05-03

    Antiandrogens inhibit the androgen receptor (AR) and play an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer (PC). This review provides a historical perspective on the development and clinical benefit of antiandrogens in the treatment of PC. We searched PubMed ® for clinical trials with the search terms "antiandrogens" and "prostate cancer" combined with drug names for antiandrogens. This article represents a collaboration of clinical investigators who have made critical scientific contributions leading to the approval of antiandrogens for treating patients with PC. Antiandrogens differ in chemical structure and exert varying efficacy and safety profiles. The unfavorable therapeutic index of steroidal antiandrogens led to their replacement by safer nonsteroidal agents. Flutamide, nilutamide and bicalutamide, designed to target the AR, were developed primarily for use in combination with castration to provide "combined" androgen blockade. Modest clinical benefits were observed with the combination of first-generation antiandrogens and castration vs castration alone. With increased knowledge of the AR structure and its biological functions, a new generation of antiandrogens without agonist activity was designed to provide more potent inhibition of the AR. Randomized clinical trials in patients with metastatic castration-resistant PC exhibited significant survival benefits, which led to the approval, in August 2012, of enzalutamide. Apalutamide was recently approved, while darolutamide is not yet approved in the United States. These next-generation antiandrogens are being actively tested in earlier disease states such as nonmetastatic PC. Evolving knowledge of resistance mechanisms to AR-targeted treatments will stimulate research and drug discovery for additional compounds. Further testing in nonmetastatic castration-resistant PC as well as castration-sensitive disease states will hopefully augment our ability to treat a broader spectrum of PC patients

  11. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalatkhah H

    2015-08-01

    first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma, it would be quite unreasonable to recommend clinical use of it before future studies replicate the results on its efficacy and safety. Keywords: Pigmentation disorders, topical, treatment, dermatology, anti-androgenic agents, acquired increased skin pigmentation, Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI Mexamete

  12. Antiandrogenic effects in short-term in vivo studies of the fungicide fenarimol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jacobsen, H.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    2005-01-01

    of ventral prostate, seminal vesicles. musc. levator anitbulbocavernosus, and bulbourethral glands. Qualitatively similar, but weaker, effects were also evident in intact fenarimol-exposed young adult males. except that prostates were not significantly affected. Changes in androgen-regulated gene expression...... that fenarimol acts as an antiandrogen in vivo having effects qualitatively comparable to those of flutamide on organ level, whereas differential effects on gene expression were observed. In an additional Hershberger test, the effects of fenarimol were compared to those of estradiol benzoate, prochloraz...

  13. Radiotherapy for prevention and therapy of gynecomastia due to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer patients. A patterns-of-care-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Burkhard; Sautter, Verena; Melcher, Ute; Sautter-Bihl, Marie-Luise [Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Momm, Felix [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Gynecomastia is a frequent side effect of antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer and may compromise quality of life. Although it has been successfully treated with radiotherapy (RT) for decades, the priority of RT as a preferred treatment option has recently been disputed as tamoxifen was also demonstrated to be effective. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of indications, frequency, and technique of RT in daily practice in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. On behalf of the DEGRO-AG GCG-BD (German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy of Benign Diseases) a standardized questionnaire was sent to 294 RT institutions. The questionnaires inquired about patient numbers, indications, RT technique, dose, and - if available - treatment results. Moreover, the participants were asked whether they were interested in participating in a prospective study. From a total of 294 institutions, 146 replies were received, of which 141 offered RT for gynecomastia. Seven of those reported prophylactic RT only, whereas 129 perform both preventive and symptomatic RT. In 110 of 137departments, a maximum of 20 patients were treated per year. Electron beams (76%) were used most often, while 24% of patients received photon beams or orthovolt x-rays. Total doses were up to 20 Gy for prophylactic and up to 40 Gy for therapeutic RT. Results were reported by 19 departments: prevention of gynecomastia was observed in 60-100% of patients. Only 13 institutions observed side effects. Prophylactic and symptomatic RT is widely used in the German-speaking countries, but patient numbers are small. The clinical results indicate that RT is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment.

  14. Evaluation of the removal of antiestrogens and antiandrogens via ozone and granular activated carbon using bioassay and fluorescent spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Wu, Yuchao; Liu, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Antiestrogens and antiandrogens are relatively rarely studied endocrine disrupting chemicals which can be found in un/treated wastewaters. Antiestrogens and antiandrogens in the wastewater treatment effluents could contribute to sexual disruption of organisms. In this study, to assess the removal of non-specific antiestrogens and antiandrogens by advanced treatment processes, ozonation and adsorption to granular activated carbon (GAC), the biological activities and excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy of wastewater were evaluated. As the applied ozone dose increased to 12 mg/L, the antiestrogenic activity dramatically decreased to 3.2 μg 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalent (4HEQ)/L, with a removal efficiency of 84.8%, while the antiandrogenic activity was 23.1 μg flutamide equivalent (FEQ)/L, with a removal efficiency of 75.5%. The removal of antiestrogenic/antiandrogenic activity has high correlation with the removal of fulvic acid-like materials and humic acid-like organics, suggesting that they can be used as surrogates for antiestrogenic/antiandrogenic activity during ozonation. The adsorption kinetics of antiestrogenic activity and antiandrogenic activity were well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics models. The estimated equilibrium concentration of antiestrogenic activity is 7.9 μg 4HEQ/L with an effective removal efficiency of 70.5%, while the equilibrium concentration of antiandrogenic activity is 33.7 μg FEQ/L with a removal efficiency of 67.0%. Biological activity evaluation of wastewater effluents is an attractive way to assess the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals by different treatment processes. Fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as a surrogate measure of bioassays during ozonation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flutamide versus a cyproterone acetate-ethinyl estradiol combination in moderate acne: a pilot randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalatkhah H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Adalatkhah1, Farhad Pourfarzi2, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani31Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil; 3Statistics and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The use of oral flutamide is rarely investigated in acne therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral flutamide with that of a cyproterone-estradiol combination in treating acne lesions.Methods: A randomized clinical trial enrolled patients with moderate acne into two equal groups to receive either oral flutamide or the cyproterone-estradiol combination for 6 months. Lesion count, Acne Severity Index, and Global Acne Grading system (GAGS scores were used to assess improvement in acne lesions. The dichotomous measurement scale for primary endpoint assessment was defined as improvement from moderate to mild acne based on GAGS score. Patient satisfaction and dermal fat were also assessed. Intention to treat and per protocol analyses were done, reporting related effect sizes.Results: Both treatments resulted in substantial improvement in acne lesions. Although flutamide seemed to have higher efficacy, an intention to treat analysis did not find the two treatment protocols to be different. The relative risk in intention to treat analysis was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–1.6, and was 1.33 (95% CI 1.03–1.72 for the per protocol analysis. The number needed to treat for flutamide compared with the cyproterone-estradiol combination was 7.7 and 4.2 in the intention to treat and per protocol analyses, respectively.Conclusion: Flutamide appears to be more effective than a cyproterone-estradiol combination in some aspects of acne treatment, but this requires confirmation in a larger trial.Keywords: acne vulgaris, flutamide, cyproterone acetate, ethinyl estradiol, androgen antagonists

  16. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  17. A phase III trial of zoladex and flutamide versus orchiectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Christensen, M G; Friis, E

    1990-01-01

    In a multicenter Phase III trial 264 patients with advanced prostatic cancer were randomized to either bilateral orchiectomy or treatment with zoladex supplemented by flutamide. Presently, median follow-up time is 30 months. A small difference in objective response was recorded in favor of the co......In a multicenter Phase III trial 264 patients with advanced prostatic cancer were randomized to either bilateral orchiectomy or treatment with zoladex supplemented by flutamide. Presently, median follow-up time is 30 months. A small difference in objective response was recorded in favor...... of the combination therapy, whereas no statistically significant difference was found in subjective response to therapy, time to progression, and overall survival. Adverse effects were more commonly encountered in the pharmacologically treated patients. It is concluded that the combination of zoladex plus flutamide...... is not clinically superior to orchiectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate....

  18. The regulation of HSL and LPL expression by DHT and flutamide in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L A; McTernan, P G; Harte, A L; Barnett, A H; Kumar, S

    2002-05-01

    Clinical observations suggest a role for testosterone in the accumulation of central adiposity and with an associated increased risk of disease. To date, no human study has analysed the role of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on adipose tissue mass regulation in vitro. This study investigated the role of DHT and androgen receptors (AR) in the regulation of lipolysis and lipogenesis by examining the key enzymes hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) respectively. Isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes (Scad) (n = 15) were treated with either DHT (10(-7)-10(-9) m), an antiandrogen, flutamide (FLT: 10(-7)-10(-9) m) or a combination of DHT (10(-7)-10(-9) m) with FLT (10(-8) m). Relative protein expression of HSL, LPL and AR was determined. In Scad, DHT inhibited HSL expression maximally at 10(-9) m (0.7 +/- 0.4**; p DHT10(-9) m (2.22 +/- 0.48*; p DHT + FLT compared with DHT alone. Androgen receptor expression studies showed an inverse correlation with DHT, whereas DHT + FLT reduced AR expression. These studies indicate that DHT may alter HSL and LPL expression, whereas only LPL expression appears mediated by AR. These findings suggest a physiological role for DHT in the control of adipose tissue mass in women, and indicate that androgens may also play an important role in regulating lipid metabolism.

  19. Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Viktoria; Wichmann, Arne; Kriehuber, Ralf; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) is in many cases associated with an unpredictable hazard for wildlife and human health. The identification of endocrine disruptive properties of chemicals certain to enter the aquatic environment relies on toxicity tests with fish, assessing adverse effects on reproduction and sexual development. The demand for quick, reliable ED assays favored the use of fish embryos as alternative test organisms. We investigated the application of a transcriptomics-based assay for estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals with zebrafish embryos. Two reference compounds, 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide, were tested to evaluate the effects on development and the transcriptome after 48h-exposures. Comparison of the transcriptome response with other estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds (genistein, bisphenol A, methylparaben, linuron, prochloraz, propanil) showed commonalities and differences in regulated pathways, enabling us to classify the estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies. This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of bone densitometry for prediction and administration of bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases receiving antiandrogen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Abby; Khan, Muhammad A; Gujja, Swetha; Govindarajan, Rangaswmy

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are recommended to have baseline and serial bone densitometry and receive bisphosphonates. The purpose of this community population study was to assess the utilization of bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. A cohort study of men aged 65 years or older with non-metastatic incident diagnoses of prostate cancer was obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-linked Medicare claims between 2004 and 2008. Claims were used to assess prescribed treatment of ADT, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonates. A total of 30,846 incident prostate cancer cases receiving ADT and aged 65 years or older had no bone metastases; 87.3% (n=26,935) on ADT did not receive either bone densitometry or bisphosphonate therapy. Three percent (n=931) of the cases on ADT received bisphosphonate therapy without ever receiving bone densitometry, 8.8% (n=2,702) of the cases on ADT received bone densitometry without receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, while nearly 1% (0.90%, n=278) of the cases on ADT received both bone densitometry and bisphosphonates. Analysis showed treatment differed by patient characteristics. Contrary to the recommendations, bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy are underutilized in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer

  1. Hepatotoxicidade pela flutamida em paciente sob tratamento para acne: relato de caso Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity during treatment of acne: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Duques de Amorim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A flutamida é agente antiandrogênico não esteróide usado no tratamento do câncer de próstata, da acne e do hirsutismo. Alguns casos de hepatotoxicidade grave têm sido apresentados na literatura com seu uso. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com 21 anos de idade, que apresentou significativa elevação das aminotransferases durante o tratamento para acne com flutamida, completamente resolvida após a descontinuação da droga. Discute-se o diagnóstico, a relação risco/benefício e conclui-se que a monitoração com exames que avaliem o fígado é imperativa e que a droga deve ser suspensa se houver elevação de aminotransferases, dada a possibilidade de disfunção hepática grave.Flutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgenic drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, acne and hirsutism. Some cases of severe flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 21-year-old female who presented with a significant increase of aminotransferase levels during the treatment of acne with flutamide, which resolved completely after discontinuation of the drug. We discuss the diagnosis, the risk/benefit ratio, and conclude that monitoring liver function tests is mandatory and that the drug should be discontinued if an increase in aminotransferase levels occurs, due to the possibility of severe liver dysfunction.

  2. The Effect of Flutamide on Ovulation Induction in PCOS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Madani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder that affects various bodyorgans and requires comprehensive long term evaluation and management. The aim ofthis study was to evaluate effect of Flutamide on ovulation induction in PCOS patients.Materials and Methods: This prospective study applied triple blind method, a simpleconvenience sampling method, to induce ovulations of the ninety six PCOS patients.Patients were divided into two groups; group A included 53 subjects (received Flutamide+ Clomiphene Citrate and group B included 43 subjects (received placebo + ClomipheneCitrate. Ultrasound was carried to determine the size of follicles and growth rate of themduring follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Also, progesterone levels were measuredon days 19 and 21 of the menstrual cycle.Results: In this study, ninety six PCOS patients, in two treatment and control groups,were evaluated regarding to body mass index (BMI, cycle irregularity, age and numberof dominant follicles, duration of stimulation, endocrine profile and score of hirsutism.The obtained results revealed no significant differences between two groups.Conclusion: Flutamide does not affect ovulation improvement in PCOS patients undergoinginduction (Registration Number: IRCT 201105081141N10.

  3. Clinical efficacy of low dose flutamide plus Diane-35 in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztosun, Abdullah; Açmaz, Gökhan; Ozturk, Ahmet; Müderris, Iptisam Ipek

    2013-04-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism (IH) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are the most common causes of hirsutism which affects 5-10% of all women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of flutamide plus diane 35 in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. 26 polycystic ovary syndrome and 24 idiopathic hirsutism patients were evaluated. Fifty patients were divided into two groups according to their diagnosis: idiopathic hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome. All patients received 125 mg Flutamide once a day and Diane 35 tablets for 21 days of each month, for 12 months. We measured hirsutism scores and hormonal levels of all patients. Evaluations were done before treatment, in the 6th and 12th months of therapy. There were no significant differences in Ferriman-Gallwey scores at the beginning and at the end of the therapy between the IH and PCOS groups. The decreases in Ferriman-Gallwey scores were significant in both groups in the 6th and 12th month of therapy. Combined treatment significantly decreased total and free testosterone, DHEAS and significantly increased SHBG levels in both groups and additionally decreased levels of LH, androstenodione and LH/FSH ratio in the polycystic ovary syndrome group. Combined treatment was effective and safe in the treatment of hirsutism. Combined regimens have additional effects on the treatment of hirsutism.

  4. The influence of androgens, anti-androgens, and castration on cell proliferation in the jejunal and colonic crypt epithelia, and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma of rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    Androgenic hormones have previously been shown to promote cell proliferation in the small intestine of rat and androgen receptors have been demonstrated in carcinomata of the large intestine of rat. In this study the influence of testosterone and of castration on epithelial cell proliferation in the small intestine, the large intestine and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours is compared. Cell proliferation in the small intestine and in colonic tumours was accelerated by testosterone treatment, and cell proliferation in colonic tumours, but not in the small intestine, was retarded following castration. Cell proliferation in colonic tumours was also inhibited by the anti-androgenic drug, Flutamide. Testosterone and castration each failed to influence cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium of both normal and carcinogen-treated animals.

  5. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    monotherapy is generally well tolerated, with a predictable side-effect profile. The most common side effects are male breast pain and gynecomastia. Emerging evidence also supports the use of bicalutamide 150 mg, both as immediate monotherapy and as adjuvant therapy in early stage (localized or locally...

  6. Comparison of the effects of metformin, flutamide plus oral contraceptives, and simvastatin on the metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Mehrabian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive ages. It is associated with a range of disorders, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (IR, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, gestational, and type 2 diabetes, and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. There are different treatments available for PCOS. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of metformin, flutamide plus oral contraceptives (OCs, and simvastatin on the metabolic consequences of PCOS. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind clinical trial. The subjects were selected from a group of patient with PCOS and metabolic syndrome, who were referred to the midwifery clinic of Al-Zahra Hospital and Beheshti Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A total of 111 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: metformin, flutamide plus OCs, and simvastatin groups. The measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 months of therapy. Paired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and chi-square test were applied in this study. Results: A total of 102 subjects were analyzed in this study, 34 subjects were allotted in each group. The prevalence of IR was statistically different between three groups (P-value = 0.001. After a 6-month course, metformin showed larger reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS level (P-value 0.05. Conclusion: Metformin performed better in FBS reduction. Simvastatin had better performance in terms of reducing TG level and waist circumference.

  7. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working well, the clinical guidelines suggest against the use of flutamide, topical anti-androgen creams, and insulin- lowering drugs such as rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, or metformin, as therapy for hirsutism. The clinical guidelines suggest ...

  8. Antiandrogens act as selective androgen receptor modulators at the proteome level in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Greg N; Gamble, Simon C; Hough, Michael A; Begum, Shajna; Dart, D Alwyn; Odontiadis, Michael; Powell, Sue M; Fioretti, Flavia M; Bryan, Rosie A; Waxman, Jonathan; Wait, Robin; Bevan, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for prostate cancer include antiandrogens, inhibitory ligands of the androgen receptor, which repress androgen-stimulated growth. These include the selective androgen receptor modulators cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide and the complete antagonist bicalutamide. Their activity is partly dictated by the presence of androgen receptor mutations, which are commonly detected in patients who relapse while receiving antiandrogens, i.e. in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To characterize the early proteomic response to these antiandrogens we used the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, which harbors the androgen receptor mutation most commonly detected in castrate-resistant tumors (T877A), analyzing alterations in the proteome, and comparing these to the effect of these therapeutics upon androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation. The majority are regulated post-transcriptionally, possibly via nongenomic androgen receptor signaling. Differences detected between the exposure groups demonstrate subtle changes in the biological response to each specific ligand, suggesting a spectrum of agonistic and antagonistic effects dependent on the ligand used. Analysis of the crystal structures of the AR in the presence of cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and DHT identified important differences in the orientation of key residues located in the AF-2 and BF-3 protein interaction surfaces. This further implies that although there is commonality in the growth responses between androgens and those antiandrogens that stimulate growth in the presence of a mutation, there may also be influential differences in the growth pathways stimulated by the different ligands. This therefore has implications for prostate cancer treatment because tumors may respond differently dependent upon which mutation is present and which ligand is activating growth, also for the design of selective androgen receptor modulators, which aim to elicit differential proteomic

  9. Gene Expression Profiling of Androgen Receptor Antagonists Flutamide and Vinclozolin in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of genomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research of the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of acti...

  10. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  11. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  12. Transcripts of genes encoding reproductive neuroendocrine hormones and androgen receptor in the brain and testis of goldfish exposed to vinclozolin, flutamide, testosterone, and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2016-08-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a pesticide that acts as an anti-androgen to impair reproduction in mammals. However, VZ-induced disruption of reproduction is largely unknown in fish. In the present study, we have established a combination exposure in which adult goldfish were exposed to VZ (30 and 100 μg/L), anti-androgen flutamide (Flu, 300 μg/L), and androgen testosterone (T, 1 μg/L) to better understand effects of VZ on reproductive endocrine system. mRNA levels of kisspeptin (kiss-1 and kiss-2) and its receptor (gpr54), salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh3) and androgen receptor (ar) in the mid-brain, and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) in the testis were analyzed and compared with those of control following 10 days of exposure. kiss-1 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ and to Flu, while kiss-2 mRNA level was increased following exposure to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. gpr54 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu and 100 µg/L VZ with T. gnrh3 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ, to Flu, and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. The mid-brain ar mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. Testicular lhr mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu. These results suggest that VZ and Flu are capable of interfering with kisspeptin and GnRH systems to alter pituitary and testicular horonal functions in adult goldfish and the brain ar mediates VZ-induced disruption of androgen production.

  13. Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Sensor for Determination of Anticancer Drug Flutamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Julianna Santos; Zanin, Hudson; Caldas, Adriana Silva; dos Santos, Clenilton Costa; Damos, Flavio Santos; de Cássia Silva Luz, Rita

    2017-10-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTf) has been developed and applied for determination of anticancer drug flutamide in pharmaceutical and artificial urine samples. The electrode was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode with MWCNTf, denoted herein as MWCNTf/GCE. The MWCNTf/GCE electrode exhibited high catalytic activity, high sensitivity, and high stability and was applicable over a wide concentration range for flutamide. The effects of the scan rate, pH, and nature of the electrolyte on the electrochemical behavior of flutamide on the MWCNTf/GCE were investigated. The results showed that this electrode presented the best square-wave voltammetric response to flutamide in Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 5.0 at frequency of 50 Hz and amplitude of 0.06 V. The proposed sensor presents a wide linear response range from concentration of 0.1 μmol L-1 up to 1000 μmol L-1 (or 27.6 μg L-1 up to 0.27 g L-1), with limit of detection, limit of quantification, and sensitivity of 0.03 μmol L-1, 0.1 μmol L-1, and 0.30 μA μmol-1 L, respectively. The MWCNTf/GCE electrode was successfully applied for determination of flutamide in pharmaceutical formulations and artificial urine samples, giving results in agreement with those obtained by a comparative method described in literature. A paired Student's t-test revealed no statistical difference between the reference and proposed method at 95% confidence level. The average recovery for fortified samples was 101 ± 1%.

  14. Selected endocrine disrupting compounds (vinclozolin, flutamide, ketoconazole and dicofol): effects on survival, occurrence of males, growth, molting and reproduction of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeba, Maher H; Hilscherová, Klára; Mazurová, Edita; Bláha, Ludek

    2008-05-01

    Pollution-induced endocrine disruption in vertebrates and invertebrates is a worldwide environmental problem, but relatively little is known about effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in planktonic crustaceans (including Daphnia magna). Aims of the present study were to investigate acute 48 h toxicity and sub-chronic (4-6 days) and chronic (21 days) effects of selected EDCs in D. magna. We have investigated both traditional endpoints as well as other parameters such as sex determination, maturation, molting or embryogenesis in order to evaluate the sensitivity and possible use of these endpoints in ecological risk assessment. We have studied effects of four model EDCs (vinclozolin, flutamide, ketoconazole and dicofol) on D. magna using (i) an acute 48 h immobilization assay, (ii) a sub-chronic, 4-6 day assay evaluating development and the sex ratio of neonates, and (iii) a chronic, 21 day assay studying number of neonates, sex of neonates, molting frequency, day of maturation and the growth of maternal organisms. Acute EC50 values in the 48 h immobilization test were as follows (mg/L): dicofol 0.2, ketoconazole 1.5, flutamide 2.7, vinclozolin >3. Short-term, 4-6 day assays with sublethal concentrations showed that the sex ratio in Daphnia was modulated by vinclozolin (decreased number of neonate males at 1 mg/L) and dicofol (increase in males at 0.1 mg/L). Flutamide (up to 1 mg/L) had no effect on the sex of neonates, but inhibited embryonic development at certain stages during chronic assay, resulting in abortions. Ketoconazole had no significant effects on the studied processes up to 1 mg/L. Sex ratio modulations by some chemicals (vinclozolin and dicofol) corresponded to the known action of these compounds in vertebrates (i.e. anti-androgenicity and anti-oestrogenicity, respectively). Our study revealed that some chemicals known to affect steroid-regulated processes in vertebrates can also affect sublethal endpoints (e.g. embryonic sex determination

  15. A study of temporal effects of the model anti-androgen flutamide on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult fathead minnows

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of fathead minnow treated with the model androgen receptor (AR)...

  16. Results of radiation therapy combined with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for stage III prostate cancer. Comparison of two different definitions of PSA failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Sasaki, Yoshihide; Mizowaki, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We herein report the clinical outcome of radical radiation therapy combined with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) for stage III (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] 1997: UICC 97) prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure-free survival was assessed according to two different definitions, and the appropriateness of each definition is discussed. Between October 1997 and December 2000, 27 patients with stage III prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. The median pretreatment PSA level was 29 ng/ml (range, 7.4-430 ng/ml). The Gleason score (GS) was 7 or more in 22 patients (81%). All patients received 3 months of NHT with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, in combination with an antiandrogen (flutamide), given during the first 2 weeks, followed by 70-Gy external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in 35 fractions. The initial 46 Gy was given with a four-field technique, while the remainder was given with a dynamic conformal technique. No adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT) was given. The median follow-up time was 63 months. PSA levels decreased to the normal range (<4 ng/ml) after irradiation in all but one patient. The 5-year PSA failure-free survival was 34.8% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition and it was 43.0% according to the ''nadir plus 2'' definition. Discordance of the results between the two definitions was seen in two patients. The 5-year overall and cause-specific survivals were 83.0% and 93.3%, respectively. No severe acute or late adverse effects were observed. Seventy Gy of EBRT following 3 months of NHT produced therapeutic results comparable to those reported in other studies which used long-term AHT. The value of long-term AHT for Japanese men should be tested in a clinical trial. (author)

  17. An Update on Plant Derived Anti-Androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul; Ramasamy, Shamin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-androgens are an assorted group of drugs and compounds that reduce the levels or activity of androgen hormones within the human body. Disease states in which this is relevant include polycystic ovarian syndrome, hirsutism, acne, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and endocrine related cancers such as carcinoma of the prostate. We provide an overview and discussion of the use of anti-androgen medications in clinical practice and explore the increasing recognition of the benefits of plant-derived anti-androgens, for example, spearmint tea in the management of PCOS, for which some evidence about efficacy is beginning to emerge. Other agents covered include red reishi, which has been shown to reduce levels 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that facilitates conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT); licorice, which has phytoestrogen effects and reduces testosterone levels; Chinese peony, which promotes the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen; green tea, which contains epigallocatechins and also inhibits 5-alpha reductase, thereby reducing the conversion of normal testosterone into the more potent DHT; black cohosh, which has been shown to kill both androgenresponsive and non-responsive human prostate cancer cells; chaste tree, which has a reduces prolactin from the anterior pituitary; and saw palmetto extract, which is used as an anti-androgen although it shown no difference in comparison to placebo in clinical trials. PMID:23843810

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

  19. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC 10 , EC 25 and EC 50 in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC 10 mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC 25 mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC 50 , and weak antagonistic activity at the EC 25 level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  20. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  1. Quantification of antiandrogen effect determined by Lightcycler technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Vinggaard, Anne; Dalgaard, M.

    2001-01-01

    be improved by measuring hormone levels as well as determining changes in gene expression of androgen-responsive genes. A real-time RT-PCR method using LightCycler technology (Roche) suitable for quantitative determination of gene expression is described. The technique combines rapid thermocycling with online...... with testosterone with or without addition of flutamide or vinclozolin for 7 days in total. We show that we can quantify the level of gene expression by use of LightCycler technology, supported by changes in reproductive organ weights as well as in hormone levels, and that analysis of gene expression levels...

  2. The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Jarfelt, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves...... for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 muM, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron...... of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene...

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    of testicular androgen synthesis . Numerous studies have assessed the efficacy of each non- steroidal antiandrogen as a component of CAB in the treat... fulminant hepatitis [32]. Nilutamide Monotherapy There have been no randomized studies of nilutamide monotherapy reported. A small study involving 26...did not provide additional anti- tumor activity. The rate of patients with the PSA response at Fig. (1). Androgen synthesis pathway and

  4. A Simple, Fast, Low Cost, HPLC/UV Validated Method for Determination of Flutamide: Application to Protein Binding Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Sara; Valizadeh, Hadi; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-06-01

    The main goal of this study was development of a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for flutamide quantitation which is applicable to protein binding studies. Ultrafilteration method was used for protein binding study of flutamide. For sample analysis, flutamide was extracted by a simple and low cost extraction method using diethyl ether and then was determined by HPLC/UV. Acetanilide was used as an internal standard. The chromatographic system consisted of a reversed-phase C8 column with C8 pre-column, and the mobile phase of a mixture of 29% (v/v) methanol, 38% (v/v) acetonitrile and 33% (v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (50 mM) with pH adjusted to 3.2. Acetanilide and flutamide were eluted at 1.8 and 2.9 min, respectively. The linearity of method was confirmed in the range of 62.5-16000 ng/ml (r(2) > 0.99). The limit of quantification was shown to be 62.5 ng/ml. Precision and accuracy ranges found to be (0.2-1.4%, 90-105%) and (0.2-5.3 %, 86.7-98.5 %) respectively. Acetanilide and flutamide capacity factor values of 1.35 and 2.87, tailing factor values of 1.24 and 1.07 and resolution values of 1.8 and 3.22 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines. Based on the obtained results a rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive and cost-effective analysis procedure was proposed for quantitative determination of flutamide.

  5. Proandrogenic and Antiandrogenic Progestins in Transgender Youth: Differential Effects on Body Composition and Bone Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Lloyd J W; Craen, Margarita; Lapauw, Bruno; Goemaere, Stefan; Toye, Kaatje; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vandewalle, Sara; T'Sjoen, Guy; Zmierczak, Hans-Georg; Cools, Martine

    2018-06-01

    Progestins can be used to attenuate endogenous hormonal effects in late-pubertal transgender (trans) adolescents (Tanner stage B4/5 and G4/5). Currently, no data are available on the effects of progestins on the development of bone mass or body composition in trans youth. To study prospectively the evolution of body composition and bone mass in late-pubertal trans adolescents using the proandrogenic or antiandrogenic progestins lynestrenol (L) and cyproterone acetate (CA), respectively. Forty-four trans boys (Tanner B4/5) and 21 trans girls (Tanner G4/5) were treated with L or CA for 11.6 (4 to 40) and 10.6 (5 to 31) months, respectively. Anthropometry, grip strength, body composition, and bone mass, size, and density were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the start of progestin and before addition of cross-sex hormones. Using L, lean mass [+3.2 kg (8.6%)] and grip strength [+3 kg (10.6%)] significantly increased, which coincided with a more masculine body shape in trans boys. Trans girls showed loss of lean mass [-2.2 kg (4.7%)], gain of fat mass [+1.5 kg (9.4%)], and decreased grip strength Z scores. CA limited normal bone expansion and impeded pubertal bone mass accrual, mostly at the lumbar spine [Z score: -0.765 to -1.145 (P = 0.002)]. L did not affect physiological bone development. Proandrogenic and antiandrogenic progestins induce body composition changes in line with the desired appearance within 1 year of treatment. Bone health, especially at the lumbar spine, is of concern in trans girls, as bone mass accrual is severely affected by androgen suppressive therapy.

  6. Antiandrogenic actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate on epithelial cells within normal human breast tissues cultured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Moore, Nicole L; Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Ryan, Natalie K; Thomas, Mervyn R; Birrell, Stephen N; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a component of combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in EPT users. MPA can bind to the androgen receptor (AR), and AR signaling inhibits cell growth in breast tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of MPA to disrupt AR signaling in an ex vivo culture model of normal human breast tissue. Histologically normal breast tissues from women undergoing breast surgical operation were cultured in the presence or in the absence of the native AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), MPA, or the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Ki67, bromodeoxyuridine, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), AR, estrogen receptor α, and progesterone receptor were detected by immunohistochemistry. DHT inhibited the proliferation of breast epithelial cells in an AR-dependent manner within tissues from postmenopausal women, and MPA significantly antagonized this androgenic effect. These hormonal responses were not commonly observed in cultured tissues from premenopausal women. In tissues from postmenopausal women, DHT either induced or repressed BCL2 expression, and the antiandrogenic effect of MPA on BCL2 was variable. MPA significantly opposed the positive effect of DHT on AR stabilization, but these hormones had no significant effect on estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor levels. In a subset of postmenopausal women, MPA exerts an antiandrogenic effect on breast epithelial cells that is associated with increased proliferation and destabilization of AR protein. This activity may contribute mechanistically to the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking MPA-containing EPT.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of four in vitro assays for assessing androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Wolfgang; Vinggaard, Anne; Terouanne, B.

    2004-01-01

    steroidal androgens, two antiandrogens, an androgenic control, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and an antiandrogenic control, bicalutamide (ICI 176,334). All laboratories correctly detected the androgenic activity of 4-androsten-3,17-dione and 17alpha-methyl-testosterone. For both compounds...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE ANTIANDROGENIC PROPERTIES OF VINCLOZOLIN IN THE FATHEAD MINNOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti-androgens are an important class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, however, little is known concerning their effects in fish. This presentation will detail the effects of a known mammalian anti-androgen, vincolozin, on reproduction in a model small fish species, the fathea...

  9. Antiandrogen Treatment Ameliorates Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes in the Letrozole-Induced Mouse Model of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Genevieve E; Malik, Shaddy; Mellon, Pamela L

    2018-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone, anovulation, and obesity. In the current study, we sought to determine whether androgen receptor (AR) actions are responsible for any of the phenotypes observed in LET mice. C57BL/6 female mice were subcutaneously implanted with LET or placebo control and subsequently treated with the nonsteroidal AR antagonist flutamide or vehicle control. Flutamide treatment in LET females reversed elevated T levels and restored ovarian expression of Cyp17a1 (critical for androgen synthesis) to normal levels. Pituitary expression of Lhb was decreased in LET females that received flutamide treatment, with no changes in expression of Fshb or Gnrhr. Flutamide treatment also restored estrous cycling and reduced the number of ovarian cyst-like follicles in LET females. Furthermore, body weight and adipocyte size were decreased in flutamide-treated LET females. Altogether, our findings provide strong evidence that AR signaling is responsible for many key reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and further establish the LET mouse model as an important tool for the study of androgen excess.

  10. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre [Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50}. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of

  11. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC 25 and EC 50 . Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of pyrethroids and

  12. A novel luminol chemiluminescent method catalyzed by silver/gold alloy nanoparticles for determination of anticancer drug flutamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Azizi, Seyed Naser; Heidarpour, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    It was found that silver/gold alloy nanoparticles enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-H2O2 system in alkaline solution. The studies of UV-Vis spectra, CL spectra, effects of concentrations luminol, hydrogen peroxide and silver/gold alloy nanoparticles solutions were carried out to explore the CL enhancement mechanism. Flutamide was found to quench the CL signals of the luminol-H2O2 reaction catalyzed by silver/gold alloy nanoparticles, which made it applicable for the determination of flutamide. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity is proportional to the concentration of the flutamide in solution over the range 5.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4)mol L(-1). Detection limit was obtained 1.2 × 10(-8)mol L(-1)and the relative standard deviation (RSD) γ5%. This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of flutamide in commercial tablets. Box-Behnken experimental design is applied to investigate and validate the CL measurement parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-09-15

    Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose-response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC25 and EC50. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Our evaluation provides an appropriate "proof of concept", but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Systemic therapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer:American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Ethan; Loblaw, D Andrew; Oliver, Thomas K; Carducci, Michael; Chen, Ronald C; Frame, James N; Garrels, Kristina; Hotte, Sebastien; Kattan, Michael W; Raghavan, Derek; Saad, Fred; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Walker-Dilks, Cindy; Williams, James; Winquist, Eric; Bennett, Charles L; Wootton, Ted; Rumble, R Bryan; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Virgo, Katherine S

    2014-10-20

    To provide treatment recommendations for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based recommendations informed by a systematic review of the literature. When added to androgen deprivation, therapies demonstrating improved survival, improved quality of life (QOL), and favorable benefit-harm balance include abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, and radium-223 ((223)Ra; for men with predominantly bone metastases). Improved survival and QOL with moderate toxicity risk are associated with docetaxel/prednisone. For asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men, improved survival with unclear QOL impact and low toxicity are associated with sipuleucel-T. For men who previously received docetaxel, improved survival, unclear QOL impact, and moderate to high toxicity risk are associated with cabazitaxel/prednisone. Modest QOL benefit (without survival benefit) and high toxicity risk are associated with mitoxantrone/prednisone after docetaxel. No benefit and excess toxicity are observed with bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib. Continue androgen deprivation (pharmaceutical or surgical) indefinitely. Abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, or (223)Ra should be offered; docetaxel/prednisone should also be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Sipuleucel-T may be offered to asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men. For men who have experienced progression with docetaxel, cabazitaxel may be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Mitoxantrone may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited clinical benefit and toxicity risk. Ketoconazole or antiandrogens (eg, bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited known clinical benefit. Bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib should not be offered. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate optimal sequences or

  15. Prostate cancer treated by anti-androgens: is sexual function preserved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, F. H.; Collette, L.; de Reijke, T. M.; Whelan, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on results of the EORTC protocol 30892, an open, prospective, randomized study of 310 patients with previously untreated metastatic prostate cancer with favourable prognostic factors who were treated by either flutamide (FLU) or cyproterone acetate (CPA) monotherapy The final

  16. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Alan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  17. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (phypocaloric diet.

  18. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. Methods This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (pobese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. PMID:25473629

  19. Development of Suppositories Containing Flutamide-Loaded Alginate-Tamarind Microparticles for Rectal Administration: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bharati Shivajirao; Mahajan, Hitendra Shaligram; Surana, Sanjay Javerilal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of flutamide from suppositories containing hydrophilic tamarind alginate microparticles after rectal administration in rats was investigated with the purpose of enhancing bioavailability and to avoid hepatic toxicity. Microparticles were developed by ionic gelation method and optimized using one factorial design of response surface methodology. The optimized batch of microparticles had tamarind gum-sodium alginate (1 : 3) ratio and showed entrapment efficiency 94.969% and mucoadhesion strength 94.646% with desirability of 0.961. Suppositories loaded with microparticles were developed by fusion method using poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 in combination as suppository base. Kinetic analysis of the release data of microparticle-loaded suppositories showed time-independent release of drug. Higher values of 'n' (>0.89) represent Super Case II-type drug release. The pharmacokinetics of flutamide from flutamide tamarind alginate microparticle-loaded suppository were compared with oral suspension. Cmax of microparticle-loaded suppository was significantly larger than that of oral suspension (1.711 and 0.859 µg/mL, respectively).

  20. Rapid and sensitive reporter gene assays for detection of antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jørgensen, E.C.B.; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential antiandrog......Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential...... antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effective in vitro screening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were...... calcium phosphate transfection method, this method has the advantage of being more feasible, as the assay can be scaled down to the microtiter plate format. Furthermore, the transfection reagent is noncytotoxic, allowing its addition together with the test compounds thereby reducing the hands...

  1. Effects of combined exposure to anti-androgens on development and sexual dimorphic behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    Summary Background: Androgens are key regulators of male sexual differentiation during the in utero and early postnatal development. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that counteract androgen action at some stage in these periods can permanently demasculinise male foetuses and lead......?  Is sexually dimorphic behaviour in rats affected at lower dose levels of anti-androgens and thereby a more sensitive endpoint than morphological effects on the male external reproductive organs? The thesis is based on the results of in vivo studies where mated female Wistar rats were exposed to anti......-androgens either alone or in mixtures during pregnancy and lactation. The endpoints examined for anti-androgenic effects in the offspring were: Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR), and external (morphological) malformations in pups and sexually mature male rats. Furthermore, the effects of the anti...

  2. Association of testicular undescent induced by prenatal flutamide treatment with thickening of the cremaster muscle in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Tobe, Toyofusa; Toyota, Naoji; Adachi, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims:  Previously, in cryptorchid rats, which were induced by prenatal exposure to flutamide, we found a thickening of the cremaster muscle. This study was undertaken to quantify the increase of the cremaster muscle thickness in the cryptorchid rats, and to examine its possible relationship with the proliferation of muscle cells. Methods:  To obtain cryptorchid rats, pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with flutamide (100 mg/kg per day) during gestational days 16–17. Serial sections of the scrotum, containing the testis and cremaster muscle, were prepared from the control and cryptorchid rats that were 2–6 weeks of age, and stained with hematoxylin–eosin for morphometry, or stained with antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to analyze the cell proliferation ability. Results:  The thickened cremaster muscle was always associated with cryptorchid testis and, in the case of unilateral cryptorchidism, the cremaster muscle of the contralateral (descended testis) side exhibited normal thickness. The average thickness of the affected cremaster muscle was 0.80 and 1.89 mm at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectively, although that of the normal muscle was 0.28 and 0.33 mm at the same time period, respectively. Conclusion:  Our results showed that the cremaster muscle of the cryptorchid rats was significantly thicker than that of the control rats. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a thickened cremaster muscle contained many PCNA‐positive nuclei even at 4 weeks of age, in contrast to the control, which had only a few positive nuclei. Our present study indicates that continuous proliferation of the muscle cells associated with cryptorchid testis increases the thickness of cremaster cells in rats exposed to flutamide prenatally. (Reprod Med Biol 2003; 2: 109–113) PMID:29699173

  3. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  4. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examine...

  5. ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATECynthia Wolf1,2 , Joe Ostby1, Jonathan Furr 1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.11 US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2 Departmen...

  6. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY DETERMINATION OF ANTI-ANDROGEN VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS METABOLITES IN RAT SERUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a chromatographic method for the analysis of the anti-androgen vinclozolin (V) and its butenoic acid (M1) and enanilide (M2) metabolites in rat serum. V, M1, M2 and M3 were resolved using an HPLC gradient program with a mobile phase con...

  7. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; van der Voet, H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three

  8. EFFECTS OF THE MAMMALIAN ANTIANDROGEN VINCLOZOLIN ON DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work with the chlorinated fungicide vinclozolin and its metabolites, 2-{[(3,5-dichloropheny1]-carbamoyl]oxy}-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2), indicated antiandrogenic properties expressed in vivo as abnormalities in...

  9. EFFECTS OF THE MAMMALIAN ANTIANDROGEN VINCLOZOLIN ON DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work with the chlorinated fungicide vinclozolin and its metabolites, 2-{[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy}-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2), indicated antiandrogenic properties expressed in vivo as abnormalities in...

  10. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (Ml) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, Ml and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by in...

  11. Pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of the anti-androgen vinclozolin after oral administration inthe rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide with antiandrogenic properties. To determine the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of V, adult male rats were administered an oral dose of V (100 mg/kg) in corn oil and sacrificed over time after dosing. V and its metabolites were analyzed in serum and...

  12. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Voet, van der H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS: LOW DOSES OF VINCLOZOLIN ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In humans and rodents, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of 100 or 200 mg vinclozolin (V) kg-1 day-1 during sexual differentiation in rats induces female-like anogenital...

  14. Intrahippocampal administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, can increase anxiety-like behavior in intact and DHT-replaced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Kassandra L; Frye, Cheryl A

    2006-08-01

    Testosterone (T) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can decrease anxiety-like behavior; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been established. First, we hypothesized that if T reduces anxiety-like behavior through actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, DHT, then gonadectomy (GDX) would increase anxiety-like behavior, an effect which would be reversed by systemic administration of DHT. Second, we hypothesized that if T and DHT reduce anxiety-like behavior in part through actions at intracellular androgen receptors in the hippocampus, then administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, directly to the hippocampus should increase anxiety-like behavior of intact and DHT-replaced, but not GDX, male rats. Inserts that were empty or contained flutamide were applied directly to the dorsal hippocampus of intact, GDX, or GDX and DHT-replaced rats 2 h prior to testing in the open field, elevated plus maze, or defensive freezing tasks. GDX rats exhibited significantly more anxiety-like behaviors than intact or DHT-replaced rats. Intact and DHT-replaced rats administered flutamide to the hippocampus showed significantly more anxiety-like behavior than did intact and DHT-replaced controls. However, flutamide alone did not increase anxiety-like behavior of GDX rats. Together, these findings suggest that androgens can decrease anxiety-like behavior of male rats in part through DHT's actions at androgen receptors in the hippocampus.

  15. Metastatic prostate cancer treated by flutamide versus cyproterone acetate. Final analysis of the "European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer" (EORTC) Protocol 30892

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Fritz H.; Whelan, Peter; de Reijke, Theo M.; Kurth, Karl Heinz; Pavone-Macaluso, Michele; Mattelaer, Johan; van Velthoven, Roland F.; Debois, Muriel; Collette, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of Flutamide (FLU) versus Cyproterone acetate (CPA) in men with metastatic prostate cancer and favourable prognostic factors. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival, disease specific survival, time to progression and side effects were

  16. Organizational effects of the antiandrogen, Vinclozolin, on penis development in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Ciro M; Boyd, Morgan; Yang, Joshua; McCoy, Krista A

    2018-04-14

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are pollutants found throughout the environment that disrupt normal endocrine processes. In mice, penis development is thought to be most susceptible to EDCs during a critical developmental window occurring on embryonic days (E) 15.5-17.5. However, androgen signaling begins on E13.5 when Androgen Receptor (AR) protein is found in the genitalia and testosterone is circulating. We hypothesize that disrupting androgen signaling prior to the established critical window sensitizes the penis to future androgen disruption. To test this hypothesis, CD1 dams were exposed to Vinclozolin or a corn oil solvent control on E13.5 and E14.5 and AR levels were measured with immunohistochemistry on E14.5. Early antiandrogen exposure reduced AR within nuclei and decreased intensity of AR expression within E14.5 genitalia. To evaluate the influence of antiandrogen exposure before the known critical window of penis development, two groups of pregnant dams (n = 3) were exposed to Vinclozolin starting at either E13.5 or E14.5 and continued exposure through E16.5. Histology and M.O.U.S.E. scoring were used to quantify penis abnormalities. To account for differences in total doses mice experienced due to differences in length of dosing time, we compared animals that received the same total doses. Exposure to antiandrogens on E13.5 exacerbated malformations when exposure was continued through sexually dimorphic development. Both exposure time and Vinclozolin dose are important for severity of Vinclozolin-induced penis abnormalities in mice. This work shows, antiandrogen exposure prior to sensitive periods can exacerbate the effects of later antiandrogen exposure on reproductive development.

  17. Risk of hormone escape in a human prostate cancer model depends on therapy modalities and can be reduced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Guyader

    Full Text Available Almost all prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation treatment but many recur. We postulated that risk of hormone escape--frequency and delay--are influenced by hormone therapy modalities. More, hormone therapies induce crucial biological changes involving androgen receptors; some might be targets for escape prevention. We investigated the relationship between the androgen deprivation treatment and the risk of recurrence using nude mice bearing the high grade, hormone-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PAC120. Tumor-bearing mice were treated by Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH antagonist alone, continuous or intermittent regimen, or combined with androgen receptor (AR antagonists (bicalutamide or flutamide. Tumor growth was monitored. Biological changes were studied as for genomic alterations, AR mutations and protein expression in a large series of recurrent tumors according to hormone therapy modalities. Therapies targeting Her-2 or AKT were tested in combination with castration. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tumor growth was inhibited by continuous administration of the LH-RH antagonist degarelix (castration, but 40% of tumors recurred. Intermittent castration or complete blockade induced by degarelix and antiandrogens combination, inhibited tumor growth but increased the risk of recurrence (RR as compared to continuous castration (RR(intermittent: 14.5, RR(complete blockade: 6.5 and 1.35. All recurrent tumors displayed new quantitative genetic alterations and AR mutations, whatever the treatment modalities. AR amplification was found after complete blockade. Increased expression of Her-2/neu with frequent ERK/AKT activation was detected in all variants. Combination of castration with a Her-2/neu inhibitor decreased recurrence risk (0.17 and combination with an mTOR inhibitor prevented it. Anti-hormone treatments influence risk of recurrence although tumor growth inhibition was initially similar. Recurrent

  18. Antiandrogenic effects of prochloraz in Xenopus laevis_data_Haselman et al_version_0_20171122

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are represented in the tables and graphs in the journal article, Antiandrogenic effects following multiple life stage exposure to the fungicide prochloraz...

  19. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on the uptake of PSMA-targeted agents: Emerging opportunities challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Martin K.; Oh, So Won; Youn, Hye Won; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kwak, Cheol; Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for both diagnosis and therapy because of its high expression in the vast majority of prostate cancers. Development of small molecules for targeting PSMA is important for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of prostate cancer. Recent evidence implies that androgen-deprivation therapy increase PSMA-ligand uptake in some cases. The reported upregulations in PSMA-ligand uptake after exposure to second-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide and abiraterone might disturb PSMA-targeted imaging for staging and response monitoring of patients undergoing treatment with antiandrogen-based drugs. On the other hand, second-generation antiandrogens are emerging as potential endoradio-/chemosensitizers. Therefore, the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of PSMA-targeted theranostic methods can be listed as a new capability of antiandrogens. In this manuscript, we will present what is currently known about the mechanism of increasing PSMA uptake following exposure to antiandrogens. In addition, we will discuss whether these above-mentioned antiandrogens could play the role of endoradio-/chemosensitizers in combination with the well-established PSMA-targeted methods for pre-targeting of prostate cancer.

  20. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on the uptake of PSMA-targeted agents: Emerging opportunities challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, Martin K.; Oh, So Won; Youn, Hye Won; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kwak, Cheol; Kang, Keon Wook

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for both diagnosis and therapy because of its high expression in the vast majority of prostate cancers. Development of small molecules for targeting PSMA is important for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of prostate cancer. Recent evidence implies that androgen-deprivation therapy increase PSMA-ligand uptake in some cases. The reported upregulations in PSMA-ligand uptake after exposure to second-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide and abiraterone might disturb PSMA-targeted imaging for staging and response monitoring of patients undergoing treatment with antiandrogen-based drugs. On the other hand, second-generation antiandrogens are emerging as potential endoradio-/chemosensitizers. Therefore, the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of PSMA-targeted theranostic methods can be listed as a new capability of antiandrogens. In this manuscript, we will present what is currently known about the mechanism of increasing PSMA uptake following exposure to antiandrogens. In addition, we will discuss whether these above-mentioned antiandrogens could play the role of endoradio-/chemosensitizers in combination with the well-established PSMA-targeted methods for pre-targeting of prostate cancer

  1. Combined Exposure to Dissimilarly Acting Anti-Androgens causes Markedly Increased Frequency of Hypospadias in the Rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Scholze, Martin

    2007-01-01

    , a combination of doses of each chemical that on its own did not produce clear sign of hypospadias (DEHP, finasteride and prochloraz) or a frequency around 14% (vinclozolin) induced a 100% frequency of hypospadias. In conclusion, doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce only low frequencies of hypospadias...... when judged on their own, may induce a very high frequency when they interact in concert with other anti-androgens....

  2. Metabolomics reveals reduction of metabolic oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome after pioglitazone-flutamide-metformin polytherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vinaixa

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a variable disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, body adiposity, low-grade inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease risks. Recently, a new polytherapy consisting of low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen resulted in the regulation of endocrine clinical markers in young and non-obese PCOS women. However, the metabolic processes involved in this phenotypic amelioration remain unidentified. In this work, we used NMR and MS-based untargeted metabolomics to study serum samples of young non-obese PCOS women prior to and at the end of a 30 months polytherapy receiving low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen. Our results reveal that the treatment decreased the levels of oxidized LDL particles in serum, as well as downstream metabolic oxidation products of LDL particles such as 9- and 13-HODE, azelaic acid and glutaric acid. In contrast, the radiuses of small dense LDL and large HDL particles were substantially increased after the treatment. Clinical and endocrine-metabolic markers were also monitored, showing that the level of HDL cholesterol was increased after the treatment, whereas the level of androgens and the carotid intima-media thickness were reduced. Significantly, the abundance of azelaic acid and the carotid intima-media thickness resulted in a high degree of correlation. Altogether, our results reveal that this new polytherapy markedly reverts the oxidant status of untreated PCOS women, and potentially improves the pro-atherosclerosis condition in these patients.

  3. In vitro and in vivo screening of azole fungicides for antiandrogenic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    signs of feminization of the male offspring were investigated. Tebuconazole caused an increase in testicular 17alfa-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone levels, and a decrease in testosterone levels in male fetuses. Epoxiconazole had no effect on any of the mesured hormonelevels. Furthermore...... and antiandrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Two other azole fungicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole, have now been investigated for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo as well. The fungicides were screened in two well-established cell assays, including testing for agonistic and antagonistic...... effects on AR in transfected CHO cells, using an AR reporter gene assay. The compounds were also analyzed for effects on steroidogenesis in H295R cells, a human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line, used to detect effects on steroid production. In vitro tebuconazole and epoxiconazole proved to be antagonists...

  4. Anti-androgenic activity of absorption-enhanced 3, 3’-diindolylmethane in prostatectomy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Clara; Sethi, Seema; Heilbrun, Lance K; Gupta, Nilesh S; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Sakr, Wael A; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Smith, Daryn W; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Heath, Elisabeth I

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer. Antineoplastic effects of cruciferous vegetables are attributable to bioactive indoles, most prominently, 3, 3’-diindolylmethane (DIM). In addition to effects on proliferation and apoptosis, DIM acts as an antiandrogen in prostate cancer cell lines. This study characterized the effects of prostatic DIM on the androgen receptor (AR) in patients with prostate cancer. Men with localized prost...

  5. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three......) and the fraction of individuals with IMoEs vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz is not likely to be of concern for the reproductive development of their male foetuses. However...

  6. Hormone therapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebelameli P

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Only orchiectomy is still commonly used today either as a single therapy or in combination regimens. Hypophysectomy & adrenalectomy showed such devastating effects on the endocrine equilibrium as to be inconsistent with an acceptable quality of life or even with survival. Chemical adrenalectomy was also tried with drugs (eg. aminoglutethmide, spironolactone leading to consequences superimposable to those of surgical adrenalectomy. Along with orchiectomy, three groups of substances are commonly used today for the hormonal therapy of prostate cancer: estrogens, LHRH agonists & anti androgens. Bilateral orchiectomy removes 90-95% of circulating testosterone. Clinical studies document 60-80% of positive responders to castration, on continued evaluation, relapse occurs usually within 6-24 months in responders, with a death rate of 50% within 6 months. The androgenic activity still remaining after castration may explain the partial & progressively decreasing effectiveness of this & other testosterone reducing therapies. Antiandrogens define substances that act directly at the target site, where interacting with steroid hormone receptors, they impede the binding of androgens. A trend towards the combination of testosterone-reducing & androgen-blocking treatment is developing in modern therapy of prostate cancer. This is due to the complementary characteristics of the two different pharmacological mechanisms that are involved. In this study castration+antiandrogen is compared to castration alone. The results demonstrate a significantly greater percentage of positive objective & subjective responses with antiandrogen than with placebo. In addition survival time was increased in patients treated with castration+antiandrogen than castration+placebo.

  7. Tamoxifen for the management of breast events induced by non-steroidal antiandrogens in patients with prostate cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunath Frank

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tamoxifen has emerged as a potential management option for gynecomastia and breast pain due to non-steroidal antiandrogens, and it is considered an alternative to surgery or radiotherapy. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of tamoxifen, in comparison to other treatment options, for either the prophylaxis or treatment of breast events induced by non-steroidal antiandrogens in prostate cancer patients. Methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, reference lists, the abstracts of three major conferences and three trial registers to identify ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Two authors independently screened the articles identified, assessed the trial quality and extracted data. The protocol was prospectively registered (CRD42011001320; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO. Results Four studies were identified. Tamoxifen significantly reduced the risk of suffering from gynecomastia (risk ratio 9RR0 0.10, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22 or breast pain (RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17 at six months compared to untreated controls. Tamoxifen also showed a significant benefit for the prevention of gynecomastia (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.58 and breast pain (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.64 when compared to anastrozole after a median of 12 months. One study showed a significant benefit of tamoxifen for the prevention of gynecomastia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.65 and breast pain (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.65 when compared with radiotherapy at six months. Radiotherapy increased the risk of suffering from nipple erythema and skin irritation, but there were no significant differences for any other adverse events (all P > 0.05. Conclusions The currently available evidence suggests good efficacy of tamoxifen for the prevention and treatment of breast events induced by non-steroidal antiandrogens. The impact of tamoxifen therapy on long-term adverse events, disease progression and survival remains unclear

  8. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  9. An environmentally relevant endocrine-disrupting antiandrogen, vinclozolin, affects calling behavior of male Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2010-09-01

    Vinclozolin (VIN) is an antiandrogenic model substance as well as a common fungicide that can affect the endocrine system of vertebrates. The objective of this study was to investigate how VIN affects mate calling behavior of South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) and whether it is effective at environmentally relevant concentrations. Male X. laevis were injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate their androgen-controlled mate calling behavior and were treated with VIN at concentrations of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10)M. VIN at 10(-6)M reduced calling activity. Furthermore, the vocalization composition of VIN-treated X. laevis was altered. The call types advertisement calls and chirping are uttered by reproductively active males, whereas the call types growling, ticking, and rasping indicate a sexually unaroused state of a male. VIN at any of the tested concentrations led to a decrease in utterance of calls, which indicate a sexually aroused state of the males, and an increase in relative proportions of calls, indicating a sexually unaroused state of the males. Additionally, the mean duration of clicks and the number of accentuated clicks during the advertisement calls decreased at all concentrations of VIN. No significant differences were observed in any other temporal or spectral calling parameters between the treatments. This study illustrates that exposure to the antiandrogen VIN might result in a reduced reproductive success by altering mate calling behavior of X. laevis. Moreover, it suggests that the behavioral parameters examined in this study can be used as sensitive biomarkers for detecting antiandrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in amphibians. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDe Falco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic phthalates. This review describes the main effects of these substances on male reproductive system.

  11. Is there a role for antiandrogen monotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaisary, A V; Iversen, P; Tyrrell, C J

    2001-01-01

    with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level 400 ng/ml) may decide that quality of life and symptomatic benefits outweigh the slight survival disadvantage seen in clinical trials and opt for bicalutamide monotherapy as an alternative to castration.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2001) 4, 196-203.......Castration is the most widely used form of androgen ablation employed in the treatment of metastatic (M1) prostate cancer. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy is a potential alternative treatment option for men for whom castration is unacceptable or not indicated. Of the three non...

  12. Specific interaction of radioactive anti-androgen TSAA-291 with androgen receptor in rat prostates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, K.; Yoshida, K.; Nakayama, R.

    1982-01-01

    A steroidal anti-androgen TSSA-291 (16β-ethyl-17β-hydroxy-4-oestren-3-one) bound to a macromolecular component in the cytosol of rat ventral prostates with high affinity (Kdsub(d) = 5.0 x 10 -9 M) and in a saturable manner. The number of binding sites was comparable to that for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). [ 3 H]TSAA-291 binding was effectively displaced by unlabelled 5α-DHT, 19-nortestosterone and cyproterone acetate but to a lesser degree by corticosterone. Glycerol density-gradient centrifugation analysis revealed that the sedimentation coefficient of the [ 3 H]-TSAA-291-macromolecule complex was 3-4.5 S. However, when the unlabelled cytosol was fractionated by glycerol density-gradient centrifugation before the binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was examined, specific binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was observed in fractions corresponding to 8-10 S. Binding of the [ 3 H]TSAA-291-macromolecules comples to prostatic nuclei and DNA-cellulose was considerably less than binding by the [ 3 H]5α-DHT-macromolecule complex. Instability of the TSAA-291 binding coponent on heat treatment before and after complex formation was also revealed and the results are discussed in terms of the anti-androgenic activity of TSAA-291. (author)

  13. Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiangang, Chen [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ahn, Ki Chang [Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gee, Nancy A [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gee, Shirley J [Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D [Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cancer Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lasley, Bill L [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    To identify the androgenic potency of commonly used antimicrobials, an in vitro androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity assay was employed to evaluate the androgenic/antiandrogenic activity of parabens and selected other antimicrobials containing a phenolic moiety. This cell-based assay utilizes a stably transfected cell line that lacks critical steroid metabolizing enzymes and is formatted in a 96-well format. At a concentration of 10 {mu}M, methyl-, propyl- and butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (parabens) inhibited testosterone (T)-induced transcriptional activity by 40%, 33% and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the major metabolite of parabens, had no effect on T-induced transcriptional activity. Triclosan inhibited transcriptional activity induced by T by more than 92% at a concentration of 10 {mu}M, and 38.8% at a concentration of 1.0 {mu}M (P < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of T-induced transcriptional activity was inhibited by thymol at 10 {mu}M (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation and/or cytotoxicity were not observed in any of the treatments. None of the compounds appeared to be androgenic when tested individually without T. The data presented in this report demonstrate that some widely used antimicrobial compounds have antiandrogenic properties and warrant further investigation to fully understand their potential impact on human reproductive health.

  14. Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangang; Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Nancy A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the androgenic potency of commonly used antimicrobials, an in vitro androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity assay was employed to evaluate the androgenic/antiandrogenic activity of parabens and selected other antimicrobials containing a phenolic moiety. This cell-based assay utilizes a stably transfected cell line that lacks critical steroid metabolizing enzymes and is formatted in a 96-well format. At a concentration of 10 μM, methyl-, propyl- and butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (parabens) inhibited testosterone (T)-induced transcriptional activity by 40%, 33% and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the major metabolite of parabens, had no effect on T-induced transcriptional activity. Triclosan inhibited transcriptional activity induced by T by more than 92% at a concentration of 10 μM, and 38.8% at a concentration of 1.0 μM (P < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of T-induced transcriptional activity was inhibited by thymol at 10 μM (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation and/or cytotoxicity were not observed in any of the treatments. None of the compounds appeared to be androgenic when tested individually without T. The data presented in this report demonstrate that some widely used antimicrobial compounds have antiandrogenic properties and warrant further investigation to fully understand their potential impact on human reproductive health

  15. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunmei; Taneda, Shinji; Suzuki, Akira K.; Furuta, Chie; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A 4-nitrophenol (PNP) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been identified as a vasodilator. PNP is also a known degradation product of the insecticide parathion. We used uterotrophic and Hershberger assays to study the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of PNP in-vivo. In ovariectomized immature female rats injected subcutaneously with 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg PNP daily for 7 days, significant (P < 0.05) increases in uterine weight were seen in only those receiving 10 or 100 mg/kg PNP. Furthermore, in castrated immature male rats implanted with a silastic tube (length, 5 mm) containing crystalline testosterone and injected subcutaneously with 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg PNP daily for 5 days, those receiving the doses of 0.1 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) weight decreases in seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles, and glans penis. Plasma FSH and LH levels did not change in female rats but were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in male rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg PNP. These results clearly demonstrated that PNP has estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in-vivo. Our results therefore suggest that diesel exhaust emissions and the degradation of parathion can lead to accumulation of PNP in air, water, and soil and thus could have serious deleterious effects on wildlife and human health

  16. Cumulative reproductive effects of in utero administration of mixtures of antiandrogens in male SD rats: synergy or additivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1996 the USEPA was charged under the FQPA to consider the cumulative effects of chemicals in their risk assessments. Our studies were conducted to provide a framework for assessing the cumulative effects of antiandrogens. Toxicants were administered individually or as mixtures...

  17. Update of monotherapy trials with the new anti-androgen, Casodex (ICI 176,334). International Casodex Investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1994-01-01

    Casodex (ICI 176,334) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen, which has a half-life compatible with once-daily oral dosing. In an open, phase II study on 267 patients given Casodex, 50 mg/day, an overall objective response (i.e. partial regression) was seen in 55.5% of patients (146 of 263) with a furt...

  18. ASSESSING VINCLOZOLIN FOR ANTIANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: A DOSE-RESPONSE STUDY OF GENE EXPRESSION IN THE RAT VENTRAL PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency, along with agencies within the European Union, are currently evaluating in vitro and in vivo assays to detect compounds that display antiandrogenic orandrogenic activity. Thein vivo assay is based on weight changes in androgen d...

  19. Vinclozolin--no transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects after maternal exposure during organogenesis via the intraperitoneal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steffen; Marxfeld, Heike; Gröters, Sibylle; Buesen, Roland; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the potential transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects induced by Vinclozolin administered intraperitoneally to pregnant Wistar rats (Crl:WI[Han]). Dams were dosed with Vinclozolin at 0, 4 or 100mg/kg bw/d on gestation days 6-15. Male offspring of F1-F3 generations were bred with untreated females to yield F2-F4 offspring. No evident anti-androgenic effects were observed at 4mg/kg bw/d, but a case of hypospadias as well as delayed sexual maturation in F1 male offspring was observed as a sign of anti-androgenicity at 100mg/kg bw/d. However, F1-F3 males developed normally to sexual maturity and were able to mate and to generate healthy progeny. Sperm count, morphology and motility were not affected in F1-F4 generation male offspring. In conclusion, transgenerational inheritance of Vinclozolin's anti-androgenic effects was not evident in outbred Wistar rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the antiandrogens, vinclozolin and cyproterone acetate on gonadal development in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparissis, Yiannis; Metcalfe, Tracy L; Balch, Gordon C; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2003-05-29

    This study was focused on determining the effects of exposure to antiandrogens on the gonadal development of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Test compounds included the fungicide, vinclozolin and the clinical antiandrogen, cyproterone acetate. Newly hatched medaka were exposed to aqueous solutions of vinclozolin (2500 microg/l) and the vinclozolin fungicide formulation, Ronilan (1000 and 5000 microg/l) and cyproterone acetate (1 and 10 microg/l), for 3 months. Histological evaluation of the gonadal tissues of exposed fish indicated that the 5000 microg/l concentration of the vinclozolin formulation (Ronilan) induced a low incidence of intersex (i.e. testis-ova) and the 2500 microg/l concentration of vinclozolin-affected spermatogenesis in males. Also, the vinclozolin treatments induced moderate ovarian atresia. Cyproterone acetate also induced a low incidence of testis-ova, but in contrast to the vinclozolin treatment the amount of ovarian tissue in the testis-ova was equal to or greater than the amount of testicular tissue. In the cyproterone acetate treatments, both oogenesis and spermatogenesis were moderately inhibited at all test concentrations. The results of this study indicate that antiandrogens have the potential to alter testicular development and gametogenesis in fish. However, research is needed to determine the mechanisms by which antiandrogens affect fish.

  1. Zoladex and flutamide versus orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. A combined analysis of two European studies, EORTC 30853 and DAPROCA 86

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Suciu, S; Sylvester, R

    1990-01-01

    A total of 591 patients with advanced prostatic cancer have been randomized to either orchiectomy or treatment with zoladex 3.6 mg as a depot preparation combined with flutamide 250 mg tid in two European studies, EORTC protocol 30853 and DAPROCA 86. Identical design and comparable patient...... characteristics in the two studies have allowed combined analysis. A small but statistically significant difference in time to objective progression or death from prostatic cancer was found in favor of the combination treatment. However, time from objective progression to death was longer in the group initially...

  2. Identifying Androgen Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Resistance to Second-Generation Antiandrogen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    topics in descriptive and inferential statistics including hypothesis testing, regression, and multivariate analysis. I look forward to continuing my...analysis, and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. To facilitate my clinical-translational skills, I took part in a statistics seminar course that covered... statistics and data science training with further coursework this year offered at MSKCC and through massive open online courses (MOOCs

  3. Autophagosomal Sequestration of Mitochondria as an Indicator of Antiandrogen Therapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    intensities using a Nikon A1 or a Leica Di8 fluorescence confocal microscope and Image J software . Results and Discussion: Our data show that the...intensities of the FRET signals from all optical sections have been quantified and integrated using Image J software with appropriate threshold to...journal when all the data are collected. Inventions, patent applications, and/or licenses Nothing to report Other products Nothing to report

  4. Autophagosomal Sequestration of Mitochondria as an Indicator of Antiandrogen Therapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    degree of mitophagy is more in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells than in –independent C4-2 cells, both growing in androgen-depleted media . Enzalutamide...suspension containing ~4,000 cells are then seeded in F1C4 in each well of a 96 well plate except blanks, which received only media . A day after seeding...appreciable increase in FRET intensity has been observed in Enzalutamide treated cells as compared to that in the control vehicle treated cells for MDC

  5. Combined oral contraceptives and/or antiandrogens versus insulin sensitizers for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Nattero-Chávez, Lía; Ortiz Flores, Andrés E; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2017-12-27

    Androgen excess is a key pathogenetic mechanism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), although hyperinsulinism also contributes to androgen secretion. Therapeutic approaches for adult patients not seeking fertility include combined oral contraceptives (COC), antiandrogens (AA) and/or insulin sensitizers, although these practices are supported by limited high-quality evidence. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of these common treatments for PCOS by conducting a meta-analysis of RCTs with the following review questions: Which is the more appropriate therapeutic approach for hyperandrogenic symptoms, hyperandrogenemia, and ovulatory dysfunction in adult women with PCOS not seeking fertility; What is the impact on classic cardiometabolic risk factors of the more common treatments used in those women; Does the combination of the antiandrogenic therapy plus metformin have any impact on efficacy or cardiometabolic profile? We searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles published up to 16 September 2017. After deleting duplicates, the abstracts of 1522 articles were analysed. We subsequently excluded 1446 articles leaving 76 studies for full-text assessment of eligibility. Of them, 43 articles were excluded. Hence, 33 studies and 1521 women were included in the quantitative synthesis and in the meta-analyses. Meta-analyses calculated mean differences (MD), standardized mean differences (SMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% CIs. Heterogeneity and inconsistency across studies was assessed by χ2 test and Higgins's I2 statistics. Quality and risk of bias of individual studies were assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0. We then used the approach recommended by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) group to indicate the global quality of evidence for a selection of primary outcomes. Regarding efficacy, the MD in hirsutism score between COC and/or AA and metformin were not significant

  6. Enzalutamide and blocking androgen receptor in advanced prostate cancer: lessons learnt from the history of drug development of antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Sadar, Marianne D

    2018-01-01

    Enzalutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) both before and after chemotherapy. Enzalutamide is more effective than its predecessor bicalutamide, which was analyzed in head-to-head studies of patients with CRPC. This family of nonsteroidal antiandrogens is now comprised of four drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration with two investigational drugs in clinical trials. Antiandrogens have been employed clinically for more than five decades to provide a rich resource of information. Steady-state concentration minimums (C min or trough) in the range of ~1-13 μg/mL are measured in patients at therapeutic doses. Interestingly, enzalutamide which is considered to have strong affinity for the androgen receptor (AR) requires C min levels >10 μg/mL. The sequence of antiandrogens and the clinical order of application in regard to other drugs that target the androgen axis remain of high interest. One novel first-in-class drug, called ralaniten, which binds to a unique region in the N-terminus domain of both the full-length and the truncated constitutively active splice variants of the AR, is currently in clinical trials for patients who previously received abiraterone, enzalutamide, or both. This highlights the trend to develop drugs with novel mechanisms of action and potentially differing mechanisms of resistance compared with antiandrogens. Better and more complete inhibition of the transcriptional activity of the AR appears to continue to provide improvements in the clinical management of mCRPC.

  7. In vitro screening of azole fungicides for antiandrogenic effects – comparison with in vivo effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    testosterone and progesterone production. Epoxiconazole showed now effect. Furthermore tebuconazole increased the AGD in female pups and resulted in an increased number of nipples in male pups at PND 13, a tendency that was also seen for epoxiconazole, though it was not significant. In conclusion the results...... in H295R cells, a cell line, which produces a wide range of steroid hormones in measurable quantities, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol, a property that makes it suitable as a screening assay to detect effects on steroidogenesis. In the in vitro tebuconazole and epoxiconazole showed...... antiandrogenic effects, and in the H295R cell assay, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole were like prochloraz able to inhibit testosterone and estradiol levels and increase progesterone levels. For the in vivo testing, a study was conducted testing the developmental effects on offspring after prenatal exposure...

  8. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Joon Hyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Jong Myung; Cho, Myung Haing

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  9. A PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODEL FOR GENE-REGULATED PROSTATE MAINTENANCE: COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF CASTRATION WITH ANTIANDROGEN EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiandrogens affect prostate maintenance in two ways. Androgen antagonists, such as the fungicide vinclozolin, act as competitive ligands for the androgen receptor (AR). Enzyme inhibitors, such as the therapeutic drug Finasteride, inhibit the enzyme 5 -reductase (5 R) from metab...

  10. Regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor via a BET-dependent enhancer drives antiandrogen resistance in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel; Wang, Ping; Wongvipat, John; Karthaus, Wouter R; Abida, Wassim; Armenia, Joshua; Rockowitz, Shira; Drier, Yotam; Bernstein, Bradley E; Long, Henry W; Freedman, Matthew L; Arora, Vivek K; Zheng, Deyou; Sawyers, Charles L

    2017-09-11

    In prostate cancer, resistance to the antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) can occur through bypass of androgen receptor (AR) blockade by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In contrast to fixed genomic alterations, here we show that GR-mediated antiandrogen resistance is adaptive and reversible due to regulation of GR expression by a tissue-specific enhancer. GR expression is silenced in prostate cancer by a combination of AR binding and EZH2-mediated repression at the GR locus, but is restored in advanced prostate cancers upon reversion of both repressive signals. Remarkably, BET bromodomain inhibition resensitizes drug-resistant tumors to Enz by selectively impairing the GR signaling axis via this enhancer. In addition to revealing an underlying molecular mechanism of GR-driven drug resistance, these data suggest that inhibitors of broadly active chromatin-readers could have utility in nuanced clinical contexts of acquired drug resistance with a more favorable therapeutic index.

  11. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 exerts anti-androgenic activity in the prostate cancer xenograft R-3327G and anabolic activity on skeletal muscle mass & function in castrated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamore, Michael J; Gentile, Michael A; Dillon, Gregory Michael; Baran, Matthew; Gambone, Carlo; Riley, Sean; Schmidt, Azriel; Flores, Osvaldo; Wilkinson, Hilary; Alves, Stephen E

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor super family of transcription factors. Androgens play an essential role in the development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs, as well as the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. Yet with advancing age, androgens can drive the onset of prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in males within the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by pharmacologic and/or surgical castration induces apoptosis of prostate cells and subsequent shrinkage of the prostate and prostate tumors. However, ADT is associated with significant musculoskeletal and behavioral adverse effects. The unique pharmacological activity of selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 recently has been reported as an AR antagonist with 5α-reductase inhibitor function. The molecule inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in AR positive, androgen dependent prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MK-4541 inhibited androgen-dependent prostate growth in male rats yet maintained lean body mass and bone formation following ovariectomy in female rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SARM MK-4541 in the androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-G prostate carcinoma xenograft mouse model as well as on skeletal muscle mass and function, and AR-regulated behavior in mice. MK-4541 significantly inhibited the growth of R3327-G prostate tumors, exhibited anti-androgen effects on the seminal vesicles, reduced plasma testosterone concentrations in intact males, and inhibited Ki67 expression. MK-4541 treated xenografts appeared similar to xenografts in castrated mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that MK-4541 exhibited anabolic activity in androgen deficient conditions, increasing lean body mass and muscle function in adult castrated mice. Moreover, MK-4541 treatment restored general activity levels in castrated mice. Thus, MK-4541 exhibits an optimum profile as an adjuvant therapy to ADT

  12. Zoladex and flutamide versus orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. A combined analysis of two European studies, EORTC 30853 and DAPROCA 86

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Suciu, S; Sylvester, R

    1990-01-01

    A total of 591 patients with advanced prostatic cancer have been randomized to either orchiectomy or treatment with zoladex 3.6 mg as a depot preparation combined with flutamide 250 mg tid in two European studies, EORTC protocol 30853 and DAPROCA 86. Identical design and comparable patient...... characteristics in the two studies have allowed combined analysis. A small but statistically significant difference in time to objective progression or death from prostatic cancer was found in favor of the combination treatment. However, time from objective progression to death was longer in the group initially...... allocated to orchiectomy. Thus, no difference between treatment groups in overall survival was found. As a conclusion, the combined androgen blockade was not superior to orchiectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer....

  13. A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Ryoichi; Okamura, Kazumasa; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-0934 (Japan); Kakishima, Hiroshi [Research Planning Department, Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., 5-26-20 Oji, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0002 (Japan); Mizokami, Atsushi [School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Burnstein, Kerry L. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, Miami (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in LNCaP cells. The PAHs used in this study were chrysene (Chr), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), anthracene (Ant) and pyrene (Pyr). Chr, BkF and BaP acted as AhR agonists in LNCaP cells, while Ant and Pyr did not. The antiandrogenic effects of the PAHs were evaluated on the basis of regulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein levels by 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chr, BkF and BaP exhibited an antiandrogenic effect, but Ant and Pyr did not. {alpha}-Naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF), an AhR antagonist, reversed the antiandrogen action of Chr, BkF and BaP, suggesting a requirement for activated AhR. The antiandrogenic PAHs did not significantly decrease androgen receptor (AR) levels or cellular DHT concentrations. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Chr, BkF and BaP inhibited the binding of AR in nuclear extracts to oligonucleotide probes containing the AR-responsive element (ARE), whereas Ant and Pyr had no effect. The antiandrogenic PAHs elevated mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun. Since activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of c-jun and c-fos proteins, is known to inhibit binding of AR to ARE by protein-protein interaction with AR, the findings in the present study suggest a possible involvement of AP-1 in the antiandrogenic effects of PAHs acting as AhR agonists. These results suggest that AhR can stimulate AP-1 expression resulting in inhibition of the binding of AR to ARE in the transcription regulatory region of target genes such as PSA. (orig.)

  14. Statistical Modeling Suggests that Antiandrogens in Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works Contribute to Widespread Sexual Disruption in Fish Living in English Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Susan; Burn, Robert. W.; Thorpe, Karen; Williams, Richard; Tyler, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some wastewater treatment works has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. This concern stems from the view that the effects observed have a parallel in humans, and that both phenomena are caused by exposure to mixtures of contaminants that interfere with reproductive development. The evidence for a “wildlife–human connection” is, however, weak: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, seen in human males, is most easily reproduced in rodent models by exposure to mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals. In contrast, the accepted explanation for feminization of wild male fish is that it results mainly from exposure to steroidal estrogens originating primarily from human excretion. Objectives We sought to further explore the hypothesis that endocrine disruption in fish is multicausal, resulting from exposure to mixtures of chemicals with both estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties. Methods We used hierarchical generalized linear and generalized additive statistical modeling to explore the associations between modeled concentrations and activities of estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals in 30 U.K. rivers and feminized responses seen in wild fish living in these rivers. Results In addition to the estrogenic substances, antiandrogenic activity was prevalent in almost all treated sewage effluents tested. Further, the results of the modeling demonstrated that feminizing effects in wild fish could be best modeled as a function of their predicted exposure to both antiandrogens and estrogens or to antiandrogens alone. Conclusion The results provide a strong argument for a multicausal etiology of widespread feminization of wild fish in U.K. rivers involving contributions from both steroidal estrogens and xenoestrogens and from other (as yet unknown) contaminants with antiandrogenic properties. These results may add further credence to the hypothesis that endocrine

  15. Antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid health benefits of COC containing newer progestogens: dienogest and drospirenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Pedro-Antonio; Schindler, Adolf E

    2017-10-10

    Data have demonstrated that COCs, besides offering a satisfactory and safe contraception, offer a variety of non-contraceptive health benefits and therapeutic positive aspects. Many prescribes and users, however, do not realize these positive aspects especially the non-contraceptive health benefits. While the contraceptive use is the primary indication for COC use for most women, these users should be advised in regard of the non-contraceptive benefits when contraception is discussed and prescribed. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is an off-label use in many clinical situations (only some exceptions as e.g. acne vulgaris in some countries are allowed clinical entities for the use of these drugs). Therefore, appropriate discussions with the patient regarding this fact should performed and documented by the prescribing physicians. Independent of the off-label situation, COCs containing the newer progestogens dienogest and drospirenone with their antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid health benefits play an important role in the management of many diseases and their use should therefore be considered by clinician's. This review will focus on the effects of these COCs on the endometrium, the skin, the fat tissue and the premenstrual syndrome.

  16. Anti-androgenic activities of diuron and its metabolites in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto da; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; Almeida, Eduardo Alves de

    2015-07-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a widely used herbicide which has been frequently detected in surface waters throughout the world. In vivo bioassay guided fractionation studies indicated that diuron may have estrogenic activity augmented by biotransformation. This study evaluated the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites on plasma hormone concentrations and spermatogenesis of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Sexually mature male fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 200ng/L. Testosterone levels were decreased by diuron, but had limited effects on gonadal histology. Diuron metabolites, however, caused significant decreases in testosterone and in 11-ketotestosterone, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules and in the mean percentages of germ cells (spermatids and spermatozoa). We conclude that these metabolites have antiandrogenic activity to male Nile tilapia, potentially causing reproductive impairment in male fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of uterine progesterone receptors by the nonsteroidal anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Y.; Armstrong, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have recently reported that the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide causes delayed implantation and exhibits antideciduogenic activity in the rat. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether hydroxyflutamide binds to the uterine progesterone receptors and/or alters the progesterone binding sites in the uterus. Cytosol and nuclear fractions from decidualized rat uterus were incubated with [3H]-R5020 without or with increasing concentrations of radioinert R5020, RU486, dihydrotestosterone, or hydroxyflutamide. From the log-dose inhibition curves, the relative binding affinity of both hydroxyflutamide and dihydrotestosterone was less than 0.1% and 2%, compared with R5020 (100%) for displacing [3H]-R5020 bound to uterine cytosol and nuclear fractions, respectively. Injection of estradiol-17 beta (1 microgram/rat) to ovariectomized prepubertal rats induced a 1.85-fold increase in uterine weight by 24 h. Hydroxyflutamide at 2.5 or 5.0 mg did not significantly alter the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight. Compared to vehicle alone, estrogen induced an approximately 5-fold increase in uterine cytosolic progesterone binding sites. Hydroxyflutamide at both 2.5- and 5.0-mg doses significantly attenuated the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine progesterone binding sites. These studies demonstrate that hydroxyflutamide does not bind with high affinity to progesterone receptors, but suppresses the estrogen-induced elevation in progesterone receptor levels in the uterus

  18. Assessment of the adsorption mechanism of Flutamide anticancer drug on the functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube surface as a drug delivery vehicle: An alternative theoretical approach based on DFT and MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Maedeh; Raissi, Heidar; Morsali, Ali; Shahabi, Mahnaz

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the drug delivery performance of the functionalized (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotube with a carboxylic acid group for Flutamide anticancer drug in the gas phase as well as water solution by means of density functional theory calculations. The obtained results confirmed the energetic stability of the optimized geometries and revealed that the nature of drug adsorption on the functionalized carbon nanotube is physical. Our computations showed that the hydrogen bonding between active sites of Flutamide molecule and the carboxyl functional group of the nanotube plays a vital role in the stabilization of the considered configurations. The natural bond orbital analysis suggested that the functionalized nanotube plays the role of an electron donor and Flutamide molecule acts as an electron acceptor at the investigated complexes. In addition, molecular dynamics simulation is also utilized to investigate the effect of functionalized carbon nanotube chirality on the dynamic process of drug molecule adsorption on the nanotube surface. Simulation results demonstrated that drug molecules are strongly adsorbed on the functionalized nanotube surface with (10,5) chirality, as reflected by the most negative van der Waals interaction energy and a high number of hydrogen bonds between the functionalized nanotube and drug molecules.

  19. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Angeles-Soto, Esperanza; de Lourdes López-González, Ma; Harrison, Randy A; Hughes, Michael F

    2012-03-01

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, M1 and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by interacting with the androgen receptor. Data on V, M1 and M2 biotransformation are limited. Our objective was to characterize V metabolism by rat liver microsomes. V was incubated with non-treated adult male Long-Evans rat liver microsomes and NADPH. Several metabolites were detected following the extraction of incubate with acetonitrile and analysis by HPLC/DAD/MSD. One metabolite was identified as [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione] (M4), which was gradually converted to 3',5'-dichloro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutylanilide (M5). Both co-eluted in the same HPLC peak. Another metabolite ([M7]) was detected by UV but was unstable for mass spectral analysis. The K(M app) for co-eluted M4/M5 and [M7] was 53.7 and 135.4 μM, the V(max app) was 0.812 and 0.669 nmoles/min/mg protein, and CL(int) was 15.1 and 4.9 ml/min/g protein, respectively. Pilocarpine, orphenadrine and proadifen and anti-rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A, 2B and 3A antibodies inhibited M4/M5 and [M7] formation. These results indicate that V is efficiently metabolized by CYP. Determination of the metabolites of V will provide further insight into the relationship between toxicity and tissue dose of V and its metabolites.

  20. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allera, A.; Lo, S.; King, I.; Steglich, F.; Klingmueller, D.

    2004-01-01

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  1. Modified expression of several sperm proteins after chronic exposure to the antiandrogenic compound vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Jacques; Eustache, Florence; Maceiras, Paula; Broussard, Cédric; Chafey, Philippe; Lesaffre, Corinne; Vaiman, Daniel; Camoin, Luc; Auer, Jana

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the molecular impact of in vivo exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) on sperm structures and functions. We recently reported that the lifelong exposure of rats to the antiandrogenic compound vinclozolin results in low epididymal weight, changes in sperm kinematic parameters, and immature sperm chromatin condensation, together with the impairment of several fertility end points. These results led us to focus specifically on possible molecular abnormalities in sperm. Sperm samples were recovered from the frozen epididymides of rats exposed during the previous study. The proteins present in the samples from six exposed and six control rats were analyzed in pairs, by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, to investigate possible exposure-induced changes to sperm protein profiles. Twelve proteins, from the 380 matched spots observed in at least five gels, were present in larger or smaller amounts after vinclozolin exposure. These proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and several are known to play a crucial role in the sperm fertilizing ability, among which, two mitochondrial enzymes, malate dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (both of which were present in smaller amounts after treatment) and A-kinase anchor protein 4 (larger amounts of precursor after treatment). Finally, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed highly significant interactions between proteins over- and underexpressed after treatment. This is the first study to show an association between in vivo exposure to an ED and changes to the sperm protein profile. These modifications may be at least partly responsible for the reproductive abnormalities and impaired fertility recently reported in this rat model of vinclozolin exposure.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of the antiandrogen vinclozolin after oral administration in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Harrison, Randy A; Barton, Hugh A; Hughes, Michael F

    2008-11-01

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide with antiandrogenic properties. To determine the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of V, adult male rats were administered an oral dose of V (100 mg/kg) in corn oil and sacrificed over time after dosing. V and its metabolites were analyzed in serum and tissues by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector/mass spectrometer. V, 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1), and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2), and five other metabolites were detected in serum and tissues. One metabolite was identified as 3',5'-dichloro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutylanilide (M5). The mean serum concentration data for V were fitted to a one-compartment model for kinetic analysis. At 2 h, V serum concentration peaked; whereas only trace levels were detected at 24 h (t(1/2 elim) = 3.6 h). V was detected in all tissues and preferentially accumulated in fat. M1 serum levels increased until 8 h, being at least 2-fold higher than those of V at this time, and then declined with a t(1/2) = 3.3 h. M5 was the main metabolite in serum and tissues. Serum M5 levels were 5-fold higher than V and 2-fold greater than M1 at all times. At 48 h, M5 remained the main metabolite (t(1/2 elim) = 13.1 h). Liver and kidney exhibited the highest levels of M5, V, and M1. M2 and 3,5-dichloroaniline had the lowest levels of V metabolites in serum and tissues. V is well absorbed, extensively metabolized and widely distributed. M5, the most abundant V metabolite, may be used as an exposure biomarker for pharmacokinetic modeling. These results may clarify the relationship between toxicity and tissue dose of V and its metabolites.

  3. Anti-androgen vinclozolin impairs sperm quality and steroidogenesis in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Milla, Sylvain; Křišťan, Jiří; Golshan, Mahdi; Fontaine, Pascal; Linhart, Otomar

    2012-10-15

    In mammals, vinclozolin (VZ) is known as anti-androgen, which causes male infertility via androgen receptor (AR) antagonism. In aquatic animals, the VZ effects on reproductive functions are largely unknown and results are somewhat contradictory. To understand VZ adverse effects on male reproduction, mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three nominal VZ concentrations (100, 400, and 800 μg/L) and alternations in gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and sperm quality were investigated compared to the solvent control. One group was exposed to E(2) (nominal concentration of 5 μg/L), an estrogenic compound, as a negative control. Following one month exposure, GSI and HSI were unchanged in all VZ treated groups compared to solvent control. Sperm volume, motility and velocity were reduced in fish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ. This was associated with the decrease in 11-KT level, suggesting direct VZ effects on testicular androgenesis and sperm functions. In goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ, 11-KT was increased but E(2) remained unchanged. This is, probably, the main reason for unchanged sperm quality at 100 μg/L VZ. In goldfish exposed to E(2), GSI and 11-KT were decreased, E(2) was increased and no sperm was produced. The present study shows different dose-dependent VZ effects, which lead to impairment in sperm quality via disruption in steroidogenesis. In addition to VZ effects through competitive binding to AR, our data suggests potential effects of VZ by direct inhibition of 11-KT biosynthesis in fish as well as abnormalities in sperm morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Corepressive function of nuclear receptor coactivator 2 in androgen receptor of prostate cancer cells treated with antiandrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Keisuke; Hara, Noboru; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Tasaki, Masayuki; Ishizaki, Fumio; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment of cofactors in the interaction of the androgen receptor (AR) and AR ligands plays a critical role in determining androgenic/antiandrogenic effects of the AR ligand on signaling, but the functions of key cofactors, including nuclear receptor coactivator (NCOA), remain poorly understood in prostate cancer cells treated with AR ligands. We examined prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and VCaP expressing mutated and wild-type ARs, respectively, to clarify the significance of NCOAs in the effect of antiandrogens. Hydroxyflutamide showed antagonistic activity against VCaP and an agonistic effect on LNCaP. Bicalutamide served as an antagonist for both. We analyzed mRNA transcription and protein expression of NCOAs in these cells pretreated with dihydrotestosterone and thereafter treated with the mentioned antiandrogens. Transcriptional silencing of candidate NCOAs and AR was performed using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Cell proliferation was evaluated with MTT assay. LNCaP treated with bicalutamide showed an about four-fold increase in the expression of NCOA2 mRNA compared to those pretreated with dihydrotestosterone alone (P <0.01). In VCaP pretreated with dihydrotestosterone, transcriptions of NCOA2 and NCOA7 were slightly increased with bicalutamide (1.96- and 2.42-fold, respectively) and hydroxyflutamide (1.33-fold in both). With Western blotting, the expression of NCOA2 protein also increased in LNCaP cells treated with bicalutamide compared with that in control cells pretreated with dihydrotestosterone alone. Following silencing with siRNA for NCOA2, PSA levels in media with LNCaP receiving bicalutamide were elevated compared with those in non-silencing controls (101.6 ± 4.2 vs. 87.8 ± 1.4 ng/mL, respectively, P =0.0495). In LNCaP cells treated with dihydrotestosterone and bicalutamide, NCOA2-silencing was associated with a higher proliferation activity compared with non-silencing control and AR-silencing. NCOA2, which has been thought to be recruited

  5. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part III: Cyproterone acetate and vinclozolin as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, M; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Duft, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J

    2001-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this last of three publications, the responses of the fresh water snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (Nucella lapillus, Nassarius (Hinia) reticulatus) to the antiandrogenic model compounds cyproterone acetate (CPA) and vinclozolin (VZ) are presented. The snails were exposed to nominal CPA concentrations of 1.25 mg/L alone and simultaneously to a potent synthetic estrogen (ethinylestradiol), androgen (methyltestosterone) or an indirectly acting xeno-androgen (tributyltin) in experiments with adult specimens and in a life cycle test for 12 months. Marisa and Nucella were furthermore exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.03-1.0 microgram VZ/L for up to 5 months. The antiandrogens induced a number of biological responses in all three species. The length of the penis and of accessory male sex organs (e.g., penis sheath, prostate) were significantly reduced. For Marisa, this effect occurred only in sexually immature specimens and was reversible as the males attained puberty. Typical androgen-mediated responses (imposex development, delayed spermatogenesis, tubulus necrosis of the testis with orchitis and Leydig cell hyperplasia) were partially or totally suppressed by a simultaneous administration of CPA. In the two marine species even adult, sexually mature males responded to antiandrogens with a reduction of the male sex organs and an advancement of the sexual repose phase. The results for CPA and VZ are compared with the effects of an exposure to xeno-estrogens (bisphenol A, octylphenol) and xeno-androgens (triphenyltin, tributyltin) in the same species. Each group of endocrine disruptors induces a characteristic set of toxicological effects in prosobranch snails which can be used as endpoints in an organismic invertebrate test for the identification of endocrine mimetic test compounds. Estrogens cause

  6. Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, Burkard T.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Galassi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to detect the effects of anti-androgenic compounds on the reproduction. In this paper alterations observed in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to environmental concentrations of cyproterone acetate (CPA), linuron (LIN), vinclozolin (VIN), and 1,1-dichloro-2...

  7. Antiandrogenic effects in male rats perinatally exposed to a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarfelt, K.; Dalgaard, M.; Hass, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a well-known testicular toxicant inducing adverse effects in androgen responsive tissues. Therefore, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DERA) is currently being evaluated as a potential substitute for DEHP. Similarities in structure and metabolism of DERP and DEHA have...... in the reproductive system than males receiving DERP alone. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......) and retention of nipples in male offspring were found in all three exposed groups. Dosed males exhibited decreased weights of ventral prostate and m. levator ani/bulbocavernosus. Histopathological investigations revealed alterations in testis morphology in both juvenile and adult animals. The litter size...... was decreased and postnatal mortality was increased in the combination group only, which is likely a combined effect of DEHP and DEHA. However, no combination effect was seen with respect to antiandrogenic effects, as males receiving DEHP in combination with DEHA did not exhibit more pronounced effects...

  8. Cumulative and antagonistic effects of a mixture of the antiandrogens vinclozolin and iprodione in the pubertal male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Chad R; Lambright, Christy S; Cardon, Mary C; Furr, Johnathan; Rider, Cynthia V; Hartig, Phillip C; Wilson, Vickie S; Gray, Leon E

    2009-09-01

    Vinclozolin and iprodione are dicarboximide fungicides that display antiandrogenic effects in the male rat, which suggests that a mixture would lead to cumulative effects on androgen-sensitive end points. Iprodione is a steroid synthesis inhibitor, but androgen receptor antagonist activity, which is displayed by vinclozolin, has not been fully evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that iprodione binds to the human androgen receptor (IC(50) = 86.0 microM), reduces androgen-dependent gene expression, and reduces androgen-sensitive tissue weights in castrated male rats (Hershberger assay). Since vinclozolin and iprodione affect common targets in the pubertal male rat, we tested the hypothesis that a mixture would have cumulative antiandrogenic effects. An iprodione dose, that does not significantly affect androgen-dependent morphological end points, was combined with vinclozolin doses (2 x 5 factorial design). Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with vinclozolin at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 100 mg/kg/day with and without 50 mg iprodione/kg/day from postnatal day (PND) 23 to 55-57 (n = 8 per group). The age at puberty (preputial separation [PPS]), organ weights, serum hormones, and ex vivo testis steroid hormone production were measured. Vinclozolin delayed PPS, reduced androgen-sensitive organ weights, and increased serum testosterone. The addition of iprodione enhanced the vinclozolin inhibition of PPS (PND 47.5 vs.49.1; two-way ANOVA: iprodione main effect p = 0.0002). The dose response for several reproductive and nonreproductive organ weights was affected in a cumulative manner. In contrast, iprodione antagonized the vinclozolin-induced increase in serum testosterone. These results demonstrate that these fungicides interact on common targets in a tissue-specific manner when coadministered to the pubertal male rat.

  9. Effect of the anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on embryonic testis cord formation and postnatal testis development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Skinner, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is that transient embryonic exposure to an anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor at the time of testis determination alters testis development and subsequently influences adult spermatogenic capacity and male reproduction. The effects of vinclozolin on embryonic testicular cord formation in vitro were examined, as well as the effects of transient in utero vinclozolin exposure on postnatal testis development and function. Embryonic day 13 (E13, sperm-positive vaginal smear day = E0) gonads were cultured in the absence or presence of vinclozolin (50-500microM). Vinclozolin treated gonads had significantly fewer cords (P vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day) between embryonic days 8 and 14 (E8-E14) of development. Testis morphology and function were analyzed from postnatal day (P) 0, pubertal P20, and adult P60. No significant effect of vinclozolin on testis histology or germ cell viability was observed in P0 testis. The pubertal P20 testis from vinclozolin exposed animals had significantly higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells (P vinclozolin exposed males (P vinclozolin exposed animals was higher in adult P60 animals. Observations demonstrate that vinclozolin can effect embryonic testicular cord formation in vitro and that transient in utero exposure to vinclozolin increases apoptotic germ cell numbers in the testis of pubertal and adult animals. This correlated to reduced sperm motility in the adult. In conclusion, transient exposure to vinclozolin during the time of testis differentiation (i.e. cord formation) alters testis development and function. Observations indicate that transient exposure to an anti-androgenic endocrine disruptor during embryonic development causes delayed effects later in adult life

  10. Combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and principal component analysis to evaluate the lipid fluidity of flutamide-encapsulated lipid nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Ueyama, Keita; Konishi, Atsuko; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2018-06-06

    The lipid fluidity of various lipid nanoemulsions (LNEs) without and with flutamide (FT) and containing one of two neutral lipids, one of four phosphatidylcholines as a surfactant, and sodium palmitate as a cosurfactant was investigated by the combination of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). In the 1 H NMR spectra, the peaks from the methylene groups of the neutral lipids and surfactants for all LNE preparations showed downfield shifts with increasing temperature from 20 to 60 °C. PCA was applied to the 1 H NMR spectral data obtained for the LNEs. The PCA resulted in a model in which the first two principal components (PCs) extracted 88% of the total spectral variation; the first PC (PC-1) axis and second PC (PC-2) axis accounted for 73 and 15%, respectively, of the total spectral variation. The Score-1 values for PC-1 plotted against temperature revealed the existence of two clusters, which were defined by the neutral lipid of the LNE preparations. Meanwhile, the Score-2 values decreased with rising temperature and reflected the increase in lipid fluidity of each LNE preparation, consistent with fluorescence anisotropy measurements. In addition, the changes of Score-2 values with temperature for LNE preparations with FT were smaller than those for LNE preparations without FT. This indicates that FT encapsulated in LNE particles markedly suppressed the increase in lipid fluidity of LNE particles with rising temperature. Thus, PCA of 1 H NMR spectra will become a powerful tool to analyze the lipid fluidity of lipid nanoparticles. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. Anti-Androgenic Activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC and Tribulus terrestris L. and Their Beneficial Effects on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Palakkil Mavilavalappil; Bovee, Toine F H; Sreejith, Krishnan

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major hyperandrogenic disorder. Many drugs prescribed specifically to treat PCOS have side effects; however, previous studies suggest that natural therapeutics including botanicals may be less invasive and equally effective for the management of PCOS. In the present study, plants were screened for antiandrogenic activity using the RIKILT yeast Androgen bioAssay (RAA). Selected positive plants were subsequently tested for their efficacy against PCOS induced by estradiol valerate (EV) in rat models. RAA revealed the antiandrogenic property of Nardostachys jatamansi DC (NJ), Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), and Embelia tsjeriam-cottam DC (EJ), whereas Whithania somnifera Dunal (WS), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (SR), and Helicteres isora L. (HI) exhibited androgenic properties. EJ also exhibited mild androgenic activity and therefore was excluded from further study. EV administration reduced the weight gain and disrupted cyclicity in all rats. NJ and TT extract treatment normalized estrous cyclicity and steroidal hormonal levels and regularized ovarian follicular growth. The in vitro antiandrogenic activity of plant extracts and their positive effects on different parameters of PCOS were proved in vivo.

  12. Anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin on the amino- and carboxyl-terminal interaction of the androgen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-xia; Li, Yan-fang; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Jin-peng; Wang, Hong-mei; Li, Jing; Xu, Li-chun

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Both the known AR antagonist nilutamide and the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction in the mammalian two-hybrid assay. However, cypermethrin was a weaker androgen antagonist than nilutamide. Highlights: ► We have developed the mammalian two-hybrid assay. ► The assay displayed appropriate response to DHT and nilutamide. ► The N/C interaction was induced by DHT in a dose-dependent manner. ► Nilutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. ► Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. -- Abstract: The pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin has been demonstrated to be an environmental anti-androgen in the androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene assay. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction is required for transcription potential of the AR. In order to characterize the anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin involved in the N/C interaction of AR, the mammalian two-hybrid assay has been developed in the study. The fusion vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-ARLBD and the pG5CAT Reporter Vector were cotransfected into the CV-1 cells. The assay displayed appropriate response to the potent, classical AR agonist 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and known AR antagonist nilutamide. The N/C interaction was induced by DHT from 10 −11 M to 10 −5 M in a dose-dependent manner. Nilutamide did not activate N/C interaction, while inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction at the concentrations from 10 −7 M to 10 −5 M. Treatment of CV-1 cells with cypermethrin alone did not activate the reporter CAT. Cypermethrin significantly decreased the DHT-induced reporter CAT expression at the higher concentration of 10 −5 M. The mammalian two-hybrid assay provides a promising tool both for defining mechanism involved in AR N/C interaction of EDCs and for screening of chemicals with androgen agonistic and antagonistic activities. Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on the DHT-induced AR N

  13. In vivo and in vitro anti-androgenic effects of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, T.E.; Cooper, R.L.; Lambright, C.S.; Wilson, V.S.; Furr, J.; Gray, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    PBDEs have been synthesized in large quantities as flame retardants for commercial products, such as electronic equipment and textiles. The rising in levels of PBDEs in tissues in wildlife species and in human milk and plasma samples over the past several years have raised concerns about possible health effects. Recently, we showed that the PBDE mixture, DE-71, delayed puberty and suppressed the growth of androgen-dependent tissues in male Wistar rat following a peri-pubertal exposure. These effects suggested that DE-71 may be either inducing steroid hormone metabolism or acting as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. To elucidate the potential anti-androgenic effects of this mixture, we evaluated DE-71 in several in vivo assays, which are responsive to alterations in androgen activity. In a pubertal exposure study designed to further evaluate the delay in preputial separation (PPS), we observed a dose-dependent delay in PPS with 60 and 120 mg/kg/day of DE-71 (4 and 5 days) and a corresponding suppression of ventral prostate (VP) and seminal vesicle growth at both doses. Adult males exposed to 60 mg/kg DE-71 for 3 days resulted in a significant increase in luteinizing hormone and a non-significant increase in testosterone, androstenedione and estrone. DE-71 also tested positive for anti-androgenic activity in an immature rat Hershberger assay, with decreases in mean VP and seminal vesicle weight following doses of 30-240 mg/kg. DE-71 and the individual BDE congeners which comprise the mixture (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154) were also evaluated in vitro. First, AR binding was evaluated in a competitive binding assay using rat VP cytosol. In addition, we evaluated gene activation in a transcriptional activation assay using the MDA-kb2 cell line which contains an endogenous human AR and a transfected luciferase reporter. DE-71 and BDE-100 (2, 4, 6-pentaBDE) both inhibited AR binding, with IC50s of approximately 5 μM. In addition, DE-71 and two of the congeners (BDE

  14. The effects of the environmental antiandrogen vinclozolin on the induction of granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knet, Malgorzata; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Slomczynska, Maria; Duda, Malgorzata

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin (Vnz) exert proapoptotic effects on porcine granulosa cells (GCs), and to examine the roles of these compounds in follicular atresia. Granulosa cells isolated from pig follicles were cultured for 24 hours, and then exposed to 0.1 μM testosterone, 0.1 μM DHT, 14 μM Vnz, or the equivalent concentrations of testosterone and Vnz or DHT and Vnz for a further 24 hours. Apoptosis and necrosis of the GCs were determined via Hoechst staining and flow cytometry analyses of annexin V-stained cells. Whole porcine follicles were also exposed to the same compounds and combinations of compounds for 24 hours. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for morphologic assessments, and a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotyn-dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to determine the number of apoptotic cells. The progesterone and estradiol concentrations secreted into the culture media by isolated GCs and follicles were also measured. Exposure to the androgens resulted in an increased number of apoptotic GCs both in vitro and in the organotypic model. Vinclozolin exposure increased and decreased the number of necrotic and apoptotic GCs, respectively. Furthermore, compared with control follicles, those exposed to testosterone, DHT, or Vnz displayed enhanced atresia, and coadministration of Vnz attenuated the promotive effect of these androgens on atresia. Estradiol secretion was stimulated by the combination of testosterone and Vnz, whereas exposure to Vnz alone reduced it. Progesterone production declined after the combined addition of androgens and the antiandrogen. In summary, Vnz caused massive necrosis of GCs in vitro and induced apoptosis of GCs in whole follicles. The androgens testosterone and DHT enhanced these effects. The results presented here suggest that selective destruction of porcine

  15. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...... of antiandrogen (flutamide, Anandron, or cyproterone acetate) added to castration. This paper reviews the different types of heterogeneity that might exist among trials that are involved in the overview: study design, randomization procedure, treatment evaluation, statistical evaluation, and data maturity....... In order to overcome these various types of heterogeneity and to compare like with like, the treatment comparison should be stratified a posteriori by question (i.e., type of castration or type of anti-androgen studied) and by study. In this way, one may draw valid conclusions. Of course, those trials...

  16. Differential gene expression patterns in developing sexually dimorphic rat brain regions exposed to antiandrogenic, estrogenic, or complex endocrine disruptor mixtures: glutamatergic synapses as target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Georgijevic, Jelena Kühn; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Schlumpf, Margret

    2015-04-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E-Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestation day 7 until weaning. General developmental endpoints were not affected by EDC mixtures or paracetamol. Gene expression was analyzed on postnatal day 6, during sexual brain differentiation, by exon microarray in medial preoptic area in the high-dose group, and by real-time RT-PCR in medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact on genes encoding for components of excitatory glutamatergic synapses and genes controlling migration and pathfinding of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, as well as genes linked with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Because development of glutamatergic synapses is regulated by sex steroids also in hippocampus, this may represent a general target of ECD mixtures.

  17. Dysgenesis and histological changes of genitals and perturbations of gene expression in male rats after in utero exposure to antiandrogen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Dalgaard, Majken; Christiansen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    of the individual chemicals. Chemicals were administered orally to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 16. Changes in reproductive organ weights and of androgen-regulated gene expression in prostates from male rat pups were chosen as end points for extensive dose-response studies. With all...... own did not produce significant reductions in the weights of seminal vesicles and PBP C3 expression induced a marked mixture effect. Thus, antiandrogens cause additive effects on end points of various molecular complexities such as alterations at the morphological and the molecular level. Exposure...

  18. Metabolite profiles of striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole are consistent with altered steroidogenesis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L; Carroll, Anthony R

    2018-06-01

    Amphibians use wetlands in urban and agricultural landscapes for breeding, growth and development. Fungicides and other pesticides used in these areas have therefore been identified as potential threats that could contribute towards amphibian population declines. However, relatively little is known about how such chemicals influence sensitive early life-stages or how short episodic exposures influence sub-lethal physiological and metabolic pathways. The present study applied untargeted metabolomics to evaluate effects in early post-hatch amphibian larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole. Recently hatched (Gosner developmental stage 25) striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) larvae were exposed for 96 h to vinclozolin at 17.5, 174.8 and 1748.6 nM and propiconazole at 5.8, 58.4 and 584.4 nM. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was performed on polar metabolites obtained from whole-body extracts. Both fungicides altered metabolite profiles compared to control animals at all concentrations tested, and there were notable differences between the two chemicals. Overall responses were consistent with altered steroidogenesis and/or cholesterol metabolism, with inconsistent responses between the two fungicides likely reflecting minor differences in the mechanisms of action of these chemicals. Broad down-regulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was also observed and is indicative of oxidative stress. Interestingly, formic acid was significantly increased in larvae exposed to vinclozolin but not propiconazole, suggesting this metabolite may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure to androgen-receptor binding anti-androgenic contaminants. This study demonstrates the power of untargeted metabolomics for distinguishing between similarly acting, but distinct, pollutants and for unraveling non-endocrine responses resulting from exposure to known endocrine active contaminants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Comparing the Effects of Oral Contraceptives Containing Levonorgestrel With Products Containing Antiandrogenic Progestins on Clinical, Hormonal, and Metabolic Parameters and Quality of Life in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mina; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Khalili, Davood; Bidhendi-Yarandi, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptives (OCs) have been used as a first-line option for medical treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite theoretical superiority of products containing antiandrogenic progestins compared to OCs containing levonorgestrel (LNG), the clinical advantage of these compounds remains unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of OCs containing LNG with products containing antiandrogenic progestins including cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, and desogestrel on clinical, hormonal, and metabolic parameters and quality of life in women with PCOS. Methods We conducted a 6-arm crossover randomized controlled trial with each arm including OCs containing LNG and one of those 3 OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins. The anthropometric and clinical manifestations and hormonal and biochemical parameters of participants were assessed at 6 time points including baseline, after washout period, and 3 and 6 months after intervention. Results The study is ongoing and follow-up of recruited women will continue until 2018. Conclusions This study will provide scientific evidence on comparability of OCs with the various progesterones that will assist in decision making taking into account cost effectiveness. Trial Registration Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT201702071281N2; http://www.irct.ir/searchresult.php? keyword=&id=1281&number=2&prt=12869&total=10&m=1 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6tSP8FNWo) PMID:28963092

  20. Treatment strategy for metastatic prostate cancer with extremely high PSA level: reconsidering the value of vintage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Amiya, Yoshiyasu; Sasaki, Makoto; Shima, Takayuki; Komiya, Akira; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Akakura, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Nakatsu, Hiroomi

    2018-05-04

    The prognostic significance of initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level for metastatic prostate cancer remains uncertain. We investigated the differences in prognosis and response to hormonal therapies of metastatic prostate cancer patients according to initial PSA levels. We analyzed 184 patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer and divided them into three PSA level groups as follows: low (PSA progression-free survival (PFS) for first-line ADT and overall survival (OS) within each of the three groups. Furthermore, we analyzed response to antiandrogen withdrawal (AW) and alternative antiandrogen (AA) therapies after development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). No significant differences in OS were observed among the three groups (P = 0.654). Patients with high PSA levels had significantly short PFS for first-line ADT (P = 0.037). Conversely, patients in the high PSA level group had significantly longer PFS when treated with AW than those in the low PSA level group (P = 0.047). Furthermore, patients with high PSA levels had significantly longer PFS when provided with AA therapy (P = 0.049). PSA responders to AW and AA therapies had significantly longer survival after CRPC development than nonresponders (P = 0.011 and P PSA level predicted favorable response to vintage sequential ADT and AW. The current data suggest a novel aspect of extremely high PSA value as a favorable prognostic marker after development of CRPC.

  1. Bilateral Mastectomy as Radical Treatment of Gynecomastia Secondary to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Low-Income Setting: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Mario; Schiavone, Marcella; Pizzol, Damiano; Di Gennaro, Francesco; Ludovico, Rossana; De Palma, Angela

    2018-05-11

    Gynecomastia is a common finding in males, with an incidence that varies widely globally. In 10-25% of cases, it is caused by drugs. Its pathophysiologic mechanism includes exposure to exogenous estrogens and medications that cause hypogonadism, antiandrogenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. Gynecomastia is associated with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly efavirenz. Sometimes surgery may be required as treatment. We report a case of a 46-year-old man receiving ART presenting with a marked bilateral breast enlargement who underwent bilateral mastectomy as the only successful treatment in a low-income setting.

  2. Androgen deprivation therapy and fracture risk in Chinese patients with prostate carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ho Lee

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT increases fracture risk in men with carcinoma of the prostate, but little is known about the fracture risk for different types of ADT. We studied the fracture risk amongst Chinese patients with carcinoma of the prostate prescribed different ADT regimens.This was a single-centered observational study that involved 741 patients with carcinoma of the prostate from January 2001 to December 2011.After a median follow-up of 5 years, 71.7% of the study cohort received ADT and the incidence rate of fracture was 8.1%. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that use of ADT was significantly associated with risk of incident fracture (Hazard Ratio [HR] 3.60; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.41-9.23; p = 0.008, together with aged >75 years and type 2 diabetes. Compared with no ADT, all three types of ADT were independently associated with the risk of incident fracture: anti-androgen monotherapy (HR 4.47; 95% CI 1.47-13.7; p = 0.009, bilateral orchiectomy ± anti-androgens (HR 4.01; 95% CI 1.46-11.1; p = 0.007 and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists ± anti-androgens (HR 3.16; 95% CI 1.18-8.43; p = 0.022. However, there was no significant difference in the relative risks among the three types of ADT.Fracture risk increases among all types of ADT. Clinicians should take into account the risk-benefit ratio when prescribing ADT, especially in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  4. Man is not a big rat: concerns with traditional human risk assessment of phthalates based on their anti-androgenic effects observed in the rat foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates provide one of the most documented example evidencing how much we must be cautious when using the traditional paradigm based on extrapolation of experimental data from rodent studies for human health risk assessment of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Since foetal testis is known as one of the most sensitive targets of EDs, phthalate risk assessment is routinely based on the capacity of such compounds to decrease testosterone production by the testis or to impair masculinization in the rat during foetal life. In this paper, the well-established inhibiting effects of phthalates of the foetal Leydig cells function in the rat are briefly reviewed. Then, data obtained in humans and other species are carefully analysed. Already in January 2009, using the organotypic culture system named Fetal Testis Assay (FeTA) that we developed, we reported that phthalates might not affect testosterone production in human foetal testes. Several recent experimental studies using xenografts confirm the absence of detectable anti-androgenic effect of phthalates in the human foetal testes. Epidemiological studies led to contradictory results. Altogether, these findings suggest that phthalates effects on foetal Leydig cells are largely species-specific. Consequently, the phthalate threshold doses that disturb foetal steroidogenesis in rat testes and that are presently used to define the acceptable daily intake levels for human health protection must be questioned. This does not mean that phthalates are safe because these compounds have many deleterious effects upon germ cell development that may be common to the different studied species including human. More generally, the identification of common molecular, cellular or/and phenotypic targets in rat and human testes should precede the choice of the toxicological endpoint in rat to accurately assess the safety threshold of any ED in humans.

  5. Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Burkard T; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Galassi, Silvana; Gnass, Katarina; Kusk, Kresten O; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Wollenberger, Leah

    2016-11-09

    The study was performed to detect the effects of anti-androgenic compounds on the reproduction. In this paper alterations observed in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to environmental concentrations of cyproterone acetate (CPA), linuron (LIN), vinclozolin (VIN), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) for 21 days covering a full life cycle are described. Histological alterations were studied with a focus on reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands. Exposure to ≥1.2 µg L(-1) CPA caused degeneration of spermatocytes and deformation of the spermatophore in males. In a single male exposed to 33 µg L(-1) CPA, an ovotestis was observed. In CPA exposed females, enhancement of oogenesis, increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation occurred. Exposure of males to ≥12 µg L(-1) LIN caused degenerative effects in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, and at 4.7 µg L(-1) LIN, the spermatophore wall displayed an irregular formation. In LIN exposed females, no such structural alterations were found; however, the proliferation index was reduced at 29 µg L(-1) LIN. At an exposure concentration of ≥100 µg L(-1) VIN, distinct areas in male gonad were stimulated, whereas others displayed a disturbed spermatogenesis and a deformed spermatophore wall. In VIN exposed female A. tonsa, no effects were observed. Male A. tonsa exposed to p,p'-DDE displayed an impairment of spermatogenesis in all stages with increased degrees of apoptosis. In p,p'-DDE-exposed females, a statistical significant increase of the proliferation index and an intensification of oogenesis were observed at 0.0088 µg L(-1).

  6. Perinatal Exposure to Low Levels of the Environmental Antiandrogen Vinclozolin Alters Sex-Differentiated Social Play and Sexual Behaviors in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Nathan K.W.; Pelletier, Nicole C.; Cote, Joyce M.; Concannon, John B.; Jurdak, Nicole A.; Minott, Sara B.; Markowski, Vincent P.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of exposure to the antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin (Vz) on the development of two sex-differentiated behaviors that are organized by the perinatal actions of androgens. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered a daily oral dose of 0, 1.5, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg Vz from the 14th day of gestation through postnatal day (PND)3. The social play behavior of juvenile offspring was examined on PND22 and again on PND34 during play sessions with a same-sex littermate. After they reached adulthood, the male offspring were examined with the ex copula penile reflex procedure to assess erectile function. Vz did not produce any gross maternal or neonatal toxicity, nor did it reduce the anogenital distance in male pups. We observed no effects of Vz on play behavior on PND22. However, the 12-mg/kg Vz dose significantly increased play behavior in the male offspring on PND34 compared with controls. The most dramatic increases were seen with the nape contact and pounce behavior components of play. The Vz effect was more pronounced in male than in female offspring. As adults, male offspring showed a significant reduction of erections at all dose levels during the ex copula penile reflex tests. The 12-mg/kg dose was also associated with an increase in seminal emissions. These effects demonstrate that perinatal Vz disrupts the development of androgen-mediated behavioral functions at exposure levels that do not produce obvious structural changes or weight reductions in androgen-sensitive reproductive organs. PMID:15929892

  7. Effects of antiandrogenic progestins, chlormadinone and cyproterone acetate, and the estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and their mixtures: Transactivation with human and rainbowfish hormone receptors and transcriptional effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegenthaler, Patricia Franziska [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Bain, Peter [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Land and Water Flagship, PMB2, Glen Osmond, 5064 South Australia (Australia); Riva, Francesco [IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Environmental Biomarkers Unit, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, I-20156 Milan (Italy); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Department of Environmental System Sciences, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Agonistic and antagonistic activity of CMA and CPA were assessed in vitro. • CMA and CPA showed different interaction with human and fish receptors. • No progestogenic but antiandrogenic and antiglucocorticoid activity occurred in fish. • CMA and CPA showed transcriptional changes in zebrafish embryos. • Binary mixtures of the progestins with EE2 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Synthetic progestins act as endocrine disrupters in fish but their risk to the environment is not sufficiently known. Here, we focused on an unexplored antiandrogenic progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), and the antiandrogenic progestin cyproterone acetate (CPA). The aim was to evaluate whether their in vitro interaction with human and rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) sex hormone receptors is similar. Furthermore, we investigated their activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos. First, we studied agonistic and antagonistic activities of CMA, CPA, and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in recombinant yeast expressing either the human progesterone (PGR), androgen (AR), or estrogen receptor. The same compounds were also investigated in vitro in a stable transfection cell system expressing rainbowfish nuclear steroid receptors. For human receptors, both progestins exhibited progestogenic, androgenic and antiestrogenic activity with no antiandrogenic or estrogenic activity. In contrast, interactions with rainbowfish receptors showed no progestogenic, but antiandrogenic, antiglucocorticoid, and some antiestrogenic activity. Thus, interaction with and transactivation of human and rainbowfish PGR and AR were distinctly different. Second, we analyzed transcriptional alterations in zebrafish eleuthero‐embryos at 96 and 144 h post fertilization after exposure to CPA, CMA, EE2, and binary mixtures of CMA and CPA with EE2, mimicking the use in oral contraceptives. CMA led to slight down-regulation of the ar transcript, while CPA down-regulated ar

  8. Monitoring of dioxin-like, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in sediments of the Bizerta lagoon (Tunisia) by means of in vitro cell-based bioassays: contribution of low concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louiz, I; Kinani, S; Gouze, M-E; Ben-Attia, M; Menif, D; Bouchonnet, S; Porcher, J M; Ben-Hassine, O K; Aït-Aïssa, S

    2008-09-01

    We used an array of in vitro cell-based bioassays to assess dioxin-like, estrogenic and (anti-)androgenic activities in organic extracts of sediments from the Bizerta lagoon, one of the largest Tunisian lagoons subjected to various anthropogenic and industrial pressures. The sediments were sampled both in winter and summer 2006 in 6 stations differently impacted and in one reference station located in the seawards entrance of Ghar el Melh lagoon. Chemical analyses of the 16 priority PAHs showed that the sediments were low to moderately contaminated (2-537 ng/g dry weight). By using the estrogen- (MELN) and androgen-responsive (MDA-kb2) reporter cell lines, significant estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were detected only in the Menzel Bourguiba (MB) site, the most contaminated site, both in winter and summer. By using 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in the fish PLHC-1 cell line after both 4 and 24 h of cell exposure, dioxin-like activities were detected in all analysed samples. Dioxin-like activities were higher after 4 h exposure, and varied according to the sites and the sampling season. While highly significant correlation was observed between bioassay- and chemical analyses-derived toxic equivalents (TEQs), PAHs accounted for only a small part (up to 4%) of the detected biological activities, suggesting that other readily metabolised EROD-inducing compounds were present. This study argues for the use of short time exposure to assess biological TEQs in low contaminated samples and provides new induction equivalent factors (IEF(4h)) for 16 PAHs in the PLHC-1 cell line. Finally, our results stress the need to further characterise the nature of organic chemical contamination as well as its long-term impacts on aquatic wildlife in the Bizerta lagoon.

  9. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  10. Phase I/II trial evaluating combined radiotherapy and in situ gene therapy with or without hormonal therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer--A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Bin S.; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Kernen, Kenneth; Chou, C.-C.; Shalev, Moshe; Vlachaki, Maria T.; Miles, Brian; Kadmon, Dov; Mai, W.-Y.; Caillouet, James; Davis, Maria; Ayala, Gustavo; Wheeler, Thomas; Brady, Jett; Carpenter, L. Steve; Lu, Hsin H.; Chiu, J. Kam; Woo, Shiao Y.; Thompson, Timothy; Butler, E. Brian

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To report the preliminary results of a Phase I/II study combining radiotherapy and in situ gene therapy (adenovirus/herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene/valacyclovir) with or without hormonal therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Arm A: low-risk patients (T1-T2a, Gleason score <7, pretreatment PSA <10) were treated with combined radio-gene therapy. A mean dose of 76 Gy was delivered to the prostate with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Arm B: high-risk patients (T2b-T3, Gleason score ≥7, pretreatment PSA ≥10) were treated with combined radio-gene therapy and hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy was comprised of a 4-month leuprolide injection and 2-week use of flutamide. Arm C: Stage D1 (positive pelvic lymph node) patients received the same regimen as Arm B, with the additional 45 Gy to the pelvic lymphatics. Treatment-related toxicity was assessed using Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program common toxicity score and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity score. Results: Thirty patients (13 in Arm A, 14 in Arm B, and 3 in Arm C) completed the trial. Median follow-up was 5.5 months. Eleven patients (37%) developed flu-like symptoms (Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Grade 1) of fatigue and chills/rigors after gene therapy injection but recovered within 24 h. Four patients (13%) and 2 patients (7%) developed Grade 1 and 2 fever, respectively. There was no patient with weight loss. One patient in Arm B developed Grade 3 elevation in liver enzyme, whereas 11 and 2 patients developed Grade 1 and 2 abnormal liver function tests. There was no Grade 2 or above hematologic toxicity. Three patients had transient rise in creatinine. There was no RTOG Grade 3 or above lower gastrointestinal toxicity. Toxicity levels were as follows: 4 patients (13%), Grade 2; 6 patients (20%), Grade 1; and 20 patients (67%), no toxicity. There was 1 patient with RTOG Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity, 12 patients (40%) with Grade 2, 8 patients

  11. Orchidectomy and oestrogen therapy revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1998-01-01

    with gynaecomastia, loss of sexual function and unacceptable cardiovascular toxicity. Low dose oestrogens in combination with antiandrogens or antithrombotic agents may be better tolerated treatments. The route of administration is a crucial factor in the genesis of cardiovascular toxicity and parenterally...

  12. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  13. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  14. Current status of first-line therapy for elderly patients with proatate cancer in Kyushu and Okinawa areas. A questionnaire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Kenryu; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Koga, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    A survey based on a questionnaire to urologists in Kyushu and Okinawa areas was carried out to assess the current status of first-line therapy for elderly patients with prostate cancer. Ninety-three urologists from 93 institutes answered the questionnaire. Endocrine therapy is widely performed as first-line therapy for elderly patients with prostate cancer. They mostly receive immediate-continuous therapy regardless of their clinical factors. Only 8 (9%) and 7 (8%) institutes have the options of deferred and intermittent therapy, respectively. LH-RH analogue and non-steroidal anti-androgens are commonly used. Chemoendocrine therapy is performed in 33 (35%) institutes for selected patients. Estramustine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) derivatives are commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents. Sixty (65%) institutes do not have this modality as a treatment option. Risks arising from the treatment and quality of life (QOL) disturbance are the main reasons for this. Radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are performed in 53 (57%) and 47 (51%) institutes, respectively, for selected patients with loco-regional disease. However, 22 (24%) institutes do not have these definitive therapies as treatment options. QOL and risks arising from the treatments are the main factors for selecting definitive or non-definitive therapy. In elderly patients with prostate cancer, cancer control is not always the goal of treatment. QOL within a relatively shorter life expectancy is an important factor for decision making in the management of these patients. (authors)

  15. The survival analysis on localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong; Li Gaofeng; Wu Qinhong; Li Xuenan; Zhong Qiuzi; Xu Yonggang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively investigate clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Between March 2003 and October 2008, 54 localized prostate cancer treated by IMRT were recruited. All patients had received endocrine therapy before IMRT. The endocrine therapy included surgical castration or medical castration in combination with antiandrogens. The target of IMRT was the prostate and seminal vesicles with or without pelvis. The biochemical failure was defined according to the phoenix definition. By using the risk grouping standard proposed by D'Amico, patients were divided into three groups: low-risk group (n = 5), intermediate-risk group (n = 12), and high-risk group (n = 37). Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the overall survival rate. Prognostic factors were analyzed by univariate and multiple Cox regression analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 98%. The number of patients under follow-up was 39 at 3 years and 25 at 5 years. Potential prognostic factors, including risk groups, mode of endocrine therapy, time of endocrine therapy, phoenix grouping before IMRT, the prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) before radiotherapy, PSA value before IMRT, interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT, irradiation region, and irradiation dose were analyzed by survival analysis. In univariate analysis, time of endocrine therapy (75 % vs 95 %, χ 2 = 6. 45, P = 0. 011), phoenix grouping before IMRT (87% vs 96%, χ 2 = 4. 36, P = 0. 037), interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT (80% vs 95%, χ 2 = 11.60, P= 0. 001), irradiation dose (75% vs 91%, χ 2 =5.92, P= 0. 015) were statistically significant prognostic factors for 3 - year overall survival , and risk groups (85 vs 53 vs 29, χ 2 = 6. 40, P =0. 041) and PSADT before IMRT (62 vs 120, U =24. 50, P =0. 003) were significant factors for the median survival time. In the multiple Cox

  16. Gynecomastia due to hormone therapy for advanced prostate cancer: a report of ten surgically treated cases and a review of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Piccirillo, Giuseppe; Galasso, Raffaele; Altieri, Vincenzo; Mirone, Vincenzo; Lotti, Tullio

    2004-01-01

    Gynecomastia is an abnormal increase in the volume of the male breast that is generally considered to be due to an increased estrogen/androgen ratio. Pathological causes of gynecomastia include organic diseases and therapy, such as the administration of estrogens and antiandrogens, which alter the ratio of circulating hormones. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer is generally well tolerated but often accompanied by the occurrence of gynecomastia and breast pain or tenderness. The increased use of antiandrogens as monotherapy is leading to an increase in the number of patients affected by gynecomastia. Treatments are available to alleviate or prevent the development of gynecomastia, including medical treatment with antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Alternatively, mastectomy with excision of the gland, liposuction or an association of the two techniques have proved to be effective. Radiation therapy may provide effective relief from the breast pain associated with gynecomastia. In this paper we show the good results of mastectomy performed with a lower semicircular periareolar incision in men suffering from gynecomastia due to antiandrogen therapy for inoperable prostate cancer. In addition, we present a review of the various techniques used for the treatment of gynecomastia. During the period from September 1998 to May 2001, 10 patients receiving hormone treatment for metastatic or inoperable prostatic cancer were selected for the study if they had breast pain and bilateral gynecomastia. Five of these patients had been offered prophylactic radiotherapy before treatment but refused, while the remaining five patients had refused radiotherapy after hormone treatment. These patients were therefore given the option of surgical treatment. Before surgery all patients underwent clinical and ultrasound examination of the breast. All surgical samples were examined histopathologically. During follow-up clinical examinations were carried out one week, one month, six

  17. Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Toni; Malmo, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Traces roots of feminist therapy and its independence from traditional and prevalent theories and therapy practices. Asserts that Freudian theory and humanistic assumptions are sexist and contribute to powerlessness of women. In contrast, feminist therapy is seen as dealing directly with client-counselor relationships, trust, advocacy, and…

  18. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  19. Comparing the Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives Containing Progestins With Low Androgenic and Antiandrogenic Activities on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mina; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kabir, Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2018-04-25

    Different products of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can improve clinical and biochemical findings in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) through suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effects of COCs containing progestins with low androgenic and antiandrogenic activities on the HPG axis in patients with PCOS. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases (1980-2017) to identify randomized controlled trials or nonrandomized studies investigating the effect of COCs containing progestins with low androgenic and antiandrogenic activities, including the products containing desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, and drospirenone, on the HPG axis in patients with PCOS. In this meta-analysis, fixed and random effect models were used. Outcomes of interest were weighted mean differences (WMD) of hormonal parameters, including the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH-to-FSH ratio, estradiol, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. Potential sources of heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the used progestin compound and treatment duration. We assessed quality of included studies and their risk of bias using Cochrane guidelines. Publication bias was assessed using Egger test and funnel plot. COC use was significantly associated with a decrease in gonadotropin levels, including FSH and LH. Use of products containing cyproterone acetate was associated with a decrease in FSH levels after 3 months (WMD=-0.48; 95% CI -0.81 to -0.15), 6 months (WMD=-2.33; 95% CI -3.48 to -1.18), and 12 months (WMD=-4.70; 95% CI -4.98 to -4.42) and a decrease in LH levels after 3 months (WMD=-3.57; 95% CI -5.14 to -1.99), 6 months (WMD=-5.68; 95% CI -9.57 to -1.80), and 12 months (WMD=-11.60; 95% CI -17.60 to -5.60). Use of COCs containing

  20. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  1. Intermittent hormonal therapy in the treatment of post-irradiation residual/recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Aaron O; Kocherill, Paul G; Wallace, Michelle; Forman, Jeffrey D

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of intermittent hormonal therapy in the treatment of residual/recurrent prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with biochemical evidence of residual/recurrent prostate cancer were initially treated with radiation therapy (RT)(13), neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy and RT (3), or RT following prostatectomy (1). The mean follow-up time was 19.4 months from the initiation of hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy consisted of an LH-RH agonist alone (7), an anti-androgen alone (1) or a combination of both (9). Hormonal therapy was continued until the prostatic specific antigen (PSA) level became undetectable. IHT was reinstituted when the PSA reached a pre-determined level, usually greater than or equal to 10ng/ml. Results: The mean time from completion of primary treatment to the initiation of hormonal therapy was 32.5 months. The mean PSA at the start of the first cycle of hormonal therapy was 43.9ng/ml, the second cycle, 11.9ng/ml and the third cycle, 24ng/ml. The mean PSA levels at the end of the first and second cycle of hormonal therapy were .48 and .42ng/ml, respectively. No patient has yet completed the third cycle of hormonal therapy. The average duration of hormonal therapy was 10 months for the first cycle and 4 months for the second cycle. The mean intermittent time off hormones were 9.3 months between cycles 1 and 2, and 10 months between cycles 2 and 3. No patient has yet become refractory to hormonal therapy. Currently all patients are alive. All patients experienced hot flashes and decreased libido at varying degrees during treatment. Thirty-five percent experienced gynecomastia. During the intervals between hormonal therapy, most patients reported a decrease in hot flashes. Conclusion: This analysis supplies preliminary evidence that intermittent hormonal therapy is a viable option in patients with biochemical evidence of disease following initial therapy. It is associated with less treatment

  2. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alfred R

    2006-01-01

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  3. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) ± 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out

  4. Risk of fracture in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy: a population-based cohort study in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Alice; Obertová, Zuzana; Brown, Charis; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Bishop, Karen; Ferguson, Lynnette; Lawrenson, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) administered as a prostate cancer treatment is known to exert multiple side effects including bone deterioration leading to bone fracture. The current analysis is to evaluate the burden of fracture risk in the New Zealand prostate cancer (PCa) population treated with ADT, and to understand the subsequent risk of mortality after a fracture. Using datasets created through linking records from the New Zealand Cancer Registry, National Minimal Dataset, Pharmaceutical Collection and Mortality Collection, we studied 25,544 men (aged ≥40 years) diagnosed with PCa between 2004 and 2012. ADT was categorised into the following groups: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, anti-androgens, combined androgen blockade (GnRH agonists plus anti-androgens), bilateral orchiectomy, and bilateral orchiectomy plus pharmacologic ADT (anti-androgens and/or GnRH agonists). Among patients receiving ADT, 10.8 % had a fracture compared to 3.2 % of those not receiving ADT (p < 0.0001). After controlling for age and ethnicity, the use of ADT was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture (OR = 2.83; 95 % CI 2.52–3.17) and of hip fracture requiring hospitalisation (OR = 1.82; 95 % CI 1.44–2.30). Those who received combined androgen blockade (OR = 3.48; 95 % CI 3.07–3.96) and bilateral orchiectomy with pharmacologic ADT (OR = 4.32; 95 % CI 3.34–5.58) had the greatest risk of fracture. The fracture risk following different types of ADT was confounded by pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression (SCC). ADT recipients with fractures had a 1.83-fold (95 % CI 1.68–1.99) higher mortality risk than those without a fracture. However, after the exclusion of pathologic fractures and SCC, there was no increased risk of mortality. ADT was significantly associated with an increased risk of any fracture and hip fracture requiring hospitalisation. The excess risk was partly driven by pathologic fractures and SCC which are

  5. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  6. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  7. Manual Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakgüder, Aral; Kokino, Siranuş

    2002-01-01

    Manual therapy has been used in the treatment of pain and dysfunction of spinal and peripheral joints for more than a hundred years. Manual medicine includes manipulation, mobilization, and postisometric relaxation techniques. The aim of manual therapy is to enhance restricted movement caused by blockage of joints keeping postural balance, restore function and maintain optimal body mechanics. Anatomic, biomechanical, and neurophysiological evaluations of the leucomotor system is essential for...

  8. Adaptive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy

    2009-06-01

    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  9. Drug Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ri-Hui; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first summarizes the therapy of addiction disorder, and elaborates on the progress of medication. First, the difference between dependency and addiction are introduced. The basic principles of the therapy of substance and non-substance addiction are then put forward. It is also pointed out in this chapter that with the progress of the study, the goal of addiction disorder therapy is expected to transfer from reducing the relapse and harm of the addiction to completely eliminating and recovering from it. This chapter also introduces the progress of psychological addiction elimination technology, especially the "Unconditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm and Conditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm" and PITDH technology. Finally it is pointed out that in addiction disorder therapy, comprehensive intervention has become a trend. With regard to the medication for addiction disorders, this chapter also includes the progress and deficiencies of substance and non-substance addiction. In terms of addiction disorder rehabilitation, the foundation of substance addiction is medication which is, however, limited for non-substance addiction. The key to the rehabilitation of addiction disorder is psycho-behavioral therapy, which is especially effective in eliminating craving.

  10. Neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesler, Rudi

    1995-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy uses Xrays or electrons which have low LET (linear energy transfer); in contrast, particles such as neutrons with high LET have different radiobiological responses. In the late 1960s, clinical trials by Mary Catterall at the Hammersmith Hospital in London indicated that fast neutron radiation had clinical advantages for certain malignant tumours. Following these early clinical trials, several cyclotron facilities were built in the 1980s for fast neutron therapy, for example at the University of Washington, Seattle, and at UCLA. Most of these newer machines use extracted cyclotron proton beams in the range 42 to 66 MeV with beam intensities of 15 to 60 microamps. The proton beams are transported to dedicated therapy rooms, where neutrons are produced from beryllium targets. Second-generation clinical trials showed that accurate neutron beam delivery to the tumour site is more critical than for photon therapy. In order to achieve precise beam geometries, the extracted proton beams have to be transported through a gantry which can rotate around the patient and deliver beams from any angle; also the neutron beam outline (''field shape'') must be adjusted to extremely irregular shapes using a flexible collimation system. A therapy procedure has to be appropriately organized, with physicians, radiotherapists, nurses, medical physicists and other staff in attendance; other specialized equipment, such as CT or MRI scanners and radiation simulators must be made available. Neutron therapy is usually performed only in radiation oncology departments of major medical centres

  11. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  12. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  13. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  14. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, R.E; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The new insights and controversies concerning the radiobiological properties of malignant melanoma and how these relate to new clinical approaches are reviewed. The recent clinical experience with large individual fraction sizes is analyzed. The treatment of malignant melanoma in certain specialized sites is also described. An attempt is made to place in perspective the usefulness of radiation therapy in the treatment of this complex disease. Finally, certain new applications for radiation therapy both alone and in combustion with other treatment modalities are proposed that may ultimately prove appropriate for clinical trials

  15. External beam radiation therapy and a low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Tobin J.; Hutchinson, Sean Z.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Cruz, Alex A.; Figura, Nicholas B.; Nethers, Kevin; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Heysek, Randy V.; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions: There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. (author)

  16. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  17. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Keiichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Jinguu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    Of the cases of lung cancer in which radiation therapy was given between 1961 and November 1981, 399 cases for which histological type was confirmed, and irradiated as follows were reviewed. The cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma irradiated with more than 5,000 rad or more, those of undifferentiated carcinoma irradiated with 3,000 rad or more, and those irradiated pre- and post-operatively with 3,000 rad or more. The actual 5 year survival rate for stages I, II, III and IV were 29.6, 9.3, 7.5 and 1.9% respectively, and the survival rate tended to be better for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma at stages I, II and III, but not different at stage IV. There was no difference between large cell, small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Irradiation with 200 rad every other day or 150 rad daily was better than that with 200 rad, and daily irradiation with 150 rad was used since 1976. The therapy of stage III small cell carcinoma at the age of up to 80 years was improved with the combination of anticancer agents, maintenance therapy and immunotherapy, but these combined therapies were not significantly effective for the cancers with other histological types or at other stages. Although there was no significant difference in statistics for resectable cases, clinically, the results were experienced to be better after resection, and surgery was done in combination as much as possible. (Kaihara, S.)

  18. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  19. Shock therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2016-02-03

    Therapies administered by mental health nurses, aimed at "curing" gay people of their sexual preference were still in common use in the UK in the 1960s and early 1970s. Some nurses tried to avoid participating in these practices, but many believed that they were helping their patients, as a new book reveals.

  20. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  1. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats. Art therapy is an effective treatment for people experiencing developmental, medical, educational, and social or psychological impairment. Individuals who benefit from art therapy include ...

  2. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation ... Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 5 Physical and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria ...

  3. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  4. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  5. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.F. Jr.; Deliso, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ( 131 I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  6. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  7. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  8. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  9. Radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jr, J F; Deliso, H B

    1993-12-31

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ({sup 131}I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  10. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  11. [Gestalt therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  12. New Insights into the Androgen-Targeted Therapies and Epigenetic Therapies in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit M. Godbole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States, and it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. The androgen receptor (AR, a receptor of nuclear family and a transcription factor, is the most important target in this disease. While most efforts in the clinic are currently directed at lowering levels of androgens that activate AR, resistance to androgen deprivation eventually develops. Most prostate cancer deaths are attributable to this castration-resistant form of prostate cancer (CRPC. Recent work has shed light on the importance of epigenetic events including facilitation of AR signaling by histone-modifying enzymes, posttranslational modifications of AR such as sumoylation. Herein, we provide an overview of the structure of human AR and its key structural domains that can be used as targets to develop novel antiandrogens. We also summarize recent findings about the antiandrogens and the epigenetic factors that modulate the action of AR.

  13. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  14. Cost-efficacy analysis of hormonal treatments for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: prostatic cancer is the second more frequent cancer in Italy (after lung cancer and is the third cancer-related death cause. Age is the principal risk factor and, given the ageing process undergoing in the Italian population, it seems clear that the public sanitary expenditure to treat the disease is bound to increase, arising the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of the therapeutic strategies available. Methods: we performed a cost/utility analysis, through a Markov model, of several hormonal therapies in patients with advanced prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy, from the biochemical recurrence to death. Nine androgen suppression therapies were considered: orchiectomy, two nonsteroidal antiandrogens (NSAA, four luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH agonists, cyproterone acetate and the association of a NSAA and a LHRH (BAT. In the simulation the androgen suppression therapies were started at the PSA recurrence and never stopped until death. The model used the Italian NHS prospective and a time horizon corresponding to patient’s lifetime. Drug costs were calculated for each therapy, considering the less costly brand. Results: all the considered therapies produced a life expectancy (LE of about 12 life years (LYs with a small variability ranging from 12.3 LYs for BAT (the most effective to 11.37 LYs for NSAA-flutamide (the least effective. Quality adjusted life expectancy ranged from 9.98 QALYs for BAT to 9.28 QALYs for NSAA-flutamide. The average cost per patient presented a more enhanced variability, from 12,538 Euro for orchiectomy to 59,496 Euro for NSAA-bicalutamide. Among all the alternatives orchiectomy resulted the most cost/effective alternative with a cost/utility ratio of about 1,300 Euro/QALY. In the LHRH-agonists class leuprorelin was the most cost/effective with about 2,200 Euro/QALY. A one-way sensitivity analysis showed a substantial stability of the results. Conclusions: BAT

  15. Second-Line Hormonal Therapy for Men With Chemotherapy-Naïve, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Katherine S; Basch, Ethan; Loblaw, D Andrew; Oliver, Thomas K; Rumble, R Bryan; Carducci, Michael A; Nordquist, Luke; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Winquist, Eric; Singer, Eric A

    2017-06-10

    Purpose ASCO provisional clinical opinions (PCOs) offer direction to the ASCO membership after publication or presentation of potential practice-changing data. This PCO addresses second-line hormonal therapy for chemotherapy-naïve men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who range from being asymptomatic with only biochemical evidence of CRPC to having documented metastases but minimal symptoms. Clinical Context The treatment goal for CRPC is palliation. Despite resistance to initial androgen deprivation therapy, most men respond to second-line hormonal therapies. However, guidelines have neither addressed second-line hormonal therapy for nonmetastatic CRPC nor provided specific guidance with regard to the chemotherapy-naïve population. Recent Data Six phase III randomized controlled trials and expert consensus opinion inform this PCO. Provisional Clinical Opinion For men with CRPC, a castrate state should be maintained indefinitely. Second-line hormonal therapy (eg, antiandrogens, CYP17 inhibitors) may be considered in patients with nonmetastatic CRPC at high risk for metastatic disease (rapid prostate-specific antigen doubling time or velocity) but otherwise is not suggested. In patients with radiographic evidence of metastases and minimal symptoms, enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone should be offered after discussion with patients about potential harms, benefits, costs, and patient preferences. Radium-223 and sipuleucel-T also are options. No evidence provides guidance about the optimal order of hormonal therapies for CRPC beyond second-line treatment. Prostate-specific antigen testing every 4 to 6 months is reasonable for men without metastases. Routine radiographic restaging generally is not suggested but can be considered for patients at risk for metastases or who exhibit symptoms or other evidence of progression. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/genitourinary-cancer-guidelines and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .

  16. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but ...

  17. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  18. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  19. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  20. [Physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  1. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and external-beam radiotherapy versus external-beam irradiation alone for prostate cancer. A quality-of-life analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Asadpour, Branka; Gagel, Bernd; Fischedick, Karin; Siluschek, Jaroslav; Kehl, Mareike; Krenkel, Barbara; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) on quality of life after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. A group of 170 patients (85 with and 85 without NHT) has been surveyed prospectively before EBRT (70.2-72 Gy), at the last day of EBRT, a median time of 2 months and 15 months after EBRT using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Pairs with and without NHT (median treatment time of 3.5 months before EBRT) were matched according to the respective planning target volume and prostate volume. Before EBRT, significantly lower urinary function/bother, sexual function and hormonal function/bother scores were found for patients with NHT. More than 1 year after EBRT, only sexual function scores remained lower. In a multivariate analysis, NHT and adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT) versus NHT only (hazard ratio 14; 95% confidence interval 2.7-183; p = 0.02) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists versus antiandrogens (hazard ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-12; p = 0.04) proved to be independent risk factors for long-term erectile dysfunction (no or very poor ability to have an erection). With the exception of sexual function (additional adjuvant HT and application of LHRH analog independently adverse), short-term NHT was not found to decrease quality of life after EBRT for prostate cancer. (orig.)

  2. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: • Acupressure and acupuncture • Aromatherapy • Art therapy and music therapy • Chiropractic medicine and massage • Guided imagery • Meditation and ... should I avoid? • Is this complementary therapy (name therapy) safe? Is there research showing it is safe? • Are there side effects ...

  3. Radiotechnologies and gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinsong

    2001-01-01

    Gene therapy is an exciting frontier in medicine today. Radiologist will make an uniquely contribution to these exciting new technologies at every level by choosing sites for targeting therapy, perfecting and establishing routes of delivery, developing imaging strategies to monitor therapy and assess gene expression, developing radiotherapeutic used of gene therapy

  4. [Physical therapy for scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  5. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  6. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hu, Chen; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta; Leibenhaut, Mark H.; Narayan, Samir; Torres-Roca, Javier; Michalski, Jeff; Zeitzer, Kenneth L.; Donavanik, Viroon; Sandler, Howard; McGowan, David G.; Jones, Christopher U.; Shipley, William U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  7. Classifying chemical mode of action using gene networks and machine learning: a case study with the herbicide linuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornostay, Anna; Cowie, Andrew M; Hindle, Matthew; Baker, Christopher J O; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The herbicide linuron (LIN) is an endocrine disruptor with an anti-androgenic mode of action. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve knowledge of androgen and anti-androgen signaling in the teleostean ovary and to (2) assess the ability of gene networks and machine learning to classify LIN as an anti-androgen using transcriptomic data. Ovarian explants from vitellogenic fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed to three concentrations of either 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), flutamide (FLUT), or LIN for 12h. Ovaries exposed to DHT showed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol (E2) production while FLUT and LIN had no effect on E2. To improve understanding of androgen receptor signaling in the ovary, a reciprocal gene expression network was constructed for DHT and FLUT using pathway analysis and these data suggested that steroid metabolism, translation, and DNA replication are processes regulated through AR signaling in the ovary. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that FLUT and LIN shared more regulated gene networks in common compared to DHT. Using transcriptomic datasets from different fish species, machine learning algorithms classified LIN successfully with other anti-androgens. This study advances knowledge regarding molecular signaling cascades in the ovary that are responsive to androgens and anti-androgens and provides proof of concept that gene network analysis and machine learning can classify priority chemicals using experimental transcriptomic data collected from different fish species. © 2013.

  8. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  9. Changed processing of visual sexual stimuli under GnRH-therapy – a single case study in pedophilia using eye tracking and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiandrogen therapy (ADT) has been used for 30 years to treat pedophilic patients. The aim of the treatment is a reduction in sexual drive and, in consequence, a reduced risk of recidivism. Yet the therapeutic success of antiandrogens is uncertain especially regarding recidivism. Meta-analyses and reviews report only moderate and often mutually inconsistent effects. Case presentation Based on the case of a 47 year old exclusively pedophilic forensic inpatient, we examined the effectiveness of a new eye tracking method and a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-design in regard to the evaluation of ADT in pedophiles. We analyzed the potential of these methods in exploring the impact of ADT on automatic and controlled attentional processes in pedophiles. Eye tracking and fMRI measures were conducted before the initial ADT as well as four months after the onset of ADT. The patient simultaneously viewed an image of a child and an image of an adult while eye movements were measured. During the fMRI-measure the same stimuli were presented subliminally. Eye movements demonstrated that controlled attentional processes change under ADT, whereas automatic processes remained mostly unchanged. We assume that these results reflect either the increased ability of the patient to control his eye movements while viewing prepubertal stimuli or his better ability to manipulate his answer in a socially desirable manner. Unchanged automatic attentional processes could reflect the stable pedophilic preference of the patient. Using fMRI, the subliminal presentation of sexually relevant stimuli led to changed activation patterns under the influence of ADT in occipital and parietal brain regions, the hippocampus, and also in the orbitofrontal cortex. We suggest that even at an unconscious level ADT can lead to changed processing of sexually relevant stimuli, reflecting changes of cognitive and perceptive automatic processes. Conclusion We are convinced that our

  10. Adlerian Marriage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)

  11. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  12. Complementary Pancreatitis Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication, and improve quality of life.1,2 Massage Therapy Massage therapy involves touch and different techniques of stroking ... of the body or be a full-body massage. Massage can be performed through one’s clothing or ...

  13. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  14. Tumor therapy and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joss, R.; Brunner, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many successfully treated tumour patients are children and juveniles. This raises questions as to the effects of tumour therapy on reproductiveness and offspring. The possible extent of damage to the male and female gonads caused by surgical, chemical, and radiological tumour therapy is investigated. Also, the problem of tumour therapy or women developing neoplasms during pregnancy. Pregnancies after successful tumour therapy are quite frequent today. Experience so far suggests that the rate of congenital deformities is not significantly increased. (orig.) [de

  15. Combined tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrba, H.

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive survey of current methods and achievements first takes a look at the two basic therapies, devoting a chapter each to the surgery and radiotherapy of tumors. The principal subjects of the book, however, are the systemic, adjuvant therapy, biological therapies, hyperthermia and various other therapies (as e.g. treatment with ozone, oxygen, or homeopathic means), and psychotherapy. (MG) With 54 figs., 86 tabs [de

  16. Play Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  17. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  18. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  19. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Final Report of Multicenter Canadian Phase III Randomized Trial of 3 Versus 8 Months of Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Before Conventional-Dose Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, Juanita; Ludgate, Charles; Malone, Shawn; Perry, Gad; Eapen, Libni; Bowen, Julie; Robertson, Susan; Lockwood, Gina M.Math.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of 3 vs. 8 months of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before conventional-dose radiotherapy (RT) on disease-free survival for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 1995 and June 2001, 378 men were randomized to either 3 or 8 months of flutamide and goserelin before 66 Gy RT at four participating centers. The median baseline prostate-specific antigen level was 9.7 ng/mL (range, 1.3-189). Of the 378 men, 26% had low-, 43% intermediate-, and 31% high-risk disease. The two arms were balanced in terms of age, Gleason score, clinical T category, risk group, and presenting prostate-specific antigen level. The median follow-up for living patients was 6.6 years (range, 1.6-10.1). Of the 378 patients, 361 were evaluable, and 290 were still living. Results: The 5-year actuarial freedom from failure rate for the 3- vs. 8-month arms was 72% vs. 75%, respectively (p = 0.18). No difference was found in the failure types between the two arms. The median prostate-specific antigen level at the last follow-up visit for patients without treatment failure was 0.6 ng/mL in the 3-month arm vs. 0.50 ng/mL in the 8-month arm. The disease-free survival rate at 5 years was improved for the high-risk patients in the 8-month arm (71% vs. 42%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: A longer period of NHT before standard-dose RT did not alter the patterns of failure when combined with 66-Gy RT. High-risk patients in the 8-month arm had significant improvement in the 5-year disease-free survival rate

  1. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  2. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  3. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  4. Neuroendocrine mechanisms of development of experimental hyperandrogen-induced anovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, A G; Sinitsyn, P V; Tarasenko, L V; Polyakova, L I

    2003-10-01

    An experimental model of hyperandrogen-induced anovulatory infertility (s.c. implantation of Silastic capsules containing testosterone into adult female rats) was used to study morphological, hormonal, and biochemical measures characterizing the state of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-ovarian system. Impairments in functional androgen metabolism in the hypothalamus were seen, with decreases in the Luliberin sensitivity of the hypophysis, changes in the structure of estral cycles, and morphological changes in the ovaries; these findings are evidence for neuroendocrine disturbances in the control of ovulation. Flutamide, an experimental antiandrogen, led to partial normalization of the hormonal, biochemical, and morphological characteristics, as well as to recovery of fertility in females with anovulatory infertility.

  5. 75 FR 50880 - TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... 0720-AB36 TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech... referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and... practitioners will be allowed to issue referrals to patients for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...

  6. [Therapy of intermediate uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, D; Deuter, C; Zierhut, M

    2014-12-01

    Intermediate uveitis is a form of intraocular inflammation in which the vitreous body is the major site of inflammation. Intermediate uveitis is primarily treated medicinally and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. When recurrence of uveitis or side effects occur during corticosteroid therapy an immunosuppressive treatment is required. Cyclosporine A is the only immunosuppressive agent that is approved for therapy of uveitis in Germany; however, other immunosuppressive drugs have also been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with intermediate uveitis. In severe therapy-refractory cases when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed, biologics can be used. In patients with unilateral uveitis or when the systemic therapy is contraindicated because of side effects, an intravitreal steroid treatment can be carried out. In certain cases a vitrectomy may be used.

  7. Fertility and cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this means shielding the gonads as much as possible, optimal but not excessive doses and fields, oophoropexy, or sperm collection and storage prior to irradiation. With chemotherapy it means the shortest exposure to drugs consistent with best treatment and prior to therapy the collection and storage of sperm where facilities are available. At present this is still an experimental procedure. Artificial insemination for a couple when the male has received cancer therapy is another alternative. Finally, it is the responsibility of physicians caring for patients with neoplasms to be knowledgeable about these and all other effects of therapy so that patients may be counseled appropriately and understand the implications of therapy for their life

  8. Genetically Guided Statin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    number of new statin prescriptions, and (4) patient reported quality of life, physical activity, perceptions regarding statin therapy , and pain as...outcomes known to be prevented by statin therapy , we examined hospitalizations for three diagnoses: acute myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and...cholesterol. However, the ultimate goal of statin therapy is to decrease incidence of CAD, acute myocardial infarction and perhaps stroke. However, there is a

  9. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  10. American Physical Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do APTA represents more than 100,000 members: physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students of physical therapy. Other Popular Resources: - Member Directory - Annual Reports ...

  11. Is Bicarbonate Therapy Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all. An exception to this is kidney disease, wherein sodium bicarbonate therapy may have a valuable role. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Ninan, Neethu

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the power to radically change the way cancer is diagnosed, imaged, and treated. The holistic approach to cancer involves noninvasive procedures that emphasize restoring the health of human energy fields. Presenting a wealth of information and research about the most potent cancer healing therapies, this forward-thinking book explores how nanomedicine, holistic medicine, and other cancer therapies play important roles in treatment of this disease. Topics include nanobiotechnology for antibacterial therapy and diagnosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cancer, antioxidants and combinatorial therapies, and optical and mechanical investigations of nanostructures for biomolecular detection.

  13. Medical Art Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Aydin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  14. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  15. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  16. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  17. Gene therapy and radionuclides targeting therapy in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    Breast carcinoma's gene therapy is a hotspot in study of the tumor's therapy in the recent years. Currently the major therapy methods that in the experimentative and primary clinical application phases include immunological gene therapy, multidrug resistance gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy and suicide gene therapy. The gene targeting brachytherapy, which is combined with gene therapy and radiotherapy has enhanced the killer effects of the suicide gene and nuclide in tumor cells. That has break a new path in tumor's gene therapy. The further study in this field will step up it's space to the clinical application

  18. Diagnostik und Therapie der kutanen Androgenisierung im klimakterischen Übergang sowie in der Peri- und Postmenopause: Hirsutismus und Alopezie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisthövel F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Die weibliche Androgenisierung umfasst ein weites Spektrum an heterogenen Dysfunktionen und Erkrankungen. Um die Therapieprinzipien des Hirsutismus sowie der Alopecia androgenetica während des klimakterischen Übergangs („menopausal transition“ [MT] und der Peri-/Postmenopause zu erfassen, ist es sinnvoll, sich auf eine Gruppe von androgenisierten Patientinnen zu beschränken, bei der die Haut pathogenetisch im Fokus liegt. Solch eine klar definierte Patientengruppe, die „funktionell kutane Androgenisierung“ (FCA, kann meist schon über die Diagnostikebene 1 (Screening-Ebene unseres Klassifikations-Algorithmus diagnostiziert werden. Der Ferriman-Gallwey-Index bzw. eine modifizierte Sinclair-Scale dienen zur Gradeinteilung von Hirsutismus bzw. Alopezie. Die ausgeprägte endokrine Dynamik während der MT ist hormondiagnostisch zu beachten. Wachsepilation und Lasertherapie sind vielfältig eingesetzte topischmechanische bzw. -physikalische Therapieverfahren. Eine topische Behandlung des Hirsutismus kann auch mit Eflornithin-Creme durchgeführt werden, die den Effekt einer Lasertherapie unterstützt. Minoxidil-Lösung gilt als Mittel der ersten Wahl bei der topischen Therapie der Alopecia androgenetica. Steroidale Präparate, welche aus der kontrazeptiven Kombination von Ethinylestradiol und antiandrogenen Gestagenen (AA bestehen, sind therapeutische Prinzipien bei androgenisierten Patientinnen in der MT, sie sind hingegen in der Postmenopause kontraindiziert. Die orale Einnahme von Spironolacton und/oder Finasterid, beides nicht-steroidale Antiandrogene, ist während der MT unter sicherer Kontrazeption und jene von Spironolacton für die Alopezie in der Postmenopause gut geeignet. Die Einnahme von Kombinationsprapäraten, welche die nicht-kontrazeptiven natürlichen Östrogene und AA enthalten, sind für die Behandlung der FCA bei Patientinnen indiziert, die zusätzlich unter klimakterischen und peri-/postmenopausalen Störungen leiden

  19. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    An essential part in cancer radiotherapy, is to direct a sufficiently high dose towards the tumour, without damaging the surrounding tissue. Different techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy have been developed, in order to reduce the dose to the normal tissue...

  1. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  2. Therapy of Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  3. Therapy in Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  4. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  5. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  6. Massage Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  7. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  8. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  9. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  10. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. Photodynamic therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90(12):889–905. [PubMed Abstract] Gudgin Dickson EF, Goyan RL, Pottier RH. New directions in photodynamic therapy. Cellular and Molecular Biology 2002; 48(8):939–954. [PubMed Abstract] Capella ...

  11. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  12. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  13. Experiential Learning and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Elaine

    This paper describes the experiential therapy program at the Bowling Green Adolescent Center (New Jersey). This model supports the view that the therapeutic process of addiction treatment is accelerated and enhanced by providing the patients with experiential interventions. Experiential therapy includes goal setting, hands-on participation,…

  14. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  15. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Gena; Stella, Tiffany; Wilkison, Megan; Szczech Moser, Christy; Hoelzel, Allison; Hendricks, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The use of animals for therapeutic purposes has been documented in the literature for centuries. This review will highlight evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted therapy as well as provide a plethora of resources for therapists interested in learning more about how animals can provide restorative benefits for their clients.

  16. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  17. Medical therapy in acromegaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The disease is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality, but these effects can be reduced if GH levels are decreased to <2.5 μg\\/l and IGF-1 levels are normalized. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and IGF-1 levels, ameliorating patients\\' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapies, such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. Medical therapy is currently most widely used as secondary treatment for persistent or recurrent acromegaly following noncurative surgery, although it is increasingly used as primary therapy. This Review provides an overview of current and future pharmacological therapies for patients with acromegaly.

  18. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time, penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents.

  19. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  20. Accelerators for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-01-01

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy

  1. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  2. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  3. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  4. [Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbach, M; Koziolek, M J

    2018-05-02

    Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension differ in prevalence, pathogenesis, prognosis and therapy. In both cases, a structured approach is required, with the exclusion of pseudoresistance and, subsequently, secondary hypertension. Resistant hypertension has been reported to be more responsive to intensified diuretic therapy, whereas refractory hypertension is presumed to require sympathoinhibitory therapy. Once the general measures and the drug-based step-up therapy have been exhausted, interventional procedures are available.

  5. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  6. Massage therapy research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan using bioassays and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Pei-Hsin

    2016-06-01

    Endocrine active substances, including naturally occurring hormones and various synthetic chemicals have received much concern owing to their endocrine disrupting potencies. It is essential to monitor their environmental occurrence since these compounds may pose potential threats to biota and human health. In this study, yeast-based reporter assays were carried out to investigate the presence of (anti-)androgenic, (anti-)estrogenic, and (anti-)thyroid compounds in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was also used to measure the environmental concentrations of selected endocrine active substances for assessing potential ecological risks and characterizing contributions to the endocrine disrupting activities. Bioassay results showed that anti-androgenic (ND-7489 μg L(-1) flutamide equivalent), estrogenic (ND-347 ng L(-1) 17β-estradiol equivalent), and anti-thyroid activities were detected in the dissolved and particulate phases of river water samples, while anti-estrogenic activities (ND-10 μg L(-1) 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalent) were less often found. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants, such as bisphenol A, triclosan, and estrone were frequently detected in Taiwanese rivers. In addition, their risk quotient values were often higher than 1, suggesting that they may pose an ecological risk to the aquatic biota. Further identification of unknown anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants in Taiwanese rivers may be necessary to protect Taiwan's aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Plöckinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs, dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided.

  9. Collaboration in experiential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdondini, Lucia; Elliott, Robert; Shearer, Joan

    2012-02-01

    We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using a case study of experiential therapy for social anxiety, we illustrate how the development of collaboration can be both complex and pivotal for therapeutic success, and how it can involve client and therapist encountering one another through taking risks by openly and nonjudgementally disclosing difficult experiences in order to enrich and advance the work. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between......) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/social activism, and (d) critical thinking/ open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n = 32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n = 46) of participants identified as using...

  11. Complications of cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.S.; Parker, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review systematically the toxicity of contemporary chemotherapy and irradiation on normal tissues of growing children. Whenever possible, the separate toxicity of chemotherapy, irradiation, and combination therapy is addressed. However, it is not always possible to quantitate specifically such reactions in the face of multiple drug therapy, which may enhance radiation injury or reactivate prior radiation injury. Prior detailed reviews have provided important sources of information concerning radiation injury for this more general discussion. The information provided will assist both the clinician and the radiologist in the recognition of early and late complications of therapy in pediatric oncology

  12. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be considered carefully, balancing the advantages against the disadvantages as they relate to the individual man's age, ... therapy with photon or x-rays: Uses advanced technology to tailor the x-ray or photon radiation ...

  13. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  14. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  15. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  16. Interactional Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warehime, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Group gestalt therapy in which the leader facilitates the development of helping capacity in group members is described. The general characteristics of this approach are discussed and ground rules concerning leader and member behaviors are suggested. (RC)

  17. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  18. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  19. Therapies for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  20. Therapy and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system of rewards and reinforcement of positive behavior. Psychoanalysis. This type of treatment encourages you to think ... work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and psychoanalysis. Your family doctor can help you choose the ...

  1. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a newly emerging modal- ... Porphyrins are a ubiquitous class of naturally occurring heterocyclic ..... mechanism leading to tumor necrosis. ... The vascular endothelium may be the main target of tumor.

  2. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Colorectal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain ...

  3. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  4. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... behaviour therapy approach, and a brief example of its use in depression. Cognitive .... dream, or recollection, leading to unpleasant emotion. DATE. SITUATION. EMOTION ... Write rational response to automatic thought(s). 2.

  5. Consumer Health: Alternative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as massage. These systems center on a philosophy, such as the power of nature or the ... medicine values therapies that have been demonstrated through research and testing to be safe and effective. While ...

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  7. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  8. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  9. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  10. QSAR models for anti-androgenic effect - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gunde Egeskov; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Wedebye, Eva Bay

    2011-01-01

    Three modelling systems (MultiCase (R), LeadScope (R) and MDL (R) QSAR) were used for construction of androgenic receptor antagonist models. There were 923-942 chemicals in the training sets. The models were cross-validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 77-81%, specificity of 78...... of the model for a particular application, balance of training sets, domain definition, and cut-offs for prediction interpretation should also be taken into account. Different descriptors in the modelling systems are illustrated with hydroxyflutamide and dexamethasone as examples (a non-steroid and a steroid...

  11. AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

  12. Food therapy and medical diet therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang

    2018-01-01

    Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...

  13. Complementary therapies in social psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe

    three residential homes (n= 51 / 91 respondents - response rate 56 %) shows that the most common used complementary therapy is music therapy 43%, and only 10% of residents do not use these therapies at all. Overall, 43% of residents strongly agree, that these therapies strengthens their recovery process...

  14. Studies of the hormonal control of postnatal testicular descent in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J R; Vaughan, E D; Imperato-McGinley, J

    1993-03-01

    Dihydrotestosterone is believed to control the transinguinal phase of testicular descent based on hormonal manipulation studies performed in postnatal rats. In the present study, these hormonal manipulation experiments were repeated, and the results were compared with those obtained using the antiandrogens flutamide and cyproterone acetate. 17 beta-estradiol completely blocked testicular descent, but testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were equally effective in reversing this inhibition. Neither flutamide nor cyproterone acetate prevented testicular descent in postnatal rats despite marked peripheral antiandrogenic action. Further analysis of the data revealed a correlation between testicular size and descent. Androgen receptor blockade did not produce a marked reduction in testicular size and consequently did not prevent testicular descent, whereas estradiol alone caused marked testicular atrophy and testicular maldescent. Reduction of the estradiol dosage or concomitant administration of androgens or human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in both increased testicular size and degree of descent. These data suggest that growth of the neonatal rat testis may contribute to its passage into the scrotum.

  15. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-01-01

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  16. and in anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Toma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cancer and anticancer therapy are increasingly mentioned topics. Groups of researchers keep looking for a tool that will specifically and efficiently eliminate abnormal cells without any harm for the normal ones. Such method entails the reduction of therapy’s side effects, thus also improving patient’s recovery. Discovery of synthetic lethality has become a new hope to create effective, personalized therapy of cancer. Researchers noted that pairs of simultaneously mutated genes can lead to cell death, whereas each gene from that pair mutated individually does not result in cell lethality. Cancer cells accumulate numerous changes in their genetic material. By defining the pairs of genes interacting in cell pathways we are able to identify a potential anticancer therapy. It is believed that such a process has evolved to create cell resistance for a single gene mutation. Proper functioning of a pathway is not dependent on a single gene. Such a solution, however, also led to the evolution of multifactorial diseases such as cancer. Research techniques using iRNA, shRNA or small molecule libraries allow us to find genes that are connected in synthetic lethality interactions. Synthetic lethality may be applied not only as an anticancer therapy but also as a tool for identifying the functions of recently recognized genes. In addition, studying synthetic lethality broadens our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing cancer cells, which should be helpful in designing highly effective personalized cancer therapies.

  17. Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma requires a qualified clinical, radiological, and pathohistological diagnosis and, in particular, an optimal therapy by an experienced team of oncological specialists. Important prognostic factors are the presence of hematogenous metastases at diagnosis, the initial tumor volume, the response to chemotherapy, and adequate local therapy. Presently, cure rates of more than 60% can be achieved for localized Ewing's sarcoma by combination of local therapy and chemotherapy. The four-drug combination VACA (vincristin, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin) can be considered as cytostatic gold standard. More aggressive regimens (VAIA, EVAIA, autologous bone marrow transplant) may be beneficial in subgroups and are under investigation. Concerning local therapy adequate radiotherapy plays a major role and achieves the same survival rates as radical surgery, comparable patient selection provided. Several factors have impact on radiotherapeutic results, especially total dose (45 Gy large volume, 55 Gy to the primary tumor), target volume (safety margin at least 2 cm according to the pretreatment volume, at least 5 cm in proximal and distal extension of long bones), timing of radiotherapy (as early as possible) and quality of treatment. Radiotherapy as sole local treatment is indicated in inoperable lesions (spine, sacrum, skull) and in small, good-responding tumors. High-risk patients should receive combined radiotherapeutic-surgical treatment, preferably as pre-operative irradiation. The value of hyperfractionation is not yet proven despite theoretical advantages. (orig.) [de

  18. Therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildmeister, W.

    1982-01-01

    The etiology of hyperthyroidism is still largely unknown and therefore no causal therapy of this condition is possible. Antithyroid drug treatment is usually carried out with thiocarbamides. When an euthyroid state is achieved synthetic thyroid hormones are added. Pregnancy and iodine contamination (after exposure to contrast medium) require individual treatment. In this paper the advantages, indications and contraindications are discussed as well as supportive drug therapy necessary in specific cases. Radioiodine therapy is reserved for patients over 35 years of age; the individual dose is calculated according to the size of the thyroid gland and the iodine uptake. Disadvantageous is the late onset of therapeutic efficiency, the small effect on the size of goitre and the exposure to radiation. A patient should be operated upon in an euthyroid state, i.e. after preoperative drug therapy. Operations are normally performed on individuals with a coexistent goitre or where antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy are contraindicated. Paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hypoparathyroidism are rare complications. 3 to 4 g of thyroid tissues should remain. Of great importance in all cases are precise diagnostics both before and after commencing treatment and adequate follow up. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Androgen deficiency during mid- and late pregnancy alters progesterone production and metabolism in the porcine corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy.

  20. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  1. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  2. Therapy with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.) [de

  3. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  4. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bittar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease characterised by arterial and/or venous thrombosis, recurrent pregnancy loss, and persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs. It could be life-threatening as in the case of catastrophic APS where multi-organ failure is observed. APS morbidities are thought to be the result of a combination of thrombotic and inflammatory processes. Over the past decades, the mainstay of therapy of APS has been anticoagulation. As new mechanisms of pathogenesis are being unravelled with time, novel targeted immunomodulatory therapies are being proposed as promising agents in the treatment of APS. In this article, we present an overview of new pathogenetic mechanisms in APS as well as novel antithrombotic and immunomodulatory therapies.

  5. PUVA combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, W L

    1985-08-01

    Various adjunctive treatments are now frequently used in combination with PUVA therapy with the aims of limiting adverse effects, improving efficacy and decreasing the cost of treatment. In the management of psoriasis, PUVA plus retinoids, PUVA plus methotrexate and PUVA plus UVB phototherapy are the most frequently used combinations. PUVA plus topical corticosteroids and PUVA plus anthralin are also efficacious but adverse effects and poor acceptance by patients are limiting factors. Combinations of PUVA plus nitrogen mustard and ionizing radiation are used in mycosis fungoides to treat tumors and residual disease in secluded sites. In the management of photodermatoses with PUVA therapy, prednisone is often required to prevent exacerbation of disease. A combination of prednisone and PUVA therapy can also be useful in lichen planus and atopic eczema. The selection of a suitable combination treatment, will depend upon the preferences of the clinician, the disease being treated, and the characteristics of the patient.

  6. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  7. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  8. Anticholinerge Therapie der OAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenntnisse über Differentialdiagnostik und Pathophysiologie des Blasenüberaktivitäts-Syndroms sind essentiell für eine erfolgreiche Therapie. Obwohl Verhaltenstraining und Elektrostimulation ihre Wirksamkeit bei OAB bewiesen haben, ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl nach wie vor die anticholinerge Behandlung. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Einnahmetreue der Patienten unbefriedigend, was in der letzten Zeit zu verschiedenen Medikamentenneuentwicklungen mit verbesserter Verträglichkeit bei gleichbleibend hoher Effektivität geführt hat. Retard-Formulierungen, extraenterale Applikationswege und Rezeptor-Subselektivität sind hierbei die Prinzipien, welche die Behandlungsakzeptanz und Patientenzufriedenheit steigern sollen.

  9. Drug therapy in headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  10. Isotope therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Junji; Kasagi, Kanji; Iida, Yasuhiro; Torizuka, Kanji; Mori, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    131 I was first used to treat Basedow's disease approximately thirty years ago. Today, 131 I therapy widely used because it is effective and easy to apply. No notable side effects have been observed until now. The only demerit is a high incidence of hypothyroidism which occurs many years after therapy. The onset of hypothyroidism can be delayed by reducing the dose but can not be prevented. Therefore, patients should understand fully the possibility of the onset of hypothyroidism in the future. To obtain favorable results, patients with Basedow's disease should be given an ordinary dose of 131 I and should be followed up. (Nisio, M.)

  11. Antiretroviral therapy: current drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Alice K; George, Jomy M

    2014-09-01

    The rapid advances in drug discovery and the development of antiretroviral therapy is unprecedented in the history of modern medicine. The administration of chronic combination antiretroviral therapy targeting different stages of the human immunodeficiency virus' replicative life cycle allows for durable and maximal suppression of plasma viremia. This suppression has resulted in dramatic improvement of patient survival. This article reviews the history of antiretroviral drug development and discusses the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicities of the antiretroviral agents most commonly used in clinical practice to date. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cerebrospinal tomo-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, I.; Coche-Dequeant, B.; Lacornerie, T.; Reynaert, N.; Lartigau, E.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the study of the feasibility of a cerebrospinal tomo-therapy, of the protection of organs at risk, and of tolerance. Nine patients have been treated, one with a bi-fractionated irradiation and the others with a conventional fractionation. Seven had chemotherapy before radiotherapy, and two had intensification with self-grafting of stem cells. The dose constraints and the planning target volume (PTV) differed with respect to the treated organ (kidney, lung, thyroid, parotid, hypophysis). The tolerance was good. It appears that cerebrospinal tomo-therapy results in a better comfort for the patient and an easier treatment plan with a good dose homogeneity. Short communication

  13. Spa therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spa therapy constitutes the use of mineral springs and thermal mud to soothe and heal various ailments. Like the mineral springs, seas and oceans are also important centers for spa therapy of which the most important is Dead Sea (DS. DS has been famous for thousands of years for its miraculous curative and cosmetic properties. Intensive research is going on using DS minerals in a wide range of dermatological conditions especially psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and other eczemas and several papers have been published in various international and pharmacological journals.

  14. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  15. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. Does the cranial suspensory ligament have a role in cryptorchidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Normadiah M; Russell, D A; Payne, A P

    2010-01-01

    The cranial suspensory ligament (CSL) is a fibromuscular structure anchoring the embryonic gonad to the posterior abdominal wall in male and female mammals. Its persistence in females is believed to be responsible for retaining the ovaries within the abdomen, while its regression in males permits testis descent. Embryonic loss of the CSL in males is believed to be an androgen-dependent event, and failure of this process has been proposed as a cause of cryptorchidism. The present study demonstrates that the nuclei of mesenchymal cells in the caudal part of the CSL are immunoreactively positive for androgen receptor. We examined the effects of exposure of the non-steroidal antiandrogen flutamide during the period from gestational day 10 to birth on the development of the CSL and on testis descent. Exposure of male Albino Swiss rats to the antiandrogen flutamide during this period resulted in feminization of the external genitalia and the suppression of growth of the testes and male reproductive tracts. In adulthood, testes were found to be located in diverse positions including normal scrotal (50%), intra-abdominal (10%) and ectopic suprainguinal (40%). The CSL of the testis persisted into adulthood in all flutamide-treated males, regardless of testis location. In all cases, the ligament consisted of bundles of smooth muscle fibres in the retroperitoneal fat of the posterior abdominal wall. These findings suggest that androgen blockade during embryonic development interferes with testicular descent, but that maldescent cannot be correlated with either the persistence of the CSL of the testis or its structure.

  17. The ethics of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sarah; Harris, John

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments have progressed in areas of science that pertain to gene therapy and its ethical implications. This review discusses the current state of therapeutic gene technologies, including stem cell therapies and genetic modification, and identifies ethical issues of concern in relation to the science of gene therapy and its application, including the ethics of embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, the risks associated with gene therapy, and the ethics of clinical research in developing new therapeutic technologies. Additionally, ethical issues relating to genetic modification itself are considered: the significance of the human genome, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, and concerns regarding gene therapy as a eugenic practice.

  18. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  19. Room for iodo therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.L.A.; Derivi, A.; Bacelar, A.; Ramos, F.R.; Dias, T.M.; Baptista, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    A description of rules to assemble, to install and to maintain a room for iodo therapy is presented. The necessities of the patients and procedures to meet the norms of radiologic protection established by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) are highlighted

  20. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  1. Salk therapy begins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A clinical trial to test an immune therapy developed by polio pioneer Jonas Salk has begun enrollment of 3,000 participants, who will receive Remune shots every 12 weeks for 3 years to see if disease progression is slowed. The manufacturer is Immune Response, and the study is being conducted by the University of California at San Francisco.

  2. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  3. Drama Therapies in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Judith; Prosperi, Mario

    1976-01-01

    Explores the use of drama as a therapeutic tool at various hospitals and records specific therapy groups dialogues. Available from: The Drama Review, 51 West 4th Street, Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10012. Subscription Rates: $12.50 per year. (MH)

  4. Dimensions of Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Jeanne

    This paper reviews the current status of psychotherapy for women from a feminist perspective. It examines the sexist prejudices and biases of traditional psychotherapies and psychological approaches; notes the manners in which therapy has often tended to reinforce the traditional sex role stereotyping and the women's consequent negative self…

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  6. Music therapy for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E.; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Vink, Annemiek C.; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, C.R.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Several factors influencing the choice of radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of benign and malignant disease are discussed. A brief review is given of the routine clinical uses of radiopharmaceuticals including treatments for hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, polycythaemia rubra vera and intracavitary therapy. Finally clinical situations using radionuclides under evaluation including the treatment of bone disease, adrenal tumours and monoclonal antibodies are discussed. (UK)

  8. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  9. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause pain. Radiation given to shrink a tumor near the esophagus , which can interfere with a patient’s ability to eat and drink. How is radiation therapy planned for an individual ... show the location of a patient’s tumor and the normal areas around it. These scans ...

  10. [The Bioptron light therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediulescu, Lucretia

    2004-01-01

    The Bioptron light therapy system acts naturally, upholding the capacity of regeneration of the body. Since the discovery of the therapeutical effects of the Bioptron light, over 20 years ago, its use as treatment has been developed for a large variety of diseases, among which also the eye-diseases (simplex and zoster herpes, conjunctivitis).

  11. Tumor therapy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, H.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Parvis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this program is to acquire data in order to evaluate the advantages of the proton spot scan technique compared to other forefront radiotherapy procedures, and to integrate the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the life science department for human cancer therapy by testing it in veterinary radio-oncology. (author) 1 fig., 2 tab., 2 refs

  12. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  13. Physical therapy and manual physical therapy: Differences in patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  14. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G. M.; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  15. Therapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Sadeghi, R.; Takavar, A.; Fard, A.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Although there have been very significant development in the field of radionuclide therapy within the past 10 years, radionuclide therapy in the form of 131 I, 33 P,.... have been in use for over 46 years. Palliation of bone pain is a good example for radionuclide therapy. It has an especial role in advanced metastatic cancer. 32 P, 89 Sr-Cl, 186 Re-HEDP, 133 Sm-EDTMP, and 117 mSn-DTPA are used in these patients. They are usually effective and help to maintain a painless life for patients with advanced cancer. Although this kind of therapy is not as rapid as radiotherapy, its effect lasts longer. In addition re-treatment with these agents is safe and effective. Radioimmunotherapy is a new exciting technique in the radionuclide therapy. In this technique monoclonal antibodies or their fragments are labeled with a suitable radionuclide, these antibodies can irradiate tumor cells over a distance of some fraction of a millimeter. Bulky tumors are obviously unsuitable targets for Rit. Several antibodies specific for Cd 20 (B1 and 1 F 5) and CD 37 (Mb-1) labeled with 131 I have been used for hematologic malignancies with good response. Several antigens associated with carcinomas of various histologic types have been targeted for therapeutic purposes by antibodies labeled with different radionuclides. Other routes of administration like intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and intravesical have been used with different rates of success. Pre targeting techniques can be used to reduce unwanted radioactive concentration in normal tissues. The avidin-biotin system is an example, which exploits the high-affinity binding between avidin and biotin, and was first used with anti-Cea antibody. Radiation synovectomy is another aspect of radionuclide therapy 198 Au colloid, 90 Y resin colloid, and 165 Dy-FHMA are some of the radionuclides used in the field of hematology. There has been significant advances in the field of therapy in nuclear medicine in recent years, which are briefly

  16. Horticultural therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Bo, Li; Sampson, Stephanie; Roberts, Samantha; Zhang, Guoyou; Wu, Weiping

    2014-05-19

    Horticultural therapy is defined as the process of utilising fruits, vegetables, flowers and plants facilitated by a trained therapist or healthcare provider, to achieve specific treatment goals or to simply improve a person's well-being. It can be used for therapy or rehabilitation programs for cognitive, physical, social, emotional, and recreational benefits, thus improving the person's body, mind and spirit. Between 5% to 15% of people with schizophrenia continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication, and may also develop undesirable adverse effects, horticultural therapy may be of value for these people. To evaluate the effects of horticultural therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care or other additional psychosocial interventions. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (Janurary 2013) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, and manually searching reference lists. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing horticultural therapy plus standard care with standard care alone for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD) and for binary outcomes we calculated risk ratio (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 24). The overall risk of bias in the study was considered to be unclear although the randomisation was adequate. It compared a package of horticultural therapy which consisted of one hour per day of horticultural activity plus standard care with standard care alone over two weeks (10 consecutive days) with no long-term follow-up. Only two people were lost to follow-up in the study, both in the horticultural therapy group (1 RCT

  17. Current perspectives of radiation therapy. History of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun

    2011-01-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of X-Strahlen by Roentgen. The history of radiation therapy has evolved under mutual stimulating relationships of the external beam radiation therapy by X-ray tubes and accelerators, and the internal radiation therapy employing radium and other radionuclides. The currently employed technologies in radiation therapy have its origin already till nineteen sixties and the development of physics and engineering have realized the original concept. (author)

  18. Adjuvant and salvage therapy following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: effect of combined transient androgen deprivation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulau, Stephen M.; Tate, David J.; Cox, Richard S.; Bagshaw, Malcolm A.; Hancock, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant and salvage irradiation have been shown to improve local control after radical prostatectomy for prostatic cancer in patients with high risk pathologic features, rising PSA, or evidence of local failure. Transient androgen deprivation combined with primary irradiation has resulted in improved local control and biochemical disease free survival in patients with locally advanced, unresected, prostate cancer. This retrospective study evaluates whether transient androgen blockade improves the outcome from post-prostatectomy irradiation given as either adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods: From August, 1985 to December, 1995, 105 patients were treated with radiotherapy to the prostatic fossa following radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. No patient had clinically or radiographically evident distant disease. Median follow-up was 4.6 years from the date of surgery and 3.2 years from completion of radiotherapy. Findings at prostatectomy included capsular penetration in 38 patients, seminal vesicle involvement in 42 patients, lymph node involvement in 15 patients, and positive surgical margins in 70 patients. Treatment was administered as adjuvant therapy for high risk pathologic features in 39 patients, for persistent or rising PSA in 52 patients, or for clinically evident local recurrence in 14 patients. Of the 105 patients, 32 received combined androgen deprivation/radiotherapy and 73 received radiotherapy alone. Both groups received 60-70 Gy in 2 Gy daily fractions to the prostatic fossa. Selected patients with poor prognostic features received pelvic irradiation to a median dose of 50 Gy. Androgen deprivation typically consisted of Lupron and Flutamide for 4 to 6 months before, during, and in selected cases, after irradiation. No patients received maintenance androgen deprivation or underwent orchiectomy. Tumor stage, lymph node status, Gleason sum, and indications for treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups

  19. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  20. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  1. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  2. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  3. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  4. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  5. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  6. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  7. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  8. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  9. Massage Therapy for Health Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Changes in clinical parameters in patients with tension-type headache following massage therapy: a pilot study . Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy . 2008; 16(2):106–112. Moraska A, Pollini RA, ... adjustments to stress measures following massage therapy: a review of the ...

  10. Comments on chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of actinide chelation is to decrease the risk from radiation-induced cancer. While occupational exposures in the past have mainly involved low specific activity 239 Pu, future exposures will increasingly involve high specific activity plutonium, americium, and curium - all of which clear more rapidly from the lung. This will tend to shift the cancer risk from lung to bone and liver. Although therapy with Ca- or Zn-DTPA rapidly removes 241 Am from the canine, the sub-human primate, and the human liver, improved methods for removal from bone and lung are needed. DTPA can remove 241 Am more easily from the growing skeleton of a child than from the mature skeleton of an adult. Investigators at Karlsruhe are developing chelation agents for oral administration and are investigating the reduction in local dose to bone resulting from chelation therapy

  11. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  12. Medical leech therapy (Hirudotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leeches have been used in medicine long time before BC. In recent years medical leech therapy has gained increasing interest in reconstructive surgery and pain management and other medical fields. The possible indications and success rates of this treatment are discussed. There is a special interest in salvage of flaps and grafts by the use of medical leeches. Retrospective analysis indicates a success rate of >80%. Randomized controlled trials have been performed in osteoarthritis. Case reports and smaller series are available for the treatment of chronic wounds, post-phlebitic syndrome and inflammatory skin diseases. The most common adverse effects are prolonged bleeding and infection by saprophytic intestinal bacteria of leeches. Medical leech therapy is a useful adjunct to other measures wound management.

  13. Drug therapy of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system yet also involving other organs and systems as a result of a pathological process. The causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - is an obligate intracellular microorganism. Despite the removal of a threat of a leprosy epidemic, European countries still record outbreaks of the disease mainly among migrants coming from endemic areas. A golden standard of the treatment of leprosy is a WHO-recommended combined drug therapy comprising drugs such as dapsone, clofazimine and rifampicin. The article provides current data on the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety of these drugs and their combined scheme of treatment obtained as a result of clinical trials. Moreover, it also reviews new regimens of the drug therapy of leprosy including those with the use of drugs from the group of fluoroquinols as well as immunotherapy of the disease.

  14. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  15. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  16. Selective retina therapy (SRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Birngruber, R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Luebeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced. (orig.)

  17. Antiplatelet therapy in PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander; Rao, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    Platelets play a key role in mediating stent thrombosis, the major cause of ischemic events in the immediate period following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). For this reason, antiplatelet therapy, started at the time of PCI and continued for at least 30 days afterwards, is the cornerstone of antithrombotic therapy after PCI. However, the use of antiplatelet agents increase bleeding risk, with more potent antiplatelet agents further increasing bleeding risk. For this reason, balancing prevention of ischemic events with risk of bleeding is fundamental to the effective use of antiplatelet agents. In the past 5 years, potent and fast-acting P2Y12 inhibitors have been introduced, and have augmented the antiplatelet armamentarium available to interventional cardiologists. In this review, we review the preclinical and clinical data surrounding these new agents, and discuss the significant questions and controversies that still exist regarding the optimal antiplatelet strategy. PMID:28582206

  18. Tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a specific clinical method based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus described by Jastreboff (Jastreboff, P.J. (1990). Neurosci. Res., 8: 221-254). The method is aimed at habituation of reactions evoked by tinnitus, and subsequently habituation of the tinnitus perception. Several other methods have been suggested for habituation of tinnitus, but in TRT two components that strictly follow the principles of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus are implemented and necessary: (1) counseling, aimed at reclassification of tinnitus to a category of a neutral signals and (2) sound therapy, aimed at weakening tinnitus-related neuronal activity as suggested by Jastreboff and Hazell (Jastreboff, P.J. and Hazell, J.W.P. (2004). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). This chapter outlines the theoretical basis of TRT as well as comments on the clinical outcome of the use of TRT for different kinds of tinnitus.

  19. Gestalt Therapy and Cognitive Therapy - Contrasts or Complementarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James

    2010-01-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued...... that gestalt therapy, defined as a fieldtheoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual...... between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined. Keywords: integrative therapy, gestalt...

  20. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  1. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Nima G.; Dawson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a generic term, encompassing both: (1) approaches underpinned by an assumption that presenting emotional and behavioural difficulties are cognitively mediated or moderated; and (2) atheoretical bricolages of cognitive and behavioural techniques. This latter category may include effective therapeutic packages (perhaps acting through mechanisms articulated in the first category) but, when theory is tacit, it becomes harder to make analytical generalisation...

  2. Cognitive behavior therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...

  3. Assessment in Cognitive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...

  4. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  5. Intracavitary therapy of craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Fig, L. M.; Gross, M.D.; Ann Arbor Nuclear Medicine Service, Ann Arbor, MI

    1999-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign cystic para-hypophyseal tumors often associated with hypopituitarism and visual-field abnormalities. Their therapy by surgery and external beam radiotherapy is imperfect. The intracavitary instillation of beta-emitting colloid radiopharmaceuticals into the cysts permits the delivery of far higher radiation doses to the cyst lining than is possible by external beam radiotherapy. This technique permits destruction of the lining epithelium with resultant elimination of cyst fluid formation and cyst shrinkage in up to 80% of cases

  6. Proton beam therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  7. Neutron beams for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuplenikov, Eh.L.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Tsymbal, V.A.; Kandybej, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    It was given the analysis and generalization of the study results carried out during some decades in many world countries on application of thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons for neutron, gamma-neutron and neutron-capture therapy. The main attention is focused on the practical application possibility of the accumulated experience for the base creation for medical research and the cancer patients effective treatment.

  8. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  9. Proton beam therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  11. Chiral dimethylamine flutamide derivatives-modeling, synthesis, androgen receptor affinities and carbon-11 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Orit; Laky, Desideriu; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Elgavish, Sharona; Gozin, Michael; Even-Sapir, Einat; Leibovitc, Ilan; Gutman, Mordechai; Chisin, Roland; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Mishani, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Most prostate cancers are androgen dependent upon initial diagnosis. On the other hand, some very aggressive forms of prostate cancer were shown to have lost the expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Although the AR is routinely targeted in endocrine treatment, the clinical outcome remains suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to demonstrate the presence and activity of the AR in each case of prostate cancer, before and after treatment. While noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to determine AR expression of tumor cells in vivo, fully optimized PET imaging agents are not yet available. Based on molecular modeling, three novel derivatives of hydroxyflutamide (Compounds 1-3) were designed and synthesized. They contain an electron-rich group (dimethylamine) located on the methyl moiety, which may confer a better stability to the molecule in vivo. Compounds 1-3 have AR binding that is similar or higher than that of the currently used commercial drugs. An automated carbon-11 radiolabeling route was developed, and the compounds were successfully labeled with a 10-15% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 4Ci/μmol end of bombardment (n=15). These labeled biomarkers may facilitate the future quantitative molecular imaging of AR-positive prostate cancer using PET and may also allow for image-guided treatment of prostate cancer

  12. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  13. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiotherapy : proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first phase of proton therapy at the National Accelerator Centre will be the development of a 200 MeV small-field horizontal beam radioneurosurgical facility in the south treatment vault. A progressive expansion of this facility is planned. The patient support and positioning system has been designed and developed by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Surveying of the University of Cape Town to ensure the accurate positioning in the proton beam of the lesion to be treated. The basic components of the system are an adjustable chair, a series of video cameras and two computers. The specifications for the proton therapy interlock system require that the inputs to and the outputs from the system be similar to those of the neutron therapy system. Additional facilities such as a full diagnostic system which would assist the operators in the event of an error will also be provided. Dosimeters are required for beam monitoring, for monitor calibration and for determining dose distributions. Several designs of transmission ionization chambers for beam monitoring have been designed and tested, while several types of ionization chambers and diodes have been used for the dose distribution measurements. To facilitate the comparison of measured ranges and energy losses of proton beams in the various materials with tabled values, simple empirical approximations, which are sufficiently accurate for most applications, have been used. 10 refs., 10 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Radiation therapy for chordomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hajime; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakamura, Yuji; Niibe, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    Chordomas are slow-growing primary malignant bone tumors which originate from remnants of the fetal notochordal system. They are difficult to control by surgery alone. Four patients with chordomas treated with radiation therapy were studied, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was evaluated. These 4 (3.8%) patients were among 106 patients with primary malignant bone tumors referred to us from 1959 to 1987. Primary sites were the sacrococcygeal region in three patients and the clivus in one. The patients' ages ranged from 51 to 75 years. The male : female ratio was 1 : 1. Patients received 48 to 60 Gy of radiation to the primary sites. Because the radiosensitivity of the tumors was low, the responses were poor. The duration of survival was 6, 33, 68, and 125 months. The cause of death in each case was local recurrence of tumor. As a result, a dose greater than 60 Gy is thought to be necessary for curative radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy seems to be best choice for chordomas in the clivus, and mixed-beam (proton and megavolt age X-ray) therapy or multiportal irradiation, which gives an ideal spatial dose distribution, seems to be most suitable for sacrococcygeal chordomas. (author)

  16. [Family therapy of encopresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitczok von Brisinski, Ingo; Lüttger, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Encopresis is a taboo symptom, which is connected with great suffering from mental pressure not only for the children concerned, but also their relatives. Family related approaches are indispensable to understand encopresis, because as a result of high symptom persistence and psychological comorbidity in many cases a purely behavior-therapeutic, symptom focused approach is not sufficient, and further psychotherapeutic interventions are necessary. There is a strong temporal correlation between family interaction and frequency of soiling and changes of interaction influence changes in soiling more than the other way round. In a literature review different family relationship patterns and approaches of family therapy are represented regarding encopresis. Meaningful differences for family therapy are represented regarding primary/secondary encopresis, encopresis with/without comorbid psychiatric disorder as well as encopresis with/without dysfunctional family interaction. Distinctions are made between symptom focused, not-symptom focused and combined family therapeutic approaches, which are illustrated with case examples of outpatient and inpatient treatment. Symptom focused family therapy like e.g. externalizing of the soiling is helpful also if no dysfunctional family interaction patterns are present, because all family members can contribute to treatment success according to their own resources.

  17. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: dynamic MLC (DMLC) therapy, multisegment therapy and tomotherapy. An example of QA in DMLC therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1998-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy will make a quantum leap in tumor control. It is the new radiation therapy for the new millennium. The major methods to achieve IMRT are: 1. Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) therapy, 2. multisegment therapy, and 3. tomotherapy. The principles of these 3 techniques are briefly reviewed. Each technique presents unique QA issues which are outlined. As an example this paper will present the results of a recent new study of an important QA concern in DMLC therapy. (orig.) [de

  18. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene & Cell Therapy Defined Gene therapy and cell therapy are overlapping fields of biomedical research that aim to repair the direct cause of genetic diseases. Read More Gene & Cell Therapy FAQ's Read the most common questions raised by ...

  19. Proton therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities but with the development of more compact and reliable accelerators it is now possible to realistically plan for proton therapy in an Australian hospital. The Australian National Proton Project has been formed to look at the feasibility of a facility which would be primarily for patient treatment but would also be suitable for research and commercial applications. A detailed report will be produced by the end of the year. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. With the development of hospital-based facilities, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. . Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in

  20. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  1. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  2. Advances in inmune therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies either alone or combined with isotopes as radio immuno conjugates has proven to be very efficient treatment for cancers such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas or breast cancer. Cellular based immunotherapy treatment modalities are also currently in use. Allogeneic T lymphocytes infused during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HTSC) mediate graft-versus-tumour effects, but also initiate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which remains the primary complications of allogeneic HTSC. The current clinical need for GVHD prophylaxis, which at a minimum involves single agents immune suppression generally limits the success of allogeneic HTSC immunotherapy to patients with indolent or chemotherapy sensitive malignancy. Therefore the use of allogeneic HTSC as a cancer therapy still needs to augment the anti-tumour effects and improve GVHD control. During the presentation several ongoing studies addressing these questions will be discussed. Since 1996 more than 500 patients have been recruited into >30 clinical trials with dendritic cell vaccines. Most clinical trials used different protocols with variations in D C generation, Dc maturation stage, D C-Ag loading, route of administration, vaccination intervals and vaccination frequency. The overall response rate is 20%(0- >50%) with occasional complete or partial regressions, prolonged stable disease, but no cure. Little or no toxicity has been observed which might suggest that the vaccines do not work as efficient as expected. As will be discussed the reason for these modest clinical effects observed can be many. Therefore, careful study design and use of standardized clinical and immunological criteria are needed. Recently, we have started a process for production of TILs, antigen specific T cells. During our DC vaccine programs tumour specific T-cell clones have been developed and such T-cells might also be useful as therapy in the vaccinated patients. The principal of such therapy and the

  3. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N

    1975-10-01

    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  7. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  8. Metformin poisoning: which therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in metformintreated- patients. The authors report a case of metformin-associated lactic acidosis and discuss the appropriated therapy. The patient was treated with bicarbonate iv and with two short dialysis session, also because of acute renal failure. Many authors do not agree with using bicarbonate, and about hemodialysis some authors suggest that the session should go on at least 12 hours. In this case the use of bicarbonate and short hemodialysis determinated a favourable outcame.

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  10. Group therapy for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hribar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.

  11. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  12. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Androgen Receptor Conformation and Interactions in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaufele, Fred

    2007-01-01

    ... for prostate cancer treatment. Studies supported by this grant indicate that the failure of tumors to respond to anti-androgen therapy corresponded best with an increased nuclear transport of AR...

  13. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  14. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  15. Aperture modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, S M; Wu, Xiaodong; Takita, C; Watzich, M; Xing Lei

    2003-01-01

    We show that it is possible to translate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan and deliver it as a single arc. This technique is referred to in this paper as aperture modulation arc therapy (AMAT). During this arc, the MLC leaves do not conform to the projection of the target PTV and the machine output of the accelerator has a constant value. Dose was calculated using the CORVUS 4.0 IMRT system, which uses a pencil beam dose algorithm, and treatments were delivered using a Varian 2100C/D Clinac. Results are presented for a head and neck and a prostate case, showing the equivalence of the IMRT and the translated AMAT delivery. For a prostate AMAT delivery, coronal plane film dose for the IMRT and AMAT deliveries agreed within 7.19 ± 6.62%. For a meningioma the coronal plane dose distributions were similar to a value of 4.6 ± 6.62%. Dose to the isocentre was measured as being within 2% of the planned value in both cases

  16. Therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joseph; Poewe, Werner

    2012-08-01

    This review examines currently available therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, emphasizing evidence-based data as well as a patient-centered approach to the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although clinical trials of disease-modifying approaches have been thus far disappointing, steady advances are being made in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we focus on recent studies with monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (selegiline and rasagiline), coenzyme Q10, creatine, and exercise in early Parkinson's disease. We also discuss the relative merits and disadvantages of delaying the initiation of levodopa therapy, the role of dopamine agonists, particularly ropinirole and pramipexole, and management of motor and behavioral complications, such as fluctuations, dyskinesias and impulse-control disorders. Novel formulations and delivery approaches for conventional and new drugs are also discussed. Finally, we review recent studies of surgical treatments of Parkinson's disease, such as deep brain stimulation. Numerous clinical trials have provided evidence that health-related quality of life can be substantially improved with early diagnosis and institution of exercise and other physical measures, appropriate timing of dopaminergic therapy, and strategies to delay and treat levodopa-related motor complications and nonmotor Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

  17. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This is a report on the work of the joint research group of the Institute of Radiation Biology (Strahlenbiologisches Institut) of the university of Munich and the Department of Radiation Biology of the Society for Radiation and Environmental Research (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- u. Umweltforschung - GSF -) at Neuherberg. The presented results are not in all cases definitely confirmed or have, in part, merely provisional character. It is the target of the joint research to investigate problems of cancer therapy of practical impact in model form and to develop recommendations in discussions with therapists. Thus, the aim is not so much to examine mechanisms of action of certain radiations in detail but to look for the general rules they are governed by and to analyze the quantitative aspects of cancer therapy. To achieve this, a great variety of test models must be at hand. Numerous cell cultivies and tumors of mice resp. rats are therefore used. The acute reactions to irradiation are examined on the skin, the small intestine crypts, the bone marrow and spleen colonies of mice and the chronic reactions are tested on the colon and heart of rats and on the vascular connective tissue and kidneys of mice. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  19. Photon-activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors

  20. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy and...

  1. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  2. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  5. Gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Tan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Normally, differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) is a disease of good prognosis, but about 30% of the tumors are dedifferentiate, which are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as 'operation, 131 I therapy and thyroid hormone'. Both internal and abroad experts are researching a new therapy of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma--gene therapy. Many of them utilize methods of it, but follow different strategies: (1) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodide transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by 131 I therapy; (2) strengthening of the anti-tumor immune response; (3) suicide gene therapy; (4) depression the generation of tumor cells; (5) gene therapy of anti- vascularization. (authors)

  6. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two, six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the

  7. Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0515 TITLE: Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism PRINCIPAL...August 2012 – 21 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-0515...suggest a gut-microbiome-brain connection in autism, and identify a potential probiotic therapy for ASD. We have now developed assays for some of

  8. Different Approaches in Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf-Dieter eKortmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a cornerstone in the therapeutic management of craniopharyngioma. The close proximity to neighbouring eloquent structures pose a particular challenge to radiation therapy. Modern treatment technologies including fractionated 3-d conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and recently proton therapy are able to precisely cover the target while preserving surrounding tissue,Tumour controls between 80 and in access of 90 % can be achieved. Alternative treatments consisting of radiosurgery, intracavitary application of isotopes and brachytherapy also offer an acceptable tumour control and might be given in selected cases. More research is needed to establish the role of each treatment modality.

  9. Topiramate Therapy and Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topiramate (TPA adjunctive therapy on cognition in 22 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy were studied at the Montreal Neurological Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

  10. Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Madani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Recently, cell therapy has sparked a revolution in ischemic heart disease that will in the future help clinicians to cure patients. Earlier investigations in animal models and clinical trials have suggested that positive paracrine effects such as neoangiogenesis and anti-apoptotic can improve myocardial function. In this regard the Royan cell therapy center designed a few trials in collaboration with multi hospitals such as Baqiyatallah, Shahid Lavasani, Tehran Heart Center, Shahid rajaee, Masih daneshvari, Imam Reza, Razavi and Sasan from 2006. Their results were interesting. However, cardiac stem cell therapy still faces great challenges in optimizing the treatment of patients. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Cell therapy.  

  11. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  12. Antiviral therapy: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC) is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient's body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient's recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When sufficient

  13. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar AH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Amir Hashem Shahidi Bonjar Clinician Scientist, Institute of Applied Research in Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient

  14. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radder, D.L.M.; Sturkenboom, I.H.W.M.; Nimwegen, M. van; Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Vries, N.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in

  15. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres-Barrenechea, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    A ten year study (1988-98) was done at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center on radioiodine (RAI) therapy for hyperthyroidism. A total of 162 patients received 131-I after careful selection hence was included in this study. A predominantly female population was seen (81%) compared to only (19%) males. The most frequent age group were in the third and fourth decades of life. Those included had clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis aside from the abnormal thyroid function tests and elevated RAI uptake. Almost all were given antithyroid drugs and beta-blockers prior to RAI ablation. Doses ranged from 7 to 12 mCi depending on gland size and degree of toxicity. Success rate of treatment was 92% which meant that the symptoms were abated and there was shrinkage of the thyroid gland after a single dose of iodine. The most common short term complications were sialitis and local neck tenderness while hypothyroidism was the commonest long term complication. (author)

  16. Onychomycosis: features external therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zaslavsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis - one of the most frequent diseases with defeat of a nail bed, matrics and nail plate of a fungal origin. Frequency of an onychomycosis in Russia reaches 5% (to 15 million people, and practically every tenth visit of the dermatologist is connected with this pathology. Treatment of an onychomycosis still remains very difficult task. Application of varnishes, ointments with antimycotics and local agents on an oil basis has an essential shortcoming - insufficient receipt of a preparation to the center of pathological changes. It is supposed that for optimum therapy it is necessary to influence: first, from frontal and distal part of a nail, secondly, to apply aqueous-alcoholic solutions of a preparation which can freely get into subnail spaces with the phenomena of an onycholysis. For example, it has been shown highly efficient application of naftifina a hydrochloride under control of solution of the diamond green, showing diffusion distribution active ingredient to subnail space and on channels.

  17. Cell-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kitada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell transplantation is a strategy with great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and many types of stem cells, including neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells, are considered candidates for transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells are a great therapeutic cell source because they are easy accessible and can be expanded from patients or donor mesenchymal tissues without posing serious ethical and technical problems. They have trophic effects for protecting damaged tissues as well as differentiation ability to generate a broad spectrum of cells, including dopamine neurons, which contribute to the replenishment of lost cells in Parkinson's disease. This paper focuses mainly on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic cell source and discusses their potential clinical application in Parkinson's disease.

  18. Premature ejaculation. 3. Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I

    2004-12-01

    Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.

  19. Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Song, Ping Huang, Chun Zhang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve. Keywords: glaucoma, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, retinal ganglion cells, neuro­protection

  20. Accelerators for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decades circular and linear electron accelerators have been developed for clinical use in radiation therapy of tumors with the aim of achieving a high radiation dose in the tumor and as low as possible dose in the adjacent normal tissues. Today about one thousand accelerators are in medical use throughout the world and many hundred thousand patients are treated every day with accelerator-produced radiation. There exists, however, a large number of patients who cannot be treated satisfactorily in this way. New types of radiations such as neutrons, negative pions, protons and heavy ions were therefore tested recently. The clinical experience with these radiations and with new types of treatment procedures indicate that in future the use of a scanning beam of high energy protons might be optimal for the treatment of tumors. (orig.)

  1. [Limiting life sustaining therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, E

    2006-09-01

    Intensivists are increasingly implementing end-of-life decisions in patients who remain dependent on life sustaining therapies without hope for recovery. Descriptive studies have provided epidemiological data on ICU end-of-life care, identifying areas for improvement. Qualitative studies have highlighted the complexity of the decision making process. In addition to considering the legal and ethical issues involved, this review describes cultural, religious and individual variations observed in ICU end-of-life care. It is important for intensivists to respect patients' preferences and values, but also, in some family members, to avoid increasing the burden and the guilt of sharing the decision. Intensivists should improve their ability to meet the needs of dying patients and their family members. Each situation, patient, family and caregiver is unique, and therefore needs a specific approach. Introducing palliative care and multidisciplinary teams into the ICU might provide an additional opportunity for patients and families to be informed and listened to.

  2. [Therapy of hemorrhoidal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, A

    2006-08-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the most frequent disorders in western countries. The aim of individual therapy is freedom from symptoms achieved by normalisation of anatomy and physiology. Treatment is orientated to the stage of disease: haemorrhoids 1 are treated conservatively. In addition to high-fibre diet, sclerotherapy is used. Haemorrhoids 2 prolapse during defecation and return spontaneously. First-line treatment is rubber band ligation. Haemorrhoids 3 that prolapse during defecation have to be digitally reduced, and the majority need surgery. For segmental disorders, haemorrhoidectomy according to Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson is recommended. In circular disease, Stapler hemorrhoidopexy is now the procedure of choice. Using a therapeutic regime according to the hemorrhoidal disease classification offers high healing rates and low rates of complications and recurrence.

  3. Gene therapy for hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  4. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... in localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects...... on increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further...

  5. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This study was concentrated on the investigation of practically oriented problems of tumour therapy, under the application of possibly differing experimental test subjects, ranging from cell cultures to the living animal. The development of the test systems was advanced and some systems were replaced by new ones. An enrichment of great significance is also the fibrosarcoma SSK-2 of the C3H mouse, whose cells form colonies with an exploitation of about 50% when the explant is transferred directly to the cell culture. The subject matter of the experiments ranged from the effect of irradiation on cells in vitro to the proliferation kinetics of human tumours under treatment. As in the last year the main significance and attention was attributed to the analysis of time dependency in radiotherapy. The second main point were investigations on the interaction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, supplemented by experiments to the time dependency in chemotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Lesourd, Bruno; Castle, Stephen; Wikby, Anders; Franceschi, Claudio; Pawelec, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The primary role of the immune system is to protect the organism against pathogens, but age-associated alterations to immunity increase the susceptibility of the elderly to infectious disease. The exact nature of these changes is still controversial, but the use of screening procedures, such as the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying illness, helped to better characterize the changes actually related to physiological aging rather than pathology. It is generally agreed that the most marked changes occur in the cellular immune response reflecting profound alterations in T cells. Much of this is due to thymic involution as well as changes in the proportions of T cell subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible

  7. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  8. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  9. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  10. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of biological therapy is based on growing knowledge regarding the molecular changes required in cells for the development and progression of cancer to occur. Molecular targeted therapy is designed to inhibit the major molecular pathways identified as essential for a specific...

  11. When to start antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred M

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have traditionally focused on providing treatment to persons who stand to benefit immediately from initiating the therapy. There is global consensus that any HIV+ person with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/μl should initiate ART. However, it rema...

  12. A Feminist Family Therapy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leora; Piercy, Fred P.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on development and psychometric properties of Feminist Family Therapy Scale (FFTS), a 17-item instrument intended to reflect degree to which family therapists conceptualize process of family therapy from feminist-informed perspective. Found that the instrument discriminated between self-identified feminists and nonfeminists, women and men,…

  13. Learning theory and gestalt therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  14. Clinical databases in physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, I.C.S.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Bakker, D. de; Wees, Ph.J van der; Hart, D.L.; Deutscher, D.; Bosch, W.J.H. van den; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical databases in physical therapy provide increasing opportunities for research into physical therapy theory and practice. At present, information on the characteristics of existing databases is lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical databases in which physical therapists

  15. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  16. [Why proton therapy? And how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Habrand, Jean Louis; Lesueur, Paul; Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Kammerer, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Delphine; Batalla, Alain; Balosso, Jacques; Tessonnier, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost. It also addresses the technical and physical specificities of proton therapy and the clinical situations for which proton therapy may be relevant but requires evidence. Different proton therapy techniques are possible. These are explained in terms of their clinical potential by explaining the current terminology (such as cyclotrons, synchrotrons or synchrocyclotrons, using superconducting magnets, fixed line or arm rotary with passive diffusion delivery or active by scanning) in basic words. The requirements associated with proton therapy are increased due to the precision of the depth dose deposit. The learning curve of proton therapy requires that clinical indications be prioritized according to their associated uncertainties (such as range uncertainties and movement in lung tumors). Many clinical indications potentially fall under proton therapy ultimately. Clinical strategies are explained in a paralleled manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Statin therapy for the octogenarian?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-23

    Apr 23, 2011 ... placebo groups.41 A recent Cochrane meta-analysis identified three randomised trials of statin therapy in patients with established Alzheimer-type dementia. Statin therapy was not associated with improved cognition or functioning, although the results of one large randomised trial were still outstanding.42.

  18. Internal Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When getting internal radiation therapy, a source of radiation is put inside your body, in either liquid or solid form. It can be used treat different kinds of cancer, including thyroid, head and neck, breast, cervix, prostate, and eye. Learn more about how what to expect when getting internal radiation therapy.

  19. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  20. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  1. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  2. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century.

  3. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Fülöp

    2007-04-01

    subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible interventions that might one day become applicable in an appropriate ethical environment.Keywords: immunosenescence, T cells, phagocytic cells, nutrition, vaccination, exercise, CMV, inflammaging, IRP, immunorestorative therapies

  4. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, B.; Islam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine compliance, factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive therapy and to compare compliant and non-compliant groups, in a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Analytical (cross-sectional) study. Place and Duration of Study: The outpatient clinics at the Aga Khan University from May 2004 to February 2005. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients presenting to the outpatients clinic were included. All patients 18 years and above, who had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, had one clinic visit to a medicine clinic, 6 months prior to presentation and started on antihypertensive medicines, were included. Results: Sixty-six percent were males and 33.5 % were females. Mean age was 58.1 ( +- 12) years and mean duration of hypertension was 7.2 (+- 6.7) years. Fifty-seven percent were compliant and 43% were noncompliant. In the noncompliant group, 53.4 % had mild noncompliance, 24.4 % had severe non-compliance, while 22% had moderate noncompliance. Factors of noncompliance were 56.8% missed doses due to forgetfulness, 12.7% deliberately missed their doses, 11.6% could not take the medicine due to side effects, 10.4% did not take the dose due to increased number of tablets, 4.6% were not properly counseled by the physician and 3.48% did not take medicines due to cost issues. The mean systolic blood pressure was 126 +- 19.2 mmHg in the compliant group while it was 133 +- 16.5 mmHg in the noncompliant group (p-value 0.004). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the compliant group was 76 +- 11.9 mmHg, while in the noncompliant group it was 81.9 +- 10.9 mmHg (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy in a tertiary care center is significantly good. Forgetfulness was the major reason for noncompliance. The mean blood pressure control was better in the compliant group. (author)

  5. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an approved music therapy degree program, the music therapy student must complete an internship at an approved internship ... needs to play in every session, but rather, music therapy students choose one instrument to be their major instrument ...

  8. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inversion therapy: Can it relieve back pain? Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back ...

  9. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth / For Parents / Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  10. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  11. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  12. Antimetabolites: Established cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell death has been divided into two main types: programmed cell death, in which the cell plays an active role, and passive (necrotic cell death. Senescence arrest, accelerated senescence and differentiation are also responses that can be induced in response to DNA-damaging agents. Apoptosis may occur as a primary event following chemotherapy, in which genes that regulate apoptosis will influence the outcome of therapy or, alternatively, as an event secondary to the induction of lethal damage that involves the subsequent processing of cellular damage. The particular type of response induced is highly dependent on the agent and dose employed, the type of DNA damage induced as well as the genetic and cellular phenotypes. It has been proposed that apoptosis may play a lesser role in tumor response to radiation in comparison with the induction of cell death through mitotic catastrophe or a senescence-like irreversible growth arrest. However, in comparison with the induction of apoptosis, there is a lack of as much definitive information on other cell death processes that occur in cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents, including antimetabolites. This article reviews what is known about these processes at the present time in response to experimental or clinically used agents that are analogs of 5-fluorouracil, cytidine or purines, hydroxyurea, or that belong to the family of folate antagonists.

  13. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  14. Neurobrucellosis: Challenges for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Alothman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection throughout the world, and is endemic in Saudi Arabia. Neurobrucellosis is a rare, severe form of systemic brucella infection. Treatment of neurobrucellosis continues to be variable, depending on the location of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective patient chart review was undertaken from 1995 to 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, to identify cases of neurobrucellosis following a proposed case definition. Follow-up visits were evaluated to determine response to treatment. Results A total of 22 cases of neurobrucellosis were identified from a total of 517 cases of brucellosis. The mean patient age was 42.5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Most antibiotic combinations included doxycycline, rifampin, and cotrimoxazole (36%. Three patients received ciprofloxacin in combination with other antibiotics and showed a satisfactory response. Conclusion Combination of antibrucella antibiotics is recommended, but there are no clear guidelines regarding antibiotic selection and duration of therapy. The use of ciprofloxacin in cases of neurobrucellosis should be evaluated.

  15. Therapy of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Toru; Nakamori, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult diseases to cure. Japan pancreas society guidelines for management of pancreatic cancer indicate therapeutic algorithm according to the clinical stage. For locally limited pancreatic cancer (cStage I, II, III in Japanese classification system), surgical resection is recommended, however prognosis is still poor. Major randomized controlled trials of resected pancreatic cancer indicates that adjuvant chemotherapy is superior to observation and gemcitabine is superior to 5-fluorouracil (FU). For locally advanced resectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in Japanese classification system (JCS)), we perform neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Phase I study established a recommended dose of 800 mg gemcitabine and radiation dose of 36 Gy. For locally advanced nonresectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in JCS), chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is recommended. Although pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy resistant tumor, systemic chemotherapy is recommended for metastatic pancreatic cancer (cStage IVb in JCS). Single-agent gemcitabine is the standard first line agent for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy showed possibility of survival benefit of gemcitabine combination chemotherapy over gemcitabine alone. We hope gemcitabine combination chemotherapy or molecular targeted therapy will improve prognosis of pancreatic cancer in the future. (author)

  16. Meson radiobiology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgerman, M.M.

    1975-08-01

    High-linear energy transfer radiation (neutrons, heavy ions, and pions) have a greater relative biological effectiveness than low-linear energy transfer radiation by depositing a high density of ionization in irradiated cells. This overcomes the protective effect of oxygen; decreases the variation in sensitivity among the several stages of the cell cycles; and, inhibits the repair of sublethal damage as compared to x-rays, gamma rays, electrons and protons. Negative pi mesons (pions), appear particularly suited for radiation therapy as their penetration and depth-dose profiles lend themselves to shaping the high dose area to the tumor size and location. Preliminary biological experiments with pions produced at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility studied cell survival at various radiation depths and cell cycle sensitivity. Histologic study of data from the first human experiments indicated severe tumor cell destruction by pions as compared to x-rays in treating malignant melanoma skin nodules, without increased effects on dermal elements. (U.S.)

  17. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P; Keller, J; Lankisch, P G

    2001-04-01

    Malabsorption due to severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is one of the most important late features of chronic pancreatitis. Generally, steatorrhea is more severe and occurs several years prior to malabsorption of other nutrients because synthesis and secretion of lipase are impaired more rapidly, its intraluminal survival is shorter, and the lack of pancreatic lipase activity is not compensated for by nonpancreatic mechanisms. Patients suffer not only from nutritional deficiencies but also from increased nutrient delivery to distal intestinal sites, causing symptoms by profound alteration of upper gastrointestinal secretory and motor functions. Adequate nutrient absorption requires delivery of sufficient enzymatic activity into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with meal nutrients. The following recommendations are based on modern therapeutic concepts: 25,000 to 40,000 units of lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres, with dosage increases, compliance checks, and differential diagnosis in case of treatment failure. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed to optimize treatment.

  18. Pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The current pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis (SpA) includes several drugs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic drugs. A systematic literature search was completed using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), starting from 1995, with the aim to review data on traditional and biologic agents commercialised for SpA treatment. Randomised controlled trials and large observational studies were considered. In addition, studies performed in SpA patients treated with other, still unapproved, drugs (rituximab, anti-IL6 agents, apremilast, IL17 inhibitors and anakinra) were also taken into account. Biologic agents, especially anti-TNF drugs, have resulted in significant progress in improving clinical symptoms and signs, reducing inflammatory features in laboratory tests and imaging findings, and recovering all functional indexes. Anti-TNF drugs have radically changed the evolution of radiographic progression in peripheral joints; the first disappointing data concerning their efficacy on new bone formation of axial SpA has been recently challenged by studies enrolling patients who have been earlier diagnosed and treated. The opportunity to extend the interval of administration or to reduce the doses of anti-TNF agents can favourably influence the costs. Ustekinumab, the first non-anti-TNF biologic drug commercialised for psoriatic arthritis, offers new chances to patients that are unresponsive to anti-TNF.

  19. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  20. Laser therapy in sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Diaz, Adel; Orellana Molina, Alina; Larrea Cox, Pedro; Combarro Romero, Andres; Corcho Corcho, Carlos; Morales Valdes, Omar; Gonzalez Mendez, Bianka M.

    2009-01-01

    The sinusitis is an inflammation of one or more breasts peri-nasals. It is common in the months of winter and it can last months or years if it is not treat. At the moment we have several means that try to offer our patients a better treatment. One of these instruments is the low power laser that for their properties to the interaction with the biological tissues offers therapeutic effects on the alive tissues, achieving at the level cellular important changes for a quick answer of the damaged tissue. We intended to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment with low power laser in patient with sinusitis. It was carried out an explanatory and retrospective study, where it was applied as treatment the low power laser, for that which a team of model Cuban production Fisser 21. The feminine sex, the affected age group prevailed it was among 36 to 50 years for both groups, the maxillary sinusitis prevailed regarding the frontal. The migraine, the nasal obstruction and the sensation of congestion of the head were present in most of the cases. 75% of the patients' treaties noticed improvement of the symptoms between the 1st and 3rd sessions. At the end 80% cured without necessity of a second treatment cycle. The accompanying symptoms almost disappeared in their entirety. We recommend using the treatment of low power laser, as therapy of first line for the treatment of sinusitis of infectious cause. (Author)

  1. Viewpoint: Personalizing Statin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Keidar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, associated with vascular atherosclerosis, is the major cause of death in Western societies. Current risk estimation tools, such as Framingham Risk Score (FRS, based on evaluation of multiple standard risk factors, are limited in assessment of individual risk. The majority (about 70% of the general population is classified as low FRS where the individual risk for CVD is often underestimated but, on the other hand, cholesterol lowering with statin is often excessively administered. Adverse effects of statin therapy, such as muscle pain, affect a large proportion of the treated patients and have a significant influence on their quality of life. Coronary artery calcification (CAC, as assessed by computed tomography, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and especially presence of plaques as assessed by B-mode ultrasound are directly correlated with increased risk for cardiovascular events and provide accurate and relevant information for individual risk assessment. Absence of vascular pathology as assessed by these imaging methods has a very high negative predictive value and therefore could be used as a method to reduce significantly the number of subjects who, in our opinion, would not benefit from statins and only suffer from their side-effects. In summary, we suggest that in very-low-risk subjects, with the exception of subjects with low FRS with a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD at young age, if vascular imaging shows no CAC or normal CIMT without plaques, statin treatment need not be administered.

  2. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  3. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  4. Gene therapy and reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribley, John M; Rehman, Khurram S; Niu, Hairong; Christman, Gregory M

    2002-04-01

    To review the literature on the principles of gene therapy and its potential application in reproductive medicine. Literature review. Gene therapy involves transfer of genetic material to target cells using a delivery system, or vector. Attention has primarily focused on viral vectors. Significant problems remain to be overcome including low efficacy of gene transfer, the transient expression of some vectors, safety issues with modified adenoviruses and retroviruses, and ethical concerns. If these issues can be resolved, gene therapy will be applicable to an increasing spectrum of single and multiple gene disorders, as the Human Genome Project data are analyzed, and the genetic component of human disease becomes better understood. Gynecologic gene therapy has advanced to human clinical trials for ovarian carcinoma, and shows potential for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata. Obstetric applications of gene therapy, including fetal gene therapy, remain more distant goals. Concerns about the safety of human gene therapy research are being actively addressed, and remarkable progress in improving DNA transfer has been made. The first treatment success for a genetic disease (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) has been achieved, and ongoing research efforts will eventually yield clinical applications in many spheres of reproductive medicine.

  5. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  6. Nuclear medicine therapy of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    Specific targeting of radionuclides to neuroblastoma, a neural crest tumor occurring predominantly in young children and associated with a relatively poor prognosis, may be achieved via the metabolic route (Mibg), receptor binding (peptides) or immunological approach (antibodies). The clinical role of 1 31 I -Mibg therapy and radioimmunotherapy in neuroblastoma is discussed. In recurrent or progressive metastatic disease after conventional treatment modalities have failed, 1 31 I -Mibg therapy, with an overall objective response rate of 35%, is probably the best palliative treatment, as the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favourably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. In patients presenting with inoperable stage III and IV neuroblastoma, 1 31 I -Mibg therapy at diagnosis is at least as effective as combination chemotherapy but is associated with much less toxicity. In patients with recurrent disease 1 31 I -Mibg therapy in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy proved feasible and encouraging effects on survival have ben observed. Attempts to intensify the treatment in relapsed patients by combination of 1 31 I -Mibg therapy with high dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation have met with considerable toxicity. Developments in Mibg therapy aiming at improving the therapeutic index are mentioned. Early results of radioimmunotherapy using 1 31 I -UJ13A or 1 31 I -3F8 monoclonal antibodies have shown moderate objective response and considerable side effects in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma, who had relapsed or failed conventional therapy. New developments in radioimmunotherapy of neuroblastoma include the use of chimeric antibodies, the enhancement of tumor uptake by modulation of antigen expression or by increasing the tumor perfusion/vascularity/permeability, the use of other labels and multistep targeting techniques, e.g. using bispecific monoclonal antibodies

  7. Therapy: a new nonsurgical therapy option for benign thyroid nodules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of iodization programs, benign nodular thyroid disease will remain a prevalent therapeutic concern for decades. recent research suggests that nonsurgical therapy, including radioactive iodine, radiofrequency thermal ablation and percutaneous laser ablation, m...

  8. Play therapy in perspective theory of eco systemic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofwan Adiputra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Play therapy is a counseling approach for children applying toys, games, and other play media to communicate to the children "language." One of the Play therapy models that combine ecosystems as being formed by an inseparable reciprocal relationship between living things, and their environment is Eco systemic Play Therapy (EPT. Ecosystem Play Therapy as a hybrid model that integrates the concepts of science biology, several models of child psychotherapy, and developmental theories. This model is not eclectic. Rather, it is the integration of several models to create an independent model that is different from the sum of its parts. The focus of EPT is on the process of optimizing the implementation of the child's function as the context of the child's ecosystem or world. EPT is developed from a phenomenological philosophical perspective, in contrast to traditional perspectives.

  9. Proton-therapy and hadron-therapy ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnat, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ARCHADE project (Advanced Resource Center for Hadron-therapy in Europe), a research project in Carbone ion beam therapy and clinical Proton-therapy, this work investigates the beam monitoring and dosimetry aspects of ion beam therapy. The main goal, here, is to understand the operating mode of air ionization chambers, the detectors used for such applications. This study starts at a very fundamental level as the involved physical and chemical parameters of air were measured in various electric field conditions with dedicated setups and used to produce a simulation tools aiming at reproducing the operating response in high intensity PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning) coming from IBA's (Ion Beam Applications) next generation of proton beam accelerators. In addition, an ionization chamber-based dosimetry equipment was developed, DOSION III, for radiobiology studies conducted at GANIL under the supervision of the CIMAP laboratory. (author)

  10. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  11. Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists.

  12. Hadron accelerators in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.; Silari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadrontherapy Project (the largest project of this type in Europe) is then described, with reference to both the National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy and the design of two types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large number of hospitals. Finally, the radiation protection requirements are discussed. (author)

  13. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  14. Bone changes from prostaglandin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznanski, A.K.; Fernbach, S.K.; Berry, T.E.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin E therapy in infants causes periosteal elevation. Although the changes usually take 30-40 days to become visible, we have seen them as early as nine days. In 15 infants who had prostaglandin E therapy for over six days, three developed periosteal elevation. Three other cases are described in greater detail, with long-term follow-up in two in which the bone remodeled to normal. Gallium scan in one showed increased uptake in areas involved. The periosteal cloaking may mimic Caffey disease but the pattern of involvement is different, since the mandible, which is commonly affected in Caffey disease, is rarely involved in prostaglandin E therapy. (orig.)

  15. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around.

  16. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  17. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2017-10-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.

  18. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignant tumor in the female genital tract. Radiation therapy continues to play a major role in the management of endometrial carcinoma, both as primary therapy and as adjuvant treatment. The utility of pelvic external beam therapy and intracavitary therapy is long established. However, the modern era of surgical staging has lead to an appreciation of the role of radiation therapy beyond the pelvis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be of particular benefit in peritoneal and nodal spread. The classic management of endometrial cancer is reviewed and relatively new and somewhat controversial topics, such as preoperative intracavitary therapy followed by external beam therapy are discussed

  19. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaowen; Cao Yongzhen; Li Jin; Wang Qin

    2008-01-01

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  20. Therapy of the burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, diagnostics and therapy of the burnout syndrome are increasingly discussed in the public. The unclear definition and diagnostics of the burnout syndrome are scientifically criticized. There are several therapies with unclear evidence for the treatment of burnout in existence. The health technology assessment (HTA) report deals with the question of usage and efficacy of different burnout therapies. For the years 2006 to 2011, a systematic literature research was done in 31 electronic databases (e.g. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO). Important inclusion criteria are burnout, therapeutic intervention and treatment outcome. 17 studies meet the inclusion criteria and are regarded for the HTA report. The studies are very heterogeneous (sample size, type of intervention, measuring method, level of evidence). Due to their study design (e.g. four reviews, eight randomized controlled trials) the studies have a comparable high evidence: three times 1A, five times 1B, one time 2A, two times 2B and six times 4. 13 of the 17 studies are dealing with the efficacy of psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions for the reduction of burnout (partly in combination with other techniques). Cognitive behaviour therapy leads to the improvement of emotional exhaustion in the majority of the studies. The evidence is inconsistent for the efficacy of stress management and music therapy. Two studies regarding the efficacy of Qigong therapy do not deliver a distinct result. One study proves the efficacy of roots of Rhodiola rosea (evidence level 1B). Physical therapy is only in one study separately examined and does not show a better result than standard therapy. Despite the number of studies with high evidence the results for the efficacy of burnout therapies are preliminary and do have only limited reach. The authors of the studies complain about the low number of skilled studies for the therapy of burnout. Furthermore, they point to the insufficient evaluation of the therapy