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Sample records for antiandrogen flutamide therapy

  1. The efficacy of flutamide, an antiandrogen in idiopathic hirsutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani V

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of flutamide, an antiandrogen in idiopathic hirsutism was studied. The long term effects of. treatment with low doses of flutamide on clinical and hormonal parameters were investigated. Nine patients with idiopathic hirsutism were studied basally and during treatment with 125mg flutamide thrice daily for a period of 9 months. Safety parameters were assessed throughout the study. Hirsutism was graded by Ferriman and Gallwey score and hormones were evaluated basally and later quarterly. After three months of therapy, flutamide had caused a significant alleviation of hirsutism and this continued during the subsequent months. No clinical significant side effects were observed during the period of the study. Biochemical and hormonal parameters remained unchanged after 9 months of flutamide.

  2. Clinical outcomes of anti-androgen withdrawal and subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy for advanced prostate cancer following failure of initial maximum androgen blockade

    OpenAIRE

    MOMOZONO, HIROYUKI; Miyake, Hideaki; TEI, HIROMOTO; Harada, Ken-ichi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the significance of anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) who relapsed after initial maximum androgen blockade (MAB). The present study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 272 consecutive advanced PC patients undergoing anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy with flutamide following the failure of initial MAB using bicalutamide. With...

  3. Current aspects of antiandrogen therapy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, E

    1999-09-01

    Androgenic manifestations in appearance cause not only social and psychological distress for many women, but serious skin, reproductive and metabolic abnormalities as well. Antiandrogen therapy is one of the most promising therapies to treat androgenic disorders. Clinical studies with a variety of agents, including spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, flutamide and finasteride have now proven their utility in the treatment of hirsutism, acne, androgenic alopecia and ovulatory dysfuntion in hyperandrogenic women. Comparative clinical studies, especially with low-dose regimens, suggest that these agents are well tolerated and have the potential for broader clinical utility. PMID:10495361

  4. Flutamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antiandrogens. It works by blocking the effects of androgen (a male hormone) to stop the growth and ... Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw ...

  5. A novel finding: Anti-androgen flutamide kills androgen-independent PC-3 cells: A radiolabelled methyl-choline incorporation into tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: [Methyl-11C]-choline was introduced to image many types of cancers especially the prostate cancer. Al-Saeedi et al. reported that the incorporation of [Methyl-3H]-choline into breast tumour (MCF-7) cells correlated strongly with proliferation as determined by [Methyl-14C]- thymidine uptake. Also, Al-Saeedi, et al. showed that the chemotherapy using MCF-7 cells treated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced modulation in [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation and certain mechanisms for this modulation were reported. In this study, the androgen-dependent prostate tumour (LNCaP) cells were treated with the well known pure anti-androgen drug, flutamide, for three days. The cells were then incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 mint to detect the effect of flutamide on both cell proliferation and choline incorporation. At the same time, a preliminary work was established using androgen-independent PC-3 cells treated with flutamide as controls in this study. PC-3 cells were treated with a range of doses of flutamide inhibiting growth by 20[Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. [Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. - 70%. Treated and control cells were incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min, then in non-radioactive medium to simulate the rapid blood clearance of [Methyl-11C]-choline tracer in control and treated PC-3 cells, and then extracted with organic and aqueous solvents to determine its effect on the intracellular distribution of this tracer. Interesting results showed that flutamide killed the androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, PC-3 and mechanisms responsible for flutamide-induced modulation on [Methyl-3H]- choline incorporation were reported. The PC-3 cells' proliferation was inhibited by flutamide. In addition, treatment of PC-3 cells with flutamide for 3 days resulted

  6. A novel finding: Anti-androgen flutamide kills androgen independent PC-3 cells. A radiolabelled methyl-coline incorporation into tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [Methyl-11C]-choline was introduced to image many types of cancer, especially prostate cancer. Al-Saeedi et al. reported that the incorporation of [Methyl-3H]-choline into breast tumour (MCF-7) cells correlated strongly with proliferation as determined by [Methyl-14C]-thymidine uptake. Also, Al-Saeedi et al. showed that the chemotherapy using MCF-7 cells treated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced modulation in [Methyl- 3H]-choline incorporation and certain mechanisms for this modulation were reported. In this study, the androgen dependent prostate tumour (LNCaP) cells were treated with the well known pure anti-androgen drug, flutamide, for 3 d. The cells were then incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min to detect the effect of flutamide on both cell proliferation and choline incorporation. At the same time, a preliminary work was established using androgen independent PC-3 cells treated with flutamide as controls in this study. PC-3 cells were treated with a range of doses of flutamide, inhibiting growth by 20-70%. Treated and control cells were incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min, then in non-radioactive medium to simulate the rapid blood clearance of [Methyl- 11C]-choline tracer in control and treated PC-3 cells, and then extracted with organic and aqueous solvents to determine its effect on the intracellular distribution of this tracer. The results were interesting in that they showed that flutamide killed the androgen independent prostate cancer cells, PC-3, and the mechanisms responsible for flutamide induced modulation on [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation are reported. The PC-3 cell proliferation was inhibited by flutamide. In addition, treatment of PC-3 cells with flutamide for 3 d resulted in a buildup of cells in the S phase and [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation per a cell was found to be decreased in treated as opposed to untreated cells. In conclusion, flutamide inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation by a certain mechanism (unknown) other than

  7. The effect of non-steroidal antiandrogen flutamide on luteinizing hormone pulsatile secretion in male-to-female transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, M; Falivene, M R; Carraro, A; Cuttica, C M; Valenti, S; Giordano, G

    1995-06-01

    We evaluated LH pulsatile patterns before and 4 weeks after the oral administration of flutamide (750 mg/day) in 9 male-to-female transsexuals (age range 17-28 yr) requesting gender reassignment. Flutamide was given to explore the feedback role of androgens on the LHRH-LH unit in LH pulsatility in transsexuals. Seven normal age-matched men served as a control group, without receiving flutamide, due to ethical considerations. LH pulsatility was evaluated on samples collected every 15 min for 360 min. FSH, PRL, cortisol, SHBG and sex steroids were evaluated on pooled samples. LH pulses were analyzed by the Santen and Bardin algorithm, slightly modified. No differences in FSH, PRL, total- or free-testosterone, estradiol and SHBG levels were noted between transsexuals and controls. Normal circadian cortisol decline was observed in all subjects. Mean LH levels (p < 0.05) and LH pulses (p < 0.01) were significantly lower in transsexuals. Flutamide induced an increase in mean LH and testosterone levels (p < 0.01). After flutamide administration there was an increase in LH pulse frequency (P < 0.01) and the frequency and amplitude of LH pulses in transsexuals were restored to levels observed in controls. No differences in FSH, PRL or estradiol levels were found after flutamide. These data suggest that a decrease in LH pulse frequency could be an endocrine marker in male-to-female transsexuals. An increase in endogenous androgen negative feed-back could be speculated in these subjects. However, normal testosterone levels indirectly suggest that a normal that a normal qualitative LH secretion is maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7594235

  8. The anti-androgen combination, flutamide plus finasteride, paradoxically suppressed LH and androgen concentrations in pregnant spotted hyenas, but not in males

    OpenAIRE

    Place, Ned J.; Coscia, Elizabeth M.; Dahl, Nancy J.; Drea, Christine M; Holekamp, Kay E.; Janet F Roser; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Weldele, Mary L.; Glickman, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    The androgen receptor blocker flutamide and the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride have been used in a variety of species to investigate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms by treating pregnant females or neonates at critical periods of sexual differentiation. Likewise, we have used these drugs to study the profound masculinization of the external genitalia in female spotted hyenas. However, a potential pitfall of administering flutamide, either alone or in combination with finasteride, is tha...

  9. Antiandrogen and hormonal treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J C

    1996-10-01

    In the treatment of acne in women, the use of antiandrogens and other hormonal approaches is a valuable alternative to standard therapy. These treatments that are based on physiologically sound principles produce gratifying results in selected women with acne, and are the primary treatment for women with hirsutism. The drugs discussed in this article include spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, flutamide, oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, finasteride, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Patient selection, pretreatment evaluation, and case studies also are discussed with an emphasis on practical applications. PMID:9238337

  10. Other antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J B

    1998-01-01

    Various substances of steroidal or nonsteroidal structure may serve as an alternative for the antiandrogenic treatment of acne. Compounds with antiandrogenic properties like cimetidine or ketoconazole are rarely administered for acne due to their weak effects. In contrast, spironolactone is an effective antiandrogen that shows good treatment effects in hirsutism and acne. Side effects occur frequently and are dose dependent. Isotretinoin--the most effective agent in acne therapy--has been under discussion for additional antiandrogenic properties for years. At present there is additional evidence for the antiandrogenic effects of isotretinoin. Regarding substances acting on both levels, androgen receptor binding and 5 alpha-reductase inhibition, the question is raised whether the term 'antiandrogen' should be amplified by including the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. This would pay tribute to the biological aspect of antiandrogenicity that takes into account not only the mode of action but also the effects of the substance. Under this aspect type 1 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors may gain attention in the future. PMID:9557251

  11. Anti-androgen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Salenave, Sylvie; Kerlan, Véronique; Galand-Portier, Marie-Béatrice

    2010-02-01

    1. Estrogen plus progestin contraceptives (EPP) are the first-line treatment of moderate hirsutism and acne in women of child bearing age (grade C). 2. CPA, 50mg/day, 20 days out of 28, associated with estrogen is the first-line treatment of "moderate to severe hirsutism" in women of childbearing age (grade C). 3. Spironolactone, given as a contraceptive, can be proposed as a second-line treatment in case of side effects or counter-indications to CPA in moderate to severe hirsutism (grade C) in women of childbearing age. No market authorization in this indication. 4. Flutamide or Finasteride are "only" to be used under the guise of contraception as a "thirdline therapy" in cases of severe hirsutism, the presence of side effects or counter-indications to EPP, CPA 50mg/day or spironolactone (grade C). No market authorization in this indication 5. There is no indication for GnRH analogs as an anti-androgen treatment in women of childbearing age given the current therapeutic alternatives (grade C) 6. Only long-term hair removal treatments can be proposed (grade C): electrolysis or laser hair removal. PMID:20096826

  12. Antiandrogens and androgen depleting therapies in prostate cancer: novel agents for an established target

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu; Clegg, Nicola J.; Scher, Howard I.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the androgen receptor is critical for prostate cancer growth at all points in the illness. Currently therapies targeting the androgen receptor, including androgen depletion approaches and antiandrogens, do not completely inhibit androgen receptor activity. Prostate cancer cells develop resistance to castration by acquiring changes such as AR overexpression that result in reactivation of the receptor. Based on understanding of these resistance mechanisms and androgen synthesis pa...

  13. Effects of Flutamide on [Methyl-3H]-Choline Uptake in Human Prostate Cancer-3 Cells: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saeedi, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography using [methyl-11C]-choline is effective in imaging many types of cancer, especially prostate cancer (PC). The antiandrogen flutamide is often used as part of the initial treatment of PC. Data on the effect of flutamide on and methylcholine incorporation into PC-3 cells are lacking in the experimental and literature work.

  14. Flutamide-induced liver toxicity including fatal hepatic necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe hepatic injuries in three patients who received flutamide prior to and during radiation treatment to make radiation oncologists aware of the need for careful monitoring of liver function during use of this drug. Methods and Materials: The records of three patients who developed abnormal liver function tests while undergoing total androgen suppression (TAS), as well as the literature concerning flutamide toxicity were reviewed and summarized. Results: Three of 34 patients treated with a TAS regimen incorporating flutamide developed significant hepatic abnormalities: elevated transaminases [2] and fatal hepatic necrosis [1]. Following the discontinuation of flutamide, two patients recovered fully. Unfortunately, the third patient's hepatic function continued to deteriorate, which culminated in his death. Transient elevations in serum transaminases, which do not exceed four times the upper limits of normal, are common and apparently without clinical significance. Unfortunately, idiosyncratic serious and/or fatal liver damage can occur. Significant liver toxicity may be obviated by monitoring of liver function tests (LFT) early in the course of flutamide therapy. Conclusion: The incidence of hepatic toxicity associated with flutamide may be higher than previously suggested. To prevent the development of serious hepatic dysfunction, all patients receiving flutamide should be monitored clinically for signs and symptoms referable to hepatic injury and with serial LFT. We recommend baseline LFT followed by serial LFT at weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 from the start of treatment with flutamide. Flutamide should be stopped promptly if significant liver abnormalities are detected

  15. Antiandrogen monotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolvenbag, G J; Iversen, P; Newling, D W

    2001-01-01

    %) and gynecomastia (49%) are the most common adverse events seen during monotherapy with this drug. In summary, the availability of bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy broadens treatment options for men with locally advanced prostate cancer, offering a viable and attractive alternative to castration in this patient......Nonsteroidal antiandrogens are generally used in conjunction with castration as combined androgen blockade. However, the changing profile of patients with prostate cancer has made monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen an attractive alternative therapeutic approach, offering potential quality......-of-life benefits over conventional treatment modalities. Of available antiandrogens, monotherapy with bicalutamide has been most extensively evaluated. Combined data from 2 studies at a median follow-up time of 6.3 years revealed no statistically significant difference in overall survival between bicalutamide 150...

  16. Flutamide effects on morphology of reproductive organs and liver of Neotropical Anura, Rhinella schneideri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Lara S; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Gomes, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-07-01

    Water contamination is one of the factors influencing the decline of amphibians. Flutamide is an antiandrogenic medicine that occurs as water contaminant. This compound especially affects the reproductive organs, but it can also show hepatotoxic effects. The Bufonidae family has a peculiar organ named Bidder's organ, considered by some authors as a rudimentary ovary, but capable to respond to some external stimuli. This study investigated flutamide effects on testes and Bidder's organ germ cells, liver pigmentation, and sexual hormones levels in Rhinella schneideri males. We randomly divided 15 males in three groups (N=5): two groups were injected with flutamide, at 1 and 5mg/kg, while the control group received only mineral oil, for 7days. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and the organs were sent to histological routine. In the testes, both treatments caused an increase in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and a decrease in spermatozoa and locular area. In the Bidder's organ, the final diplotene oocytes increased, but the initial diplotene, degrading and atresic oocytes reduced in both treatments. The lipofuscin in the Bidder's organ was not affected. In the liver, melanin and lipofuscin increased only for the 1mg/kg flutamide treatment. The 5mg/kg treatment did not affect the liver. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels did not vary compared with the control group. This compound has antiandrogenic activity, which can affect the spermatogenetic process. The decrease in degrading and atresic Bidderian oocytes indicated that flutamide could stimulate the organ, retarding the degradation processes. The increase in liver melanin, which has protective role, and lipofuscin, a sign of degradation, indicates that flutamide cause hepatotoxic effects. So we conclude that flutamide negatively affects the testes, especially by reducing the sperm area, and the liver, inducing cell degradation and producing protective responses. Furthermore, the compound

  17. [{sup 11}C]choline uptake with PET/CT for the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer: relation to PSA levels, tumour stage and anti-androgenic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Coradeschi, Elisa [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Picchio, Maria; Bettinardi, Valentino [Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Scattoni, Vincenzo [Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Department of Urology, Milan (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy); Freschi, Massimo [Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Department of Pathology, Milan (Italy); Fazio, Ferruccio [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy); National Research Council, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); Messa, Cristina [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); National Research Council, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Department Nuclear Medicine, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    The accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with [{sup 11}C]choline for the detection of prostate cancer is not well established. We assessed the dependence of [{sup 11}C]choline maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the prostate gland on cell malignancy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score, tumour stage and anti-androgenic hormonal therapy. In this prospective study, PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]choline was performed in 19 prostate cancer patients who subsequently underwent prostatectomy with histologic sextant analysis (group A) and in six prostate cancer patients before and after anti-androgenic hormonal therapy (bicalutamide 150 mg/day; median treatment of 4 months; group B). In group A, based on a sextant analysis with a [{sup 11}C]choline SUV{sub max} cutoff of 2.5 (as derived from a receiver-operating characteristic analysis), PET/CT showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 72, 43, 64, 51 and 60%, respectively. In the patient-by-patient analysis, no significant correlation was detected between SUV{sub max} and PSA levels, Gleason score or pathological stage. On the contrary, a significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation was detected between SUV{sub max} and anti-androgenic therapy both in univariate (r {sup 2} = 0.24) and multivariate (r {sup 2} = 0.48) analyses. Prostate [{sup 11}C]choline uptake after bicalutamide therapy significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared to baseline (6.4 {+-} 4.6 and 11.8 {+-} 5.3, respectively; group B). PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]choline is not suitable for the initial diagnosis and local staging of prostate cancer. PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]choline could be used to monitor the response to anti-androgenic therapy. (orig.)

  18. [11C]choline uptake with PET/CT for the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer: relation to PSA levels, tumour stage and anti-androgenic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with [11C]choline for the detection of prostate cancer is not well established. We assessed the dependence of [11C]choline maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in the prostate gland on cell malignancy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score, tumour stage and anti-androgenic hormonal therapy. In this prospective study, PET/CT with [11C]choline was performed in 19 prostate cancer patients who subsequently underwent prostatectomy with histologic sextant analysis (group A) and in six prostate cancer patients before and after anti-androgenic hormonal therapy (bicalutamide 150 mg/day; median treatment of 4 months; group B). In group A, based on a sextant analysis with a [11C]choline SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 (as derived from a receiver-operating characteristic analysis), PET/CT showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 72, 43, 64, 51 and 60%, respectively. In the patient-by-patient analysis, no significant correlation was detected between SUVmax and PSA levels, Gleason score or pathological stage. On the contrary, a significant (P max and anti-androgenic therapy both in univariate (r 2 = 0.24) and multivariate (r 2 = 0.48) analyses. Prostate [11C]choline uptake after bicalutamide therapy significantly (P 11C]choline is not suitable for the initial diagnosis and local staging of prostate cancer. PET/CT with [11C]choline could be used to monitor the response to anti-androgenic therapy. (orig.)

  19. Compound list: flutamide [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available flutamide FT 00044 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_...vitro/flutamide.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro.../flutamide.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/S...ingle/flutamide.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates

  20. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality of...... life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens...... castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg...

  1. Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenfei; Alyamani, Mohammad; Li, Jianneng; Rogacki, Kevin; Abazeed, Mohamed; Upadhyay, Sunil K; Balk, Steven P; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Auchus, Richard J; Sharifi, Nima

    2016-05-26

    Abiraterone blocks androgen synthesis and prolongs survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is otherwise driven by intratumoral androgen synthesis. Abiraterone is metabolized in patients to Δ(4)-abiraterone (D4A), which has even greater anti-tumour activity and is structurally similar to endogenous steroidal 5α-reductase substrates, such as testosterone. Here, we show that D4A is converted to at least three 5α-reduced and three 5β-reduced metabolites in human serum. The initial 5α-reduced metabolite, 3-keto-5α-abiraterone, is present at higher concentrations than D4A in patients with prostate cancer taking abiraterone, and is an androgen receptor agonist, which promotes prostate cancer progression. In a clinical trial of abiraterone alone, followed by abiraterone plus dutasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor), 3-keto-5α-abiraterone and downstream metabolites were depleted by the addition of dutasteride, while D4A concentrations rose, showing that dutasteride effectively blocks production of a tumour-promoting metabolite and permits D4A accumulation. Furthermore, dutasteride did not deplete the three 5β-reduced metabolites, which were also clinically detectable, demonstrating the specific biochemical effects of pharmacological 5α-reductase inhibition on abiraterone metabolism. Our findings suggest a previously unappreciated and biochemically specific method of clinically fine-tuning abiraterone metabolism to optimize therapy. PMID:27225130

  2. Treatment of female pattern hair loss with oral antiandrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinclair, R; Wewerinke, M; Jolley, D

    2005-01-01

    Background It has not been conclusively established that female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is either due to androgens or responsive to oral antiandrogen therapy. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of oral antiandrogen therapy in the management of women with FPHL using standardized photographic techni

  3. Update and future of hormonal therapy in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, Diane; Chen, WenChieh

    2003-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is an important component in the treatment of women with acne who may or may not have elevated serum androgens. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, flutamide or spironolactone. Recent research over the past several years has unraveled some of the details regarding the way that the skin and sebaceous glands synthesize and metabolize hormones. The knowledge gained from this work may provide an impetus for future drug discovery in the hormonal treatment of acne and lead to improvements in the care of our patients with acne. PMID:12566806

  4. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  5. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96 h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4 x 44 K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals.

  6. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available. PMID:18786497

  7. Molecular insight into the differential anti-androgenic activity of resveratrol and its natural analogs: in silico approach to understand biological actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandipan; Kumar, Avinash; Butt, Nasir A; Zhang, Liangfen; Williams, Raquema; Rimando, Agnes M; Biswas, Pradip K; Levenson, Anait S

    2016-04-26

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor reactivation during the androgen-independent stage of prostate cancer is mediated by numerous mechanisms including expression of AR mutants and splice variants that become non-responsive to conventional anti-androgenic agents. Resveratrol and its natural analogs exhibit varying degrees of anti-androgenic effects on tumor growth suppression in prostate cancer. However, the structural basis for the observed differential activity remains unknown. Here, anti-androgenic activities of resveratrol and its natural analogs, namely, pterostilbene, piceatannol and trimethoxy-resveratrol were studied in LNCaP cells expressing T877A mutant AR and atomistic simulations were employed to establish the structure activity relationship. Interestingly, essential hydrogen bonding contacts and the binding energies of resveratrol analogs with AR ligand binding domain (LBD), emerge as key differentiating factors for varying anti-androgenic action. Among all the analogs, pterostilbene exhibited strongest anti-androgenic activity and its binding energy and hydrogen bonding interactions pattern closely resembled pure anti-androgen, flutamide. Principal component analysis of our simulation studies revealed that androgenic compounds bind more strongly to AR LBD compared to anti-androgenic compounds and provide conformational stabilization of the receptor in essential subspace. The present study provides critical insight into the structure-activity relationship of the anti-androgenic action of resveratrol analogs, which can be translated further to design novel highly potent anti-androgenic stilbenes. PMID:27063447

  8. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalatkhah H

    2015-08-01

    first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma, it would be quite unreasonable to recommend clinical use of it before future studies replicate the results on its efficacy and safety. Keywords: Pigmentation disorders, topical, treatment, dermatology, anti-androgenic agents, acquired increased skin pigmentation, Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI Mexamete

  9. Effect of methanol extract of Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) on the fecundity and testosterone level in male rats exposed to flutamide in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantia, E A; Manfo, P F T; Beboy, N E; Travert, C; Carreau, S; Monsees, T K; Moundipa, P F

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of the methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) on testosterone level and fecundity/fertility in male rats exposed in utero to flutamide - an androgen receptor antagonist. For this purpose, 1.5- and 2.5 -month-old male rats exposed in utero to flutamide were treated with the MEBa (1 mg kg(-1) ) for 2 and 1 month respectively. Five days before the end of treatment, rats were housed with females to assess their fecundity/fertility. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and blood collected for the quantification of testosterone. Flutamide-exposed male rats showed a decrease in their ano-genital distance (AGD, P < 0.05) and were infertile. In normal (methylcellulose-exposed) animals, MEBa provoked an increase in testosterone level in 1.5- (P < 0.008) and 2.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.01) concomitantly with the improvement in their fecundity by 25%. In flutamide-exposed male rats, MEBa increased testosterone level in 1.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.001) without any effect on their fecundity; while in 2.5- month-old rats, MEBa did not affect the testosterone level but improved fecundity (by 25%) and fertility (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated the positive effect of MEBa to enhance fecundity/fertility in normal male rats and in rats exposed to the antiandrogen flutamide during their foetal life. PMID:21592171

  10. Radiotherapy for prevention and therapy of gynecomastia due to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer patients. A patterns-of-care-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Burkhard; Sautter, Verena; Melcher, Ute; Sautter-Bihl, Marie-Luise [Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Momm, Felix [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Gynecomastia is a frequent side effect of antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer and may compromise quality of life. Although it has been successfully treated with radiotherapy (RT) for decades, the priority of RT as a preferred treatment option has recently been disputed as tamoxifen was also demonstrated to be effective. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of indications, frequency, and technique of RT in daily practice in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. On behalf of the DEGRO-AG GCG-BD (German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy of Benign Diseases) a standardized questionnaire was sent to 294 RT institutions. The questionnaires inquired about patient numbers, indications, RT technique, dose, and - if available - treatment results. Moreover, the participants were asked whether they were interested in participating in a prospective study. From a total of 294 institutions, 146 replies were received, of which 141 offered RT for gynecomastia. Seven of those reported prophylactic RT only, whereas 129 perform both preventive and symptomatic RT. In 110 of 137departments, a maximum of 20 patients were treated per year. Electron beams (76%) were used most often, while 24% of patients received photon beams or orthovolt x-rays. Total doses were up to 20 Gy for prophylactic and up to 40 Gy for therapeutic RT. Results were reported by 19 departments: prevention of gynecomastia was observed in 60-100% of patients. Only 13 institutions observed side effects. Prophylactic and symptomatic RT is widely used in the German-speaking countries, but patient numbers are small. The clinical results indicate that RT is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment.

  11. Flutamide versus a cyproterone acetate-ethinyl estradiol combination in moderate acne: a pilot randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalatkhah H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Adalatkhah1, Farhad Pourfarzi2, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani31Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil; 3Statistics and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The use of oral flutamide is rarely investigated in acne therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral flutamide with that of a cyproterone-estradiol combination in treating acne lesions.Methods: A randomized clinical trial enrolled patients with moderate acne into two equal groups to receive either oral flutamide or the cyproterone-estradiol combination for 6 months. Lesion count, Acne Severity Index, and Global Acne Grading system (GAGS scores were used to assess improvement in acne lesions. The dichotomous measurement scale for primary endpoint assessment was defined as improvement from moderate to mild acne based on GAGS score. Patient satisfaction and dermal fat were also assessed. Intention to treat and per protocol analyses were done, reporting related effect sizes.Results: Both treatments resulted in substantial improvement in acne lesions. Although flutamide seemed to have higher efficacy, an intention to treat analysis did not find the two treatment protocols to be different. The relative risk in intention to treat analysis was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–1.6, and was 1.33 (95% CI 1.03–1.72 for the per protocol analysis. The number needed to treat for flutamide compared with the cyproterone-estradiol combination was 7.7 and 4.2 in the intention to treat and per protocol analyses, respectively.Conclusion: Flutamide appears to be more effective than a cyproterone-estradiol combination in some aspects of acne treatment, but this requires confirmation in a larger trial.Keywords: acne vulgaris, flutamide, cyproterone acetate, ethinyl estradiol, androgen antagonists

  12. Androgen actions in mouse wound healing: Minimal in vivo effects of local antiandrogen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Simanainen, Ulla; Cheer, Kenny; Suarez, Francia G; Gao, Yan Ru; Li, Zhe; Handelsman, David; Maitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this work were to define the role of androgens in female wound healing and to develop and characterize a novel wound dressing with antiandrogens. Androgens retard wound healing in males, but their role in female wound healing has not been established. To understand androgen receptor (AR)-mediated androgen actions in male and female wound healing, we utilized the global AR knockout (ARKO) mouse model, with a mutated AR deleting the second zinc finger to disrupt DNA binding and transcriptional activation. AR inactivation enhanced wound healing rate in males by increasing re-epithelialization and collagen deposition even when wound contraction was eliminated. Cell proliferation and migration in ARKO male fibroblasts was significantly increased compared with wild-type (WT) fibroblasts. However, ARKO females showed a similar healing rate compared to WT females. To exploit local antiandrogen effects in wound healing, while minimizing off-target systemic effects, we developed a novel electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold wound dressing material for sustained local antiandrogen delivery. Using the antiandrogen hydroxyl flutamide (HF) at 1, 5, and 10 mg/mL in PCL scaffolds, controlled HF delivery over 21 days significantly enhanced in vitro cell proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and human keratinocytes. HF-PCL scaffolds also promoted in vivo wound healing in mice compared with open wounds but not to PCL scaffolds. PMID:26873751

  13. TURP联合抗雄激素治疗晚期前列腺癌近期疗效%Short - term Efficacy of TURP Combined with Antiandrogen Therapy in Advanced Prostatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲世年

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨经尿道前列腺切除术(TURP)联合抗雄激素在晚期前列腺癌治疗中的效果.方法 对2008-2010年诊断为晚期前列腺癌合并LUTS的36例患者进行总结,分析TURP术前及术后3、6月患者的IPSS评分、最大尿流率、残余尿及QOL(quality of life)评分,放射免疫法检测治疗前后血清PSA的水平.结果 术后3月及6月IPSS评分、最大尿流率、残余尿及QOL评分与术前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).术后PSA水平呈下降趋势,术后3月及12月PSA水平较治疗前明显下降(P<0.05).手术后未见电切综合征的出现,无围手术期患者死亡.结论 TURP联合抗雄激素治疗晚期前列腺癌合并LUTS的患者,在短期内可以解决患者下尿路梗阻症状,改善生活质量,获得了较为满意的临床效果.%Objective To explore the therapeutic efficacy of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) combined with antiandrogen therapy in advanced prostatic cancer. Methods Thirty - six advanced prostate cancer patients accompanied with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were treated by TURP and antiandrogen therapy during the period of 2008-2010. IPSS, maximum urinary flow rate, residue urine (RU), serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and quality of life (QOL) were examined preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months after TURP. Results Compared with before TURP, IPSS, maximum urinary flow rate, RU, and QOL of the patients showed significant differences in 3 and 6 months after surgery (P<0.05). The serum level of PSA was reduced significantly (P<0.05). No severe adverse effect was found during perioperative period. Conclusions TURP combined with antiandrogen therapy in advanced prostatic cancer patients accompanied with LUTS can relieve the obstruction symptoms, improve the quality of life, and obtain satisfactory clinical efficacy.

  14. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  15. A phase III trial of zoladex and flutamide versus orchiectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Christensen, M G; Friis, E;

    1990-01-01

    combination therapy, whereas no statistically significant difference was found in subjective response to therapy, time to progression, and overall survival. Adverse effects were more commonly encountered in the pharmacologically treated patients. It is concluded that the combination of zoladex plus flutamide...

  16. Oral contraceptives as anti-androgenic treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, André; Poulin, Yves

    2002-07-01

    Although acne is seldom associated with high serum levels of androgens, it has been shown that female acne patients have definite increases in ovarian and adrenal androgen levels when compared to appropriate controls. As shown in several pilot and in multiple open and comparative studies, oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in causing a significant regression of mild to moderate acne. These results have been confirmed by multicentre randomized trials where low-dose OCs did not cause side effects different from those of the placebo-controlled group. The beneficial effect of OCs is related to a decrease in ovarian and adrenal androgen precursors; to an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which limits free testosterone; and to a decrease in 3a-androstenediol glucuronide conjugate, the catabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) formed in peripheral tissues. The estrogen-progestin combination containing cyproterone acetate (CPA) is particularly effective in treating acne, since this progestin also has a direct peripheral anti-androgenic action in blocking the androgen receptor. Only two open studies and one randomized study on small numbers of patients have reported some efficacy of spironolactone used alone or in combination with an OC in the treatment of acne. The new non-steroidal anti-androgens flutamide and finasteride are being evaluated for the treatment of hirsutism. Oral antibiotics are prescribed to patients with inflammatory lesions, where they are effective in decreasing the activity of microbes, the activity of microbial enzymes, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Concomitant intake of an OC and an antibiotic usually prescribed for acne does not impair the contraceptive efficacy of the OC. A second effective contraceptive method should be used whenever there would be decreased absorption or efficacy of the OC (digestive problems, breakthrough bleeding), lack of compliance and use of a type or dose of antibiotic different from that usually prescribed

  17. Desdiferenciação do câncer da próstata após terapia antiandrogênica Prostate cancer dedifferentiation following antiandrogen therapy: a morphological finding or an increased tumor aggressiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Moritz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O bloqueio androgênico neo-adjuvante em câncer da próstata produz involução do volume tumoral sem melhorar a evolução desses pacientes. Uma das explicações para esse fenômeno é a aquisição de comportamento mais agressivo pelas células tumorais remanescentes que, morfologicamente, apresentam aspecto mais indiferenciado após o bloqueio androgênico. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar a freqüência de desdiferenciação celular após tratamento antiandrog��nico e definir se a neoplasia remanescente apresenta sinais de maior agressividade biológica. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes portadores de câncer da próstata localmente avançado foram submetidos a tratamento antiandrogênico neo-adjuvante por quatro meses, seguido de prostatectomia radical. Foram comparados os escores de Gleason da biópsia e do espécime cirúrgico. Ademais, mediu-se o índice de proliferação celular, determinado por imunohistoquímica para o PCNA, sendo considerados positivos os testes com reação nuclear intensa. A porcentagem de núcleos positivos, determinada em 500 células, foi confrontada com as diversas categorias do escore de Gleason do espécime cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: Em 11 espécimes cirúrgicos (37% o escore de Gleason foi igual ou menor que o encontrado na biópsia, enquanto em 19 (63% o escore cirúrgico foi maior que o da biópsia (p 0,05. A mediana dos índices de proliferação celular foi de 9% para tumores confinados à glândula ou ao espécime e de 17% para os extraprostáticos (pBACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in prostate cancer induces tumor volume regression but does not improve outcome of the patient. A possible explanation for this phenomenon could be an increase of the residual tumor aggressiveness brought about by antiandrogen therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of tumor dedifferentiation following androgen blockade in prostate cancer and to determine if the

  18. The Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy as a Prostate Volume Reduction before Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki,Kenta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available From September 2003 to December 2005, 188 patients who visited our hospital and allied institutions for the purpose of prostate brachytherapy were administrated hormonal therapy for volume reductions before brachytherapy. The pretreatment and posttreatment of prostate volume using a transrectal ultrasound volumetric study and the types and duration of hormonal therapy were analyzed. We administered 91 patients with Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH agonist, 49 patients with anti-androgen (bicaltamide/flutamide, and 48 patients with maximum androgen blockade (MAB. The duration of the hormonal therapy was 1-3 months for 49 patients, 4-6 months for 59 patients, 7-9 months for 40 patients, 10-12 months for 32 patients, and over 13 months for 8 patients. Before the initiation of hormonal therapy, the mean prostate volume was 35.12 ml (11.04-78.71 ml, and the average of prostate volume before and after hormonal therapy was 36.79 ml and 24.79 ml, respectively (a 32.4% reduction. The prostate volume reduction rate was 32.0% for the LH-RH agonist only, 18.1% for the anti-androgen only and 41.2% for the MAB. No statistically significant difference was observed for the duration of hormonal therapy between 3 groups. A three-month course of the neoadjuvant LH-RH agonist indicated a sufficient volume reduction effectiveness for a large prostate volume.

  19. Widespread contamination of coastal sediments in the Transmanche Channel with anti-androgenic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Indiveri, Paolo; Rostkowski, Pawel; Horwood, Julia; Greer, Emily; Minier, Christophe; Pope, Nick; Langston, William J; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2015-06-30

    This study analysed the levels of androgen receptor antagonist activity in extracts of coastal sediments sampled from estuaries in southern UK and northern France. Anti-androgenic (AA) activity varied between <0.2 and 224.3±38.4μg flutamide equivalents/g dry weight of sediment and was significantly correlated with the total organic carbon and silt content of samples. AA activity was detected in tissues extracts of clams, Scrobicularia plana, sampled from a contaminated estuary, some of which was due to uptake of a series of 4 or 5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Initial studies also indicated that fractionated extracts of male, but not female, clams also contained androgen receptor agonist activity due to the presence of dihydrotestosterone in tissues. This study reveals widespread contamination of coastal sediments of the Transmanche region with anti-androgenic compounds and these contaminants should be investigated for their potential to disrupt sexual differentiation in aquatic organisms. PMID:25496695

  20. Utilization of bone densitometry for prediction and administration of bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases receiving antiandrogen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are recommended to have baseline and serial bone densitometry and receive bisphosphonates. The purpose of this community population study was to assess the utilization of bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. A cohort study of men aged 65 years or older with non-metastatic incident diagnoses of prostate cancer was obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-linked Medicare claims between 2004 and 2008. Claims were used to assess prescribed treatment of ADT, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonates. A total of 30,846 incident prostate cancer cases receiving ADT and aged 65 years or older had no bone metastases; 87.3% (n=26,935) on ADT did not receive either bone densitometry or bisphosphonate therapy. Three percent (n=931) of the cases on ADT received bisphosphonate therapy without ever receiving bone densitometry, 8.8% (n=2,702) of the cases on ADT received bone densitometry without receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, while nearly 1% (0.90%, n=278) of the cases on ADT received both bone densitometry and bisphosphonates. Analysis showed treatment differed by patient characteristics. Contrary to the recommendations, bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy are underutilized in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer

  1. Utilization of bone densitometry for prediction and administration of bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases receiving antiandrogen therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Abby; Khan, Muhammad A; Gujja, Swetha; Govindarajan, Rangaswmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are recommended to have baseline and serial bone densitometry and receive bisphosphonates. The purpose of this community population study was to assess the utilization of bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Methods A cohort study of men aged 65 years or older with non-metastatic incident diagnoses of prostate cancer was obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-linked Medicare claims between 2004 and 2008. Claims were used to assess prescribed treatment of ADT, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonates. Results A total of 30,846 incident prostate cancer cases receiving ADT and aged 65 years or older had no bone metastases; 87.3% (n=26,935) on ADT did not receive either bone densitometry or bisphosphonate therapy. Three percent (n=931) of the cases on ADT received bisphosphonate therapy without ever receiving bone densitometry, 8.8% (n=2,702) of the cases on ADT received bone densitometry without receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, while nearly 1% (0.90%, n=278) of the cases on ADT received both bone densitometry and bisphosphonates. Analysis showed treatment differed by patient characteristics. Conclusion Contrary to the recommendations, bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy are underutilized in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:25565887

  2. Utilization of bone densitometry for prediction and administration of bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases receiving antiandrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abby Holt,1 Muhammad A Khan,2 Swetha Gujja,3 Rangaswmy Govindarajan31Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, 2White River Health System, Batesville, 3Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USABackground: Prostate cancer subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA relapse who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT are recommended to have baseline and serial bone densitometry and receive bisphosphonates. The purpose of this community population study was to assess the utilization of bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer.Methods: A cohort study of men aged 65 years or older with non-metastatic incident diagnoses of prostate cancer was obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER-linked Medicare claims between 2004 and 2008. Claims were used to assess prescribed treatment of ADT, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonates.Results: A total of 30,846 incident prostate cancer cases receiving ADT and aged 65 years or older had no bone metastases; 87.3% (n=26,935 on ADT did not receive either bone densitometry or bisphosphonate therapy. Three percent (n=931 of the cases on ADT received bisphosphonate therapy without ever receiving bone densitometry, 8.8% (n=2,702 of the cases on ADT received bone densitometry without receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, while nearly 1% (0.90%, n=278 of the cases on ADT received both bone densitometry and bisphosphonates. Analysis showed treatment differed by patient characteristics.Conclusion: Contrary to the recommendations, bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy are underutilized in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer.Keywords: prostatic neoplasms, androgen antagonists, bone densitometry, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, osteoporosis

  3. Hepatotoxicidade pela flutamida em paciente sob tratamento para acne: relato de caso Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity during treatment of acne: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Duques de Amorim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A flutamida é agente antiandrogênico não esteróide usado no tratamento do câncer de próstata, da acne e do hirsutismo. Alguns casos de hepatotoxicidade grave têm sido apresentados na literatura com seu uso. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com 21 anos de idade, que apresentou significativa elevação das aminotransferases durante o tratamento para acne com flutamida, completamente resolvida após a descontinuação da droga. Discute-se o diagnóstico, a relação risco/benefício e conclui-se que a monitoração com exames que avaliem o fígado é imperativa e que a droga deve ser suspensa se houver elevação de aminotransferases, dada a possibilidade de disfunção hepática grave.Flutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgenic drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, acne and hirsutism. Some cases of severe flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 21-year-old female who presented with a significant increase of aminotransferase levels during the treatment of acne with flutamide, which resolved completely after discontinuation of the drug. We discuss the diagnosis, the risk/benefit ratio, and conclude that monitoring liver function tests is mandatory and that the drug should be discontinued if an increase in aminotransferase levels occurs, due to the possibility of severe liver dysfunction.

  4. Novel, potent anti-androgens of therapeutic potential: recent advances and promising developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasaitis, Tadas S; Njar, Vincent C O

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of androgen ablation has been well established in prostate cancer therapy. Despite the initial response, patients typically relapse with a more aggressive form described as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRCP), driven by continued androgen receptor (AR) signaling. This review details the current state of anti-androgen therapy, mainly for CRPC, with major emphasis on the most potent and promising compounds under development. Anti-androgen failure has been linked to elevated AR expression, increased expression of coactivator proteins, AR mutations, ligand-independent AR activation and persistent intraprostatic androgens. MDV3100, BMS-641988 and VN/124-1 were developed to overcome these mechanisms. In CRCP, prostate cancer cells still rely on intracellular androgens and, to a greater extent, on active AR for growth and survival. Therefore, potent anti-androgens that efficiently disrupt the functions (signaling) of AR are envisioned to be effective drugs for all types of prostate cancers. PMID:21426013

  5. Interventions for hirsutism excluding laser and photoepilation therapy alone: abridged Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z

    2016-07-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder with a major impact on quality of life. The most frequent cause is polycystic ovary syndrome. Effects of interventions (except laser and light-based therapies) were evaluated, including Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation assessments. Searches included Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and five trials registers to June 2014. We included 157 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 10 550 participants. The majority were assessed as having a 'high risk' of bias (123 of 157). The quality of evidence was rated moderate to very low for most outcomes. Pooled data for an oral contraceptive (OCP) (ethinyl oestradiol and cyproterone acetate) compared with another OCP (ethinyl oestradiol and desogestrel) demonstrated that both treatments were effective in reducing Ferriman-Gallwey scores, but the mean difference (MD) was not statistically significant [-1·84, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3·86-0·18]. Flutamide was more effective than placebo in two studies (MD -7·60, 95% CI: -10·53 to -4·67 and MD -7·20, 95% CI: -10·15 to -4·25), as was spironolactone (MD -7·69, 95% CI: -10·12 to -5·26). Spironolactone appeared to be as effective as flutamide (two studies) and finasteride (two studies). However, finasteride and the gonadotropin-releasing analogues showed discrepant results in several RCTs. Metformin was ineffective. Cyproterone acetate combined with OCPs demonstrated greater reductions in Ferriman-Gallwey scores. Lifestyle interventions reduced body mass index but did not show improvement in hirsutism, and although cosmetic measures are frequently used, no RCTs investigating cosmetic treatments were identified. RCTs investigating OCPs in combination with antiandrogens or finasteride vs. OCP alone, or the different antiandrogens and 5α-reductase inhibitors are warranted. PMID:26892495

  6. The Effect of Flutamide on Ovulation Induction in PCOS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Madani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder that affects various bodyorgans and requires comprehensive long term evaluation and management. The aim ofthis study was to evaluate effect of Flutamide on ovulation induction in PCOS patients.Materials and Methods: This prospective study applied triple blind method, a simpleconvenience sampling method, to induce ovulations of the ninety six PCOS patients.Patients were divided into two groups; group A included 53 subjects (received Flutamide+ Clomiphene Citrate and group B included 43 subjects (received placebo + ClomipheneCitrate. Ultrasound was carried to determine the size of follicles and growth rate of themduring follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Also, progesterone levels were measuredon days 19 and 21 of the menstrual cycle.Results: In this study, ninety six PCOS patients, in two treatment and control groups,were evaluated regarding to body mass index (BMI, cycle irregularity, age and numberof dominant follicles, duration of stimulation, endocrine profile and score of hirsutism.The obtained results revealed no significant differences between two groups.Conclusion: Flutamide does not affect ovulation improvement in PCOS patients undergoinginduction (Registration Number: IRCT 201105081141N10.

  7. Effects of Long-Term Flutamide Treatment During Development on Sexual Behaviour and Hormone Responsiveness in Rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, C E; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Estill, C T

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone exposure during midgestation differentiates neural circuits controlling sex-specific behaviours and patterns of gonadotrophin secretion in male sheep. Testosterone acts through androgen receptors (AR) and/or after aromatisation to oestradiol and binding to oestrogen receptors. The present study assessed the role of AR activation in male sexual differentiation. We compared rams that were exposed to the AR antagonist flutamide (Flu) throughout the critical period (i.e. days 30-90 of gestation) to control rams and ewes that received no prenatal treatments. The external genitalia of all Flu rams were phenotypically female. Testes were positioned s.c. in the inguinal region of the abdomen, exhibited seasonally impaired androgen secretion and were azospermic. Flu rams displayed male-typical precopulatory and mounting behaviours but could not intromit or ejaculate because they lacked a penis. Flu rams exhibited greater mounting behaviour than control rams and, similar to controls, showed sexual partner preferences for oestrous ewes. Neither control, nor Flu rams responded to oestradiol treatments with displays of female-typical receptive behaviour or LH surge responses, whereas all control ewes responded as expected. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus in Flu rams was intermediate in volume between control rams and ewes and significantly different from both. These results indicate that prenatal anti-androgen exposure is not able to block male sexual differentiation in sheep and suggest that compensatory mechanisms intervene to maintain sufficient androgen stimulation during development. PMID:27005749

  8. The Effect of Estradiol-17(beta), Goitrogen (T3), and Flutamide on Gene Expression in Medaka, Oryzias latipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.Haut, J

    2005-09-06

    Concern has been generated over the discovery of endocrine disrupting chemicals in rivers near sewage outflows. The presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals such as estradiol-17{beta} has been associated with a reduction of reproductive success in fish and an increase in the female phenotype and gonadal intersex in fish downstream of sewage treatment facilities. Such effects are believed to result from a disruption in the normal estrogenic pathways since estrogen plays a vital role in reproduction, sexual differentiation, the developments of secondary sex characteristics, and ovulation. Most studies have focused on the effect of a single endocrine disruptor on a single gene which does not provide for the interaction between genes. Microarray technology has made it possible to put an entire genome on a single chip so that researchers can get a clearer picture of the interaction of genes expressed in a cell and changes of said interactions when those cells are exposed to various conditions. Medaka males were exposed to known endocrine disruptors, estradial-17{beta} and goitrogen, and medaka females were exposed to flutamide. All treatments were then compared to controls. Total RNA was extracted from the livers of both treated and untreated males and hybridized to a microarray chip designed to have EST sequences specific to medaka. ESTs were identified through two-channel microarray analysis and compared to GenBank using blastn searches to identify up regulated genes. Choriogenins H and L, zona radiata, and vitellogenin, previously shown to be estrogen-induced in male fish were identified. Heat shock proteins (hsp70, hsp90, and hsp8) were also induced by estradiol-17{beta}, as was choriogenin Hminor. Exposure to goitrogen (T3) resulted in the induced expression of glutathione S-transferase and a GABA receptor protein in male medaka. Treatment with flutamide, an antiandrogen, caused the up regulation of choriogenin L, choriogenin Hminor, and zona radiata-2 in female

  9. Comparison of the effects of metformin, flutamide plus oral contraceptives, and simvastatin on the metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Mehrabian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive ages. It is associated with a range of disorders, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (IR, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, gestational, and type 2 diabetes, and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. There are different treatments available for PCOS. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of metformin, flutamide plus oral contraceptives (OCs, and simvastatin on the metabolic consequences of PCOS. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind clinical trial. The subjects were selected from a group of patient with PCOS and metabolic syndrome, who were referred to the midwifery clinic of Al-Zahra Hospital and Beheshti Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A total of 111 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: metformin, flutamide plus OCs, and simvastatin groups. The measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 months of therapy. Paired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and chi-square test were applied in this study. Results: A total of 102 subjects were analyzed in this study, 34 subjects were allotted in each group. The prevalence of IR was statistically different between three groups (P-value = 0.001. After a 6-month course, metformin showed larger reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS level (P-value 0.05. Conclusion: Metformin performed better in FBS reduction. Simvastatin had better performance in terms of reducing TG level and waist circumference.

  10. 经尿道铥激光前列腺切除术联合雄激素全阻断治疗晚期前列腺癌合并膀胱出口梗阻的疗效%Thulium laser resection of prostate and antiandrogen therapy in treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer accompanied by bladder outlet obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车建平; 黄建华; 彭波; 许云飞; 耿江; 罗明; 夏盛强; 刘丹; 郑军华

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察经尿道铥激光前列腺切除术联合雄激素全阻断治疗晚期前列腺癌合并膀胱出口梗阻的临床疗效.方法 选择2010年8月-2012年4月在同济大学附属第十人民医院行铥激光前列腺切除术联合雄激素全阻断治疗的晚期前列腺癌患者,观察患者手术前、后总前列腺特异性抗原(tPSA),最大尿流率(MFR),残余尿(RV),国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS)和生活质量评分(QOL)的变化或进展情况.结果 术后1、6、12个月,患者的tPSA水平、IPSS评分、QOL评分及RV均较术前显著降低(P值均<0.05),MFR较术前显著增高(P<0.05).术后12个月,患者的tPSA水平显著高于术后6个月(P<0.05),RV显著高于术后1、6个月(P<0.05).6例骨转移患者在随访期间均未出现新转移灶.1例患者随访至6个月,骨扫描提示T4椎体转移.结论 经尿道铥激光前列腺切除术联合雄激素全阻断治疗晚期前列腺癌合并膀胱出口梗阻简捷、安全、有效,是晚期前列腺癌姑息性治疗的一种重要方法.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of thulium laser resection combined with antiandrogen therapy in treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer accompanied by bladder outlet obstruction. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 49 patients diagnosed as advanced prostatic cancer accompanied by bladder outlet obstruction, who were treated in our hospital from August 2010 to April 2012 by thulium laser resection of prostate and antiandrogen therapy. The changes of total prostate specific antigen (Tpsa), maximum urinary flow rate (MFR), residual urine volume (RV), international prostate symptom score (IPSS), and quality of life (QOL) were observed before and after the operation. Results Compared with preoperative ones, Tpsa, IPSS, QOL score and RV were significantly decreased, and MFR were significantly increased 1, 6 and 12 months postoperatively (P<0. 05). Tpsa at 12 months posoperatively was

  11. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  12. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. ► Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. ► Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. ► Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. ► Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 μg/L) and flutamide (33 μg/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100 dph) to perform testicular germ cell count (histology), measurements of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) by

  13. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. T......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer.......The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. The...

  14. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. T......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer.......The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. The...

  15. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

  16. Transcripts of genes encoding reproductive neuroendocrine hormones and androgen receptor in the brain and testis of goldfish exposed to vinclozolin, flutamide, testosterone, and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2016-08-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a pesticide that acts as an anti-androgen to impair reproduction in mammals. However, VZ-induced disruption of reproduction is largely unknown in fish. In the present study, we have established a combination exposure in which adult goldfish were exposed to VZ (30 and 100 μg/L), anti-androgen flutamide (Flu, 300 μg/L), and androgen testosterone (T, 1 μg/L) to better understand effects of VZ on reproductive endocrine system. mRNA levels of kisspeptin (kiss-1 and kiss-2) and its receptor (gpr54), salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh3) and androgen receptor (ar) in the mid-brain, and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) in the testis were analyzed and compared with those of control following 10 days of exposure. kiss-1 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ and to Flu, while kiss-2 mRNA level was increased following exposure to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. gpr54 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu and 100 µg/L VZ with T. gnrh3 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ, to Flu, and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. The mid-brain ar mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. Testicular lhr mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu. These results suggest that VZ and Flu are capable of interfering with kisspeptin and GnRH systems to alter pituitary and testicular horonal functions in adult goldfish and the brain ar mediates VZ-induced disruption of androgen production. PMID:26899179

  17. Rapid and sensitive reporter gene assays for detection of antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jørgensen, E.C.B.; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effective in vitro screening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were...

  18. Flutamide protects against trauma-hemorrhage-induced liver injury via attenuation of the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and apopotosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Wen-Hong; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Schwacha, Martin G.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Raju, Raghavan; Bland, Kirby I.; Chaudry, Irshad H.

    2008-01-01

    Although studies have shown that administration of testosterone receptor antagonist, flutamide, following trauma-hemorrhage, improves hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune functions, the precise cellular/molecular mechanisms responsible for producing these salutary effects remain largely unknown. To study this, male C3H/HeN mice were subjected to a midline laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (35 ± 5 mmHg for ∼90 min), followed by resuscitation with Ringer lactate. Flutamide (25 mg/kg) or vehicle w...

  19. Advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Riyanto, Puguh; Subchan, Prasetyowati; Lelyana, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is the commonest skin disorder, whereas soybean isoflavone had been proved as antiandrogen that is it can inhibit the enzyme 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5α-reductase. The purpose of this study is to prove the advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on AV. Methods: this study is a clinical study using randomized pretest-posttest control group design. This study is a study with 40 samples randomized into 2 groups, i...

  20. [Mechanism of effect and clinical use of antiandrogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, F E; Schneyer, U

    1977-04-15

    It is reported on the possibilities of the application of anti-androgenics, especially of cyproterone acetate. The indication extends to hirsutism, sexual deviations, growth disturbances in pubertas praecox as well as diseases of the prostate. Particularly strong standard are to be applied in the treatment of fertile women, as there exists the danger of an intrauterine feminisation of male foetuses, when a pregnancy was not absolutely excluded. Side-effects and results of animal experiments are mentioned. The therapeutic mechanism of the anti-androgenics can be explained with the help of a concurrency mechanism at the androgen receptor or acceptor. PMID:70117

  1. Flutamide-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in an In Vitro Rat Hepatocyte System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al Maruf; Peter O’Brien

    2014-01-01

    Flutamide (FLU) is a competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor which has been reported to induce severe liver injury in some patients. Several experimental models suggested that an episode of inflammation during drug treatment predisposes animals to tissue injury. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of FLU in isolated rat hepatocytes using an in vitro oxidative stress inflammation system were investigated in this study. When a nontoxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system (glucose/...

  2. Synthesis of Ag nanoparticles for the electrochemical detection of anticancer drug flutamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farzaneh Ahmadi; Jahan Bakhsh Raoof; Reza Ojani; Mehdi Baghayeri; Moslem Mansour Lakouraj; Hamed Tashakkorian

    2015-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified with p‐tert‐butylcalix[4]arene and p‐tert‐butylcalix[6]arene by the deposition of Ag+at an open circuit potential followed by the electrochemical reduction of the Ag+. The presence of the calixarene layer on the electrode surface controlled the particle size and prevented agglomeration. Cyclic voltam‐metry showed that the Ag nanoparticles on the modified glassy carbon electrode had good catalytic ability for the reduction of flutamide. The effects of calixarene concentration, potential applied for the reduction of Ag+, number of calixarene layers, and pH value on the electrocatalytic activity of the Ag nanoparticles were investigated. The modified electrode had a linear range in differential pulse voltammetry of 10−1000 µmol/L with a detection limit of 9.33 µmol/L for flutamide at an S/N=3. The method was applied to the detection of flutamide in practical samples.

  3. Spectral and structural studies of the anti-cancer drug Flutamide by density functional theoretical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, G.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive screening of the more recent DFT theoretical approach to structural analysis is presented in this section of theoretical structural analysis. The chemical name of 2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide is usually called as Flutamide (In the present study it is abbreviated as FLT) and is an important and efficacious drug in the treatment of anti-cancer resistant. The molecular geometry, vibrational spectra, electronic and NMR spectral interpretation of Flutamide have been studied with the aid of density functional theory method (DFT). The vibrational assignments of the normal modes were performed on the basis of the PED calculations using the VEDA 4 program. Comparison of computational results with X-ray diffraction results of Flutamide allowed the evaluation of structure predictions and confirmed B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) as accurate for structure determination. Application of scaling factors for IR and Raman frequency predictions showed good agreement with experimental values. This is supported the assignment of the major contributors of the vibration modes of the title compound. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its bioactivity, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The comparison of measured FTIR, FT-Raman, and UV-Visible data to calculated values allowed assignment of major spectral features of the title molecule. Besides, Frontier molecular orbital analyze was also investigated using theoretical calculations.

  4. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  5. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC10, EC25 and EC50 in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC10 mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC25 mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC50, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC25 level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  6. Quantification of antiandrogen effect determined by Lightcycler technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Vinggaard, Anne; Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    improved by measuring hormone levels as well as determining changes in gene expression of androgen-responsive genes. A real-time RT-PCR method using LightCycler technology (Roche) suitable for quantitative determination of gene expression is described. The technique combines rapid thermocycling with online...... testosterone with or without addition of flutamide or vinclozolin for 7 days in total. We show that we can quantify the level of gene expression by use of LightCycler technology, supported by changes in reproductive organ weights as well as in hormone levels, and that analysis of gene expression levels is an...

  7. QSAR models for anti-androgenic effect - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gunde Egeskov; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Wedebye, Eva Bay;

    2011-01-01

    Three modelling systems (MultiCase (R), LeadScope (R) and MDL (R) QSAR) were used for construction of androgenic receptor antagonist models. There were 923-942 chemicals in the training sets. The models were cross-validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 77-81%, specificity of 78-91% and...... sensitivity of 51-76%. The specificity was highest in the MultiCase (R) model and the sensitivity was highest in the MDL (R) QSAR model. A complementary use of the models may be a valuable tool when optimizing the prediction of chemicals for androgenic receptor antagonism. When evaluating the fitness of the...... anti-androgen, respectively). More research concerning the mechanism of anti-androgens would increase the possibility for further optimization of the QSAR models. Further expansion of the basis for the models is in progress, including the addition of more drugs....

  8. The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Jarfelt, Kirsten;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves...... for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 muM, respectively. Simazine and...... of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands...

  9. Voltammetric determination of anticancer drug flutamide at screen-printed carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Barek, J.

    Ústí nad Labem: BEST servis, 2011 - (Navrátil, T.; Barek, J.), s. 190-194 ISBN 978-80-254-9634-3. [Moderní elektrochemické metody /31./. Jetřichovice (CZ), 23.05.2011-27.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : creatine * screen-printed carbon electrodes * flutamide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  10. Change of the cell cycle after flutamide treatment in prostate cancer cells and its molecular mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Wei-Jun Qin; He Wang; Guo-Xing Shao; Chen Shao; Chang-Hong Shi; Lei Zhang; Hong-Hong Yue; Peng-Fei Wang; Bo Yang; Yun-Tao Zhang; Fan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore the effect of androgen receptor (AR) on the expression of the cell cycle-related genes, such as CDKN1A and BTG1, in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Methods: After AR antagonist flutamide treatment and confirmation of its effect by phase contrast microscope and flow cytometry, the differential expression of the cell cycle-related genes was analyzed by a cDNA microarray. The flutamide treated cells were set as the experimental group and the LNCaP cells as the control. We labeled cDNA probes of the experimental group and control group with Cy5 and Cy3 dyes, respectively, through reverse transcription. Then we hybridized the cDNA probes with cDNA microarrays, which contained 8 126 unique human cDNA sequences and the chip was scanned to get the fluorescent values of Cy5 and Cy3 on each spot. After primary analysis, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) tests were carried out to confirm the results of the chips. Results:After AR antagonist flutamide treatment,three hundred and twenty-six genes (3.93 %) expressed differentially, 97 down-regulated and 219 up-regulated.Among them, eight up-regulated genes might be cell cycle-related, namely CDC10, NRAS, BTG1, Weel, CLK3,DKFZP564A122, CDKN1A and BTG2. The CDKN1A and BTG1 gene mRNA expression was confirmed to be higher in the experimental group by RT-PCR, whilep53 mRNA expression had no significant changes. Conclusion: Flutamide treatment might up-regulate CDKN1A and BTG1 expression in prostate cancer cells. The protein expressions of CDKN1A and BTG1 play an important role in inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. CDKN1A has a great impact on the cell cycle of prostate cancer cells and may play a role in the cancer cells in a p53-independent pathway. The prostate cancer cells might affect the cell cycle-related genes by activating AR and thus break the cell cycle control.

  11. Risk of Hormone Escape in a Human Prostate Cancer Model Depends on Therapy Modalities and Can Be Reduced by Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, Charlotte; Céraline, Jocelyn; Gravier, Eléonore; Morin, Aurélie; Michel, Sandrine; Erdmann, Eva; de Pinieux, Gonzague; Cabon, Florence; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Poupon, Marie-France; Oudard, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Almost all prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation treatment but many recur. We postulated that risk of hormone escape -frequency and delay- are influenced by hormone therapy modalities. More, hormone therapies induce crucial biological changes involving androgen receptors; some might be targets for escape prevention. We investigated the relationship between the androgen deprivation treatment and the risk of recurrence using nude mice bearing the high grade, hormone-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PAC120. Tumor-bearing mice were treated by Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH) antagonist alone, continuous or intermittent regimen, or combined with androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (bicalutamide or flutamide). Tumor growth was monitored. Biological changes were studied as for genomic alterations, AR mutations and protein expression in a large series of recurrent tumors according to hormone therapy modalities. Therapies targeting Her-2 or AKT were tested in combination with castration. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tumor growth was inhibited by continuous administration of the LH-RH antagonist degarelix (castration), but 40% of tumors recurred. Intermittent castration or complete blockade induced by degarelix and antiandrogens combination, inhibited tumor growth but increased the risk of recurrence (RR) as compared to continuous castration (RRintermittent: 14.5, RRcomplete blockade: 6.5 and 1.35). All recurrent tumors displayed new quantitative genetic alterations and AR mutations, whatever the treatment modalities. AR amplification was found after complete blockade. Increased expression of Her-2/neu with frequent ERK/AKT activation was detected in all variants. Combination of castration with a Her-2/neu inhibitor decreased recurrence risk (0.17) and combination with an mTOR inhibitor prevented it. Anti-hormone treatments influence risk of recurrence although tumor growth inhibition was initially similar. Recurrent tumors displayed

  12. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre [Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50}. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of

  13. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examined...... the influence of perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals on prostate development. Wistar rats were exposed from gestation day 7 to postnatal day 22 to a mixture of 8 anti-androgenic compounds (AAMix), a mixture of four estrogenic compounds (EMix), or paracetamol or a...

  14. Systemic Therapy in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Ethan; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Oliver, Thomas K.; Carducci, Michael; Chen, Ronald C.; Frame, James N.; Garrels, Kristina; Hotte, Sebastien; Kattan, Michael W.; Raghavan, Derek; Saad, Fred; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Walker-Dilks, Cindy; Williams, James; Winquist, Eric; Bennett, Charles L.; Wootton, Ted; Rumble, R. Bryan; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Virgo, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide treatment recommendations for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Methods The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based recommendations informed by a systematic review of the literature. Results When added to androgen deprivation, therapies demonstrating improved survival, improved quality of life (QOL), and favorable benefit-harm balance include abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, and radium-223 (223Ra; for men with predominantly bone metastases). Improved survival and QOL with moderate toxicity risk are associated with docetaxel/prednisone. For asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men, improved survival with unclear QOL impact and low toxicity are associated with sipuleucel-T. For men who previously received docetaxel, improved survival, unclear QOL impact, and moderate to high toxicity risk are associated with cabazitaxel/prednisone. Modest QOL benefit (without survival benefit) and high toxicity risk are associated with mitoxantrone/prednisone after docetaxel. No benefit and excess toxicity are observed with bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib. Recommendations Continue androgen deprivation (pharmaceutical or surgical) indefinitely. Abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, or 223Ra should be offered; docetaxel/prednisone should also be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Sipuleucel-T may be offered to asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men. For men who have experienced progression with docetaxel, cabazitaxel may be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Mitoxantrone may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited clinical benefit and toxicity risk. Ketoconazole or antiandrogens (eg, bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited known clinical benefit. Bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib should not be offered. There is insufficient evidence to

  15. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Litwin Alan; Chadha Manpreet K; Lau Yiu-Keung; Trump Donald L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  16. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Alan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  17. Widely Used Pesticides with Previously Unknown Endocrine Activity Revealed as in Vitro Antiandrogens

    OpenAIRE

    Orton, F; Rosivatz, E; M. Scholze; Kortenkamp, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that there is widespread decline in male reproductive health and that antiandrogenic pollutants may play a significant role. There is also a clear disparity between pes¬ticide exposure and data on endocrine disruption, with most of the published literature focused on pesticides that are no longer registered for use in developed countries. Objective: We used estimated human exposure data to select pesticides to test for antiandrogenic activity, focusing on high...

  18. Rapid and Sensitive Reporter Gene Assays for Detection of Antiandrogenic and Estrogenic Effects of Environmental Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential antiandrog......Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential...... cancer cells with an estrogen response element–luciferase vector. Thus, FuGene may prove to be valuable in diverse reporter gene assays involving transient transfections for screening of potential endocrine disruptors for (anti)androgenic and (anti)estrogenic properties....

  19. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (Ml) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, Ml and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by in...

  20. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three...

  1. The effect of 125I labeled anti-androgen receptor agent on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Based on the previous experience of using anti-androgen receptor triple helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) to inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells, a 125I labeled TFO was prepared and tested in this experiment as an androgen receptor targeted antigene radiotherapy. Methods: 125I-TFO was labeled through Iodogen and then transfected LNCaP prostate cancer cells via liposome. The unlabeled TFO, 125I, and naturally cultured cells served as controls. The cellular proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolium tetrazolium (MTT) method, the expression of androgen receptor gene was carried out by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical study. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency, radiochemical purity and specific activity of 125I-TFO were 63.7%, 95.6% and 80.1 kBq/μg, respectively. At the same TFO concentration, the androgen receptor expression level in 125I-TFO treated cells was markedly lower than that of TFO group (P125I-TFO on cellular proliferation was significantly higher (P< 0.01). Conclusion: The inhibitory effect on androgen receptor expression and cell proliferation of prostate cancer cells of antigene therapy with radio-labeled TFO were significantly more obvious than that of classical antigene therapy. (authors)

  2. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. PMID:26812027

  3. Risk of hormone escape in a human prostate cancer model depends on therapy modalities and can be reduced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Guyader

    Full Text Available Almost all prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation treatment but many recur. We postulated that risk of hormone escape--frequency and delay--are influenced by hormone therapy modalities. More, hormone therapies induce crucial biological changes involving androgen receptors; some might be targets for escape prevention. We investigated the relationship between the androgen deprivation treatment and the risk of recurrence using nude mice bearing the high grade, hormone-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PAC120. Tumor-bearing mice were treated by Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH antagonist alone, continuous or intermittent regimen, or combined with androgen receptor (AR antagonists (bicalutamide or flutamide. Tumor growth was monitored. Biological changes were studied as for genomic alterations, AR mutations and protein expression in a large series of recurrent tumors according to hormone therapy modalities. Therapies targeting Her-2 or AKT were tested in combination with castration. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tumor growth was inhibited by continuous administration of the LH-RH antagonist degarelix (castration, but 40% of tumors recurred. Intermittent castration or complete blockade induced by degarelix and antiandrogens combination, inhibited tumor growth but increased the risk of recurrence (RR as compared to continuous castration (RR(intermittent: 14.5, RR(complete blockade: 6.5 and 1.35. All recurrent tumors displayed new quantitative genetic alterations and AR mutations, whatever the treatment modalities. AR amplification was found after complete blockade. Increased expression of Her-2/neu with frequent ERK/AKT activation was detected in all variants. Combination of castration with a Her-2/neu inhibitor decreased recurrence risk (0.17 and combination with an mTOR inhibitor prevented it. Anti-hormone treatments influence risk of recurrence although tumor growth inhibition was initially similar. Recurrent

  4. Antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Nellemann, Christine; Dalgaard, Majken; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Raun Andersen, Helle

    2002-01-01

    in LH and a reduction of the T(4) and TSH level. The effects on seminal vesicles, LH, T(4), and TSH were also evident in intact prochloraz-exposed young adult rats. Body weights were unaffected whereas liver weights were increased in prochloraz-treated animals. Changes in androgen-regulated gene...... effects of flutamide. However, differential effects on levels of FSH, T(4), and TSH indicate that other modes of action apart from the pure AR antagonism might play a role in vivo....

  5. Antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Dalgaard, M.; Jørgensen, E.B.; Andersen, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    in LH and a reduction of the T-4 and TSH level. The effects on seminal vesicles, LH, T-4, and TSH were also evident in intact prochloraz-exposed young adult rats. Body weights were unaffected whereas liver weights were increased in prochloraz-treated animals. Changes in androgen-regulated gene...... effects of flutamide. However, differential effects on levels of FSH, T-4, and TSH indicate that other modes of action apart from the pure AR antagonism might play a role in vivo....

  6. Antiandrogenic effects in short-term in vivo studies of the fungicide fenarimol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jacobsen, H.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Andersen, H.R.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2005-01-01

    The fungicide fenarimol has estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity and inhibits aromatase activity in vitro. We tested, whether fenarimol had antiandrogenic effects in vivo. In a Hershberger assay. fenarimol given orally to castrated testosterone-treated male. rats caused markedly reduced weights...... of ventral prostate, seminal vesicles. musc. levator anitbulbocavernosus, and bulbourethral glands. Qualitatively similar, but weaker, effects were also evident in intact fenarimol-exposed young adult males. except that prostates were not significantly affected. Changes in androgen-regulated gene...... down-regulation of PBP C3 mRNA and up-regulation of TRPM-2 mRNA levels. Serum T4 levels were reduced after fenarimol treatment and a tendency towards increased LH levels was seen. However. no effects on testosterone levels or testosterone production ex vivo could be revealed. Taken together these...

  7. Extracts from Pygeum africanum and other ethnobotanical species with antiandrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Sonja; Papaioannou, Maria; Baniahmad, Aria; Matusch, Rudolf

    2006-07-01

    Extracts from Pygeum africanum, Serenoa repens and Cucurbita pepo are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). The activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is known to control growth of the prostate. Here, we examined extracts of these plants for their antiandrogenic activity using an AR responsive reporter gene assay for drug discovery. A selective dichloromethane extract from the stem barks of Pygeum africanum revealed the highest antiandrogenic effect. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS) indicating that extracts of the stem bark of P. africanum harbour androgen antagonistic activity. This compound may provide a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of BPH and human PCa. PMID:16783690

  8. ANTIANDROGENIC PROPERTIES OF NEEM SEED OIL (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) IN MALE RAT AND RABBI’

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, J. D.; Jha, R. K.; Gupta, Ira; Jain, Prabha; Dixit, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed oil brings about a significant diminution in spermatozoan motility and density. It leads to reduction of fertility rate in rats and rabbits. The body weight of the animals remain unaffected but the weights of reproductive oranges declined. Reduction of cauda epididymal protein, sialic acid, acid phosphatase and seminal vesicular fructose concentration in rats and rabbits could bedue to antiandrogenic action of the seed oil as confirmed with the help of bioassay ...

  9. Development of a Second-Generation Antiandrogen for Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Chris; Ouk, Samedy; Clegg, Nicola J.; Chen, Yu; Watson, Philip A.; Arora, Vivek; Wongvipat, John; Smith-Jones, Peter M.; Yoo, Dongwon; Kwon, Andrew; Wasielewska, Teresa; Welsbie, Derek; Chen, Charlie; Higano, Celestia S.; Beer, Tomasz M

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is treated with drugs that antagonize androgen action but most patients progress to a more aggressive form of the disease called castration-resistant prostate cancer, driven by elevated expression of the androgen receptor. Here we characterize the diarylthiohydantoins RD162 and MDV3100, two compounds optimized from a screen for non-steroidal antiandrogens that retain activity in the setting of increased androgen receptor expression. Both compounds bind to the androg...

  10. Mind the gap: can we explain declining male reproductive health with known antiandrogens?

    OpenAIRE

    Kortenkamp, A; Scholze, M; Ermler, S

    2014-01-01

    Several countries have experienced rises in cryptorchidisms, hypospadias and testicular germ cell cancer. The reasons for these trends are largely unknown, but Skakkebaek has proposed that these disorders form a testicular dysgenesis syndrome and can be traced to androgen insufficiency in foetal life. This suggests that antiandrogenic chemicals might contribute to risks, but few chemicals have been linked to these diseases in epidemiological studies. In animal studies with p,p ′-dichlorodiphe...

  11. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    De Falco, Maria; Forte, Maurizio; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic p...

  12. Changed processing of visual sexual stimuli under GnRH-therapy - a single case study in pedophilia using eye tracking and fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Kirsten; Fromberger, Peter; Laubinger, Helge; Dechent, Peter; Müller, Jürgen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiandrogen therapy (ADT) has been used for 30 years to treat pedophilic patients. The aim of the treatment is a reduction in sexual drive and, in consequence, a reduced risk of recidivism. Yet the therapeutic success of antiandrogens is uncertain especially regarding recidivism. Meta-analyses and reviews report only moderate and often mutually inconsistent effects. Case presentation Based on the case of a 47 year old exclusively pedophilic forensic inpatient, we examine...

  13. Update of monotherapy trials with the new anti-androgen, Casodex (ICI 176,334). International Casodex Investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1994-01-01

    Casodex (ICI 176,334) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen, which has a half-life compatible with once-daily oral dosing. In an open, phase II study on 267 patients given Casodex, 50 mg/day, an overall objective response (i.e. partial regression) was seen in 55.5% of patients (146 of 263) with a...... open dose-ranging study. As no significant tolerability issues were reported, further investigation of Casodex at these higher doses is in progress. All studies in which Casodex has been investigated have shown it to be a well-tolerated anti-androgen with a good side-effect profile compared with those...... reported for other available non-steroidal anti-androgens....

  14. Effects of combined exposure to anti-androgens on development and sexual dimorphic behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    showed that the NOAEL values found were very close to the NOAELs used by various regulatory bodies. It was also clear that DEHP (di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) at a relatively low dose of 10 mg/kg bw/day caused adverse anti-androgenic effects on male rat development. The drug, finasteride was by far the...... combined effect of DEHP, vinclozolin,prochloraz and finasteride is synergistic with respect to malformations of external sex organs. To clarify, this thesis refers to effects which exceed expectations as synergism and those which meet expectations as additivity. Behaviour was a less sensitive endpoint than...

  15. Is there a role for antiandrogen monotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaisary, A V; Iversen, P; Tyrrell, C J;

    2001-01-01

    Castration is the most widely used form of androgen ablation employed in the treatment of metastatic (M1) prostate cancer. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy is a potential alternative treatment option for men for whom castration is unacceptable or not indicated. Of the three non...... with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level 400 ng/ml) may decide that quality of life and symptomatic benefits outweigh the slight survival disadvantage seen in clinical trials and opt for bicalutamide monotherapy as an alternative to castration.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2001) 4, 196-203....

  16. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...... into a distribution of Individual Margins of Exposure (IMoE). Additionally, uncertainties related to input parameters were evaluated. The cumulative risk assessment was performed using the Relative Potency Factor (RPF) approach. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reproductive endpoints in...

  17. Novel C-17-heteroaryl steroidal CYP17 inhibitors/antiandrogens: synthesis, in vitro biological activity, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity in the LAPC4 human prostate cancer xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handratta, Venkatesh D; Vasaitis, Tadas S; Njar, Vincent C O; Gediya, Lalji K; Kataria, Ritesh; Chopra, Pankaj; Newman, Donnell; Farquhar, Rena; Guo, Zhiyong; Qiu, Yun; Brodie, Angela M H

    2005-04-21

    New chemical entities, steroidal C-17 benzoazoles (5, 6, 9 and 10) and pyrazines (14 and 15) were rationally designed and synthesized. The key reaction for synthesis of the benzoazoles involved the nucleophilic vinylic "addition-elimination" substitution reaction of 3beta-acetoxy-17-chloro-16-formylandrosta-5,16-diene (2) and benzoazole nucleophiles, while that for synthesis of pyrazines involved palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 17-iodoandrosta-5,16-dien-3beta-ol (13) with tributylstannyl diazines. Some of the compounds were shown to be potent inhibitors of human CYP17 enzyme as well as potent antagonist of both wild type and mutant androgen receptors (AR). The most potent CYP17 inhibitors were 3beta-hydroxy-17-(1H-benzimidazole-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (5, code named VN/124-1), 3beta-hydroxy-17-(5(1)-pyrimidyl)androsta-5,16-diene (15) and 17-(1H-benzimidazole-1-yl)androsta-4,16-dien-3-one (6), with IC(50) values of 300, 500 and 915 nM, respectively. Compounds 5, 6, 14 and 15 were effective at preventing binding of (3)H-R1881 (methyltrienolone, a stable synthetic androgen) to both the mutant LNCaP AR and the wild-type AR, but with a 2.2- to 5-fold higher binding efficiency to the latter. Compounds 5 and 6 were also shown to be potent pure AR antagonists. The cell growth studies showed that 5 and 6 inhibit the growth of DHT-stimulated LNCaP and LAPC4 prostate cancer cells with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range (i.e., <10 microM). Their inhibitory potencies were comparable to that of casodex but remarkably superior to that of flutamide. The pharmacokinetics of compounds 5 and 6 in mice were investigated. Following s.c. administration of 50 mg/kg of 5 and 6, peak plasma levels of 16.82 and 5.15 ng/mL, respectively, occurred after 30 to 60 min, both compounds were cleared rapidly from plasma (terminal half-lives of 44.17 and 39.93 min, respectively), and neither was detectable at 8 h. Remarkably, compound 5 was rapidly converted into a metabolite

  18. Hormonal therapies in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James C

    2002-07-01

    Hormones, in particular androgen hormones, are the main cause of acne in men, women, children and adults, in both normal states and endocrine disorders. Therefore, the use of hormonal therapies in acne is rational in concept and gratifying in practice. Although non-hormonal therapies enjoy wide usage and continue to be developed, there is a solid place for hormonal approaches in women with acne, especially adult women with persistent acne. This review covers the physiological basis for hormonal influence in acne, the treatments that are in use today and those that show promise for the future. The main treatments to be discussed are oral contraceptives androgen receptor blockers like spironolactone and flutamide, inhibitors of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase and topical hormonal treatments. PMID:12083987

  19. Specific interaction of radioactive anti-androgen TSAA-291 with androgen receptor in rat prostates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steroidal anti-androgen TSSA-291 (16β-ethyl-17β-hydroxy-4-oestren-3-one) bound to a macromolecular component in the cytosol of rat ventral prostates with high affinity (Kdsub(d) = 5.0 x 10-9M) and in a saturable manner. The number of binding sites was comparable to that for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). [3H]TSAA-291 binding was effectively displaced by unlabelled 5α-DHT, 19-nortestosterone and cyproterone acetate but to a lesser degree by corticosterone. Glycerol density-gradient centrifugation analysis revealed that the sedimentation coefficient of the [3H]-TSAA-291-macromolecule complex was 3-4.5 S. However, when the unlabelled cytosol was fractionated by glycerol density-gradient centrifugation before the binding of [3H]TSAA-291 was examined, specific binding of [3H]TSAA-291 was observed in fractions corresponding to 8-10 S. Binding of the [3H]TSAA-291-macromolecules comples to prostatic nuclei and DNA-cellulose was considerably less than binding by the [3H]5α-DHT-macromolecule complex. Instability of the TSAA-291 binding coponent on heat treatment before and after complex formation was also revealed and the results are discussed in terms of the anti-androgenic activity of TSAA-291. (author)

  20. Mind the gap: can we explain declining male reproductive health with known antiandrogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scholze, Martin; Ermler, Sibylle

    2014-01-01

    Several countries have experienced rises in cryptorchidisms, hypospadias and testicular germ cell cancer. The reasons for these trends are largely unknown, but Skakkebaek has proposed that these disorders form a testicular dysgenesis syndrome and can be traced to androgen insufficiency in foetal life. This suggests that antiandrogenic chemicals might contribute to risks, but few chemicals have been linked to these diseases in epidemiological studies. In animal studies with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, effects typical of disruptions of male sexual differentiation became apparent when the foetal levels of this androgen receptor (AR) antagonist approached values associated with responses in in vitro assays. This prompted us to analyse whether the 22 chemicals with AR antagonistic properties would produce mixture effects in an in vitro AR antagonism assay when combined at concentrations found in human serum. Other antiandrogenic modalities could not be considered. Two scenarios were investigated, one representative of average serum levels reported in European countries, the other in line with levels towards the high exposures. In both situations, the in vitro potency of the 22 selected AR antagonists was too low to produce combined AR antagonistic effects at the concentrations found in human serum, although the high exposure scenario came quite close to measurable effects. Nevertheless, our analysis exposes an explanation gap which can only be bridged by conjuring up as yet undiscovered high potency AR antagonists or, alternatively, high exposures to unknown agents of average potency. PMID:24435164

  1. Chlormadinonacetat - ein progesteronähnliches Gestagen mit antiandrogener Partialwirkung in der oralen Kontrazeption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beier HM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Beunruhigende Tagesnachrichten der jüngsten Zeit über sprunghaft ansteigende Zahlen von Schwangerschaftsabbrüchen bei sehr jungen Mädchen und jungen Frauen veranlassen uns, das klassische Thema der oralen Kontrazeption, die "Pille", zum aktuellen Thema in diesem Beitrag zu erklären. Diese Problematik wirft weiterreichende als lediglich endokrinologische Fragen auf. In Verantwortung für die jungen Mädchen und Frauen ist unsere Gesellschaft gefordert, ein vorsorglich wirksames Beratungssystem zu garantieren, das junge Mädchen davor bewahrt, die eigenen Entwicklungsperspektiven durch allzu frühe Schwangerschaften gravierend verändert zu sehen. Jahrzehntelange klinische Erfahrungen zeigen, daß orale Kontrazeptiva sicher sind. Spezielle Gestagene, wie u. a. Chlormadinonacetat, die antiandrogene Partialwirkungen entfalten, erzielen positive therapeutische Effekte bei Symptomen, wie Dysmenorrhoe, Akne und fettigem Haar, welche gerade junge Mädchen und Frauen belasten, sodaß die Compliance entscheidend gefördert wird. Aus ärztlicher und aus reproduktionsmedizinischer Sicht empfehlen sich orale Kontrazeptiva, damit die jungen Mädchen nicht unwissend und unverhofft in viel zu jungem Alter mit Schwangerschaften und der Frage nach einem Abbruch konfrontiert werden. Gleichzeitig können wir nachdrücklich darauf hinweisen, die therapeutischen Effekte des klassischen Gestagens Chlormadinonacetat mit antiandrogener Partialwirkung zu nutzen.

  2. Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the androgenic potency of commonly used antimicrobials, an in vitro androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity assay was employed to evaluate the androgenic/antiandrogenic activity of parabens and selected other antimicrobials containing a phenolic moiety. This cell-based assay utilizes a stably transfected cell line that lacks critical steroid metabolizing enzymes and is formatted in a 96-well format. At a concentration of 10 μM, methyl-, propyl- and butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (parabens) inhibited testosterone (T)-induced transcriptional activity by 40%, 33% and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the major metabolite of parabens, had no effect on T-induced transcriptional activity. Triclosan inhibited transcriptional activity induced by T by more than 92% at a concentration of 10 μM, and 38.8% at a concentration of 1.0 μM (P < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of T-induced transcriptional activity was inhibited by thymol at 10 μM (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation and/or cytotoxicity were not observed in any of the treatments. None of the compounds appeared to be androgenic when tested individually without T. The data presented in this report demonstrate that some widely used antimicrobial compounds have antiandrogenic properties and warrant further investigation to fully understand their potential impact on human reproductive health

  3. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 4-nitrophenol (PNP) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been identified as a vasodilator. PNP is also a known degradation product of the insecticide parathion. We used uterotrophic and Hershberger assays to study the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of PNP in-vivo. In ovariectomized immature female rats injected subcutaneously with 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg PNP daily for 7 days, significant (P < 0.05) increases in uterine weight were seen in only those receiving 10 or 100 mg/kg PNP. Furthermore, in castrated immature male rats implanted with a silastic tube (length, 5 mm) containing crystalline testosterone and injected subcutaneously with 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg PNP daily for 5 days, those receiving the doses of 0.1 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) weight decreases in seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles, and glans penis. Plasma FSH and LH levels did not change in female rats but were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in male rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg PNP. These results clearly demonstrated that PNP has estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in-vivo. Our results therefore suggest that diesel exhaust emissions and the degradation of parathion can lead to accumulation of PNP in air, water, and soil and thus could have serious deleterious effects on wildlife and human health

  4. Cumulative reproductive effects of in utero administration of mixtures of antiandrogens in male SD rats: synergy or additivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1996 the USEPA was charged under the FQPA to consider the cumulative effects of chemicals in their risk assessments. Our studies were conducted to provide a framework for assessing the cumulative effects of antiandrogens. Toxicants were administered individually or as mixtures...

  5. Comparison of prostate gene expression and tissue weight changes as monitors of antiandrogen activity in GNRH-inhibited rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lefevre, P. A.; Ashby, J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Hershberger assay for antiandrogens and modifiers of steroid biosynthesis uses surgically-castrated rats. We described an adaptation of the assay using the GnRH inhibitor Antarelix in place of surgical castration [Ashby J, Lefevre PA, Deghenghi R, Wallis N. Regulatory Toxicology a...

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of four in vitro assays for assessing androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Wolfgang; Vinggaard, Anne; Terouanne, B.;

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated and compared four in vitro assays to detect androgen agonists and antagonists in an international interlaboratory study. Laboratory 1 used a cell proliferation assay (assay 1) with human mammary carcinoma cells stably transfected with human androgen receptor. The other laboratories...... used reporter gene assays, two based on stably transfected human prostate carcinoma cells (assay 2) or human mammary carcinoma cells (assay 4), and the third based on transient transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (assay 3). Four laboratories received four coded compounds and two controls: two...... calculated androgenic potencies relative to the positive control (RAPs) remained within one order of magnitude. However, laboratory 3 calculated a 50-fold higher RAP for 4-androsten-3,17-dione. All assays detected and quantified the antiandrogenic effect of vinclozolin [median inhibitory concentration (IC50...

  7. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  8. Considerazioni cliniche ed economiche nel trattamento del cancro della prostata: analisi costo-efficacia di bicalutamide vs flutamide in combinazione con LHRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Marchetti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate carcinoma (PC is the most common malign neoplasm found in men over 65 years of age. In Italy, the incidence of this cancer is around 60/100,000/year, corresponding to about 11,000 new cases each year. Patients with PC consume health resources for a cost that is 10-24% higher than that of similar populations without PC. It is estimated that in Italy, each year, there are 19,000 hospitalizations for prostate cancer in patients over 65, a figure that represents 4% of the total hospitalizations for oncological diseases. We conducted a marginal cost/effectiveness analysis of bicalutamide vs. flutamide, both administered in combination with LHRH, in patients with advanced (metastatic PC, on the basis of a randomized trial comparing 4 strategies of total androgenic blockade (TAB. The analysis was conducted in the perspective of the SSN (National health system. The comparison revealed that drug acquisition costs are not the only determinants of the economical differences between the two therapeutical strategies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that prolonged survival of the patients does not increase the consumption of health resources, since the chronological shift of the terminal phase reduces the value of the resources dedicated to it. When conducing the cost/effectiveness analysis, the survival advantage associated to bicalutamide has been adjusted to balance the low quality of life of PC patients. The pharmacoeconomical benefit of bicalutamide resulted of 12,150 Euro/QALY, while the cost per year of life saved resulted inferior, ranging from 8.327 to 11.440 Euro. This cost/QALY value is nevertheless lower than that associated to several therapeutical strategies that are commonly accepted in developed countries (domiciliar hemodialysis, heart transplantation, breast cancer screening, etc.. Considering that 12.150 Euro/QALY is the highest estimate of the relative cost/effectiveness of bicalutamide, it appears that the combination bicalutamide

  9. Sensitization of androgen refractory prostate cancer cells to anti-androgens through re-expression of epigenetically repressed androgen receptor - Synergistic action of quercetin and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Lokesh; Mohanty, Sujit K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Rajender, Singh; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-08-15

    Epigenetic repression of Androgen Receptor (AR) gene by hypermethylation of its promoter causes resistance in prostate cancer (CaP) to androgen deprivation therapy with anti-androgens. Some dietary phytocompounds like quercetin (Q) and curcumin (C) with reported DNMT-inhibitory activity were tested for their ability to re-express the AR in AR-negative CaP cell lines PC3 and DU145. Combined treatment with Q+C was much more effective than either Q or C in inhibiting DNMT, causing global hypomethylation, restoring AR mRNA and protein levels and causing apoptosis via mitochondrial depolarization of PC3 and DU145. The functional AR protein expressed in Q+C treated cells sensitized them to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced proliferation, bicalutamide-induced apoptosis, bound to androgen response element to increase luciferase activity in gene reporter assay and was susceptible to downregulation by AR siRNA. Bisulfite sequencing revealed high methylation of AR promoter CpG sites in AR-negative DU145 and PC3 cell lines that was significantly demethylated by Q+C treatment, which restored AR expression. Notable synergistic effects of Q+C combination in re-sensitizing androgen refractory CaP cells to AR-mediated apoptosis, their known safety in clinical use, and epidemiological evidences relating their dietary consumption with lower cancer incidences indicate their potential for use in chemoprevention of androgen resistance in prostate cancer. PMID:27132804

  10. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated therapy for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney K; Halldén G

    2016-01-01

    Katrina Sweeney, Gunnel Halldén Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Abstract: Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms t...

  11. Anti-androgen effects of the pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin on interactions of androgen receptor with corepressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In the mammalian two-hybrid assay, cypermethrin enhanced the AR–SRMT interaction, as well as the AR–NCoR interaction, and the significant enhancement was detected at the concentration of 10−5 M. - Highlights: • We have developed the mammalian two-hybrid assays. • The AR N terminus interacts with RIDs of SMRT and NCoR in the mammalian cells. • Cypermethrin enhances the interaction of AR with SMRT. • Cypermethrin enhances the interaction of AR with NCoR. - Abstract: To clarify whether the mechanism of androgen receptor (AR) antagonism of the pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin associates with the interactions between the AR and corepressors silencing mediator for thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), we have developed the mammalian two-hybrid assays. The AR N-terminal domain 1–660 amino acid residues were subcloned into the plasmid pVP16 to construct VP16-ARNTD. The C-terminal receptor interaction domains (RIDs) of SMRT and NCoR were used to construct pM-SMRT and pM-NCoR. The constructed vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-SMRT or pM-NCoR, the reporter pG5CAT and the control pCMVβ were cotranfected into the CV-1 cells. The cells were treated with cypermethrin at the indicated concentrations. The AR N terminus interacted with RIDs of SMRT and NCoR. The interactions between the AR and corepressors SMRT and NCoR were enhanced by cypermethrin, and the significant enhancement was detected at the concentration of 10−5 M. The mammalian two-hybrid assays demonstrate the utility to detect the interactions of the AR with SMRT and NCoR. Cypermethrin functions as an anti-androgen by enhancing the associations of the AR with SMRT and NCoR. We provide a novel mechanism in anti-androgen action of cypermethrin associated with the recruitment of SMRT and NCoR to AR

  12. Evaluation of 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5α-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5α-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5α-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5α-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5α-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5α-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  13. Oriental herbs as a source of novel anti-androgen and prostate cancer chemopreventive agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxuan L(U); Sung-Hoon KIM; Cheng JIANG; HyoJeong LEE; Junming GUO

    2007-01-01

    Androgen and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are crucial for the genesis of prostate cancer (Pca), which can often develop into androgen-ligand-indepen-dent diseases that are lethal to the patients. Recent studies show that even these hormone-refractory Pca require ligand-independent AR signaling for survival. As current chemotherapy is largely ineffective for Pca and has serious toxic side-effects, we have initiated a collaborative effort to identify and develop novel, safe and naturally occurring agents that target AR signaling from Oriental medicinal herbs for the chemoprevention and treatment of Pca. We highlight our discovery of decursin from an Oriental formula containing Korean Angelica gigas Nakal(Dang Gui) root as a novel anti-androgen/AR agent. We have identified the following mechanisms to account for the specific anti-AR actions: rapid block of AR nuclear translocation, inhibition of binding of 5α-dihydrotestesterone to Arand increased proteasomal degradation of AR protein. Furthermore, decursin lacks the agonist activity of the "pure" anti-androgen bicalutamide and is more potent than bicalutamide in inducing Pca apoptosis. Structure-activity analyses reveal a critical requirement of the side-chain on decursin or its structural isomerdecursinol angelate for anti-AR, cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic activities. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using activity-guided fractionation in cell culture assays combined with mechanistic studies to identify novel anti-andro-gen/AR agents from complex herbal mixtures.

  14. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  15. Low-dose perinatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces anti-androgenic effects in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad;

    2010-01-01

    demasculinizing effects of DEHP as well as investigating low dose effects. Our results demonstrate that DEHP at a relatively low dose of 10 mg/kg causes adverse anti-androgenic effects on male rat development. At this dose level, male anogenital distance was decreased, the incidence of nipple retention was...... increased, weight of levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle was reduced and mild external genitalia dysgenesis was observed. Higher doses of DEHP, i.e. from 100 mg/kg, additionally induced histopathological effects on the testes, reduced testicular and prostate weight, and reduced expres¬sion of androgen...

  16. Lack of estrogenic or (anti-)androgenic effects of d-phenothrin in the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoya; Ueda, Shinji; Yoshioka, Kaoru; Kawamura, Satoshi; Seki, Takaki; Okuno, Yasuyoshi; Mikami, Nobuyoshi

    2003-04-22

    Synthetic pyrethroids are among the most common insecticides and pesticides currently in use worldwide. Recently, d-phenothrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is suspected to have endocrine activities through the estrogen and androgen receptors. However, no study has been conducted to evaluate its potential for hormonal activity using an in vivo test specifically focused on estrogenic and androgenic activities. In this study, we evaluated the interaction of d-phenothrin (0, 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg per day, p.o.) with estrogen- or androgen-mediated mechanisms using in vivo short-term assays. While internationally standardized protocols for the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays have not yet been fully developed, both are widely used and are being considered by the OECD as short-term screening assays for hormonal activity. The highest dose level tested for d-phenothrin was a limit dose (1000 mg/kg per day) designated in the current draft protocol by the OECD, and in fact there was no excessive systemic toxicity in both assays; slightly increased liver weight but no change of serum androgen levels in accessing anti-androgenicity. Potential estrogenic effect of d-phenothrin was evaluated by means of 3-day uterotrophic assay using immature Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats (20 days of age). No increase in uterine weight (wet or blotted) was observed following oral exposure to d-phenothrin. Reference control ethynyl estradiol (0.001 mg/kg per day) showed a significant effect in this assay protocol. A 10-day Hershberger assay using castrated peripubertal male rats measures the androgenic or anti-androgenic effects of the test chemicals on several accessory glands/tissues (the ventral prostate, dorso-lateral prostate, seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles, glans penis and Cowper's glands). d-Phenothrin was administered by oral gavage for 10 days to castrated male Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats (7 weeks of age, rats were castrated at 6 weeks of age) with or

  17. A mutation in the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor of human LNCaP cells affects steroid binding characteristics and response to anti-androgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldscholte (Jos); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); G.W. Jenster (Guido); C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); H.J.H.M. Claassen (Eric); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); E. Mulder (Eppo)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract INCaP prostate tumor cells contain an abnormal androgen receptor system. Progestagens, estradiol and anti-androgens can compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor and can stimulate both cell growth and excretion of prostate specific acid phosphatase. We ha

  18. Bicalutamide Activated Oncolytic Adenovirus for the Adjuvant Therapy of High Risk Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamara Jane; Hoti, Naser Uddin; Liu, Chunyan; Chowdhury, Wasim H.; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yonggang; Lupold, Shawn E.; DeWeese, Theodore; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) utilize tissue specific promoters to control the expression of the early genes, E1A and E1B, to preferentially replicate and lyse tumor cells (oncolysis). Previous CRAds used in prostate cancer gene therapy require androgens to activate prostate specific promoters and induce viral replication. Unfortunately, these CRAds have reduced activity in patients on androgen suppressive therapy. We describe a novel prostate specific CRAd generated by fusing the E1A gene to the androgen receptor (AR) cDNA with a point mutation in codon 685 (C685Y). The E1A-AR fusion neutralizes the previously described mutual inhibition of E1A & AR, and the C685Y point mutation alters specificity of steroid ligand binding to the AR, such that both androgens and non-steroidal anti-androgens can activate viral replication. We demonstrate that the mutated E1A-AR retained the ability to function in regulating AR responsive genes and E1A responsive viral genes. In combination therapy of virus, bicalutamide (anti-androgen) and radiation, a profound impact on cell death by viral oncolysis was seen both in vitro and tumor xenografts. To our knowledge, this is the first gene therapy engineered to be enhanced by anti-androgens, and a particularly attractive adjuvant strategy for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of high-risk prostate cancers. PMID:23764901

  19. Antiandrogen monotherapy in patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; McLeod, David G; See, William A; Morris, Thomas; Armstrong, Jon; Wirth, Manfred P

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once-daily as immediate hormonal therapy in patients with prostate cancer or as adjuvant to radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.......To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once-daily as immediate hormonal therapy in patients with prostate cancer or as adjuvant to radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy....

  20. Antiandrogenic Therapy with Ciproterone Acetate in Female Patients Who Suffer from Both Androgenetic Alopecia and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. Androgenetic Alopecia in Women (AGA) occurs due to an underlying susceptibility of hair follicles to androgenic miniaturization, caused by androgens. Clinically, AGA is characterized by progressive hair loss, with a marked hair thinning in the fronto-parietal area so that the scalp can be easily seen. Acne vulgaris is androgen-dependent and often affects the skin that has an increased number of oil glands: face, back and chest. Although the sebaceous glands are present on the scal...

  1. Orchidectomy and oestrogen therapy revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    Over the past 20 years therapeutic options for prostate cancer have increased. Nevertheless, there may still be a role for long-established treatments such as orchidectomy and oestrogens. Orchidectomy is a simple surgical procedure, and patient survival is comparable with other treatments involving......, orchidectomy is indicated when an immediate reduction of testosterone levels is required, or the patient does not comply with other treatments or objects to the cost of medical therapy. Oestrogen therapy may be superior to castration in terms of efficacy, but orally administered oestrogens are associated with...... gynaecomastia, loss of sexual function and unacceptable cardiovascular toxicity. Low dose oestrogens in combination with antiandrogens or antithrombotic agents may be better tolerated treatments. The route of administration is a crucial factor in the genesis of cardiovascular toxicity and parenterally...

  2. Mathematical modeling of prostate cancer progression in response to androgen ablation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Harsh Vardhan; Clinton, Steven K.; Bhinder, Arvinder; Friedman, Avner

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer progression depends in part on the complex interactions between testosterone, its active metabolite DHT, and androgen receptors. In a metastatic setting, the first line of treatment is the elimination of testosterone. However, such interventions are not curative because cancer cells evolve via multiple mechanisms to a castrate-resistant state, allowing progression to a lethal outcome. It is hypothesized that administration of antiandrogen therapy in an intermittent, as opposed...

  3. Dysgenesis and histological changes of genitals and perturbations of gene expression in male rats after in utero exposure to antiandrogen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Dalgaard, Majken; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2007-01-01

    for these lesions, nor were there histopathological changes in the testes. Pronounced dysgenesis of external genitals was observed with all doses of the mixture, and severe dysgenesis was seen with a mixture for which the individual compounds caused no effects. A combination of doses of each chemical....... Exposure to antiandrogens, which appears to exert only small effects when judged on a chemical-by-chemical basis, may induce marked responses in concert with, possibly unrecognized, similarly acting chemicals....

  4. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for advanced prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, Frank; Grobe, Henrik R; Rücker, Gerta; Motschall, Edith; Antes, Gerd; Dahm, Philipp; Wullich, Bernd; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effects of non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for treating advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. We searched the Cochrane Prostatic Diseases and Urologic Cancers Group Specialized Register (PROSTATE), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, three trial registries and abstracts from three major conferences to 23 December 2013, together with reference lists, and contacted selected experts in the field and manufacturers. We included randomized controlled trials comparing non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy with medical or surgical castration monotherapy for men in advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. Two review authors independently examined full-text reports, identified relevant studies, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias as well as quality of evidence according to the GRADE working group guidelines. We used Review Manager 5.2 for data synthesis and the fixed-effect model as primary analysis (when heterogeneity was low with I(2) cancer-specific survival and biochemical progression remained unclear. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with medical or surgical castration monotherapy for advanced prostate cancer is less effective in terms of overall survival, clinical progression, treatment failure and treatment discontinuation resulting from adverse events. Evidence quality was rated as moderate according to GRADE; therefore, further research is likely to have an important impact on results for patients with advanced but non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy. PMID:25523493

  5. In vivo and in vitro anti-androgenic effects of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PBDEs have been synthesized in large quantities as flame retardants for commercial products, such as electronic equipment and textiles. The rising in levels of PBDEs in tissues in wildlife species and in human milk and plasma samples over the past several years have raised concerns about possible health effects. Recently, we showed that the PBDE mixture, DE-71, delayed puberty and suppressed the growth of androgen-dependent tissues in male Wistar rat following a peri-pubertal exposure. These effects suggested that DE-71 may be either inducing steroid hormone metabolism or acting as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. To elucidate the potential anti-androgenic effects of this mixture, we evaluated DE-71 in several in vivo assays, which are responsive to alterations in androgen activity. In a pubertal exposure study designed to further evaluate the delay in preputial separation (PPS), we observed a dose-dependent delay in PPS with 60 and 120 mg/kg/day of DE-71 (4 and 5 days) and a corresponding suppression of ventral prostate (VP) and seminal vesicle growth at both doses. Adult males exposed to 60 mg/kg DE-71 for 3 days resulted in a significant increase in luteinizing hormone and a non-significant increase in testosterone, androstenedione and estrone. DE-71 also tested positive for anti-androgenic activity in an immature rat Hershberger assay, with decreases in mean VP and seminal vesicle weight following doses of 30-240 mg/kg. DE-71 and the individual BDE congeners which comprise the mixture (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154) were also evaluated in vitro. First, AR binding was evaluated in a competitive binding assay using rat VP cytosol. In addition, we evaluated gene activation in a transcriptional activation assay using the MDA-kb2 cell line which contains an endogenous human AR and a transfected luciferase reporter. DE-71 and BDE-100 (2, 4, 6-pentaBDE) both inhibited AR binding, with IC50s of approximately 5 μM. In addition, DE-71 and two of the congeners (BDE

  6. Anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin on the amino- and carboxyl-terminal interaction of the androgen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Both the known AR antagonist nilutamide and the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction in the mammalian two-hybrid assay. However, cypermethrin was a weaker androgen antagonist than nilutamide. Highlights: ► We have developed the mammalian two-hybrid assay. ► The assay displayed appropriate response to DHT and nilutamide. ► The N/C interaction was induced by DHT in a dose-dependent manner. ► Nilutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. ► Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. -- Abstract: The pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin has been demonstrated to be an environmental anti-androgen in the androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene assay. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction is required for transcription potential of the AR. In order to characterize the anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin involved in the N/C interaction of AR, the mammalian two-hybrid assay has been developed in the study. The fusion vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-ARLBD and the pG5CAT Reporter Vector were cotransfected into the CV-1 cells. The assay displayed appropriate response to the potent, classical AR agonist 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and known AR antagonist nilutamide. The N/C interaction was induced by DHT from 10−11 M to 10−5 M in a dose-dependent manner. Nilutamide did not activate N/C interaction, while inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction at the concentrations from 10−7 M to 10−5 M. Treatment of CV-1 cells with cypermethrin alone did not activate the reporter CAT. Cypermethrin significantly decreased the DHT-induced reporter CAT expression at the higher concentration of 10−5 M. The mammalian two-hybrid assay provides a promising tool both for defining mechanism involved in AR N/C interaction of EDCs and for screening of chemicals with androgen agonistic and antagonistic activities. Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on the DHT-induced AR N

  7. Is hormonal treatment still an option in acne today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoli, V; Zauli, S; Virgili, A

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal treatment is indicated in cases of papulopustular, nodular and conglobate acne in females with identified hyperandrogenism, in adult women who have monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are unsuccessful or inappropriate. This review summarizes the latest information on hormonal therapies including: combined oral contraceptives; anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and flutamide; low-dose glucocorticoids and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. It also shares the authors' recommendations for treatment based on the studies discussed here, and personal experience. PMID:25627824

  8. [Our experience with hormonal therapy in transsexual patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Vladimír; Weiss, Petr; Fifková, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Hormonal therapy in transsexual patients (TS) includes sexagens administration: androgens in female-to-male transsexual patients (FtM) and oestrogens and antiandrogens in male-to-female transsexual patients (MtF). Duration of hormonal therapy should continue at least 1 year before gender reassignment surgery. Hormonal therapy supresses former gender and induces partially new gender changes. Hormonal therapy continues subsequently after surgery during life. Hormonal therapy in MtF TS includes oestrogens and antiandrogens application. In very young persons in both groups blocking gonadoliberin analogues can be used. In FtM TS testosterone oneself is given (orally and/or parenterally). Authors describe their own experiences with hormonal treatment in 282 TS (163 FtM and 119 MtF). During hormonal therapy statistically significant weight increasing was found in both groups. Total cholesterol increased in FtM. In MtF during hormonal therapy average prolactin level increased from 350.1 to 570.5 mU/l without clinical significance. Total average hormonal therapy duration was 6.73 years in FtM and 4.64 years in MtF and so overall therapy safety assessment is not possible. Any endocrinopathy occurence in the beginning of surveillance was found in 35 persons (12.4 %): simple goiter, autoimmune thyreoiditis, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, gynecomastia, DM type 1, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), Klinefelter syndrome and nonfunctional pituitary adenoma. It is appropriate as well as in other rare medicine conditions to manage diagnosing and therapy in centers with experience with these issues. PMID:25873114

  9. Applicability of lectin histochemistry in a test system with in ovo treatment for detecting androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemicals in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether analysis of the appearance of specific lectin-positive substances in the quail embryonic cloacal gland would be useful for evaluating the androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemicals. Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were injected with 0 to 75 µg of cyproterone acetate (CA), an antiandrogenic compound, on d 12 of incubation (d 12), followed by injection of 0 to 300 µg of testosterone propionate (TP) on d 13. Experimental groups consisted of a control group (corn oil injections on d 12 and 13), a TP-L group [corn oil and a low dose (L; 30 µg) of TP], a TP-H group [corn oil and a high dose (H; 300 µg) of TP], a CA-L + TP-H group [a low dose (L;7.5 µg) of CA + TP-H], and a CA-H + TP-H group [a high dose (H; 75 µg) of CA + TP-H]. The cloacal tissues were collected on d 16, processed into paraffin sections, and stained using 14 different biotinylated lectins. The Vicia villosa (VVA) lectin most strongly stained the developing cloacal glandular cells in TP-H. Western blotting analysis showed 1 VVA-positive band of approximately 75 kDa. The ratio of VVA-positive areas per unit square examined microscopically by image analysis was significantly greater in the TP-H group than in the control group in both males and females. The ratio was significantly decreased in the CA-L + TP-H and CA-H + TP-H groups compared with the TP-H group in both males and females. Furthermore, the ratio was smaller in females than in males within a TP-L or TP-H treatment group. These results suggest that lectin histochemistry on quail embryonic cloaca using VVA is useful for evaluating the androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemical compounds. PMID:21177456

  10. Anemia in patients on combined androgen block therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-XinQian; Li-XinHua; Hong-FeiWu; Yuan-GengSui; Shuang-GuanCheng; WeiZhang,JieLi; Xin-RuWang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of combined androgen block therapy on hemoglobin and hematocrit values in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate were treated with combined androgen block (orchiectomy and flutamide 250 mg, tid). Complete blood counts were determined before and after 1,2,3,6,9 and 12 months of therapy. Results: The hemoglobin and hematocrit levels declined significantly in all patients and at all the time points after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen block would develop obvious anemia. Recombinant human erythropoietin can be used to treat patients with severe anemia. (Asian J Androl 2004 Dec;6: 383-384)

  11. The suitability of concentration addition for predicting the effects of multi-component mixtures of up to 17 anti-androgens with varied structural features in an in vitro AR antagonist assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk

    2011-12-15

    The risks associated with human exposures to chemicals capable of antagonising the effects of endogenous androgens have attracted considerable recent interest. Exposure is typically to large numbers of chemicals with androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activity, yet there is limited evidence of the combined effects of multi-component mixtures of these chemicals. A few in vitro studies with mixtures of up to six AR antagonists suggest that the concept of concentration addition (CA) provides good approximations of experimentally observed mixture effects, but studies with larger numbers of anti-androgens, and with more varied structural features, are missing. Here we show that the mixture effects of up to 17 AR antagonists, comprising compounds as diverse as UV-filter substances, parabens, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenol-A, benzo({alpha})pyrene, synthetic musks, antioxidants and polybrominated biphenyls, can be predicted well on the basis of the anti-androgenicity of the single components using the concept of CA. We tested these mixtures in an in vitro AR-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, based on MDA-kb2 cells. The effects of further mixtures, composed of four and six anti-androgens, could be predicted accurately by CA. However, there was a shortfall from expected additivity with a ten-component mixture at two different mixture ratios, but attempts to attribute these deviations to differential expression of hormone-metabolising CYP isoforms did not produce conclusive results. CA provides good approximations of in vitro mixture effects of anti-androgens with varying structural features. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humans are exposed to a large number of androgen receptor antagonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is limited evidence of the combined effects of anti-androgenic chemicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modelled the predictability of combined effects of up to 17 anti-androgens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the

  12. Assessment of estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of the mycotoxin zearalenone and its metabolites using in vitro receptor-specific bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Real, Macarena; Jimenez-Diaz, Inmaculada; Belhassen, Hidaya; Hedhili, Abderazzak; Torné, Pablo; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2014-12-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a well-known mycotoxin present in numerous agricultural products. Humans and animals are therefore at a risk of exposure to zearalenone through consumption of contaminated food. After intake, ZEN is reduced to α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZEL and β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), and α- and β-zearalanol (α-ZAL and β-ZAL). Although their estrogenicity has been well characterized, much less is known about their interaction with other nuclear receptors. This study was undertaken to investigate interactions of ZEN and its five metabolites, with the human androgen receptor (hAR) and estrogen receptor alpha (hERα). Their ability to induce hAR-mediated reporter gene expression was examined in androgen-sensitive PALM cells, whereas the effects on hERα function were assessed in MCF-7 cells using the E-Screen bioassay. We confirm that ZEN and its metabolites are full agonists for hERα and demonstrate that all six compounds tested possess hAR-mediated antagonistic activity in PALM cells, in which ZAN, α-ZAL, and β-ZAL were the most effective hAR antagonists. Overall, the observed estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies of ZEN and its metabolites suggest that these compounds may interfere with the endocrine system by various modes of action and that further investigation is warranted into their role as endocrine disrupters in animals and humans. PMID:25455890

  13. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  14. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  15. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner. PMID:15380144

  16. Development of copepod nauplii to copepodites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, Bent;

    2001-01-01

    , known for their differing effects on the vertebrate estrogen system, were potent inhibitors of naupliar development. Other estrogens, 17b-estradiol, estrone, and bisphenol A, had little potency. Testosterone and progesterone did not inhibit development, but the antiandrogen flutamide had inhibitory...

  17. Treatment of metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen ablation has been the cornerstone of treating prostate cancers that have spread beyond the confines of the gland for over 50 years. It is achieved surgically by removal of the testes, or medically with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, exogenous estrogens, anti-androgens or adrenal enzyme synthesis inhibitors. Despite this long clinical experience, controversies remain as to when androgen ablation should be initiated - early vs. late; whether the simultaneous ablation of testicular and adrenal androgens should be considered 'standard' therapy; how long to continue treating patients who are responding - until progression or in an 'off and on' or 'intermittent' fashion; and, the value of changing in hormone treatments in patients who have failed primary therapy. In general, the duration of response to first line therapy ranges from 12-18 months although upwards of 20% of patients show no biochemical or clinical evidence of relapse within 5 year follow-up. The toxicities include hot flashes, a loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, gynecomastia, softening of the skin and beard, loss of muscle tone and personality changes. Treatment with anti-androgens such as flutamide, casodex or nilutamide alone, which do not lower serum testosterone levels, are similar in toxicities except for a lower frequency of impotence. However, in several studies, anti-androgen monotherapy has been shown to be inferior to those that lower serum testosterone levels. Our general approach is to offer combined androgen blockade as initial treatment and to monitor the patient serially. Those who show a normalization of PSA have a good prognosis, while those who do not are considered for alternative therapies

  18. Effectiveness and adverse effects of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: Japanese experience and perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikio Namiki; Satoru Ueno; Yasuhide Kitagawa; Takashi Fukagai; Hideyuki Akaza

    2012-01-01

    Recently,novel anti-androgens and inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis have been developed through the elucidation of mechanisms of castration resistance of prostate cancer.We believe that these new developments will improve hormonal therapy.On the other hand,there has been an increase in criticism of hormonal therapy,because hormonal therapy is supposed to induce adverse effects such as cardiovascular disease.In this review,we have introduced the Japanese experience of hormonal therapy,because we believe that there may be ethnic differences between Caucasians and Asian people in the efficacy and adverse effects of hormonal therapy.First,we showed that primary hormonal therapy can achieve long-term control of localized prostate cancer in some cases and that quality of life of patients receiving hormonal therapy is rather better than previously thought.Neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in cases undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy are very useful for high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer.Further clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy of neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormonal therapy.We showed that the death from cardiovascular diseases in Japanese patients receiving hormonal therapy was not higher than that in the general population.However,efforts should be made to decrease the adverse effects of hormonal therapy,because life-style change may increase the susceptibility to adverse effects by hormonal therapy even in Japan.Managements of endocrine and metabolic dysfunction,such as diabetes mellitus,are essential.New hormonal compounds such as selective androgen receptor modulators capable of specifically targeting prostate cancer are expected to be developed.

  19. A review of hormonal therapy for female pattern (androgenic) alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2008-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (female androgenetic alopecia) is a common, but puzzling, condition in women. Approximately 10 percent of pre-menopausal women show evidence of androgenetic alopecia. Age increases the incidence and 50-75 percent of women 65 years or older suffer from this condition. Only 2 percent topical mindoxidil is approved for treating female androgenetic alopecia. Reviews suggest that anti-hormonal therapy (e.g. cyproterone acetate, spironolactone) is helpful in treating female pattern alopecia in some women who have normal hormone levels. The use of hormonal therapies is most extensively studied in post-menopausal women. Several studies have suggested that cyproterone acetate with or without ethinyl estradiol and spironolactone can ameliorate female androgenetic alopecia in women with normal hormone levels, but larger controlled studies need to be done. Flutamide was found to be more effective than spironolactone or cyproterone in one study. Testosterone conversion inhibitors have been tried in post-menopausual women with normal hormone levels to treat alopecia. No study has shown that 1 mg of finasteride effectively treats female androgenetic alopecia but doses of 2.5 and 5 mg finasteride have helped some women in a few open studies. One case report notes the utility of dutasteride after finasteride failed. The role and place of anti-androgentic agents in female androgenetic alopecia in both pre and post-menopausal women remains to be fully defined. The need for effective agents is highlighted by the paucity of effective treatments and the substantial psychosocial impact of alopecia on women. PMID:18627703

  20. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Proton Therapy Proton therapy delivers radiation to tumor tissue ... feel during and after the procedure? What is proton therapy and how is it used? Protons are ...

  1. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  2. The survival analysis on localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively investigate clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy followed by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Between March 2003 and October 2008, 54 localized prostate cancer treated by IMRT were recruited. All patients had received endocrine therapy before IMRT. The endocrine therapy included surgical castration or medical castration in combination with antiandrogens. The target of IMRT was the prostate and seminal vesicles with or without pelvis. The biochemical failure was defined according to the phoenix definition. By using the risk grouping standard proposed by D'Amico, patients were divided into three groups: low-risk group (n = 5), intermediate-risk group (n = 12), and high-risk group (n = 37). Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the overall survival rate. Prognostic factors were analyzed by univariate and multiple Cox regression analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 98%. The number of patients under follow-up was 39 at 3 years and 25 at 5 years. Potential prognostic factors, including risk groups, mode of endocrine therapy, time of endocrine therapy, phoenix grouping before IMRT, the prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) before radiotherapy, PSA value before IMRT, interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT, irradiation region, and irradiation dose were analyzed by survival analysis. In univariate analysis, time of endocrine therapy (75 % vs 95 %, χ2= 6. 45, P = 0. 011), phoenix grouping before IMRT (87% vs 96%, χ2 = 4. 36, P = 0. 037), interval of endocrine therapy and IMRT (80% vs 95%, χ2= 11.60, P= 0. 001), irradiation dose (75% vs 91%, χ2=5.92, P= 0. 015) were statistically significant prognostic factors for 3 - year overall survival , and risk groups (85 vs 53 vs 29, χ2= 6. 40, P =0. 041) and PSADT before IMRT (62 vs 120, U =24. 50, P =0. 003) were significant factors for the median survival time. In the multiple Cox

  3. Follow-up bone scintigraphy and rhenium application during therapy of a prostate cancer; Skelettszintigraphie und Radio-Rhenium-Behandlung im Verlauf eines metastasierenden Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostwald, E.; Sabri, O.; Cremerius, U.; Jakse, G.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-07-01

    A 78-year-old patient with prostate cancer and osseous metastases had a pain symptomatic. In the Urology he was treated with antiandrogenes. The outcome of the bone scintigraphy showed a super bone scan with normalization after antiandrogene-therapy which seemed to be a sign of remission, before he showed a progressive form with multiple osseous metastases. Pain could not be treated with non steroidal antiphlogistics and opiates, so the indication for treatment with Rhenium-186-HEDP was given in this case. (orig.) [German] Ein 78 Jahre alter Patient mit einem ossaer metastasierenden Prostatakarzinom wurde uns zur Schmerztherapie vorgestellt. In der urologischen Klinik war eine Behandlung mit Antiandrogenen durchgefuehrt worden, in deren Verlauf der skelettszintigraphische Befund, welcher vor Therapiebeginn als super bone scan imponierte, zunaechst wieder einen Normalbefund als Zeichen der Remission anzeigte, bevor es dann zu einer multifokalen Skelettmetastasierung kam. Die dadurch verursachte Schmerzsymtomatik liess sich wegen Unvertraeglichkeit von nichtsteroidalen Antiphlogistika (NSAR) und Opiaten nicht medikamentoes beherrschen, so dass hier als Alternative eine Behandlung mit Rhenium-186-HEDP eingesetzt wurde. (orig.)

  4. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy. At this time, you will have a physical exam , talk about your medical history , and maybe have imaging tests . Your doctor or nurse will discuss external beam radiation therapy, its benefits and side effects, and ways you can care ...

  5. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Katrina; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms to androgen-deprivation therapy and progress to castration-resistant late-stage metastatic disease that, in turn, inevitably leads to resistance to all current therapeutics, including chemotherapy. In spite of the recent development of more effective inhibitors of androgen-androgen receptor signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone, patient survival benefits are still limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have proven efficacy in prostate cancer cells and cause regression of tumors in preclinical models of numerous drug-resistant cancers. Data from clinical trials demonstrate that adenoviral mutants have limited toxicity to normal tissues and are safe when administered to patients with various solid cancers, including prostate cancer. While efficacy in response to adenovirus administration alone is marginal, findings from early-phase trials targeting local-ized and metastatic prostate cancer suggest improved efficacy in combination with cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy. Here, we review recent progress in the development of multimodal oncolytic adenoviruses as biological therapeutics to improve on tumor elimination in prostate cancer patients. These optimized mutants target cancer cells by several mechanisms including viral lysis and by expression of cytotoxic transgenes and immune-stimulatory factors that activate the host immune system to destroy both infected and noninfected prostate cancer cells. Additional modifications of the viral capsid proteins may support future systemic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:27579296

  6. Therapy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    Reviewed are the goals and activities of the therapy services in the Austin Early Childhood Special Education Program. Specific sections detail activities for speech therapy (such as diagnostic assessment, habilitation, consultation, and reporting procedures), occupational therapy (including identification and assessment, and services to children,…

  7. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  8. Gene therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Biosca, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.

  9. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  10. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  11. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy works, it helps to understand how your respiratory system works. This system is a group of organs and tissues that help you breathe. The respiratory system includes the airways and lungs. The airways carry ...

  12. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  13. Family therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Altamash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, ′insulin′. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the ′family′. Underestimating family′s perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered.

  14. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  15. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  16. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) ± 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out

  17. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is the ...

  18. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  19. Androgen-dependent apoptosis in male germ cells is regulated through the proto-oncoprotein Cbl

    OpenAIRE

    El Chami, Nisrine; Ikhlef, Fouziha; Kaszas, Krisztian; Yakoub, Sadok; Tabone, Eric; Siddeek, Benazir; Cunha, Stéphanie; Beaudoin, Claude; Morel, Laurent; Benahmed, Mohamed; Régnier, Daniel C.

    2005-01-01

    The proto-oncoprotein Cbl is known to control several signaling processes. It is highly expressed in the testis, and because spermatogenesis is androgen dependent, we investigated the androgen dependency expression of Cbl through its testicular sublocalization and its expression levels in rats that were exposed to the antiandrogen flutamide or were hypophysectomized. We report the androgen dependency of Cbl as it localizes in pachytene spermatocytes during androgen-dependent stages, is down-r...

  20. Hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Historically discoveries and technological advances in radiation and accelerator physics have been rapidly applied in the healing arts. X rays, discovered by Roentgen in 1895, and radioisotopes, discovered by Becquerel in 1896, were both applied to the treatment of cancer by the first year of the twentieth century. By the time that Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932 radiotherapy was a well-established modality for the treatment of cancer. The potential use of neutrons in radiotherapy was immediately recognized by L.H. Gray (a recent Ph.D. graduate from the Cavendish laboratories in Cambridge). He built a neutron generator for radiobiology research at Mount Vernon Hospital in London, it's design was based on a similar device built at Cambridge by Mark Oliphant. In parallel with these developments Earnest Lawrence, in collaboration with his brother John Lawrence, a physician, were also studying the radiobiology of neutrons. They obtained some funding from the US National Cancer Institute to construct a 60'' cyclotron for neutron radiation therapy. These clinical trials, started in 1938, were the first application of heavy particles for cancer therapy. Immediately after the second World War advances in accelerator technology lead to the building of the first synchrocyclotrons, which produced proton beams with ranges approaching 30 cm in water. At the Harvard synchrocyclotron Robert R. Wilson realized that proton beams might have considerable advantages over other radiation beams in the treatment of deep-seated tumors. This advantage derives from the increase in stopping power at the end of the proton range, first observed by W.H.Bragg at the University of Adelaide; a phenomenon now known as the Bragg peak. Conventional X-ray beams are exponentially attenuated by matter and, hence, delivering large radiation doses to tumors at depth while not causing excessive damage to the overlying normal tissues can be problematical. The Bragg peak and the well

  1. Anecdotal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  2. External beam radiation therapy and a low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions: There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. (author)

  3. External beam radiation therapy and a low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Tobin J.; Hutchinson, Sean Z.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Cruz, Alex A.; Figura, Nicholas B.; Nethers, Kevin; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Heysek, Randy V.; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions: There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. (author)

  4. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  5. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...

  6. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  7. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  8. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine (131I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  9. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  10. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, ... grateful I chose a career as rewarding as music therapy. I love what I do each day!” Where ...

  11. Gemeinsame Stellungnahme der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie und Fortpflanzungsmedizin e.V. und des Berufsverbands der Frauenärzte e.V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2015-01-01

    Nebennierenrinde]. Therapieoptionen: Zur medikamentösen Therapie des Hirsutismus stehen primär Antiandrogene wie Cyproteronacetat (CPA, stärkstes Antiandrogen (beim Hershberger-Test mit 100 % angenommen und Chlormadinonacetat (20 % der Wirkstärke von CPA und je nach Krankheitsbild und Schweregrad die schwächer wirksamen Antiandrogene („off-label“: Dienogest (40 % der Wirkstärke von CPA und Drospirenon (30 % der Wirkstärke von CPA zur Verfügung. Die Wirkung von 5alhpa-Reduktaseblockern (z. B. Finasterid, Flutamid, Insulinsensitizern und GnRH-Analoga wird besprochen und bewertet. – Orale kombinierte hormonale Kontrazeptiva: Der Mehrheit der Frauen vor der Menopause mit Hirsutismus steht eine Kombinationstherapie mit oralen hormonellen antiandrogen wirksamen Kontrazeptiva zur Verfügung, wobei das Ethinylestradiol zu einem hepatischen Anstieg des SHBGs und Abfall des freien Testos terons führt und das Antiandrogen am Zielorgan die Androgenwirkung abschwächen kann. – Antiandrogene: Im Vordergrund steht bei Hirsutismus Cyproteronacetat: Während bei leichtem Hirsutismus ein antiandrogenhalti ges Kontrazeptivum allein teilweise zum Erfolg führen kann, muss bei mittel schwerem bis schwerem Hirsutismus ein kombiniertes orales Kontrazeptivum (KOK mit dem stark wirksamen Antiandrogen Cyproteronacetat (50–100 mg von Tag 1–10 des Therapiezyklus kombiniert werden. Ein therapeutischer Erfolg zeigt sich meist erst nach 9–12 Monaten. Bei einer Langzeittherapie erfolgt nach Einsetzen des Therapieerfolgs eine schrittweise Dosisreduktion. Bei gering ausgeprägtem Hirsutismus sind manchmal 10 mg CPA vom 1.–15. bzw. 1.–21. Zyklustag bzw. Chlormadinonacetat (2 × 2 mg vom 1.–21. Zyklustag ausreichend. – Finasterid: Die Wirksamkeit von Finasterid als 5alpha-Reduktaseblocker beim Hirsutismus ist umstritten („off-label“. – Flutamid: Zahlreiche Studie belegen eine gute Wirksamkeit. Es wird vor allem in den USA eingesetzt, da dort CPA nicht zur Verfügung steht. Flutamid ist mit

  12. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  13. Camouflage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, V L

    1995-04-01

    Camouflage therapy is a system of cosmetic techniques designed for patients to use to assist themselves in coping constructively with the psychological and physical trauma of their disfigurements. It is described as a "system" because these techniques are interrelated. A camouflage therapist may teach the patient to use one, two, or all of the techniques at the same time in order to normalize their appearance. Four basic techniques have been described in this article. They are as follows: (1) the use of opaque, waterproof cover creams to conceal scarring; (2) the application of pancake makeup for patients with oily or acne-prone skin; (3) color correctors to obliterate discoloration from postoperative trauma; and (4) recreating imperfections on the skin. For more information about the use of cosmetics to normalize the appearance of physical disfigurements, the following books are recommended. PMID:7600717

  14. Intrapleural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, J Terrill; Doelken, Peter; Sahn, Steven A

    2011-08-01

    Numerous intrapleural therapies have been adopted to treat a vast array of pleural diseases. The first intrapleural therapies proposed focused on the use of fibrinolytics and DNase to promote fluid drainage in empyema. Numerous case series and five randomized controlled trials have been published to determine the outcomes of fibrinolytics in empyema treatment. In the largest randomized trial, the use of streptokinase had no reduction in mortality, decortication rates or hospital days compared with placebo in the treatment of empyema. Criticism over study design and patient selection may have potentially affected the outcomes in this study. The development of dyspnoea is common in the setting of malignant pleural effusions. Pleural fluid evacuation followed by pleurodesis is often attempted. Numerous sclerosing agents have been studied, with talc emerging as the most effective agent. Small particle size of talc should be avoided because of increased systemic absorption potentiating toxicity, such as acute lung injury. Over the past several years, the use of chronic indwelling pleural catheters have emerged as the preferred modality in the treating a symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. For patients with malignant-related lung entrapment, pleurodesis often fails due to the presence of visceral pleural restriction; however, chronic indwelling pleural catheters are effective in palliation of dyspnoea. Finally, the use of staphylococcal superantigens has been proposed as a therapeutic model for the treatment of non-small lung cancer. Intrapleural instillation of staphylococcal superantigens increased median survival by 5 months in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with a malignant pleural effusion. PMID:21672085

  15. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  16. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  17. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Radioactive iodine therapy improves the survival rate of patients with papillary ... and benefits of RAI therapy with your doctor. Radioactive iodine therapy cannot be used to treat anaplastic (undifferentiated) and ...

  18. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  19. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  20. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  1. Cryoprecipitate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, B; Goodnough, L T; Levy, J H

    2014-12-01

    Cryoprecipitate, originally developed as a therapy for patients with antihaemophilic factor deficiency, or haemophilia A, has been in use for almost 50 yr. However, cryoprecipitate is no longer administered according to its original purpose, and is now most commonly used to replenish fibrinogen levels in patients with acquired coagulopathy, such as in clinical settings with haemorrhage including cardiac surgery, trauma, liver transplantation (LT), or obstetric haemorrhage. Cryoprecipitate is a pooled product that does not undergo pathogen inactivation, and its administration has been associated with a number of adverse events, particularly transmission of blood-borne pathogens and transfusion-related acute lung injury. As a result of these safety concerns, along with emerging availability of alternative fibrinogen preparations, cryoprecipitate has been withdrawn from use in a number of European countries. Compared with the plasma from which it is prepared, cryoprecipitate contains a high concentration of coagulation factor VIII, coagulation factor XIII, and fibrinogen. Cryoprecipitate is usually licensed by regulatory authorities for the treatment of hypofibrinogenaemia, and recommended for supplementation when plasma fibrinogen levels decrease below 1 g litre(-1); however, this threshold is empiric and is not based on solid clinical evidence. Consequently, there is uncertainty over the appropriate dosing and optimal administration of cryoprecipitate, with some guidelines from professional societies to guide clinical practice. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine the clinical efficacy of cryoprecipitate, compared with the efficacy of alternative preparations. These trials will allow the development of evidence-based guidelines in order to inform physicians and guide clinical practice. PMID:24972790

  2. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  3. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Physical Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Physical Therapy Print A A ... Finding a Physical Therapist en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...

  4. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and external-beam radiotherapy versus external-beam irradiation alone for prostate cancer. A quality-of-life analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Asadpour, Branka; Gagel, Bernd; Fischedick, Karin; Siluschek, Jaroslav; Kehl, Mareike; Krenkel, Barbara; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) on quality of life after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. A group of 170 patients (85 with and 85 without NHT) has been surveyed prospectively before EBRT (70.2-72 Gy), at the last day of EBRT, a median time of 2 months and 15 months after EBRT using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Pairs with and without NHT (median treatment time of 3.5 months before EBRT) were matched according to the respective planning target volume and prostate volume. Before EBRT, significantly lower urinary function/bother, sexual function and hormonal function/bother scores were found for patients with NHT. More than 1 year after EBRT, only sexual function scores remained lower. In a multivariate analysis, NHT and adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT) versus NHT only (hazard ratio 14; 95% confidence interval 2.7-183; p = 0.02) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists versus antiandrogens (hazard ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-12; p = 0.04) proved to be independent risk factors for long-term erectile dysfunction (no or very poor ability to have an erection). With the exception of sexual function (additional adjuvant HT and application of LHRH analog independently adverse), short-term NHT was not found to decrease quality of life after EBRT for prostate cancer. (orig.)

  5. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and external-beam radiotherapy versus external-beam irradiation alone for prostate cancer. A quality-of-life analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) on quality of life after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. A group of 170 patients (85 with and 85 without NHT) has been surveyed prospectively before EBRT (70.2-72 Gy), at the last day of EBRT, a median time of 2 months and 15 months after EBRT using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Pairs with and without NHT (median treatment time of 3.5 months before EBRT) were matched according to the respective planning target volume and prostate volume. Before EBRT, significantly lower urinary function/bother, sexual function and hormonal function/bother scores were found for patients with NHT. More than 1 year after EBRT, only sexual function scores remained lower. In a multivariate analysis, NHT and adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT) versus NHT only (hazard ratio 14; 95% confidence interval 2.7-183; p 0.02) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists versus antiandrogens (hazard ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-12; p = 0.04) proved to be independent risk factors for long-term erectile dysfunction (no or very poor ability to have an erection). With the exception of sexual function (additional adjuvant HT and application of LHRH analog independently adverse), short-term NHT was not found to decrease quality of life after EBRT for prostate cancer. (orig.)

  6. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Clinical Trials Information Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy Terminology Gene Therapy & Cell Therapy Breakthroughs FAQs Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy Defined Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy for Diseases Sites of ...

  7. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  9. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... older the treatment that is frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms ... prostate. [beeping] Narrator: The more common form of radiation therapy is external beam. A typical treatment takes seven ...

  10. Therapy and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feelings and behavior. Behavior therapy is sometimes called behavior modification therapy. This kind of treatment focuses on changing unwanted or unhealthy behaviors and replacing them with healthy ones. This treatment ...

  11. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  12. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  13. Virtual particle therapy centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. This advanced technique requires a multi-disciplinary team working in a specialised centre. 3D animation: Nymus3D

  14. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser therapy uses a very narrow, focused beam of light to shrink or destroy cancer cells. It ... to cut out tumors without damaging other tissue. Laser therapy is often given through a thin, lighted ...

  15. Medical Art Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Birgül

    2012-01-01

    Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical...

  16. Combined tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive survey of current methods and achievements first takes a look at the two basic therapies, devoting a chapter each to the surgery and radiotherapy of tumors. The principal subjects of the book, however, are the systemic, adjuvant therapy, biological therapies, hyperthermia and various other therapies (as e.g. treatment with ozone, oxygen, or homeopathic means), and psychotherapy. (MG) With 54 figs., 86 tabs

  17. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  18. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Daniel J., E-mail: dkrauss@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Hu, Chen [NRG Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Notre Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gore, Elizabeth M. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leibenhaut, Mark H. [Sutter General Hospital, Sacramento, California (United States); Narayan, Samir [Michigan Cancer Research Consortium CCOP (United States); Torres-Roca, Javier [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zeitzer, Kenneth L. [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Bronx, New York, New York (United States); Donavanik, Viroon [Christiana Care Health Services Inc CCOP, Newark, Delaware (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); McGowan, David G. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Jones, Christopher U. [Sutter General Hospital, Sacramento, California (United States); Shipley, William U. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  19. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within the...

  20. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  1. Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽霖

    2009-01-01

    @@ VTE of the main treatment for anticoagulant thera-py, anticoagulant therapy drug of choice for low molecu-lar weight heparin (LMWH) for the overwhelming major-ity of clinicians agree that long-term oral anticoagulant therapy is still Vit. K antagonist (mainly warfarin).

  2. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  3. Interventional anoxia therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on interventional anoxia therapy covers the following issues: (1) Neuroradiologic diagnostics: Closure of the carotid artery; closure of the cerebral arteries, vertebrobasilary closure; dissections, sinus and brain vein thrombosis; (2) therapy of the acute ischemic anoxia: thrombolysis; intra-arterial thrombolysis, mechanical re-channelization materials; stroke-stent; therapy concepts and results; (3) therapy for acute venous obliterations; (4) therapy for extra and intra-cranial artery stenosis: stents, filters, balloons; extra-cranial carotid stenosis; intra-cranial stenosis; sub-clavian Steal syndrome; proximal vertebral artery stenosis; aortic arch stenosis.

  4. Changed processing of visual sexual stimuli under GnRH-therapy – a single case study in pedophilia using eye tracking and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiandrogen therapy (ADT) has been used for 30 years to treat pedophilic patients. The aim of the treatment is a reduction in sexual drive and, in consequence, a reduced risk of recidivism. Yet the therapeutic success of antiandrogens is uncertain especially regarding recidivism. Meta-analyses and reviews report only moderate and often mutually inconsistent effects. Case presentation Based on the case of a 47 year old exclusively pedophilic forensic inpatient, we examined the effectiveness of a new eye tracking method and a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-design in regard to the evaluation of ADT in pedophiles. We analyzed the potential of these methods in exploring the impact of ADT on automatic and controlled attentional processes in pedophiles. Eye tracking and fMRI measures were conducted before the initial ADT as well as four months after the onset of ADT. The patient simultaneously viewed an image of a child and an image of an adult while eye movements were measured. During the fMRI-measure the same stimuli were presented subliminally. Eye movements demonstrated that controlled attentional processes change under ADT, whereas automatic processes remained mostly unchanged. We assume that these results reflect either the increased ability of the patient to control his eye movements while viewing prepubertal stimuli or his better ability to manipulate his answer in a socially desirable manner. Unchanged automatic attentional processes could reflect the stable pedophilic preference of the patient. Using fMRI, the subliminal presentation of sexually relevant stimuli led to changed activation patterns under the influence of ADT in occipital and parietal brain regions, the hippocampus, and also in the orbitofrontal cortex. We suggest that even at an unconscious level ADT can lead to changed processing of sexually relevant stimuli, reflecting changes of cognitive and perceptive automatic processes. Conclusion We are convinced that our

  5. Phase III radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) trial 86-10 of androgen deprivation adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that androgen ablation before and during radiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate may, by reducing tumor bulk and enhancing tumor cell kill, improve locoregional control and ultimately survival. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted from 1987 to 1991. Eligible patients were those with bulky tumors (T2-T4) with or without pelvic lymph node involvement and without evidence of distant metastases. They were randomized to receive goserelin, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks; and flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. for 2 months before radiation therapy and during radiation therapy (Arm I), or radiation therapy alone (Arm II). Of 471 randomized patients, 456 were evaluable: 226 on Arm I and 230 on Arm II. Results: As of November 1999, the median follow-up has reached 6.7 years for all patients and 8.6 years for alive patients. At 8 years, androgen ablation has been associated with an improvement in local control (42% vs. 30%, p 0.016), reduction in the incidence of distant metastases (34% vs. 45%, p 0.04), disease-free survival (33% vs. 21%, p=0.004), biochemical disease-free survival = PSA <1.5 (24% vs. 10%, p<0.0001), and cause-specific mortality (23% vs. 31%, p=0.05). However, subset analysis indicates that the beneficial effect of short-term androgen ablation appears preferentially in patients with Gleason score 2-6. In that population, there is a highly significant improvement in all endpoints, including survival (70% vs. 52%, p=0.015). In patients with Gleason 7-10 tumors, the regimen has not resulted in a significant enhancement in either locoregional control or survival. Conclusion: In patients with Gleason score 2-6 carcinoma of the prostate, a short course of androgen ablation administered before and during radiotherapy has been associated with a highly significant improvement in local control, reduction in disease progression, and overall survival

  6. Hormone therapy in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-l...

  7. Psychodynamic Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jinah Kim

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and explores the basic principles of psychodynamic approaches in music therapy. Music is used as a means to explore both conscious and unconscious issues as well as the internal world of the individuals involved in music therapy. However, the focus of therapy is on therapeutic relationship, especially the dynamics of transference and counter-transference between the client and the music therapist. Musical experiences, such as music listening, songs, and improvisation, ca...

  8. BEHAVIOR THERAPY FOR TRANSSEXUALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, A. Chitra; Kumaraiah, V.; Mishra, H.; Chatterji, S.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    1995-01-01

    Transsexualism is a rare disorder, and there is little literature available on its treatment. A case is presented of transsexualism with homosexual orientation in a 24 year old male. Since the disorder appeared to have behavioral antecedents, it was treated with a behavior therapy package comprising relaxation, aversion therapy with aversion relief, modelling, hypnosis, orgasmic reconditioning, behavioral counselling and sex education. Therapy resulted in normalization of gender identity, but...

  9. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    OpenAIRE

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects...

  10. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  11. Music therapy improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds a...

  12. Cochlear Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Lawrence R.; Akil, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in cochlear gene therapy over the past several years. Cochlear gene therapy has undergone tremendous advances over the past decade. Beginning with some groundbreaking work in 2005 documenting hair cell regeneration using virallymediated delivery of the mouse atonal 1 gene, gene therapy is now being explored as a possible treatment for a variety of causes of hearing loss.

  13. Writing Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Helena Rykov

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

    Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...

  14. Pain in photodynamic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Tampa; Maria Isabela Sârbu; Mădălina-Irina Mitran; Cristina-Iulia Mitran; Adrian Dumitru; Vasile Benea; Simona-Roxana Georgescu

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a modern treatment with applications in several medical specialties, which has been intensely studied in the last years. The main indications in dermatology are actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease- common skin disorders in which photodynamic therapy proved its efficacy. At present, the use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of other skin disorders is profoundly researched. Pain is the most common and redoubtable adverse effect...

  15. Cancer gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Tatjana; Radulović Siniša

    2005-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy can be defined as transfer of nucleic acids into tumor or normal cells with aim to eradicate or reduce tumor mass by direct killing of cells, immunomodulation or correction of genetic errors, and reversion of malignant status. Initially started with lots of optimism and enthusiasm, cancer gene therapy has shown limited success in treatment of patients. This review highlights current limitations and almost endless possibilities of cancer gene therapy. The major difficulty i...

  16. Principles of gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mammen Biju; Ramakrishnan T; Sudhakar Uma; Vijayalakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics an...

  17. Journal of Proton Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT) is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each publi...

  18. Music Therapy in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Dorit Amir

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the main discourse that I believe goes on in music therapy in Europe and other countries around the world: professional issues (registration, standards and licensing) and the development of research and cultural issues in music therapy. For the inaugural issue, I will focus mainly on music therapy in Israel. In the following issues of the journal, the focus will be on other European countries.

  19. The utility of serial complete blood count monitoring in patients receiving radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It is standard practice in our department to monitor weekly complete blood counts (CBCs) in patients receiving definitive radiation therapy for prostate cancer. The clinical utility and cost effectiveness of this practice has not been analyzed. Methods and Materials: The charts of all prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy between January 1994 and July 1996 at the Veterans Administration Hospital, Philadelphia, PA were reviewed. CBC values were available for 89 patients. Patients received a median dose of 68 Gy using a four-field box technique and megavoltage photons. Whole-pelvic radiotherapy followed by a conedown to the prostate was administered to 29 patients. Fifty-nine patients received radiation to the prostate alone or prostate and seminal vesicles. Fifty-seven patients received concurrent hormonal therapy which included luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, antiandrogens, or both. Results: No patient experienced a drop in their hemoglobin, white blood cells (WBCs), or platelets below critical nadirs (defined as WBC 3, hemoglobin 3) at any point during treatment. Thirty-one percent, 25%, and 47% of patients experienced declines of > 50 in platelets, > 2 in WBCs, and > 1 in hemoglobin, respectively. Eight clinical, treatment-related, and pathologic parameters were examined as prognostic factors for a drop of > 2 in hemoglobin, > 2 in WBCs, and > 50 in platelets. Only stage (T3 and above) was significantly associated with a > 2 hemoglobin decline. The use of hormonal therapy was associated with a platelet drop of > 50. None of the 8 prognostic factors were associated with decline of > 2 in WBCs. In the urban area surrounding the Philadelphia Veterans Administration Medical Center, the cost of obtaining a CBC is approximately $30. However, if staff time is considered, the cost of obtaining a weekly CBC during prostate cancer radiotherapy approached $400 per patient. Conclusion: These results suggest that weekly

  20. Principles of gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammen Biju

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics and future percepts and the technical and ethical issues of using gene therapy.

  1. Medical Art Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Aydin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  2. Postmodernism and Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Hernandez-Ruiz

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present essay is a short and probably superficial analysis of music therapy and music therapy research. I have to say that by no means do I consider myself an expert or even experienced enough to provide "critiques" about any area of music therapy. This work is a revised version of a term paper presented at the University of Kansas in 2002, and is just the result of my interest in some recent trends of thoughts (e.g. social constructionism, and their impact, if any, on music therapy. I believe in dialogue as a means to forward knowledge, and so I dare to share this work with colleagues.

  3. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  4. Gene therapy and radionuclides targeting therapy in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast carcinoma's gene therapy is a hotspot in study of the tumor's therapy in the recent years. Currently the major therapy methods that in the experimentative and primary clinical application phases include immunological gene therapy, multidrug resistance gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy and suicide gene therapy. The gene targeting brachytherapy, which is combined with gene therapy and radiotherapy has enhanced the killer effects of the suicide gene and nuclide in tumor cells. That has break a new path in tumor's gene therapy. The further study in this field will step up it's space to the clinical application

  5. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  6. An update of RTOG clinical trials of combined androgen suppression and radiation in localized prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last ten years the RTOG has evaluated, by 5 Phase III trials, (two are ongoing and three have been completed) the potential clinical gains of neoadjuvant Maximal Androgen Blockade (MAB), Zoladex monthly and Flutamide daily, of adjuvant LHRH agonists (Zoladex) therapy and of the sequencing of four months of MAB with radiation (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant). Two additional Phase III trails for men with locally advanced prostate cancer are soon to open. One will evaluate the potential gains in survival of salvage radiation therapy plus adjuvant anti-androgen therapy, compared to salvage radiation alone, for patients with an elevated PSA following radical prostatectomy for pathologic state T3, NO tumors; and a second Phase III trial to evaluate the potential gain of external beam irradiation added to life-long MAB for patients with pathologically proven metastases to the pelvic lymph nodes from prostatic carcinoma. The endpoints of this trial will be overall and disease-specific survival as well as life long symptomatic local control and other quality of life issues. During our next grant period we anticipate that our accrual of over 2500 patients to randomized trials for patients with prostate cancer will be increased by 20-30% with the addition of many RTOG associate and affiliated members along with the CCOP institutions. the identification of significant increases in freedom from any progression and freedom from distant metastases by androgen suppression of limited duration have been reported already in two of our trials (RTOG 86-10 and RTOG 85-31) although no clear overall survival benefits are yet demonstrated. Nevertheless these impressive results have had a major impact nationally on the treatment of patients with locally advanced prostatic cancer

  7. Gene therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene therapy for thyroid cancer include immunotherapy, suicide gene therapy, tumor suppressor replacement, 131I therapy by sodium/iodide symporter and antisense therapy and so on. Gene therapy has wide perspectives, but there are many problems need to be solved for clinical application

  8. Final Report of Multicenter Canadian Phase III Randomized Trial of 3 Versus 8 Months of Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Before Conventional-Dose Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of 3 vs. 8 months of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before conventional-dose radiotherapy (RT) on disease-free survival for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 1995 and June 2001, 378 men were randomized to either 3 or 8 months of flutamide and goserelin before 66 Gy RT at four participating centers. The median baseline prostate-specific antigen level was 9.7 ng/mL (range, 1.3-189). Of the 378 men, 26% had low-, 43% intermediate-, and 31% high-risk disease. The two arms were balanced in terms of age, Gleason score, clinical T category, risk group, and presenting prostate-specific antigen level. The median follow-up for living patients was 6.6 years (range, 1.6-10.1). Of the 378 patients, 361 were evaluable, and 290 were still living. Results: The 5-year actuarial freedom from failure rate for the 3- vs. 8-month arms was 72% vs. 75%, respectively (p = 0.18). No difference was found in the failure types between the two arms. The median prostate-specific antigen level at the last follow-up visit for patients without treatment failure was 0.6 ng/mL in the 3-month arm vs. 0.50 ng/mL in the 8-month arm. The disease-free survival rate at 5 years was improved for the high-risk patients in the 8-month arm (71% vs. 42%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: A longer period of NHT before standard-dose RT did not alter the patterns of failure when combined with 66-Gy RT. High-risk patients in the 8-month arm had significant improvement in the 5-year disease-free survival rate

  9. Massage Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  10. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  11. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  12. Social Action Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  13. Poetry Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Donald J., Comp.

    The 84 entries contained in this bibliography are arranged under three headings: poetry therapy, bibliotherapy, and relevant related items. Representing books, educational journals, popular magazines, and research studies, the titles span a variety of topics, including the following: poetry therapy in psychiatric nursing, poetry programs in mental…

  14. Antiaging therapy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, C L; Fraga, P D; Forciea, M A; Lavizzo-Mourey, R

    2001-06-15

    Today's researchers are exploring caloric restriction, cell-based therapies, hormonal therapies, and genetic manipulations. So far, caloric restriction has the soundest basis, and estrogen replacement is among the interventions most widely used. As the human genome is studied, treatments with genetic mechanisms move all the closer to becoming reality. PMID:11419535

  15. Therapy of Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  16. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    An essential part in cancer radiotherapy, is to direct a sufficiently high dose towards the tumour, without damaging the surrounding tissue. Different techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy have been developed, in order to reduce the dose to the normal tissue...

  17. Therapy in Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  18. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  19. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner;

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  20. Medical therapy in acromegaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The disease is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality, but these effects can be reduced if GH levels are decreased to <2.5 μg\\/l and IGF-1 levels are normalized. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and IGF-1 levels, ameliorating patients\\' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapies, such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. Medical therapy is currently most widely used as secondary treatment for persistent or recurrent acromegaly following noncurative surgery, although it is increasingly used as primary therapy. This Review provides an overview of current and future pharmacological therapies for patients with acromegaly.

  1. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  2. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  3. Pain in photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a modern treatment with applications in several medical specialties, which has been intensely studied in the last years. The main indications in dermatology are actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease- common skin disorders in which photodynamic therapy proved its efficacy. At present, the use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of other skin disorders is profoundly researched. Pain is the most common and redoubtable adverse effect of photodynamic therapy and it is the most important factor affecting the patient's adherence to treatment. The aim of this article is to look over the most recent medical studies regarding pain in PDT, with emphasis on the factors affecting the occurrence of pain and the most recent strategies for controlling photodynamic therapy- related pain.

  4. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  5. Imaging in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is an important part of cancer treatment in which cancer patients are treated using high-energy radiation such as x-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and neutrons. Currently, about half of all cancer patients receive radiation treatment during their whole cancer care process. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver the necessary radiation dose to cancer cells while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. Success of radiation therapy highly relies on how accurately 1) identifies the target and 2) aim radiation beam to the target. Both tasks are strongly dependent of imaging technology and many imaging modalities have been applied for radiation therapy such as CT (Computed Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonant Image), and PET (Positron Emission Tomography). Recently, many researchers have given significant amount of effort to develop and improve imaging techniques for radiation therapy to enhance the overall quality of patient care. For example, advances in medical imaging technology have initiated the development of the state of the art radiation therapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), gated radiation therapy, tomotherapy, and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT). Capability of determining the local tumor volume and location of the tumor has been significantly improved by applying single or multi-modality imaging for static or dynamic target. The use of multi-modality imaging provides a more reliable tumor volume, eventually leading to a better definitive local control. Image registration technique is essential to fuse two different image modalities and has been in significant improvement. Imaging equipment and their common applications that are in active use and/or under development in radiation therapy are reviewed

  6. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work? Oxygen therapy provides you with extra ... be delivered to your lungs in several ways. Oxygen Therapy Systems Oxygen is supplied in three forms: ...

  7. Gene Therapy of Cancerous Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Valenčáková, A.; Dziaková, A.; Hatalová, E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy of cancerous diseases provides new means of curing patients with oncologic illnesses. There are several approaches in treating cancer by gene therapy. Most commonly used methods are: cancer immunogene therapy, suicide gene therapy, application of tumor-suppressor genes, antiangiogenic therapy, mesenchymal stem cells used as vectors, gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and bacteria used as anti-cancer agents. Cancer gene immunotherapy uses several immunologic agents for the purp...

  8. Massage therapy research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. PMID:27502797

  9. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  10. Vitamin therapy in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating and poorly understood disease for which the only accepted therapy is nonspecific antipsychotic and anti-seizure medication. This article summarizes the evidence that certain vitamin deficiencies likely worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia, and the evidence that large doses of certain vitamins could improve the core metabolic abnormalities that predispose some people to develop it; it recounts the history of a controversial vitamin-based therapy for schizophrenia called orthomolecular psychiatry; and it concludes by advocating a process for discovering promising new schizophrenia therapies that involves small, carefully conducted clinical trials of nutrient combinations in appropriately selected patients. PMID:18587164

  11. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between...... the use of feminist pedagogy and academic rank of the participants. Seventy-two participants responded to this study, with 69 participants included for data analysis. Stake and Hoffman's (2000) feminist pedagogy survey was adapted for this study, examining four subscales of feminist pedagogy: (a...... feminist pedagogy. Results of a mixed ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference within the four survey subscales (p

  12. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Plöckinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs, dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided.

  13. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hendee, William R; Hendee, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an upd

  14. Drug therapies in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Arif; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2014-02-01

    This article explores the current and emerging therapies for skin disease, with a particular focus on chronic plaque psoriasis and metastatic malignant melanoma. We discuss the current biological therapies used for psoriasis and those on the horizon, including small molecules and biosimilars. We also summarise the recent advances in the use of novel therapeutic agents in other dermatological diseases and outline the promise of translational research and stratified medicine approaches in dermatology. Better matching of patients with therapies is anticipated to have a major effect on both clinical practice and the development of new drugs and diagnostics. PMID:24532745

  15. Fluid therapy in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geof W; Berchtold, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Early and aggressive fluid therapy is critical in correcting the metabolic complications associated with calf diarrhea. Oral electrolyte therapy can be used with success in calves, but careful consideration should be given to the type of oral electrolyte used. Electrolyte solutions with high osmolalities can significantly slow abomasal emptying and can be a risk factor for abomasal bloat in calves. Milk should not be withheld from calves with diarrhea for more than 12 to 24 hours. Hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate can be used effectively for intravenous fluid therapy on farms when intravenous catheterization is not possible. PMID:24980729

  16. Complications of cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this chapter is to review systematically the toxicity of contemporary chemotherapy and irradiation on normal tissues of growing children. Whenever possible, the separate toxicity of chemotherapy, irradiation, and combination therapy is addressed. However, it is not always possible to quantitate specifically such reactions in the face of multiple drug therapy, which may enhance radiation injury or reactivate prior radiation injury. Prior detailed reviews have provided important sources of information concerning radiation injury for this more general discussion. The information provided will assist both the clinician and the radiologist in the recognition of early and late complications of therapy in pediatric oncology

  17. Bone-Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, J.; Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Fehm, T.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates and denosumab are well established components of the therapy for osteoporosis and osseous metastases. Their relevance in the adjuvant situation for breast cancer patients is being discussed in part controversially due to the heterogeneous nature of the available data. In particular, it appears that post-menopausal women benefit from an adjuvant therapy with bisphosphonates. In the present contribution we discuss the clinical relevance of osteoprotective therapy in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. Above all the current AGO guidelines on osteo-oncology and bone health have been taken into consideration for recommendations to implement the available data. PMID:26166839

  18. Diagnostik und Therapie der kutanen Androgenisierung im klimakterischen Übergang sowie in der Peri- und Postmenopause: Hirsutismus und Alopezie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisthövel F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Die weibliche Androgenisierung umfasst ein weites Spektrum an heterogenen Dysfunktionen und Erkrankungen. Um die Therapieprinzipien des Hirsutismus sowie der Alopecia androgenetica während des klimakterischen Übergangs („menopausal transition“ [MT] und der Peri-/Postmenopause zu erfassen, ist es sinnvoll, sich auf eine Gruppe von androgenisierten Patientinnen zu beschränken, bei der die Haut pathogenetisch im Fokus liegt. Solch eine klar definierte Patientengruppe, die „funktionell kutane Androgenisierung“ (FCA, kann meist schon über die Diagnostikebene 1 (Screening-Ebene unseres Klassifikations-Algorithmus diagnostiziert werden. Der Ferriman-Gallwey-Index bzw. eine modifizierte Sinclair-Scale dienen zur Gradeinteilung von Hirsutismus bzw. Alopezie. Die ausgeprägte endokrine Dynamik während der MT ist hormondiagnostisch zu beachten. Wachsepilation und Lasertherapie sind vielfältig eingesetzte topischmechanische bzw. -physikalische Therapieverfahren. Eine topische Behandlung des Hirsutismus kann auch mit Eflornithin-Creme durchgeführt werden, die den Effekt einer Lasertherapie unterstützt. Minoxidil-Lösung gilt als Mittel der ersten Wahl bei der topischen Therapie der Alopecia androgenetica. Steroidale Präparate, welche aus der kontrazeptiven Kombination von Ethinylestradiol und antiandrogenen Gestagenen (AA bestehen, sind therapeutische Prinzipien bei androgenisierten Patientinnen in der MT, sie sind hingegen in der Postmenopause kontraindiziert. Die orale Einnahme von Spironolacton und/oder Finasterid, beides nicht-steroidale Antiandrogene, ist während der MT unter sicherer Kontrazeption und jene von Spironolacton für die Alopezie in der Postmenopause gut geeignet. Die Einnahme von Kombinationsprapäraten, welche die nicht-kontrazeptiven natürlichen Östrogene und AA enthalten, sind für die Behandlung der FCA bei Patientinnen indiziert, die zusätzlich unter klimakterischen und peri-/postmenopausalen Störungen leiden

  19. Increased expression of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following exposure to estrogen during the critical period of neonatal sex differentiation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, H; Navarro, V M; Nielsen, John E; Mayen, A; Pinilla, L; Dalgaard, M; Malagon, M M; Castaño, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Aguilar, E; Tena-Sempere, M

    2006-01-01

    neuroendocrine system controlling development and function of the reproductive axis; the HP unit being highly sensitive to the organizing effects of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids. To gain knowledge on the molecular mode of action and potential biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic compounds at the HP unit...... was not detected at the hypothalamus, cortex, cerebellum, liver and testis. Finally, enhanced levels of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary were also demonstrated after neonatal administration of the anti-androgen flutamide. In summary, alpha- and beta-globin genes may prove as sensitive...

  20. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  1. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be some permanent changes to the color and elasticity of the skin. How can you help? Dress ... to Home and School Cancer Center Cancer Basics Types of Cancer Teens Get Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Dealing ...

  2. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the treatment that is frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. ...

  3. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oxygen Therapy Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy ... oxygen is so cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let ...

  4. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise...

  5. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Chitra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a new modality of therapy being used for the diagnosis and treatment of many tumors. It is now being increasingly used for skin tumors and other dermatological disorders. With its range of application it is certainly the therapy of the future. Its mechanism of action is by the Type II photo-oxidative reaction. The variables are the photosensitizer, the tissue oxygenation and the light source. It has been used to treat various disorders including Bowen′s disease, actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, and mycosis fungoides. The side-effects are fortunately mild and transient. Newer photosensitisers like methyl aminolevulinate hold a lot of promise for better therapy.

  6. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms of radiation for prostate ... typical treatment takes seven weeks. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: A patient comes in every day, Monday to ...

  7. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate or when the patient is older the treatment that is frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar ... different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray machine, ...

  8. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... given from an x-ray machine, and there's a variety called interstitial implantation, which uses radioactive seeds. ... common form of radiation therapy is external beam. A typical treatment takes seven weeks. Gunnar Zagars, M. ...

  9. YOGA THERAPY AND DISABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Belia Méndez Rial

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is a useful supportive intervention for a broad range of pain-associated diseases. It is often recommended as therapy for a variety of medical conditions and it is rising popularity as therapy (Verrastro, 2014). Yoga is a system of movement and breathing exercises meant to foster mind-body connection. It creates inner, physical and emotional balance through the use of postures, called asanas, combined with breathing techniques or pranayama (Posadzki et al, 2011). Benefits are found in di...

  10. Antisense Therapy in Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joshua J.A.; Toshifumi Yokota

    2013-01-01

    Antisense therapy is an approach to fighting diseases using short DNA-like molecules called antisense oligonucleotides. Recently, antisense therapy has emerged as an exciting and promising strategy for the treatment of various neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. Previous and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical trials have provided encouraging early results. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Huntington’s disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...

  11. Yoga therapy for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    N Gangadhar Bangalore; Shivarama Varambally

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders. Despite significant advances in pharmacotherapy, treatment remains sub-optimal, with many patients having persisting deficits, especially in cognitive and social functioning. Yoga as a therapy has proven to be effective as a sole or additional intervention in psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been significant interest in the application of yoga therapy in psychosis and schizophrenia. To review a)...

  12. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Elias, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nanotechnological-Based Systems for CancerIn vivo Spectroscopy for Detection and Treatment of GBM with NPt® ImplantationNanobiotechnology for Antibacterial Therapy and DiagnosisChitosan NanoparticlesSynthesis and Biomedical Application of Silver NanoparticlesRecent Advances in Cancer Therapy Using PhytochemicalsMitochondrial Dysfunction and Cancer: Modulation by Palladium-Lipoic Acid ComplexUnity of Mind and Body: The Concept of Life Purpose DominantThuja Occidentalis and Breast Cancer ChemopreventionAntioxidants and Com

  13. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M. S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the poten...

  14. Proton beam therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, W P; Kooy, H; Loeffler, J S; T. F. DeLaney

    2005-01-01

    Conventional radiation therapy directs photons (X-rays) and electrons at tumours with the intent of eradicating the neoplastic tissue while preserving adjacent normal tissue. Radiation-induced damage to healthy tissue and second malignancies are always a concern, however, when administering radiation. Proton beam radiotherapy, one form of charged particle therapy, allows for excellent dose distributions, with the added benefit of no exit dose. These characteristics make this form of radiother...

  15. Who needs pharmacologic therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Porterfield; Rohit Malhotra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of atrial fibrillation has evolved significantly in the last ten years, with ablation becoming a far more common form of treatment for this most common of arrhythmias. However, while ablation has become more common, certain populations derive continued benefit from the use of pharmacologic therapy for treatment. We review the use of pharmacologic therapy and novel considerations for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

  16. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  17. Psychodynamic Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and explores the basic principles of psychodynamic approaches in music therapy. Music is used as a means to explore both conscious and unconscious issues as well as the internal world of the individuals involved in music therapy. However, the focus of therapy is on therapeutic relationship, especially the dynamics of transference and counter-transference between the client and the music therapist. Musical experiences, such as music listening, songs, and improvisation, can be used to facilitate the therapeutic processes, and to achieve individualized therapeutic goals. When clinically appropriate, verbal processing might play as crucial a role as the musical processing. Practitioners of psychodynamic approaches often strive to gain meaning and in-depth understandings from therapeutic experiences, and the approach is therefore suitable for individuals who are ready to work through their personal issues within a therapeutic relationship. Various approaches and techniques have been developed in psychotherapy as well as in music therapy. Perhaps the only commonality in these approaches is that psychodynamic thinking informs the direction of the therapy and therapeutic processes. Clinical vignettes will be introduced within the article to highlight a triadic dynamic—the client, the music therapist, and the music—in order to illustrate the core aspects of psychodynamic music therapy.

  18. Radiation therapy dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New therapeutic treatments generally aim to increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity. Many aspects of radiation dosimetry have been studied and developed particularly in the field of external radiation. The success of radiotherapy relies on monitoring the dose of radiation to which the tumor and the adjacent tissues are exposed. Radiotherapy techniques have evolved through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments or radiosurgery and robotic radiation therapy. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care by improving the precision of the absorbed dose delivered. This paper presents state-of-the art radiation therapy dosimetry techniques as well as the value of integral dosimetry (INDOS), which shows promise in the fulfillment of radiation therapy dosimetry requirements. - highlights: • Pre-treatment delivery and phantom dosimetry in brachytherapy treatments were analyzed. • Dose distribution in the head and neck was estimated by physical and mathematical dosimetry. • Electron beam flattening was acquired by means of mathematical, physical and “in vivo” dosimetry. • Integral dosimetry (INDOS) has been suggested as a routine dosimetric method in all radiation therapy treatments

  19. Cellular therapy in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreemanta K. Parida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs, as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy.

  20. Fertility and cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, L.C.

    1979-05-01

    With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this means shielding the gonads as much as possible, optimal but not excessive doses and fields, oophoropexy, or sperm collection and storage prior to irradiation. With chemotherapy it means the shortest exposure to drugs consistent with best treatment and prior to therapy the collection and storage of sperm where facilities are available. At present this is still an experimental procedure. Artificial insemination for a couple when the male has received cancer therapy is another alternative. Finally, it is the responsibility of physicians caring for patients with neoplasms to be knowledgeable about these and all other effects of therapy so that patients may be counseled appropriately and understand the implications of therapy for their life.

  1. Cellular therapy in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Shreemanta K; Madansein, Rajhmun; Singh, Nalini; Padayatchi, Nesri; Master, Iqbal; Naidu, Kantharuben; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs), as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy. PMID:25809753

  2. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed. PMID:27024999

  3. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, William S.M.; Toth, Karoly

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...

  4. Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Kim

    2005-04-01

    Sexually dimorphic behavior in nonhuman primates results from behavioral predispositions organized by prenatal androgens. The rhesus monkey has been the primary primate model for understanding the hormonal organization of sexually dimorphic behavior. Historically, female fetuses have received high prenatal androgen doses to investigate the masculinizing and defeminizing effects of androgens. Such treatments masculinized juvenile and adult copulatory behavior and defeminized female-typical sexual initiation to adult estrogen treatment. Testosterone and the nonaromatizable androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, produced similar effects suggesting that estrogenic metabolites of androgens are not critical for masculinization and defeminization in rhesus monkeys. Long duration androgen treatments masculinized both behavior and genitalia suggesting that socializing responses to the females' male-like appearance may have produced the behavioral changes. Treatments limited to 35 days early or late in gestation differentially affected behavioral and genital masculinization demonstrating direct organizing actions of prenatal androgens. Recent studies exposed fetal females to smaller doses of androgens and interfered with endogenous androgens using the anti-androgen flutamide. Low dose androgen treatment only significantly masculinized infant vocalizations and produced no behavioral defeminization. Females receiving late gestation flutamide showed masculinized infant vocalizations and defeminized interest in infants. Both late androgen and flutamide treatment hypermasculinized some male juvenile behaviors. Early flutamide treatment blocked full male genital masculinization, but did not alter their juvenile or adult behavior. The role of neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms in the flutamide effects is discussed. Sexually differentiated behavior ultimately reflects both hormonally organized behavioral predispositions and the social experience that converts these predispositions

  5. Depigmentation therapies in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depigmentation therapy in vitiligo is an option in those with extensive vitiligo who have failed to respond to medical therapy and have obvious cosmetic disfigurement due to intervening patchy pigmented areas. Various aspects of this therapy such as the cost, treatment time, course, permanency of depigmentation, side effects, and the possibility of repigmentation should first be discussed with the patient. At present, there is no ideal depigmenting therapy available, but many agents in the market have been in use for many years. Monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH is the mainstay and Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved in USA but takes many months to depigment and is associated with local side effects and risk of repigmentation. Other agents which are also used are 4-methoxy phenol and 88% phenol. Physical therapies for depigmentation include Q-switched ruby and alexandrite lasers and cryotherapy. Second-line agents which can be explored for depigmentation include imatinib mesylate, imiquimod, and diphencyprone. Many possible experimental agents are being explored like various phenol derivatives, melanoma vaccines, interferon gamma, busulfan, etc. A major lacuna still exists in this area and a lot more research is desirable to give satisfactory cosmesis to these patients with extensive vitiligo.

  6. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  7. [Dietary therapy of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Katsumi; Ishihara, Eiko; Ikeda, Hiroko

    2014-05-01

    Reappraisal of ketogenic diets (KD) were delayed in Japan compared to USA and Korea. The reasons are unknown, but possible explanations are (1) Japanese food culture prefers rice and less fat and (2) ACTH therapy is preferred for West syndrome in Japan. Since Japanese child neurologists were surprised at dramatic effects on glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut-1DS) in 2003, KD have been slowly accepted for treatment of epilepsy in Japan. New generation KD including modified Atkins diet (mAD) are preferred to classical KD. KD can be causal therapy in Glut-1DS and some of mitochondrial disorders, though anti-epileptic drugs are symptomatic therapy. KD can alleviate intractable seizures in epilepsies with brain malformation in addition to West syndrome and Dravet syndrome, etc. KD may work for brain tumor, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. C7-8 triglycerides or fatty acid esters are under development as medicines replacing KD. PMID:24912289

  8. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  9. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  10. Bacteriophage therapy against Enterobacteriaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youqiang; Xu; Yong; Liu; Yang; Liu; Jiangsen; Pei; Su; Yao; Chi; Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae are a class of gram-negative facultative anaerobic rods, which can cause a variety of diseases, such as bacteremia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections and ophthalmic infections, in humans, poultry, animals and fish. Disease caused by Enterobacteriaceae cause the deaths of millions of people every year, resulting in enormous economic loss. Drug treatment is a useful and efficient way to control Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the abuse of antibiotics, drug resistance has been found in growing number of Enterobacteriaceae infections and, as such, there is an urgent need to find new methods of control. Bacteriophage therapy is an efficient alternative to antibiotics as it employs a different antibacterial mechanism. This paper summarizes the history of bacteriophage therapy, its bacteriallytic mechanisms, and the studies that have focused on Enterobacteriaceae and bacteriophage therapy.

  11. [Therapy and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:3555209

  12. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bittar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease characterised by arterial and/or venous thrombosis, recurrent pregnancy loss, and persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs. It could be life-threatening as in the case of catastrophic APS where multi-organ failure is observed. APS morbidities are thought to be the result of a combination of thrombotic and inflammatory processes. Over the past decades, the mainstay of therapy of APS has been anticoagulation. As new mechanisms of pathogenesis are being unravelled with time, novel targeted immunomodulatory therapies are being proposed as promising agents in the treatment of APS. In this article, we present an overview of new pathogenetic mechanisms in APS as well as novel antithrombotic and immunomodulatory therapies.

  13. Neutrons in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Barry J.

    1995-03-01

    The role of neutrons in the management of cancer has a long history. However, it is only in recent years that neutrons are beginning to find an accepted place as an efficacious radiation modality. Fast neutron therapy is already well established for the treatment of certain cancers, and clinical trials are ongoing. Californium neutron sources are being used in brachytherapy. Boron neutron capture therapy has been well tested with thermal neutrons and epithermal neutron dose escalation studies are about to commence in the USA and Europe. Possibilities of neutron induced auger electron therapy are also discussed. With respect to chemotherapy, prompt neutron capture analysis is being used to study the dose optimization of chemotherapy in the management of breast cancer. The rationales behind these applications of neutrons in the management of cancer are examined.

  14. Cancer Therapy with Antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Ad-4 Collaboration

    2005-10-01

    Starting in 2003 the AD-4/ACE collaboration has studied the biological effects of antiprotons annihilating in a human tissue like material on live V-79 Chinese Hamster cells. The main goal of the work is to prove the efficacy of antiprotons for cancer therapy. In this report we discuss a critical point to be considered carefully for all particle beam radiation therapies, namely the loss of primary particles from the beam on the way to a tumor seated some distance below the surface.

  15. Anticholinerge Therapie der OAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenntnisse über Differentialdiagnostik und Pathophysiologie des Blasenüberaktivitäts-Syndroms sind essentiell für eine erfolgreiche Therapie. Obwohl Verhaltenstraining und Elektrostimulation ihre Wirksamkeit bei OAB bewiesen haben, ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl nach wie vor die anticholinerge Behandlung. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Einnahmetreue der Patienten unbefriedigend, was in der letzten Zeit zu verschiedenen Medikamentenneuentwicklungen mit verbesserter Verträglichkeit bei gleichbleibend hoher Effektivität geführt hat. Retard-Formulierungen, extraenterale Applikationswege und Rezeptor-Subselektivität sind hierbei die Prinzipien, welche die Behandlungsakzeptanz und Patientenzufriedenheit steigern sollen.

  16. [Therapy-resistant pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, Andreas; Schäfer, Stephan Christian; Geiser, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    We report the case of a 72 year old patient with B-symptoms and a persistent pulmonary infiltrate despite an antibiotic therapy. Buds of granulation tissue were found by transbronchial biopsy proving an organizing pneumonia. B-Symptoms and pulmonary infiltrate were improved immediately by a therapy with steroids. Even though there were reasons for a secondary organizing pneumonia due to a known chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a pneumonia treated four months before, we consider a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia as most probable. PMID:25305119

  17. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosen A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance“. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand bei der fokalen Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms wieder.

  18. Spa therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spa therapy constitutes the use of mineral springs and thermal mud to soothe and heal various ailments. Like the mineral springs, seas and oceans are also important centers for spa therapy of which the most important is Dead Sea (DS. DS has been famous for thousands of years for its miraculous curative and cosmetic properties. Intensive research is going on using DS minerals in a wide range of dermatological conditions especially psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and other eczemas and several papers have been published in various international and pharmacological journals.

  19. Pharmacologic Therapies in Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joana Lima; Wipf, Joyce E

    2016-07-01

    Anticoagulants are beneficial for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The development of target-specific oral anticoagulants is changing the landscape of anticoagulation therapy and created growing interest on this subject. Understanding the pharmacology of different anticoagulants is the first step to adequately treat patients with best available therapy while avoiding serious bleeding complications. This article reviews the pharmacology of the main anticoagulant classes (vitamin K antagonists, direct oral anticoagulants, and heparins) and their clinical indications based on evidence-based data currently available in the literature. PMID:27235611

  20. Is mamary gland growth a suitable model fof testing antiandrogens?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarda, Josef; Krejčí, Petr; Valík, David; Vašek, Vladimír; Snochowski, M.

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (1996), s. 37. ISSN 0044-4847. [International symposium of animal physiology /16./. Třešť, 22.11.1995-24.11.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA505/94/0009 Impact factor: 0.255, year: 1996

  1. Detection of endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan using bioassays and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Pei-Hsin

    2016-06-01

    Endocrine active substances, including naturally occurring hormones and various synthetic chemicals have received much concern owing to their endocrine disrupting potencies. It is essential to monitor their environmental occurrence since these compounds may pose potential threats to biota and human health. In this study, yeast-based reporter assays were carried out to investigate the presence of (anti-)androgenic, (anti-)estrogenic, and (anti-)thyroid compounds in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was also used to measure the environmental concentrations of selected endocrine active substances for assessing potential ecological risks and characterizing contributions to the endocrine disrupting activities. Bioassay results showed that anti-androgenic (ND-7489 μg L(-1) flutamide equivalent), estrogenic (ND-347 ng L(-1) 17β-estradiol equivalent), and anti-thyroid activities were detected in the dissolved and particulate phases of river water samples, while anti-estrogenic activities (ND-10 μg L(-1) 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalent) were less often found. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants, such as bisphenol A, triclosan, and estrone were frequently detected in Taiwanese rivers. In addition, their risk quotient values were often higher than 1, suggesting that they may pose an ecological risk to the aquatic biota. Further identification of unknown anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants in Taiwanese rivers may be necessary to protect Taiwan's aquatic environment. PMID:26971174

  2. Tumor therapy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this program is to acquire data in order to evaluate the advantages of the proton spot scan technique compared to other forefront radiotherapy procedures, and to integrate the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the life science department for human cancer therapy by testing it in veterinary radio-oncology. (author) 1 fig., 2 tab., 2 refs

  3. Marketing occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K

    1987-05-01

    Marketing is emerging as an important aspect of the delivery of health care services, including occupational therapy. An understanding of marketing and a knowledge of how to apply its principles will permit therapists to keep pace with the changing health care environment. This article introduces terminology, strategies, and applications of marketing. PMID:3688145

  4. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy ...

  5. Botulinum Toxin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... toxin therapy public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  6. Transpersonal Art Therapy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael; Farrelly-Hansen, Mimi; Marek, Bernie; Swan-Foster, Nora; Wallingford, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the task of training future art therapists through a unique branch of transpersonal psychology referred to as "contemplative education." Discusses contemplative practices, such as meditation, and their relationship to creating art. Offers a definition of transpersonal art therapy as well as a literature review. (Contains 80 references.)…

  7. Antibody therapy for Ebola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Ebola viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with fatality rates up to 90%, and are identified as biosafety level 4 pathogens and CDC Category A Agents of Bioterrorism. To date, there are no approved therapies and vaccines available to treat these infections. Antibody therapy was estimated to be an effective and powerful treatment strategy against infectious pathogens in the late 19th, early 20th centuries but has fallen short to meet expectations to widely combat infectious diseases. Passive immunization for Ebola virus was successful in 2012, after over 15 years of failed attempts leading to skepticism that the approach would ever be of potential benefit. Currently, monoclonal antibody (mAbs)-based therapies are the most efficient at reversing the progression of a lethal Ebola virus infection in nonhuman primates, which recapitulate the human disease with the highest similarity. Novel combinations of mAbs can even fully cure lethally infected animals after clinical symptoms and circulating virus have been detected, days into the infection. These new developments have reopened the door for using antibody-based therapies for filovirus infections. Furthermore, they are reigniting hope that these strategies will contribute to better control the spread of other infectious agents and provide new tools against infectious diseases. PMID:24503566

  8. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... predict when or even if the remaining cancer cells will become active again. Christopher Wood, M.D.: It's at the ten-year mark where the differences between success rates with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy become evident,and if you're not going ...

  9. Yoga therapy for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gangadhar Bangalore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders. Despite significant advances in pharmacotherapy, treatment remains sub-optimal, with many patients having persisting deficits, especially in cognitive and social functioning. Yoga as a therapy has proven to be effective as a sole or additional intervention in psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been significant interest in the application of yoga therapy in psychosis and schizophrenia. To review a the evidence for the use of yoga therapy in patients with schizophrenia b studies which have been done in this area, c the barriers for reaching yoga to patients, and d future directions, an English language literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EBSCO as well as grey literature was done. Research reports have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of yoga as an add-on therapy in schizophrenia, particularly in improving negative symptomatology and social cognition. However, the biological underpinnings of this effect remain unclear, although there are some indications that hormones like oxytocin may contribute to the changes in social cognition.

  10. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews (a) the natural history of metastatic bone disease in general terms and as it impacts on the use of radiation as therapy; (b) the clinical and radiographic evaluations used to guide the application of irradiation; and (c) the methods, results, and toxicities of various techniques of irradiation

  11. YOGA THERAPY AND DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belia Méndez Rial

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is a useful supportive intervention for a broad range of pain-associated diseases. It is often recommended as therapy for a variety of medical conditions and it is rising popularity as therapy (Verrastro, 2014. Yoga is a system of movement and breathing exercises meant to foster mind-body connection. It creates inner, physical and emotional balance through the use of postures, called asanas, combined with breathing techniques or pranayama (Posadzki et al, 2011. Benefits are found in different areas: Physical benefits (e.g.: flexibility, coordination, strength, endurance mental benefits (e.g.: to develop greater awareness, diminish anxiety and reduction of distress, positive behavioural changes, improvement mood, facilitate positive emotions and optimism, broaden cognitive processes and enhance self- efficacy for pain control or social (e.g.: to reduce isolation, to foster social networks and reinforce social support. Researches show that even despite persistent pain symptoms, patients recognize that they are able to be physically active, they experience higher self-competence and self-awareness, which contributes to higher quality of life. Moreover, yoga therapy is a safe and beneficial supportive treatment, relatively cheap, it requires just the motivation of patients (Posadzki et al, 2011; Büsing et al, 2012 and a good professional support. Objectives: The aim of this review it is to determine what are the topics of the researches about Yoga therapy and disability.   

  12. Tumor therapy evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattmann, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kaser-Hotz, B.; Parvis, A. [Zurich Univ., Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this program is to acquire data in order to evaluate the advantages of the proton spot scan technique compared to other forefront radiotherapy procedures, and to integrate the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the life science department for human cancer therapy by testing it in veterinary radio-oncology. (author) 1 fig., 2 tab., 2 refs.

  13. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... claims. No complementary therapy has been proven to cure cancer. If this claim is made, it’s not true. Find out what research has been done. Your doctor can be a good source of this information. 5 Natural does not mean safe. While the idea of ...

  14. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate or when the patient is older the treatment that is frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms ... different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray machine, ...

  15. Indomethacin therapy in hydramnios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhyankar S

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The use of indomethacin in treatment of hydramnios was evaluated. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Twelve patients with symptomatic hydramnios were treated with indomethacin (2.2- 3.0 mg/kg body weight/day. RESULTS: The treatment was started at a gestational age of 31.17-/+7.94 weeks and continued for 3.74-/+2.3 weeks. Eleven patients responded to the therapy both subjectively and objectively and pregnancies were prolonged by 4.6-/+3.1 weeks (range 0.1-10 weeks. Five women had term deliveries. Six patients had a favourable perinatal outcome. Four patients who had a known congenital anomaly in the foetus, delivered stillborn babies or had an early neonatal death. One patient who did not follow up after commencing therapy delivered a full-term stillbirth. One patient delivered within 1 day of starting therapy. Indomethacin therapy caused no maternal complications. CONCLUSION: Indomethacin was effective in the management of hydramnios and preventing it′s complications.

  16. Weekend therapy in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-05-01

    This article introduces the concept of "weekend therapy", which has now become reality in diabetes. It briefly describes injectable and oral drugs which are currently available, or are in advanced stages of development, for use in once weekly administration. These include dulaglutide, exenatide QW, semaglutide, omarigliptin and trelagliptin. PMID:27183953

  17. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  18. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    Antiprotons are interesting as a modality in radiation therapy for the following reasons: When fast antiprotons penetrate matter, they behave as protons. Well before the Bragg-peak, protons and antiprotons have near identical stopping powers exhibit equal radiobiology. But when the antiprotons co...

  19. Psychodynamic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different psychodynamic therapy approaches (drive/structural, relational and integrative analytic models) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To e...

  20. Radiation therapy imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a radiation therapy imaging apparatus for providing images in a patient being treated on a radiation therapy apparatus for verification and monitoring of patient positioning and verification of alignment and shaping of the radiation field of the radiation therapy apparatus. It comprises: a high-energy treatment head for applying a radiation dose to a patient positioned on a treatment table, and a gantry rotatable about an isocentric axis and carrying the treatment head for permitting the radiation dose to be applied to the patient from any of a range of angles about the isocentric axis; the radiation therapy imaging apparatus including a radiation therapy image detector which comprises a video camera mounted on the gantry diametrically opposite the treat head, an elongated light-excluding enclosure enveloping the camera to exclude ambient light from the camera, a fluoroscopic plate positioned on a distal end of the enclosure remote from the camera and aligned with the head to produce a fluoroscopic image in response to radiation applied from the head through the patient, mirror means in the enclosure and oriented for reflecting the image to the camera to permit monitoring on a viewing screen of the position of the radiation field in respect to the patient, and means for retracting at least the distal end of the enclosure from a position in which the fluoroscopic plate is disposed opposite the treatment head without disturbing the position of the camera on the gantry, so that the enclosure can be collapsed and kept from projecting under the treatment table when the patient is being positioned on the treatment table

  1. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cells called melanocytes that produce skin color ( melanin ). Radiation therapy is used mostly for melanomas that ... in addition to surgery, chemotherapy or biologic therapy. Hair Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Hair Follicle Vein Artery © ASTRO ...

  2. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  3. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated. PMID:25462876

  4. LASER THERAPY IN CHILD NEUROLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Prityko

    2012-01-01

    The current review of studies devoted to efficacy and safety of laser therapy in the treatment of neurological diseases in children is proposed. The author discusses pathophysiological background of this method of therapy, general therapeutic approaches and definite schemes of therapy in different diseases.

  5. Chiral dimethylamine flutamide derivatives-modeling, synthesis, androgen receptor affinities and carbon-11 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most prostate cancers are androgen dependent upon initial diagnosis. On the other hand, some very aggressive forms of prostate cancer were shown to have lost the expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Although the AR is routinely targeted in endocrine treatment, the clinical outcome remains suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to demonstrate the presence and activity of the AR in each case of prostate cancer, before and after treatment. While noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to determine AR expression of tumor cells in vivo, fully optimized PET imaging agents are not yet available. Based on molecular modeling, three novel derivatives of hydroxyflutamide (Compounds 1-3) were designed and synthesized. They contain an electron-rich group (dimethylamine) located on the methyl moiety, which may confer a better stability to the molecule in vivo. Compounds 1-3 have AR binding that is similar or higher than that of the currently used commercial drugs. An automated carbon-11 radiolabeling route was developed, and the compounds were successfully labeled with a 10-15% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 4Ci/μmol end of bombardment (n=15). These labeled biomarkers may facilitate the future quantitative molecular imaging of AR-positive prostate cancer using PET and may also allow for image-guided treatment of prostate cancer

  6. Effect of a short course of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy on the response to subsequent androgen suppression in prostate cancer patients with relapse after radiotherapy: A secondary analysis of the randomized protocol RTOG 86-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare, by a secondary analysis, the therapeutic benefits of androgen suppression in protocol prostate cancer patients with relapse after radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced disease who, in the Phase III trial beginning in 1987, were assigned to receive or not receive a short course of neoadjuvant maximal androgen suppression before definitive RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1987 and 1991, 456 patients were entered in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trail 86-10 and randomized to receive (Arm I) or not to receive (Arm II) neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (HT), which was 4 months of goserelin (3.6 mg every 4 weeks) and flutamide (250 mg t.i.d.) before and during RT for bulky T2-T4 tumors. The overall and disease-specific survival after both randomization and salvage HT for patients with relapse was evaluated, as well as the duration of response in those patients undergoing salvage HT. The outcomes in patients who had received neoadjuvant HT vs. those who had not were compared. The median follow-up after randomization for all alive patients was 9.0 years and was 5.5 years for alive patients after beginning salvage HT. Results: Fewer patients received salvage HT on Arm I than on Arm II (45% vs. 63%, p<0.001). The outcomes by randomized treatment arm (I vs. II) from the time of beginning salvage HT were similar. At 5 years after salvage HT, the overall survival rates were 41% and 41% and the disease-specific survival rates were 50% and 50%. At 8 years after randomization, the overall survival rates were 47% and 44% and the disease-specific survival rates were 55% and 56%. Conclusion: Although a 4-month course of neoadjuvant and concurrent maximum androgen suppression and RT (compared with RT alone) significantly increases the freedom from relapse rate and freedom from receiving salvage HT, it does not compromise the long-term beneficial effect of subsequent salvage HT, if needed for relapse. These findings with long follow-up in patients treated for

  7. Comments on chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of actinide chelation is to decrease the risk from radiation-induced cancer. While occupational exposures in the past have mainly involved low specific activity 239Pu, future exposures will increasingly involve high specific activity plutonium, americium, and curium - all of which clear more rapidly from the lung. This will tend to shift the cancer risk from lung to bone and liver. Although therapy with Ca- or Zn-DTPA rapidly removes 241Am from the canine, the sub-human primate, and the human liver, improved methods for removal from bone and lung are needed. DTPA can remove 241Am more easily from the growing skeleton of a child than from the mature skeleton of an adult. Investigators at Karlsruhe are developing chelation agents for oral administration and are investigating the reduction in local dose to bone resulting from chelation therapy

  8. Nonsteroid therapy of sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović-Vučinić Violeta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Corticosteroid therapy used to be considered a common treatment for sarcoidosis patients. Discussion and Review of Literature. It is known that corticosteroids have many side affects, and that knowledge called for other possible treatments, non-steroidal agents that would allow prolonged treatment of chronic sarcoidosis and avoid side effects of steroids on metabolism, glicoregulation, increase in body weight, osteoporosis, Cushing syndrome etc. There is a wide range of medications that can offer alternative to corticosteroid therapy. So far, none of the agents has been absolutely perfect. Conclusion. Therefore, it can be concluded that every clinician should choose the best possible treatment for each sarcoidosis patient. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175046 i br. 175081

  9. Regenerative photonic therapy: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

    2012-09-01

    After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

  10. Intranasal insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Hvidberg, A;

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate metabolic control and safety parameters (hypoglycaemia frequency and nasal mucosa physiology), 31 insulin-dependent diabetic patients were treated with intranasal insulin at mealtimes for 1 month and with subcutaneous fast-acting insulin at meals for another month in an open, crossover...... randomized trial. During both treatment periods the patients were treated with intermediate-acting insulin at bedtime. Six of the patients were withdrawn from the study during intranasal insulin therapy due to metabolic dysregulation. Serum insulin concentrations increased more rapidly and decreased more...... quickly during intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin administration. Metabolic control deteriorated, as assessed by haemoglobin A1c concentrations, slightly but significantly after intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin therapy. The bioavailability of intranasally applied insulin was...

  11. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should be...... administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause of...... iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  12. Medical leech therapy (Hirudotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leeches have been used in medicine long time before BC. In recent years medical leech therapy has gained increasing interest in reconstructive surgery and pain management and other medical fields. The possible indications and success rates of this treatment are discussed. There is a special interest in salvage of flaps and grafts by the use of medical leeches. Retrospective analysis indicates a success rate of >80%. Randomized controlled trials have been performed in osteoarthritis. Case reports and smaller series are available for the treatment of chronic wounds, post-phlebitic syndrome and inflammatory skin diseases. The most common adverse effects are prolonged bleeding and infection by saprophytic intestinal bacteria of leeches. Medical leech therapy is a useful adjunct to other measures wound management.

  13. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered. PMID:27089619

  14. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  15. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  16. Enzyme Therapy: Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    UmaMaheswari, Thiyagamoorthy; Hemalatha, Thiagarajan; Sankaranarayanan, Palavesam; Puvanakrishnan, Rengarajulu

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes control all metabolic processes in human system from simple digestion of food to highly complex immune response. Physiological reactions occuring in healthy individuals are disturbed when enzymes are deficient or absent. Enzymes are administered for normalizing biological function in certain pathologies. Initially, crude proteolytic enzymes were used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Recent advances have enabled enzyme therapy as a promising tool in the treatment of cardiovascular, oncological and hereditary diseases. Now, a spectrum of other diseases are also covered under enzyme therapy. But, the available information on the use of enzymes as therapeutic agents for different diseases is scanty. This review details the enzymes which have been used to treat various diseases/disorders. PMID:26891548

  17. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  18. Gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ponder, Katherine P.; Haskins, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are due to deficiencies in activities of lysosomal enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans. Some attempts at gene therapy for MPS in animal models have involved intravenous injection of vectors derived from an adeno-associated virus (AAV), adenovirus, retrovirus or a plasmid, which primarily results in expression in liver and secretion of the relevant enzyme into blood. Most vectors can correct disease in liver and spleen, although correction in other organs includ...

  19. Proton beam therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  20. Intracavitary therapy of craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign cystic para-hypophyseal tumors often associated with hypopituitarism and visual-field abnormalities. Their therapy by surgery and external beam radiotherapy is imperfect. The intracavitary instillation of beta-emitting colloid radiopharmaceuticals into the cysts permits the delivery of far higher radiation doses to the cyst lining than is possible by external beam radiotherapy. This technique permits destruction of the lining epithelium with resultant elimination of cyst fluid formation and cyst shrinkage in up to 80% of cases

  1. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic f...

  2. Bioidentical Hormone Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Files, Julia A.; Ko, Marcia G.; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-01-01

    The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are t...

  3. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  4. Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Laser Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of flexible fibers for the delivery of laser energy led to the first endoscopic laser applications in humans in the early 1970s. Since that time, much has been learned about applications throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The risks appear to be minimal. The coagulative effect of laser energy is used to treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage and small, benign mucosal lesions. The ablative effect of the Nd:YAG laser on tissue is used for palliative therapy for malignant gastroint...

  5. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  6. Cell therapy of pseudarthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos Filho, Ricardo; Lermontov, Simone; Borojevic, Radovan; Schott, Paulo Cezar; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; José Mauro GRANJEIRO

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficiency of cell therapy for pseudarthrosis. Implant of the bone marrow aspirate was compared to mononuclear cells purified extemporaneously using the Sepax® equipment. Methods Six patients with nonunion of the tibia or femur were treated. Four received a percutaneous infusion of autologous bone marrow aspirated from the iliac crest, and two received autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells separated from the aspirate with the Sepax®. The primary fixation ...

  7. Pharmacoeconomics of Surfactant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarello-Andrews, Liza; Marsh, Wallace

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant therapy has become an integral part of the standard of care for treating premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Institutions that routinely treat this patient population have to select a surfactant based upon clinical and pharmacoeconomic considerations. Pharmacoeconomic studies have established the cost-effectiveness of individual agents based on a variety of factors, including length of hospitalization, mortality odds ratio, and other direct medical costs. Th...

  8. Breast cancer therapies weighed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breast cancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breast cancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breast cancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease? Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy

  9. Renal Replacement Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zaccaria Ricci; Stefano Romagnoli; Claudio Ronco

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute...

  10. Proton therapy project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities of 1996 have focused on the commissioning of the facility, the debugging of the software for the steering (therapy controller and dose controller computers) and the development of the dosimetry for the verification of three-dimensional conformal dose distribution. The safety aspects of the spot scanning technique have been inspected during a safety hearing with international experts. In November the facility was finally ready for the treatment of the first human patient on the PSI gantry. (author) 1 fig

  11. Sleep enhances exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kleim, Birgit; Wilhelm, F. H.; Temp, L; Margraf, J.; Wiederhold, B. K.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Here, we tested the beneficial effect of sleep on memory consolidation following exposure psychotherapy of phobic anxiety. Method: A total of 40 individuals afflicted with spider phobia according to DSM-IV underwent a one-session virtual reality exposure treatment and either slept for 90 min or stayed awake afterwards. Results: Sleep following exposure therapy compared with wakefulness led to better reductions in self-reported fear (p = 0...

  12. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kooy, H. M.; Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radio...

  13. Emerging Therapies for Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    McClung, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective therapies are available for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men, there remains a need for the development of even more effective and acceptable drugs. Several new drugs that are in late-stage clinical development will be discussed. Abaloparatide (recombinant parathyroid hormone related peptide [PTHrP] analogue) has anabolic activity like teriparatide. Recent data from the phase 3 fracture prevention trial demonstrate that this agent i...

  14. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  15. Spondyloarthritides: evolving therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Andrew; Keat, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    TNF blockade therapy has substantially advanced the treatment of peripheral spondyloarthritides but revolutionised the treatment of severe ankylosing spondylitis. The capacity of biologic treatment to improve dramatically symptoms and quality of life in patients with spinal disease is undoubted, although important questions remain. Notable amongst these are concerns about skeletal disease modification and the true balance between costs and effectiveness. Guidelines for the biologic treatment ...

  16. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  17. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  18. Ototoxicity and cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    Ototoxicity is a well-established toxicity associated with a subgroup of antineoplastic therapies that includes platinum chemotherapy, radiation or surgery involving the ear and auditory nerve, and supportive care agents such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and loop diuretics. The reported prevalence of ototoxicity in patients who have received potentially ototoxic therapy ranges from 4% to 90% depending on factors such as age of the patient population, agent(s) used, cumulative dose, and administration techniques. The impact of ototoxicity on subsequent health-related and psychosocial outcomes in these patients can be substantial, and the burden of morbidity related to ototoxic agents is particularly high in very young children. Considerable interindividual variability in the prevalence and severity of ototoxicity has been observed among patients receiving similar treatment, suggesting genetic susceptibility as a risk factor. The development and testing of otoprotective agents is ongoing; however, to the author's knowledge, no US Food and Drug Administration-approved otoprotectants are currently available. Prospective monitoring for ototoxicity allows for comparison of auditory outcomes across clinical trials, as well as for early detection, potential alterations in therapy, and auditory intervention and rehabilitation to ameliorate the adverse consequences of hearing loss. Cancer 2016;122:1647-58. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26859792

  19. [Multimodal pain therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böger, A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic pain has both high prevalence and a significant economic impact in Germany. The most common chronic pain types are low back pain and headache. On the one hand, the management of chronic pain patients is incomplete, yet it is often overtreated in orthopaedic surgical settings with interventional procedures. The reason for this is the structure of outpatient management and the way it is paid for in Germany. Pain management of patients with private insurance cover is no better because of "doctor shopping". Medical guidelines could be of some help in improving the situation, but they are widely unknown, and have still to demonstrate whether they have any impact on GP treatment pathways. The "gold standard" multimodal pain therapy shows significant improvement in many studies compared to monomodal therapy regimes and interventional regimes, but is too rarely recommended by the patients' physicians, whether GPs or specialists. Because of the huge number of institutions nowadays that, for the sake of form, offer such multimodal therapies, these need to be differentiated in terms of their structural and process quality. A first step is the "k edoq" project. It is essential to improve knowledge of the principles of modern pain management. This includes better networking and communication between doctors, physiotherapists and psychologists, and at the grassroots level, providing the public with more detailed and better information. PMID:25000627

  20. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  1. Microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans

    1999-10-01

    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  2. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, K; Goslinski, T

    2007-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), also known as photoradiation therapy, phototherapy, or photochemotherapy, involves the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) that is activated by exposure to light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. The transfer of energy from the activated photosensitizer to available oxygen results in the formation of toxic oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals. These very reactive chemical species can damage proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and other cellular components. Applications of PDT in dentistry are growing rapidly: the treatment of oral cancer, bacterial and fungal infection therapies, and the photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of the malignant transformation of oral lesions. PDT has shown potential in the treatment of oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, and head and neck cancer. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) has been efficacious in the treatment of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections. The absence of genotoxic and mutagenic effects of PDT is an important factor for long-term safety during treatment. PDT also represents a novel therapeutic approach in the management of oral biofilms. Disruption of plaque structure has important consequences for homeostasis within the biofilm. Studies are now leading toward selective photosensitizers, since killing the entire flora leaves patients open to opportunistic infections. Dentists deal with oral infections on a regular basis. The oral cavity is especially suitable for PACT, because it is relatively accessible to illumination. PMID:17652195

  3. Prostate Cancer and Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: Implications for Screening and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Spees, Colleen K.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Ronney Abaza; Clinton, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with mutations in the TP53 gene and characterized by a propensity to develop a variety of malignancies resulting in a shortened lifespan. We report a case of prostate cancer in a 50 year old male with LFS. Experimental studies suggest that TP53 mutations in prostate cancer are associated with therapeutic resistance to radiation, chemotherapy, and anti-androgens, implying that LFS men may experience more aggressive...

  4. Music therapy career aptitude test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Music Therapy Career Aptitude Test (MTCAT) was to measure the affective domain of music therapy students including their self-awareness as it relates to the music therapy career, value in human development, interest in general therapy, and aptitude for being a professional music therapist. The MTCAT was administered to 113 music therapy students who are currently freshman or sophomores in an undergraduate music therapy program or in the first year of a music therapy master's equivalency program. The results of analysis indicated that the MTCAT is normally distributed and that all 20 questions are significantly correlated with the total test score of the MTCAT. The reliability of the MTCAT was considerably high (Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha=0.8). The criterion-related validity was examined by comparing the MTCAT scores of music therapy students with the scores of 43 professional music therapists. The correlation between the scores of students and professionals was found to be statistically significant. The results suggests that normal distribution, internal consistency, homogeneity of construct, item discrimination, correlation analysis, content validity, and criterion-related validity in the MTCAT may be helpful in predicting music therapy career aptitude and may aid in the career decision making process of college music therapy students. PMID:22097105

  5. Cancer Treatment with Gene Therapy and Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliberov, Sergey A.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy methods have evolved remarkably in recent years which have resulted in more effective local tumor control with negligible toxicity of surrounding normal tissues. However, local recurrence and distant metastasis often occur following radiation therapy mostly due to the development of radioresistance through the deregulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA damage repair mechanisms. Over the last decade, extensive progress in radiotherapy and gene therapy co...

  6. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated. PMID:26486330

  7. Towards tailored radiopeptide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin receptor-targeted radiopeptide therapy is commonly performed using single radioisotopes. We evaluated the benefits and harms of combining radioisotopes in radiopeptide therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumor. Using multivariable-adjusted survival analyses and competing risk analyses we evaluated outcomes in patients with neuroendocrine tumor receiving 90Y-DOTATOC, 177Lu-DOTATOC or their combination. 90Y-DOTATOC plus 177Lu-DOTATOC treatment was associated with longer survival than 90Y-DOTATOC (66.1 vs. 47.5 months; n = 1,358; p < 0.001) or 177Lu-DOTATOC alone (66.1 vs. 45.5 months; n = 390; p < 0.001). 177Lu-DOTATOC was associated with longer survival than 90Y-DOTATOC in patients with solitary lesions (HR 0.3, range 0.1 - 0.7; n = 153; p = 0.005), extrahepatic metastases (HR 0.5, range 0.3 - 0.9; n = 256; p = 0.029) and metastases with low uptake (HR 0.1, range 0.05 - 0.4; n = 113; p = 0.001). 90Y-DOTATOC induced higher hematotoxicity rates than combined treatment (9.5 % vs. 4.0 %, p = 0.005) or 177Lu-DOTATOC (9.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.002). Renal toxicity was similar among the treatments. Using 90Y and 177Lu might facilitate tailoring radiopeptide therapy and improve survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. (orig.)

  8. Schwangerschaftshypertonie: Therapie und Nachsorge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homuth V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kurzfassung: Hypertensive Schwangerschaftserkrankungen komplizieren mehr als 10 % aller Schwangerschaften weltweit. Klinisch am bedeutsamsten sind die durch Hypertonie und Proteinurie nach der 20. Schwangerschaftswoche definierte schwangerschaftsinduzierte Präeklampsie und Pfropfpräeklampsie, insbesondere deren schwerste Verlaufsformen Eklampsie und HELLP-Syndrom. Sie gehören global unverändert zu den führenden Ursachen für fetale, neonatale und mütterliche Morbidität und Mortalität. Ihre Ätiologie ist unbekannt und daher ist mit Ausnahme der Beendigung der Schwangerschaft eine kausale Therapie nicht möglich. Insbesondere bleibt eine antihypertensive Therapie hinsichtlich der fetalen Entwicklung problematisch und sollte zur Vermeidung mütterlicher kardiovaskulärer Komplikationen erst bei Blutdruckwerten ≥ 170/110 mmHg begonnen werden, bei vorbestehendem Hochdruck oder Pfropfkonstellation (präexistente Nierenerkrankung, Diabetes mellitus bereits ab Blutdruckwerten von ≥ 160/ 100 mmHg. Zu beachten ist dabei die nur geringe Auswahl in der Schwangerschaft einsetzbarer Antihypertensiva, die sich im Wesentlichen auf Methyldopa, und bereits eingeschränkt auf den Betablocker Metoprolol sowie Dihydralazin und den Kalziumantagonisten Nifedipin begrenzt. Eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben nach der Entbindung ist die Gewährleistung und Förderung des Stillens. Aufgrund ausreichender medikamentöser Alternativen ist ein Abstillen wegen einer antihypertensiven Therapie nicht indiziert. Ergebnisse aktueller Untersuchungen zeigen, dass eine Hypertonie in der Schwangerschaft und ihre Komplikationen Frühgeburtlichkeit und vermindertes Geburtsgewicht einen bedeutsamen Risikofaktor für das Auftreten kardiovaskulärer Erkrankungen, wie Herzinfarkt und Schlaganfall, im späteren Leben darstellen. Daher sind für davon Betroffene frühzeitige Maßnahmen zur kardiovaskulären Prävention und lebenslangen Verlaufskontrolle zu fordern.

  9. Towards tailored radiopeptide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radojewski, Piotr [University Hospital Bern, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Dumont, Rebecca [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); UCLA, Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marincek, Nicolas; Walter, Martin A. [University Hospital Bern, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Brunner, Philippe; Mueller-Brand, Jan [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Briel, Matthias [University Hospital Basel, Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Somatostatin receptor-targeted radiopeptide therapy is commonly performed using single radioisotopes. We evaluated the benefits and harms of combining radioisotopes in radiopeptide therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumor. Using multivariable-adjusted survival analyses and competing risk analyses we evaluated outcomes in patients with neuroendocrine tumor receiving {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC, {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC or their combination. {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC plus {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC treatment was associated with longer survival than {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC (66.1 vs. 47.5 months; n = 1,358; p < 0.001) or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC alone (66.1 vs. 45.5 months; n = 390; p < 0.001). {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC was associated with longer survival than {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in patients with solitary lesions (HR 0.3, range 0.1 - 0.7; n = 153; p = 0.005), extrahepatic metastases (HR 0.5, range 0.3 - 0.9; n = 256; p = 0.029) and metastases with low uptake (HR 0.1, range 0.05 - 0.4; n = 113; p = 0.001). {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC induced higher hematotoxicity rates than combined treatment (9.5 % vs. 4.0 %, p = 0.005) or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC (9.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.002). Renal toxicity was similar among the treatments. Using {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu might facilitate tailoring radiopeptide therapy and improve survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. (orig.)

  10. Equine-assisted therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara MacLean, LCAT, MT-BC

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008, the Samuel S. Stratton Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Albany, New York, has offered the Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The first year, the program ran for 7 weeks, and in 2009 and 2010, we were able to run 12-week programs in the summers and a 9-week program in the fall of 2010. Also in 2010, veterans from the VA's Adaptive Sports Program enjoyed a 3-hour "sampler" afternoon. In 2011, we are holding tw...

  11. Physical Therapy Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Loredan Biomedical, Inc.'s LIDO, a computerized physical therapy system, was purchased by NASA in 1985 for evaluation as a Space Station Freedom exercise program. In 1986, while involved in an ARC muscle conditioning project, Malcom Bond, Loredan's chairman, designed an advanced software package for NASA which became the basis for LIDOSOFT software used in the commercially available system. The system employs a "proprioceptive" software program which perceives internal body conditions, induces perturbations to muscular effort and evaluates the response. Biofeedback on a screen allows a patient to observe his own performance.

  12. Group therapy for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hribar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.

  13. Metformin poisoning: which therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in metformintreated- patients. The authors report a case of metformin-associated lactic acidosis and discuss the appropriated therapy. The patient was treated with bicarbonate iv and with two short dialysis session, also because of acute renal failure. Many authors do not agree with using bicarbonate, and about hemodialysis some authors suggest that the session should go on at least 12 hours. In this case the use of bicarbonate and short hemodialysis determinated a favourable outcame.

  14. Equine-assisted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara MacLean, LCAT, MT-BC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, the Samuel S. Stratton Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center in Albany, New York, has offered the Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The first year, the program ran for 7 weeks, and in 2009 and 2010, we were able to run 12-week programs in the summers and a 9-week program in the fall of 2010. Also in 2010, veterans from the VA's Adaptive Sports Program enjoyed a 3-hour "sampler" afternoon. In 2011, we are holding two 10-week sessions.

  15. Adjuvant Therapy Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursem, Carling; Van Loon, Katherine; Venook, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, ramucirumab and TAS-102 became the 10th and 11th drugs approved by the Food and Drug administration for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, not counting leucovorin, and yet only 3 agents, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin, have proven benefit in adjuvant treatment. In fact, there have been no additions (and 1 subtraction levamisole) to our arsenal of therapies for patients with stages II and III colon cancer for more than a decade. How did we get here? Are we stuck? And how do we move forward? PMID:27341598

  16. Gene therapy in periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Anirban Chatterjee; Nidhi Singh; Mini Saluja

    2013-01-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person′s genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is ′the use of genes as medicine′. It...

  17. Biotoxins in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Kelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for biological antitumor agents has been pursued for over half a century. Among the biological agents which have antitumoral activity, snake and scorpion venoms have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Venom components exhibit an antitumoral activity by means of direct cytolytic and cytostatic effects or indirect mechanisms such as amplifying of immune response against cancerous cells. These peptides constitute a potent antitumoral activity throughout their thrapeutic usages while they cause any significant side effects. Therefore it has been emphasized that natural venom peptides or their synthetic analogues will be valuable agents in replacement of classical antineoplastic drugs in cancer therapy in the future.

  18. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  19. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  20. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Joe Y. Chang

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy.

  1. [Drug therapy in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumkauskaite, M; Bryant, M; Kortes, N; Stampfl, U; Radeleff, B

    2015-06-01

    In the context of pre-interventional drug therapy, a premedication is given to patients who are known to have an allergy to contrast media, have renal impairment or hyperthyroidism. An already existing anticoagulation therapy, in anticipation of the planned intervention, must be reviewed and changed or even suspended as required. For peri-interventional drug therapy it is important to consider how strenuous the procedure will be as well as the general condition of the patient. Further discussion with anesthetists may be required for the planning of pain therapy or sedation during the procedure. These factors help to ensure maximum patient comfort as well as the success of the intervention. Post-interventional anticoagulation therapy, usually started peri-interventionally, plays an important role in minimizing the risk of acute thrombosis as well as in maintaining long-term functioning of the implanted material. The form of the anticoagulation therapy is set according to the type of intervention. PMID:26063076

  2. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  3. New combination therapies for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J F; Ohar, J A

    2001-03-01

    Combination products often have useful clinical benefits in asthma. The scientific rationale for combination therapy includes the fact that different agents have complimentary modes of action. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists have effects on airway smooth muscle, and inhaled corticosteroids have potent topical antiinflammatory effect. This combination has been shown to effectively reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Substantial clinical trial data provide a rationale for dual-control therapy supported by basic scientific data. Another combined therapy is inhaled steroids plus leukotriene-receptor antagonists, which provides the patient with two effective therapies. Leukotriene-receptor antagonist can also be combined with antihistamines for improved asthma control. Older therapies including theophylline and controlled release albuterol have been effectively added to inhaled corticosteroids, enabling a reduction in the dose of the inhaled steroids. Many other combination therapies are presently being tested. PMID:11224725

  4. [Problems after radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    The rate of severe late adverse effects has decreased with the highly accurate administration of radiation therapy; however, the total number of patients who suffer from late effects has not decreased because of the increased total number of patients and better survival rates. Late adverse effects, occurring more than a few months after irradiation, include the extension and collapse of capillaries, thickening of the basement membrane, and scarring of tissue due to loss of peripheral vessels. The main causes of these late effects are the loss of stromal cells and vascular injury. This is in contrast to early reactions, which occur mainly due to the reorganization of slow-growing non-stem cell renewal systems such as the lung, kidney, heart, and central nervous system. In addition, the patient's quality of life is impaired if acute reactions such as mouth or skin dryness are not alleviated. Most adverse effects are radiation dose dependent, and the thresholds differ according to the radiosensitivity of each organ. These reactions occur with a latency period of a few months to more than 10 years. Understanding the clinical and pathological status, through discussion with radiation oncologists, is the essential first step. Some of the late effects have no effective treatment, but others can be treated by steroids or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. An appropriate decision is important. PMID:24423950

  5. Nano cancer therapy strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of deaths. Millions of people are diagnosed with cancer every year. Many cancer cells have a protein all over their surface, while healthy cells typically do not express the protein as strongly. By conjugating, or binding, the gold nanoparticles to an antibody the researchers were able to get the nanoparticles to attach themselves to the cancer cells which may help us unravel the inner workings of a cancer cell and produce better treatments. In terms of drug delivery systems, nano particles enable unique approaches for cancer treatment. A large number of nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed for cancer therapy and currently they are in the preclinical stages of development. More recently developed nanoparticles are demonstrating the potential sophistication of these delivery systems by incorporating multifunctional capabilities and targeting strategies in an effort to increase the efficacy of these systems against the most difficult cancer challenges. This article reviews the available preclinical and clinical nanoparticle technology platforms and their impact on cancer therapy.

  6. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  7. Emerging Therapies for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Although several effective therapies are available for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men, there remains a need for the development of even more effective and acceptable drugs. Several new drugs that are in late-stage clinical development will be discussed. Abaloparatide (recombinant parathyroid hormone related peptide [PTHrP] analogue) has anabolic activity like teriparatide. Recent data from the phase 3 fracture prevention trial demonstrate that this agent is effective in reducing fracture risk. Inhibiting cathepsin K reduces bone resorption without decreasing the numbers or activity of osteoclasts, thereby preserving or promoting osteoblast function. Progressive increases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed over 5 years. Early data suggest that odanacatib effectively reduces fracture risk. Lastly, inhibiting sclerostin with humanized antibodies promotes rapid, substantial but transient increases in bone formation while inhibiting bone resorption. Marked increases in BMD have been observed in phase 2 studies. Fracture prevention studies are underway. The new therapies with novel and unique mechanisms of action may, alone or in combination, provide more effective treatment options for our patients. PMID:26354487

  8. nanosheets for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  9. Endoscopic Bariatric Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepinder; Watson, Rabindra R

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardio-metabolic comorbidities have emerged as a global pandemic. The efficacy of various hypo-caloric diets and prescription drugs has been poor with respect to sustained weight loss. Recent advancements in endoscopic technology and techniques have opened a new field of minimally invasive endoscopic treatment options for combatting obesity both as a first line and adjunctive therapy. Presently, two endoscopic space-occupying devices in the form of intragastric balloons have received FDA approval for 6-month implantation in patients within a BMI range of 30-40 kg/m(2). Furthermore, full-thickness suturing has led to the development of primary endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass revision as viable endoscopic alternatives to surgical approaches. These techniques have the potential to reduce adverse events, cost, and recovery times. Looking forward, a variety of promising and novel medical devices and endoscopic platforms that target obesity and diabetes are in various phases of development and investigation. The present review aims to discuss the current and forthcoming endoscopic bariatric therapies with emphasis on relevant procedural technique and review of available evidence. PMID:27098813

  10. [Music therapy and Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromeur, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy and Alzheimer's dementia. Dementia such as Alzheimer's leads to the deterioration of the patient's global capacities. The cognitive disorders associated with it are disabling and affect every area of the patient's life. Every therapy's session undertaken with and by patients can act as a mirror of the progress of their disease and help to feel better, as described in this article on music therapy. PMID:24908841

  11. Proteomic Investigations into Hemodialysis Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Bonomini; Vittorio Sirolli; Luisa Pieroni; Paolo Felaco; Luigi Amoroso; Andrea Urbani

    2015-01-01

    The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane’s performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and m...

  12. Interaction themes in music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapyinteraction called ?Interaction Themes.? These are developed fromsession to session and often appear in music therapy interventions withchildren with severe functional limitations, especially children withautism. Although...... whoseexpressions are often difficult to understand. The article describes thecharacteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares thephenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regardto other types of music therapy interaction with this client group. Theresults are described through...

  13. Internetowa pomoc psychologiczna [Internet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of sciences and internet offers wide opportunities and one of them resulted in a new form of therapy called cybertherapy, intherapy, online psychotherapy or e-therapy. Sessions proceeded via the web, not through the face to face meetings. Both the therapist and patient may be located in different places, keeping contact via the internet. This method, however accepted by patients and therapists causes worries and doubts about its efficacy as well.Aim. The aim of this article is to show what e-therapy is, as well as to try to find the answer to the questions based on the publication review: • Is there a comparability between traditional psychotherapy and e-therapy? • What are the indications for e-therapy use?• Is e-therapy compliant with ethics code of therapy? • How to use the opportunities given by internet therapy development? Results: E-therapy is a form of consultation. The author presents publications of researchers who based themselves on cognitive-behavioral therapy, which was effective in the treatment of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, depressive-anxiety disorders, PTSD, irritable bowel syndrome, bulimia etc. Especially positive outcomes were observed in treatment of anxiety disorders. Results are promising, however the scope of e-therapy use must be carefully defined. Polish ethics code of psychotherapy does not apply to therapeutical contacts via web. We can find directions in American Psychiatric Association advising that despite of the nature of the contact, the same ethical rules should be applied. E-therapy will not replace traditional therapeutical contact but may be considered as an additional method to initiate traditional therapeutical interaction.

  14. The physics of proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes a...

  15. Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases...

  16. Cell Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2011-01-01

    The spontaneous recovery observed in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) is substituted with a later progressive course and failure of endogenous processes of repair and remyelination. Although this is the basic rationale for cell therapy, it is not clear yet to what degree the MS brain is amenable for repair and whether cell therapy has an advantage in comparison to other strategies to enhance endogenous remyelination. Central to the promise of stem cell therapy is the therapeutic pl...

  17. Ablative therapy for liver tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, E A; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Thomas, H C; Gedroyc, W M W

    2002-01-01

    Established ablative therapies for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumours, including percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation, are discussed. Newer techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging guided laser interstitial thermal therapy of liver tumours has produced a median survival rate of 40.8 months after treatment. The merits of this newly emerging technique are discussed, together with future developments, such as focused ultrasound therapy, ...

  18. Therapy of the burnout syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence, diagnostics and therapy of the burnout syndrome are increasingly discussed in the public. The unclear definition and diagnostics of the burnout syndrome are scientifically criticized. There are several therapies with unclear evidence for the treatment of burnout in existence. Objectives The health technology assessment (HTA) report deals with the question of usage and efficacy of different burnout therapies. Methods For the years 2006 to 2011, a systematic literatur...

  19. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thome, Johannes; HÄSSLER, FRANK; ZACHARIOU, VANNA

    2011-01-01

    There is no indication that gene therapy can be applied in psychiatric patients any time soon. However, there are several promising developments on the level of experimental neuroscience indicating that gene therapy approaches have an effect in animal models of several psychiatric disorders including drug addiction, affective disorders, psychoses and dementia, modifying behavioural parameters via interventions on the molecular and cellular level. However, before gene therapy in psychiatric di...

  20. Gene therapy of liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Alcoceba, R. (Rubén); B. Sangro; Prieto, J.

    2006-01-01

    The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/pro-drug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition, gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy. These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reac...

  1. Delivery Systems in Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hu; Anas El-Aneed; Cui Guohui

    2005-01-01

    1 Gene therapy Gene therapy includes the treatment of both genetically based and infectious diseases by introducing genetic materials which have therapeutic effects[1~3]. In its simplest terms, a wild type gene (which is non-functional in the cell leading to disease development) is introduced into the somatic cell lacking this gene to restore the normal gene function in this cell. Many gene therapy strategies, however, utilize genes to destroy specific cells.

  2. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  3. Therapy of atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Major objective is the evaluation of the medical effectiveness of different therapeutical approaches and the cost effectiveness with relevance for Germany. Methods: This health technology assessment (HTA evaluates systemically randomized controlled studies (RCT on the therapy of atopic dermatitis which were published between 1999 and 2004. Further it includes some important clinical studies which have been published after 2004 and other updates the English HTA report by Hoare et al. [1]. Results: Topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin-inhibitors are the principal substances which are currently used for anti-inflammatory therapy in atopic dermatitis. These substances have shown a significant therapeutic efficacy in controlled studies. In newer controlled studies no difference was observable when corticosteroids were applied once or more than once daily onto the skin. Moreover, there is now one controlled study available which points to the fact that an interval therapy with a stronger topical corticosteroid over a limited time (some weeks may lower the risk of recurrent flares of atopic dermatitis. Both topical calcineurin-inhibitors pimecrolimus and tacrolimus have shown a significant therapeutical efficacy in a number of placebo-controlled prospective studies. The wealth of data is high for these substances. Both substances have been shown to be efficient in infants, children and adult patients with atopic dermatitis. The importance of a so-called basic therapy with emollients which have to be adapted to the current status of skin is generally accepted in clinical practice. Controlled studies show the efficacy of ”basic therapy” - although the level of evidence is quite low for this approach. The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis is colonized in the majority with Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive bacterium. Therefore, a therapeutical approach for the treatment of atopic dermatitis is the anti-bacterial or

  4. Topiramate Therapy and Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topiramate (TPA adjunctive therapy on cognition in 22 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy were studied at the Montreal Neurological Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

  5. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. The presented article describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....

  6. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. This presentation describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....

  7. [Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Vojtěch

    2013-07-01

    Patients with agammaglobulinaemia and hypogammaglobulinaemia require immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement therapy to prevent serious infections. Since the 1950s, therapy with human immune globulin products has been the standard of treatment. Currently, the most common routes of administration of IgG replacement therapy are intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG). The home therapy may improve the quality of life in patients who require lifelong IgG replacement. The -anti-IgA antibody test identifies the patients with the risk of anaphylactoid reactions in IVIG replacement. The SCIG delivery may be used in patients with anti-IgA antibodies and previous systemic reactions to IVIG. PMID:23964967

  8. Gene therapy of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruben Hernandez-Alcoceba; Bruno Sangro; Jesus Prieto

    2006-01-01

    The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition,gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy.These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reached clinical phases. We present a review on the basis and the actual status of gene therapy approaches applied to liver cancer.

  9. New horizons in osteoporosis therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsløf, Torben; Langdahl, Bente L

    2016-06-01

    Efficient therapies are available for the treatment of osteoporosis, however, there are still unmet needs. Anti-resorptive therapies only increase bone mineral density to a certain extent and reduce the risk of non-vertebral fractures by 20%, only one anabolic option is available-the effect of which levels off over time, and the evidence for combination therapy targeting both resorption and formation is limited. The current review will focus on emerging treatments of osteoporosis with the potential of enhanced anabolic effects (romosozumab and abaloparatide) or uncoupling of resorption and formation (odanacatib and romosozumab) as well as the effect of combination therapy. PMID:26989807

  10. Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases. PMID:22140063

  11. Basic Family Therapy Skills, II: Structural Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figley, Charles R.; Nelson, Thorana S.

    1990-01-01

    Reports results of ratings of Structural Family Therapy skills important for beginning family therapists. Panel of experts (N=103) who practice and teach Structural Family Therapy rated 100 competencies in terms of importance. Discusses rationale for the approach and results in terms of importance of empirically based competencies for the practice…

  12. "Talking Pictures Therapy" as Brief Therapy in a School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, Del

    2013-01-01

    This article presents "talking pictures therapy" as an approach to brief therapy, in which photographs are used in brief psychotherapy and counseling with the purpose of enabling clients to express and explore through photographs aspects of their lives they would like to talk about. The author presents case examples using "talking pictures…

  13. Gestalt Therapy and Cognitive Therapy - Contrasts or Complementarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James;

    2010-01-01

    that gestalt therapy, defined as a fieldtheoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward...

  14. The Educational Interaction between Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Kimberly K.; Howell, Dana M.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) program directors (n=123) to identify the prevalence of shared learning found that two-thirds shared some coursework; most OT and PT students do not have opportunities to practice interdisciplinary teamwork; and some perceived benefits of shared learning also posed barriers. (Contains…

  15. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar AH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Amir Hashem Shahidi Bonjar Clinician Scientist, Institute of Applied Research in Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient

  16. Antiviral therapy: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC) is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient's body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient's recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When sufficient

  17. Adjuncts to opioid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Frederick J

    2002-09-01

    Administration of opioids to alleviate moderate to severe acute pain and chronic cancer pain is an established management process. However, advancements in clinical pharmacologic research have shown that opioids are also effective in chronic noncancerous pain. Many patients properly treated for prolonged periods with opioids develop tolerance and subsequently, physical dependence. This process is not necessarily harmful to the patient and will not cause the patient to develop an addiction (properly defined as psychologic dependence). For many patients who have been on opioid therapy for months or years, analgesic effectiveness tragically becomes less. In addition, opioid-induced constipation can be severe and cause pain; patients do not develop tolerance to this adverse reaction. Therefore, such issues become a management problem and require additional intervention. Currently, many different classes of drugs can serve as effective adjuncts to opioids for treatment of pain. Adding adjunctive medication to opioid therapy improves pain management primarily by nonopioid mechanisms of action. Clinical outcomes of such combinations include greater analgesia and attenuation of opioid-induced adverse reactions such as nausea and vomiting, constipation, sedation, and respiratory depression. Adjuncts include acetaminophen, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, baclofen, benzodiazepines, capsaicin, calcium channel blockers, clonidine hydrochloride, central nervous system stimulants, corticosteroids, local anesthetics, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, pentoxifylline, and scopolamine. Some adjuncts (eg, acetaminophen) are routinely used today, whereas others (eg, nifedipine [calcium channel blocker]) are used on a limited basis but have great potential for more widespread application. All professionals (eg, nurses, pharmacists, physicians, physicians' assistants, social workers, members of the clergy

  18. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines. PMID:16597776

  19. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiation and chemotherapy induced mucositis, lichen planus etc. Researchers believe that this therapy is in state of equilibrium with benefit and drawback. This review throws light on the history, properties, methods of administration, uses in the field of medicine and dentistry, toxicity, contraindications of ozone. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 45-54

  20. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: Current therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Zhang; Lu-Nan; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which is a rare primary malignancy, originates from the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Usually invading the periductal tissues and the lymph nodes, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is commonly diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease and has a dismal prognosis. Currently, complete hepatectomy is the primary therapy for curing this disease. Perioperative assessment and available surgical procedures can be considered for achieving a negative margin resection, which is associated with long-term survival and better quality of life. For patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, several palliative treatments have been demonstrated to produce a better outcome; and liver transplantation for selected patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is promising and desirable. However, the role of palliative treatments and liver transplantation was controversial and requires more evidence and substantial validity from multiple institutions. In this article, we summarize the data from multiple institutions and discuss the resectability, mortality, morbidity and outcome with different approaches.

  1. [Therapy of nail mycoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, S A

    1998-08-01

    Onchomycosis is the most common nail disease, accounting for approximately 30% of all cutaneous fungal infections. The treatment approach needs to take into account the location and extent of onychomycosis, sensitivity of drug to fungal organism, adverse-effects profile, dosage schedule, duration of therapy, concomitant medical conditions, and concurrent medications. To confirm the diagnosis, it is important to correctly select the appropriate site for specimen collection used for both direct microscopy and fungal culture. Topical antifungal agents may be considered for the treatment of early onychomycosis, in the absence of nail matrix involvement. The newer generation of oral antifungal agents for the treatment of onychomycosis are terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole. These drugs used alone, or in combination with topical antifungals, are providing the basis for effective treatment of onychomycosis in a large proportion of patients. PMID:9757817

  2. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own......Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected to...

  3. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus;

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... to the surface where the beam enters) are examined. For each plan the minimum,  maximum and the dose averaged LET of the PTV is calculated. The numbers are translated to OER using several sets of data found in literature for various cell lines. Results: We find a strong dependence of the dose average LET and OER...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  4. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ten year study (1988-98) was done at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center on radioiodine (RAI) therapy for hyperthyroidism. A total of 162 patients received 131-I after careful selection hence was included in this study. A predominantly female population was seen (81%) compared to only (19%) males. The most frequent age group were in the third and fourth decades of life. Those included had clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis aside from the abnormal thyroid function tests and elevated RAI uptake. Almost all were given antithyroid drugs and beta-blockers prior to RAI ablation. Doses ranged from 7 to 12 mCi depending on gland size and degree of toxicity. Success rate of treatment was 92% which meant that the symptoms were abated and there was shrinkage of the thyroid gland after a single dose of iodine. The most common short term complications were sialitis and local neck tenderness while hypothyroidism was the commonest long term complication. (author)

  5. Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Song, Ping Huang, Chun Zhang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve. Keywords: glaucoma, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, retinal ganglion cells, neuro­protection

  6. VOJTA neurophysiologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, H; Appaji, G; Mundt, D

    1992-01-01

    The reflexlocomotion acc. to VOJTA is a neurophysiologic facilitation system for the whole CNS and neuromuscular apparatus. It consists of all components, in a reciprocal manner of locomotion: (i) automatic control of posture, (ii) uprighting, (iii) aimed movements. Consequently the indications for this type of kinesiologic facilitation are really extensive. In this article the following complete list of indications is described: CCD (central coordination disorder), CP (cerebral palsy), peripheral paresis, Spina bifida (MMC), Myopathies, congenital malformations, orthopaedic problems, traumatic cross sections, neuromuscular dysfunctions etc. Further the experiences of the treatment in each disease are discussed. Even EMG-detections have shown the effect of the therapy in peripheral and central damage. Therefore a good prognosis for improvement and rehabilitation can be given in a large number of disorders, irrespective of age. PMID:1535338

  7. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  8. Frontline antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan, Alasdair; Albur, Maha

    2013-06-01

    The need to use front-line antibiotics wisely has never been greater. Antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistant infection, driven by antibiotic use, remain major public health and professional concerns. To overcome these infection problems, use of older antibiotics active against multi drug-resistant pathogens is increasing - for example, colistin, fosfomycin, pivmecillinam, pristinamycin, temocillin and oral tetracyclines. The number of new antibacterials reaching clinical practice has reduced significantly in the last 20 years, most being focused on therapy of Gram-positive infection - eg linezolid, daptomycin, telavancin and ceftaroline. Recent guidance on antibiotic stewardship in NHS trusts in England is likely to provide a backdrop to antibiotic use in hospitals in the next 5 years. PMID:23760700

  9. Spondyloarthritides: evolving therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Andrew; Keat, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    TNF blockade therapy has substantially advanced the treatment of peripheral spondyloarthritides but revolutionised the treatment of severe ankylosing spondylitis. The capacity of biologic treatment to improve dramatically symptoms and quality of life in patients with spinal disease is undoubted, although important questions remain. Notable amongst these are concerns about skeletal disease modification and the true balance between costs and effectiveness. Guidelines for the biologic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis have been introduced in North America and Europe with considerable consensus. However, the absence of clear criteria for the diagnosis of early disease leaves the issue of biologic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis at the pre-radiographic stage unresolved. Newer biologic agents are entering the field, although superiority over TNF blockers will be difficult to demonstrate. PMID:21205283

  10. [Metabolic therapy in neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Rashidov, N A; Bodrova, T V; Vorob'eva, M N

    2013-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of rheosorbilact, an original infusion drug based on polyalcohols, in the complex therapy of patients with brain ischemia and diabetic neuropathy. Reosorbilact was used intravenously indrops 200-400 ml in day - 20 days. The primary endpoint of the study was the improvement of quality of life assessed with the SF-36 scale after 1 month of treatment. Patients with brain ischemia underwent neuropsychological tests and ultrasound duplex scanning of the carotid and vertebral arteries. In the group of patients with diabetic neuropathy, we evaluated the intensity of pain syndrome with the NRS, blood glucose level and electroneuromyography parameters of low extremities nerves. Some characteristics of acid-base balance were studied in patients of both groups. The results obtained in the study indicate the significant clinical effect of reosorbilact in patients with brain ischemia and diabetic neuropathy. PMID:23994919

  11. Accelerators for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades circular and linear electron accelerators have been developed for clinical use in radiation therapy of tumors with the aim of achieving a high radiation dose in the tumor and as low as possible dose in the adjacent normal tissues. Today about one thousand accelerators are in medical use throughout the world and many hundred thousand patients are treated every day with accelerator-produced radiation. There exists, however, a large number of patients who cannot be treated satisfactorily in this way. New types of radiations such as neutrons, negative pions, protons and heavy ions were therefore tested recently. The clinical experience with these radiations and with new types of treatment procedures indicate that in future the use of a scanning beam of high energy protons might be optimal for the treatment of tumors. (orig.)

  12. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects on...... increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further...

  13. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  14. About radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explained are the history and outline of technology in radiation therapy (RT), characteristics of dose distribution of major radiations in RT and significance of biological effective dose (BED) from aspects of radiation oncology and therapeutic prediction. The history is described from the first X-ray RT documented in 1896 to the latest (1994) RT with National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) carbon beam for tumors in trunk. X-ray RT has aimed to make the energy high because target tumors are generally present deep in the body and an ideal RT, the intensity modulated RT, has been developed to assure the desirable dose distribution (or, dose-volume histogram) based on precise planning with X-CT and computing. Low energy gamma ray emitted from radioisotopes provides also an ideal RT mean because of its excellent focusing to the internal target; however, problems remain of invasion and long lodging of the isotope in the body. Heavy ion RT is conducted on the planning on X-CT image and computation utilizing Bragg's principle and is superior for minimizing the exposure of normal, non-cancerous tissues. Boron neutron capture therapy is a promising RT as the local control is always possible at 10B ratio of the lesion/normal tissue >2.5, which is measurable by PET with 18F-boronophenylalanine. In the current oncology, BED is estimated by the linear quadratic model, α(nd)+β(nd)2, where d is a total irradiation dose and n, number of fractionation, and is a planning basis for the effect prediction in RT above. Physical problems in future involve the system development of more efficient dose focusing and convenient dose impartation, and development of more easily operable system and cost reduction is awaited. (R.T.)

  15. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.)

  16. The Strategic Systems Therapies: Measuring the Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Michael

    As family therapy becomes a serious intellectual disipline, the relationships among its leading variations require closer examination. To examine similarities and differences among four closely related approaches (brief, problem-focused therapy; structural family therapy; strategic family therapy; and systemic family therapy) and to determine if…

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... m Having Trouble Logging In/Staying Logged In Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music therapists ...

  18. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlešić Ranko M.; Popović Jasmina; Stefanović Milan; Vukomanović Predrag; Lukić Bojan; Lilić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; ho...

  19. Music therapy with the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2005-01-01

    of the music therapy, instead of trying to prove these effects. This is why I chose to carry out research to see what happens and document the effects of music therapy. In the following pages I want to describe a smaller part of this case study research where I included quantitative measures and looked...

  20. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  1. Family therapy, conflicts and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Given the relative lack of sociocultural approaches to therapy, this presentation aims to contribute to a sociocultural understanding of motivation and socio-emotional problems in children and families undergoing family therapy. The study was designed as a case study using semi structured intervi...... as an educational tool (Vygotsky; Ananjew)....

  2. Using Dreams in Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Connie M.

    1997-01-01

    States that current literature suggests that dreams are seldom used by marriage and family therapists, yet dreams can be powerful tools in therapeutic treatment. Includes clinical examples that demonstrate the effective use of dreams in marriage and family therapy. Discusses the interface between dream interpretation and systems therapy. (MKA)

  3. Striding Towards Better Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on a new rehabilitative device that promises to improve physical therapy for patients working to regain the ability to walk after facing traumatic injuries or a degenerative illness. Produced by Enduro Medical Technology, of East Hartford, Connecticut, the Secure Ambulation Module (S.A.M.) creates a stable and secure environment for patients as they stand during ambulation therapy.

  4. Radiation therapy in palliative care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is a valuable treatment for palliation of local symptoms with consistently high response rates in the relief and control of bone pain, neurological symptom, obstructive symptoms, and tumor hemorrhage. Over than 80% of patients who developed bone metastasis and superior vena cava syndrome obtained symptom relief by radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is also well established as an effective treatment for brain metastasis, improving symptoms and preventing progressive neurological deficits, and recently stereotactic irradiation had became a alternative treatment of surgery for small metastatic brain tumors. Both radiation therapy and surgery are effective in the initial treatment of malignant spinal cord compression syndrome, and no advantages of surgery over radiation therapy has been demonstrated in published series when patients have a previously conformed diagnosis of malignant disease and no evidence of vertebral collapse. The outcome of treatment depends primarily upon the speed of diagnosis and neurological status at initiation of treatment. It is very important to start radiation therapy before patient become non-ambulant. Low irradiation dose and short treatment period of palliative radiation therapy can minimize disruption and acute morbidity for the patients with advanced cancer with enabling control of symptoms and palliative radiation therapy is applicable to the patient even in poor general condition. (author)

  5. Gene Therapy of Cancerous Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenčáková, A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy of cancerous diseases provides new means of curing patients with oncologic illnesses. There are several approaches in treating cancer by gene therapy. Most commonly used methods are: cancer immunogene therapy, suicide gene therapy, application of tumor-suppressor genes, antiangiogenic therapy, mesenchymal stem cells used as vectors, gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and bacteria used as anti-cancer agents. Cancer gene immunotherapy uses several immunologic agents for the purpose of explaining effective anti-tumor immune response. Another method is suicide gene therapy, based on introducing viral or bacterial agents to tumor cells, allowing the conversion of a non-toxic compound to a lethal medication. The application of intact suppressor genes to cancer cells will avert their neoplastic behavior and will induce tumor regression. Inhibition of angiogenesis is also a promising strategy for treating oncologic patients. Mesenchymal stem cells can also be used as vectors in targeted gene therapy. An increasing list of experimental evidence shows, that therapeutically modified mesenchymal stem cells in “gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy” can attack cancer tissue can kill tumor cells, cancer stem cells included. Bacteria are used as anti-cancer agents independently of in combination with conventional therapeutic methods.

  6. Oesophageal candidiasis after omeprazole therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, A J; Lendrum, R

    1992-01-01

    Oesophageal candidiasis was diagnosed incidentally at endoscopy in two patients receiving omeprazole therapy. There were no other predisposing factors for the development of candidiasis. The infection was resolved rapidly by anti-candidal therapy and by stopping omeprazole. These findings suggest that gastric acid secretion and physiological reflux of acid into the oesophagus may play a protective role in preventing candida infection.

  7. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  8. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  9. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century. PMID:15458755

  10. Biofield therapies and cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-02-01

    The public and healthcare professionals have become increasingly aware and accepting of the benefit in physical, psychological, social, and spiritual support for patients with cancer. Patients with cancer often seek nonpharmacologic interventions to complement conventional care and decrease the pain associated with cancer and its treatment. Most often referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these supportive therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used as adjuncts to allopathic health care. Biofield therapies are CAM modalities that involve the direction of healing energy through the hands to facilitate well-being by modifying the energy field of the body. This critical review of studies of biofield therapies emphasizes research using these modalities to decrease pain in patients with cancer. Although the therapies have demonstrated clinical efficacy, additional research is warranted. Oncology nurses should familiarize themselves with biofield therapies so they can offer informed recommendations to patients with cancer experiencing pain. PMID:22297006

  11. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  12. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  13. Pulse dexamethasone therapy versus pulse methylprednisolone therapy for treatment of Graves′s ophthalmopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Philip; Sanjay Saran; Manish Gutch; Pushpaltha Agroyia; Rajiv Tyagi; Keshavkumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Pulse methylprednisolone therapy is the recommended therapy for moderate to severe and active ophthalmopathy, but high dose pulse methylprednisolone therapy is marred by the chances of fulminant hepatic failure and the high cost of therapy. Dexamethasone pulse therapy can be considered as an alternative to pulse methylprednisolone therapy. A prospective randomized control trial was carried out in 21 patients comparing pulse dexamethasone therapy versus pulse methyprednisolone therapy in Grave...

  14. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  15. Brain protection therapy in acute cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Ken-ichiro; Suda, Satoshi; Abe, Arata; Kanamaru, Takuya; Toda, Yusuke; Katayama, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Many drugs for cerebral infarction that were shown to be effective in animal experiments have shown negative results in human clinical trials. For this reason, a completely new approach is needed to develop brain protection therapies against cerebral infarction. Brain protection therapies can be categorized into 3 types: 1) lengthening the therapeutic time window for thrombolytic therapy, 2) reducing the side effects of thrombolytic therapy, and 3) brain protection drug therapy for patients with contraindications for thrombolytic therapy (including combination therapy). Here, we show our recent results of brain protection therapy. First, combination therapy with 2 effective drugs was tried, and time-lag administration was performed. Combination therapy was effective and lengthened the therapeutic time window. Next, a completely new approach to improve cerebral ischemic damage, namely, H2 gas inhalation therapy, was tried. This therapy was also effective, even in the ischemic core. PMID:22687352

  16. Gene Therapy for Diseases and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mentor Submit Your Press Release Donate Home ASGCT Gene Therapy for Diseases Gene Therapy has made important ... Among the most notable advancements are the following: Gene Therapy for Genetic Disorders Severe Combined Immune Deficiency ( ...

  17. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  18. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine compliance, factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive therapy and to compare compliant and non-compliant groups, in a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Analytical (cross-sectional) study. Place and Duration of Study: The outpatient clinics at the Aga Khan University from May 2004 to February 2005. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients presenting to the outpatients clinic were included. All patients 18 years and above, who had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, had one clinic visit to a medicine clinic, 6 months prior to presentation and started on antihypertensive medicines, were included. Results: Sixty-six percent were males and 33.5 % were females. Mean age was 58.1 ( +- 12) years and mean duration of hypertension was 7.2 (+- 6.7) years. Fifty-seven percent were compliant and 43% were noncompliant. In the noncompliant group, 53.4 % had mild noncompliance, 24.4 % had severe non-compliance, while 22% had moderate noncompliance. Factors of noncompliance were 56.8% missed doses due to forgetfulness, 12.7% deliberately missed their doses, 11.6% could not take the medicine due to side effects, 10.4% did not take the dose due to increased number of tablets, 4.6% were not properly counseled by the physician and 3.48% did not take medicines due to cost issues. The mean systolic blood pressure was 126 +- 19.2 mmHg in the compliant group while it was 133 +- 16.5 mmHg in the noncompliant group (p-value 0.004). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the compliant group was 76 +- 11.9 mmHg, while in the noncompliant group it was 81.9 +- 10.9 mmHg (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy in a tertiary care center is significantly good. Forgetfulness was the major reason for noncompliance. The mean blood pressure control was better in the compliant group. (author)

  19. Gene Therapy Used in Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Wirth; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has been, from the beginning, a target of intense research for gene therapy approaches. Currently, more than 60% of all on-going clinical gene therapy trials worldwide are targeting cancer. Indeed, there is a clear unmet medical need for novel therapies. This is further urged by the fact that current conventional cancer therapies are frequently troubled by their toxicities. Different gene therapy strategies have been employed for cancer, such as pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy...

  20. Monoclonal antibodies in targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Powroźnik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy is a new therapeutic method consisting in the inhibition of specific molecular pathways. In modern therapy, the key role is played by monoclonal antibodies, included in the group of biological agents. The success of molecularly targeted therapy is to define the proper “molecular target”, selecting the right drug active against a specific “target” and selecting a group of patients who benefit from treatment. Introduction of targeted therapy resulted in improved results of the treatment of many serious and chronic diseases. In general, targeted molecular therapies have good toxicity profiles, but some patients are exquisitely sensitive to these drugs and can develop particular and severe toxicities. Patient selection and proper monitoring significantly decrease the risk of life-threatening adverse events. Data concerning late side effects are still unavailable because of the short follow-up of molecularly targeted therapy. Currently in the U.S. and Europe there are approximately 31 registered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, while 160 are subjected to clinical trials. This paper presents an overview of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies currently used in therapy and the present state of knowledge about them. 

  1. Nuclear medicine therapy of neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A. [Amsterdam The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-12-01

    Specific targeting of radionuclides to neuroblastoma, a neural crest tumor occurring predominantly in young children and associated with a relatively poor prognosis, may be achieved via the metabolic route (Mibg), receptor binding (peptides) or immunological approach (antibodies). The clinical role of {sup 1}31{sup I}-Mibg therapy and radioimmunotherapy in neuroblastoma is discussed. In recurrent or progressive metastatic disease after conventional treatment modalities have failed, {sup 1}31{sup I}-Mibg therapy, with an overall objective response rate of 35%, is probably the best palliative treatment, as the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favourably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. In patients presenting with inoperable stage III and IV neuroblastoma, {sup 1}31{sup I}-Mibg therapy at diagnosis is at least as effective as combination chemotherapy but is associated with much less toxicity. In patients with recurrent disease {sup 1}31{sup I}-Mibg therapy in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy proved feasible and encouraging effects on survival have ben observed. Attempts to intensify the treatment in relapsed patients by combination of {sup 1}31{sup I}-Mibg therapy with high dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation have met with considerable toxicity. Developments in Mibg therapy aiming at improving the therapeutic index are mentioned. Early results of radioimmunotherapy using {sup 1}31{sup I}-UJ13A or {sup 1}31{sup I}-3F8 monoclonal antibodies have shown moderate objective response and considerable side effects in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma, who had relapsed or failed conventional therapy. New developments in radioimmunotherapy of neuroblastoma include the use of chimeric antibodies, the enhancement of tumor uptake by modulation of antigen expression or by increasing the tumor perfusion/vascularity/permeability, the use of other labels and multistep targeting techniques, e.g. using

  2. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  3. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  4. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  5. Antiretroviral therapy: Shifting sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashindran, V K; Chauhan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been an extremely difficult pandemic to control. However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has now been transformed into a chronic illness in patients who have continued treatment access and excellent long-term adherence. Existing indications for ART initiation in asymptomatic patients were based on CD4 levels; however, recent evidence has broken the shackles of CD4 levels. Early initiation of ART in HIV patients irrespective of CD4 counts can have profound positive impact on morbidity and mortality. Early initiation of ART has been found not only beneficial for patients but also to community as it reduces the risk of transmission. There have been few financial concerns about providing ART to all HIV-positive people but various studies have proven that early initiation of ART not only proves to be cost-effective but also contributes to economic and social growth of community. A novel multidisciplinary approach with early initiation and availability of ART at its heart can turn the tide in our favor in future. Effective preexposure prophylaxis and postexposure prophylaxis can also lower transmission risk of HIV in community. New understanding of HIV pathogenesis is opening new vistas to cure and prevention. Various promising candidate vaccines and drugs are undergoing aggressive clinical trials, raising optimism for an ever-elusive cure for HIV. This review describes various facets of tectonic shift in management of HIV. PMID:26900224

  6. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  7. Viewpoint: Personalizing Statin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Keidar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, associated with vascular atherosclerosis, is the major cause of death in Western societies. Current risk estimation tools, such as Framingham Risk Score (FRS, based on evaluation of multiple standard risk factors, are limited in assessment of individual risk. The majority (about 70% of the general population is classified as low FRS where the individual risk for CVD is often underestimated but, on the other hand, cholesterol lowering with statin is often excessively administered. Adverse effects of statin therapy, such as muscle pain, affect a large proportion of the treated patients and have a significant influence on their quality of life. Coronary artery calcification (CAC, as assessed by computed tomography, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and especially presence of plaques as assessed by B-mode ultrasound are directly correlated with increased risk for cardiovascular events and provide accurate and relevant information for individual risk assessment. Absence of vascular pathology as assessed by these imaging methods has a very high negative predictive value and therefore could be used as a method to reduce significantly the number of subjects who, in our opinion, would not benefit from statins and only suffer from their side-effects. In summary, we suggest that in very-low-risk subjects, with the exception of subjects with low FRS with a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD at young age, if vascular imaging shows no CAC or normal CIMT without plaques, statin treatment need not be administered.

  8. Anaemia and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaemia is frequent in cancer and may increase tumour hypoxia that stimulates angiogenesis. However, erythropoietin is a hypoxia-inducible stimulator of erythropoiesis which seems to improve quality of life in cancer patients. Two recent phase III randomized studies showed negative results using erythropoietin in head and neck cancer patients and in metastatic breast cancer patients with impaired specific survival. In vitro and in vivo experiments have provided erythropoietin-receptor expression in endothelial cancer cells including malignant tumours of the breast, prostate, cervix, lung, head and neck, ovary, melanoma, stomach, gut, kidney etc. Biologic effect of erythropoietin and its receptor linkage induces proliferation of human breast cancer and angiogenesis and may limit anti-tumour effect of cancer treatment, in part, by tumour vascularization improvement. In addition, the use of exogenous erythropoietin could be able to favour tumour progression by improving tumour oxygenation and nutriment supply. If erythropoietin receptor were functional in human cancer. the assessment of erythropoietin receptor expression on tumour cell may help to select patients benefiting from exogenous erythropoietin. However. the relationship between erythropoietin receptor expression, tumour growth and exogenous erythropoietin. requires more studies. The results of recent clinical trials suggest that using erythropoietin should be avoided in non-anemic patients and discussed in patients receiving curative therapy. (authors)

  9. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial

  10. Therapie des abdominellen Aortenaneurysmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieß HC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zur invasiven elektiven und notfallmäßigen Therapie des abdominellen Aortenaneurysmas steht vor allem das offen-chirurgische und das endovaskuläre Verfahren zur Verfügung. Aufgrund einer deutlich erhöhten Mortalitätsrate im rupturierten Stadium sollte dabei stets ein elektives Vorgehen angestrebt werden. Die rechtzeitige Identifizierung erkrankter Patienten im asymptomatischen Stadium, beispielsweise im Rahmen eines Aortenscreenings für Risikogruppen, ist aus diesem Grund von größter Wichtigkeit. Trotz mehrerer randomisierter Studien zu den genannten Therapieoptionen kann bis heute keine vereinfachende Therapieempfehlung für eines der beiden konkurrierenden Verfahren ausgesprochen werden. Die Indikationsstellung erfordert stets eine sehr differenzierte Berücksichtigung aller eingehenden Faktoren. Auch ohne eine klare Empfehlung hat die endovaskuläre Versorgung des Aortenaneurysmas in vielen Ländern, so auch in Deutschland, bereits einen Anteil von über 50 % erlangt. Die kontinuierliche Verbesserung von Verfahren und Material spiegelt sich in einer signifikant kürzeren Krankenhausverweildauer und in einer niedrigeren Letalität der EVAR bei hohen technischen Erfolgsraten wider. Im Hinblick auf Langzeitergebnisse profitieren heute überwiegend ältere Personen von einer endovaskulären Aneurysma-Ausschaltung, für die aufgrund eines hohen OP-Risikos eine offen-chirurgische Versorgung nicht in Frage kommt. Zukünftig werden, bei einem vergleichbaren Outcome beider Verfahren, auch gesundheitsökonomische Aspekte eine Rolle spielen und in die Empfehlungen eingehen.

  11. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  12. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it. PMID:27093325

  13. Hyogo Hadron Therapy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyogo Prefectural Government has decided and started construction of Hyogo Hadron Therapy Center in Harima Science Garden City, where is about 75 km away from Kobe City to the north-west. The center has injector, synchrotron, high energy beam transport system and treatment system. The accelerator complex can accelerate proton, helium, and carbon. The energy ranges are 70-230 MeV/u for proton and helium, and 70-320 MeV/u for the carbon. The beam intensity is required to satisfy the dose rate of 5 Gy/min. for treatment volume of 15cmφ field size and fully extended spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). The beam transport system consists of three horizontal ports, one vertical ports, and one 45deg oblique port for proton, helium and carbon beam, two isocentric gantry ports only for proton beam. A hospital within 50 beds is constructed with the site. Patient treatment will be started in the year 2001. (author)

  14. Therapy of Liver Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbert, Christoph; Wiegand, Johannes; Karlas, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Liver abscess (LA) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Methods This review comprehensively describes epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of LA, with a strong focus on antimicrobial treatment choices and the impact of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Results In industrialized areas, pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) accounts for over 80% of the cases, whereas Entamoeba histolyticais responsible for up to 10% of the cases, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. Highly virulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniaehave emerged as a predominant cause of PLA in Asian countries and tend to spread to the USA, Australia, and European countries, therefore requiring special alertness. Most common symptoms of LA are fever, chills, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain, although a broad spectrum of non-specific symptoms may also occur. Conclusion Imaging studies (ultrasound, computed tomography scan) and microbiological findings play a crucial role in the diagnosis of LA. The treatment of choice for PLA is a multimodal approach combining broad-spectrum antibiotics and aspiration or drainage of larger abscess cavities. Amebic LA can be cured by metronidazole therapy without drainage. PMID:26287275

  15. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  16. Therapy of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult diseases to cure. Japan pancreas society guidelines for management of pancreatic cancer indicate therapeutic algorithm according to the clinical stage. For locally limited pancreatic cancer (cStage I, II, III in Japanese classification system), surgical resection is recommended, however prognosis is still poor. Major randomized controlled trials of resected pancreatic cancer indicates that adjuvant chemotherapy is superior to observation and gemcitabine is superior to 5-fluorouracil (FU). For locally advanced resectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in Japanese classification system (JCS)), we perform neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Phase I study established a recommended dose of 800 mg gemcitabine and radiation dose of 36 Gy. For locally advanced nonresectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in JCS), chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is recommended. Although pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy resistant tumor, systemic chemotherapy is recommended for metastatic pancreatic cancer (cStage IVb in JCS). Single-agent gemcitabine is the standard first line agent for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy showed possibility of survival benefit of gemcitabine combination chemotherapy over gemcitabine alone. We hope gemcitabine combination chemotherapy or molecular targeted therapy will improve prognosis of pancreatic cancer in the future. (author)

  17. Meson radiobiology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-linear energy transfer radiation (neutrons, heavy ions, and pions) have a greater relative biological effectiveness than low-linear energy transfer radiation by depositing a high density of ionization in irradiated cells. This overcomes the protective effect of oxygen; decreases the variation in sensitivity among the several stages of the cell cycles; and, inhibits the repair of sublethal damage as compared to x-rays, gamma rays, electrons and protons. Negative pi mesons (pions), appear particularly suited for radiation therapy as their penetration and depth-dose profiles lend themselves to shaping the high dose area to the tumor size and location. Preliminary biological experiments with pions produced at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility studied cell survival at various radiation depths and cell cycle sensitivity. Histologic study of data from the first human experiments indicated severe tumor cell destruction by pions as compared to x-rays in treating malignant melanoma skin nodules, without increased effects on dermal elements. (U.S.)

  18. Behavioural therapy of suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057

  19. Intracoronary radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Dae Hyuk; Oh, Seung Jun; Lee, Hee Kung; Park, Seong Wook; Hong, Myeong Ki [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee Seung [College of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Restenosis remains a major limitation of percutaneous coronary interventions. Numerous Studies including pharmacological approaches and new devices failed to reduce restenosis rate except coronary stenting. Since the results of BENESTENT and STRESS studies came out, coronary stenting has been the most popular interventional strategy in the various kinds of coronary stenotic lesions, although the efficacy of stending was shown only in the discrete lesion of the large coronary artery. The widespread use of coronary stending has improved the early and late outcomes after coronary intervention, but it has also led to a new and serious problem, e.g., in-stent restenosis. Intravascular radiation for prevention of restenosis is a new technology in the field of percutaneous coronary intervention. Recent animal experiments and human trials have demonstrated that local irradiation, in conjunction with coronary interventions, substantially diminished the rate of restenosis. This paper reviews basic radiation biology of intracoronary radiation and its role in the inhibition of restenosis. The current status of intracoronary radiation therapy using Re-188 liquid balloon is also discussed.

  20. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Aesthetic ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Peter G.; Slayton, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound provides key benefits in aesthetic surgery compared to laser and RF based energy sources. We present results of research, development, pre-clinical and clinical studies, regulatory clearance and commercialization of a revolutionary non-invasive aesthetic ultrasound imaging and therapy system. Clinical applications for this platform include non-invasive face-lifts, brow-lifts, and neck-lifts achieved through fractionated treatment of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and subcutaneous tissue. Treatment consists of placing a grid of micro-coagulative lesions on the order of 1 mm3 at depths in skin of 1 to 6 mm, source energy levels of 0.1 to 3 J, and spacing on the order of 1.5 mm, from 4 to 10 MHz dual-mode image/treat transducers. System details are described, as well as a regulatory pathway consisting of acoustic and bioheat simulations, source characterization (hydrophone, radiation force, and Schlieren), pre-clinical studies (porcine skin ex vivo, in vivo, and human cadaver), human safety studies (treat and resect) and efficacy trials which culminated in FDA clearance (2009) under a new device classification and world-wide usage. Clinical before and after photographs are presented which validate the clinical approach.

  2. Laser therapy in sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sinusitis is an inflammation of one or more breasts peri-nasals. It is common in the months of winter and it can last months or years if it is not treat. At the moment we have several means that try to offer our patients a better treatment. One of these instruments is the low power laser that for their properties to the interaction with the biological tissues offers therapeutic effects on the alive tissues, achieving at the level cellular important changes for a quick answer of the damaged tissue. We intended to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment with low power laser in patient with sinusitis. It was carried out an explanatory and retrospective study, where it was applied as treatment the low power laser, for that which a team of model Cuban production Fisser 21. The feminine sex, the affected age group prevailed it was among 36 to 50 years for both groups, the maxillary sinusitis prevailed regarding the frontal. The migraine, the nasal obstruction and the sensation of congestion of the head were present in most of the cases. 75% of the patients' treaties noticed improvement of the symptoms between the 1st and 3rd sessions. At the end 80% cured without necessity of a second treatment cycle. The accompanying symptoms almost disappeared in their entirety. We recommend using the treatment of low power laser, as therapy of first line for the treatment of sinusitis of infectious cause. (Author)

  3. Humanist Therapies in Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Roxana NECULA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the disease from a spiritual perspective means to take into account those theories that do not consider the patient as part of some statistics or the disease as an exclusive psycho-somatic reality, which is due to disturbances of the physiological system. To consider the person exclusively from the stand point of the disease leads to a situation in which the diagnosis creates the patient. To asses that any condition of this nature can be cured or improved solely through medication – as there is pressure from the U.S. health insurance companies – has an effect of shrinking responsibility of the patient who is not involved in the healing process. Fortunately, in the twentieth century, a number of therapies that regard the patient as the central concern, have been developed- obviously, not regarding the chronically ill, which remain the patient of the psychiatric cure- as a person responsible for what happens to him/her, of affection, and the amelioration of his/her health. Of these, in our article we reviewed the principles of existential psychotherapy by Irvin D. Yalom, Viktor Frenkl’s logotherapy and the humanistic psychotherapy (customer centric by Carl R. Rogers.

  4. Oncolytic virus therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Izzo, Francesco; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy currently represents one of the most promising approaches to cancer treatment for their dual anticancer mechanisms: direct lysis of cancer cells (oncolytic feature) and activation of the immunosystem (cancer vaccine aspect). The latter demonstrates the advantage of a multi-target approach against multiple tumor-associated antigens. Since the 2005 SFDA (the Chinese FDA) approval for the clinical use of Oncorine™, the first human OV-based cancer treatment, more than 200 patents have been filed worldwide and several Phase I/II studies have been conducted. This patent review analyzes patents and clinical studies of the most promising OV products to highlight the pros and cons of this innovative anticancer approach, which is currently being tested in several cancers (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma and glioblastoma) by systemic as well as intratumoral injection. Clinical results, although effective only for a limited period of time, are encouraging. Combined treatments with radio or chemotherapeutic protocols are also in progress. PMID:24236929

  5. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  6. Multimodality Therapy: Bone-Targeted Radioisotope Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Podoloff, Donald A.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat prostate cancer bone metastasis and improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced prostate cancer. It remains to be elucidated whether radiopharmaceuticals enhance the disruption of the onco-niche or the eradication of micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow. The purpose of this review is to investigate the role of bone-targeted radioisotope therapy in the setting of multimodality therapy for advanced prostate cancer. We examine available data and evaluate whether dose escalation, newer generations, or repeated dosing of radiopharmaceuticals enhance their antitumor effects and whether their combination with hormone ablative therapy, chemotherapy, or novel targeted therapy can improve clinical efficacy. PMID:20551894

  7. Therapy: a new nonsurgical therapy option for benign thyroid nodules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of iodization programs, benign nodular thyroid disease will remain a prevalent therapeutic concern for decades. recent research suggests that nonsurgical therapy, including radioactive iodine, radiofrequency thermal ablation and percutaneous laser ablation...

  8. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  9. Convergence insufficiency and vision therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Mary Lou

    2014-06-01

    There is no standard meaning of the term "vision therapy", and for this reason it is often a controversial topic between some members of the ophthalmic and optometric community. Most pediatric ophthalmologists avoid using the term because it is nonspecific. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a binocular visual problem that causes problems and symptoms with near fixation. There is consensus among eye care professionals that convergence therapy is effective in treating CI. Convergence therapy is not effective in treating learning disabilities, but can sometimes relieve symptoms that might be a barrier to reading. PMID:24852157

  10. Hadron accelerators in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadrontherapy Project (the largest project of this type in Europe) is then described, with reference to both the National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy and the design of two types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large number of hospitals. Finally, the radiation protection requirements are discussed. (author)

  11. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  12. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  13. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27401628

  14. Focal Therapy, Differential Therapy, and Radiation Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anudh K.; Ennis, Ronald D

    2012-01-01

    Focal and differential therapy represent an approach to improve the therapeutic ratio of prostate cancer treatments. This concept is a shift from treating the whole gland to intensely treating the portion of the gland that contains significant tumor. However, there are many challenges in the move towards focal approaches. Defining which patients are suitable candidates for focal therapy approaches is an area of significant controversy, and it is likely that additional data from imaging or det...

  15. Low Reactive Level Laser Therapy for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Kushibiki; Takeshi Hirasawa; Shinpei Okawa; Miya Ishihara

    2015-01-01

    Low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT) is mainly focused on the activation of intracellular or extracellular chromophore and the initiation of cellular signaling by using low power lasers. Over the past forty years, it was realized that the laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain and inflammation. In recent years, the term LLLT has become widely recognized in the field of regenerative medicine. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms of action of LLLT...

  16. Gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy--contrasts or complementarities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James; Sonne, Mikael

    2010-12-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued that gestalt therapy, defined as a field-theoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual and contextual aspects of therapeutic change processes, toward different levels of memory involved in these processes, and toward the relationship between basic needs, sensation and cognition in therapeutic work. Further, a dialogue between the two approaches will pave the way for addressing the connection between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined. PMID:21198245

  17. Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy. Ask your doctor for more information. For women undergoing reconstruction, post- mastectomy radiation may affect your options for reconstruction or the cosmetic outcome. Discuss with your surgeon and radiation oncologist ...

  18. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Denyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field.

  19. Behavior therapy: a clinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J L; Bruce, B K

    1989-11-01

    Through refinements from research and judicious combination with other therapies, behavior therapy has become increasingly relevant in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. After outlining the four models that serve as a framework for behavior therapy (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning theory, and cognitive behavior modification), the authors provide an update for clinicians on developments in the behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders, sexual disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. Most advances have been made in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including definition of variables for successful use of exposure to phobic stimuli in the treatment of phobic disorders and the use of flooding for post-traumatic stress disorder. By becoming better acquainted with cognitive and behavioral therapies, clinicians may be able to offer their patients more effective treatment options. PMID:2680882

  20. Does Psychodynamic Environmental Therapy Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Hansen, Kim Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first Danish prospective outcome study of psychodynamic environmental therapy of children in residential treatment with early, serious traumatisation and extential relational disturbances. The study delves beneath the surface and explores the extent to which the children...