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Sample records for anti-tlr2 intrabody mediating

  1. Recent Advances with ER Targeted Intrabodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Andrea L J; Dübel, Stefan; Böldicke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ER intrabodies are recombinant antibody fragments produced and retained in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) of a cell or an organism with the purpose to induce phenotypes generated by interfering with the intracellular processing or by changing the location of the recognized antigen. The most common application is the generation of functional knockdowns of membrane proteins, which cannot reach their natural location on the cell surface when they are retained in the ER by the intrabody. Phenotypes generated by interfering with the secretion of extracellular or plasma proteins can be analyzed in a similar way. So far, most ER intrabody studies relied on scFv fragments subcloned from hybridoma lines. Recently, several large international research consortia have started to provide antibodies, with the final goal to cover substantial parts of the human proteome. For practical reasons of throughput and effort, in these consortia the most appropriate method to generate the necessary large numbers of monoclonal antibodies is in vitro selection, typically employing phage or yeast display. These methods provide the antibody genes right from the start, thereby facilitating the application of ER antibody approaches. On the other end, the first transgenic mice expressing an ER intrabody has recently been described. This moves the ER intrabody approach finally to level with classic in vivo knockout strategies - but also offers novel capabilities to the researchers. Promising new perspectives may originate from the fact that the knockdown is restricted to the protein level, that a graded knockdown strength can be achieved, or that the targeting of individual posttranslational modifications will be possible with previously impossible specificity. Finally, the link of today's high throughput recombinant antibody generation to a knock down phenotype is now possible with a single cloning step. It can therefore be expected that we will see a much quicker growth of the number of

  2. The use of fluorescent intrabodies to detect endogenous gankyrin in living cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Anne-Sophie; Freund, Guillaume; Desplancq, Dominique; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Baltzinger, Mireille [Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, UMR 7242, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, boulevard Sébastien Brant, 67412 Illkirch (France); Rochel, Natacha [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR 7104, CNRS/INSERM/Université de Strasbourg, rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Mély, Yves; Didier, Pascal [Faculté de Pharmacie, UMR 7213, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, route du Rhin, 67401 Illkirch (France); Weiss, Etienne, E-mail: eweiss@unistra.fr [Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, UMR 7242, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, boulevard Sébastien Brant, 67412 Illkirch (France)

    2013-04-01

    Expression of antibody fragments in mammalian cells (intrabodies) is used to probe the target protein or interfere with its biological function. We previously described the in vitro characterisation of a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment (F5) isolated from an intrabody library that binds to the oncoprotein gankyrin (GK) in solution. Here, we have isolated several other scFvs that interact with GK in the presence of F5 and tested whether they allow, when fused to fluorescent proteins, to detect by FRET endogenous GK in living cells. The binding of pairs of scFvs to GK was analysed by gel filtration and the ability of each scFv to mediate nuclear import/export of GK was determined. Binding between scFv-EGFP and RFP-labelled GK in living cells was detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). After co-transfection of two scFvs fused to EGFP and RFP, respectively, which form a tri-molecular complex with GK in vitro, FRET signal was measured. This system allowed us to observe that GK is monomeric and distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of several cancer cell lines. Our results show that pairs of fluorescently labelled intrabodies can be monitored by FLIM–FRET microscopy and that this technique allows the detection of lowly expressed endogenous proteins in single living cells. Highlights: ► Endogenous GK in living cells was targeted with pairs of fluorescently-tagged scFvs. ► Tri-molecular complexes containing two scFvs and one molecule GK were formed. ► GK was detected using fluorescence lifetime-based FRET imaging. ► GK is monomeric and homogeneously distributed in several cancer cell lines. ► This technique may have many applications in live-cell imaging of endogenous proteins.

  3. COMPARISON OF APPROACHES TO INTRA-BODY COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TruptiLotlikar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-body communication (IBC is a new, "wireless" communication technique that enables electronic devices on or sometimes near the body to exchange the information. It uses the dielectric properties of human tissues so that human body can be used as the communication channel for data exchange. Transmitting data directly through the skin is can be much more efficient than current wireless transmission technologies (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, since it requires much less energy. In this paper the concept of Personal Area Networks (PANs is presented to demonstrate how electronic devices on and near the human body can exchange digital information through the body. Various methods available for Intra-body communication are studied and presented. The advantages of this method over current wireless communication techniques are discussed along with possible limitation. The technology can have a wide range of applications, hence future scope of the system is presented.

  4. TLR2单克隆抗体对大鼠角膜移植术后植片存活的保护作用%Protective role of anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody to corneal graft survival after allograft corneal transplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白浪; 郑艳华; 梁伟怡

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in grafting-related immune diseases have attracted more and more attention.Blocking TLR2 signal pathway can extend the survival time of heart and kidney grafts.However, the effects of anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody on corneal graft have not been confirmed.Objective This study was to investigate the influence of anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody on corneal graft survival in the rats received penetrating keratoplasty (PKP).Methods Allograft corneal transplantation was performed on the right eyes of 24 SPF female Wistar rats to establish PKP models,with 12 SD rats as donors.The model eyes were randomized into the TLR2 monoclonal antibody group and the model group.Anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody of 15 μg/30 μl was subconjunctivally injected on day 0,2,4,6 and 8 following the modeling in the TLR2 monoclonal antibody group,and equal amount of normal saline was injected in the same way in the model group.The edema,transparency and neovascularization were observed under the slit lamp microscope after surgery, and rejection index (RI) was scored based on the criteria of Holland.Corneal tissue sections of the rats were prepared for the histopathological examination on day 9 and 15 after operation.The research protocol was approved by the Southern Medical University Ethics Committee.Results Mild corneal edema was found in the two groups 1-4 days after operation.A lot of new blood vessels, edema and opacification of corneas were seen in the model group 9-14 days after operation,but in the TLR2 monoclonal antibody group,corneal opacification was found 15 days after operation.The RI scores were significantly higher in the model group than those in the TLR2 monoclonal antibody group 5,9,15 days after operation (t=4.183,4.954,13.506;all at P<0.05).The survival time in the TLR2 monoclonal antibody group was 15.5 days,with the 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-16.1;while that in the model group was 9.5 days,with the 95% CI 8

  5. Cascaded Network Body Channel Model for Intrabody Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tang, Xian; Choy, Chiu Sing; Sobelman, Gerald E

    2016-07-01

    Intrabody communication has been of great research interest in recent years. This paper proposes a novel, compact but accurate body transmission channel model based on RC distribution networks and transmission line theory. The comparison between simulation and measurement results indicates that the proposed approach accurately models the body channel characteristics. In addition, the impedance-matching networks at the transmitter output and the receiver input further maximize the power transferred to the receiver, relax the receiver complexity, and increase the transmission performance. Based on the simulation results, the power gain can be increased by up to 16 dB after matching. A binary phase-shift keying modulation scheme is also used to evaluate the bit-error-rate improvement. PMID:26111404

  6. Cascaded Network Body Channel Model for Intrabody Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tang, Xian; Choy, Chiu Sing; Sobelman, Gerald E

    2016-07-01

    Intrabody communication has been of great research interest in recent years. This paper proposes a novel, compact but accurate body transmission channel model based on RC distribution networks and transmission line theory. The comparison between simulation and measurement results indicates that the proposed approach accurately models the body channel characteristics. In addition, the impedance-matching networks at the transmitter output and the receiver input further maximize the power transferred to the receiver, relax the receiver complexity, and increase the transmission performance. Based on the simulation results, the power gain can be increased by up to 16 dB after matching. A binary phase-shift keying modulation scheme is also used to evaluate the bit-error-rate improvement.

  7. Health Monitoring System Based on Intra-Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Ibrahim, I. W.; Ayub, A. H.; Amri, M. F.; Hamzi, M. H.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a Body Area Network (BAN) health monitoring system based on Intra-Body Communication. Intra-body Communication (IBC) is a communication technique that uses the human body as a medium for electrical signal communication. One of the visions in the health care industry is to provide autonomous and continuous self and the remote health monitoring system. This can be achieved via BAN, LAN and WAN integration. The BAN technology itself consists of short range data communication modules, sensors, controller and actuators. The information can be transmitted to the LAN and WAN via the RF technology such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and ANT. Although the implementations of RF communication have been successful, there are still limitations in term of power consumption, battery lifetime, interferences and signal attenuations. One of the solutions for Medical Body Area Network (MBANs) to overcome these issues is by using an IBC technique because it can operate at lower frequencies and power consumption compared to the existing techniques. The first objective is to design the IBC's transmitter and receiver modules using the off the shelf components. The specifications of the modules such as frequency, data rate, modulation and demodulation coding system were defined. The individual module were designed and tested separately. The modules was integrated as an IBC system and tested for functionality then was implemented on PCB. Next objective is to model and implement the digital parts of the transmitter and receiver modules on the Altera's FPGA board. The digital blocks were interfaced with the FPGA's on board modules and the discrete components. The signals that have been received from the transmitter were converted into a proper waveform and it can be viewed via external devices such as oscilloscope and Labview. The signals such as heartbeats or pulses can also be displayed on LCD. In conclusion, the IBC project presents medical health monitoring model

  8. Inhibition of papillomavirus protein function in cervical cancer cells by intrabody targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Heather; Elston, Robert; Jackson, Deborah; Ansell, Keith; Coleman, Michael; Winter, Greg; Doorbar, John

    2006-01-20

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of human disease, and are responsible for approximately half a million cases of cervical cancer each year. HPVs also cause genital warts, and are the most common sexually transmitted disease in many countries. Despite their importance, there are currently no specific antivirals that are active against HPVs. Papillomavirus protein function is mediated largely by protein-protein interactions, which are difficult to inhibit using conventional approaches. To circumvent these problems, we have prepared an scFv library, and have used this to isolate high-affinity binding molecules that may stearically hinder the association of E6 with p53 and prevent E6-mediated p53 degradation in cervical cancer cells. One of the molecules isolated from the library (GTE6-1), had an affinity for 16E6 of 60nM, and bound within the first zinc finger of the protein. GTE6-1 was able to associate with non-denatured E6 following expression in mammalian cells and could inhibit E6-mediated p53 degradation in in vitro assays. E6-mediated p53 degradation is essential for the continuous growth of cervical cancer cells caused by HPV16. To examine the potential of GTE6-1 as an inhibitor of E6 function in such cells, the molecule was expressed in scFv, diabody and triabody formats in a number of cell lines that are driven to proliferate by the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7, including the cervical cancer cell line SiHa. In contrast to small E6-binding peptides containing the ELLG E6-binding motif, GTE6-1 expression lead to changes in nuclear structure, the appearance of apoptosis markers, and an elevation in the levels of p53. No effects were seen with a control scFv molecule, or when GTE6-1 was expressed in cells that are driven to proliferate by simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen. Given the accessibility of HPV-associated lesions to topical therapy, our results suggest that large interfering molecules such as intrabodies may be useful inhibitors of viral protein

  9. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies

  10. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  11. Effects of human limb gestures on galvanic coupling intra-body communication for advanced healthcare system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi Mei; Pun, Sio Hang; Zhao, Jian Feng; Mak, Peng Un; Liang, Bo Dong; Vai, Mang I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-Body Communication (IBC), which utilizes the human body as the transmission medium to transmit signal, is a potential communication technique for the physiological data transfer among the sensors of remote healthcare monitoring system, in which the doctors are permitted to remotely access the healthcare data without interrupt to the patients’ daily activities. Methods This work investigates the effects of human limb gestures including various joint angles, hand gripping force...

  12. Antibodies inside of a cell can change its outside: Can intrabodies provide a new therapeutic paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Andrea L J; Dübel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Challenges posed by complex diseases such as cancer, chronic viral infections, neurodegenerative disorders and many others have forced researchers to think beyond classic small molecule drugs, exploring new therapeutic strategies such as therapy with RNAi, CRISPR/Cas9 or antibody therapies as single or as combination therapies with existing drugs. While classic antibody therapies based on parenteral application can only reach extracellular targets, intracellular application of antibodies could provide specific advantages but is so far little recognized in translational research. Intrabodies allow high specificity and targeting of splice variants or post translational modifications. At the same time off target effects can be minimized by thorough biochemical characterization. Knockdown of cellular proteins by intrabodies has been reported for a significant number of disease-relevant targets, including ErbB-2, EGFR, VEGFR-2, Metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, β-amyloid protein, α-synuclein, HIV gp120, HCV core and many others. This review outlines the recent advances in ER intrabody technology and their potential use in therapy. PMID:27570612

  13. An intra-body molecular communication networks framework for continuous health monitoring and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahibi, Youssef; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2015-01-01

    Intra-body communication networks are designed to interconnect nano- or micro-sized sensors located inside the body for health monitoring and drug delivery. The most promising solutions are made of implanted nanosensors to timely monitor the body for the presence of specific diseases and pronounce a diagnosis without the intervention of a physician. In this manner, several deadly health conditions such as heart attacks are avoided through the early in vivo detection of their biomarkers. In reality, nanosensors are challenged by the individual specificities, molecular noise, limited durability, and low energy resources. In this paper, a framework is proposed for estimating and detecting diseases and localizing the nanosensors. This framework is based on molecular communication, a novel communication paradigm where information is conveyed through molecules. Through the case study of the shedding of endothelial cells as an early biomarker for heart attack, the intra-body molecular communication networks framework is shown to resolve major issues with in vivo nanosensors and lay the foundations of low-complexity biomedical signal processing algorithms for continuous disease monitoring and diagnosis.

  14. A Finite-Element Simulation of Galvanic Coupling Intra-Body Communication Based on the Whole Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanxin Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulation based on the finite-element (FE method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC. In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz–5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication.

  15. Secure Intra-Body Wireless Communications (SIWiC) System Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Doggett, Terrence P.

    2011-01-01

    SIWiC System is a project to investigate, design and implement future wireless networks of implantable sensors in the body. This futuristic project is designed to make use of the emerging and yet-to-emerge technologies, including ultra-wide band (UWB) for wireless communications, smart implantable sensors, ultra low power networking protocols, security and privacy for bandwidth and power deficient devices and quantum computing. Progress in each of these fronts is hindered by the needs of breakthrough. But, as we will see in this paper, these major challenges are being met or will be met in near future. SIWiC system is a network of in-situ wireless devices that are implanted to coordinate sensed data inside the body, such as symptoms monitoring collected internally, or biometric data collected of an outside object from within the intra-body network. One node has the capability of communicating outside the body to send data or alarm to a relevant authority, e.g., a remote physician.

  16. Effect of Human Movement on Galvanic Intra-Body Communication during Single Gait Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I. W.; Razak, A. H. A.; Ahmad, A.; Salleh, M. K. M.

    2015-11-01

    Intra-body communication (IBC) is a communication system that uses human body as a signal transmission medium. From previous research, two coupling methods of IBC were concluded which are capacitive coupling and galvanic coupling. This paper investigates the effect of human movement on IBC using the galvanic coupling method. Because the human movement is control by the limb joint, the knee flexion angle during gait cycle was used to examine the influence of human movement on galvanic coupling IBC. The gait cycle is a cycle of people walking that start from one foot touch the ground till that foot touch the ground again. Frequency range from 300 kHz to 200MHz was swept in order to investigate the signal transmission loss and the result was focused on operating frequency 70MHz to 90MHz. Results show that the transmission loss varies when the knee flexion angle increased. The highest loss of signal at frequency range between 70MHz to 90 MHz was 69dB when the knee flexion angle is 50° and the minimum loss was 51dB during the flexion angle is 5°.

  17. Multi-Path Model and Sensitivity Analysis for Galvanic Coupled Intra-Body Communication Through Layered Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Meenupriya; Cabrera, Ferran Simon; Pujol, Joan Sebastia; Muncuk, Ufuk; Schirner, Gunar; Chowdhury, Kaushik R

    2016-04-01

    New medical procedures promise continuous patient monitoring and drug delivery through implanted sensors and actuators. When over the air wireless radio frequency (OTA-RF) links are used for intra-body implant communication, the network incurs heavy energy costs owing to absorption within the human tissue. With this motivation, we explore an alternate form of intra-body communication that relies on weak electrical signals, instead of OTA-RF. To demonstrate the feasibility of this new paradigm for enabling communication between sensors and actuators embedded within the tissue, or placed on the surface of the skin, we develop a rigorous analytical model based on galvanic coupling of low energy signals. The main contributions in this paper are: (i) developing a suite of analytical expressions for modeling the resulting communication channel for weak electrical signals in a three dimensional multi-layered tissue structure, (ii) validating and verifying the model through extensive finite element simulations, published measurements in existing literature, and experiments conducted with porcine tissue, (iii) designing the communication framework with safety considerations, and analyzing the influence of different network and hardware parameters such as transmission frequency and electrode placements. Our results reveal a close agreement between theory, simulation, literature and experimental findings, pointing to the suitability of the model for quick and accurate channel characterization and parameter estimation for networked and implanted sensors. PMID:25974946

  18. Modeling and Characterization of the Implant Intra-Body Communication Based on Capacitive Coupling Using a Transfer Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantable devices have important applications in biomedical sensor networks used for biomedical monitoring, diagnosis and treatment, etc. In this paper, an implant intra-body communication (IBC method based on capacitive coupling has been proposed, and the modeling and characterization of this kind of IBC has been investigated. Firstly, the transfer function of the implant IBC based on capacitive coupling was derived. Secondly, the corresponding parameters of the transfer function are discussed. Finally, both measurements and simulations based on the proposed transfer function were carried out, while some important conclusions have been achieved, which indicate that the achieved transfer function and conclusions are able to help to achieve an implant communication method with the highly desirable characteristics of low power consumption, high data rate, high transmission quality, etc.

  19. Regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor function by conformationally selective single-domain intrabodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staus, Dean P; Wingler, Laura M; Strachan, Ryan T;

    2014-01-01

    The biologic activity induced by ligand binding to orthosteric or allosteric sites on a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is mediated by stabilization of specific receptor conformations. In the case of the β2 adrenergic receptor, these ligands are generally small-molecule agonists or antagonists...... their roles as novel tools for studying GPCR biology. Our studies revealed several sequence-related nanobody families with preferences for active (agonist-occupied) or inactive (antagonist-occupied) receptors. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that all nanobodies bind to epitopes displayed...... GPCR biology....

  20. Study of Channel Characteristics for Galvanic-Type Intra-Body Communication Based on a Transfer Function from a Quasi-Static Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Du

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-Body Communication (IBC, which modulates ionic currents over the human body as the communication medium, offers a low power and reliable signal transmission method for information exchange across the body. This paper first briefly reviews the quasi-static electromagnetic (EM field modeling for a galvanic-type IBC human limb operating below 1 MHz and obtains the corresponding transfer function with correction factor using minimum mean square error (MMSE technique. Then, the IBC channel characteristics are studied through the comparison between theoretical calculations via this transfer function and experimental measurements in both frequency domain and time domain. High pass characteristics are obtained in the channel gain analysis versus different transmission distances. In addition, harmonic distortions are analyzed in both baseband and passband transmissions for square input waves. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation results from the transfer function with correction factor. Furthermore, we also explore both theoretical and simulation results for the bit-error-rate (BER performance of several common modulation schemes in the IBC system with a carrier frequency of 500 kHz. It is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  1. Study of Channel Characteristics for Galvanic-Type Intra-Body Communication Based on a Transfer Function from a Quasi-Static Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi Mei; Mak, Peng Un; Pun, Sio Hang; Gao, Yue Ming; Lam, Chan-Tong; Vai, Mang I.; Du, Min

    2012-01-01

    Intra-Body Communication (IBC), which modulates ionic currents over the human body as the communication medium, offers a low power and reliable signal transmission method for information exchange across the body. This paper first briefly reviews the quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) field modeling for a galvanic-type IBC human limb operating below 1 MHz and obtains the corresponding transfer function with correction factor using minimum mean square error (MMSE) technique. Then, the IBC channel characteristics are studied through the comparison between theoretical calculations via this transfer function and experimental measurements in both frequency domain and time domain. High pass characteristics are obtained in the channel gain analysis versus different transmission distances. In addition, harmonic distortions are analyzed in both baseband and passband transmissions for square input waves. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation results from the transfer function with correction factor. Furthermore, we also explore both theoretical and simulation results for the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of several common modulation schemes in the IBC system with a carrier frequency of 500 kHz. It is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the simulation results. PMID:23443387

  2. Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    David P. MacKinnon; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed.

  3. An Intrabody Drug (rAAV6-INT41) Reduces the Binding of N-Terminal Huntingtin Fragment(s) to DNA to Basal Levels in PC12 Cells and Delays Cognitive Loss in the R6/2 Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal progressive disease linked to expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein and characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive and motor function. We show that expression of a mutant human huntingtin exon-1-GFP fusion construct results in nonspecific gene dysregulation that is significantly reduced by 50% due to coexpression of INT41, an intrabody specific for the proline-rich region of the huntingtin protein. Using stable PC12 cell lines expressing either inducible human mutant huntingtin (mHtt, Q73) or normal huntingtin (nHtt, Q23), we investigated the effect of rAAV6-INT41, an adeno-associated virus vector with the INT41 coding sequence, on the subcellular distribution of Htt. Compartmental fractionation 8 days after induction of Htt showed a 6-fold increased association of a dominate N-terminal mHtt fragment with DNA compared to N-terminal nHtt. Transduction with rAAV6-INT41 reduced DNA binding of N-terminal mHtt 6.5-fold in the nucleus and reduced nuclear translocation of the detected fragments. Subsequently, when rAAV6-INT41 is delivered to the striatum in the R6/2 mouse model, treated female mice exhibited executive function statistically indistinguishable from wild type, accompanied by reductions in Htt aggregates in the striatum, suggesting that rAAV6-INT41 is promising as a gene therapy for Huntington's disease. PMID:27595037

  4. An Intrabody Drug (rAAV6-INT41) Reduces the Binding of N-Terminal Huntingtin Fragment(s) to DNA to Basal Levels in PC12 Cells and Delays Cognitive Loss in the R6/2 Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, I Alexandra; Henderson, Lee A

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal progressive disease linked to expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein and characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive and motor function. We show that expression of a mutant human huntingtin exon-1-GFP fusion construct results in nonspecific gene dysregulation that is significantly reduced by 50% due to coexpression of INT41, an intrabody specific for the proline-rich region of the huntingtin protein. Using stable PC12 cell lines expressing either inducible human mutant huntingtin (mHtt, Q73) or normal huntingtin (nHtt, Q23), we investigated the effect of rAAV6-INT41, an adeno-associated virus vector with the INT41 coding sequence, on the subcellular distribution of Htt. Compartmental fractionation 8 days after induction of Htt showed a 6-fold increased association of a dominate N-terminal mHtt fragment with DNA compared to N-terminal nHtt. Transduction with rAAV6-INT41 reduced DNA binding of N-terminal mHtt 6.5-fold in the nucleus and reduced nuclear translocation of the detected fragments. Subsequently, when rAAV6-INT41 is delivered to the striatum in the R6/2 mouse model, treated female mice exhibited executive function statistically indistinguishable from wild type, accompanied by reductions in Htt aggregates in the striatum, suggesting that rAAV6-INT41 is promising as a gene therapy for Huntington's disease. PMID:27595037

  5. Complex Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other ha...

  6. Specialized Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Carol; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Six articles discuss librarians as mediators in special circumstances. Highlights include the reference librarian and the information paraprofessional; effective reference mediation for nontraditional public library users, including mentally impaired patrons and illiterate adults; the academic librarian's role in the education process; and…

  7. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally...... and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines...... the organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  8. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts...

  9. Mediatized Humanitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts to legiti......The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts...... to legitimate themselves and their moral claim were examined. A time trend analysis of the prioritization of actors in the material indicates that marked shifts in legitimation loci have taken place during the past 40 years. A discourse analysis unfolds the three dominant discourses behind these shifts, namely...

  10. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-01-01

    Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator...

  11. Micro dynamics in mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boserup, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The author has identified a number of styles in mediation, which lead to different processes and different outcomes. Through discourse and conversation analysis he examines the micro dynamics in three of these, the postmodern styles: systemic, transformative and narrative mediation. The differences between the three mediation ideologies and practice is illustrated through role play scripts enacted in each style. Mediator and providers of mediation and trainers in mediation are encouraged to a...

  12. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Binod Vaidya; João Caldeira; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of suc...

  13. General Gaugino Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Sudano, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of a class of gaugino mediation models with arbitrary hidden sector is considered. These models are defined by a diagonal breaking of the mediating gauge group, which places them outside the realm of General Gauge Mediation. While gauginos get masses as in ordinary gauge mediation, the scalar masses are screened.

  14. Shared mediated workspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Greef, Tjerk de; Gullström, Charlie; Handberg, Leif; Nefs, H.T.; Parnes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Shared mediated spaces provide viable alternatives for meetings and interactions. The development of collaborative mediated workspaces and shared negotiation spaces will have a fundamental impact on all human practices. Previous design-led research, has identified spatial design concepts, such as mediated gaze, and spatial montage, which, if unaddressed, may be said to impose friction, and thus impact negatively on the experience of mediated presence. The current paper discusses a set of conc...

  15. Confidentiality of mediation communications

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, AKC

    2011-01-01

    Discusses the common law protection afforded to mediation negotiations by the without prejudice rule, legal professional privilege and the mediation agreement signed by all parties prior to the commencement of the mediation process. Examines the inclusion of admissions within the without prejudice rule, and the exceptions to the rule. Notes two pieces of legislation offering protection, namely the US Uniform Mediation Act 2001 and Directive 2008/52. Argues that the limited protection in the U...

  16. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared to conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian mediation analysis, inference is straightforward and exact, which makes it appealing for studies with small samples. Third, the Bayesian approach is conceptua...

  17. Mediation as Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, M.J.; Lindner, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes mediation as a signal. Starting from a stylized case, a game theoretical model of one-sided incomplete information, taken from Cho and Kreps (1987), is applied to discuss strategic effects of mediation. It turns out that to reject mediation can be interpreted as a ”negative signal” while the interpretation of accepting or proposing mediation is ambiguous and does not necessarily change the prior beliefs of the uninformed party. This asymmetry suggests that, in equilibrium,...

  18. mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Tingley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.

  19. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  20. Mediation as Signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holler, M.J.; Lindner, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes mediation as a signal. Starting from a stylized case, a game theoretical model of one-sided incomplete information, taken from Cho and Kreps (1987), is applied to discuss strategic effects of mediation. It turns out that to reject mediation can be interpreted as a ”negative signa

  1. Hybrid Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by four dimensional (de)constructions, we use the framework of "General gauge mediation in five dimensions" to interpolate between gaugino and ordinary gauge mediation. In particular we emphasise that an intermediate hybrid regime of mediation may be obtained in these higher dimensional models as has been obtained in the quiver gauge models.

  2. Phenomenological Implications of Deflected Mirage Mediation: Comparison with Mirage Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Altunkaynak, Baris; Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Nelson, Brent D.; Rao, Yongyan

    2010-01-01

    We compare the collider phenomenology of mirage mediation and deflected mirage mediation, which are two recently proposed "mixed" supersymmetry breaking scenarios motivated from string compactifications. The scenarios differ in that deflected mirage mediation includes contributions from gauge mediation in addition to the contributions from gravity mediation and anomaly mediation also present in mirage mediation. The threshold effects from gauge mediation can drastically alter the low energy s...

  3. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturi, Michela

    In the past several years great attention has been dedicated to the characterization of the Mediator complex in a different range of model organisms. Mediator is a conserved co-activator complex involved in transcriptional regulation and it conveys signals from regulatory transcription factors to...... the basal transcription machinery. Mediator was initially isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on its ability to render a RNA polymerase II in vitro transcription system responsive to activators. Additionally, structural studies have revealed striking structural similarities between S....... cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian Mediator. In our study, we have taken the S. pombe Mediator into consideration and characterized genetically and biochemically two subunits already know in S. cerevisiae, Med9 and Med11, but still not identified in the S. pombe Mediator. Genetic analysis...

  4. Mediation in Romanian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the current social relations generates the necessity of developing and applyingnew methods of settling conflicts. Mediation can serve as an effective tool in resolving various conflictsincluding the criminal matters. This article gives a panoramic view on the application of the concept ofmediation and highlights the main features of mediation in criminal cases as they are reported to the nationallegislation and the legislation of Romania. Therefore the advantages of mediation and the opportunity toapply the latter in order to slave the conflicts caused by the commission of criminal offences are still beingdiscussed. The Romanian legislation and the Community rules establish the scope of expressly exemptedareas, the sides of freedom being the main principle, the mandatory dispositions being the exception. Fromthe contents of the Law 192/2006 result that mediation is exercisable in all areas with the condition that therights which make the subject of mediation could be used by the sides of the mediation. The mediation theoryanalyses the extrajudicial mediation and judicial mediation settlement.

  5. Mediation and Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Faget

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation

  6. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  7. Dynamic public service mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.; Staalduinen, M. van

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to dynamic public service mediation. It is based on a conceptual model and the use of search and ranking algorithms. The conceptual model is based on Abstract State Machine theory. Requirements for dynamic service mediation were derived from a real-world case. The con

  8. Mediation and Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Faget

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation

  9. What Is Mediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), Eugene, OR.

    This brief paper discusses the use of mediation as a method for resolving disagreements between schools or early intervention programs and parents of children with disabilities. It identifies benefits of mediation such as maintenance of an ongoing and positive relationship between the school and family, simple resolution of conflicts arising out…

  10. Music, radio and mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten; Krogh, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music– radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...... of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex non- linearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life....

  11. Gravity in gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for μ and Bμ generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.

  12. General resonance mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2012-07-15

    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for {sigma}(visible {yields} hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  13. Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2004-01-01

    that deepens our understanding of how organizations appropriate new electronic communication media. The paper analyzes how a group of mediators in a large, multinational company adapted a new web-based CMC technology (a virtual workspace) to the local organizational context (and vice versa) by modifying......Implementation of new computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems in organizations is a complex socio-technical endeavour, involving the mutual adaptation of technology and organization over time. Drawing on the analytic concept of sensemaking, this paper provides a theoretical perspective...... features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. We found that these mediators exerted considerable influence on how the technology was established and used in the organization. The mediators were not neutral facilitators of a well...

  14. Natural generalized mirage mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan; Tata, Xerxes

    2016-01-01

    In the supersymmetric scenario known as mirage mediation (MM), the soft SUSY breaking terms receive comparable anomaly-mediation and moduli-mediation contributions leading to the phenomenon of mirage unification. The simplest MM SUSY breaking models which are consistent with the measured Higgs mass and sparticle mass constraints are strongly disfavoured by fine-tuning considerations. However, while MM makes robust predictions for gaugino masses, the scalar sector is quite sensitive to specific mechanisms for moduli stabilization and potential uplifting. We suggest here a broader setup of generalized mirage mediation (GMM), where heretofore discrete parameters are allowed as continuous to better parametrize these other schemes. We find that natural SUSY spectra consistent with both the measured value of m(h). as well as LHC lower bounds on superpartner masses are then possible. We explicitly show that models generated from natural GMM may be beyond the reach of even high-luminosity LHC searches. In such a case...

  15. Interactive Mediated Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Grasset, Raphaël; Boissieux, Laurence; Gascuel, Jean-Dominique; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    International audience Mediated reality describes the concept of filtering our vision of reality, typically using a head-mounted video mixing display. We can redefine this idea in a more constructive context, applying dynamic changes to the appearance and geometry of objects in a real scene using computer graphics. In this paper, we propose new tools for interactively mediated reality. After describing a new generic framework for achieving this goal, we present a prototype system for paint...

  16. Inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    M Beekhuizen

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder involving cartilage destruction and joint inflammation. Despite extensive research, still much is unknown on the pathogenesis and aetiology of OA. Inflammation and inflammatory mediators (both local and systemic) are key in the pathogenesis of OA. For rheumatoid arthritis, multiple therapies are based on targeting the mediators that are associated with inflammation and joint destruction. Motivated by these findings we set off to identify wh...

  17. Chronic alloantibody mediated rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R. Neal; Colvin, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Alloantibodies clearly cause acute antibody mediated rejection, and all available evidence supports their pathogenic etiology in the development of chronic alloantibody mediated rejection (CAMR). But the slow evolution of this disease, the on-going immunosuppression, the variations in titer of alloantibodies, and variation in antigenic targets all complicate identifying which dynamic factors are most important clinically and pathologically. This review highlights the pathological factors rela...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  20. [Immune-mediated neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, G; Reiners, K

    2016-08-01

    The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are the most common immune-mediated polyneuropathies, which can show variable clinical and electrophysiological manifestations. Rarer immune-mediated neuropathies encompass paraproteinemic neuropathies (PPN), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and vasculitic neuropathies. The diagnosis usually relies on the history of symptom evolution, distribution of nerve dysfunction and particularly on characteristic features in nerve conduction studies, aided by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy findings. The therapeutic toolbox encompasses corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis often accompanied by long-term immunosuppression. It is important to note that immune-mediated neuropathies selectively respond to treatment and contraindications need to be considered. Despite treatment a considerable number of patients suffer from permanent neurological deficits. PMID:27474733

  1. Exploring general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore various aspects of General Gauge Mediation (GGM). We present a reformulation of the correlation functions used in GGM, and further elucidate their IR and UV properties. Additionally we clarify the issue of UV sensitivity in the calculation of the soft masses in the MSSM, highlighting the role of the supertrace over the messenger spectrum. Finally, we present weakly coupled messenger models which fully cover the parameter space of GGM. These examples demonstrate that the full parameter space of GGM is physical and realizable. Thus it should be considered a valid basis for future phenomenological explorations of gauge mediation.

  2. Mediated Cultural Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    culture as convergent with evolving genres. From a socio-cultural linguistic perspective, a standardization of meaning-making (Machin and van Leeuwen) affects our reading, viewing, sense of identity within families, culture, nation-states, and notions of enemy. In the discussion, we consider how mediated...

  3. Mediated intimacy in families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2006-01-01

    with other types of intimate relations such as strong-tie intimacy (couples cohabiting). However, we also identified several issues of intimacy unique to the special relation between children and their parents. These unique acts of intimacy propose challenges when designing technologies for mediated intimacy...

  4. Inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder involving cartilage destruction and joint inflammation. Despite extensive research, still much is unknown on the pathogenesis and aetiology of OA. Inflammation and inflammatory mediators (both local and systemic) are key in the pathogenesis of OA.

  5. Expanding mediation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2012-01-01

    In his article In Between Us, Yoni van den Eede expands existing theories of mediation into the realm of the social and the political, focusing on the notions of opacity and transparency. His approach is rich and promising, but two pitfalls should be avoided. First, his concept of ‘in-between’ runs

  6. Thermally favourable gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the thermal evolution of the spurion and messenger fields of ordinary gauge mediation models taking into account the Standard Model degrees of freedom. It is shown that for thermalized messengers the metastable susy breaking vacuum becomes thermally selected provided that the susy breaking sector is sufficiently weakly coupled to messengers or to any other observable field.

  7. Den sundhedsfremmende mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    mediering samt mellem forskellige mediator-roller og tilhørsforhold. Det er også vigtigt at være bevidst om de centrale kvaliteter, risici og dilemmaer, som mediering indebærer i forhold til involvering af borgerne. Denne artikel rummer et bud på en sådan nuanceret begrebsliggørelse og refleksion, relateret...

  8. Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes how a group of ‘mediators’ in a large, multinational company adapted a computer-mediated communication technology (a ‘virtual workspace’) to the organizational context (and vice versa) by modifying features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting...

  9. The Strategic Mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossignoli, Cecilia; Carugati, Andrea; Mola, Lapo

    2009-01-01

    The last 10 years have witnessed the emergence of electronic marketplaces as players that leverage new technologies to facilitate B2B internet-mediated collaborative business. Nowadays these players are augmenting their services from simple intermediation to include new inter-organizational relat......The last 10 years have witnessed the emergence of electronic marketplaces as players that leverage new technologies to facilitate B2B internet-mediated collaborative business. Nowadays these players are augmenting their services from simple intermediation to include new inter...... as an exclusive club, the belonging to which provides a strategic advantage. The technology brought forth by the marketplace participates in shaping the strategic demands of the participants which in turn request the marketplace to redesign its own strategy. Profiting from this unintended demand, the e...

  10. Models as Mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    from laboratory studies, (Latour 1979; Lynch 1985; Sommerlund 2004 (2007); Sommerlund 2006) and is complemented by the attention paid to the "mediator" by Hennion (1989; 1997; 2005). The empirical focus will be on a central - but overlooked - actor of branding and advertising; the model. The model has...... solely been theorized within cultural studies (Craik 1994) as feminine spectacle, but has been neglected as mediator and actor. This paper will argue that models are co-producers of brands, and vice versa. Empirically, the paper will present interviews with models, model-scouts, agents, and advertisers....... Jacobs, Nancy Weiss. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing. Latour, B. W., Steve (1979). Laboratory Life. London, New Delhi, Sage. Lynch, M. (1985). Art and artifact in laboratory science. London, Boston, Melbourne and Henley, Routledge & Kegan Paul. Sommerlund, J. (2004 (2007)). "Beauty and Bacteria...

  11. Direct Gaugino Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe renormalizable supersymmetric four-dimensional theories which lead to gaugino mediation and various generalizations thereof. Even though these models are strongly coupled, we can demonstrate the parametric suppression of soft scalar masses via Seiberg duality. We show that our models have a parameter which continuously interpolates between suppressed soft scalar masses and their conventional gauge mediated contribution. The main physical effect which we utilize is the general relation between massive deformations in one frame and the Higgs mechanism in the dual frame. Some compelling and relatively unexplored phenomenological scenarios arise naturally in this framework. We offer preliminary comments on various aspects of the phenomenology and outline several of the outstanding open problems.

  12. Minimal gaugino mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose minimal gaugino mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultrahigh energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. We show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the μ problem. We briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of minimal gaugino mediation but does not introduce new model dependence

  13. Minimal Gaugino Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose Minimal Gaugino Mediation as the simplest known solution to the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. The framework predicts a very minimal structure for the soft parameters at ultra-high energies: gaugino masses are unified and non-vanishing whereas all other soft supersymmetry breaking parameters vanish. The authors show that this boundary condition naturally arises from a small extra dimension and present a complete model which includes a new extra-dimensional solution to the mu problem. The authors briefly discuss the predicted superpartner spectrum as a function of the two parameters of the model. The commonly ignored renormalization group evolution above the GUT scale is crucial to the viability of Minimal Gaugino Mediation but does not introduce new model dependence

  14. Amplitude mediated chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    Sethia, Gautam C.; Sen, Abhijit; Johnston, George L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of obtaining chimera state solutions of the non-local Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation (NLCGLE) in the strong coupling limit when it is important to retain amplitude variations. Our numerical studies reveal the existence of a variety of amplitude mediated chimera states (including stationary and non-stationary two cluster chimera states), that display intermittent emergence and decay of amplitude dips in their phase incoherent regions. The existence regions of t...

  15. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare... BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that mediation... mediation techniques and will provide or assist in selecting a mediator. The mediator may take any...

  16. Teachers as mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike;

    2012-01-01

    and cultural influences on practice. Yet the teachers observed moved smoothly between goal-oriented behaviours in a continuous and comfortable style, easily and without reflecting any tensions between them. Thus, this article elaborates an account of situated English teaching.......Within the context of lower secondary English teaching in South West England, this study identifies in broad terms the competing goals between which English teachers mediate and the explicit and hidden tensions that result. To understand the interactions of competing goals, teachers’ goal...

  17. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs......” in their communication efforts, and that they face a daily professional challenge as they attempt to promote the European Parliament and its activities to the news media in a way that will not compromise their credibility as government sources. The study provides new insights into communicative aspects of EU governance...

  18. Ferrofluid mediated nanocytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Ayse Rezzan; Koser, Hur

    2012-01-01

    We present a low-cost, flow-through nanocytometer that utilizes a colloidal suspension of non-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for label-free manipulation and separation of microparticles. Our size-based separation is mediated by angular momentum transfer from magnetically excited ferrofluid particles to microparticles. The nanocytometer is capable of rapidly sorting and focusing two or more species, with up to 99% separation efficiency and a throughput of 3 × 10(4) particles/s per mm(2) of channel cross-section. The device is readily scalable and applicable to live cell sorting with biocompatible ferrofluids, offering competitive cytometer performance in a simple and inexpensive package. PMID:22076536

  19. Mediation Revisited: The Interactive Organization of Mediation in Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with the social organization of mediation in learning environments. It seeks to further articulate the sociocultural notion of mediation in sociointeractional terms, combining insights from the sociocultural approach to cognition and the microinteractionist, especially ethnomethodological approach to social activities. A microanalysis of mediation in communicative 2nd-language classroom activities where the task at hand is the management of interaction itself is pres...

  20. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use. PMID:22080073

  1. Semi-direct gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a framework for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking in which the messengers are charged under the hidden sector gauge group but do not play a role in breaking supersymmetry. From this point of view, our framework is between ordinary gauge mediation and direct mediation. As an example, we consider the 3-2 model of dynamical supersymmetry breaking, and add to it massive messengers which are SU(2) doublets. We briefly discuss the phenomenology of this scenario.

  2. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  3. When Memories are Mediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, oppression and wars, can mobilize memories of the involved persons and following generations in a certain historical situation. Acts of mass violence can also create a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories that are...... political contexts and media platforms take place and become contexts for audience reception. This paper explores two examples of narratives that construct memories of acts of mass violence: “Gzim Rewind” (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and “The Act of Killing” (Denmark, 2012...... mediated through stories: told and retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated as contemporary documentary film accounts or more fictional film accounts. In these processes of retelling acts of violence, transformations of meanings across time, cultural, social and...

  4. Neutrino assisted gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observation shows that the Higgs mass is at around 125 GeV while the prediction of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is below 120 GeV for stop mass lighter than 2 TeV unless the top squark has a maximal mixing. We consider the right-handed neutrino supermultiplets as messengers in addition to the usual gauge mediation to obtain sizeable trilinear soft parameters At needed for the maximal stop mixing. Neutrino messengers can explain the observed Higgs mass for stop mass around 1 TeV. Neutrino assistance can also generate charged lepton flavor violation including μ→e γ as a possible signature of the neutrino messengers. We consider the S4 discrete flavor model and show the relation of the charged lepton flavor violation, θ 13 of neutrino oscillation and the muon's g-2. (orig.)

  5. The mediation procedure in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mediation activity as an alternative way of solving conflicts occupies an important place in modernsociety. Currently, the mediation reached its maturity worldwide being adopted without reservations.The future of solving conflicts is undoubtedly closely related to mediation. XXth century is the century of solvingconflicts amiably outside the court room. In Romania and the mediation profession were regulated by the Law no.192/2006, on the basis of the idea that mediation is one of the major themes of the reform strategy of the judicialsystem 2005-2007. By adopting the mentioned law it was followed the idea of reducing the volume of activitycourts, and therefore, relieve them of as many cases, with the direct effect on the quality of justice. Mediation is avoluntary process in which the parties with a neutral and impartial third party, without power of decision - themediator - who is qualified to assist the parties to negotiate, facilitating the communication between them andhelping them to reach a unanimous effective and sustainable agreement. The parties may resort to mediation beforeor after triggering a trial. Mediation can be applied, in principle, on any type of conflict. However, theRomanian legislator has established special stipulations on conflict mediation in criminal, civil and familylaw. Although not expressly provided, the stipulations regarding the civil conflicts and also apply to commercialconflicts. Therefore, the mediation is applicable to most types of lawsuits, except those relating to personalrights. As a "win- win" principle, the mediation does not convert any of the parties defeated or victorious; allthose involved have gained by applying this procedure.

  6. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  7. Peer Mediation in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angaran, Sally; Beckwith, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Minor disagreements can quickly escalate when a child feels threatened with losing face or fears retaliation. Peer-mediation programs can help students refocus their energies while learning communication skills they can use in other situations. The benefits of an Oregon elementary school's peer-mediation program are discussed. (MLH)

  8. Anomaly mediation deformed by axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in supersymmetric axion models the axion supermultiplet obtains a sizable F-term due to a non-supersymmetric dynamics and it generally gives the gaugino masses comparable to the anomaly mediation contribution. Thus the gaugino mass relation predicted by the anomaly mediation effect can be significantly modified in the presence of axion to solve the strong CP problem

  9. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  10. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  11. Comments on general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been interest in generalizing models of gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. As shown by Meade, Seiberg, and Shih (MSS), the soft masses of general gauge mediation can be expressed in terms of the current two-point functions of the susy-breaking sector. We here give a simple extension of their result which provides, for general gauge mediation, the full effective potential for squark pseudo-D-flat directions. The effective potential reduces to the sfermion soft masses near the origin, and the full potential, away from the origin, can be useful for cosmological applications. We also generalize the soft masses and effective potential to allow for general gauge mediation by Higgsed gauge groups. Finally, we discuss general gauge mediation in the limit of small F-terms, and how the results of MSS connect with the analytic continuation in superspace results, based on a spurion analysis.

  12. 29 CFR 1203.1 - Mediation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation services. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE § 1203.1 Mediation services. Applications for the mediation services of the National Mediation Board under section 5, First, of the...

  13. 29 CFR 35.32 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mediation. (a) Referral to mediation. CRC will promptly refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service or the mediation agency designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under 45 CFR part... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mediation. 35.32 Section 35.32 Labor Office of the...

  14. 29 CFR 1202.1 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 1202.1 Section 1202.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.1 Mediation. The mediation..., or where conferences are refused. The National Mediation Board may proffer its services in case...

  15. 34 CFR 81.13 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 81.13 Section 81.13 Education Office of the... Mediation. (a) Voluntary mediation is available for proceedings that are pending before the OALJ. (b) A... mediation by filing a motion with the ALJ assigned to the case. The OALJ arranges for a mediator if...

  16. 24 CFR 3288.35 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 3288.35 Section 3288.35...-Administered States § 3288.35 Mediation. (a) Mediator. The dispute resolution provider will provide for the... identifies any other party that should be included in the mediation, the mediator will contact the...

  17. 32 CFR 776.38 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 776.38 Section 776.38 National... Professional Conduct § 776.38 Mediation. (a) Mediation: (1) A covered attorney may act as a mediator between... mediation, including the advantages and risks involved, and the effect on the...

  18. 44 CFR 7.942 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 7.942 Section 7..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 7.942 Mediation. (a) FEMA will promptly refer to a mediation agency... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or for the mediator to...

  19. 22 CFR 143.33 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 143.33 Section 143.33 Foreign... Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an...

  20. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  1. Caspases: An apoptosis mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Palai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy - dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is a widely conserved phenomenon helping many processes, including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone dependent atrophy etc. Inappropriate apoptosis (either low level or high level leads to many developmental abnormalities like, neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. To use cells for therapeutic purposes through generating cell lines, it is critical to study the cell cycle machinery and signalling pathways that controls cell death and apoptosis. Apoptotic pathways provide a fundamental protective mechanism that decreases cellular sensitivity to damaging events and allow proper developmental process in multi-cellular organisms. Major mediator of apoptosis is a family of proteins known as caspases. There are mainly fourteen types of caspases but out of them only ten caspasese have got essential role in controlling the process of apoptosis. These ten caspases have been categorized into either initiator caspases (caspase 2, 8, 9, 10 or executioner caspases (caspase 3, 6, 7. Although various types of caspases have been identified so far, the exact mechanisms of action of these groups of proteins is still to be fully understood. The aim of this review is to provide a detail overview of role of different caspases in regulating the process of apoptosis.

  2. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2002-05-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.

  3. Mediation of information and educational mediation: conceptual discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Célia de Souza Sacerdote

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This is systematization of theoretical and methodological contributions related to the concepts of mediation information and pedagogical mediation in the literature. Objective: To understand possible intersection of information science and Online Education with regard to these concepts to check that both can be considered as analogous in its essence and practice. Methodology: Literature review based on literature by consulting the scientific productions selected in search of SciELO.ORG databases and EBSCO Host, the portal of CAPES / MEC and Google Scholar. Results: The most cited concepts in information science and education were de Almeida Junior (2009 and Masetto (2013, respectively. Conclusion: It is observed that the concept of mediation can move interchangeably between both areas. This is because the evidence found in the productions of the last five years indicate that the concept of information of mediation seems to have found its bases in education (educational psychology.

  4. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical and...

  5. Assay of mast cell mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Swindle, Emily;

    2015-01-01

    Mediator release from activated mast cells is a major initiator of the symptomology associated with allergic disorders such as anaphylaxis and asthma. Thus, methods to monitor the generation and release of such mediators have widespread applicability in studies designed to understand the processes...... regulating mast cell activation and for the identification of therapeutic approaches to block mast cell-driven disease. In this chapter, we discuss approaches used for the determination of mast cell degranulation, lipid-derived inflammatory mediator production, and cytokine/chemokine gene expression as well...

  6. Doing statistical mediation and moderation

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, conversational style, this book offers a hands-on approach to statistical mediation and moderation for both beginning researchers and those familiar with modeling. Starting with a gentle review of regression-based analysis, Paul Jose covers basic mediation and moderation techniques before moving on to advanced topics in multilevel modeling, structural equation modeling, and hybrid combinations, such as moderated mediation. User-friendly features include numerous graphs and carefully worked-through examples; ""Helpful Suggestions"" about procedures and pitfalls; ""Knowled

  7. Gauge mediation in string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ooguri, Hirosi; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    We show that a large class of phenomenologically viable models for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking based on meta-stable vacua can be realized in local Calabi–Yau compactifications of string theory.

  8. Mediator-Generated Pressure Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joseph F.

    1978-01-01

    Two examples of bluff pressures (as opposed to real pressures) used by mediators to effect contract settlements are presented, along with advice to negotiators on avoiding or minimizing such tactics. (Author/IRT)

  9. Electrical characteristic of the titanium mesh electrode for transcutaneous intrabody communication to monitor implantable artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kikuchi, Sakiko; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a tissue-inducing electrode using titanium mesh to obtain mechanically and electrically stable contact with the tissue for a new transcutaneous communication system using the human body as a conductive medium. In this study, we investigated the electrical properties of the titanium mesh electrode by measuring electrode-tissue interface resistance in vivo. The titanium mesh electrode (Hi-Lex Co., Zellez, Hyogo, Japan) consisted of titanium fibers (diameter of 50 μm), and it has an average pore size of 200 μm and 87 % porosity. The titanium mesh electrode has a diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm. Three titanium mesh electrodes were implanted separately into the dorsal region of the rat. We measured the electrode-electrode impedance using an LCR meter for 12 weeks, and we calculated the tissue resistivity and electrode-tissue interface resistance. The electrode-tissue interface resistance of the titanium mesh electrode decreased slightly until the third POD and then continuously increased to 75 Ω. The electrode-tissue interface resistance of the titanium mesh electrode is stable and it has lower electrode-tissue interface resistance than that of a titanium disk electrode. The extracted titanium mesh electrode after 12 weeks implantation was fixed in 10 % buffered formalin solution and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Light microscopic observation showed that the titanium mesh electrode was filled with connective tissue, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts with some capillaries in the pores of the titanium mesh. The results indicate that the titanium mesh electrode is a promising electrode for the new transcutaneous communication system.

  10. 人体通信技术研究%Research of Intra-Body Communication Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 王晓蕾; 尹路; 郑君杰

    2011-01-01

    人体通信是近年来兴起的一门新兴通信技术,主要用以解决人体互联局域网的通信问题.人体通信利用人体作为无线通信的传输介质,能有效地减少外界电磁噪音的影响,同时去除了设备相互连接时的众多导线.本文从人体通信基本原理的角度对人体通信的3种方式进行了介绍,分析了人体通信中的关键技术,对人体通信未来的发展前景进行了展望.%Intra-body communication(IBC) is a new technology for wireless communication,which aims to solve the communication problem in body area network. lntra-body communication using the human body as the transmission medium for wireless communication ,which can efficiently reduce the electromagnetic interference and abundant cables often appeared in devices connection. Three types of IBC are introduced based on fundamental principles of IBC and at last the key technology is analyzed and the future of IBC is shown.

  11. In vivo and in situ measurement and modelling of intra-body effective complex permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil S; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Harslund, Jakob L F;

    2015-01-01

    in terms of refraction ε', absorption ε″ and their variations in gastrointestinal (GI) tract organs (i.e. oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine) and the porcine abdominal wall under in vivo and in situ conditions. They further investigated the effects of irregular and unsynchronised...

  12. The simulation of electrostatic coupling intra-body communication based on the finite-element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yong; Zhang Kai; Yang Guang; Zhu Kang; Hao Qun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, investigation has been done in the computer simulation of the electrostatic coupling IBC by using the developed finite-element models, in which a. the incidence and reflection of electronic signal in the upper arm model were analyzed by using the theory of electromagnetic wave; b. the finite-element models of electrostatic coupling IBC were developed by using the electromagnetic analysis package of ANSYS software; c. the signal attenuation of electrostatic coupling IBC were simulated under the conditions of different signal frequencies, electrodes directions, electrodes sizes and transmission distances. Finally, some important conclusions are deduced on the basis of simulation results.

  13. 24 CFR 146.35 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 146.35 Section 146.35... ASSISTANCE Investigation, Settlement, and Enforcement Procedures § 146.35 Mediation. (a) HUD shall refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, a mediation agency designated by the Secretary...

  14. 7 CFR 780.9 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 780.9 Section 780.9 Agriculture Regulations... PROGRAMS APPEAL REGULATIONS § 780.9 Mediation. (a) Any request for mediation must be submitted after... once: (1) If resolution of an adverse decision is not achieved in mediation, a participant may...

  15. 22 CFR 218.33 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 218.33 Section 218.33 Foreign... § 218.33 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) fall within the jurisdiction of...

  16. 45 CFR 1156.16 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 1156.16 Section 1156.16 Public Welfare... Procedures § 1156.16 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The Endowment will promptly refer all complaints to the agency designated by the Secretary of HHS to manage the mediation process...

  17. Mediation in Schools: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the developing role of mediation as a conflict resolution process in schools. It gives an accepted definition and clarifies the purposes of mediation, outlining the range of contexts in and beyond schools in which mediation is already offered as a formal intervention. The typical process of mediation itself is described. The…

  18. 15 CFR 20.12 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 20.12 Section 20.12... Procedures § 20.12 Mediation. (a) DOC will refer to a mediation service designated by the Secretary all... further processing. (b) Both the complainant and the recipient shall participate in the mediation...

  19. Mediation and Counseling Services: A Viable Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Mediation has become common in many areas of society, including marital dissolution, community disputes, governmental agencies, and business and industry. Though higher education has been slower than society to adopt mediation services, campus mediation is becoming increasingly more common. This article explains why mediation is a viable…

  20. 15 CFR 930.111 - OCRM mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OCRM mediation. 930.111 Section 930... FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.111 OCRM mediation. The availability of mediation does not preclude use by the parties of alternative means...

  1. 10 CFR 4.333 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 4.333 Section 4.333 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.333 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. NRC will refer to a mediation agency designated by the Secretary of the Department of Health...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.89-6 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-6 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. DOE will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, in accordance with 45 CFR 90.43(c)(3), all complaints that: (1... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 1040.89-6 Section 1040.89-6 Energy...

  3. 38 CFR 18.543 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 18.543 Section... Enforcement Procedures § 18.543 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. VA will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) Fall within the jurisdiction of...

  4. 34 CFR 110.32 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 110.32 Section 110.32 Education Regulations..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 110.32 Mediation. (a) ED promptly refers to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service or to the mediation agency designated by the Secretary of Health and...

  5. 45 CFR 91.43 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 91.43 Section 91.43 Public Welfare... Enforcement Procedures § 91.43 Mediation. (a) HHS will promptly refer to a mediation agency designated by the... mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an informed judgment that...

  6. 14 CFR 1252.402 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 1252.402 Section 1252.402... Procedures § 1252.402 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. NASA will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) Fall within the jurisdiction of the Act...

  7. 43 CFR 17.332 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 17.332 Section 17.332 Public..., and Enforcement Procedures § 17.332 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. DOI will... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an...

  8. 15 CFR 923.54 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 923.54 Section 923.54... Mediation. (a) Section 307(h) of the Act provides for mediation of serious disagreement between any Federal... cases, mediation by the Secretary, with the assistance of the Executive Office of the President, may...

  9. 7 CFR 614.11 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 614.11 Section 614.11 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS NRCS APPEAL PROCEDURES § 614.11 Mediation. (a) A participant who wishes to pursue mediation must file request for mediation under this part with the NRCS official designated in...

  10. Neutrality in mediation: an ambiguous ethical value

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mediator neutrality would appear, by definition, to be a necessary and required ethical principle for all mediators to practice. But what is meant by neutrality in mediation? Is it practically possible to be completely neutral between parties in mediation while at the same time being fair to both of them? This paper attempts to answer these two questions.

  11. Gaugino-Assisted Anomaly Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or ''hidden'') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, we consider this the simplest working model of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. We identify the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches. We also discuss mechanisms for generating the μ term and constraints on additional bulk fields. (author)

  12. Gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or 'hidden') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, this is among the simplest working models of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. Finally, the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches are identified. This talk is based on work [1] done in collaboration with David E. Kaplan

  13. A Graphical Representation of the Mediated Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Matthew S.; David P. MacKinnon

    2008-01-01

    Mediation analysis is widely used in the social sciences. Despite the popularity of mediation models, few researchers have used graphical methods, other than structural path diagrams, to represent their models. Plots of the mediated effect can help a researcher better understand the results of the analysis and convey these results to others. This article presents a method for creating and interpreting plots of the mediated effect for a variety of mediation models, including models with a dich...

  14. Nursing as textually mediated reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, J; Rudge, T

    1994-11-01

    Nursing and nursing practice both construct and are in turn constructed by the context in which they operate. Texts plays a central part in that construction. As such, nursing and nursing practice can be considered to represent a reality that is textually mediated. This paper explores the notion of nursing as a textually mediated reality and offers the reader the possibility of engaging in reflection on what implications this has for nursing and their own nursing practice. The analyses provided draw on aspects of the work of both Foucault and Derrida. Foucault's notion of discourse provides a vehicle for the exploration of nursing as textually mediated, as does Derrida's concept of binary oppositions. The paper thus illustrates some of the possibilities afforded nursing by poststructural analyses. In particular it does this by exploring one of the central textual constructions, impacting on the way that nursing and nursing practice are conceptualized, the mind/body binary opposition. PMID:7850620

  15. Gauge Mediated Mini-Split

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Knapen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the $\\mu-b_\\mu$ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on $\\mu$ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small $a$-terms and small $\\tan \\beta$ -- the stop mass ranges from $10^5$ to $10^8 \\mbox{ GeV}$. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  16. Three tasks for mediatization research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Mats; Fornäs, Johan; Jansson, André;

    2016-01-01

    Based on the interdisciplinary experience of a Swedish research committee, this article discusses critical conceptual issues raised by the current debate on mediatization – a concept that holds great potential to constitute a space for synthesized understandings of media-related social...... that mediatization researchers have sometimes formulated too grand claims as to mediatization’s status as a unitary approach, a meta-theory or a paradigm. Such claims have led to problematic confusions around the concept and should be abandoned in favour of a more open agenda. In line with such a call for openness...... transformations. In contrast to other, more metaphorical constructions, mediatization can be studied empirically in systematic ways through various sub-processes that together provide a complex picture of how culture and everyday life evolve in times of media saturation. The first part of this article argues...

  17. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  18. Family education and television mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz CÁNOVAS LEONHARDT

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article try to deal with the complex influence of television viewing in the process of socialization of children and adolescents, focusing our attention on the importance of the family as the mediator-educator agency of particular relevance. Once analyzed the basic theoretical assumptions, we deepened in reality under study by providing data about how the studied population lives television and what extent parental mediation influences and affects the process. The article concludes with some reflections and pedagogical suggestions which trying to help to the optimization of the educational reality.

  19. Playful mediation and virtual sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem NAJJAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a space of sociability, virtual games, especially online role playing games, allow us to capture the interest of the playfulness in social life, but they are means by which users are able to experiment their relationship to others. The virtual games as a mediation device, constitute a "pretext" to forge friendships, develop love relationships, improve language skills, discover other cultures, etc. Based on a sociological survey of Tunisian Internet users (both sexes fans of virtual games we try to show how playful mediation is producing a multifaceted virtual sociality inherent in our contemporary societies.

  20. Secure mediated certificateless signature scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chen; MA Wen-ping; WANG Xin-mei

    2007-01-01

    Ju et al proposed a certificateless signature scheme with instantaneous revocation by introducing security mediator (SEM) mechanism. This article presents a detailed cryptoanalysis of this scheme and shows that, in their proposed scheme, once a valid signature has been produced, the signer can recover his private key information and the instantaneous revocation property will be damaged. Furthermore, an improved mediated signature scheme, which can eliminate these disadvantages, is proposed, and security proof of the improved scheme under elliptic curve factorization problem (ECFP) assumption and bilinear computational diffie-hellman problem (BCDH) assumption is also proposed.

  1. Water-Mediated Hydrophobic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-05-27

    Hydrophobic interactions are driven by the combined influence of the direct attraction between oily solutes and an additional water-mediated interaction whose magnitude (and sign) depends sensitively on both solute size and attraction. The resulting delicate balance can lead to a slightly repulsive water-mediated interaction that drives oily molecules apart rather than pushing them together and thus opposes their direct (van der Waals) attraction for each other. As a consequence, competing solute size-dependent crossovers weaken hydrophobic interactions sufficiently that they are only expected to significantly exceed random thermal energy fluctuations for processes that bury more than ∼1 nm(2) of water-exposed area. PMID:27215821

  2. Sommerfeld Enhancement from Multiple Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kristian L.

    2012-01-01

    We study the Sommerfeld enhancement experienced by a scattering object that couples to a tower of mediators. This can occur in, e.g., models of secluded dark matter when the mediator scale is generated naturally by hidden-sector confinement. Specializing to the case of a confining CFT, we show that off-resonant values of the enhancement can be increased by ~ 20% for cases of interest when (i) the (strongly-coupled) CFT admits a weakly-coupled dual description and (ii) the conformal symmetry h...

  3. Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-17

    We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.

  4. The herpes simplex virus 1-encoded envelope glycoprotein B activates NF-κB through the Toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88/TRAF6-dependent signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Cai

    Full Text Available The innate immune response plays a critical role in the host defense against invading pathogens, and TLR2, a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR family, has been implicated in the immune response and initiation of inflammatory cytokine secretion against several human viruses. Previous studies have demonstrated that infectious and ultraviolet-inactivated herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 virions lead to the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines via TLR2. However, except for the envelope glycoprotein gH and gL, whether there are other determinants of HSV-1 responsible for TLR2 mediated biological effects is not known yet. Here, we demonstrated that the HSV-1-encoded envelope glycoprotein gB displays as molecular target recognized by TLR2. gB coimmunoprecipitated with TLR2, TLR1 and TLR6 in transfected and infected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T cells. Treatment of TLR2-transfected HEK293T (HEK293T-TLR2 cells with purified gB results in the activation of NF-κB reporter, and this activation requires the recruitment of the adaptor molecules myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 but not CD14. Furthermore, activation of NF-κB was abrogated by anti-gB and anti-TLR2 blocking antibodies. In addition, the expression of interleukin-8 induced by gB was abrogated by the treatment of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 with anti-TLR2 blocking antibody or by the incubation of gB with anti-gB antibody. Taken together, these results indicate the importance and potency of HSV-1 gB as one of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs molecule recognized by TLR2 with immediate kinetics.

  5. Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) activates NK cells through toll-like receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ingeborg; Salaiza, Norma; Aguirre, Magdalena; Delgado, José; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Kobeh, Laila Gutiérrez; Ruiz, Adriana; Cervantes, Rocely; Torres, Armando Pérez; Cabrera, Nallely; González, Augusto; Maldonado, Carmen; Isibasi, Armando

    2003-08-31

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate the cellular response to conserved molecular patterns shared by microorganisms. We report that TLR-2 on human NK cells is upregulated and stimulated by Leishmania major lipophosphoglycan (LPG), a phosphoglycan belonging to a family of unique Leishmania glycoconjugates. We found that purified L. major LPG upregulates both mRNA and the membrane expression of TLR-2 in NK cells. Additionally, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB was enhanced. The activation effect was more intense with LPG purified from infectious metacyclic parasites than from noninfectious procyclic Leishmania. Since the difference between the molecules derived from these two stages of the parasite growth cycle lies exclusively in the number of phosphosaccharide repeat domains and in the composition of glycan side chains that branch off these domains, we propose that TLR-2 possibly distinguishes between phosphorylated glycan repeats on LPG molecules. The effect of LPG on cytokine production and on membrane expression of TLR-2 could be blocked with F(ab')2 fragments of the mAb against LPG (WIC 79.3). Confocal microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of LPG and TLR-2 on the NK cell membrane. Binding of LPG to TLR-2 in NK cells was demonstrated by immunoprecipitations done with anti-TLR-2 and anti-LPG mAb followed by immunoblotting with anti-LPG and anti-TLR-2, respectively. Both antibodies recognized the immune complexes. These results suggest that NK cells are capable of recognition of, and activation by, Leishmania LPG through TLR-2, enabling them to participate autonomously in the innate immune system and thereby increasing the effective destruction of the parasite. PMID:12946842

  6. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T6 volume and the untwisted T2 volume respectively. (orig.)

  7. Mediated Encryption: Analysis and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elashry1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Boneh, Ding and Tsudik presented identity-based mediated RSA encryption and signature systems in which the users are not allowed to decrypt/sign messages without the authorisation of a security mediator.We show that ID-MRSA is not secure and we present a secure modified version of it which is as efficient as the original system. We also propose a generic mediated encryption that translates any identity based encryption to a mediated version of this IBE. It envelops an IBE encrypted message using a user’s identity into an IBE envelope using the identity of the SEM. We present two security models based on the role of the adversary whether it is a revoked user or a hacked SEM. We prove that GME is as secure as the SEM’s IBE against a revoked user and as secure as the user’s IBE against a hacked SEM. We also present two implementations of GME based on Boneh-Franklin FullIBE system which is a pairing-based system and Boneh, Gentry and Hamburg (BGH system which is pairing-free system.

  8. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theoretique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2010-08-15

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (orig.)

  9. Eicosanoids mediate insect hemocyte migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemocyte chemotaxis toward infection and wound sites is an essential component of insect defense reactions, although the biochemical signal mechanisms responsible for mediating chemotaxis in insect cells are not well understood. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test the hyp...

  10. Should Lawyers Act as Mediators?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On September 1, the Henan Provincial Department of Justice and the Henan Higher People’s Court jointly issued a document. It suggests lawyers do as much as possible to mediate between litigants involved in lawsuits of civil disputes and misdemeanor lawsuits, in order to help them

  11. Aspects of non-minimal gauge mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Shirai, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Masahito; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2010-01-01

    A large class of non-minimal gauge mediation models, such as (semi-)direct gauge mediation, predict a hierarchy between the masses of the supersymmetric standard model gauginos and those of scalar particles. We perform a comprehensive study of these non-minimal gauge mediation models, including mass calculations in semi-direct gauge mediation, to illustrate these features, and discuss the phenomenology of the models. We point out that the cosmological gravitino problem places stringent constr...

  12. Mediation Analysis in Psychosomatic Medicine Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, Ginger; MacKinnon, David P.; Ohlrich, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of statistical mediation analysis and its application to psychosomatic medicine research. The article begins with a description of the major approaches to mediation analysis and an evaluation of the strengths and limits of each. Emphasis is placed on longitudinal mediation models, and an application using latent growth modeling is presented. The article concludes with a description of recent developments in mediation analysis and suggestions for the use of me...

  13. 34 CFR 303.419 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 303.419 Section 303.419 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Mediation and Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 303.419 Mediation. (a) General. Each State shall ensure that procedures are established and implemented to...

  14. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  15. 34 CFR 300.506 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation. 300.506 Section 300.506 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.506 Mediation. (a... due process complaint, to resolve disputes through a mediation process. (b) Requirements....

  16. 13 CFR 117.12 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 117.12 Section 117.12... Mediation. (a) SBA shall, after ensuring that the complaint falls within the coverage of this Act and all... clearly within an exception, promptly refer the complaint to the Federal Mediation and...

  17. 7 CFR 900.109 - Mediation agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation agreement. 900.109 Section 900.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Mediation agreement. An agreement arrived at by mediation shall not become effective until approved by...

  18. Methods for Mediation Analysis with Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite wide applications of both mediation models and missing data techniques, formal discussion of mediation analysis with missing data is still rare. We introduce and compare four approaches to dealing with missing data in mediation analysis including list wise deletion, pairwise deletion, multiple imputation (MI), and a two-stage maximum…

  19. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 400.94 Section 400.94 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Appeal Procedure § 400.94 Mediation. For adverse decisions only: (a) Appellants have the right to seek mediation or other forms of alternative dispute resolution...

  20. 41 CFR 101-8.717 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mediation. 101-8.717... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.717 Mediation. (a) GSA promptly refers to the mediation agency designated by the Secretary, HHS, all sufficient complaints...

  1. 45 CFR 617.10 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 617.10 Section 617.10 Public Welfare... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM NSF § 617.10 Mediation. (a) NSF will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that fall...

  2. On the Spectrum of Direct Gaugino Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Auzzi, Roberto; Giveon, Amit; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Shacham, Tomer

    2011-01-01

    In direct gauge mediation, the gaugino masses are anomalously small, giving rise to a split SUSY spectrum. Here we investigate the superpartner spectrum in a minimal version of "direct gaugino mediation." We find that the sfermion masses are comparable to those of the gauginos - even in the hybrid gaugino-gauge mediation regime - if the messenger scale is sufficiently small.

  3. Mediational Competencies for Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Chan Núñez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressed in the article is a position taken within and in favor of education and virtuality, considering the importance of training constructors of the digital environment. The competencies needed by actors of educational processes, the same which are necessary for their construction, are conceptualized as mediational. Because these are not usually the competencies most visibly when teachers and students are trained for online education, we found it of interest to present part of a research project on this type of competencies. The work starts out from an axiological position on virtual education, the recognition of the way the technologies model educational interactions on line. It follows with the notion of mediation and meditational competency, and comes to a design model that would consider these competencies in the development of learning environments. The article closes with reflections about the interdisciplinary integration necessary for a technological and educational development based on a communicative paradigm.

  4. Vernalization-mediated chromatin changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, Brett R; Sung, Sibum

    2012-07-01

    Proper flowering time is vital for reproductive fitness in flowering plants. In Arabidopsis, vernalization is mediated primarily through the repression of a MADS box transcription factor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). The induction of a plant homeodomain-containing protein, VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3 (VIN3), by vernalizing cold is required for proper repression of FLC. One of a myriad of changes that occurs after VIN3 is induced is the establishment of FLC chromatin at a mitotically repressed state due to the enrichment of repressive histone modifications. VIN3 induction by cold is the earliest known event during the vernalization response and includes changes in histone modifications at its chromatin. Here, the current understanding of the vernalization-mediated chromatin changes in Arabidopsis is discussed, with a focus on the roles of shared chromatin-modifying machineries in regulating VIN3 and FLC gene family expression during the course of vernalization.

  5. Sequestered gravity in gauge mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Benakli, Karim; Quiros, Mariano

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel mechanism of supersymmetry breaking embeddable in string theory and simultaneously sharing the main advantages of (sequestered) gravity and gauge mediation. It is driven by a Scherk-Schwarz deformation along a compact extra dimension, transverse to a brane stack supporting the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. This fixes the magnitude of the gravitino mass, together with that of the gauginos of a bulk gauge group, at a scale as high as 10^{10} GeV. Supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the observable sector dominantly by gauge interactions using massive messengers transforming non-trivially under the bulk and Standard Model gauge groups and leading to a neutralino LSP as dark matter candidate. The Higgsino mass μ and soft Higgs-bilinear B_μ term could be generated at the same order of magnitude as the other soft terms by effective supergravity couplings as in the Giudice-Masiero mechanism.

  6. The communicative figurations of mediatized worlds: mediatization research in times of the “mediation of everything”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hepp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When various media in their entirety mark how we articulate our social worlds, we need an approach of mediatization research that reflects this transmediality. To develop such an approach, the article discusses the institutionalist and social-constructivist traditions of mediatization research. Both concur that mediatization is a concept to capture the interrelation between the change of media and communication, and the change of culture and society. Such a conceptual reflection offers the chance to view the mediatization as the change of transmedial communicative figurations. Based on this theoretical foundation, the article reflects a twofold operationalization, i.e. as diachronous and synchronous mediatization research.

  7. Palladium-mediated intracellular chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi M. Yusop; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Johansson, Emma M. V.; Rosario M. Sanchez-Martin; Bradley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many important intracellular biochemical reactions are modulated by transition metals, typically in the form of metalloproteins. The ability to carry out selective transformations inside a cell would allow researchers to manipulate or interrogate innumerable biological processes. Here, we show that palladium nanoparticles trapped within polystyrene microspheres can enter cells and mediate a variety of Pd-0-catalysed reactions, such as allylcarbamate cleavage and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling....

  8. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Murata; Shin-Ichi Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of...

  9. Direct mediation, duality and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that in scenarios with direct gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking the messenger fields significantly affect the running of Standard Model couplings and introduce Landau poles which are difficult to avoid. Among other things, this appears to remove any possibility of a meaningful unification prediction and is often viewed as a strong argument against direct mediation. We propose two ways that Seiberg duality can circumvent this problem. In the first, which we call 'deflected-unification', the SUSY-breaking hidden sector is a magnetic theory which undergoes a Seiberg duality to an electric phase. Importantly, the electric version has fewer fundamental degrees of freedom coupled to the MSSM compared to the magnetic formulation. This changes the β-functions of the MSSM gauge couplings so as to push their Landau poles above the unification scale. We show that this scenario is realised for recently suggested models of gauge mediation based on a metastable SCQD-type hidden sector directly coupled to MSSM. The second possibility for avoiding Landau poles, which we call 'dual-unification', begins with the observation that, if the mediating fields fall into complete SU(5) multiplets, then the MSSM+messengers exhibits a fake unification at unphysical values of the gauge couplings. We show that, in known examples of electric/magnetic duals, such a fake unification in the magnetic theory reflects a real unification in the electric theory. We therefore propose that the Standard Model could itself be a magnetic dual of some unknown electric theory in which the true unification takes place. This scenario maintains the unification prediction (and unification scale) even in the presence of Landau poles in the magnetic theory below the GUT scale. We further note that this dual realization of grand unification can explain why Nature appears to unify, but the proton does not decay.

  10. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, O.; Sumanovski, L. T.; I. Checiu; Elisabeta Popescu; G. N. Misevic

    1999-01-01

    Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals) have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of...

  11. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Fejerskov

    Full Text Available In this report, we detail Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (SMEPT as a novel approach in drug delivery which relies on enzyme-functionalized cell culture substrates to achieve a localized conversion of benign prodrug(s into active therapeutics with subsequent delivery to adhering cells or adjacent tissues. For proof-of-concept SMEPT, we use surface adhered micro-structured physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol, β-glucuronidase enzyme and glucuronide prodrugs. We demonstrate enzymatic activity mediated by the assembled hydrogel samples and illustrate arms of control over rate of release of model fluorescent cargo. SMEPT was not impaired by adhering cells and afforded facile time - and dose - dependent uptake of the in situ generated fluorescent cargo by hepatic cells, HepG2. With the use of a glucuronide derivative of an anticancer drug, SN-38, SMEPT afforded a decrease in cell viability to a level similar to that achieved using parent drug. Finally, dose response was achieved using SMEPT and administration of judiciously chosen concentration of SN-38 glucuronide prodrug thus revealing external control over drug delivery using drug eluting surface. We believe that this highly adaptable concept will find use in diverse biomedical applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  12. Mediation, Mandatory Information and Facultative Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail-Silviu Pocora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering that mediation is a facilitating way to access the alternative solving of litigations in conciliatory terms, the study is encouraging using the mediation and providing a balanced relationship between mediation and judiciary procedures. As an aftermath of summary definition, we can say that role of mediation is to overcome the communicative barriers in order to solve the conflict and save the fact situation on both parts. The study aims to analyze objectively all consequences of both solving ways of litigations: traditional one, through the law court and mediation, with the advantages derived from them (celerity vs. time consuming, expensive judiciary proceedings vs. low costs, etc.

  13. Construction mediation as a developmental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Sidoli del Ceno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to argue that mediation has been hitherto conceived in the construction industry, and indeed by practitioners in other related disciplines such as property management, as largely a ‘problem-solving’ mechanism. Whilst this is clearly an aim of mediation there is also the appended danger that the value of mediation is conceived in these terms alone. If this is the case, then its value, or success, is conceived very narrowly. The aim of this paper is, then, to argue that there are wider values to mediation in a construction setting. These values can be considered as a ‘family’ of related attitudes, skills and perceptions that can positively affect the persons involved. By affecting growth in individuals an organisational change may follow. This, in turn, can result in a significant cultural change in the industry, and associated professions as a whole, as well as having a positive impact on construction education. The paper begins by an overview of the development of mediation and proceeds to consider its current use of mediation in construction. It then considers the question of how mediation success is conceived. The paper argues that both the current practice of construction mediation and the way in which its success is measured are too narrow. It argues that a wider approach to construction mediation is required. Finally, drawing from the literature on ‘idealist’ mediation an account of mediation as a developmental process is developed.

  14. Mediation et violences conjugales Mediation and Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Faget

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail analyse  les potentialités et les limites du recours à la médiation en matière de régulation des violences conjugales.S’appuyant sur une étude empirique de sa mise en œuvre en France et sur la littérature scientifique existante il révèle l’existence de deux modèles de pratique reflétant deux conceptions de la médiation et plus généralement de l’articulation entre régulations pénales et sociales.This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation. Full Text

  15. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing an electrochemical process, based upon mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), that converts toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, and chloride or chloride precipitates. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag2+, Co3+, or Fe3+ are produced at an anode. These can attack organic molecules directly, and may also produce hydroxyl free radicals that promote destruction. Solid and liquid radioactive waste streams containing only inorganic radionuclide forms may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. The coulombic efficiency of the process has been determined, as well as the destruction efficiency for ethylene glycol, a surrogate waste. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient- temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag(II) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(III) and Co(III) are attractive alternatives to Ag(II) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data have been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(III) and Co(III). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, these data have enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(III) and Co(III) with Ag(II). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(II) had already been collected

  16. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  17. The evolution of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. Rowley

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates do not display the level of sophistication in immune reactivity characteristic of mammals and other ‘higher’ vertebrates. Their great number and diversity of forms, however, reflect their evolutionary success and hence they must have effective mechanisms of defence to deal with parasites and pathogens and altered self tissues. Inflammation appears to be an important first line defence in all invertebrates and vertebrates. This brief review deals with the inflammatory responses of invertebrates and fish concentrating on the cell types involved and the mediators of inflammation, in particular, eicosanoids, cytokines and adhesion molecules.

  18. Universality in pure gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If low-energy supersymmetry is realized in nature, the apparent discovery of a Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV suggests a supersymmetric mass spectrum in the TeV or multi-TeV range. Multi-TeV scalar masses are a necessary component of supersymmetric models with pure gravity mediation or in any model with strong moduli stabilization. Here, we show that full scalar mass universality remains viable as long as the ratio of Higgs vevs, tanβ, is relatively small (< or similar 2.5). We discuss in detail the low-energy (observable) consequences of these models. (orig.)

  19. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  20. Strictly Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We consider an MSSM extension with anomaly mediation as the source of supersymmetry-breaking, and a U(1) symmetry which solves the tachyonic slepton problem, and introduces both the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs mu-term. We compare its spectra with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 124 GeV with a gravitino mass of 120 TeV and tan(beta)=17, while a contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment within 2 sigma of the discrepancy between Standard Model theory and experiment favours a slightly lower gravitino mass of around 80 TeV. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, with exit to a false vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, the true ground state being achieved after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally-produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino ma...

  1. Mediatization Theory and Digital Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas of applicat......In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas...... of application.  In Section Two the paper discusses different conceptualizations. It is argued that even if they bring new insights, they cannot be unified into one concept, and that they also lack a consistent definition of digital media. Section three provides a definition of digital media in order to identify...... new trajectories made possible by these media, which have led into a new media matrix built around the internet and mobile devices. It will be argued that the new media matrix cannot be understood from a point of view defined by the framework of 20th century mass media because digital media open new...

  2. Legal and Psychological Aspects of Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrokhotova E. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on gradual innovation of mediation into the practice of social conflict resolution in the light of legal and psychological means of mediation. While mediation is perceived as a conflictological concept and is more widely used in dispute settlement and resolution, a new interdisciplinary field of theoretical knowledge with its own conceptual framework as well as a new professional and practical field are beginning to form both in Russia and in other countries. As theoretical and practical aspects of innovation in mediation require consolidation not only for its national development but also for the guaranteed international cooperation, the article touches upon some of the particular theoretical issues of the topic in question: terminological consistency, consolidation of the system of mediation principles, the phenomenon of juridisation of mediation and its limits.

  3. The Economics of First-Contract Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien; LUTTENS, Roland Iwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an economic foundation for non-binding mediation to stimulate first collective bargaining agreements, as implemented in British Columbia since 1993. We show that the outcome of first-contract mediation is Pareto efficient and proves immune to the insider-outsider problem of underhiring. We also demonstrate that equilibrium wages and profits under mediation coincide with the Owen values of the corresponding cooperative game with the coalitional structure that follows from u...

  4. Resolvins and protectins: mediating solutions to inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli, Payal; Levy, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Resolution of inflammation has historically been viewed as a passive process, occurring as a result of the withdrawal of pro-inflammatory signals, including lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins. Thus, most anti-inflammatory drugs have traditionally targeted primarily mediator pathways that are engaged at the onset of inflammation. Only recently has it been established that inflammation resolution is an active process with a distinct set of chemical mediators. Several clinic...

  5. Confounding in the Estimation of Mediation Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Bienias, J.L.; Bennett, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    A mediation effect explains the relationship of a risk factor and an outcome through a mediator variable which is a step in their pathway. Under the assumption of no cycling in the causal relationship, we consider various situations in which a fourth variable may interfere the estimation of a mediation effect as a confounding factor. Our asymptotic results, which are supported by a Monte Carlo study, show that adjusting for confounding factors under certain conditions ...

  6. Sparticle masses in deflected mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the sparticle mass patterns that can be realized in deflected mirage mediation scenario of supersymmetry breaking, in which the moduli, anomaly, and gauge mediations all contribute to the MSSM soft parameters. Analytic expression of low energy soft parameters and also the sfermion mass sum rules are derived, which can be used to interpret the experimentally measured sparticle masses within the framework of the most general mixed moduli-gauge-anomaly mediation. Phenomenological aspects of some specific examples are also discussed.

  7. Mediatized Extreme Right Activism and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2015-01-01

    activism. It is a good example of how new contentious action repertoires in which online and street activism intertwine have also spread to extreme right groups. Despite its neo-fascist and extreme right content the ‘Become Immortal’ campaign serves as an illustrative case for the study of mediated...... and mediatized activism. In order to analyse of the protest form, the visual aesthetics and the discourse of ‘The Immortals’, the paper mobilises two concepts from media and communication studies: mediation and mediatization. It will be argued that that the current transformation of the extreme right: that is...

  8. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural

  9. Lepton-Flavor Violating Mediators

    CERN Document Server

    Galon, Iftah; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV $\\gamma$-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  10. Integrins mediating bone signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chuanglong; WANG Yuanliang; YANG Lihua; ZHANG Jun

    2004-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesions play critical roles in diverse cell functions. Integrins offers a platform on which mechanical stimuli, cytoskeletal organization, biochemical signals can concentrate. Mechanical stimuli transmitted by integrins influence the cytoskeleton, in turn, the cytoskeleton influences cell adhesion via integrins, then cell adhesion results in a series of signal transduction cascades. In skeleton, integrins also have a key role for bone resoption by osteoclasts and reformation by osteoblasts. In present review, the proteins involved in integrin signal transduction and integrin signal transduction pathways were discussed, mainly on the basic mechanisms of integrin signaling and the roles of integrins in bone signal transduction, which may give insight into new therapeutic agents to all kinds of skeletal diseases and new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Hyaluronan-mediated cellular adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Many cells surround themselves with a cushioning halo of polysaccharides that is further strengthened and organized by proteins. In fibroblasts and chrondrocytes, the primary component of this pericellular matrix is hyaluronan, a large linear polyanion. Hyaluronan production is linked to a variety of disease, developmental, and physiological processes. Cells manipulate the concentration of hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors for numerous activities including modulation of cell adhesion, cell motility, and differentiation. Recent investigations by identify hyaluronan's role in mediating early-stage cell adhesion. An open question is how the cell removes the 0.5-10 micron thick pericellular matrix to allow for further mature adhesion events requiring nanometer scale separations. In this investigation, holographic optical tweezers are used to study the adhesion and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes' pericellular matrix. Ultimately, we aim to shed further light on the spatial and temporal details of the dramatic transition from micron to nanometer gaps between the cell and its adhesive substrate.

  12. Endothelin receptor-mediated vasodilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, David; Wackenfors, Angelica; Gustafsson, Lotta;

    2008-01-01

    Culture of intact arteries is a frequently employed experimental model for investigating the mechanisms governing the regulation of vascular endothelin receptors. Endothelin type A (ET(A)) and type B (ET(B)) receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells are up-regulated in organ culture and the...... enhanced vasoconstriction mimics the changes that occur in cardiovascular disease. The effect of organ culture on endothelial dilatory endothelin ET(B) receptors is not known. We hypothesize that organ culture decreases the endothelin receptor-mediated dilatation and that this is one possible mechanism by...... denudation. The increase in sarafotoxin 6c contraction after removal of the endothelium was more pronounced before than after organ culture, suggesting down-regulated endothelial endothelin ET(B) receptors. Also, the immunofluorescence staining intensities for endothelial endothelin ET(B) receptors were...

  13. Phenomenological aspects of mirage mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Valeri

    2009-07-15

    We consider the possibility that string theory vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry and a small positive cosmological constant arise due to hidden sector matter interactions, known as F-uplifting/F-downlifting. We analyze this procedure in a model-independent way in the context of type IIB and heterotic string theory. Our investigation shows that the uplifting/downlifting sector has very important consequences for the resulting phenomenology. Not only does it adjust the vacuum energy, but it can also participate in the process of moduli stabilization. In addition, we find that this sector is the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking. It leads to a hybrid mediation scheme and its signature is a relaxed mirage pattern of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The low energy spectra exhibit distinct phenomenological properties and di er from conventional schemes considered so far. (orig.)

  14. Protooncogenes as mediators of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, C S

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis has been well established as a vital biological phenomenon that is important in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Three major protooncogene families and their encoded proteins function as mediators of apoptosis in various cell types and are the subject of this chapter. Protooncogenic proteins such as c-Myc/Max, c-Fos/c-Jun, and Bcl-2/Bax utilize a synergetic effect to enhance their roles in the pro- or antiapoptotic action. These family members activate and repress the expression of their target genes, control cell cycle progression, and execute programmed cell death. Repression or overproduction of these protooncogenic proteins induces apoptosis, which may vary as a result of either cell type specificity or the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins exert their effects in the membrane of cellular organelles. Here they generate cell-type-specific signals that activate the caspase family of proteases and their regulators for the execution of apoptosis.

  15. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag2+ or Ce+4 are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs

  16. Modeling expert knowledge in the mediation domain: a mediation core ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Poblet, Marta; Casanovas, Pompeu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the Mediation Core Ontology (MCO), and the steps taken in order to model the expert knowledge on the mediation domain. MCO is created from scratch by eliciting practical knowledge from mediation experts to identify the basic working concepts of the domain. MCO offers initial support towards knowledge acquisition and reasoning and, in later steps, will serve as a general basis for the development of different mediation domain and sub-domain ontologies to be used by ...

  17. Tests of Mediation: Paradoxical Decline in Statistical Power as a Function of Mediator Collinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, T. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the correlation between the independent variable and the mediator ("a" coefficient) increases the effect size ("ab") for mediation analysis; however, increasing a by definition increases collinearity in mediation models. As a result, the standard error of product tests increase. The variance inflation caused by…

  18. Forms of Mediation: The Case of Interpreter-Mediated Interactions in Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the forms of mediation in interlinguistic interactions performed in Italian healthcare services and in contexts of migration. The literature encourages dialogic transformative mediation, empowering participants' voices and changing cultural presuppositions in social systems. It may be doubtful, however, whether mediation can…

  19. Screening for domestic violence in family mediation: an investigation into how mediators manage disclosures of domestic abuse and associated emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Paulette Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis explores the practice of family mediators when screening for domestic violence during mediation. Mediation Information and Assessment Meetings (MIAMs) and Joint Mediation Meetings (JMs) were recorded between April 2010 and January 2011, by four mediators who mediate for National Family Mediation (NFM) affiliated services in the South of England. These meetings were analys...

  20. Integrating Mediators and Moderators in Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe mediating variables and moderating variables and provide reasons for integrating them in outcome studies. Separate sections describe examples of moderating and mediating variables and the simplest statistical model for investigating each variable. The strengths and limitations of incorporating mediating…

  1. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  2. Que Es la Mediacion? (What Is Mediation?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), Eugene, OR.

    This brief paper, in Spanish, discusses the use of mediation as a method for resolving disagreements between schools or early intervention programs and parents of children with disabilities. It identifies benefits of mediation such as maintenance of an ongoing and positive relationship between the school and family, simple resolution of conflicts…

  3. Semiotic Mediation within an AT Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracci, Mirko; Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    This article is meant to present a specific elaboration of the notion of mediation in relation to the use of artefacts to enhance mathematics teaching and learning: the elaboration offered by the Theory of Semiotic Mediation. In particular, it provides an explicit model--consistent with the activity-actions-operations framework--of the actions…

  4. Intercultural Conflict and Mediation: An Intergroup Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenfeld, Sara; Clement, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of components of intercultural competence in the use of intercultural mediation behaviors. Through the use of the Revised Intercultural Mediation Measure, an instrument revised by the authors, 291 Anglophone and 161 Francophone participants in Canada were asked to indicate their likelihood of employing various…

  5. Parent Mediation Empowers Sibling Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.; Lazinski, Marysia J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: For the current study, formal mediation procedures were adapted for families and parents were trained and asked to mediate their children's disputes; control group parents intervened as they normally would. Conflict negotiations with parents and their children (ages 3½-11 years) occurring 3 and 7 weeks following training,…

  6. The Mediator Role in Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ruth J.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that mediation as problem-solving intervention in social work became widely used in child custody and divorce cases, child-parent conflicts, and family disputes. Argues that mediator role is inherent in social work, and examines context for and assumptions underlying it. Discusses nature of conflicts, issue of neutrality within social work…

  7. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly- and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a 5-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cos...

  8. (Extra)Ordinary Gauge/Anomaly Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sakai, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    We study anomaly mediation models with gauge mediation effects from messengers which have a general renormalizable mass matrix with a supersymmetry-breaking spurion. Our models lead to a rich structure of supersymmetry breaking terms in the visible sector. We derive sum rules among the soft scalar masses for each generation. Our sum rules for the first and second generations are the same as those in general gauge mediation, but the sum rule for the third generation is different because of the top Yukawa coupling. We find the parameter space where the tachyonic slepton problem is solved. We also explore the case in which gauge mediation causes the anomalously small gaugino masses. Since anomaly mediation effects on the gaugino masses exist, we can obtain viable mass spectrum of the visible sector fields.

  9. Confounding in the Estimation of Mediation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, David A

    2007-03-01

    A mediation effect explains the relationship of a risk factor and an outcome through a mediator variable which is a step in their pathway. Under the assumption of no cycling in the causal relationship, we consider various situations in which a fourth variable may interfere the estimation of a mediation effect as a confounding factor. Our asymptotic results, which are supported by a Monte Carlo study, show that adjusting for confounding factors under certain conditions might lead to biased estimates. A general guideline is provided for when it is appropriate to adjust for confounding factors in estimating a mediation effect. We apply the guideline to the estimation of the mediation effect of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the relationship between the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cognitive function among 125 deceased participants from the Religious Orders Study, a longitudinal, clinical-pathologic study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17940582

  10. Integrating Mediators and Moderators in Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, David P

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe mediating variables and moderating variables and provide reasons for integrating them in outcome studies. Separate sections describe examples of moderating and mediating variables and the simplest statistical model for investigating each variable. The strengths and limitations of incorporating mediating and moderating variables in a research study are discussed as well as approaches to routinely including these variables in outcome research. The routine inclusion of mediating and moderating variables holds the promise of increasing the amount of information from outcome studies by generating practical information about interventions as well as testing theory. The primary focus is on mediating and moderating variables for intervention research but many issues apply to nonintervention research as well.

  11. Pure Mediated Priming: A Retrospective Semantic Matching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the activation of a target (e.g., "stripes") by a prime (e.g., "lion") that is related indirectly via a connecting mediator (e.g., tiger). In previous mediated priming studies (e.g., McNamara & Altarriba, 1988), the mediator was associatively related to the prime. In contrast, pure mediated priming (e.g., "spoon" [right…

  12. 7 CFR 785.5 - Fees for mediation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for mediation services. 785.5 Section 785.5... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS CERTIFIED STATE MEDIATION PROGRAM § 785.5 Fees for mediation services. A requirement that non-USDA parties who elect to participate in mediation pay a fee for mediation services...

  13. Online-Mediation - Erweist sich Online-Mediation als taugliches Instrument in Österreich?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hinterhölzl-Widi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Thematik der Online-Mediation in Österreich. Es wird in einem breiten Bogen von relevanten Themen der Mediation das Tool Online-Mediation betrachtet und versucht das Wie und Was der Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Online-Mediation herauszuarbeiten. Die Fragestellung beschäftigt sich damit, ob Online-Mediation als Instrument und Methode gesehen wird und ob die Mediatoren über ausreichend Know-how in Online-Kommunikation verfügen.

  14. Online-Mediation - Erweist sich Online-Mediation als taugliches Instrument in Österreich?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Hinterhölzl-Widi

    2010-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Thematik der Online-Mediation in Österreich. Es wird in einem breiten Bogen von relevanten Themen der Mediation das Tool Online-Mediation betrachtet und versucht das Wie und Was der Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Online-Mediation herauszuarbeiten. Die Fragestellung beschäftigt sich damit, ob Online-Mediation als Instrument und Methode gesehen wird und ob die Mediatoren über ausreichend Know-how in Online-Kommunikation verfügen.

  15. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  16. Nucleotide-mediated airway clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas; Clunes, Lucy A; Salathe, Mathias; Verdugo, Pedro; Dietl, Paul; Davis, C William; Tarran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) lines the entire surface of the lung and is the first point of contact between the lung and the environment. Surfactants contained within this layer are secreted in the alveolar region and are required to maintain a low surface tension and to prevent alveolar collapse. Mucins are secreted into the ASL throughout the respiratory tract and serve to intercept inhaled pathogens, allergens and toxins. Their removal by mucociliary clearance (MCC) is facilitated by cilia beating and hydration of the ASL by active ion transport. Throughout the lung, secretion, ion transport and cilia beating are under purinergic control. Pulmonary epithelia release ATP into the ASL which acts in an autocrine fashion on P2Y(2) (ATP) receptors. The enzymatic network describes in Chap. 2 then mounts a secondary wave of signaling by surface conversion of ATP into adenosine (ADO), which induces A(2B) (ADO) receptor-mediated responses. This chapter offers a comprehensive description of MCC and the extensive ramifications of the purinergic signaling network on pulmonary surfaces. PMID:21560046

  17. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  18. Gauge mediation with light stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) solves the supersymmetric flavor problem although it requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value (125 GeV) of the Higgs mass. A possible way out is to extend the MSSM Higgs sector with triplets which provide extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Triplets with neutral components getting vacuum expectation values (VEV) have the problem of generating a tree-level correction to the \\rho parameter. We introduce supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges Y=(0,\\pm 1), with a tree-level custodial SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the \\rho parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of the Georgi-Machacek model. The renormalization group running from the messenger to the electroweak scale mildly breaks the custodial symmetry. We will present realistic low-scale scenarios, their main features being a Bino-like neutralino or right-handed stau as the NLSP, light (1 TeV) stops, exotic couplings (H^\\p...

  19. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS, has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R. The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS, there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers.

  20. Towards the Natural Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Ran; Wang, Liucheng; Zhu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The sweet spot supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the mu problem in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) via the generalized Giudice-Masiero (GM) mechanism where only the mu-term and soft Higgs masses are generated at the unification scale of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) due to the approximate PQ symmetry. Because all the other SUSY breaking soft terms are generated via the GMSB below the GUT scale, there exists SUSY electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem to explain the 125 GeV Higgs boson mass due to small trilinear soft term. Thus, to explain the Higgs boson mass, we propose the GMSB with both the generalized GM mechanism and Higgs-messenger interactions. The renormalization group equations are runnings from the GUT scale down to EW scale. So the EW symmetry breaking can be realized easier. We can keep the gauge coupling unification and solution to the flavor problem in the GMSB, as well as solve the \\mu/B_{\\mu}-problem. Moreover, there are only five free parame...

  1. 76 FR 19310 - Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program AGENCY: Farm Service... Mediation Program. The information collection is necessary to ensure the grant program is being administered... following methods: Mail: Carol Wagner, Certified State Mediation Program Manager, USDA, FSA, Appeals...

  2. Current rectification by mediating electroactive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ybarra, Gabriel; Moina, Carlos [Centro de Investigacion sobre Electrodeposicion y Procesos Superficiales, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, CC 157, (1650) San Martin (Argentina); Florit, M. Ines [INIFTA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Suc. 4, CC 16, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Posadas, Dionisio [INIFTA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Suc. 4, CC 16, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: dposadas@inifta.unlp.edu.ar

    2008-04-20

    In this work we briefly review the theoretical basis for the electrochemical rectification in mediated redox reactions at redox polymer modified electrodes. Electrochemical rectification may have two distinct origins. It is either caused by a slow kinetics of the reaction between the external redox couple and the mediator or it is originated by a slow electronic transport within the film under an unfavorable thermodynamic condition. We show experimental results for the redox mediation reaction of poly(o-aminophenol) (POAP) on the Fe{sup 2+/3+} and on the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} redox couples in solution that prove the proposed mechanisms of electrochemical rectification.

  3. Gauge - Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking in String Compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Florea, Bogdan; Kachru, Shamit; Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    We provide string theory examples where a toy model of a SUSY GUT or the MSSM is embedded in a compactification along with a gauge sector which dynamically breaks supersymmetry. We argue that by changing microscopic details of the model (such as precise choices of flux), one can arrange for the dominant mediation mechanism transmitting SUSY breaking to the Standard Model to be either gravity mediation or gauge mediation. Systematic improvement of such examples may lead to top-down models incorporating a solution to the SUSY flavor problem.

  4. [Role of internal mediators in surgical stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shigeatsu; Sato, Nobuhiro

    2003-12-01

    In surgical stress, internal mediators include cytokines released locally as well as into the circulation; activation of neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, platelets and other cells; activation of plasma protein cascade systems such the complement, coagulation, fibrinolytic and contact systems the release of tissue-damaging proteinases; the formation of lipid mediators such as eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor; and the generation of oxygen and nitrogen radicals. In addition, during host defense rections, a number of agents are released that blunt the inflammatory response, such as anti-inflamatory cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, acute-phase proteins including proteinase inhibitors and stress hormones. In this paper, we explain such internal mediators.

  5. Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the μ-bμ problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corresponding gauge-mediation scenario.

  6. Hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation with flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study models with contributions of similar size to the soft masses from anomaly-and gravity mediation, thereby curing the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. A possible origin of this hybrid setup in a 5-dimensional brane world is briefly discussed. The absence of excessive flavor violation is explained by alignment. The gravitino can be heavy enough so that the gravitino problem of supersymmetric theories with leptogenesis is avoided. The model has a characteristic signature: It predicts the distinctive gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation and, at the same time, O(1) slepton mass splittings.

  7. Politics by means other than war : understanding international mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Beardsley, Kyle C.

    2006-01-01

    A series of specific choices, made by both the antagonists in a conflict and the third parties that mediate, determine the distribution of mediation resources. These choices, which include the selection of whether to have mediation, the choice of who mediates, and the adoption of particular mediator strategies, ultimately affect the prospects for successful outcomes. Studying the mediation selection process has two primary purposes. First, it prevents misleading inferences caused by the invol...

  8. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Popescu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of isolated and purified glyconectins revealed the presence of specific carbohydrate structures, acidic glycans, different from classical glycosaminoglycans. Such acidic glycans of high molecular weight containing fucose, glucuronic or galacturonic acids, and sulfate groups, originally found in sponges and sea urchin embryos, may represent a new class of carbohydrate carcino-embryonal antigens in mice and humans. Such interactions between biological macromolecules are usually investigated by kinetic binding studies, calorimetric methods, X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and other spectroscopic analyses. However, these methods do not supply a direct estimation of the intermolecular binding forces that are fundamental for the function of the ligand-receptor association. Recently, we have introduced atomic force microscopy to quantify the binding strength between cell adhesion proteoglycans. Measurement of binding forces intrinsic to cell adhesion proteoglycans is necessary to assess their contribution to the maintenance of the anatomical integrity of multicellular organisms. As a model, we selected the glyconectin 1, a cell adhesion proteoglycan isolated from the marine sponge Microciona prolifera. This glyconectin mediates in vivo cell recognition and aggregation via homophilic, species-specific, polyvalent, and calcium ion-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. Under physiological conditions, an adhesive force of up to 400 piconewtons

  9. Electroporation-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer L; Dean, David A

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation has been used extensively to transfer DNA to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells in culture for the past 30 years. Over this time, numerous advances have been made, from using fields to facilitate cell fusion, delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to cells and tissues, and most importantly, gene and drug delivery in living tissues from rodents to man. Electroporation uses electrical fields to transiently destabilize the membrane allowing the entry of normally impermeable macromolecules into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, at the appropriate field strengths, the application of these fields to tissues results in little, if any, damage or trauma. Indeed, electroporation has even been used successfully in human trials for gene delivery for the treatment of tumors and for vaccine development. Electroporation can lead to between 100 and 1000-fold increases in gene delivery and expression and can also increase both the distribution of cells taking up and expressing the DNA as well as the absolute amount of gene product per cell (likely due to increased delivery of plasmids into each cell). Effective electroporation depends on electric field parameters, electrode design, the tissues and cells being targeted, and the plasmids that are being transferred themselves. Most importantly, there is no single combination of these variables that leads to greatest efficacy in every situation; optimization is required in every new setting. Electroporation-mediated in vivo gene delivery has proven highly effective in vaccine production, transgene expression, enzyme replacement, and control of a variety of cancers. Almost any tissue can be targeted with electroporation, including muscle, skin, heart, liver, lung, and vasculature. This chapter will provide an overview of the theory of electroporation for the delivery of DNA both in individual cells and in tissues and its application for in vivo gene delivery in a number of animal models.

  10. 7 CFR 205.663 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.663 Mediation. Any dispute with...

  11. Molecular biology Mediating transcription and RNA export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jonathan D.; Taatjes, Dylan J.

    2016-01-01

    The finding that the Mediator protein complex contributes to messenger RNA export from the nucleus in yeast adds to a growing list of roles for the complex in regulating transcriptional processes. PMID:26450052

  12. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-09-01

    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately.

  13. Cybercultures mediations of community, culture, politics

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Breslow

    2012-01-01

    Cybercultures: Mediations of Community, Culture, Politics , is a collection of essays that critically examine the role that digital media and online cultures play in the rearticulation of contemporary societies, cultures and polities. This volume in

  14. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MEDIATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA DRAGNE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is an alternative means of conflict resolution, is designed as a flexible procedure whose utility was observed in contrast to the deficiencies of the judiciary system. In the field of criminal law, mediation is part of the larger concept of the restorative justice whose aim is restoring the main victim in its rights. From this perspective, to the criminal process is intended, in principal, repairing of the victim's prejudice and, subsequently, to encourage the delinquent in taking responsibility and to acknowledge his guilt, and also to determine him to actively participate in repairing the damage caused. The ultimate goal of the process is giving back the delinquent to society and consequently, reducing the relapse. Romanian legislator has not taken this concept, and how it is regulated mediation in criminal matters is hesitant, cautious and ultimately ineffective. Specifically, in situations that will actually occur, victim-delinquent mediation will only take the form of "assisted reconciliation."

  15. Upscaling of Bio-mediated Soil Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. DeJong; B. C. Martinez; B. M. Mortensen; D. C. Nelson; J. T. Waller; M. H. Weil; T. R. Ginn; T. Weathers; T. Barkouki; Y. Fujita; G. Redden; C. Hunt; D. Major; B. Tunyu

    2009-10-01

    As demand for soil improvement continues to increase, new, sustainable, and innocuous methods are needed to alter the mechanical properties of soils. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of bio-mediated soil improvement for geotechnical applications (DeJong et al. 2006, Whiffin et al. 2007). Upscaling the bio-mediated treatment process for in situ implementation presents a number of challenges to be addressed, including soil and pore fluid interactions, bioaugmentation versus biostimulation of microbial communities, controlled distribution of mediated calcite precipitation, and permanence of the cementation. Current studies are utilizing large-scale laboratory experiments, non-destructive geophysical measurements, and modeling, to develop an optimized and predictable bio-mediated treatment method.

  16. Dark matter prospects in deflected mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently introduced deflected mirage mediation (DMM) model is a string-motivated paradigm in which all three of the major supersymmetry-breaking transmission mechanisms are operative. We begin a systematic exploration of the parameter space of this rich model context, paying special attention to the pattern of gaugino masses which arise. In this work we focus on the dark matter phenomenology of the DMM model as such signals are the least influenced by the model-dependent scalar masses. We find that a large portion of the parameter space in which the three mediation mechanisms have a similar effective mass scale of 1 TeV or less will be probed by future direct and indirect detection experiments. Distinguishing deflected mirage mediation from the mirage model without gauge mediation will prove difficult without collider input, though we indicate how gamma ray signals may provide an opportunity for distinguishing between the two paradigms

  17. Programmable DNA-mediated multitasking processor

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Yong, Kian-Yan; Shao, Fangwei; Lee, Kee Jin

    2015-01-01

    Because of DNA appealing features as perfect material, including minuscule size, defined structural repeat and rigidity, programmable DNA-mediated processing is a promising computing paradigm, which employs DNAs as information storing and processing substrates to tackle the computational problems. The massive parallelism of DNA hybridization exhibits transcendent potential to improve multitasking capabilities and yield a tremendous speed-up over the conventional electronic processors with stepwise signal cascade. As an example of multitasking capability, we present an in vitro programmable DNA-mediated optimal route planning processor as a functional unit embedded in contemporary navigation systems. The novel programmable DNA-mediated processor has several advantages over the existing silicon-mediated methods, such as conducting massive data storage and simultaneous processing via much fewer materials than conventional silicon devices.

  18. Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE)

    OpenAIRE

    DiCarlo, JE; Conley, AJ; Penttilä, M; Jäntti, J; Wang, HH; Church, GM

    2013-01-01

    High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host S. cerevisiae, which we call Yeast Oligo-mediated Genome Engineering (YOGE). Through a combination of overexpression and knockouts of relevant genes and optimization of transformation and oligonucleotide designs, we ach...

  19. Mediated and Mobile Communication for Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on systems for mediated communication that run on mobile technology. The aim has been to give an answer to the question about what require- ments there are for situation awareness for domain experts when communication is secondary and supports the primary task. This thesis originated in a critical approach to the common practice of design- ing mediated communication systems with the face-to-face meeting as a guiding scenario. Instead, this thesis explores a design process ...

  20. Mediated Certificateless Signature without Random Oracles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zheng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is worthwhile challenges to deal with the key escrow problem and key revocation in identity-based signatures. We first introduce the notion of security-mediated certificateless signature scheme and proves the scheme in the standard model. The mediated certificateless public key cryptography not only provides a fast revocation with fine granularity but also overcomes the key escrow property which exists in ID-based signature. The scheme is provably secure without random oracles.

  1. The Mediation of Power: A Criticial Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Aeron

    2007-01-01

    The Mediation of Power investigates how those in positions of power use and are influenced by media in their everyday activities. Each chapter examines this theme through an exploration of some of the key topics and debates in the field, including theories of media and power, media policy and the economics of information, news production and journalistic practice, public relations and media management, culture and power, political communication and mediated politics, new and alternative media...

  2. Immunogenetic markers in immune mediated diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitina-Zake, Liene

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study HLA class II markers, as well as other - MHC and non MHC genes in different immune - mediated diseases, namely, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical cancer, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and type I diabetes mellitus (T1 DM). HLA class II genes are located on the short arm of chromosome 6 and are known to be important for pathogenesis of immune - mediated diseases due to the fu...

  3. Community mediation and social harmony in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This paper is part of the Theories in Practice series arising from the collaboration between JSRP and The Asia Foundation. The paper explores The Asia Foundation’s ‘Theory of Change’ for community mediation in Nepal. Through analysis of academic and practitioner sources combined with primary research across six Nepali districts, this paper analyses the evidence supporting the claim that mediation ‘improves social harmony’. This analysis is conducted using a framework of three potential path...

  4. Nordic Mediation - Comparing Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio; Storgaard, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details.......The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details....

  5. Developing the conversation about workplace mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the latest writing and research in relation to conflict in work and workplace mediation. It considers three specific issues of size and sector of organisations, the attitude of organisations to conflict and the employee relations environment in organisations. It reviews the various views in relation to fundamental aspects of mediation such as the neutral third party, voluntarism, informality and confidentiality to inform thinking as well as practitioner and acade...

  6. Ombuds’ corner: Consider mediation - some rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Mediation is a structured process in which an external party, called a mediator, helps participants generate and evaluate options that would allow them to reach a mutual agreement. It is an informal and confidential process.   The mediator does not have the power to impose an agreement on the parties, who should find it by themselves. However, the mediator controls the process. He arranges the meetings in agreement with the parties, and coordinates the details (concerning the speaking times, for example) and ensures that the parties respect of the rules which have been agreed on. He also favours advancing of the process towards a solution. The mediation process is centred on the search for a solution and a mutual agreement. In such a process, the mediator takes a neutral and impartial position, and does not advocate for a single party. He favours good communication between the parties, and will ensure that mutual respect is maintained and that the correct language is used during the discussi...

  7. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  8. The jurisprudence of responsive mediation: An empirical examination of Chinese people's mediation in action

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, S

    2013-01-01

    Community mediation in China has a long history and finds its roots in both cultural (traditional Confucian ideologies) and functional (the avoidance of social conflicts) aims. Recently, however, owing to changes in societal values occurring alongside China’s economic open-door policy, traditional values are losing their prominent role in the mediation process. Meanwhile, reforms are being carried out to provide greater structure to community mediation in China. The combination of these chang...

  9. Dispute Settlement through Banking Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROSU

    2010-11-01

    earlier legislation and the current legislation, the Emergency Ordinance no. 113/2009, this document proposing the establishment of a specialized department that is responsible with the resolution of disputes between consumers and financial service providers ofbanking and insurance. However, although in 2004 we have legislation that enables the implementation of mediation as a means of dispute settlement in the banking sector (Government Ordinance. 6 / 2004, the practical delays occur.

  10. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    web technologies, including ontologies and a semantic mediator. The semantically-enhanced SPEGG allowed a client to submit a single query (e.g. ';hills') and to retrieve data from two separate gazetteers with different vocabularies (e.g. where one refers to ';summits' another refers to ';hills'). Supporting the SPEGG was a SPARQL server that held the ontologies and processed queries on them. Earth Science surveys and forecast always have a place on Earth. Being able to share the information about a place and solve inconsistencies about that place from different sources will enable geoscientists to better do their research. In the advent of mobile geo computing and location based services (LBS), brokering gazetteers will provide geoscientists with access to gazetteer services rich with information and functionality beyond that offered by current generic gazetteers.

  11. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskewitz, P; Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    1994-01-01

    Instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences, the mediator's legitimacy judgments, or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator. According to the power balancing theory, a mediator sides with the party that has a power disa

  12. Construction of Mediators for Heterogeneous Data Source Integration Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    To construct mediators for data integration systems that integrate structured and semi-structured data, and to facilitate the reformulation and decomposition of the query, the presented system uses the XML processing language (XPL) for the mediator. With XPL, it is easy to construct mediators for data integration based on XML, and it can accelerate the work in the mediator.

  13. Surveying Parental Mediation: Connections, Challenges and Questions for Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three strategies of parental mediation--coviewing, restrictive mediation, and active mediation--in order to make connections, challenge, and raise questions for media literacy. Coviewing, whether it is intentional practice, or whether it functions to promote media literacy, is explored. Restrictive mediation, how it connects to…

  14. The Peacekeepers: Students Use Mediation Skills to Resolve Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Examines the use of mediation skills in elementary and secondary education. Discusses the rise in school violence; and describes mediation techniques, the rationale for their use, school programs to introduce mediation, peer mediators, and long-term benefits to students and the school community. Offers resources. (JB)

  15. A State Space Modeling Approach to Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Mediation is a causal process that evolves over time. Thus, a study of mediation requires data collected throughout the process. However, most applications of mediation analysis use cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data. Another implicit assumption commonly made in longitudinal designs for mediation analysis is that the same mediation…

  16. 15 CFR 923.83 - Mediation of amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of amendments. 923.83... Programs § 923.83 Mediation of amendments. (a) Section 307(h)(2) of the Act provides for mediation of... management program. Accordingly mediation is available to states or federal agencies when a...

  17. Reducing Levels of Elementary School Violence with Peer Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Rita Cantrell; Parks-Savage, Agatha; Rehfuss, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an existing peer mediation program in a diverse, suburban elementary school was examined. Peer mediation was available to all students (N = 825). Three-year longitudinal data showed significant reductions in the school's out-of-school suspensions after implementation of the peer mediation program. Mediation training also…

  18. 15 CFR 930.115 - Termination of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of mediation. 930.115... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.115 Termination of mediation. Mediation shall terminate: (a) At any time the Federal and State agencies agree to...

  19. Estimating and Testing Mediation Effects with Censored Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated influences of censored data on mediation analysis. Mediation effect estimates can be biased and inefficient with censoring on any one of the input, mediation, and output variables. A Bayesian Tobit approach was introduced to estimate and test mediation effects with censored data. Simulation results showed that the Bayesian…

  20. 29 CFR 1207.2 - Requests for Mediation Board action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for Mediation Board action. 1207.2 Section 1207.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD ESTABLISHMENT OF SPECIAL ADJUSTMENT BOARDS § 1207.2 Requests for Mediation Board action. (a) Requests for the National Mediation...

  1. Cloning of ApoB Intrabodies: Specific Knockdown of ApoB in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Wei; Strube, Randall W.; Milne, Ross W.; Chen, Si-Yi; Chan, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) B is essential for the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins made by the liver. As the sole protein component in LDL, apoB is an important determinant of atherosclerosis susceptibility and a potential pharmaceutical target. Single-chain antibodies (sFvs) are the smallest fragment of an IgG molecule capable of maintaining the antigen binding specificity of the parental antibody. In the present study, we describe the cloning and construction of two intrac...

  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION AND MEDIATION ON CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN GHEORGHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital Market is usually depicted as a place for experts, for people with high trading skills. This is a half truth. There are entities established and functioning under strict scrutiny of Romanian National Securities Commission (RNSC, in compliance with Capital Market Law and regulations. There are also the investors, in many cases individuals involved in shares/financial instruments trade. In both cases disputes can rise. Disputes are inevitable a part of human interaction, hence the need for dispute resolution. First option is the judicial court system. Alternative dispute resolution comprises arbitration and mediation. Arbitration is an alternative choice to provide simpler, speedier and more accessible justice than ordinary courts as well as expertise in matters that are technical in nature and require special knowledge to adjudicate upon. Capital Market environment provides an institutional arbitration court for all participants, including investors. In many cases the agreement executed between participants under RNSC scrutiny The other option for settling disputes outside the court is mediation. Mediation can provide a much cheaper and quick extrajudicial resolution of disputes in commercial matters without time consuming procedures and rigid rules. Agreements resulting from mediation are more likely to be complied with voluntarily and are more likely to foster the commercial relationship between the parties. The interaction between investors and brokerage houses is based on investment services agreement concluded by parties. This is the usual framework for disputes between parties and the usual “landscape” for mediation on capital market.

  3. Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

  4. Human Communication as Mediating the Units of Parameterised Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Stepanic

    2004-01-01

    Human communication is prevalently a mediated process. Mediators are units of environment, which are attributed functions within the local value set. They are utilised in such a way as to optimise the change of human states. In this article, a mediator-centred interpretation of the human communication is given. The interpretation follows closely the concept of mediated interaction developed within physics. It is conjectured that collection of mediators, which the humans use, has a well-define...

  5. Digital methods for mediated discourse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss methodological strategies for collecting multimodal data using digital resources. The aim is to show how digital resources can provide ethnographic insights into mediated actions (Scollon, 2002) that can otherwise be difficult to observe or engage in, due to, for instance......, restrictions or privately mediated settings. Having used mediated discourse analysis (Scollon 2002, Scollon & Scollon, 2004) as a framework in two different research projects, we show how the framework, in correlation with digital resources for data gathering, provides new understandings of 1) the daily...... practice of health care professionals (Author 1, 2014) and 2) young people’s identity construction on social media platforms (Author 2, 2010, 2015, in press). The paper’s contribution is a methodological discussion on digital data collection using methods such as online interviewing (via e-mail or chat...

  6. Considerations about mediative in initial petition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Vitórias Nunes Silva Lourenço

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents considerations about Initial Petition, textual/discursive genre, which is a genre circumscribed in the judicial domain with relation to the Commitment. For this purpose, this article exposes the text plan of the Initial Petition from the postulations of Adam (2011. In the same way, it studies the mediative frameworks based on Guentchéva (1994, 1996, which develop the notion of mediative grammatical categories, that permits the linguistic marking of distance and engagement of the enunciator with regard to the information expressed. It evidences the relevance of the use of mediated constructions in the judicial text, as they function as attenuated strategies to the responsibility of the producer of the text with what is said, and at the same time points to a discourse of authority through the entrance of the sources of law.

  7. When Anomaly Mediation is UV Sensitive

    CERN Document Server

    Setzer, N

    2010-01-01

    Despite its successes---such as solving the supersymmetric flavor problem---anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking is untenable because of its prediction of tachyonic sleptons. An appealing solution to this problem was proposed by Pomerol and Rattazzi where a threshold controlled by a light field deflects the anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking trajectory, thus evading tachyonic sleptons. In this paper we present an alternate class of deflection models where the non-supersymmetric threshold is accompanied by a heavy, instead of light, singlet. Its existence demonstrates that the space of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking deflecting models is larger than previously thought, though both types of deflection share the general property that the threshold is generated by SUSY breaking terms. We discuss these deflections scenarios and make use of the alternative class in a simple example.

  8. Fragments of “analytics” of mediatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fausto Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The text intends, through a dialogue with authors, to reflect about the concept of “analytics of the mediatization”, taking the evolution from the “society of means” to the “mediatic society” as reference. It ties the emergency of this new “interpretative strategies” to the increasing autonomy of the media field, that imposes, from its part, transformation in the “contracts” and in the bonds between the production structures and the reception of mediatic discourses. Finally, it proposes the  comprehension of this “analytics” as a concept associated to the practices that are structured and developed from operations of sense engendered in the enunciative ambit of the mediatic culture.

  9. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kaehler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods and techniques that can be used to transfer foreign genes into cells. In plant biotechnology, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a widely used traditional method for inserting foreign genes into plant genome and obtaining transgenic plants, particularly for dicot plant species. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton involves several important and also critical steps, which includes coculture of cotton explants with Agrobacterium, induction and selection of stable transgenic cell lines, recovery of plants from transgenic cells majorly through somatic embryogenesis, and detection and expression analysis of transgenic plants. In this chapter, we describe a detailed step-by-step protocol for obtaining transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  11. Metatv: the mediation as an apprehended reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Serelle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The television that narrates itself, as an intensification of neotv skills, pointed out by Eco, emphasizes their mediation processes, as the reality to be apprehended by the spectators was that of the medium’s inner side. Considering the notions of media transparency and opacity, this article aims at analyzing the meanings of this metalanguage acts present in many levels of the programming. This text examines closely the enunciation strategies of two programs: Profissão reporter and Cena aberta, which specular attitude reveals, in the media culture, the fascination by television mediation.

  12. Transition to whistler mediated magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, M. E.; Denton, R. E.; Drake, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    The transition in the magnetic reconnection rate from the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime where the Alfen wave controls reconnection to a regime in which the ions become unmagnetized and the whistler wave mediates reconnection is explored with 2-D hybrid simulations. In the whistler regime the electrons carry the currents while the ions provide a neutralizing background. A simple physical picture is presented illustrating the role of the whistler mediated reconnection is calculated analytically. The development of an out-of-plane component of the magnetic field is an observable signature of whistler driven reconnection.

  13. Purely Four-dimensional Viable Anomaly Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Harnik, R; Pierce, A T; Harnik, Roni; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Anomaly mediation of supersymmetry breaking solves the supersymmetric flavor problem thanks to its ultraviolet-insensitivity. However, it suffers from two problems: sleptons have negative masses-squared, and there are likely bulk moduli that spoil the framework. Here, we present the first fully ultraviolet-insensitive model of anomaly mediation with positive slepton masses-squared in a purely four-dimensional framework. Our model is based on the additional D-term contributions to the sparticle masses of Arkani-Hamed, Kaplan, HM, and Nomura, and the conformal sequestering mechanism of Luty and Sundrum.

  14. Extended tree-level gauge mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, M.; Nardecchia, M.; Romanino, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Tree-level gauge mediation (TGM) is a scenario of SUSY breaking in which the tree-level exchange of heavy (possibly GUT) vector fields generates flavor-universal sfermion masses. In this work we extend this framework to the case of E(6) that is the natural extension of the minimal case studied so...... if the gauge group does not contain SU(5). If SUSY breaking is mediated purely by the U(1) generator that commutes with SO(10) we obtain universal sfermion masses and thus can derive the CMSSM boundary conditions in a novel scenario....

  15. Purley four-dimensional viable anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomaly mediation of supersymmetry breaking solves the supersymmetric flavor problem thanks to its ultraviolet-insensitivity. However, it suffers from two problems: sleptons have negative masses-squared, and there are likely bulk moduli that spoil the framework. Here, we present the first fully ultraviolet-insensitive model of anomaly mediation with positive slepton masses-squared in a purely four-dimensional framework. Our model is based on the additional D-term contributions to the sparticle masses, and the conformal sequestering mechanism. (author)

  16. A Microscopic Theory of Gauge Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.

  17. A simple model of direct gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of direct gauge mediation Wess-Zumino models are very attractive in supersymmetry model building. Besides the spontaneous supersymmetry and R-symmetry breaking, the problems of small gaugino mass as well as μ and Bμ terms should be solved so as to achieve a viable model. In this Letter, we propose a simple model as an existence proof, in which all these subjects are realized simultaneously, with no need of fine tuning. This completion also implies that much of parameter space for direct gauge mediation can be directly explored at LHC.

  18. Flexible Mediation Analysis in the Presence of Nonlinear Relations: Beyond the Mediation Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeys, Tom; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; De Smet, Olivia; Buysse, Ann; Steen, Johan; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2013-11-01

    In the social sciences, mediation analysis has typically been formulated in the context of linear models using the Baron & Kenny (1986) approach. Extensions to nonlinear models have been considered but lack formal justification. By placing mediation analysis within the counterfactual framework of causal inference one can define causal mediation effects in a way that is not tied to a specific statistical model and identify them under certain no unmeasured confounding assumptions. Corresponding estimation procedures using parametric or nonparametric models, based on the so-called mediation formula, have recently been proposed in the psychological literature and made accessible through the R-package mediation. A number of limitations of the latter approach are discussed and a more flexible approach using natural effects models is proposed as an alternative. The latter builds on the same counterfactual framework but enables interpretable and parsimonious modeling of direct and mediated effects and facilitates tests of hypotheses that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to test. We illustrate the approach in a study of individuals who ended a romantic relationship and explore whether the effect of attachment anxiety during the relationship on unwanted pursuit behavior after the breakup is mediated by negative affect during the breakup. PMID:26745597

  19. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-06-01

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin. PMID:27217573

  20. Computer Mediated Communication: Online Instruction and Interactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavooy, Maria J.; Newlin, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the different forms and potential applications of computer mediated communication (CMC) for Web-based and Web-enhanced courses. Based on their experiences with three different Web courses (Research Methods in Psychology, Statistical Methods in Psychology, and Basic Learning Processes) taught repeatedly over the last five years, the…

  1. IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotua, M; Lomidze, N; Dolidze, N; Gotua, T

    2008-04-01

    Food allergy has become a serious health concern especially in developed countries in the past two decades. In general population approximately 4-6% of children and 1-3% of adults experience food allergy. The article reviews IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders. Epidemiology, Mechanism, Clinical manifestations, Genetically modified crops (GMOs), Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are discussed. The investigations show that over 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies in childhood are caused by: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish and shellfish. Also the causes of food allergy are food additives, genetically modified crops. Risk factors for food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis include asthma and previous allergic reactions to the causative food. Food allergy is one of the most common causes of systematic anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, with an annual incidence of four cases per million populations and estimated 500 deaths annually. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, individuals may experience urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hypotension, shock and cardiac arrhythmias, caused by the massive release of mediators from mast cells and basophiles. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE in blood serum and challenge tests. Treatment and prevention includes: avoidance diet, application of auto-injectable epinephrine, H1 and H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, antileukotrienes, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, cromolyn sodium, etc. PMID:18487689

  2. Excursion-Set-Mediated Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David; Baskaran, Subbiah

    1995-01-01

    Excursion-set-mediated genetic algorithm (ESMGA) is embodiment of method of searching for and optimizing computerized mathematical models. Incorporates powerful search and optimization techniques based on concepts analogous to natural selection and laws of genetics. In comparison with other genetic algorithms, this one achieves stronger condition for implicit parallelism. Includes three stages of operations in each cycle, analogous to biological generation.

  3. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the occurrence of Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance (PMQR) in Salmonella and E. coli from The Netherlands and other European countries. Furthermore, the genetic background of these genes was characterized. Fluoroquinolones are widely used antibiotics in both human and veter

  4. Computer Mediated Communication (CMC e Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boniello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo sono riportate alcune esperienze e sperimentazioni didattiche che descrivono occasioni di comunicazione formativa (Computer Mediated Communication – CMC attraverso ambienti 3D quali Second Life (SL. Sono inoltre evidenziati e descritti i principali strumenti di comunicazione in SL e il loro utilizzo.

  5. Children and TV II: Mediating the Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Mariann Pezzella; Wehrenberg, Judith S.

    This guidebook focuses on the reality of children's television viewing and the possibilities open to teachers for mediating the experience to enhance children's development and enrich the school curriculum. A Piagetian framework is used to examine and structure material suitable for the classroom. Part I of the guide reviews the historic…

  6. Multiscale Simulation of Protein Mediated Membrane Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins interacting with membranes can result in substantial membrane deformations and curvatures. This effect is known in its broadest terms as membrane remodeling. This review article will survey current multiscale simulation methodologies that have been employed to examine protein-mediated membrane remodeling.

  7. Teaching Responsibly with Technology-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsos, Jennifer R.; Veltsos, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Technology-mediated communication, or "new media," such as blogs, Twitter, wikis, and social network sites, can be an endless source of ideas for activities or inspiration for classroom discussion. Many instructors ask students to monitor current events by following keywords and industry leaders on Twitter and reading both corporate and trade…

  8. Parental mediation of undesired advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of various types of parental mediation of 3 potentially undesired effects of television advertising. In a survey among 360 parent–child dyads with children in the 8 to 12 years age range, we investigated how different styles of advertising m

  9. Characterization of BASP1-mediated neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshunova, Irina; Caroni, Pico; Kolkova, Kateryna;

    2008-01-01

    The brain acid-soluble protein BASP1 (CAP-23, NAP-22) belongs to the family of growth-associated proteins, which also includes GAP-43, a protein recently shown to regulate neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-mediated neurite outgrowth. Here, the effects of BASP1 overexpression were investigated ...

  10. Integrating Computer-Mediated Communication Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Communication strategies (CSs) play important roles in resolving problematic second language interaction and facilitating language learning. While studies in face-to-face contexts demonstrate the benefits of communication strategy instruction (CSI), there have been few attempts to integrate computer-mediated communication and CSI. The study…

  11. Mapping of Immune-Mediated Disease Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies in immune-mediated diseases have yielded a large number of disease-associated loci. Here we review the progress being made in 12 such diseases, for which 199 independently associated non-HLA loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies since 2007. It is striking that

  12. Collaborative learning through computer-mediated argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on three studies that involved undergraduate students collaboratively working on authentic discussion tasks in synchronous and asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication systems (Netmeeting, Belvédère, Allaire Forums). The purposes of the assignments were respectively to deve

  13. Mediating Artifact in Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Bodil

    2015-07-01

    This article focuses on teacher professional development (TPD) in natural science through the 5E model as mediating artifact. The study was conducted in an upper secondary school, grounded in a school-based intervention research project. My contribution to the field of research on TPD is founded on the hypothesis that teachers would be best facilitated to make their practice more inquiry based if they are provided with a mediating artifact. In this study the artifact is a model 5E, which is a conceptual way of thinking, to help teachers reflect on their practice. The aim is to encourage teachers to make changes themselves, by applying extended use of inquiry into their practice. This mediated artifact could thus be used across different national contexts. The main research question is; how can the 5E model as a mediating artifact enhance TPD? The article addresses the processes of the use of the 5E model and its influence on teachers' perception of the model. This is in order for teachers to conceptualize their goals related to inquiry and scientific thinking, and to solve the problems involved in achieving those goals in their own contexts. The study concludes that, after the intervention, the teachers' approaches and strategies demonstrate greater emphasis on learning.

  14. A Mediated Lifespace: Working Relationally with Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Marie L.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.

    2004-01-01

    A lifespace has to do with how selves are mediated by combining multiple cultural symbols to construct an identity in the world. The authors cite examples from media texts, as well as from a narrative study conducted with 10 adolescent girls in a treatment program for eating disorders, that illustrate the importance of practitioners considering…

  15. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.

  16. Peer Mediation and Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbreath, Wes; Crews, Moody E.

    2011-01-01

    With the constant concern over violence in schools, school officials are looking for ways to head off this potential problem and to better assure a safe environment for all students. One way that has become popular is the implementation of peer mediation programs where students assist other students in learning how to deal with conflict through…

  17. Comments: Causal Interpretations of Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors thank Dr. Lindsay Page for providing a nice illustration of the use of the principal stratification framework to define causal effects, and a Bayesian model for effect estimation. They hope that her well-written article will help expose education researchers to these concepts and methods, and move the field of mediation analysis in…

  18. A Comparison of Three Tests of Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warbasse, Rosalia E.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of three tests of mediation: the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap (Efron & Tibshirani, 1993), the asymmetric confidence limits test (MacKinnon, 2008), and a multiple regression approach described by Kenny, Kashy, and Bolger (1998). The evolution of these methods is reviewed and…

  19. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  20. Computer-Mediated Communication on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    2002-01-01

    This review of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on the Internet focuses on empirical research in noninstitutional and nonorganizational contexts. Highlights include modes of CMC; appropriate uses; social effects; effects on language and communication; freedom of expression; community; personal impacts; privacy; ethics; democracy;…

  1. GLI2-mediated melanoma invasion and metastasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexaki, V.I.; Javelaud, D.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Mohammad, K.S.; Dennler, S.; Luciani, F.; Hoek, K.S.; Juarez, P.; Goydos, J.S.; Fournier, P.J.; Sibon, C.; Bertolotto, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Saule, S.; Delmas, V.; Ballotti, R.; Larue, L.; Saiag, P.; Guise, T.A.; Mauviel, A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) pathway, which has both tumor suppressor and pro-oncogenic activities, is often constitutively active in melanoma and is a marker of poor prognosis. Recently, we identified GLI2, a mediator of the hedgehog pathway, as a transcriptional targe

  2. Experiences with peer mediation on selected primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rugelj, Darja

    2011-01-01

    Peer mediation, as an efficient way of confict resolution in primary school, is presented in this diploma paper. The theoretical part exposes the question of education, educational plan, mediation in general, peer mediation and serves as a ground to the empirical research. The purpose of this diploma paper is, first with with theoretical examination of the chosen subject and later with independent research, to determine the frequency of referencing of peer mediation as a proactive and prevent...

  3. Conceptualising International Peace Mediation - Bring Back the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Noelle; Daly, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Mediation has been acknowledged and utilised for a number of decades as an effective method of alternative dispute resolution in a variety of areas of law, including family law, commercial law and medical law. A uniform, standardised framework exists within legal discourse which clearly identifies and categorises three main styles of mediation as facilitative, evaluative and transformative mediation. In the post-Cold War period, mediation has also emerged as an important resolution tool in ar...

  4. Workplace Mediation in Ireland: Bridging the Research-Practice Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Deridre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case for the importance of research in informing mediation practice specifically in the context of the management of workplace conflict in Ireland. The position of mediation within the broader dispute-resolution framework is clarified at the outset and the core mediation process is described. The increasing use of mediation in Ireland and the changing institutional context within which it is conducted are discussed. The importance of research is str...

  5. Organizational mediators siding with or against the powerful party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; P. Laskewitz; E. van de Vliert

    1994-01-01

    Examined whether, instead of being impartial, a mediator may side with one party as a function of the disputants' power differences (power balancing theory), the mediator's legitimacy judgments (siding theory), or the disputants' capacity to sanction the mediator (siding theory). A questionnaire stu

  6. 75 FR 52054 - Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures AGENCY: Surface... matters relating to the use of mediation and arbitration as effective means of resolving disputes that are... mediation and arbitration in the resolution of disputes. If so, the proposed changes or new rules would...

  7. Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation: Pathways to Safer Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines conflict resolution and peer mediation and reviews the theoretical base for conflict resolution research. Examines the goals and activities of several peer mediation programs, and discusses the benefits of such programs. Notes that conflict resolution and peer mediation offer feasible opportunities for an entire school community to create…

  8. 29 CFR 1202.2 - Interpretation of mediation agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of mediation agreements. 1202.2 Section 1202.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.2 Interpretation of mediation agreements. Under section 5, Second, of title I of the Railway...

  9. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated...

  10. 29 CFR 1203.3 - Interpretation of mediation agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of mediation agreements. 1203.3 Section 1203.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE § 1203.3 Interpretation of mediation agreements. (a) Applications may be filed with the Board's Chief...

  11. The Use of Propensity Scores in Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; MacKinnon, David P.; Vinokur, Amiram D.

    2011-01-01

    Mediation analysis uses measures of hypothesized mediating variables to test theory for how a treatment achieves effects on outcomes and to improve subsequent treatments by identifying the most efficient treatment components. Most current mediation analysis methods rely on untested distributional and functional form assumptions for valid…

  12. 7 CFR 900.103 - Application for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for mediation. 900.103 Section 900.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Application for mediation. An application for mediation by a cooperative, shall be in writing and...

  13. 45 CFR 400.83 - Mediation and fair hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation and fair hearings. 400.83 Section 400.83... Employment § 400.83 Mediation and fair hearings. (a) Mediation—(1) Public/private RCA program. The State must ensure that a mediation period prior to imposition of sanctions is provided to refugees by...

  14. 15 CFR 930.112 - Request for Secretarial mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for Secretarial mediation. 930... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.112 Request for Secretarial mediation. (a) The Secretary or other head of a Federal agency, or...

  15. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  16. Mediation: An Emerging Form of Dispute Resolution on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, James A.; Balogh, Cynthia P.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed National Association of Student Personnel Administrators member institutions (N=704) to determine existence and characteristics of student affairs mediation programs. Found 29 campuses had established formal mediation programs. Argues that establishing formal mediation programs provides many institutional benefits. (Author/CM)

  17. A Modest Proposal: Mediating IDEA Disputes Without Splitting the Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jonathan A.

    1999-01-01

    Recognizes the benefits of mediation for easing special education conflicts, but addresses the inconsistencies and ambiguities created by the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Recommends that state and local education agencies use mediators certified in sophisticated mediation techniques, schooled in…

  18. Mediation in civiele en bestuursrechtelijke zaken: Een internationaal literatuuronderzoek

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, N.

    2002-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is een overzicht krijgen van vormen van mediation van civiel- en bestuursrechtelijke zaken in binnen- en buitenland, de effectiviteit en efficientie van mediation-projecten en de factoren die van invloed zijn op de effectiviteit en efficiency van mediation.

  19. Coagulation and Placenta-Mediated Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Aharon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a physiological hypercoagulable state, preparing the mother for the hemostatic challenge of delivery. However, this is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis and placenta-mediated complications, which present major challenges for mother and fetus. Although these conditions are heterogeneous in their pathophysiology, hereditary and acquired thrombophilia has been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss and gestational vascular complications, such as early-onset pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. Prevention of such placenta-mediated complications, which collectively complicate up to 15% of pregnancies, is a major issue for women’s health. Prospective interventional studies stratified by current knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms related to placental and systemic hemostatic alterations will impact on the management of pregnancies at risk of these complications.

  20. Mediated Trust in the Innovation Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    besides industry, state and academia. In this paper, the concept mediated trust refers to the process in which an independent institution produces a form of mass medium. As is the case with any message, the content of the mass media is coded so that it signals to what degree information and/or opinions......This paper introduces a framework for further studies in the role of mediated trust in the innovation ecosystems. Combining insight from scholars like Etzkowitz, Russel and Nordfors, the concept of innovation ecosystem is described as an extended Triple Helix where media is seen as a fourth strand...... should be considered trustworthy. When receiving the message, the audience will decode the signals. Trust is considered fundamental for mass media if these are to fulfill their normative functions in the innovation ecosystem. However, the concept of trust is not clearly defined in the literature and we...

  1. Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, David [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.

  2. The Maieutic Force of Mediating Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan

    which leads multiple and dispersed actors to compromising on the investment project. In these compromising spaces, which enable questioning to emerge, disagreements and controversies are temporarily appeased even in the absence of an interest alignment. The mediating properties of the Chronoprogram...... transform actions in unexpected directions which reconfigure the capital budgeting complex investment project and also extend the motorway object. The paper thus further develops the notion of mediating instruments by highlighting their maieutic ability to address the dialectics between matters of fact......This paper investigates how compromising plays a role when framing, developing and appraising capital budgeting projects. Motivated by Miller & O’Leary’s (1997, 2005a, 2005b, 2007) call for further research on capital budgeting to include not only valuation practices but also practices for managing...

  3. General Gauge Mediation with Gauge Messengers

    CERN Document Server

    Intriligator, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the General Gauge Mediation formalism to allow for the possibility of gauge messengers. Gauge messengers occur when charged matter fields of the susy-breaking sector have non-zero F-terms, which leads to tree-level, susy-breaking mass splittings in the gauge fields. A classic example is that SU(5) / SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge fields could be gauge messengers. We give a completely general, model independent, current-algebra based analysis of gauge messenger mediation of susy-breaking to the visible sector. Characteristic aspects of gauge messengers include enhanced contributions to gaugino masses, (tachyonic) sfermion mass-squareds generated already at one loop, and also at two loops, and significant one-loop A-terms, already at the messenger scale.

  4. Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called 'General Gauge Mediation' (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.

  5. Lignin biodegradation with laccase-mediator systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Paul Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignin has a significant and largely unrealized potential as a source for the sustainable production of fuels and bulk high-value chemicals. It can replace fossil-based oil as a renewable feedstock that would bring about socio-economic and environmental benefits in our transition to a biobased economy. The efficient utilization of lignin however requires its depolymerization to low molecular weight phenolics and aromatics that can then serve as the building blocks for chemical syntheses of high-value products. The ability of laccase to attack and degrade lignin in conjunction with laccase mediators is currently viewed as one of the potential breakthrough applications for lignin valorization. Here we review the recent progress in lignin biodegradation with laccase-mediator systems, and research needs that need to be addressed in this field.

  6. CEACAM1-Mediated Inhibition of Virus Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitenshtein, Alon; Weisblum, Yiska; Hauka, Sebastian; Halenius, Anne; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Tsukerman, Pinchas; Bauman, Yoav; Bar-On, Yotam; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Enk, Jonatan; Ortenberg, Rona; Tai, Julie; Markel, Gal; Blumberg, Richard S; Hengel, Hartmut; Jonjic, Stipan; Wolf, Dana G; Adler, Heiko; Kammerer, Robert; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2016-06-14

    Cells in our body can induce hundreds of antiviral genes following virus sensing, many of which remain largely uncharacterized. CEACAM1 has been previously shown to be induced by various innate systems; however, the reason for such tight integration to innate sensing systems was not apparent. Here, we show that CEACAM1 is induced following detection of HCMV and influenza viruses by their respective DNA and RNA innate sensors, IFI16 and RIG-I. This induction is mediated by IRF3, which bound to an ISRE element present in the human, but not mouse, CEACAM1 promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon induction, CEACAM1 suppresses both HCMV and influenza viruses in an SHP2-dependent process and achieves this broad antiviral efficacy by suppressing mTOR-mediated protein biosynthesis. Finally, we show that CEACAM1 also inhibits viral spread in ex vivo human decidua organ culture. PMID:27264178

  7. CEACAM1-Mediated Inhibition of Virus Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Vitenshtein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cells in our body can induce hundreds of antiviral genes following virus sensing, many of which remain largely uncharacterized. CEACAM1 has been previously shown to be induced by various innate systems; however, the reason for such tight integration to innate sensing systems was not apparent. Here, we show that CEACAM1 is induced following detection of HCMV and influenza viruses by their respective DNA and RNA innate sensors, IFI16 and RIG-I. This induction is mediated by IRF3, which bound to an ISRE element present in the human, but not mouse, CEACAM1 promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon induction, CEACAM1 suppresses both HCMV and influenza viruses in an SHP2-dependent process and achieves this broad antiviral efficacy by suppressing mTOR-mediated protein biosynthesis. Finally, we show that CEACAM1 also inhibits viral spread in ex vivo human decidua organ culture.

  8. Seminatural Gauge Mediation from Product Group Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Hajime; Yanagida, Tsutomu T; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a focus point gauge mediation model based on the product group unification (PGU), which solves the double-triplet splitting problem of the Higgs multiplets. In the focus point gauge mediation, the electroweak symmetry breaking scale can be naturally explained even for multi-TeV stops. It is known that the focus point behavior appears if a ratio of the number of SU(2) doublet messengers to that of SU(3) triplet messengers is close to 2.5. Importantly, this ratio (effectively) appears in our scenario based on the PGU, if the messenger field is an adjoint representation of SU(5) gauge group. Therefore, our focus point scenario is very predictive. It is also pointed out the gravitino can be dark matter without spoiling the success of the thermal leptogenesis.

  9. On messengers and metastability in gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One notoriously difficult problem in perturbative gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking via messenger fields is the generic presence of a phenomenologically unacceptable vacuum with messenger vevs, with a lower energy than the desired ('MSSM') vacuum. We investigate the possibility that quantum corrections promote the latter to the ground state of the theory, and find that this is indeed feasible. For this to happen, the couplings of the messengers to the goldstino superfield must be small, and this implies an additional suppression of the MSSM soft terms with respect to the supersymmetry breaking scale. This in turn sets a lower limit on the masses of the messengers and of the supersymmetry breaking fields, which makes both sectors inaccessible at colliders. Contrary to other scenarios like direct gauge mediation, gaugino masses are unsuppressed with respect to scalar masses.

  10. Naturalness from runaways in direct mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postulating that the nonminimal supersymmetric standard model singlet is a meson of a microscopic confining theory opens up new model-building possibilities. Based on this, we construct calculable models of direct mediation that solve the μ/Bμ problem and simultaneously lead to realistic phenomenology. The singlet that couples to the Higgs fields develops a runaway produced by soft interactions and then stabilized by a small superpotential perturbation. The mechanism is first realized in an O'Raifeartaigh model of direct gauge mediation with metastable supersymmetry breaking. Focusing then on the microscopic theory, we argue that super QCD with massless and massive flavors in the free magnetic phase gives rise to this dynamics in the infrared. A deformation of the super QCD superpotential leads to large spontaneous R-symmetry breaking, gaugino masses naturally at the scale of the Higgs mass parameters, and the absence of CP violating phases.

  11. Gaseous mediators in resolution of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John L; Ianaro, Angela; Flannigan, Kyle L; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    There are numerous gaseous substances that can act as signaling molecules, but the best characterized of these are nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide. Each has been shown to play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. This article is focused on the effects of these gasotransmitters in the context of inflammation. There is considerable overlap in the actions of nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide with respect to inflammation, and these mediators appear to act primarily as anti-inflammatory substances, promoting resolution of inflammatory processes. They also have protective and pro-healing effects in some tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract and lung. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the development of novel anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective drugs that release of one or more of these gaseous mediators.

  12. Endopeptidase-Mediated Beta Lactam Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Dörr, Tobias; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    In many bacteria, inhibition of cell wall synthesis leads to cell death and lysis. The pathways and enzymes that mediate cell lysis after exposure to cell wall-acting antibiotics (e.g. beta lactams) are incompletely understood, but the activities of enzymes that degrade the cell wall (‘autolysins’) are thought to be critical. Here, we report that Vibrio cholerae, the cholera pathogen, is tolerant to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis. In response to a wide variety of cell wall- acting ...

  13. Green oxidations with laccase-mediator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A; Teria, M; Eve, T

    2006-04-01

    Laccases are oxidase enzymes produced by 'white rot' fungi as part of a complex armoury of redox enzymes used to break down lignin--part of the carbon cycle of nature. Laccases alone or in combination with redox co-catalysts have been shown to oxidize xenobiotic compounds under conditions that can be described as 'green'. This paper describes some novel oxidations using the laccase-mediator method and some current limitations to the use of this technology. PMID:16545100

  14. Openings in technology-mediated business meetings

    OpenAIRE

    Oittinen, Tuire; Piirainen-Marsh, Arja

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisites for opening a meeting, or beginning any kind of interaction for that matter, are participants’ presence and shared orientation towards the situation at hand. This paper analyses how the initial moments of technology-mediated business meetings involving distributed work groups are organized sequentially and multimodally. Drawing on video-recorded meetings in an international company, it documents the multimodal practices used in the process of establishing co-orientation to t...

  15. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    OpenAIRE

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M.; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael,; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C.; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a physiological mechanism that protects against systemic hypoxemia by redistributing blood flow from poorly to better ventilated areas of the lung, thereby minimizing ventilation-perfusion mismatch. However, in chronic hypoxemia-associated lung disease, HPV contributes to pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we provide novel evidence for a dual role of sphingolipids as important signal mediators in HPV, which critically depends on the presence of ...

  16. Mediators of heightened pressor responses to phenylephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, KaMala S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) relate to vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (PE) in 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Aim 1 examined whether SES mediates the relationship between ethnicity and pressor responsiveness to PE. Aim 2 examined how neighborhood SES and individual SES relate to pressor responsiveness to PE using multilevel modeling. Aim 3 tested the hypothesis that SES moderates the relationship between perceived ...

  17. Flavour Violation in Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Allanach, B. C.; Hiller, G; Jones, D. R. T.; Slavich, P.(LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Sorbonne Universités, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252, Paris, France)

    2009-01-01

    32 pages, 8 figures International audience We study squark flavour violation in the anomaly mediated supersymmetry broken (AMSB) minimal supersymmetric standard model. Analytical expressions for the three-generational squark mass matrices are derived. We show that the anomaly-induced soft breaking terms have a decreasing amount of squark flavour violation when running from the GUT to the weak scale. Taking into account inter-generational squark mixing, we work out non-trivial constraint...

  18. Behaviorally Mediated Larval Transport in Upwelling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Highly advective upwelling systems along the western margins of continents are widely believed to transport larvae far offshore in surface currents resulting in larval wastage, limited recruitment, and increased population connectivity. However, suites of larval behaviors effectively mediate interspecific differences in the extent of cross-shelf migrations between nearshore adult habitats and offshore larval habitats. Interspecific differences in behavior determining whether larvae complete d...

  19. Cytokine-mediated reversal of multidrug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Ulrike; Walther, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of the multidrug resistance phenotype still represents a limiting factor for successful cancer chemotherapy. Numerous efforts have been made to develop strategies for reversal and/or modulation of this major therapy obstacle through targeting at different levels of intervention. The phenomenon of MDR is often associated with overexpression of resistance-associated genes. Since the classical type of MDR in human cancers is mainly mediated by the P-glycoprotein encoded by the mul...

  20. Model analysis of fomite mediated influenza transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Zhao

    Full Text Available Fomites involved in influenza transmission are either hand- or droplet-contaminated. We evaluated the interactions of fomite characteristics and human behaviors affecting these routes using an Environmental Infection Transmission System (EITS model by comparing the basic reproduction numbers (R(0 for different fomite mediated transmission pathways. Fomites classified as large versus small surface sizes (reflecting high versus low droplet contamination levels and high versus low touching frequency have important differences. For example, 1 the highly touched large surface fomite (public tables has the highest transmission potential and generally strongest control measure effects; 2 transmission from droplet-contaminated routes exceed those from hand-contaminated routes except for highly touched small surface fomites such as door knob handles; and 3 covering a cough using the upper arm or using tissues effectively removes virus from the system and thus decreases total fomite transmission. Because covering a cough by hands diverts pathogens from the droplet-fomite route to the hand-fomite route, this has the potential to increase total fomite transmission for highly touched small surface fomites. An improved understanding and more refined data related to fomite mediated transmission routes will help inform intervention strategies for influenza and other pathogens that are mediated through the environment.

  1. Model analysis of fomite mediated influenza transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Eisenberg, Joseph E; Spicknall, Ian H; Li, Sheng; Koopman, James S

    2012-01-01

    Fomites involved in influenza transmission are either hand- or droplet-contaminated. We evaluated the interactions of fomite characteristics and human behaviors affecting these routes using an Environmental Infection Transmission System (EITS) model by comparing the basic reproduction numbers (R(0)) for different fomite mediated transmission pathways. Fomites classified as large versus small surface sizes (reflecting high versus low droplet contamination levels) and high versus low touching frequency have important differences. For example, 1) the highly touched large surface fomite (public tables) has the highest transmission potential and generally strongest control measure effects; 2) transmission from droplet-contaminated routes exceed those from hand-contaminated routes except for highly touched small surface fomites such as door knob handles; and 3) covering a cough using the upper arm or using tissues effectively removes virus from the system and thus decreases total fomite transmission. Because covering a cough by hands diverts pathogens from the droplet-fomite route to the hand-fomite route, this has the potential to increase total fomite transmission for highly touched small surface fomites. An improved understanding and more refined data related to fomite mediated transmission routes will help inform intervention strategies for influenza and other pathogens that are mediated through the environment.

  2. Viable Gravity-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kribs, Graham D; Roy, Tuhin S

    2010-01-01

    We present a complete, viable model of gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking that is safe from all flavor constraints. The central new idea is to employ a supersymmetry breaking sector without singlets, but with D-terms comparable to F-terms, causing supersymmetry breaking to be dominantly communicated through U(1)_R-symmetric operators. We construct a visible sector that is an extension of the MSSM where an \\emph{accidental} U(1)_R symmetry emerges naturally. Gauginos acquire Dirac masses from gravity-mediated D-terms, and tiny Majorana masses from anomaly-mediated contributions. Contributions to soft breaking scalar (mass)^2 arise from flavor-arbitrary gravity-induced F-terms plus one-loop finite flavor-blind contributions from Dirac gaugino masses. Renormalization group evolution of the gluino causes it to naturally increase nearly an order of magnitude larger than the squark masses. This hierarchy, combined with an accidentially U(1)_R-symmetric visible sector, nearly eliminates all flavor violation con...

  3. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. ATP as a peripheral mediator of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S G; McMahon, S B

    2000-07-01

    This article reviews the extent to which recent studies substantiate the hypothesis that ATP functions as a peripheral pain mediator. The discovery of the P2X family of ion channels (for which ATP is a ligand) and, in particular, the highly selective distribution of the P2X(3) receptor within the rat nociceptive system has inspired a variety of approaches to elucidate the potential role of ATP as a pain mediator. ATP elicits excitatory inward currents in small diameter sensory ganglion cells. These currents resemble those elicited by ATP on recombinantly expressed heteromeric P2X(2/3) channels as well as homomultimers consisting of P2X(2) and P2X(3). In vivo behavioural models have characterised the algogenic properties of ATP in normal conditions and in models of peripheral sensitisation. In humans, iontophoresis of ATP induces modest pain. In rats and humans the response is dependent on capsaicin sensitive neurons and is augmented in the presence of inflammatory mediators. Since ATP can be released in the vicinity of peripheral nociceptive terminals under a variety of conditions, there exists a purinergic chain of biological processes linking tissue damage to pain perception. The challenge remains to prove a physiological role for endogenous ATP in activating this chain of events.

  5. Endocytic pathways mediating oligomeric Aβ42 neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxton Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD is amyloid plaques, composed primarily of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ. Over-production or diminished clearance of the 42 amino acid form of Aβ (Aβ42 in the brain leads to accumulation of soluble Aβ and plaque formation. Soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ has recently emerged to be as a likely proximal cause of AD. Results Here we demonstrate that endocytosis is critical in mediating oAβ42-induced neurotoxicity and intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ. Inhibition of clathrin function either with a pharmacological inhibitor, knock-down of clathrin heavy chain expression, or expression of the dominant-negative mutant of clathrin-assembly protein AP180 did not block oAβ42-induced neurotoxicity or intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ. However, inhibition of dynamin and RhoA by expression of dominant negative mutants reduced neurotoxicity and intraneuronal Aβ accumulation. Pharmacologic inhibition of the dynamin-mediated endocytic pathway by genistein also reduced neurotoxicity. Conclusions These data suggest that dynamin-mediated and RhoA-regulated endocytosis are integral steps for oligomeric Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity and intraneuronal Aβ accumulation.

  6. Bias in Cross-Sectional Analyses of Longitudinal Mediation: Partial and Complete Mediation under an Autoregressive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Scott E.; Cole, David A.; Mitchell, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Maxwell and Cole (2007) showed that cross-sectional approaches to mediation typically generate substantially biased estimates of longitudinal parameters in the special case of complete mediation. However, their results did not apply to the more typical case of partial mediation. We extend their previous work by showing that substantial bias can…

  7. Mediator and moderator effects in developmental and behavioral pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.

  8. Plant Mediator complex and its critical functions in transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Ling; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-02-01

    The Mediator complex is an important component of the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. As an essential link between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, the Mediator complex transduces diverse signals to genes involved in different pathways. The plant Mediator complex was recently purified and comprises conserved and specific subunits. It functions in concert with transcription factors to modulate various responses. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the plant Mediator complex and its diverse roles in plant growth, development, defense, non-coding RNA production, response to abiotic stresses, flowering, genomic stability and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, the transcription factors interacting with the Mediator complex are also highlighted.

  9. Predictors of Parental Mediation Regarding Children's Smartphone Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoori; Jeong, Se-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Children's addiction to smartphones has become a serious issue, and parental mediation could help prevent children's problematic use of smartphones. This research examined the factors that predict and explain parents' intention to mediate children's behavior over smartphone use. Based on a survey of 460 parents of elementary school students, we found that parental mediation was predicted by (a) parent's own addiction to smartphones, (b) perceived severity of smartphone addiction, and (c) personality traits such as neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the predictors of parental mediation regarding children's smartphone addiction, and the findings suggest some strategies to increase parental mediation. PMID:26544162

  10. Docosapentaenoic acid derived metabolites and mediators - The new world of lipid mediator medicine in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten-H

    2016-08-15

    Recent years have seen the description and elucidation of a new class of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators. The arachidonic acid (AA)-derived compounds in this class are called lipoxins and have been described in great detail since their discovery thirty years ago. The new players are mediators derived from fish oil omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Taken together, these mediators are also called specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs). As compared to the AA/EPA/DHA-derived compounds, research regarding mediators formed from the n-3 and n-6 docosapentaenoic acids (DPAn-3 and DPAn-6) is sparse. However, mono- di- and trihydroxy derivates of the DPAs have anti-inflammatory properties as well, even though mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory action have not been fully elucidated. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the DPA-derived SPMs and their actions. PMID:26546723

  11. Mirage Models Confront the LHC: III. Deflected Mirage Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Everett, Lisa L; Kaufman, Bryan L; Nelson, Brent D

    2015-01-01

    We complete the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in which modulus-induced soft supersymmetry breaking is sufficiently suppressed in the observable sector so as to be competitive with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Here we consider deflected mirage mediation (DMM), where contributions from gauge mediation are added to those arising from gravity mediation and anomaly mediation. We update previous work that surveyed the rich parameter space of such theories, in light of data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and recent dark matter detection experiments. Constraints arising from LHC superpartner searches at $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\,{\\rm TeV}$ are considered, and discovery prospects at $\\sqrt{s} = 14\\,{\\rm TeV}$ are evaluated. We find that deflected mirage mediation generally allows for SU(3)-charged superpartners of significantly lower mass (given current knowledge of the Higgs mass and neutralino relic density) than was found for the `pure' mirage mediation models of K...

  12. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  13. Vector-Mediated In Vivo Antibody Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein. This approach uses recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, which have been shown to transduce muscle with high efficiency and direct the long-term expression of a variety of transgenes, to deliver the gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into the muscle. Following rAAV vector gene delivery, the broadly neutralizing antibodies are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. This is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. Vector-mediated gene transfer studies in mice and monkeys with anti-HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-neutralizing antibodies demonstrated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum with complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent HIV and SIV. These results indicate that existing potent anti-HIV antibodies can be rapidly moved into the clinic. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV. The general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets such as hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. PMID:26104192

  14. The Forgotten Peace : Mediation at Niagara Falls

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the early hours of April 22, 1914, American President Woodrow Wilson sent Marines to seize the port of Veracruz in an attempt to alter the course of the Mexican Revolution. As a result, the United States seemed on the brink of war with Mexico. An international uproar ensued. The governments of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile offered to mediate a peaceful resolution to the crisis. Surprisingly, both the United States and Mexico accepted their offer and all parties agreed to meet at an internat...

  15. Investigations of interactions mediated by neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to four-fermion interactions mediated by the neutral currents. The results from the second phase of LEP are presented, when the production of two massive bosons was possible with the increased energy of the e+e- collisions. It enabled for a direct test of nonabelian structure of the electroweak theory. The results concern the four-fermion production of the pairs of the ZZ bosons, single Z and Zγ* production as well as search for anomalous gauge bosons couplings. The large part of the report is devoted to experimental techniques, physics analyses and discussion of results. (author)

  16. On agent-mediated electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    He, M.; Jennings, N. R.; Leung, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys and analyzes the state of the art of agent-mediated electronic commerce (e-commerce), concentrating particularly on the business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) aspects. From the consumer buying behavior perspective, agents are being used in the following activities: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering, and negotiation. The roles of agents in B2B e-commerce are discussed through the business-to-business tran...

  17. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Klaus; von Brasch, Leonie; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Ehemann, Volker; Jenne, Juergen; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Rittgen, Werner; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantif...

  18. Naturalness bounds on gauge mediated soft terms

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, P; Ciafaloni, Paolo; Strumia, Alessandro

    1996-01-01

    After a general discussion about the quantitative meaning of the naturalness upper bounds on the masses of supersymmetric particles, we compute these bounds in models with gauge-mediated soft terms. We find interesting upper limits on the right-handed slepton masses that, unless the messenger fields are very light, disfavor minimal models with large messenger content. Deep unphysical minima, that however turn out to be non dangerous, are usually present in such models. The mu-problem can be solved by adding a light singlet only at the price of a large amount of fine tuning that gives also rise to heavy sparticles and large tan\\beta.

  19. Mediated Trust in the Innovation Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    should be considered trustworthy. When receiving the message, the audience will decode the signals. Trust is considered fundamental for mass media if these are to fulfill their normative functions in the innovation ecosystem. However, the concept of trust is not clearly defined in the literature and we......This paper introduces a framework for further studies in the role of mediated trust in the innovation ecosystems. Combining insight from scholars like Etzkowitz, Russel and Nordfors, the concept of innovation ecosystem is described as an extended Triple Helix where media is seen as a fourth strand...

  20. Mediating multimodal environmental knowledge across animation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    2011-01-01

    in the technology- mediated discourse of short animation films. This is done by employing the model of multimodal discourse analysis proposed by Van Leeuwen (2008) and Machin and Van Leeuwen (2007) to the analysis of a series of animation films focused on environmental problems. These films are united under......://www.sustainlane.com/. The multimodal discourse analysis is meant to reveal how selection and representation of environmental knowledge about social actors, social actions, resources, time and space are influenced by animation techniques. Furthermore, in the context of this multimodal discourse analysis, their influence upon...

  1. Focus point from direct gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reconciliation of the tension between the theoretic expectation from naturalness and the present LHC limits on the superpartner mass bounds. We argue that in supersymmetry models of direct gauge mediation the focusing phenomenon appears, which dramatically reduces the fine tuning associated to the 126 GeV Higgs boson. This type of model is highly predictive as regards the mass spectrum, with a multi-TeV third generation, the A{sub t} term of order 1 TeV, gluino mass above LHC mass bound, and the light neutralinos and charginos below 1 TeV. (orig.)

  2. The Superpartner Spectrum of Gaugino Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors compute the superpartner masses in a class of models with gaugino mediation (or no-scale) boundary conditions at a scale between the GUT and Planck scales. These models are compelling because they are simple, solve the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems, satisfy all constraints from colliders and cosmology, and predict the superpartner masses in terms of very few parameters. The authors analysis includes the renormalization group evolution of the soft-breaking terms above the GUT scale. They show that the running above the GUT scale is largely model independent and find that a phenomenologically viable spectrum is obtained

  3. SUSY CP problem in gauge mediation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSY CP problem in the gauge mediation supersymmetry breaking model is reconsidered. We pay particular attention to two sources of CP violating phases whose effects were not seriously studied before; one is the effect of the breaking of the GUT relation among the gaugino masses due to the field responsible for the GUT symmetry breaking, and the other is the supergravity effect on the supersymmetry breaking parameters, in particular, on the bi-linear supersymmetry breaking Higgs mass term. We show that both of them can induce too large electric dipole moments of electron, neutron, and so on, to be consistent with the experimental bounds.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation: rice transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Chadha-Mohanty, Prabhjit; Torrizo, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium is a common soil bacterium with natural capacity for trans-kingdom transfer of genetic information by transferring its T-DNA into the eukaryotic genome. In agricultural plant biotechnology, combination of non-phytopathogenic strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with modified T-DNA and vir-genes in a binary vector system is the most widely utilized system for genetic improvement in diverse plant species and for gene function validation. Here we have described a highly efficient A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation system for indica and japonica rice cultivars based on an immature embryo system.

  5. Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Aaron Pettengill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs, can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review we give particular consideration to soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function.

  6. Is flow-mediated dilation nitric oxide mediated?: A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Groenewoud, H.M.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive index of endothelial function and vascular health in humans. Studies examining the role of nitric oxide (NO) are not conclusive. In this article, we quantified the contribution of NO in FMD of conduit arteries and explored the effect of the protocol (ie,

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfides as Biological Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Kimura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is recognized as a biological mediator with various roles such as neuromodulation, regulation of the vascular tone, cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, oxygen sensing, angiogenesis, and generation of mitochondrial energy. It is produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST. The activity of CBS is enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM and glutathionylation, while it is inhibited by nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. The activity of CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT, which produces the 3MST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP, is regulated by Ca2+. H2S is oxidized to thiosulfate in mitochondria through the sequential action of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR, sulfur dioxygenase, and rhodanese. The rates of the production and clearance of H2S determine its cellular concentration. Polysulfides (H2Sn have been found to occur in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 channels, facilitate the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 to the nucleus, and suppress the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN by sulfurating (sulfhydrating the target cysteine residues. A cross talk between H2S and NO also plays an important role in cardioprotection as well as regulation of the vascular tone. H2S, polysulfides, and their cross talk with NO may mediate various physiological and pathophysiological responses.

  8. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008

  9. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  10. Depolarization-mediated regulation of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok eSharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

  11. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process. PMID:27323127

  13. Harm mediates the disgust-immorality link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Ritter, Ryan S; Gray, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Many acts are disgusting, but only some of these acts are immoral. Dyadic morality predicts that disgusting acts should be judged as immoral to the extent that they seem harmful. Consistent with this prediction, 3 studies reveal that perceived harm mediates the link between feelings of disgust and moral condemnation-even for ostensibly harmless "purity" violations. In many cases, accounting for perceived harm completely eliminates the link between disgust and moral condemnation. Analyses also reveal the predictive power of anger and typicality/weirdness in moral judgments of disgusting acts. The mediation of disgust by harm holds across diverse acts including gay marriage, sex acts, and religious blasphemy. Revealing the endogenous presence and moral relevance of harm within disgusting-but-ostensibly harmless acts argues against modular accounts of moral cognition such as moral foundations theory. Instead, these data support pluralistic conceptions of harm and constructionist accounts of morality and emotion. Implications for moral cognition and the concept of "purity" are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100369

  14. Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-05-01

    The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

  15. The Journey Metaphor in Mediatized Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper will analyse manifestations of the journey metaphor from a critical discourse analytical perspective in order to observe how the journey metaphor is used as a discourse strategy in mediatized political speeches and interviews whereby political actors manipulate the second-frame interactional participants (the audience into sharing a (spurious sense of solidarity with them. There are three hypotheses that will be tested in the course of the analysis: the first is that a wide-variety of realjourney elements are exploited for the political metaphor of journey, and there is a concrete correspondence between journey vehicles and political scenarios. The second hypothesis is that journey metaphors that are used in political speeches, celebrity interviews and confrontational political interviews are of different types and complexity. The third hypothesis is that the manipulative intent behind the use of metaphors is exposed in the latter types of mediatized political discourse to varying degrees as a result of the different degrees of pragmatic accountability adhered to in the two subgenres. We argue that the first two hypotheses are confirmed on the basis of the qualitative analysis presented in the paper, whereas the third hypothesis is not borne out by the data.

  16. Triplex-mediated genome targeting and editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Faisal; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Genome targeting and editing in vitro and in vivo can be achieved through an interplay of exogenously introduced molecules and the induction of endogenous recombination machinery. The former includes a repertoire of sequence-specific binding molecules for targeted induction and appropriation of this machinery, such as by triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) or triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and recombinagenic donor DNA, respectively. This versatile targeting and editing via recombination approach facilitates high-fidelity and low-off-target genome mutagenesis, repair, expression, and regulation. Herein, we describe the current state-of-the-art in triplex-mediated genome targeting and editing with a perspective towards potential translational and therapeutic applications. We detail several materials and methods for the design, delivery, and use of triplex-forming and recombinagenic molecules for mediating and introducing specific, heritable, and safe genomic modifications. Furthermore we denote some guidelines for endogenous genome targeting and editing site identification and techniques to test targeting and editing efficiency. PMID:24557900

  17. Cellular contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Cinnamon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular contractility, essential for cell movement and proliferation, is regulated by microtubules, RhoA and actomyosin. The RhoA dependent kinase ROCK ensures the phosphorylation of the regulatory Myosin II Light Chain (MLC Ser19, thereby activating actomyosin contractions. Microtubules are upstream inhibitors of contractility and their depolymerization or depletion cause cells to contract by activating RhoA. How microtubule dynamics regulates RhoA remains, a major missing link in understanding contractility. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that contractility is inhibited by microtubules not only, as previously reported, in adherent cells, but also in non-adhering interphase and mitotic cells. Strikingly we observed that contractility requires ubiquitin mediated proteolysis by a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase. Inhibition of proteolysis, ubiquitination and neddylation all led to complete cessation of contractility and considerably reduced MLC Ser19 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that cells express a contractility inhibitor that is degraded by ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, either constitutively or in response to microtubule depolymerization. This degradation seems to depend on a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase and is required for cellular contractions.

  18. Metallothionein as an Anti-Inflammatory Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichiro Inoue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of knowledge concerning the regulation of MT, a highly conserved, low molecular weight, cystein-rich metalloprotein, on its proposed functions is necessary to clarify how MT affects cellular processes. MT expression is induced/enhanced in various tissues by a number of physiological mediators. The cellular accumulation of MT depends on the availability of cellular zinc derived from the diet. MT modulates the binding and exchange/transport of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, or copper under physiological conditions and cytoprotection from their toxicities, and the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radicals or nitric oxide. In addition, MT reportedly affects a number of cellular processes, such as gene expression, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Given the genetic approach, the apparently healthy status of MT-deficient mice argues against an essential biological role for MT; however, this molecule may be critical in cells/tissues/organs in times of stress, since MT expression is also evoked/enhanced by various stresses. In particular, because metallothionein (MT is induced by inflammatory stress, its roles in inflammation are implied. Also, MT expression in various organs/tissues can be enhanced by inflammatory stimuli, implicating in inflammatory diseases. In this paper, we review the role of MT of various inflammatory conditions.

  19. Histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Liu, Zi-Ning; Chow, Sih-Yao; Lu, Yi-Han; Li, Hsin

    2015-01-01

    A huge amount of information is stored in genomic DNA and this stored information resides inside the nucleus with the aid of chromosomal condensation factors. It has been reported that the repeat nucleosome core particle (NCP) consists of 147-bp of DNA and two copies of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Regulation of chromosomal structure is important to many processes inside the cell. In vivo, a group of histone chaperones facilitate and regulate nucleosome assembly. How NCPs are constructed with the aid of histone chaperones remains unclear. In this study, the histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process was investigated using single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments. It was found that Asf1 is able to exert more influence than Nap1 and poly glutamate acid (PGA) on the nucleosome formation process, which highlights Asf1's specific role in tetrasome formation. Thermodynamic parameters supported a model whereby energetically favored nucleosomal complexes compete with non-nucleosomal complexes. In addition, our kinetic findings propose the model that histone chaperones mediate nucleosome assembly along a path that leads to enthalpy-favored products with free histones as reaction substrates.

  20. Singlet-stabilized minimal gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose singlet-stabilized minimal gauge mediation as a simple Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih-based model of direct gauge mediation which avoids both light gauginos and Landau poles. The hidden sector is a massive s-confining supersymmetric QCD that is distinguished by a minimal SU(5) flavor group. The uplifted vacuum is stabilized by coupling the meson to an additional singlet sector with its own U(1) gauge symmetry via nonrenormalizable interactions suppressed by a higher scale ΛUV in the electric theory. This generates a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the singlet meson via the inverted hierarchy mechanism, but requires tuning to a precision ∼(Λ/ΛUV)2, which is ∼10-4. In the course of this analysis we also outline some simple model-building rules for stabilizing uplifted-ISS models, which lead us to conclude that meson deformations are required (or at least heavily favored) to stabilize the adjoint component of the magnetic meson.

  1. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-06-03

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process.

  3. Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-α secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-γ/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-α secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-α secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

  4. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  5. Reflections on the Baron and Kenny model of statistical mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pardo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 25 years since Baron and Kenny (1986 published their ideas on how to analyze and interpret statistical mediation, few works have been more cited, and perhaps, so decisively influenced the way applied researchers understand and analyze mediation in social and health sciences. However, the widespread use of a procedure does not necessarily make it a safe or reliable strategy. In fact, during these years, many researchers have pointed out the limitations of the procedure Baron and Kenny proposed for demonstrating mediation. The twofold aim of this paper is to (1 carry out a review of the limitations of the method by Baron and Kenny, with particular attention to the weakness in the confirmatory logic of the procedure, and (2 provide an empirical example that, in applying the method, data obtained from the same theoretical scenario (i.e., with or without the presence of mediation can be compatible with both the mediation and no-mediation hypotheses.

  6. Mediated Electrochemical Measurements of Intracellular Catabolic Activities of Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sheng ZHAO; Zhen Yu YANG; Yao LU; Zheng Yu YANG

    2005-01-01

    Coupling with the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide, microelectrode voltammetric measurements were undertaken to detect the ferrocyanide accumulations arising from the mediated reduction of ferricyanide by yeast cells. The results indicate that the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide could be used as a probe to detect cellular catabolic activities in yeast cells and the electrochemical response has a positive relationship with the specific growth rate of yeast cells.

  7. Tissue Injury and Related Mediators of Pain Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya, Fumimasa; Izumi, Yuta; Matsuda, Megumi; Sasaki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury and inflammation result in release of various mediators that promote ongoing pain or pain hypersensitivity against mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli. Pro-nociceptive mediators activate primary afferent neurons directly or indirectly to enhance nociceptive signal transmission to the central nervous system. Excitation of primary afferents by peripherally originating mediators, so-called “peripheral sensitization”, is a hallmark of tissue injury-related pain. Many kinds of p...

  8. Eosinophil recruitment and activation: the role of lipid mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are effector cells that migrate toward several mediators released at inflammatory sites to perform their multiple functions. The mechanisms driving eosinophil selective accumulation in sites of allergic inflammation are well-established and involve several steps controlled by adhesion molecules, priming agents, chemotactic, and surviving factors. Even though the majority of studies focused on role of protein mediators like IL-5 and eotaxins, lipid mediators also participate in eos...

  9. Resolution Phase Lipid Mediators of Inflammation: Agonists of Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Serhan, Charles N.; Chiang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Lipid mediators are appreciated for their roles in leukocyte traffic required in host defense. With identification of novel resolution phase mediators, resolvins, protectins and maresins, these 3 families and their aspirin-triggered forms, given their potent stereoselective actions with human cells and animal disease models, are coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Stereochemistries of key SPM are established and several groups reported organic synthesis. Given availability, this...

  10. The role of mediation in resolving contract disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Michael C

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Mediation has emerged as a preferred ADR method among commercial organizations involved in contract disputes. However, its use by the Navy has been rare. Mediation has shown to provide benefits to its commercial users such as: improved business relations, time and cost savings, flexibility and adaptability and superior control over outcomes. This thesis provides information on mediation and examines the differences and similarities bet...

  11. Women's experiences of local justice: community mediation in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasundere, Ramani; Valters, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper is part of the Theories in Practice series arising from the collaboration between JSRP and The Asia Foundation. This is the second paper on Sri Lanka's mediation boards and builds on the conclusion of the previous paper that 'further research on how different forms of social injustice affect mediation boards would be an important conceptual and practical step'. There is a clear need to assess the effect of different forms of social injustice on the process of mediation. This is ...

  12. Leveraging Mediator Cost Models with Heterogeneous Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Naacke, Hubert; Gardarin, Georges; Tomasic, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    Distributed systems require declarative access to diverse data sources of information. One approach to solving this heterogeneous distributed database problem is based on mediator architectures. In these architectures, mediators accept queries from users, process them with respect to wrappers, and return answers. Wrapper provide access to underlying data sources. To efficiently process queries, the mediator must optimize the plan used for processing the query. In classical databases, cost-est...

  13. Inflation and gauge mediation in supersymmetric gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a simple high-scale inflationary scenario based on a phenomenologically viable model with direct gauge mediation of low-scale supersymmetry breaking. Hybrid inflation occurs in a hidden supersymmetry breaking sector. Two hierarchical mass scales to reconcile both high-scale inflation and gauge mediation are necessary for the stability of the metastable supersymmetry breaking vacuum. Our scenario is also natural in light of the Landau pole problem of direct gauge mediation. (author)

  14. Mechanisms involved in antibody- and complement-mediated allograft rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Wasowska, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection has become critical clinically because this form of rejection is usually unresponsive to conventional anti-rejection therapy, and therefore, it has been recognized as a major cause of allograft loss. Our group developed experimental animal models of vascularized organ transplantation to study pathogenesis of antibody- and complement-mediated endothelial cell injury leading to graft rejection. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft rejectio...

  15. Counterfactual Graphical Models for Longitudinal Mediation Analysis with Unobserved Confounding

    OpenAIRE

    Shpitser, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Questions concerning mediated causal effects are of great interest in psychology, cognitive science, medicine, social science, public health, and many other disciplines. For instance, about 60% of recent papers published in leading journals in social psychology contain at least one mediation test (Rucker, Preacher, Tormala, & Petty, 2011). Standard parametric approaches to mediation analysis employ regression models, and either the "difference method" (Judd & Kenny, 1981), more common in epid...

  16. VARIABEL LATEN SEBAGAI MODERATOR DAN MEDIATOR DALAM HUBUNGAN KAUSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG GEDE ANTARA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent variables are variables that can not be measured directly. In analysis of causal relationship involving three latent variables, one latent variable can be a moderator or mediator variables. Goodness of Fit moderation and mediation model of latent variables is affected by the value of the canonical correlation between moderator/mediator latent variables with the independent latent variables and dependent latent variables. If the value of both canonical correlation is well , so the Goodness of Fit models of mediation is getting better, while the opposite Goodness of Fit models will be better moderation.

  17. The role of mediation in resolving workplace relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stress triggered by workplace-based interpersonal conflict can result in damaged relationships, loss of productivity, diminished job satisfaction and increasingly, workers' compensation claims for psychological injury. This paper examined the literature on the role and effectiveness of mediation, as the most common method of Alternative Dispute Resolution, in resolving workplace relationship conflict. Available evidence suggests that mediation is most effective when supported by organisational commitment to ADR strategies, policies and processes, and conducted by independent, experienced and qualified mediators. The United States Postal Service program REDRESS™ is described as an illustration of the successful use of mediation to resolve conflict in the workplace.

  18. Mediation analyses: applications in nutrition research and reading the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Chondra M; DeFrancesco, Carol A; Elliot, Diane L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Toobert, Deborah J

    2010-05-01

    Mediation analysis is a newer statistical tool that is becoming more prominent in nutrition research. Its use provides insight into the relationship among variables in a potential causal chain. For intervention studies, it can define the influence of different programmatic components and, in doing so, allows investigators to identify and refine a program's critical aspects. We present an overview of mediation analysis, compare mediators with other variables (confounders, moderators, and covariates), and illustrate how mediation analysis permits interpretation of the change process. A framework is outlined for the critical appraisal of articles purporting to use mediation analysis. The framework's utility is demonstrated by searching the nutrition literature and identifying articles citing mediation cross referenced with the terms "nutrition," "diet," "food," and "obesity." Seventy-two articles were identified that involved human subjects and behavior outcomes, and almost half mentioned mediation without tests to define its presence. Tabulation of the 40 articles appropriately assessing mediation demonstrates an increase in these techniques' appearance and the breadth of nutrition topics addressed. Mediation analysis is an important new statistical tool. Familiarity with its methodology and a framework for assessing articles will allow readers to critically appraise the literature and make informed independent evaluations of works using these techniques.

  19. Solvent mediated self-assembly of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J.; Wilson, W.D.; Palmore, T.

    1997-12-12

    Solvent-mediated crystallization represents a robust approach to self-assembly of nanostructures and microstructures. In organic systems, the relative ease with which the structure of hydrogen- bonded molecules can be manipulated allows for generation of a wide variety of nanoscale crystal structures. In living organisms, control over the micron-to-millimeter form of inorganic crystals is achieved through introduction of bio-organic molecules. The purpose of this proposal is to understand the interplay between solution chemistry, molecular structure, surface chemistry, and the processes of nucleation and crystal growth in solvent-mediated systems, with the goal of developing the atomic and molecular basis of a solvent-mediated self-assembly technology. We will achieve this purpose by: (1) utilizing an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach that provides in situ, real time imaging during growth from solutions, (2) by modifying kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models to include solution-surface kinetics, (3) by introducing quantum chemistry (QC) calculations of the potentials of the relevant chemical species and the near-surface structure of the solution, and (4) by utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify the minimum energy pathways to the solid state. Our work will focus on two systems chosen to address both the manometer and micron-to-millimeter length scales of assembly, the family of 2,5- diketopiperazines (X-DKPs) and the system of CaCO{sub 3} with amino acids. Using AFM, we will record the evolution of surface morphology, critical lengths, step speeds, and step-step interactions as a function of supersaturation and temperature. In the case of the X-DKPs, these measurements will be repeated as the molecular structure of the growth unit is varied. In the case of CaCO{sub 3}, they will be performed as a function of solution chemistry including pH, ionic strength, and amino acid content. In addition, we will measure nucleation rates and orientations of

  20. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Leonie von Brasch, Ruediger Pipkorn, Volker Ehemann, Juergen Jenne, Herbert Spring, Juergen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Werner Rittgen, Waldemar Waldeck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid.

  1. LHC benchmarks from flavored gauge mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierushalmi, N.; Iwamoto, S.; Lee, G.; Nepomnyashy, V.; Shadmi, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present benchmark points for LHC searches from flavored gauge mediation models, in which messenger-matter couplings give flavor-dependent squark masses. Our examples include spectra in which a single squark — stop, scharm, or sup — is much lighter than all other colored superpartners, motivating improved quark flavor tagging at the LHC. Many examples feature flavor mixing; in particular, large stop-scharm mixing is possible. The correct Higgs mass is obtained in some examples by virtue of the large stop A-term. We also revisit the general flavor and CP structure of the models. Even though the A-terms can be substantial, their contributions to EDM's are very suppressed, because of the particular dependence of the A-terms on the messenger coupling. This holds regardless of the messenger-coupling texture. More generally, the special structure of the soft terms often leads to stronger suppression of flavor- and CP-violating processes, compared to naive estimates.

  2. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  3. Gauge Mediation Models with Adjoint Messengers

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih

    2016-01-01

    We present a class of models in the framework of gauge mediation supersymmetry breaking where the messenger fields transform in the adjoint representation of the Standard Model gauge symmetry. To avoid unacceptably light right-handed sleptons in the spectrum we introduce a non-zero U(1)_B-L D-term. This leads to an additional contribution to the soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms which makes the right-handed slepton masses compatible with the current experimental bounds. We show that in this framework the observed 125 GeV Higgs boson mass can be accommodated with the sleptons accessible at the LHC, while the squarks and gluinos lie in the multi-TeV range. We also discuss the issue of the fine-tuning and show that the desired relic dark matter abundance can also be accommodated.

  4. Epigenetics and therapeutic targets mediating neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly evolving science of epigenetics is transforming our understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and holds great promise for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting neurological diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic factors and mechanisms serve as important mediators of the pathogenic processes that lead to irrevocable neural injury and of countervailing homeostatic and regenerative responses. Epigenetics is, therefore, of considerable translational significance to the field of neuroprotection. In this brief review, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and highlight the emerging roles played by epigenetic processes in neural cell dysfunction and death and in resultant neuroprotective responses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection.

  5. Mediating Discourse in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2005-01-01

    , mobilities and networks. Given that (critical) applied linguistics draws upon and informs social theory in a variety of ways, we are thus compelled to ask what new possibilities there are for applied language and discourse studies as a result of contemporary social and political theorising. My contribution......Social and political theory has taken a decidedly 'global' turn in recent years, resulting in a sustained critique of our conceptualisations of 'society' and the 'nation-state'. Social theorists ask us to refocus on, for example, transnationality, global orderings, hybrid collectives, flows...... to this crucial debate is illustrated by considering the exemplary yet diffracted case of transnational adoption. Transnational adoption comprises a nexus of local and global practices which are mediated in, through and across talk, text and other modalities of discourse. My concern is with how the 'child...

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Lymphocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zusen Fan; Qixiang Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Granule-mediated cytotoxicity is the major mechanism for lymphocytes to kill viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. The cytotoxic granules move to the immunological synapse by exocytosis after recognition of a killer cell.The contents of the granules are delivered into target cells with the help of perforin by endocytosis. A group of serine protease granzymes cleave their critical substrates to initiate DNA damage and cell death. The most abundant granzymes are granzyme A and B. They induce cell death through alternate and nonoverlapping pathways. The substrates and functions of the majority of the orphan granzymes have not yet been identified. It is possible that the diversity of granzymes provides fail-safe mechanisms for killing viruses and tumor cells.

  7. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Klaus; von Brasch, Leonie; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Ehemann, Volker; Jenne, Juergen; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Rittgen, Werner; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid. PMID:18026568

  8. Masking mediated print defect visibility predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaochen; Nachlieli, Hila; Shaked, Doron; Shiffman, Smadar; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Banding is a well-known artifact produced by printing systems. It usually appears as lines perpendicular to the process direction of the print. Therefore, banding is an important print quality issue which has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers. However, little literature has focused on the study of the masking effect of content for this kind of print quality issue. Compared with other image and print quality research, our work is focused on the print quality of typical documents printed on a digital commercial printing press. In this paper, we propose a Masking Mediated Print Defect Visibility Predictor (MMPDVP) to predict the visibility of defects in the presence of customer content. The parameters of the algorithm are trained from ground-truth images that have been marked by subjects. The MMPDVP could help the press operator decide whether the print quality is acceptable for specific customer requirements. Ultimately, this model can be used to optimize the print-shop workflow.

  9. ROS and ROS-Mediated Cellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF-κB, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt, ion channels and transporters (Ca2+ and mPTP, and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System.

  10. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26690128

  11. Chiral Flavor Violation from Extended Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A; Thalapillil, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation ($\\chi$FV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.

  12. Chiral flavor violation from extended gauge mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jared A.; Shih, David; Thalapillil, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation (χFV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.

  13. Lepton Flavor Violation in Flavored Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Calibbi, Lorenzo; Ziegler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of Lepton Flavor Violation (LFV) in the context of Flavored Gauge Mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY Partial Compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right (LR) flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressi...

  14. Gauge Mediation at LHC: status and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We show that the predictivity of general gauge mediation (GGM) with TeV-scale stops is greatly increased once the Higgs mass constraint is imposed. The most notable results are a strong lower bound on the mass of the gluino and right-handed squarks, and an upper bound on the Higgsino mass. If the mu-parameter is positive, the wino mass is also bounded from above. These constraints relax significantly for high messenger scales and as such long-lived NLSPs are favored in GGM. We identify a small set of most promising topologies for the neutralino/sneutrino NLSP scenarios and estimate the impact of the current bounds and the sensitivity of the high luminosity LHC. The stau, stop and sbottom NLSP scenarios can be robustly excluded at the high luminosity LHC.

  15. Activism and the Online Mediation Opportunity Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The annual United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change conferences provides a transnational mediation opportunity structure for activist networks to contest policies that favor market-based models for solving the climate crisis. Online technologies, including commercial social media......, have arguably increased possibilities for being involved in protests on a transnational level. However, this article shows how online modes of action privilege lobbying tactics over civil disobedience tactics, arguing that the former is often incommensurate with an anticapitalist climate approach...... to climate change activism. This impedes possibilities for using online media to protest at the radical end of the climate justice movement spectrum. This article explores this interrelationship between activist demands and (online) modes of action through a focus on the mobilization efforts of London...

  16. The mediating role of facebook fan pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Hsu, Li-Chun; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Using the dual mediation hypothesis, this study investigates the role of interestingness (the power of attracting or holding one's attention) attitude towards the news, in the formation of Facebook Fan Page users' electronic word-of-mouth intentions. A total of 599 Facebook fan page users in Taiwan were recruited and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results show that both perceived news entertainment and informativeness positively influence interestingness attitude towards the news. Interestingness attitude towards the news subsequently influences hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes towards the Fan Page, which then influence eWOM intentions. Interestingness attitude towards the news plays a more important role than hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes in generating electronic word-of-mouth intentions. Based on the findings, the implications and future research suggestions are provided. PMID:24875695

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thole, Vera; Vain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is an attractive genomics and biological model system for grass research. Recently, the complete annotated genome sequence of the diploid line Bd21 has been released. Genetic transformation technologies are critical for the discovery and validation of gene function in Brachypodium. Here, we describe an efficient procedure enabling the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a range of diploid and polyploid genotypes of Brachypodium. The procedure relies on the transformation of compact embryogenic calli derived from immature embryos using either chemical selection alone or a combination of chemical and visual screening of transformed tissues and plants. Transformation efficiencies of around 20% can routinely be achieved using this protocol. In the context of the BrachyTAG programme (BrachyTAG.org), this procedure made possible the mass production of Bd21T-DNA mutant plant lines.

  18. General Gauge Mediation at the Weak Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Simon; Shih, David

    2015-01-01

    We completely characterize General Gauge Mediation (GGM) at the weak scale by solving all IR constraints over the full parameter space. This is made possible through a combination of numerical and analytical methods, based on a set of algebraic relations among the IR soft masses derived from the GGM boundary conditions in the UV. We show how tensions between just a few constraints determine the boundaries of the parameter space: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB), the Higgs mass, slepton tachyons, and left-handed stop/sbottom tachyons. While these constraints allow the left-handed squarks to be arbitrarily light, they place strong lower bounds on all of the right-handed squarks. Meanwhile, light EW superpartners are generic throughout much of the parameter space. This is especially the case at lower messenger scales, where a positive threshold correction to $m_h$ coming from light Higgsinos and winos is essential in order to satisfy the Higgs mass constraint.

  19. Design research into mobile museum mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    2013-01-01

    community. 
The PhD research project “Mobile Mediation of Fashion by Museums” explores how aesthetic and ethnographic design methods can be used to develop mobile experiences and articulate museological matters of concern. Building on user perspectives, expressed in response to cultural probes, the project......Using mobile media, museums may transcend institutional settings to highlight the significance and meanings of cultural heritage: framing art and design in the urban sphere, shedding light on nature in the wild, or bringing historic sites to life. The possibilities are manifold...... has generated a design game to support projection and discussion of possible concept scenarios and their implications. The game format was used in a series of workshops with Designmuseum Danmark, to ideate and consider new ways to appreciate Copenhagen fashion culture via mobile media. This paper...

  20. Silver- and gold-mediated nucleobase bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioli, Paulo H; Srinivas, Sudha

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of a density functional theory investigation of the bonding of nucleobases mediated by silver and gold atoms in the gas phase. Our calculations use the Becke exchange and Perdew-Wang correlation functional (BPW91) combined with the Stuttgart effective core potentials to represent the valence electrons of gold, silver, and platinum, and the all-electron DGTZVP basis set for C, H, N, and O. This combination was chosen based on tests on the metal atoms and tautomers of adenine, cytosine, and guanine. To establish a benchmark to understand the metal-mediated bonding, we calculated the binding energy of each of the base pairs in their canonical forms. Our calculations show rather strong bonds between the Watson-Crick base pairs when compared with typical values for N-H-N and N-H-O hydrogen bonds. The neutral metal atoms tend to bond near the nitrogen atoms. The effect of the metal atoms on the bonding of nucleobases differs depending on whether or not the metal atoms bond to one of the hydrogen-bonding sites. When the silver or gold atoms bond to a non-hydrogen-bonding site, the effect is a slight enhancement of the cytosine-guanine bonding, but there is almost no effect on the adenine-thymine pairing. The metal atoms can block one of the hydrogen-bonding sites, thus preventing the normal cytosine-guanine and adenine-thymine pairings. We also find that both silver and gold can bond to consecutive guanines in a similar fashion to platinum, albeit with a significantly lower binding energy.

  1. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2015-03-31

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca(2+) mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca(2+) mobilization. Ca(2+) mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  2. Technological, mediatic and cultural hybridisation: Cultural mediations in the context of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Mendes de Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a context of borders that are dissolving in many senses, of the convergence and hybridisation of technologies, mass media and cultures. The context is the resizing of practical time, of movements and links between the local and the global. In these times of interculturality, communication plays a very important role; not so much in its technological media dimension, but particularly in the dynamics of cultural mediations that are dividing off from mediatised relations. This article aims to reflect on the transformations in present-day communication processes, marked by strong movements of hybridisation, as well as examining how to consider interculturality in the context of cultural mediations, based on dialogue between Latin American and French authors. Also, using media material, the article presents illustrations of the Brazilian cultural scene, which is marked by a long history of hybridisation that is filled with intercultural dynamics.

  3. Love and Marital Quality in Romantic Relationships Mediated and Non-Mediated by Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rafaela Haack

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Love is one of the most desired feelings by human beings. According to the triangular theory of love, it is composed of three elements: intimacy, passion and decision/commitment, which constitutes a dimension related to the quality of love the partners perceive in their relationship. This study aims to compare the three elements of love and marital quality of 86 Internet users (43 in a relationship mediated by the Internet and 43 with a physical relationship. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in the intimacy, the decision/commitment and the whole dimension of love, as well as in the marital quality between partners who have a relationship mediated by Internet and the ones in a physical relationship. We can conclude that the Internet is a great tool for people to meet, but that it is important for the relationship to develop in a face-to-face context.

  4. Technology-Mediated Supervision of Undergraduate Students' Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaldemark, Jimmy; Lindberg, J. Ola

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, technology-mediated participation has increased in tertiary education, which has led to changing conditions for its delivery. However, one part has proven more resistant to change, technology-mediated or not: the supervision of students' undergraduate dissertation work. This article presents a study that analyses technological…

  5. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvelds, MJC; Jorna, H; Verkade, HJ; Bot, AGM; Hofmann, F; Agellon, LB; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, HR

    2005-01-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal

  6. Mediating Tourist Experiences. Access to Places via Shared Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Fesenmaier, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of new media using multimedia features has generated a new set of mediators for tourists' experiences. This study examines two hypotheses regarding the roles that online travel videos play as mediators of tourist experiences. The results confirm that online shared videos can provide...

  7. Technology mediator: a new role for the reference librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, David K; Bracke, Paul J; Keim, Samuel M

    2006-01-01

    The Arizona Health Sciences Library has collaborated with clinical faculty to develop a federated search engine that is useful for meeting real-time clinical information needs. This article proposes a technology mediation role for the reference librarian that was inspired by the project, and describes the collaborative model used for developing technology-mediated services for targeted users. PMID:17040566

  8. Technology mediator: a new role for the reference librarian?

    OpenAIRE

    Howse, David K; Bracke, Paul J.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    The Arizona Health Sciences Library has collaborated with clinical faculty to develop a federated search engine that is useful for meeting real-time clinical information needs. This article proposes a technology mediation role for the reference librarian that was inspired by the project, and describes the collaborative model used for developing technology-mediated services for targeted users.

  9. Family Structure and Mediators of Adolescent Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L.; Li, Xin; Reckase, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how family structure is associated with adolescent drug use and how parenting, peer use, religiosity, and neighborhood problems may mediate the relationship. The authors use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between family structure and drug use across race, and examine potential mediators. Using data…

  10. 77 FR 23208 - Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... FR 19,591). The Board favors the resolution of disputes through the use of mediation and arbitration... of information described below and in greater detail at 77 FR 19,591 is necessary for the proper... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1108 and 1109 Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration...

  11. SPECIAL ISSUES REGARDING THE MEDIATION PROCESS IN THE COMMERCIAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEPTIMIU STOICA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research subject to this paper is to find proper solutions for the increase of the volume and efficiency in the field of commercial mediation. Starting from practical remarks, after an analysis of the substance, a new concept is suggested to be included and put into operation, namely the special commercial mediation, and a plead is made for its use in the current activity of alternative dispute resolution. The first major objective of this paper is to demonstrate once again the need and utility of mediation in the commercial field, insisting though on its remarkable specific nature. The second objective is, starting from the outlined differences between the commercial mediation and the classical mediation, to define and to conceptualize the special commercial mediation, as a separate branch of mediation. The third objective of this paper is to draw the regime of the newly defined category of commercial mediation from a regulatory point of view, of the implementation structure and techniques as foreseen.

  12. 78 FR 29071 - Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...\\ Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures, 75 FR 52054. \\4\\ Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration... Resolution, 60 FR 19494, 19499-500 (April 19, 1995) (codified at 18 CFR 385.605 (Rule 605)) (describing FERC... and Arbitration Procedures AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules....

  13. For-profit mediators in sponsored search advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sudhir K; Gunadhi, Himawan; Rezaei, Behnam A

    2007-01-01

    A mediator is a well-known construct in game theory, and is an entity that plays on behalf of some of the agents who choose to use its services, while the rest of the agents participate in the game directly. We initiate a game theoretic study of sponsored search auctions, such as those used by Google and Yahoo!, involving {\\em incentive driven} mediators. We refer to such mediators as {\\em for-profit} mediators, so as to distinguish them from mediators introduced in prior work, who have no monetary incentives, and are driven by the altruistic goal of implementing certain desired outcomes. We show that in our model, (i) players/advertisers can improve their payoffs by choosing to use the services of the mediator, compared to directly participating in the auction; (ii) the mediator can obtain monetary benefit by managing the advertising burden of its group of advertisers; and (iii) the payoffs of the mediator and the advertisers it plays for are incentive compatible with the advertisers who do dot use its servi...

  14. Digital Artistry and Mediation: (Re)mixing Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that mediation has become a central issue outside formal music education. An outstanding example of this is digital music and its dependence on the new technologies of production, dissemination, and consuming. In this paper, the author argues that (1) mediation is one of the most important aspects of digital artistry and that (2)…

  15. Social and ethical dimensions of computer-mediated education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses social and ethical issues in computer-mediated education, with a focus on higher education. It will be argued if computer-mediated education is to be implemented in a socially and ethically sound way, four major social and ethical issues much be confronted. These are: (1) the is

  16. Kinase-Mediated Regulation of P4-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Merethe Mørch

    Abstract Kinase-Mediated Regulation of P4-ATPases Understanding kinase-mediated regulation and designing novel tools to study regulatory proteins of P4-ATPases P4-ATPases play a critical role in the biogenesis of transport vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways, and P4-ATPase activity...

  17. Counterfactual Graphical Models for Longitudinal Mediation Analysis with Unobserved Confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpitser, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning mediated causal effects are of great interest in psychology, cognitive science, medicine, social science, public health, and many other disciplines. For instance, about 60% of recent papers published in leading journals in social psychology contain at least one mediation test (Rucker, Preacher, Tormala, & Petty, 2011).…

  18. Shear stress mediates endothelial adaptations to exercise training in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinken, T.M.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial functi

  19. Technological Mediation and Power: Postphenomenology, Critical Theory, and Autonomist Marxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantwal Rao, M.; Jongerden, J.P.; Lemmens, P.C.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the power of technological mediation from the point of view of autonomist Marxism (Hardt, Negri, Virno, Berardi, Lazzarrato). The first part of the article discusses the theories developed on technological mediation in postphenomenology (Ihde, Verbeek) and critical theory of

  20. School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…

  1. Peer Mediation. Conflict Resolution in Schools. Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, Fred; And Others

    This program guide for the middle and high school levels contains the student manual which is also published separately. Teachers and administrators are advised on how to implement a peer mediation program, which is designed as an alternative for conflict resolution. The peer mediation approach presented here assumes that conflict is a normal and…

  2. 15 CFR 930.157 - Mediation and informal negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation and informal negotiations. 930.157 Section 930.157 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Activities Having Interstate Coastal Effects § 930.157 Mediation and informal negotiations. The...

  3. Textbook Mediation of Teaching: An Example from Tertiary Mathematics Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Vilma; Griffiths, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from interviews with mathematics faculty in three different types of undergraduate institutions and using Rabardel's model of instrument use (Verillon & Rabardel "1995"), we describe three ways textbooks mediate college faculty work regarding instruction. The model anticipates epistemic and pragmatic mediations between the…

  4. A General Multilevel SEM Framework for Assessing Multilevel Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zyphur, Michael J.; Zhang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Several methods for testing mediation hypotheses with 2-level nested data have been proposed by researchers using a multilevel modeling (MLM) paradigm. However, these MLM approaches do not accommodate mediation pathways with Level-2 outcomes and may produce conflated estimates of between- and within-level components of indirect effects. Moreover,…

  5. 12 CFR 269.9 - Mediation of negotiation impasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of negotiation impasses. 269.9 Section 269.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.9 Mediation of...

  6. Promotion of Participation and Mediation in Multicultural Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Claudio; Rossi, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents the theoretical framework and main results of a research on intercultural mediation which has been performed in eight multicultural classrooms of Italian secondary schools. Intercultural mediation is conceived as a form of dialogic communication which should empower empathic and equal relationships between the participants by…

  7. Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrout, Patrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…

  8. Low-Scale Gauge Mediation and Composite Messenger Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaguchi, Koichi; Nakamura, Eita; Shirai, Satoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2009-01-01

    In recent works, we have proposed a possible dark matter in composite messenger gauge mediation models. In this paper, we discuss the details of a composite messenger model taking a possible supersymmetry breaking scenario and show that the correct dark matter abundance and a successful gauge mediation can be realized.

  9. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Petunia leaf discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der I.M.

    2006-01-01

    Many dicotyledonous and also several monocotyledonous plant species are susceptible to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This current and well-established method has been used successfully with a large number of plant species to mediate gene transfer. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-med

  11. Prognosis in canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (iIMHA) is one of the most frequently occurring immune-mediated diseases in dogs. A gel-based Coombs' test was shown to perform equally well as a classical Coombs' test. Since the gel-based Coombs' test can be commercially produced and is easy and

  12. HUMAN COMMUNICATION AS MEDIATING THE UNITS OF PARAMETERISED ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Stepanic

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human communication is prevalently a mediated process. Mediators are units of environment, which are attributed functions within the local value set. They are utilised in such a way as to optimise the change of human states. In this article, a mediator-centred interpretation of the human communication is given. The interpretation follows closely the concept of mediated interaction developed within physics. It is conjectured that collection of mediators, which the humans use, has a well-defined average. The averaged collection permits reliable interpretation as a human communication spectrum. Relation of the intensity of a spectral component with regard to different senses, and with regard to intensity of interaction is discussed.

  13. Standardized Effect Size Measures for Mediation Analysis in Cluster-Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Dion, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article presents 3 standardized effect size measures to use when sharing results of an analysis of mediation of treatment effects for cluster-randomized trials. The authors discuss 3 examples of mediation analysis (upper-level mediation, cross-level mediation, and cross-level mediation with a contextual effect) with demonstration of the…

  14. The Benefits of Peer Mediation in the Context of Urban Conflict and Program Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie

    2000-01-01

    This case study of peer mediation at one urban high school examines who benefits and how they benefit. Data from observations of peer mediator training, mediation sessions, interviews, and school records indicate that though peer mediation is designed to resolve conflicts in school, it is the mediators themselves who benefit most from the…

  15. The Effects of Peer Mediation with Young Children (PMYC) on Children's Cognitive Modifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shamir, Adina

    2007-01-01

    Peer mediation with young children is a relatively novel approach aimed at teaching young children how to mediate to their peers. The main benefits of peer mediation are in developing children's mediation teaching style and cognitive modifiability. The peer mediation developed recently is based on Vygotsky's sociocultural and Feuerstein's…

  16. Revisiting Mediation in the Social and Behavioral Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of mediation is of critical importance to the social and behavioral sciences and to evolutionary social psychology in particular. As with the concept of evolutionary adaptation, however, one can argue that causal mediation is in need of explicit theoretical justification and empirical support. Mainstream evolutionary social psychology proposes, for example, that organisms are “adaptation executers”, and not “fitness maximizers”. The execution of adaptations is triggered by fitness-relevant ecological contingencies at both ultimate and proximate levels of analysis. This logic is essentially equivalent to what methodologists refer to as the process of mediation; the adaptations to be executed (or not, depending upon the prevailing environmental circumstances causally mediate the effects of the ecological contingencies upon the fitness outcomes. Thus, the process of mediation can be generally conceptualized as a causal chain of events leading to a given outcome or set of outcomes. If a predictor variable operates through an intervening variable to affect a criterion variable, then mediation is said to exist. Nevertheless, it does not appear that some psychologists (particularly evolutionary-social psychologists are sufficiently well-versed in the fundamental logic and quantitative methodology of establishing causal mediation to support such claims. In the current paper, we set out to review the ways researchers support their use of mediation statements and also propose critical considerations on this front. We start with more conventional methods for testing mediation, discuss variants of the conventional approach, discuss the limitations of such methods as we see them, and end with our preferred mediation approach. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v4i1.17761

  17. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  18. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mészáros

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of cereals is one of the emerging areas for plant genomic and biotechnology research. Wheat was among the last major crops to be transformed by particle bombardment about 10 years ago. However, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has several advantages over bombardment, including a reduction in copy number, fewer rearrangements and preferential integration into transcriptionally active chromosome regions. As a first step, we started to adapt an immature embryo-based transformation method for the model variety ‘Cadenza’. The regeneration of this variety was low and especially the cost of generating donor plants was high. Therefore, we decided (i to test regeneration capacity of winter and spring wheats using four different explants, (ii to determine the optimal genotype-regeneration system combinations, and (iii to work out the details of mature embryo transformation with Agrobacterium. The experiment was carried out with 16 cultivated winter wheat and 2 model spring wheat varieties. Four different explants: anther, immature embryo, mature embryo and dry seed were tested for callus induction and plant regeneration. The regeneration capacity was the lowest in the case of anther culture and ranged from 20% (‘Mv Béres’ to 0.1% (‘Mv Magvas’ with four varieties exerting significantly higher regeneration than ‘Cadenza’. Plant regeneration from immature embryos ranged between 59% (‘Mv Regiment’ and 0.1% (‘Mv Toborzó’. Again, four varieties produced significantly more plants than the control ‘Cadenza’. We tested two systems for the plant regeneration from mature embryos. First, mature embryos were isolated from seeds, which resulted in an average of 17% plant regeneration (from 63% in ‘Fatima’ to zero in ‘Mv Palotás’. ‘Cadenza’ was one of the worse regenerating genotype (7%. The highest plant regeneration (average 54% was in the case of seed explants. There were no significant differences

  19. Less is More when Gluinos Mediate

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Compressed mass spectra are generally more difficult to identify than spectra with large splittings. In particular, gluino pair production with four high energy top or bottom quarks leaves a striking signature in a detector. However, if any of the mass splittings are compressed, the power of traditional techniques may deteriorate. Searches for direct stop/sbottom pair production can fill in the gaps. As a demonstration, we show that for $\\tilde{g}\\rightarrow t\\tilde{t}_1$ and $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}\\sim m_{\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0}$, limits on the stop mass at 8 TeV can be extended by least 300 GeV for a 1.1 TeV gluino using a $pp\\rightarrow \\tilde{t}_1\\tilde{t}_1$ search. At 13 TeV, the effective cross section for the gluino mediated process is twice the direct stop/sbottom pair production cross section, suggesting that direct stop/sbottom searches could be sensitive to discover new physics earlier than expected.

  20. LHC Benchmarks from Flavored Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Ierushalmi, N; Lee, G; Nepomnyashy, V; Shadmi, Y

    2016-01-01

    We present benchmark points for LHC searches from flavored gauge mediation models, in which messenger-matter couplings give flavor-dependent squark masses. Our examples include spectra in which a single squark - stop, scharm, or sup - is much lighter than all other colored superpartners, motivating improved quark flavor tagging at the LHC. Many examples feature flavor mixing; in particular, large stop-scharm mixing is possible. The correct Higgs mass is obtained in some examples by virtue of the large stop A-term. We also revisit the general flavor and CP structure of the models. We find that, even though the A-terms can be substantial, their contributions to EDM's are very suppressed, because of the particular dependence of the A-terms on the messenger coupling. This holds regardless of the messenger-coupling texture. More generally, the special structure of the soft terms often leads to stronger suppression of flavor- and CP-violating processes, compared to naive estimates.

  1. Risky business: Microhomology-mediated end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Supriya; Villarreal, Diana; Shim, Eun Yong; Lee, Sang Eun

    2016-06-01

    Prevalence of microhomology (MH) at the breakpoint junctions in somatic and germ-line chromosomal rearrangements and in the programmed immune receptor rearrangements from cells deficient in classical end joining reveals an enigmatic process called MH-mediated end joining (MMEJ). MMEJ repairs DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by annealing flanking MH and deleting genetic information at the repair junctions from yeast to humans. Being genetically distinct from canonical DNA DSB pathways, MMEJ is involved with the fusions of eroded/uncapped telomeres as well as with the assembly of chromosome fragments in chromothripsis. In this review article, we will discuss an up-to-date model representing the MMEJ process and the mechanism by which cells regulate MMEJ to limit repair-associated mutagenesis. We will also describe the possible therapeutic gains resulting from the inhibition of MMEJ in recombination deficient cancers. Lastly, we will embark on two contentious issues associated with MMEJ such as the significance of MH at the repair junction to be the hallmark of MMEJ and the relationship of MMEJ to other mechanistically related DSB repair pathways. PMID:26790771

  2. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, A. E., E-mail: aberk@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Sinha, S. K. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Fullerton, E. E. [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Smith, D. J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  3. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

  4. Oncogenic BRAF-Mediated Melanoma Cell Invasion

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    Hezhe Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma patients with oncogenic BRAFV600E mutation have poor prognoses. While the role of BRAFV600E in tumorigenesis is well established, its involvement in metastasis that is clinically observed in melanoma patients remains a topic of debate. Here, we show that BRAFV600E melanoma cells have extensive invasion activity as assayed by the generation of F-actin and cortactin foci that mediate membrane protrusion, and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Inhibition of BRAFV600E blocks melanoma cell invasion. In a BRAFV600E-driven murine melanoma model or in patients’ tumor biopsies, cortactin foci decrease upon inhibitor treatment. In addition, genome-wide expression analysis shows that a number of invadopodia-related genes are downregulated after BRAFV600E inhibition. Mechanistically, BRAFV600E induces phosphorylation of cortactin and the exocyst subunit Exo70 through ERK, which regulates actin dynamics and matrix metalloprotease secretion, respectively. Our results provide support for the role of BRAFV600E in metastasis and suggest that inhibiting invasion is a potential therapeutic strategy against melanoma.

  5. π-Clamp-mediated cysteine conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Welborn, Matthew; Zhu, Tianyu; Yang, Nicole J.; Santos, Michael S.; van Voorhis, Troy; Pentelute, Bradley L.

    2016-02-01

    Site-selective functionalization of complex molecules is one of the most significant challenges in chemistry. Typically, protecting groups or catalysts must be used to enable the selective modification of one site among many that are similarly reactive, and general strategies that selectively tune the local chemical environment around a target site are rare. Here, we show a four-amino-acid sequence (Phe-Cys-Pro-Phe), which we call the ‘π-clamp’, that tunes the reactivity of its cysteine thiol for site-selective conjugation with perfluoroaromatic reagents. We use the π-clamp to selectively modify one cysteine site in proteins containing multiple endogenous cysteine residues. These examples include antibodies and cysteine-based enzymes that would be difficult to modify selectively using standard cysteine-based methods. Antibodies modified using the π-clamp retained binding affinity to their targets, enabling the synthesis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates for selective killing of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The π-clamp is an unexpected approach to mediate site-selective chemistry and provides new avenues to modify biomolecules for research and therapeutics.

  6. MicroRNA-mediated somatic cell reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Hao; Ying, Shao-Yao

    2013-02-01

    Since the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), much focus has been placed on iPSCs due to their great therapeutic potential for diseases such as abnormal development, degenerative disorders, and even cancers. Subsequently, Takahashi and Yamanaka took a novel approach by using four defined transcription factors to generate iPSCs in mice and human fibroblast cells. Scientists have since been trying to refine or develop better approaches to reprogramming, either by using different combinations of transcription factors or delivery methods. However, recent reports showed that the microRNA expression pattern plays a crucial role in somatic cell reprogramming and ectopic introduction of embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs revert cells back to an ESC-like state, although, the exact mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. This review describes recent work that has focused on microRNA-mediated approaches to somatic cell reprogramming as well as some of the pros and cons to these approaches and a possible mechanism of action. Based on the pivotal role of microRNAs in embryogenesis and somatic cell reprogramming, studies in this area must continue in order to gain a better understanding of the role of microRNAs in stem cells regulation and activity. PMID:22961769

  7. Kinins as mediators of intestinal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaginella, T S; Kachur, J F

    1989-01-01

    Kinins are small peptides that have diverse biological actions. Concentrations of kinins in the nanomolar or subnanomolar range induce intestinal smooth muscle contraction and evoke mucosal electrolyte secretion. Hyperkininemia is associated with effects on gastrointestinal motility and intestinal mucosal inflammation. Bradykinin and kallidin are the predominant kinins with effects on the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Bradykinin stimulates chloride ion secretion by the guinea pig and rabbit ileum, rabbit colon, rat colon and monolayers of human HCA-7 cells. Kinins directly or indirectly stimulate phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. Cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa (e.g., fibroblasts, mast cells, leukocytes), by liberating cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, are involved in the kinin response; direct effects on epithelial cells cannot be ruled out, however. Antagonists now exist for kinin receptors. Based on studies with these antagonists in smooth muscle preparations, two subgroups of kinin receptor have been identified. The B2-type receptor appears to be responsible for both the contraction of ileal muscle and ileal secretion. Kinins are probably more important as pathophysiological rather than as physiological mediators. They may amplify the effect of inflammatory products that induce intestinal secretion. The precise involvement of kinins in clinical mucosal secretory states and diarrhea will require quantitative assessment of their levels during each phase of mucosal inflammation. Additional studies on the mechanism of action of kinins will be essential in designing therapy to mitigate the symptoms associated with mucosal inflammation.

  8. Pathogenesis of immune-mediated neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2015-04-01

    Autoimmune neuropathies occur when immunologic tolerance to myelin or axonal antigens is lost. Even though the triggering factors and the underling immunopathology have not been fully elucidated in all neuropathy subsets, immunological studies on the patients' nerves, transfer experiments with the patients' serum or intraneural injections, and molecular fingerprinting on circulating autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells, indicate that cellular and humoral factors, either independently or in concert with each other, play a fundamental role in their cause. The review is focused on the main subtypes of autoimmune neuropathies, mainly the Guillain-Barré syndrome(s), the Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP), the Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN), and the IgM anti-MAG-antibody mediated neuropathy. It addresses the factors associated with breaking tolerance, examines the T cell activation process including co-stimulatory molecules and key cytokines, and discusses the role of antibodies against peripheral nerve glycolipids or glycoproteins. Special attention is given to the newly identified proteins in the nodal, paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions as potential antigenic targets that could best explain conduction failure and rapid recovery. New biological agents against T cells, cytokines, B cells, transmigration and transduction molecules involved in their immunopathologic network, are discussed as future therapeutic options in difficult cases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.

  9. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamo, A.; Benyamini, A.; Shapir, I.; Khivrich, I.; Waissman, J.; Kaasbjerg, K.; Oreg, Y.; von Oppen, F.; Ilani, S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed ‘excitonic’, promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the ‘glue’ that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

  10. LHC Signals of Pure Gravity Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldstein Brian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is mounting that natural supersymmetry at the weak scale is not realized in nature. This evidence comes from collider searches, a lack of new flavor changing neutral current effects, and now also the size of the measured Higgs mass. On the other hand, string theory suggests that supersymmetry might be present at some energy scale, and gauge coupling unification and dark matter imply that that energy scale may be relatively low. The simplest model to address all of these hints is arguably “pure gravity mediation”, in which the scalar superpartner masses are taken to be perhaps 100 TeV, with gauginos automatically acquiring loop factor suppressed masses of order TeV. The gauginos might then be the only superpartners accessible to the LHC. Unification and LSP dark matter are maintained (with a wino LSP at the cost of a 10−5 or 10−6 fine tuning. Here I will discuss the structure and LHC phenomenology of pure gravity mediation.

  11. Chaperone-mediated autophagy: roles in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhibiao; Zeng, Weijun; Tao, Kai; E, Zhen; Wang, Bao; Yang, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), one of the main pathways of lysosomal proteolysis, is characterized by the selective targeting and direct translocation into the lysosomal lumen of substrate proteins containing a targeting motif biochemically related to the pentapeptide KFERQ. Along with the other two lysosomal pathways, macro- and micro-autophagy, CMA is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival by selectively degrading misfolded, oxidized, or damaged cytosolic proteins. CMA plays an important role in pathologies such as cancer, kidney disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons are post-mitotic and highly susceptible to dysfunction of cellular quality-control systems. Maintaining a balance between protein synthesis and degradation is critical for neuronal functions and homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed several new mechanisms by which CMA protects neurons through regulating factors critical for their viability and homeostasis. In the current review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the regulation and physiology of CMA with a specific focus on its possible roles in neuroprotection. PMID:26206599

  12. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  13. Spring-mediated mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofid, Mehrdad M; Inoue, Nozomu; Tufaro, Anthony P; Vander Kolk, Craig A; Manson, Paul N

    2003-09-01

    Successful performance of distraction osteogenesis requires rigorous patient compliance with a daily activation regimen of a percutaneous screw. Previous clinical studies have found that failure of patient compliance with this regimen is the most common complication leading to technical failure of the distraction process. The authors have developed an internalized spring-mediated device for mandibular distraction osteogenesis that can potentially abrogate the risks associated with patient compliance by allowing for automated distraction across an osteotomy. Twenty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular osteotomy. A segment of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy reinforced at both ends with a pinball was fashioned into an inferiorly based arc and secured to the mandible with stainless steel wire. On postoperative day 12, spring activation commenced by cutting a wire binding the two pinballs to one another. Animals were observed for 6 weeks before they were killed. Radiographic studies and decalcified histologic analysis were performed on extracted mandibles. Temperature- and displacement-dependent properties of the shape memory alloy were also examined. Five animals were excluded from the study due to infection, nonunion, or device failure. A mean distraction of 1.2 mm in the distracted hemimandible relative to the nonoperated hemimandible was found (P development of devices will incorporate technology that permits fully internalized and automated distraction to occur. PMID:14501343

  14. 'Reverse gear' cellular movement mediated by chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatopolskiy, A; Laurence, J

    2001-08-01

    We sought to model the mechanism by which leucocytes may be actively repulsed by a beta-chemokine signal. This model is used to interpret an apparent paradox in chemokine biology, whereby high levels of a T-cell chemoattractant, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), are present in bone marrow and thymic tissues despite a paucity of mature T lymphocytes in these areas. We postulate the differential involvement in cell migration of the two binding sites on SDF-1 for its sole receptor, CXCR4, depending on whether high or low concentrations of SDF-1 are encountered by the cell. Site choice would be mediated by divergent affinities of the two binding interactions. We also propose differential signalling following SDF-1/CXCR4 interactions on the plasma membrane versus ligand/receptor complexes in endocytic vesicles. Preliminary data showing divergent susceptibility to kinase inhibitors depending on whether a cell is attracted to or repulsed by SDF-1, are consistent with this model. In terms of physical movement toward or away from a chemokine gradient, we compare the cycling of surface receptors during migration to the caterpillar drive of a tractor, which can change direction simply by altering the direction of rotation of its threads. Finally, the potential clinical implications of concentration-dependent, chemokine-based cell attraction and repulsion are discussed. PMID:11488980

  15. Statins attenuate polymethylmethacrylate-mediated monocyte activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, Alan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic osteolysis precipitates aseptic loosening of components, increases the risk of periprosthetic fracture and, through massive bone loss, complicates revision surgery and ultimately is the primary cause for failure of joint arthroplasty. The anti-inflammatory properties of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors belonging to the statin family are well recognized. We investigated a possible role for status in initiating the first stage of the osteolytic cycle, namely monocytic activation. METHODS: We used an in vitro model of the human monocyte\\/macrophage inflammatory response to poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles after pretreat-ing cells with cerivastatin, a potent member of the statin family. Cell activation based upon production of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 cytokines was analyzed and the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway was evaluated using western blot analysis, to identify its role in cell activation and in any cerivastatin effects observed. RESULTS: We found that pretreatment with cerivastatin significantly abrogates the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and MCP-1 by human monocytes in response to polymethylmethacrylate particle activation. This inflammatory activation and attenuation appear to be mediated through the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. INTERPRETATION: We propose that by intervening at the upstream activation stage, subsequent osteoclast activation and osteolysis can be suppressed. We believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of statins may potentially play a prophylactic role in the setting of aseptic loosening, and in so doing increase implant longevity.

  16. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  17. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  18. Fibroblasts in fibrosis: novel roles and mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Thomas Kendall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the most common cell type of the connective tissues found throughout the body and the principal source of the extensive extracellular matrix (ECM characteristic of these tissues. They are also the central mediators of the pathological fibrotic accumulation of ECM and the cellular proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to prolonged tissue injury and chronic inflammation. The transformation of the fibroblast cell lineage involves classical developmental signaling programs and includes a surprisingly diverse range of precursor cell types—most notably, myofibroblasts that are the apex of the fibrotic phenotype. Myofibroblasts display exaggerated ECM production; constitutively secrete and are hypersensitive to chemical signals such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; and are endowed with a contractile apparatus allowing them to manipulate the ECM fibers physically to close open wounds. In addition to ECM production, fibroblasts have multiple concomitant biological roles, such as in wound healing, inflammation, and angiogenesis, which are each interwoven with the process of fibrosis. We now recognize many common fibroblast-related features across various physiological and pathological protracted processes. Indeed, a new appreciation has emerged for the role of noncancerous fibroblast interactions with tumors in cancer progression. Although the predominant current clinical treatments of fibrosis involve nonspecific immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative drugs, a variety of potential therapies under investigation specifically target fibroblast biology.

  19. Molecular pathways of pannexin1-mediated neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Shestopalov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin1 (Panx1 forms nonselective membrane channels, structurally similar to gap junction hemichannels, that is permeable to ions, nucleotides and other small molecules below 900 Da. Panx1 activity is implicated in paracrine signaling and inflammasome regulation. Recent studies in different animal models showed that Panx1 overactivation correlates with a selective demise of several types of neurons, including retinal ganglion cells, brain pyramidal and enteric neurons. The list of Panx1 activators includes extracellular ATP, glutamate, high K+, Zn2+, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and elevation of intracellular Ca2+. Most of these molecules are released following mechanical, ischemic or inflammatory injury of the CNS, and rapidly activate this channel. As a result, prolonged opening of Panx1 channel induced by these danger signals trigger a cascade of neurotoxic events capable of killing cells. The most vulnerable cell type are neurons that express high levels of Panx1. Experimental evidence suggests that Panx1 channels mediate at least two distinct neurotoxic processes: increased permeability of the plasma membrane and activation of the inflammasome in neurons and glia. Importantly, either pharmacological or genetic inactivation of Panx1 suppresses both these processes, providing a marked protection in several disease and injury models. These findings indicate that external danger signals generated after diverse types of injuries converge to activate Panx1. In this review we discuss molecular mechanisms associated with Panx1 toxicity and the crosstalk between different pathways.

  20. [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Cymbidium sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Wang, Fen; Zeng, Ruizhen; Guo, Herong; Zhou, Yuliang; Zhang, Zhisheng

    2015-04-01

    Genetic transformation is an effective method to improve breeding objective traits of orchids. However, there is little information about genetic transformation of Cymbidium sinensis. Rhizomes from shoot-tip culture of C. sinensis cv. 'Qijianbaimo' were used to establish a practical transformation protocol of C. sinensis. Pre-culture time, concentration and treating methods of acetosyringone, concentration of infection bacteria fluid (OD600), infection time, and co-culture time had significant effects on β-glucuronidase (GUS) transient expression rate of C. sinensis cv. 'Qijianbaimo' rhizome. The GUS transient expression rate of rhizome was the highest (11.67%) when rhizomes pre-cultured for 39 d were soaked in bacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.9) supplemented with 200 μmol/L acetosyringone for 35 min, followed by culturing on co-culture medium supplemented with 200 μmol/L acetosyringone for 7 d. Under this transformation conditions, 3 transgenic plantlets, confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and PCR, were obtained from 400 regenerated plantlets, and the genetic transformation rate was 0.75%. This proved that it was feasible to create new cultivars by the use of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in C. sinense.

  1. Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalopathies and Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Matteo; Thouin, Anaïs; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 15 years it has become clear that rare but highly recognizable diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including newly identified forms of limbic encephalitis and other encephalopathies, are likely to be mediated by antibodies (Abs) to CNS proteins. The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein like 2, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. The diseases are not invariably cancer-related and are therefore different from the classical paraneoplastic neurological diseases that are associated with, but not caused by, Abs to intracellular proteins. Most importantly, the new antibody-associated diseases almost invariably respond to immunotherapies with considerable and sometimes complete recovery, and there is convincing evidence of their pathogenicity in the relatively limited studies performed so far. Treatments include first-line steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasma exchange, and second-line rituximab and cyclophosphamide, followed in many cases by steroid-sparing agents in the long-term. This review focuses mainly on N-methyl D-aspartate receptor- and voltage-gated potassium channel complex-related Abs in adults, the clinical phenotypes, and treatment responses. Pediatric cases are referred to but not reviewed in detail. As there have been very few prospective studies, the conclusions regarding immunotherapies are based on retrospective studies. PMID:26692392

  2. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Kuo

    Full Text Available Sexually attractive characteristics are often thought to reflect an individual's condition or reproductive potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms through which they do so are generally unknown. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS is known to modulate aging, reproduction, and stress resistance in several species and to contribute to variability of these traits in natural populations. Here we show that IIS determines sexual attractiveness in Drosophila through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC, many of which function as pheromones. Using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS together with newly introduced laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS we establish that CHC profiles are significantly affected by genetic manipulations that target IIS. Manipulations that reduce IIS also reduce attractiveness, while females with increased IIS are significantly more attractive than wild-type animals. IIS effects on attractiveness are mediated by changes in CHC profiles. Insulin signaling influences CHC through pathways that are likely independent of dFOXO and that may involve the nutrient-sensing Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential.

  3. Strategies for enhancing catecholamine-mediated neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Major findings made during this project period included the following observations: changes in tyrosine availability do affect brain dopamine release, as assessed by in vivo microdialysis, but that neuronal feedback mechanisms limit the durations of this effect except when dopaminergic neurotransmission has been deficient; the circulating hormone TRH markedly stimulates brain dopamine release, an effect probably mediated by its diketopiperazine metabolite; the amount of circulating L-dopa which enters the brain is both enhanced by carbohydrate consumption and suppressed by protein intake (both nutritional effects can be damaging, inasmuch as a sudden rush of L-dopa into the brain can facilitate dyskinesias, while the inhibition of brain L-dopa uptake by proteins suppresses its conversion to brain dopamine; an appropriate mixture of dietary proteins and carbohydrates can obviate both effects); serotonin release from superfused hypothalamic slices is a linear function of available tryptophan levels throughout the normal dynamic range; the daily rhythm in plasma melatonin levels is abnormal both in the sudden infant death syndrome and in women with secondary amenorrhea; tyrosine can potentiate the anorectic effects of widely-used sympathomimetic drugs; newly-described COMT inhibitors can enhance brain dopamine release in vivo; and a cell culture system, based on Y-79 (retinoblast) cells, exists in which melatonin reliably suppresses dopamine release.

  4. Non-universalities in pure gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest model of pure gravity mediation contains only two free parameters: the gravitino mass and tanβ. Scalar masses are universal at some high energy renormalization scale and gaugino masses are determined through anomalies and depend on the gravitino mass and the gauge couplings. This theory requires a relatively large gravitino mass (m3/2>or similar 300 TeV) and a limited range in tanβ≅1.7-2.5. Here we generalize the theory to allow for non-universality in the Higgs soft masses. This introduces zero, one or two new free parameters associated with Higgs soft masses. This generalization allows us to greatly increase the allowed range in tanβ and it allows one to find viable solutions with lower m3/2. The latter is important if we hope to find a low energy signal from gluinos. Some special cases of these non-universalities are suggestive of Higgs bosons as Nambu-Goldstone bosons or a partial no-scale structure for the Higgs doublets. Thus, we probe signatures at the weak scale and structures at the GUT and/or Planck scale. (orig.)

  5. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated hepatocyte targeting - strategies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Anisha A; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-04-10

    Hepatocyte resident afflictions continue to affect the human population unabated. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is primarily expressed on hepatocytes and minimally on extra-hepatic cells. This makes it specifically attractive for receptor-mediated drug delivery with minimum concerns of toxicity. ASGPR facilitates internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and exhibits high affinity for carbohydrates specifically galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucose. Isomeric forms of sugar, galactose density and branching, spatial geometry and galactose linkages are key factors influencing ligand-receptor binding. Popular ligands for ASGPR mediated targeting are carbohydrate polymers, arabinogalactan and pullulan. Other ligands include galactose-bearing glycoproteins, glycopeptides and galactose modified polymers and lipids. Drug-ligand conjugates provide a viable strategy; nevertheless ligand-anchored nanocarriers provide an attractive option for ASGPR targeted delivery and are widely explored. The present review details various ligands and nanocarriers exploited for ASGPR mediated delivery of drugs to hepatocytes. Nanocarrier properties affecting ASGPR mediated uptake are discussed at length. The review also highlights the clinical relevance of ASGPR mediated targeting and applications in diagnostics. ASGPR mediated hepatocyte targeting provides great promise for improved therapy of hepatic afflictions.

  6. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen.

  7. Addressing Parenting Disputes Between Estranged Parents Through Community Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhawa Palihapitiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediation provides a means of resolving disputes that promises to reduce litigation while avoiding further damage to party relationships. The present study addressed the question whether parents engaged in parenting disputes generated by divorce or separation received the promised benefits of mediation when services were delivered by means of community mediation, which combined the dual features of free services and volunteer mediators. Reported outcomes such as agreements, party satisfaction, relationship changes, and court involvement, as well as the connection between these outcomes and party factors of custodial status and income level, were examined, and several encouraging trends emerged. Results indicated that an economically diverse group of disputing parents were provided access to mediation services delivered under community mediation. Moreover, the prospect of avoiding litigation motivated a majority of parents to participate in community mediation. The positive outcomes reported by most parents, irrespective of income level and custodial status, included agreement and process satisfaction rates consistent with national trends, the development of parenting plans, and for a sizable minority of parents, reduced court involvement and improved between-parent interactions. However, non-custodial parents tended to be significantly more positive about mediation’s helpfulness with parenting issues than were custodial parents.

  8. Inlfammatory mediators and microcirculatory disturbance in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Zhi-Jun Li; Jie Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inlfammatory mediators are not only initiation factors of acute pancreatitis (AP) but also key factors causing pancreatic hemorrhage and necrosis, which damage important organs such as the heart, brain, liver, kidney and lung. Microcirculatory disturbance in AP has attracted widespread attention. In order to provide a theoretical basis for clinical therapy of AP, it is very important to explore the effect of inlfammatory mediators on microcirculatory disturbance in this disease. DATA SOURCES: In this review, the impact of inlfammatory mediators on microcirculatory disturbance in AP was reviewed according to the literature, especially the articles indexed in PubMed and books published in China and reports from websites. RESULTS: At present, inlfammatory mediation and micro-circulatory disturbance are the two major hypotheses to explain the development of AP. Although experimental studies have shown that inlfammatory mediators induce or aggravate microcirculatory disturbance, the clinical application of these ifndings is still dififcult because the inlfammatory mediators are diverse and their research is not comprehensive and thorough. CONCLUSION: It is very important to explore the inlfuence of inlfammatory mediators on microcirculatory disturbance in AP.

  9. A new scalar mediated WIMPs with pairs of on-shell mediators in annihilations

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Lian-Bao

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we focus on a new scalar $\\phi$ mediated scalar/vectoral WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). To explain the Galactic center 1 - 3 GeV gamma-ray excess, here we consider the case that a WIMP pair predominantly annihilates into an on-shell $\\phi \\phi$ pair which mainly decays to $\\tau \\bar{\\tau}$, with masses of WIMPs in a range about 14 - 22 GeV. For the mass of $\\phi$ slightly below the WIMP mass, the annihilations of WIMPs are phase space suppressed today, and the ...

  10. The mu-problem and axion in gauge mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Chun, Eung Jin; Kim, Hyung Do; Park, Wan Il; Shin, Chang Sub

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the idea of generating the Higgs mu parameter through a spontaneously broken Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. For the messenger scale of gauge mediation higher than the PQ scale, the setup naturally generates mu ~ m_soft and the Higgs soft parameter B \\leq O(m_soft) with the CP phase of B aligned to the phase of gaugino masses, while giving the PQ scale v_PQ ~ \\surd (m_soft {\\Lambda}), where m_soft denote the gauge-mediated gaugino or sf...

  11. The Mediatization of Politics in Contemporary Scandinavian Film and Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    in this debate, and the rise of the internet in modern societies has increased the analysis and theories of the mediatization of politics in theories of democracy and in media sociology. Audio–visual media and the new digital media have increased the visibility of all parts of private and public life and changed......The increased mediatization of society since 1960 has lead to a discussion of the mediatization of politics and the role of media for political debate and democracy. Habermas as early as 1962 discussed the rise and potential decline of the public sphere. The role of media in general was central...

  12. Sparticle spectrum and constraints in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models

    CERN Document Server

    Huitu, K; Pandita, P N

    2002-01-01

    We study in detail the particle spectrum in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by super-Weyl anomaly. We investigate the minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models, gaugino assisted supersymmetry breaking models, as well as models with additional residual non-decoupling D-term contributions due to an extra U(1) gauge symmetry at high energy scale. We derive sum rules for the sparticle masses in these models which can help in differentiating between them. We also obtain the sparticle spectrum numerically, and compare and contrast the results so obtained for the different types of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models.

  13. Mediatization: Theorizing the Interplay Between Media, Culture, and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hepp, Andreas; Hjarvard, Stig; Lundby, Knut

    2015-01-01

    with the complex relationship between changes in media and communication on the one hand and changes in various fields of culture and society on the other. We conclude that the emergence of the concept of mediatization is part of a paradigmatic shift within media and communication research.......In response to Deacon and Stanyer’s article ‘Mediatization: Key Concept or Conceptual Bandwagon?’, we argue that they build their criticism on a simplified methodology. They mistake a media-centered approach for a media-centric one, and they do not capture how mediatization research engages...

  14. How a single photon can mediate entanglement between two others

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio

    2016-10-01

    We describe a novel quantum information protocol, which probabilistically entangles two distant photons that have never interacted. Different from the entanglement swapping protocol, which requires two pairs of maximally entangled photons as the input states, as well as a Bell-state measurement (BSM), the present scheme only requires three photons: two to be entangled and another to mediate the correlation, and no BSM, in a process that we call "entanglement mediation". Furthermore, in analyzing the paths of the photons in our arrangement, we conclude that one of them, the mediator, exchanges information with the two others simultaneously, which seems to be a new quantum-mechanical feature.

  15. Mediated music makers : Constructing author images in popular music

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is the mediated construction of author images in popular music. In the study, the construction of images is treated as a process in which artists, the media and the members of the audience participate. The notions of presented, mediated and compiled author images are used in explaining the mediation process and the various authorial roles of the agents involved. In order to explore the issue more closely, I analyse the author images of a group of popular music artist...

  16. MED23: a new Mediator of H2B monoubiquitylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Gundula; Bracken, Adrian P

    2015-12-01

    The Mediator multiprotein complex physically links transcription factors to RNA polymerase II and the basal transcription machinery. While the Mediator complex has been shown to be required for transcriptional initiation and elongation, the understanding of its interplay with histone modifying enzymes and post‐translational modifications remains elusive. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Yao et al (2015) report that the MED23 subunit of the Mediator complex physically associates with the heterodimeric RNF20/40 E3‐ligase complex to facilitate the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B on gene bodies of actively transcribed genes. PMID:26438725

  17. Non-minimal gauge mediation and moduli stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we consider U(1)A-gauged Polonyi model with two spurions coupled to a twisted closed string modulus. This offers a consistent setup for metastable SUSY breakdown which allows for moduli stabilization and naturally leads to gauge or hybrid gauge/gravitational mediation mechanism. Due to the presence of the second spurion one can arrange for a solution of the μ and Bμ problems in a version of modified Giudice-Masiero mechanism, which works both in the limit of pure gauge mediation and in the mixed regime of hybrid mediation.

  18. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  19. Mediation - Boon or Bane for the Stability and Efficiency of Marriage?

    OpenAIRE

    Rundshagen, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    Using non-cooperative game theory the effects of mediation on the divorce rate and on the utility of the spouses are analysed. Two kinds of mediation are considered: restricted mediation that reduces the costs of divorce and extended mediation that additionally may prevent divorces by demonstrating the potential for Pareto-improvements within marriage to the spouses. It is shown that restricted mediation not only may increase the divorce rate but that also both kinds of mediation are not nece...

  20. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows