Sample records for anti-tac daclizumab directed

  1. Systemic radioimmunotherapy using a monoclonal antibody, anti-Tac directed toward the alpha subunit of the IL-2 receptor armed with the {alpha}-emitting radionuclides {sup 212}Bi or {sup 211}At

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, Jon N.; McGee, Edwin C.; Garmestani, Kayhan; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Yordanov, Alexander T.; Wu Chuanchu; Gansow, Otto A.; Eckelman, William C.; Bacher, John D.; Flynn, Michael; Goldman, Carolyn K.; MacLin, Melvin; Schwartz, Uwe P.; Jackson-White, Terri; Phillip, Celeste M.; Decker, Jean; Waldmann, Thomas A. E-mail:


    To exploit the fact that IL-2 receptors are expressed by T-cells responding to foreign antigens but not by resting T-cells, humanized anti-Tac (HAT) armed with alpha-emitting radionuclides {sup 212}Bi and {sup 211}At was evaluated in a cynomolgus cardiac allograft model. Control graft survival was 8.2{+-} 0.5 days compared with 14.0{+-}1.3 days (p<0.01) survival for monkeys treated with {sup 212}Bi labeled HAT and 26.7{+-}2.4 days survival (p<0.001 versus controls) with {sup 211}At labeled HAT. Thus, {sup 211}At labeled HAT may have application in organ transplantation and in treatment of IL-2 receptor expressing T-cell leukemia.

  2. Daclizumab prevents acute renal allograft rejection: 1 year analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Pan; Wujun Xue; Puxun Tian; Xiaoming Ding


    Objective :To investigate the clinical effect of Daclizumab on preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients.Methods:71 patients were randomly divided into two groups:Daclizumab group (n =26) and control group (n = 45). Baseline regimen of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin (CsA), methylprednisolone (MPD) and prednisone (Pred) were administered to all patients. The treatment of Daclizumab was based on baseline regimen. The Daclizumab group received Daclizumab twice before and after renal transplant. The occurrence of post-transplantation acute rejection, renal function and T lymphocyte subtypes were sequentially monitored; meanwhile adverse events, infection episode, and patient and graft survival were observed.All of patients received a follow-up of 12 months at least. Results :The occurrence of acute rejection in Daclizumab group in 1,3, 6 and 12 months after renal transplantation was 7.7%, 19.2%, 23.1% and 30.8%, respectively,while it was 15.6% ,28.9%,35.6% and 46.7% in the control group. There was significant difference between the two group(P < 0.05). There was no difference in infection episodes and adverse events between the Daclizumab group and control group. One year patient survival was 92.3% in Daclizumab group, 91.1% in control group (P > 0.05), compared with graft survival of 96.2 % and 93.3 % for Daclizumab and control group, respectively (P > 0. 05). The renal function in Daclizumab group in 1, 6 and 12 months after renal transplantation was better than that in control group (P < 0.05). The CD3+ and CD4+ subtypes decreased in both two groups after operation but no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion:Daclizumab combined with MMF, CsA, MPD and Pred therapeutic regimen was effective to reduce the occurrence of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients and have no influence on T lymphocyte subtypes.

  3. Spotlight on daclizumab: its potential in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milo R


    Full Text Available Ron Milo,1,2 Olaf Stüve3,4 1Department of Neurology, Barzilai University Medical Center, Ashkelon, Israel; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 3Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 4Neurology Section, VA North Texas Health Care System, Medical Service, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of a putative autoimmune etiology. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying demyelination and axonal damage in MS are not fully understood, T-cells are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Daclizumab is a humanized binding monoclonal antibody that binds to the Tac epitope on the α-subunit (CD25 of the interleukin-2 (IL-2 receptor, thus effectively blocking the formation of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor, which is expressed mainly on T-cells. A series of clinical trials in patients with relapsing MS demonstrated a profound effect of daclizumab on inflammatory disease activity and improved clinical outcomes compared with placebo or interferon-β, which led to the recent approval of daclizumab (Zinbryta™ for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS. Enhancement of endogenous mechanisms of immune regulation rather than inhibition of effector T-cells might explain the effects of daclizumab in MS. These include expansion and improved function of regulatory CD56bright NK cells, inhibition of the early activation of T-cells through blockade of IL-2 transpresentation by dendritic cells and reduction in the number of intrathecal proinflammatory lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The enhanced efficacy of daclizumab is accompanied by an increased frequency of adverse events and risks of serious adverse events, thus placing it as a second-line therapy and calling for the implementation of a strict risk management program. This

  4. 90Y-daclizumab, an anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody, provided responses in 50% of patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. (United States)

    Janik, John E; Morris, John C; O'Mahony, Deirdre; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S; Redon, Christophe E; Bonner, William M; Brechbiel, Martin W; Paik, Chang H; Whatley, Millie; Chen, Clara; Lee, Jae-Ho; Fleisher, Thomas A; Brown, Maggie; White, Jeffrey D; Stewart, Donn M; Fioravanti, Suzanne; Lee, Cathryn C; Goldman, Carolyn K; Bryant, Bonita R; Junghans, Richard P; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Worthy, Tat'Yana; Corcoran, Erin; Conlon, Kevin C; Waldmann, Thomas A


    Despite significant advances in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), a significant proportion of patients will not respond or will subsequently relapse. We identified CD25, the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit, as a favorable target for systemic radioimmunotherapy of HL. The scientific basis for the clinical trial was that, although most normal cells with exception of Treg cells do not express CD25, it is expressed by a minority of Reed-Sternberg cells and by most polyclonal T cells rosetting around Reed-Sternberg cells. Forty-six patients with refractory and relapsed HL were evaluated with up to seven i.v. infusions of the radiolabeled anti-CD25 antibody (90)Y-daclizumab. (90)Y provides strong β emissions that kill tumor cells at a distance by a crossfire effect. In 46 evaluable HL patients treated with (90)Y-daclizumab there were 14 complete responses and nine partial responses; 14 patients had stable disease, and nine progressed. Responses were observed both in patients whose Reed-Sternberg cells expressed CD25 and in those whose neoplastic cells were CD25(-) provided that associated rosetting T cells expressed CD25. As assessed using phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) as a bioindicator of the effects of radiation exposure, predominantly nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment manifested DNA damage, as reflected by increased expression of γ-H2AX. Toxicities were transient bone-marrow suppression and myelodysplastic syndrome in six patients who had not been evaluated with bone-marrow karyotype analyses before therapy. In conclusion, repeated (90)Y-daclizumab infusions directed predominantly toward nonmalignant T cells rosetting around Reed-Sternberg cells provided meaningful therapy for select HL patients.

  5. Improved renal clearance and tumor targeting of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody Fab by chemical modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Meyoung-kon; Jeong, Hyeh-Jean; Kao, Chih-Hao K.; Yao, Zhengsheng; Paik, David S.; Pie, Jae Eun; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Paik, Chang H. E-mail:


    This study was undertaken to improve the renal clearance and tumor targeting properties of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled humanized anti-Tac (HuTac) monoclonal antibody Fab fragments using two chemical approaches: 1) labeling with a renal secretion agent {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and 2) lowering its isoelectric point (pI) by acylation. HuTac Fab (3.3 mg/mL) was reacted with a trifluorophenyl ester (TFP) of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 alone or was additionally reacted with TFP-glycolate to reduce the pI. In Balb/c mice, {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-Fab (pI>9.3) rapidly accumulated in the kidneys (177% injected dose [ID]/g at 15 min) and then gradually cleared out of the kidneys. In contrast, the glycolation (pI 4.6{approx}6.6) drastically reduced the renal uptake (31% ID/g) and also the whole-body retention (82% ID vs 101% for the nonglycolated) at 15 min, indicating that the glycolated {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-Fab (pI 4.6{approx}6.6) was rapidly excreted. The glycolated remained in the blood longer than the nonglycolated (1.2% vs 0.3% ID/g at 360 min), but this effect was less drastic than the effect shown on the renal uptake. In nude mice bearing receptor-positive (ATAC4) tumors, the glycolated {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-Fab increased the peak tumor uptake to 14.8% ID/g from 8.3% ID/g for {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-Fab, whereas the glycolation resulted in a drastic reduction of the renal uptake at 15 min. We demonstrated that the renal clearance and the tumor targeting of Fab could be optimized by chemical modifications.

  6. Daclizumab Injection (United States)

    ... monitoring called the Zinbryta Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) Program. Your doctor and your pharmacist must ... branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.

  7. Beneficial effect of an antibody against interleukin-2 receptor(daclizumab) in an experimental model of hepatocyte xenotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Papagoras; Apostolos Papalois; Alexandra Tsaroucha; Dimitrios Lytras; John Kyriazanos; Nikoletta Giannakou; Prodromos Laftsidis; Constantine Simopoulos


    AIM: To investigate the use of Daclizumab (Dmab) as an immunosuppressive agent in an experimental model of hepatocyte xenotransplantation (XenoTx) in rats with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF).METHODS: Two white male New Zealand rabbits were used as donors and 68 Wistar rats as recipients.FHF was induced by intravenous application of dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA). The isolated hepatocytes of the rabbits were xenotransplanted into the spleen of the rats 24 h after FHF induction. Group A (n = 13): no treatment; Group B (n = 14): FHF and XenoTx; Group C (n = 14): FHF and XenoTx and cyclosporin (CsA); Group D (n = 14): FHF and XenoTx and Dmab; Group E (n =13): FHF and XenoTx and CsA and Dmab. The rats were followed for 15 d.RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed better survival among groups D (92.86%) and E (76.92%) compared to group A (all rats died after 72 h), group B (28.57%)or group C (71.43%), although the differences were not statistically significant. Biochemical evaluation of the liver enzymes and histology confirmed satisfactory function and engraftment, respectively.CONCLUSION: This experimental model has shown the safe, effective and beneficial use of Dmab in a xenotransplantation model of rabbit hepatocytes in rats.

  8. 阿伦和达珠单抗与抗胸腺蛋白对肾移植的有效性及安全性比较%Efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab, daclizumab and antithymocyte globulin in kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 郝文静; 宗焕涛; 张勇


    BACKGROUND:Immunosuppressants fight against acute rejections by influencing humoral and celular immune to suppress the immune function, and then improve patient/renal graft survival. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of alemtuzumab, daclizumab and antithymocyte globulin in inducing immunosuppression in kidney transplantation. METHODS:The randomized controled trials of alemtuzumab or daclizumabversusATG in kidney tranplantation published from 1966 to 2011 were enroled by searching PubMed and EMBASE using Cochrane systematic review. We colected data and major outcomes. And a meta-analysis was conducted on homogeneous studies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 9 randomized controled trials (777 patients) about kidney transplantation were included. The meta-analysis results showed that the safety items including patient/renal graft survival and acute rejection at a folow-up of 24 months had no statistical differences among the three drugs (al P > 0.05). But there was a significant difference between the infection rates of alemtuzumab and antithymocyte globulin at 36 months of folow-up (P 0.05)。随访36个月时,阿伦单抗感染率显著低于抗胸腺蛋白(P<0.05)。分析结果表明,3种药物的免疫诱导效果相近;随访36个月时,阿伦单抗较抗胸腺蛋白的感染率低。

  9. Daclizumab als Induktionsimmunsuppressivum nach simultaner Nieren- und Pankreastransplantation


    Greiner, Tonia


    Abstract Simultaneous kidney – and pancreas transplantation (SPK) is a well established therapeutical option in patients with diabetes mellitus type I and pre-terminal kidney insufficiency. For this indication, PNTX is the only causal therapy with acceptable long term results. The application of an effective immunosuppressive therapy with low incidence of side effects is mandatory for clinical success. Available immunosuppressive medications allow successful SPK in most cases. However, se...

  10. Directed homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli


    We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata....

  11. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... included as a chapter in the Handbook are possible measures for best practices of implementation, designed for those who wish to tailor direct democracy instruments to their specific needs. In order to further complement the best practices, a variety of global case studies detail the practical uses...... of direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  12. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers


    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  13. Future directions. (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Tallarida, Ronald J


    The chapters of this book summarize much of what has been done and reported regarding cancer chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment. In this chapter, we point out some future directions for investigation.

  14. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L


    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  15. Direct ELISA. (United States)

    Lin, Alice V


    First described by Engvall and Perlmann, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantitation of an antigen using an enzyme-labeled antibody. Besides routine laboratory usage, ELISA has been utilized in medical field and food industry as diagnostic and quality control tools. Traditionally performed in 96-well or 384-well polystyrene plates, the technology has expanded to other platforms with increase in automation. Depending on the antigen epitope and availability of specific antibody, there are variations in ELISA setup. The four basic formats are direct, indirect, sandwich, and competitive ELISAs. Direct ELISA is the simplest format requiring an antigen and an enzyme-conjugated antibody specific to the antigen. This chapter describes the individual steps for detection of a plate-bound antigen using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antibody and luminol-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate. The methodological approach to optimize the assay by chessboard titration is also provided.

  16. Directing Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    YANG Yang is he director of China Television PlayCenter.Before the arrival of the series Holding Hands,she filmed television plays reflecting women and marriage.Examples of her work include Niu Yuqin and Her Trees and theMidnight Trolley.The artistry and sympathy towards women inthese programmes make it obvious that they were directed by awoman.Holding Hands especially cements this connection.

  17. Advance care directives (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  18. Invariants of directed spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin


    Directed spaces are the objects of study within directed algebraic topology. They are characterised by spaces of directed paths associated to a source and a target, both elements of an underlying topological space. The algebraic topology of these path spaces and their connections are studied from...

  19. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  20. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.


    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  1. Direction and Description (United States)

    Ben-Menahem, Yemima

    This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic counterparts on the one hand, and from causality and chance on the other. I show that some types of directionality are perfectly compatible with both determinism and indeterminism at the microscopic level, and that there is no likelihood of, or advantage to, reducing such directionality to other laws or causal processes.

  2. Directed network modules

    CERN Document Server

    Pálla, G; Farkas, I J; Pollner, P; Vicsek, T; Derenyi, Imre; Farkas, Illes J.; Palla, Gergely; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas


    A search technique locating network modules, i.e., internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the Clique Percolation Method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own webpages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and among Google's webpages the overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and t...

  3. Direct peroral cholangioscopy (United States)

    Parsi, Mansour A


    Peroral cholangioscopy is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of various biliary disorders. Peroral cholangioscopy can be performed by using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope, or by direct insertion of a small-diameter endoscope into the bile duct. Direct peroral cholangioscopy refers to insertion of an ultraslim endoscope directly into the bile duct for visualization of the biliary mucosa and lumen. This approach provides a valuable and economic solution for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the biliary tree. Compared to ductoscopy using a dedicated cholangioscope, the direct approach has several advantages and disadvantages. In this editorial, I discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and possible future developments pertaining to direct peroral cholangioscopy. PMID:24527174

  4. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R


    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  5. Direct sale in USA


    Koula, Alexandr


    This thesis deals with direct sales. The thesis discuss the connection between theoretical part of my personal experience as a door to door sales person in the US, describing a sales process, using a techniques of direct sales and communication skills in practice. It stresses the importance of understanding the basic concepts of personality and communication. The main objective of this work is a suggestion to improve the sales manual for increasing sales success of door to door sales persons ...

  6. Electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (United States)

    Huang, Yongan; Bu, Ningbin; Duan, Yongqing; Pan, Yanqiao; Liu, Huimin; Yin, Zhouping; Xiong, Youlun


    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct-writing technique can be used to print solid/liquid straight/serpentine nanofibers onto a large-area substrate, in a direct, continuous, and controllable manner. It is a high-efficiency and cost-effective solution-processable technique to satisfy increasing demands of large-area micro/nano-manufacturing. It is ground-breaking to direct-write sub-100 nm fibers on a rigid/flexible substrate using organic materials. A comprehensive review is presented on the research and developments related to the EHD direct-writing technique and print heads. Many developments have been presented to improve the controllability of the electrospun fibers to form high-resolution patterns and devices. EHD direct-writing is characterized by its non-contact, additive and reproducible processing, high resolution, and compatibility with organic materials. It combines dip-pen, inkjet, and electrospinning by providing the feasibility of controllable electrospinning for sub-100 nm nanofabrication, and overcomes the drawbacks of conventional electron-beam lithography, which is relatively slow, complicated and expensive.

  7. Direct conversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.


    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  8. Modelling directional solidification (United States)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.


    This grant, NAG8-831, was a continuation of a previous grant, NAG8-541. The long range goal of this program has been to develop an improved understanding of phenomena of importance to directional solidification, in order to enable explanation and prediction of differences in behavior between solidification on Earth and in space. Emphasis in the recently completed grant was on determining the influence of perturbations on directional solidification of InSb and InSb-GaSb alloys. In particular, the objective was to determine the influence of spin-up/spin-down (ACRT), electric current pulses and vibrations on compositional homogeneity and grain size.

  9. The direction of time

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans


    Ever a source of philosophical conjecture and debate, the concept of time represents the beating heart of physics. This final work by the distinguished physicist Hans Reichenbach represents the culmination and integration of a lifetime's philosophical contributions and inquiries into the analysis of time. The result is an outstanding overview of such qualitative, or topological, attributes of time as order and direction.Beginning with a discussion of the emotive significance of time, Reichenbach turns to an examination of the time order of mechanics, the time direction of thermodynamics and m

  10. Direct policy search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidrich-Meisner, V.; Igel, Christian


    process. Exploration is realized by stochastic perturbations, which can be applied at different levels. When considering direct policy search in the space of neural network policies, exploration can be applied on the synaptic level or on the level of neuronal activity. We propose neuroevolution strategies...... (NeuroESs) for direct policy search in RL. Learning using NeuroESs can be interpreted as modelling of extrinsic perturbations on the level of synaptic weights. In contrast, policy gradient methods (PGMs) can be regarded as intrinsic perturbation of neuronal activity. We compare these two approaches...

  11. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich


    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  12. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig


    -state diffusion. The nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product, and this mixed control mechanism provide satisfactory explanations of the various phenomena related to the direct sulfation of limestone, such as porosity in the product layer, the variation of the apparent reaction orders of SO2, O-2...

  13. Directional loudness perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    developed. The research and modeling of loudness have mainly been concerned with the temporal and spectral aspects of sounds, while the spatial aspects have mostly been overlooked. This PhD thesis investigates the spatial aspects of loudness perception, namely, how does the direction from which a sound...

  14. Directions for further research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minsaas, Atle; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.


    chapter of this book we discuss directions for further research in this area. We do so by taking stock of (1) related recommendations of project SuperGreen, and (2) related activities mainly in European research. Links between research and policy-making as two activities that should go hand in hand...

  15. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L


    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  16. Advanced directives: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Negrini


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In Italy Advanced directives have not been regulated by law yet. Moreover, there is a confusion of concepts: advanced directives, refusal of treatment, medical futility and euthanasia are not synonymous.DISCUSSION The following aspects are then discussed: object of directives; elapse of time between their expression and their application; knowledge of the directives and their obligatory nature. The refusal of a treatment that can save a person’s life is a critical subject. There are different ethical points of view: according to lay ethics, the patient’s self-determination prevails; the religious viewpoint, instead, says that life is a gift which we cannot dispose of. In any case, the patient will be confronted with the professional autonomy of the doctor. Should the doctor save a patient’s life in any case or should he achieve best clinical practice, in respect of his will? The doctor should interpret the patient’s will but with caution and judgment. An exemption from responsibility should be provided by law for doctors who respect patient’s living will.

  17. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn


    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  18. Polar Direct Drive (United States)

    Skupsky, S.


    Direct drive offers the potential of higher target gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) than x-ray drive: The initial direct-drive target design had a 1-D gain of 45 and consisted primarily of a pure cryogenic DT shell. Using the expected levels of target and laser nonuniformities for the NIF, two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations predicted target gains around 30.(P.W. McKenty et al.), Phys. Plasmas 8, 2315 (2001). More-recent designs have shown that higher target gains could be obtained by replacing a portion of the DT shell with ``wetted'' CH foam and by using adiabat shaping: (1) Higher-Z material (C) in the foam increases laser absorption by about 40% (from 60% absorption to 85%).(S. Skupsky et al.), in Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001, edited by K. Tanaka et al. (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), p. 240. (2) Adiabat shaping allows the main portion of the fuel to be placed on a lower adiabat without compromising target stability.(V.N. Goncharov et al.), Phys. Plasmas 10, 1906 (2003). These direct-drive concepts can be tested on the NIF, long before that facility is converted to a direct-drive (spherically symmetric) irradiation configuration. Using the NIF x-ray-drive beam configuration, some of the near-polar beams could be pointed to better illuminate the target's equator. These more-oblique, equatorial beams will have lower absorption and reduced drive efficiency than the polar beams. One strategy to compensate for the difference in polar and equatorial drive is to reduce the irradiation at the poles and employ different pulse shapes to accommodate the time-dependent variations in drive and absorption. This concept of polar direct drive (PDD) has been studied using the 2-D hydrocode DRACO to determine the requirements for achieving ignition and moderate target gain for the NIF. Experiments on the OMEGA laser will examine the effects of oblique irradiation on target drive. Results of simulations for different direct-drive target designs

  19. Direct photons at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus; Grimm, Andreas [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    Photons, as all electromagnetic probes, can give direct access to the hot and dense phase of a heavy-ion reaction. We show calculations of direct photon emission at SiS100- and SiS-300 energies with the UrQMD-hybrid model. UrQMD is a full microscopic+macroscopic transport/fluid-dynamics hybrid model with hadron- and string-driven equilibration phase, a full (3+1)-dimensional fluiddynamic hot and dense phase and a hadronic after-burner. Unequilibrated matter at high rapidity is preserved during the fluid phase. A strong emphasis is set on the impact of viscosity and Equation of State at zero and non-zero baryon density to the spectra and flow patterns of thermal and non-thermal photons in A+A-collisions at the colliding systems relevant for FAIR.

  20. Direction sensitive neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlen, Steven; Fisher, Peter; Dujmic, Denis; Wellenstein, Hermann F.; Inglis, Andrew


    A neutron detector includes a pressure vessel, an electrically conductive field cage assembly within the pressure vessel and an imaging subsystem. A pressurized gas mixture of CF.sub.4, .sup.3He and .sup.4He at respective partial pressures is used. The field cage establishes a relatively large drift region of low field strength, in which ionization electrons generated by neutron-He interactions are directed toward a substantially smaller amplification region of substantially higher field strength in which the ionization electrons undergo avalanche multiplication resulting in scintillation of the CF.sub.4 along scintillation tracks. The imaging system generates two-dimensional images of the scintillation patterns and employs track-finding to identify tracks and deduce the rate and direction of incident neutrons. One or more photo-multiplier tubes record the time-profile of the scintillation tracks permitting the determination of the third coordinate.

  1. Directional Solidification of Ledeburite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska-Łent


    Full Text Available Directional solidification of ledeburite was realised out using a Bridgman’s device. The growth rate for movement sample v=83.3 μm/s was used. In one sample the solidification front was freezing. The value of temperature gradient in liquid at the solidification front was determined. Interfacial distance λ on the samples was measured with NIS-Elements application for image analysis.

  2. Future directions for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.


    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC.

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang


    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis. (United States)

    Bachman, Julia


    Site-directed mutagenesis is a PCR-based method to mutate specified nucleotides of a sequence within a plasmid vector. This technique allows one to study the relative importance of a particular amino acid for protein structure and function. Typical mutations are designed to disrupt or map protein-protein interactions, mimic or block posttranslational modifications, or to silence enzymatic activity. Alternatively, noncoding changes are often used to generate rescue constructs that are resistant to knockdown via RNAi.

  5. Direct Olive Oil Analysis



    The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of...

  6. Directional Antineutrino Detection (United States)

    Safdi, B. R.; Suerfu, J.


    We propose the first truly directional antineutrino detector for antineutrinos near the threshold for the inverse beta decay (IBD) of hydrogen, with potential applications including the spatial mapping of geo-neutrinos, searches for stellar antineutrinos, and the monitoring of nuclear reactors. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and neutron-capture layers. The IBD events, which result in a neutron and a positron, take place in the target layers. These layers are thin enough so that the neutrons escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker neutron-capture layers. The location of the IBD event is determined from the energy deposited by the positron as it slows in the medium and from the two gamma rays that come from the positron annihilation. Since the neutron recoils in the direction of the antineutrino's motion, a line may then be drawn between the IBD event location and the neutron-capture location to approximate the antineutrino's velocity. In some events, we may even measure the positron's velocity, which further increases our ability to reconstruct the antineutrino's direction of motion. Our method significantly improves upon previous methods by allowing the neutron to freely travel a long distance before diffusing and being captured. Moreover, our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could easily be built with existing technology. We verify our design through Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4, using commercially-available boron-loaded plastic scintillators for the target and neutron-capture layer materials. We are able to discriminate from background using multiple coincidence signatures within a short, ~microsecond time interval. We conclude that the detector could likely operate above ground with minimal shielding.

  7. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.


    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  8. DISE: directed sphere exclusion. (United States)

    Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling


    The Sphere Exclusion algorithm is a well-known algorithm used to select diverse subsets from chemical-compound libraries or collections. It can be applied with any given distance measure between two structures. It is popular because of the intuitive geometrical interpretation of the method and its good performance on large data sets. This paper describes Directed Sphere Exclusion (DISE), a modification of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm, which retains all positive properties of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm but generates a more even distribution of the selected compounds in the chemical space. In addition, the computational requirement is significantly reduced, thus it can be applied to very large data sets.

  9. Direct reading inductance meter (United States)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)


    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  10. Omni-directional railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahinpoor, M.


    This invention is comprised of a device for electromagetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

  11. AngularJS directives

    CERN Document Server

    Vanston, Alex


    This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.

  12. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started (United States)

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  13. Direct Production of Copper (United States)

    Victorovich, G. S.; Bell, M. C.; Diaz, C. M.; Bell, J. A. E.


    The use of commercially pure oxygen in flash smelting a typical chalcopyrite concentrate or a low grade comminuted matte directly to copper produces a large excess of heat. The heat balance is controlled by adjusting the calorific value of the solid feed. A portion of the sulfide material is roasted to produce a calcine which is blended with unroasted material, and the blend is then autogeneously smelted with oxygen and flux directly to copper. Either iron silicate or iron calcareous slags are produced, both being subject to a slag cleaning treatment. Practically all of the sulfur is contained in a continuous stream of SO2 gas, most of which is strong enough for liquefaction. A particularly attractive feature of these technologies is that no radically new metallurgical equipment needs to be developed. The oxygen smelting can be carried out not only in the Inco type flash furnace but in other suitable smelters such as cyclone furnaces. Another major advantage stems from abolishion of the ever-troublesome converter aisle, which is replaced with continuous roasting of a fraction of the copper sulfide feed.

  14. Remote direct memory access (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.


    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  15. Direct diverticular inguinal hernia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Kullenberg, K.

    Nineteen patients with direct diverticular inguinal hernia (DDIH) were examined with herniography and surgically explored. A lump medially in the groin and pain were the prominent clinical manifestations in 18 patients. Physical examination indicated the presence of a DDIH in 6 patients. In 16 patients herniography revealed hernial sacs protruding from the supravesical fossa in 5 and from the medial inguinal fossa in 11. At operation a circumscribed defect was found in the transverse fascia laterally and cranially to the pubic tubercle in all patients. In 16 patients peritoneal hernial sacs were demonstrated at surgery while in 3 only lipomas (fatty hernia) were contained within the defect. In our opinion DDIH is a specific variety of inguinal hernia with a fairly typical clinical presentation and radiographic appearance but probably often overlooked at surgery.

  16. Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Ogawa; Norio Inoue; Tutomu Shikada; Yotaro Ohno


    Dimethyl ether (DME) is a clean and economical alternative fuel which can be produced from natural gas through synthesis gas. The properties of DME are very similar to those of LP gas. DME can be used for various fields as a fuel such as power generation, transportation, home heating and cooking,etc. It contains no sulfur or nitrogen. It is not corrosive to any metal and not harmful to human body. An innovative process of direct synthesis of DME from synthesis gas has been developed. Newly developed catalyst in a slurry phase reactor gave a high conversion and high selectivity of DME production. One and half year pilot scale plant (5 tons per day) testing, which was supported by METI, had successfully finished with about 400 tons DME production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bláha


    Full Text Available UAV systems have become an attractive data acquisition platform in emerging applications. As measuring instrument they extend the lineup of possible surveying methods in the field of geomatics. However, most of UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as GPS or INS, allowing a positioning accuracy of 3 to 5 m. As a result the acquired position- and orientation data fea- tures a low accuracy which implicates that it cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level (e.g. direct georeferencing. In this paper we will analyze the potential of differential post-processing of GPS data from UAV in order to im- prove the positioning accuracy for applications basing on direct georeferencing. Subsequently, the obtained results are compared and verified with a track of the octocopter carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GPS data acquisition. The results show that the differential post-processing essentially improved the accuracy of the Falcon position data. Thereby the average offset be- tween the data sets (GPS data, track and the corresponding standard deviation is 0.82 m and 0.45 m, respectively. However, under ideal conditions it is even possible to improve this positioning accuracy to the cm-range. Furthermore, there are still several sources of error such as the offset between the GPS antenna of the Falcon 8 and the prism which is used for the track. Considering this fact there is further room for improvement regarding the here discussed positioning method.

  18. Growth directions of microstructures in directional solidification of crystalline materials. (United States)

    Deschamps, J; Georgelin, M; Pocheau, A


    In directional solidification, as the solidification velocity increases, the growth direction of cells or dendrites rotates from the direction of the thermal gradient to that of a preferred cristalline orientation. Meanwhile, their morphology varies with important implications for microsegregation. Here, we experimentally document the growth directions of these microstructures in a succinonitrile alloy in the whole accessible range of directions, velocities, and spacings. For this, we use a thin sample made of a single crystal on which the direction of the thermal gradient can be changed. This allows a fine monitoring of the misorientation angle between thermal gradient and preferred crystalline orientation. Data analysis shows evidence of an internal symmetry which traces back to a scale invariance of growth directions with respect to a Péclet number. This enables the identification of the relationship between growth directions and relevant variables, in fair agreement with experiment. Noticeable variations of growth directions with misorientation angles are evidenced and linked to a single parameter.

  19. Directed animals in the gas


    Borgne, Yvan Le; Marckert, Jean-François


    In this paper, we revisit the enumeration of directed animals using gas models. We show that there exists a natural construction of random directed animals on any directed graph together with a particle system that explains at the level of objects the formal link known between the density of the gas model and the generating function of directed animals counted according to the area. This provides some new methods to compute the generating function of directed animals counted according to area...

  20. Directed HK propagator (United States)

    Kocia, Lucas; Heller, Eric J.


    We offer a more formal justification for the successes of our recently communicated "directed Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay" (DHK) time propagator by examining its performance in one-dimensional bound systems which exhibit at least quasi-periodic motion. DHK is distinguished by its single one-dimensional integral—a vast simplification over the usual 2N-dimensional integral in full Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay (for an N-dimensional system). We find that DHK accurately captures particular coherent state autocorrelations when its single integral is chosen to lie along these states' fastest growing manifold, as long as it is not perpendicular to their action gradient. Moreover, the larger the action gradient, the better DHK will perform. We numerically examine DHK's accuracy in a one-dimensional quartic oscillator and illustrate that these conditions are frequently satisfied such that the method performs well. This lends some explanation for why DHK frequently seems to work so well and suggests that it may be applicable to systems exhibiting quite strong anharmonicity.

  1. New Directions in Biotechnology (United States)


    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  2. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz


    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  3. Directionally solidified mullite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayir, A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Farmer, S.C. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center


    Directionally solidified fibers with nominal mullite compositions of 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2SiO{sub 2} were grown by the laser heated float zone (LHFZ) method at NASA Lewis. High resolution digital images from an optical microscope evidence the formation of a liquid-liquid miscibility gap during crystal growth. Experimental evidence shows that the formation of mullite in aluminosilicate melts is in fact preceded by liquid immiscibility. The average fiber tensile strength is 1.15 GPa at room temperature. The mullite fibers retained 80% of their room temperature tensile strength at 1,450 C. SEM analysis revealed that the fibers were strongly faceted and that the facets act as critical flaws. Examined in TEM, these mullite single crystals are free of dislocations, low angle boundaries and voids. Single crystal mullite showed a high degree of oxygen vacancy ordering. Regardless of the starting composition, the degree of order observed in polycrystalline fibers was lower than that observed in the mullite single crystals.

  4. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor (United States)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.


    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  5. Coatings for directional eutectics (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.


    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  6. The median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal


    Green, Anne M; MORGAN, BEN


    Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity required to detect dark matter WIMPs. Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP `smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal de...

  7. Efficient multi-site-directed mutagenesis directly from genomic template

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengtao Luo; Xiaolan Du; Tujun Weng; Xuan Wen; Junlan Huang; Lin Chen


    In this article, the traditional multi-site-directed mutagenesis method based on overlap extension PCR was improved specifically for complicated templates, such as genomic sequence or complementary DNA. This method was effectively applied for multi-site-directed mutagenesis directly from mouse genomic DNA, as well as for combination, deletion or insertion of DNA fragments.

  8. Directed and Almost-Directed Flow Loops in Real Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todinov


    Full Text Available Directed flow loops are highly undesirable because they are associated with wastage of energy for maintaining them and entail big losses to the world economy. It is shown that directed flow loops may appear in networks even if the dispatched commodity does not physically travel along a closed contour. Consequently, a theorem giving the necessary and sufficient condition of a directed flow loop on randomly oriented straight-line flow paths has been formulated and a close-form expression has been derived for the probability of a directed flow loop. The results show that even for a relatively small number of intersecting flow paths, the probability of a directed flow loop is very large, which means that the existence of directed flow loops in real networks is practically inevitable. Consequently, a theorem and an efficient algorithm have been proposed related to discovering and removing directed flow loops in a network with feasible flows. The new concept ‘almost-directed flow loop’ has also been introduced for the first time. It is shown that the removal of an almost-directed flow loop also results in a significant decrease of the losses. It is also shown that if no directed flow loops exist in the network, the removal of an almost-directed flow loop cannot create a directed flow loop.

  9. Future directions of MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Fredian, T., E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stillerman, J., E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Highlights: • This paper describes the directions in the evolution of the MDSplus data system. • It describes three Use Cases in data streaming. • It shows the performance of MDSplus in local and remote data streaming. • It describes the main concepts in decoupling data access. • It presents the last features and tools. - Abstract: The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since then MDSplus has been progressively adopted in an increasing number of fusion experiments and its original implementation has been extended during these years to cover new requirements and toward a multi-platform implementation. Currently MDSplus is in use at more than 30 laboratories and is being used both for pulsed applications as well as for continuous data streaming for long lasting experiments. Thanks to its large user base, it has been possible to collect requirements driving the evolution of the system toward improved usability and better performance. An important recent feature of the MDSplus is its ability of handling a continuous stream of data, which is readily available as soon at it has been stored in the pulse files. Current development is oriented toward an improved modularity of MDSplus and the integration of new functionality. Improved modularity is achieved by moving away from monolithic implementation toward a plug-ins approach. This has already been achieved recently for the management of remote data access, where the original TCP/IP implementation can now be integrated with new user-provided network protocols. Following a similar approach, work is in progress to let new back-ends be integrated in the MDSplus data access layer. By decoupling the MDSplus data management from the disk data file format it is possible to integrate new solutions such as data cloud without affecting the user Application Programming Interface.

  10. New air quality guidelines: framework directive and daughter directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Fernández Patier


    Full Text Available The old Directives about air quality had some problems in their application, both in the management of ambient air quality and in the lack of public information. The new Directives, based in 96/62/EC Directive about assesment and management of ambient air resolve these problems. They are more strict in permited limit values of pollutants and establish new Directives for new pollutants. The new Directives have been transposed the national legislation in RD 1073/2002 of 18 October.

  11. Innovative tool of direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Maksymova


    Full Text Available The aspects of direct marketing activation on the basis of interactive applications introduction are examined. Basic advantages, linked with the use of the integrated marketing communications during formation of direct marketing strategies are open up.

  12. Evolutionary trends in directional hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    and lizards resemble this ancestral, directionally sensitive framework. Despite this anatomically similarity, coding of sound source location differs between birds and lizards, although all show mechanisms for enhancing sound source directionality. Comparisons with mammals reveal similarly complex...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingcai ZHANG


    In this article,we study the problems of Borel's directions of meromorphic functions concerning shared values and prove that if two meromorphic functions of infinite order share three distinct values,their Borel's directions are same.

  14. Estimation of wave directional spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    One of the useful measures of waves directional spreading at a given location is the directional spreading parameter. This paper presents a new approach to arrive at its characteristic value using the computational technique of Artificial Neural...

  15. Forman curvature for directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sreejith, R P; Saucan, Emil; Samal, Areejit


    A goal in network science is the geometrical characterization of complex networks. In this direction, we have recently introduced the Forman's discretization of Ricci curvature to the realm of undirected networks. Investigation of Forman curvature in diverse model and real-world undirected networks revealed that this measure captures several aspects of the organization of complex undirected networks. However, many important real-world networks are inherently directed in nature, and the Forman curvature for undirected networks is unsuitable for analysis of such directed networks. Hence, we here extend the Forman curvature for undirected networks to the case of directed networks. The simple mathematical formula for the Forman curvature in directed networks elegantly incorporates node weights, edge weights and edge direction. By applying the Forman curvature for directed networks to a variety of model and real-world directed networks, we show that the measure can be used to characterize the structure of complex ...

  16. New directions at NSF (United States)

    Harvey, Albert B.


    The mission and scope of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and lightwave technology will be very briefly discussed. The focus of the presentation will be directed toward changes in research support that are taking place and the opportunities we have for aiming our research to meet the challenges and needs that face the nation. In the USA it is very clear that defense oriented research is downsizing and is being redirected into economy driven aresas, such as manufacturing, business, and industry. For those researchers who are willing to move into these areas and find a niche, the rewards may be very great. Industrial research partners should also seize these opportunities to enhance their resources in an otherwise bleak future for industrial support of basic research in lightwave technology and many other reserach disciplines. These activities of bringing together industry and academia will have the value added benefit of providing increased job opportunities for students. An outline of some of these opportunities and incentives will be presented. On the international front, there has never been a better time for the encouragement of joint research and collaboration across borders. The economic potential for involvement in Eastern Europe and Asia are enormous. Agencies like ourselves are open to help support of visiting scientist/engineer exchange, international conferences and forums and support of innovative ideas to help further enhance economic developemnt of the world and hence the quality of life. The presence of the Russian delegation here at these SPIE meetings in in part the result of NSF support. Concomitant with these changes is a growing interest in education. Academia is gradually realizing that education includes training for students to acquire jobs and hence we complete the cycle of the importance of interacting with industry. At the NSF a major new initiative is being introduced in Optical Science and Engineering (OSE). This effort has been

  17. A Change of Direction (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released July 21, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. In this image we can clearly see a major change in wind regimes. The classic yardang form occupies the top of the image. These older yardangs were formed by a NW/SE wind regime. The younger, smaller yardangs are forming in the rest of the image from a NE/SW wind. The age relationship is readily visible at the intersection area, where the large yardangs are being cut crosswise into NE/SW aligned forms. The top framelet of this image has vertical black/white lines caused by charge on the camera CCD. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.3, Longitude 183.8 East (176.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS

  18. Edge adaptive directional total variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang


    Full Text Available The directional total variation (DTV model has been proposed very recently for image denoising. However, the DTV model works well when there is just one dominant direction in the image. In this Letter, the authors propose to make the DTV model adaptive to image edge direction so that the proposed model can handle images with several dominant directions. Experiment and comparison show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Optimal selection for direct mail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, [No Value; Wansbeek, T


    Direct marketing (mail) is a growing area of marketing practice, yet the academic journals contain very little research on this topic. The most important issue for direct marketers is how to sample targets from a population for a direct mail campaign. Although some selection methods are described in

  20. Motor directional tuning across brain areas: Directional resonance and the role of inhibition for directional accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Yvonne Mahan


    Full Text Available Motor directional tuning (Georgopoulos et al., 1982 has been found in every brain area in which it has been sought for during the past 30-odd years. It is typically broad, with widely distributed preferred directions and a population signal that predicts accurately the direction of an upcoming reaching movement or isometric force pulse (Georgopoulos et al., 1992. What is the basis for such ubiquitous directional tuning? How does the tuning come about? What are the implications of directional tuning for understanding the brain mechanisms of movement in space? This review addresses these questions in the light of accumulated knowledge in various sub-fields of neuroscience and motor behavior. It is argued (a that direction in space encompasses many aspects, from vision to muscles, (b that there is a directional congruence among the central representations of these distributed directions arising from rough but orderly topographic connectivities among brain areas, (c that broad directional tuning is the result of broad excitation limited by recurrent and non-recurrent (i.e. direct inhibition within the preferred direction loci in brain areas, and (d that the width of the directional tuning curve, modulated by local inhibitory mechanisms, is a parameter that determines the accuracy of the directional command.

  1. Multi-Directional Motion Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patrick McGovern


    Full Text Available The direction aftereffect (DAE is a phenomenon whereby prolonged exposure to a moving stimulus biases the perceived direction of subsequent stimuli. It is believed to arise through a selective suppression of directionally tuned neurons in the visual cortex, causing shifts in the population response away from the adapted direction. Whereas most studies consider only unidirectional adaptation, here we examine how concurrent adaptation to multiple directions affects the DAE. Observers were required to judge whether a random dot kinematogram (RDK moved clockwise or counter-clockwise relative to upwards. In different conditions, observers adapted to a stimulus comprised of directions drawn from a distribution or to bidirectional motion. Increasing the variance of normally distributed directions reduced the magnitude of the peak DAE and broadened its tuning profile. Asymmetric sampling of Gaussian and uniform distributions resulted in shifts of DAE tuning profiles consistent with changes in the perceived global direction of the adapting stimulus. Discrimination thresholds were elevated by an amount that related to the magnitude of the bias. For bidirectional adaptors, adding dots in directions away from the adapting motion led to a pronounced reduction in the DAE. This reduction was observed when dots were added in opposite or orthogonal directions to the adaptor suggesting that it may arise via inhibition from a broadly tuned normalisation pool. Preliminary simulations with a population coding model, where the gain of a direction-selective neuron is inversely proportional to its response to the adapting stimulus, suggest that it provides a parsimonious account of these adaptation effects.

  2. Donor Conception Disclosure: Directive or Non-Directive Counselling? (United States)

    Raes, Inez; Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido


    It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be fulfilled. We analyse the arguments in favour of the beneficence principle, and consequently, a directive approach. This analysis shows that two conditions are not met; the principle of autonomy should not be overridden. Therefore, at this moment, a directive counselling approach on donor conception disclosure cannot be ethically justified.

  3. The median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Anne M


    Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity required to detect dark matter WIMPs. Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP `smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically we determine the number of events required to reject the null hypothesis that the median direction is random (corresponding to an isotropic Galactic recoil distribution) at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of roughly 2 more than are requi...

  4. A search for direct muon production in the forward direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, D.; /Caltech; Johnson, Rolland P.; /Fermilab; Sumner, R.L.; /Princeton U.; Fackler, O.; /Rockefeller U.; Frisch, Henry J.; Shochet, M.; /Chicago U.


    We propose to search for direct muon production in the forward direction from 300 GeV protons incident on a heavy nuclear target. By using the first stage of the Ml beam as a source of a diffracted proton beam and the second and third stages of Ml as a spectrometer, one can make a measurement of the direct muon to pion ratio at values of x between 0.3 and 0.75. If this ratio is on the order of 10{sup -4}, the event rates are on the order of 800 direct muons/hr. at an x of .5. The modifications to the Ml beam are minor.

  5. Directionality Time - New Analytical Treatment of Directionally Biased, Crawling Motility (United States)

    Tang, Jay; Loosley, Alexander

    Insights on crucial biological functions often emerge from measuring how animal cells crawl on surfaces, particularly in response to gradients of external cues that cause directionally biased motion. Most existing metrics commonly used to characterize directional migration, such as straightness index (or chemotactic index), persistence time, and turning angle distribution, tend to be sensitive to relatively large errors at short sampling times. In contrast, we recently introduced a new metric, called directionality time, to define the onset time by which a seemingly random motion becomes directionally biased (O'Brien et al., J Leukocyte Biol, 2014, 95:993-1004 Loosley et al., PLOS ONE, 2015, 10.1371). Directionality time is obtained by fitting the mean squared displacement as a function of time interval, in log-log coordinates, to a fit function based on biased and persistent random walk processes. We show that the fit function is approximately model invariant and is applicable to a variety of directionally biased motions. Simulations are performed to show the robustness of the directionality time model and its decoupling from measurement errors. Finally, we demonstrate as an example how to usefully apply the directionality time fit to trajectories of chemotactic neutrophils.

  6. Advance directives: prerequisites and usefulness. (United States)

    van Asselt, D


    Advance directives allow competent persons to extend their right of self-determination into the future, by recording choices that are intended to influence their future care should they become unable to make choices. They are considered tools to facilitate end-of-life decision making. Advance directives are a form of anticipatory decision-making. This article will focus on instruction directives against a certain treatment, so-called advance refusals. The most important legal requirement is the acknowledgement of patient autonomy. This condition is met in all European countries. The legal uncertainties surrounding advance refusals are focused on practical modalities rather than on the validity of the general principle. According to leading ethics the underlying moral rule of advanced directives is that all truly autonomous refusals of treatment must be respected, no matter what the consequences. Physicians find it hard to adhere to the wishes and choices of patients as expressed in directives. They find the text ambiguous. Another weakness is that directives give little information about what in the patient's view constitutes a good quality of life. Some health professionals lack the willingness to step outside their own value systems and fully embrace that of the patient. Empathic skills are required. Very few persons create an advance directive. Furthermore, of the created directives only some are accessible when patients are admitted to hospital. However, when directives are available they usually influence medical treatment decisions.

  7. Direct cooled power electronics substrate (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN


    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  8. New directions in information organization

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-ran; Spink, Amanda


    New Directions in Information Organization, co-edited by Dr. Jung-ran Park and Dr. Lynne Howarth seeks to provide an overview and understanding of the future directions, leading edge theories and models for research and practice in information organization.

  9. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier


    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  10. Strategic directions in tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P.C.; Mikos, A.G.; Fisher, J.P.; Jansen, J.A.


    The field of tissue engineering is developing rapidly. Given its ultimate importance to clinical care, the time is appropriate to assess the field's strategic directions to optimize research and development activities. To characterize strategic directions in tissue engineering, a distant but reachab

  11. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier


    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  12. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.


    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  13. Single Image Superresolution via Directional Group Sparsity and Directional Features. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; He, Hongjie; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng


    Single image superresolution (SR) aims to construct a high-resolution version from a single low-resolution (LR) image. The SR reconstruction is challenging because of the missing details in the given LR image. Thus, it is critical to explore and exploit effective prior knowledge for boosting the reconstruction performance. In this paper, we propose a novel SR method by exploiting both the directional group sparsity of the image gradients and the directional features in similarity weight estimation. The proposed SR approach is based on two observations: 1) most of the sharp edges are oriented in a limited number of directions and 2) an image pixel can be estimated by the weighted averaging of its neighbors. In consideration of these observations, we apply the curvelet transform to extract directional features which are then used for region selection and weight estimation. A combined total variation regularizer is presented which assumes that the gradients in natural images have a straightforward group sparsity structure. In addition, a directional nonlocal means regularization term takes pixel values and directional information into account to suppress unwanted artifacts. By assembling the designed regularization terms, we solve the SR problem of an energy function with minimal reconstruction error by applying a framework of templates for first-order conic solvers. The thorough quantitative and qualitative results in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity, information fidelity criterion, and preference matrix demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves higher quality SR reconstruction than the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  14. Direct optical to microwave conversion (United States)

    Taylor, Henry F.


    Support of high frequency fiber optic links through development of innovative higher efficiency techniques to convert optical energy directly to RF Energy. Control of Phases Arrays by optical means in an area of expanding technology development. Fiber optics and other forms of optical waveguide can provide greater accuracy and true time delay in a phase delay network. Methods of improvement in transfer of optical energy to RF Energy are determined. Development of Direct Optical-to-RF-Direct Amplifiers will result in higher efficiency, low noise, optical receivers for fiber optic links with improved performance. This results in longer fiber optic links without repeaters and improved BER or shorter links.

  15. Prisoner's dilemma on directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, A L; Pedro, T B; Santos, M; Figueiredo, W


    We study the prisoner's dilemma model with a noisy imitation evolutionary dynamics on directed out-homogeneous and uncorrelated directed random networks. An heterogeneous pair mean-field approximation is presented showing good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in the limit of weak selection (high noise) where we obtain analytical predictions for the critical temptations. We discuss the phase diagram as a function of temptation, intensity of noise and coordination number of the networks and we consider both the model with and without self-interaction. We compare our results with available results for non-directed lattices and networks.

  16. Module bay with directed flow (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.


    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  17. Directed Innovation of Business Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad


    Full Text Available Business model innovation is an important issue to keep business competitive and increase company’s profits. Due to many market attractors, identification of appropriate paths of business model evolution is a painful and risky process. To improve decision’s effectiveness in this process, an architectural construct of analysis and conceptualization for business model innovation that combines directed evolution and blue ocean concepts is proposed in this paper under the name of directed innovation. It displays the key points where innovations would happen to direct adaptation of the business model towards sustainable competitiveness. Formulation of mature solutions is supported by inventive problem solving tools. The significance of the directed innovation approach is demonstrated in a case study dealing with business model innovation of a software company.

  18. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.


    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  19. Photon upconversion with directed emission (United States)

    Börjesson, K.; Rudquist, P.; Gray, V.; Moth-Poulsen, K.


    Photon upconversion has the potential to increase the efficiency of single bandgap solar cells beyond the Shockley Queisser limit. Efficient light management is an important point in this context. Here we demonstrate that the direction of upconverted emission can be controlled in a reversible way, by embedding anthracene derivatives together with palladium porphyrin in a liquid crystalline matrix. The system is employed in a triplet-triplet annihilation photon upconversion scheme demonstrating controlled switching of directional anti Stokes emission. Using this approach an emission ratio of 0.37 between the axial and longitudinal emission directions and a directivity of 1.52 is achieved, reasonably close to the theoretical maximal value of 2 obtained from a perfectly oriented sample. The system can be switched for multiple cycles without any visible degradation and the speed of switching is only limited by the intrinsic rate of alignment of the liquid crystalline matrix.

  20. Major Directions in Creativity Research. (United States)

    Khatena, Joe

    Reviewed are major directions in creativity research in the following areas: theories of creativity; definitions; instruments to measure creativity; nurturing creativity; the disabled, disturbed, and disadvantaged; cross cultural patterns; creative imagination imagery; and measuring creative imagination imagery. (LS)

  1. EOP Current Magnitude and Direction (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard current magnitudes and directions collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using an RD...

  2. Multi-Directional Experimental Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ATLSS Multi-directional Experimental Laboratory was constructed in 1987 under funding from the National Science Foundation to be a major facility for large-scale...

  3. Direction of escape in reindeer


    Baskin, Leonid M.; Terje Skogland


    We tested the hypothesis that reindeer prefer to run uphill and upwind when escaping from man. Groups of wild and feral reindeer in Norway, Svalbard and on Wrangel Island were approached and their behaviour and direction of escape were recorded. Two stages of interaction with man were studied: first flight and final withdrawal. First flights proved to be away from man, upwind and uphill. Most final withdrawals were in the direction reindeer were moving when first observed.

  4. Direction of escape in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Baskin


    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that reindeer prefer to run uphill and upwind when escaping from man. Groups of wild and feral reindeer in Norway, Svalbard and on Wrangel Island were approached and their behaviour and direction of escape were recorded. Two stages of interaction with man were studied: first flight and final withdrawal. First flights proved to be away from man, upwind and uphill. Most final withdrawals were in the direction reindeer were moving when first observed.

  5. Urologic robots and future directions


    Mozer, Pierre; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Stoianovici, Dan


    International audience; PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology has gained immense popularity with the daVinci system, but a lot of research teams are working on new robots. The purpose of this study is to review current urologic robots and present future development directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Future systems are expected to advance in two directions: improvements of remote manipulation robots and developments of image-guided robots. SUMMARY: The final goal of robot...

  6. Improved directional-distance filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper proposes a new spatial-distance weighting function.By combining the weighting function and the traditional directional-distance filter (DDF) in a novel way,a new vector filter-the adaptive distance-weighted directional-distance filter (ADWDDF)-is presented.The experimental results show that the proposed solution provides better filtering performance and preserves better image chromaticity and edge or detail information compared with the traditional DDF and some other typical vector filters.

  7. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis


    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC


    Full Text Available The manner in which hostilities are being conducted has changed in recent years. The battle field has transpired beyond the physical realm and now has a virtual component. Because of this, it is now easier than ever for civilians to get involved in hostilities. International Humanitarian Law applies to all situations of armed conflict and according to the principle of distinction, the parties to the conflict must, at all times, distinguish between civilians and combatants. The problem arises when the line between combatants and civilians starts to get blurry. Direct civilian participation in hostilities has been addressed in both Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and in 2009 the International Committee of the Red Cross published the Interpretive guidance on the notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under international humanitarian law. Another document that addresses the problem of civilian direct participation is the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare prepared by an international group of experts at the invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in 2013. The guide prepared by the ICRC addresses the problem of civilian direct participation during conventional situations of armed conflict, while the Tallinn Manual addresses direct participation in situations of cyber warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study the application of civilian direct participation to situations of cyber warfare.

  9. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus


    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  10. Directive and Non-Directive Movement in Child Therapy. (United States)

    Krason, Katarzyna; Szafraniec, Grazyna


    Presents a new authorship method of child therapy based on visualization through motion. Maintains that this method stimulates motor development and musical receptiveness, and promotes personality development. Suggests that improvised movement to music facilitates the projection mechanism and that directed movement starts the channeling phase.…

  11. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  12. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht;


    needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 – 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2...... and A3 (Finishing guide, Bales). Based on simple intensity measurements, we estimate the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annually shaped photo-detector to collect the scattered light, we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random...

  13. On Directed Information and Gambling

    CERN Document Server

    Permuter, Haim H; Weissman, Tsachy


    We study the problem of gambling in horse races with causal side information and show that Massey's directed information characterizes the increment in the maximum achievable capital growth rate due to the availability of side information. This result gives a natural interpretation of directed information $I(Y^n \\to X^n)$ as the amount of information that $Y^n$ \\emph{causally} provides about $X^n$. Extensions to stock market portfolio strategies and data compression with causal side information are also discussed.

  14. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.


    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi


    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  16. Direct Employee Involvement Quality (DEIQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torka, Nicole; Woerkom, van Marianne; Looise, Jan-Kees


    This paper focuses on one aspect of human resource management (HRM) that is important for innovative employee behaviour: direct employee involvement quality (DEIQ). However, research has also shown that employee involvement is often in serious need of improvement. This paper presents evidence from t

  17. Broadband terahertz fiber directional coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd;


    We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber...

  18. The 1990 direct support infrastructure (United States)


    The airport and cargo terminal were individually analyzed in depth as the principal direct infrastructure components having cross impacts with aircraft carrying cargo. Containerization was also addressed in depth as an infrastructure component since it categorically is linked with and cross impacted by the aircraft, the cargo terminal, the surface transport system, the shipper and consignee, and the actual cargo being moved.

  19. Teaching Ethics: A Direct Approach. (United States)

    Penn, William Y., Jr.


    Compares five designs of an undergraduate ethics course at Saint Edward's University (Texas) in a 5-year study involving 318 students. Reveals the effectiveness of directly targeting and teaching in tandem the elements of moral reasoning. Bases study on Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Argues that this approach best develops moral…

  20. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning


    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  1. Self directed and lifelong learning. (United States)

    Alexander, Sylvia; Kernohan, George; McCullagh, Paul


    Given the many changes that occur in medicine, health care and information technologies we need to prepare all our students to engage in self directed and life long learning. There is considerable opportunity for self-directed and lifelong learning in health informatics bringing together students in exciting global learning environments, where they have much greater freedom and flexibility in their studies and potentially a wider variety of resources available to them. Self-directed learning focuses on the process by which adults take control of their own learning, in particular how they set their own learning goals, locate appropriate resources, decide on which learning methods to use and evaluate their progress. Lifelong learning happens in a variety of formal and informal settings building on both intentional and incidental learning experiences. In a lifelong learning situation the tutor must relinquish the role of expert and assume the role of facilitator, guiding learners to uncover their own knowledge. Against a back drop of rapid advances in technology which can be used to both deliver course materials and provide enhanced learning opportunities, this chapter outlines the pedagogic principles and practices which underpin self-directed and lifelong learning.

  2. Directional Dependence in Developmental Research (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.


    In this article, we discuss and propose methods that may be of use to determine direction of dependence in non-normally distributed variables. First, it is shown that standard regression analysis is unable to distinguish between explanatory and response variables. Then, skewness and kurtosis are discussed as tools to assess deviation from…

  3. Direct spinning of fiber supercapacitor. (United States)

    Xu, Tong; Ding, Xiaoteng; Liang, Yuan; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti


    A direct wet spinning approach is demonstrated for facile and continuous fabrication of a whole fiber supercapacitor using a microfluidic spinneret. The resulting fiber supercapacitor shows good electrochemical properties and possesses high flexibility and mechanical stability. This strategy paves the way for large-scale continuous production of fiber supercapacitors for weavable electronics.

  4. Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, N.A.


    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of ‘‘neurolaw’’—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context,

  5. Direct reciprocity in structured populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Veelen; J. García; D.G. Rand; M.A. Nowak


    Reciprocity and repeated games have been at the center of attention when studying the evolution of human cooperation. Direct reciprocity is considered to be a powerful mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, and it is generally assumed that it can lead to high levels of cooperation. Here we expl

  6. Sensing roughness and polish direction (United States)

    Jakobsen, M. L.; Olesen, A. S.; Larsen, H. E.; Stubager, J.; Hanson, S. G.; Pedersen, T. F.; Pedersen, H. C.


    As a part of the work carried out on a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost and time consumption can become relatively large numbers in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, but then the object needs to be manually polished. During the polishing process the operator needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduces by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 - 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2 and A3. Based on simple intensity measurements we estimates the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annual photo-detector to collect the scattered light we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random structures and light scattered from scratches.

  7. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts (United States)


    here-between in contact with Tecnica Ital.26:65-71, Jan/Feb.1961. said second electrode. (U.S. Patent Off. Off. Gaz. 773:260, Dec.5,1961). In Italian...DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT. Mikrochim. Acta p.457-466, 3168 S 1951. Huber, H. and Bensimon, J. SUR LA CONVERSION DIRECTE DE CHALEUR EN (In English

  8. Multi-directional productivity change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Balezentis, Tomas; Hougaard, Jens Leth


    In this paper we introduce an extension of the Malmquist total factor productivity index, which utilizes the Multi-directional Efficiency Analysis approach. This enables variable-specific analysis of productivity change as well as its components (efficiency change and technical change). The new...

  9. Direct detection of dark matter axions with directional sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, Igor G


    We study the directional effect of the expected axion dark matter signal in a resonant cavity of an axion haloscope detector, for cavity geometries not satisfying the condition that the axion de Broglie wavelength is much larger than the cavity dimensions. We focus on long thin cavities immersed in dipole magnets and find, for appropriately chosen cavity lengths, an O(1) modulation of the signal with the cavity orientation with respect the momentum distribution of the relic axion background predicted by the isothermal sphere model for the galactic dark matter halo. This effect can be exploited to design directional axion dark matter detectors, providing an unmistakable signature of the extraterrestrial origin of a possible positive detection. Moreover, the precise shape of the modulation may give information of the galactic halo distribution and, for specific halo models, give extra sensitivity for higher axion masses.

  10. Breakdown of interdependent directed networks. (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Stanley, H Eugene; Gao, Jianxi


    Increasing evidence shows that real-world systems interact with one another via dependency connectivities. Failing connectivities are the mechanism behind the breakdown of interacting complex systems, e.g., blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. Previous research analyzing the robustness of interdependent networks has been limited to undirected networks. However, most real-world networks are directed, their in-degrees and out-degrees may be correlated, and they are often coupled to one another as interdependent directed networks. To understand the breakdown and robustness of interdependent directed networks, we develop a theoretical framework based on generating functions and percolation theory. We find that for interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks the directionality within each network increases their vulnerability and exhibits hybrid phase transitions. We also find that the percolation behavior of interdependent directed scale-free networks with and without degree correlations is so complex that two criteria are needed to quantify and compare their robustness: the percolation threshold and the integrated size of the giant component during an entire attack process. Interestingly, we find that the in-degree and out-degree correlations in each network layer increase the robustness of interdependent degree heterogeneous networks that most real networks are, but decrease the robustness of interdependent networks with homogeneous degree distribution and with strong coupling strengths. Moreover, by applying our theoretical analysis to real interdependent international trade networks, we find that the robustness of these real-world systems increases with the in-degree and out-degree correlations, confirming our theoretical analysis.

  11. Model Independent Direct Detection Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Katz, Emanuel; Lubbers, Nicholas; Xu, Yiming


    Following the construction of the general effective theory for dark matter direct detection in 1203.3542, we perform an analysis of the experimental constraints on the full parameter space of elastically scattering dark matter. We review the prescription for calculating event rates in the general effective theory and discuss the sensitivity of various experiments to additional nuclear responses beyond the spin-independent (SI) and spin-dependent (SD) couplings: an angular-momentum-dependent (LD) and spin-and-angular-momentum-dependent (LSD) response, as well as a distinction between transverse and longitudinal spin-dependent responses. We consider the effect of interference between different operators and in particular look at directions in parameter space where such cancellations lead to holes in the sensitivity of individual experiments. We explore the complementarity of different experiments by looking at the improvement of bounds when experiments are combined. Finally, our scan through parameter space sho...

  12. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D


    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken $U(1)'$ gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed $U(1)'$ neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless "dark photon" (the $U(1)'$ gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA...

  13. Directed information measures in neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, Raul; Lizier, Joseph


    Analysis of information transfer has found rapid adoption in neuroscience, where a highly dynamic transfer of information continuously runs on top of the brain's slowly-changing anatomical connectivity. Measuring such transfer is crucial to understanding how flexible information routing and processing give rise to higher cognitive function. Directed Information Measures in Neuroscience reviews recent developments of concepts and tools for measuring information transfer, their application to neurophysiological recordings and analysis of interactions. Written by the most active researchers in the field the book discusses the state of the art, future prospects and challenges on the way to an efficient assessment of neuronal information transfer. Highlights include the theoretical quantification and practical estimation of information transfer, description of transfer locally in space and time, multivariate directed measures, information decomposition among a set of stimulus/responses variables, and the relation ...

  14. Multimode waveguide based directional coupler (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Qattan, Bader; Essa, Khamis; Butt, Haider


    The Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based platform overcomes limitations of the previous copper and fiber based technologies. Due to its high index difference, SOI waveguide (WG) and directional couplers (DC) are widely used for high speed optical networks and hybrid Electro-Optical inter-connections; TE00-TE01, TE00-TE00 and TM00-TM00 SOI direction couplers are designed with symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations to couple with TE00, TE01 and TM00 in a multi-mode semi-triangular ring-resonator configuration which will be applicable for multi-analyte sensing. Couplers are designed with effective index method and their structural parameters are optimized with consideration to coupler length, wavelength and polarization dependence. Lastly, performance of the couplers are analyzed in terms of cross-talk, mode overlap factor, coupling length and coupling efficiency.

  15. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements (United States)


    optimize engine performance and emissions. Fuel injectors contain an actuator, pintle (or needle), and nozzle. The most common actuator is a solenoid ...Introduction Fuel injectors have a long history in metering fuel in modern engines by either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct fuel injection (DFI...Compared with a carburetor, fuel injectors have more accurate fuel delivering capability, thus giving engineers and technicians more flexibility to

  16. Directivity of a simplified aeroengine


    Mattei, Pierre-Olivier


    International audience; This paper presents theoretical and numerical results on the high frequency directivity of an aeroengine under flight conditions. In this paper, two different theories, based on a Kirchhoff approximation for semi-infinite cylinders, are combined to obtain the far field sound pressure radiated into the whole surrounding space. Although the geometric description of the engine is simplified - in particular, the annular exhaust is not taken into account - it includes some ...

  17. Theology Today - Currents and Directions


    Fergusson, David


    While more fragmented than in mid-20th century, recent trends and directions reveal some dominant approaches and particular sub-areas that have become the focus of significant attention. Although overlapping and intersecting, these are discernible both methodologically and thematically. Approaches include a commitment to cross-disciplinarity, contextuality, strategies of retrieval, articulation of confessional identity, and the re-appropriation of liberalism. Important sub-areas include the r...

  18. Relativistic propulsion using directed energy (United States)

    Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip M.


    We propose a directed energy orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the evaporation point as a futuristic but feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. The system is based on recent advances in high efficiency photonic systems. The system could also be used for propulsion of kinetic or nuclear tipped asteroid interceptors or other interplanetary spacecraft. A photon drive is possible using direct photon pressure on a spacecraft similar to a solar sail. Given a laser power of 70GW, a 100 kg craft can be propelled to 1AU in approximately 3 days achieving a speed of 0.4% the speed of light, and a 10,000 kg craft in approximately 30 days. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of solid-state lasers, powered by photovoltaic conversion of sunlight. The system is scalable and completely modular so that sub elements can be built and tested as the technology matures. The sub elements can be immediately utilized for testing as well as other applications including space debris mitigation. The ultimate objective of DE-STAR would be to begin direct asteroid vaporization and orbital modification starting at distances beyond 1 AU. Using phased array technology to focus the beam, the surface spot temperature on the asteroid can be raised to more than 3000K, allowing evaporation of all known substances. Additional scientific uses of DE-STAR are also possible.

  19. Direct reciprocity in structured populations. (United States)

    van Veelen, Matthijs; García, Julián; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A


    Reciprocity and repeated games have been at the center of attention when studying the evolution of human cooperation. Direct reciprocity is considered to be a powerful mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, and it is generally assumed that it can lead to high levels of cooperation. Here we explore an open-ended, infinite strategy space, where every strategy that can be encoded by a finite state automaton is a possible mutant. Surprisingly, we find that direct reciprocity alone does not lead to high levels of cooperation. Instead we observe perpetual oscillations between cooperation and defection, with defection being substantially more frequent than cooperation. The reason for this is that "indirect invasions" remove equilibrium strategies: every strategy has neutral mutants, which in turn can be invaded by other strategies. However, reciprocity is not the only way to promote cooperation. Another mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, which has received as much attention, is assortment because of population structure. Here we develop a theory that allows us to study the synergistic interaction between direct reciprocity and assortment. This framework is particularly well suited for understanding human interactions, which are typically repeated and occur in relatively fluid but not unstructured populations. We show that if repeated games are combined with only a small amount of assortment, then natural selection favors the behavior typically observed among humans: high levels of cooperation implemented using conditional strategies.

  20. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund


    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  1. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    The characteristics of directional spread parameters at intermediate water depth are investigated based on a cosine power '2s' directional spreading model. This is based on wave measurements carried out using a Datawell directional waverider buoy...

  2. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.


    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  3. Directional Solidification of Eutectic Ceramics (United States)

    Sayir, Ali


    Two major problems associated with structural ceramics are lack of damage tolerance and insufficient strength and creep resistance at very high temperatures of interest for aerospace application. This work demonstrated that the directionally solidified eutectics can have unique poly-phase microstructures and mechanical properties superior to either constituent alone. The constraining effect of unique eutectic microstructures result in higher resistance to slow crack growth and creep. Prospect of achieving superior properties through controlled solidification are presented and this technology can also be beneficial to produce new class of materials.

  4. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Phillip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Griswold, Janelle; Kangas, Miikka; Johansson, Isbella; Alnawakhtha, Yusuf; Prater, Kenyon; Lang, Alex; Madajian, Jonathan


    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DESTAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR [1][5][6] and DE-STARLITE [2][5][6] are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In the DE-STAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds an "asteroid" sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed.

  5. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.


    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  6. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas


    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  7. Direct measurements of neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzschuh, E. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik


    The direct measurements have so far given no indication for a nonzero (positive) mass of any of the three known neutrinos. The experiments measuring the tau and the muon neutrino are good shape. The tritium experiments are in an unfortunate situation. It is unclear to me whether the problems are experimental or theoretical or a combination of both. The electronic final states distribution have been calculated, but the results have never been tested experimentally. The most important question to be answered is about the validity of the sudden approximation. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  8. Multi-directional local search. (United States)

    Tricoire, Fabien


    This paper introduces multi-directional local search, a metaheuristic for multi-objective optimization. We first motivate the method and present an algorithmic framework for it. We then apply it to several known multi-objective problems such as the multi-objective multi-dimensional knapsack problem, the bi-objective set packing problem and the bi-objective orienteering problem. Experimental results show that our method systematically provides solution sets of comparable quality with state-of-the-art methods applied to benchmark instances of these problems, within reasonable CPU effort. We conclude that the proposed algorithmic framework is a viable option when solving multi-objective optimization problems.

  9. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetrius, Lloyd A., E-mail:


    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  10. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja


    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  11. Directional Growth of Polymeric Nanowires (United States)

    Thapa, Prem; Flanders, Bret


    This work establishes an innovative electrochemical approach to the template free growth of conducting polypyrrole and polythiophene wires. These polymeric wires exhibit a knobby structure, but persistent growth in a given direction up to 30 μm in length. A long-range component of the applied voltage signal defines the growth-path. Moreover, the presence of this component enables the growth of amorphous nanowires with wire-like geometries. Such wires are employed in a non-invasive methodology for attaining strong mechanical attachments to live cells. This capability is of potential use in the electro-mechanical probing of cell physiological processes.

  12. Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions


    Vincent, N.A.


    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of ‘‘neurolaw’’—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context, I begin with an overview of some prominent topics in the field of neurolaw, where possible providing some references to relevant literature. The specific questions asked by the three authors, as we...

  13. Analysis of Nonlinear Directional Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Liu P. Shum; N. Q. Ngo


    @@ 1 Introduction Since the coupled-mode theory in cylindrical optical-fiber systems was proposed in 1972, the optical coupling between parallel optical waveguides has been a matter of scientific concern. Two-core fiber couplers, especially, have been studied extensively since the success of producing a two-core fiber functioning as a directional coupler in 1980. The wavelength and polarization selectivity of two-core fibers can find many applications. The nonlinear properties of the two-core fiber coupler were also inspected with the realization of an ultrafast all-optical switch.

  14. Direct measurement of light waves. (United States)

    Goulielmakis, E; Uiberacker, M; Kienberger, R; Baltuska, A; Yakovlev, V; Scrinzi, A; Westerwalbesloh, Th; Kleineberg, U; Heinzmann, U; Drescher, M; Krausz, F


    The electromagnetic field of visible light performs approximately 10(15) oscillations per second. Although many instruments are sensitive to the amplitude and frequency (or wavelength) of these oscillations, they cannot access the light field itself. We directly observed how the field built up and disappeared in a short, few-cycle pulse of visible laser light by probing the variation of the field strength with a 250-attosecond electron burst. Our apparatus allows complete characterization of few-cycle waves of visible, ultraviolet, and/or infrared light, thereby providing the possibility for controlled and reproducible synthesis of ultrabroadband light waveforms.

  15. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Ying; Gao; Yue; Fu; Yan-Nian; Hui


    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body.

  16. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael


    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  17. Future direction in airline marketing (United States)

    Colussy, D. A.


    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  18. 75 FR 53611 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-Direct... (United States)


    ... 15 CFR Part 806 [Docket No. 100202061-0063-01] RIN 0691-AA75 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad--Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter With Foreign.... Direct Investment Abroad--Transactions of U.S. Reporter With Foreign Affiliate.'' The exemption level...

  19. 75 FR 76630 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-Direct... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 806 RIN 0691--AA75 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-577, Quarterly Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad--Direct Transactions of U.S. Reporter With Foreign Affiliate... requirements for BE-577 quarterly survey of U.S. direct investment abroad. BEA conducts the survey...

  20. Radial lean direct injection burner (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier


    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  1. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier


    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  2. Urologic robots and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    Mozer, Pierre; Stoianovici, Dan; 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32831cc1ba


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology has gained immense popularity with the daVinci system, but a lot of research teams are working on new robots. The purpose of this study is to review current urologic robots and present future development directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Future systems are expected to advance in two directions: improvements of remote manipulation robots and developments of image-guided robots. SUMMARY: The final goal of robots is to allow safer and more homogeneous outcomes with less variability of surgeon performance, as well as new tools to perform tasks on the basis of medical transcutaneous imaging, in a less invasive way, at lower costs. It is expected that improvements for a remote system could be augmented in reality, with haptic feedback, size reduction, and development of new tools for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery. The paradigm of image-guided robots is close to clinical availability and the most advanced robots are presented with end-use...

  3. On Making Directed Graphs Eulerian

    CERN Document Server

    Sorge, Manuel


    A directed graph is called Eulerian, if it contains a walk that traverses every arc in the graph exactly once. We study the problem of Eulerian Extension (EE) where a directed multigraph G and a weight function is given and it is asked whether G can be made Eulerian by adding arcs whose total weight does not exceed a given threshold. This problem is motivated through applications in vehicle routing and flowshop scheduling. However, EE is NP- hard and thus we use the parameterized complexity framework to analyze it. In parameterized complexity, the running time of algorithms is considered not only with respect to input length, but also with respect to other properties of the input-called "parameters". Dorn et al. proved that EE can be solved in O(4^k n^4) time, where k denotes the parameter "number of arcs that have to be added". In this thesis, we analyze EE with respect to the (smaller) parameters "number c of connected components in the input graph" and "sum b over indeg(v) - outdeg(v) for all vertices v in...

  4. Directional synthetic aperture flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav


    A method for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging and focusing along the flow direction is presented. The method can find the correct velocity magnitude for any flow angle and full color flow images can be measured using only 32 to 128 pulse emissions. The approach uses spherical wave...... artery and jugular vein of a healthy 29 years old volunteer was acquired. A full color flow image using only 128 emissions could be made with a high velocity precision.......A method for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging and focusing along the flow direction is presented. The method can find the correct velocity magnitude for any flow angle and full color flow images can be measured using only 32 to 128 pulse emissions. The approach uses spherical wave...... angle is manually determined from the B-mode image. The approach can be used for both tissue and blood velocity determination. The approach was investigated using both simulations and a flow system with a laminar flow. The flow profile was measured with a commercial 7.5 MHz linear array transducer...

  5. Overview: developmental toxicology: new directions. (United States)

    Shuey, Dana; Kim, James H


    Since regulatory agencies began implementing the use of standardized developmental toxicology protocols in the mid-1960s, our knowledge base of embryo-fetal development and technologies for experimentation has grown exponentially. These developmental toxicology protocols were a direct result of the thalidomide tragedy from earlier that decade, when large numbers of women were exposed to the drug and over 10,000 cases of phocomelia resulted. In preventing a recurrence of such tragedies, the testing protocols are immensely successful and the field of toxicology has been dedicated to using them to advance safety and risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Recently, our perspectives on toxicity testing have been challenged by a growing awareness that while we have excelled in hazard identification, we are in dire need of improved methodologies for human health risk assessment, particularly with respect to the large numbers of environmental chemicals for which we have little toxicology data and to the growing sentiment that better alternatives to whole animals tests are needed. To provide a forum for scientists, researchers, and regulators, the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute organized a 2-day workshop titled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" to evaluate lessons learned over the past 30 years and discuss the future of toxicology testing. The following four articles describe different presentations and discussions that were held over the course of those 2 days.

  6. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory (United States)

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.


    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  7. Conflict-Directed Backjumping Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X; 10.1613/jair.788


    In recent years, many improvements to backtracking algorithms for solving constraint satisfaction problems have been proposed. The techniques for improving backtracking algorithms can be conveniently classified as look-ahead schemes and look-back schemes. Unfortunately, look-ahead and look-back schemes are not entirely orthogonal as it has been observed empirically that the enhancement of look-ahead techniques is sometimes counterproductive to the effects of look-back techniques. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between the two most important look-ahead techniques---using a variable ordering heuristic and maintaining a level of local consistency during the backtracking search---and the look-back technique of conflict-directed backjumping (CBJ). We show that there exists a "perfect" dynamic variable ordering such that CBJ becomes redundant. We also show theoretically that as the level of local consistency that is maintained in the backtracking search is increased, the less that backjumping will be a...

  8. Together in the same direction

    CERN Multimedia


    It’s sometimes difficult to explain the nature of global collaboration in particle physics: how fierce competition coexists with collaboration, and how, whatever our differences, we all pull in the same direction. But this week gave us two strong examples.   Firstly, on Wednesday, the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) was officially delivered to the International Committee for Future Accelerators, ICFA, the global body that oversees the development of major projects in particle physics. This event marks the culmination of years of effort through close global collaboration between labs around the world. It has seen tough collective decisions being taken between competing technologies, with all participating labs lining up behind the chosen option. And on Wednesday this week, it saw the linear collider community choosing CERN as one of the three venues for the official handover, despite the fact that CERN was not one of the original core labs ...

  9. The SPES direct UCx target (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Antonucci, C.; Barbui, M.; Carturan, S.; Cervellera, F.; Cevolani, S.; Cinausero, M.; Colombo, P.; Dainelli, A.; di Bernardo, P.; Gramegna, F.; Maggioni, G.; Meneghetti, G.; Petrovich, C.; Piga, L.; Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tonezzer, M.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Zanonato, P.


    A possible solution for a target system aimed at the production of exotic nuclei as a result of high energy fissions in 238U compounds has been analyzed. The proposed configuration is constituted by a primary proton beam (40 MeV, 0.2 mA) directly impinging on uranium carbide disks inserted within a cylindrical carbon box. This system has been conceived to obtain both a high number of neutron rich atoms (originated from about 1013 fissions/s) and a low power deposition in the target. In order to extract the fission fragments, the box has to be hold at 2000○C. The thermal analysis shows the capability of the thermal radiation to cool the disks with a reasonable margin below the material melting point. Moreover, the analyses of the thermo-mechanical behaviour and of the effusion times confirm the promising features of this target configuration.

  10. Directed actin assembly and motility. (United States)

    Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Galland, Rémi; Suarez, Cristian; Guérin, Christophe; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent


    The actin cytoskeleton is a key component of the cellular architecture. However, understanding actin organization and dynamics in vivo is a complex challenge. Reconstitution of actin structures in vitro, in simplified media, allows one to pinpoint the cellular biochemical components and their molecular interactions underlying the architecture and dynamics of the actin network. Previously, little was known about the extent to which geometrical constraints influence the dynamic ultrastructure of these networks. Therefore, in order to study the balance between biochemical and geometrical control of complex actin organization, we used the innovative methodologies of UV and laser patterning to design a wide repertoire of nucleation geometries from which we assembled branched actin networks. Using these methods, we were able to reconstitute complex actin network organizations, closely related to cellular architecture, to precisely direct and control their 3D connections. This methodology mimics the actin networks encountered in cells and can serve in the fabrication of innovative bioinspired systems.

  11. Direct Search in Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Skvortsov


    Full Text Available The notion Concept implies a set of rules and ideas combining in a common intention actual principles for application, structure and form of a future artificial object. A rational concept is considered as a product of "conceptual design", which is nothing more than a step-by-step research on the possibility of achieving a desired goal. It precedes a full-scale development oriented to the project implementation. The author studies conceptual design as the process of idea evolution involving several s tages (Fig. 1. One of them is considered, for which an effort is made to generate an effective methodology of direct search for a rational concept with due regard for system and other methods.

  12. Direction Cryptography in Quantum Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, W; Simmons, Walter; Pakvasa, Sandip


    We examine a situation in which an information-carrying signal is sent from two sources to a common receiver. The radiation travels through free space in the presence of noise. The information resides in a relationship between the two beams. We inquire into whether itis possible, in principle, that the locations of the transmitters can be concealed from a party who receives the radiation and decodes the information. Direction finding entails making a set of measurements on asignal and constructing an analytic continuation of the time dependent fields from the results. The fact that this process is generally different in quantum mechanics and in classical electrodynamics is the basis in this investigation. We develop a model based upon encoding information into a microscopic, transverse, non-local quantum image (whose dimensions are of the order of a few wavelengths) and using a detector of a type recently proposed by Strekalov et al. The optical system, which uses SPDC (Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion)...

  13. Note: Direct piezoelectric effect microscopy. (United States)

    Mori, T J A; Stamenov, P; Dorneles, L S


    An alternative method for investigating piezoelectric surfaces is suggested, exploiting the direct piezoeffect. The technique relies on acoustic (ultrasonic) excitation of the imaged surface and mapping of the resulting oscillatory electric potential. The main advantages arise from the spatial resolution of the conductive scanning probe microscopy in combination with the relatively large magnitude of the forward piezo signal Upf, which can be of the order of tens of mV even for non-ferroelectric piezoelectric materials. The potency of this experimental strategy is illustrated with measurements on well-crystallized quartz surfaces, where Upf ∼ 50 mV, for a piezoelectric coefficient of d33 = - 2.27  ×  10(-12) m/V, and applied stress of about T3 ∼ 5.7 kPa.

  14. Probabilistic direct counterfactual quantum communication (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng


    It is striking that the quantum Zeno effect can be used to launch a direct counterfactual communication between two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob. So far, existing protocols of this type only provide a deterministic counterfactual communication service. However, this counterfactuality should be payed at a price. Firstly, the transmission time is much longer than a classical transmission costs. Secondly, the chained-cycle structure makes them more sensitive to channel noises. Here, we extend the idea of counterfactual communication, and present a probabilistic-counterfactual quantum communication protocol, which is proved to have advantages over the deterministic ones. Moreover, the presented protocol could evolve to a deterministic one solely by adjusting the parameters of the beam splitters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61300203).

  15. New Directions In Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Novick


    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition that school reform and staff development are integrally related. Yet, despite a rich literature on adult learning and human development which supports teachers' need for a wide array of opportunities to construct their own understandings and theories in a collaborative setting, top down mandates have frequently left teachers out of the reform process. It is argued here that effective staff development should be tied directly to the daily life of classroom and grounded in the questions and concerns of teachers. Both a theory of pedagogy that advocates teaching for understanding and learning as understanding and a model of staff development based on practical knowledge enriched by critical reflection are discussed.

  16. Direct search for light gluinos

    CERN Document Server

    Fanti, V; Musa, L; Marras, D; Nappi, A; Hay, B; Moore, R W; Moore, K N; Munday, D J; Needham, M D; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Andersen, J; Barr, Giles David; Bocquet, G; Bremer, J; Ceccucci, Augusto; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, Niels T; Fischer, G; Funk, W; Gatignon, L; Gianoli, A; Gonidec, A; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Luitz, S; Kesseler, G; Matheys, J P; Norton, Alan Robert; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Schinzel, D; Taureg, Hans; Velasco, M; Vossnack, O; Wahl, H; Wirrer, G; Kekelidze, V D; Mestvirishvili, A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Tatishvili, G T; Tkachev, A L; Zinchenko, A I; Boyle, O; Martin, V J; Knowles, I G; Parsons, H; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Porcu, M; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Michetti, A; Becker, H G; Blümer, H; Buchholz, P; Coward, D H; Ebersberger, C; Fox, H; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Renk, B; Scheidt, J; Schmidt, J; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wilhelm, R; Winharting, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Crépé, S; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Fayard, Louis; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Vattolo, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Lubrano, P; Pepé, M; Gorini, B; Calafiura, P; Carosi, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Marzulli, V M; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Khristov, P Z; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Schanne, S; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Augustin, I; Bender, M; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, Günther; Pernicka, Manfred; Taurok, Anton


    We present the results for a direct search for light gluinos through the appearance of $\\eta\\rightarrow 3\\pin$ with high transverse momentum in the vacuum tank of the NA48 experiment at CERN. We find one event within a lifetime range of $10^{-9}-10^{-3}$\\,s and another one between $10^{-10}-10^{-9}$\\,s. Both events are consistent with the expected background from neutrons in the beam, produced by 450 GeV protons impinging on the Be targets, which interact with the residual air in the tank. From these data we give limits on the production of the hypothetical $g\\widetilde{g}$ bound state, the $R^0$ hadron, and its $R^0\\rightarrow\\eta\\photino$ decay in the $R^0$ mass range between 1 and 5~GeV.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirilă – Donciu


    Full Text Available Mobilizing financial resources to cover investment needs is a concern of all countries, developed or developing ones, of consolidated market economies or emerging ones. A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The purpose of this research is to analyse global FDI inflows in Europe and in Romania. The results of the research support the idea that the balance of economic power is changing in the world economy and the countries that own a stable and solid industrial base are at an advantage. The new trends determined by the economic crisis in the field of FDI refer to the growing percentage of developing and emerging countries in the global flows of FDI.

  18. Direct Approach to Quantum Tunneling (United States)

    Andreassen, Anders; Farhi, David; Frost, William; Schwartz, Matthew D.


    The decay rates of quasistable states in quantum field theories are usually calculated using instanton methods. Standard derivations of these methods rely in a crucial way upon deformations and analytic continuations of the physical potential and on the saddle-point approximation. While the resulting procedure can be checked against other semiclassical approaches in some one-dimensional cases, it is challenging to trace the role of the relevant physical scales, and any intuitive handle on the precision of the approximations involved is at best obscure. In this Letter, we use a physical definition of the tunneling probability to derive a formula for the decay rate in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory directly from the Minkowski path integral, without reference to unphysical deformations of the potential. There are numerous benefits to this approach, from nonperturbative applications to precision calculations and aesthetic simplicity.

  19. The Search for Directed Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, Philip


    We propose a search for sources of directed energy systems such as those now becoming technologically feasible on Earth. Recent advances in our own abilities allow us to foresee our own capability that will radically change our ability to broadcast our presence. We show that systems of this type have the ability to be detected at vast distances and indeed can be detected across the entire horizon. This profoundly changes the possibilities for searches for extra-terrestrial technology advanced civilizations. We show that even modest searches can be extremely effective at detecting or limiting many civilization classes. We propose a search strategy that will observe more than 10 12 stellar and planetary systems with possible extensions to more than 10 20 systems allowing us to test the hypothesis that other similarly or more advanced civilization with this same capability, and are broadcasting, exist.

  20. New directions in hospital governance. (United States)

    Shortell, S M


    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes.

  1. Invariance of directed spaces and persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    With motivations arising from concurrency theory within Computer Science, a new field of research, directed algebraic topology, has emerged. The main characteristic is, that it involves spaces of "directed paths'' (or timed paths, executions) in a "directed space''; these directed paths can be co...

  2. Laterality and Directional Preferences in Preschool Children. (United States)

    Tan, Lesley E.


    Directional preference for horizontal hand movements was investigated in 49 right- and 49 left-handed four-year-olds using three drawing tests. Directionality for more complex perceptual-motor tasks has a different basis than directionality for simple tasks; such directionality is established at a later age but only for the right hand. (Author/CM)

  3. 40 CFR 73.72 - Direct sales. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct sales. 73.72 Section 73.72... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.72 Direct sales. Allowances that were formerly part of the direct sale program, which has been terminated...

  4. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and... direct sales Public Charters by a foreign air carrier upon a finding that such action is necessary in...

  5. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. M. Greeter


    Full Text Available We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep, allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta.

  6. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Makoto; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Zheng-Sheng, Yao; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hosono, Masako N.; Sakahara, Harumi; Imada, Kazunori; Okuma, Minoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Konishi, Junji


    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered {sup 125}I- and {sup 111}In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using {sup 111}In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL.

  7. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Drexlin, G; Mertens, S; Weinheimer, C


    In this contribution we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments. These experiments investigate the kinematics of $\\beta$-decays of specific isotopes ($^3$H, $^{187}$Re, $^{163}$Ho) to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (anti-) neutrino mass, which is formed by the incoherent sum of the neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. We first review the kinematics of $\\beta$-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, before giving a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for $^3$H, cryo-bolometers for $^{187}$Re). We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment which is currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The large-scale setup will use the MAC-E-Filter principle pioneered earlier to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV(90% C.L.). KATRIN faces many technological challenges that have to be resolved with regar...

  8. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The recent IUPAC recommendation on the definition of hydrogen bonding points out that directionality is a defining characteristic of a hydrogen bond and the angle ∠X-H-Y is generally linear or 180◦. It also suggests that the X-H· · ·Y angle be greater than 110◦ for an interaction to be characterized as a hydrogenbond but does not provide any rationale for the same. This article reports a rationale for limiting the angle, based on the electron density topology using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Electron density topology for common hydrogen bond donors HF, HCl, HBr, HNC, HCN and HCCH are reported in this work. These calculations lead to an interesting observation that the atomic basins of H atom in all these donor molecules are limited justifying the restriction of hydrogen bond angle. Moreover, similar analysis on some hydrogen bonded complexes confirms that beyond this angle the acceptor atom Y starts interacting with the atomic basin on X. However, conclusions based on bond lengths and angles have to be treated with care and as the IUPAC recommendation points out that independent ‘evidence for bond formation’ in every case is important.

  9. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang


    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  10. New directions for veterinary technology. (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E


    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  11. Gravitational spectra from direct measurements (United States)

    Wagner, C. A.; Colombo, O. L.


    A simple rapid method is described for determining the spectrum of a surface field from harmonic analysis of direct measurements along great circle arcs. The method is shown to give excellent overall trends to very high degree from even a few short arcs of satellite data. Three examples are taken with perfect measurements of satellite tracking over a planet made up of hundreds of point-masses using (1) altimetric heights from a low orbiting spacecraft, (2) velocity residuals between a low and a high satellite in circular orbits, and (3) range-rate data between a station at infinity and a satellite in highly eccentric orbit. In particular, the smoothed spectrum of the Earth's gravitational field is determined to about degree 400(50 km half wavelength) from 1 D x 1 D gravimetry and the equivalent of 11 revolutions of Geos 3 and Skylab altimetry. This measurement shows there is about 46 cm of geoid height remaining in the field beyond degree 180.

  12. Future directions of electron crystallography. (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori


    In biological science, there are still many interesting and fundamental yet difficult questions, such as those in neuroscience, remaining to be answered. Structural and functional studies of membrane proteins, which are key molecules of signal transduction in neural and other cells, are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of many fundamental biological processes. Technological and instrumental advancements of electron microscopy have facilitated comprehension of structural studies of biological components, such as membrane proteins. While X-ray crystallography has been the main method of structure analysis of proteins including membrane proteins, electron crystallography is now an established technique to analyze structures of membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer, which is close to their natural biological environment. By utilizing cryo-electron microscopes with helium-cooled specimen stages, structures of membrane proteins were analyzed at a resolution better than 3 Å. Such high-resolution structural analysis of membrane proteins by electron crystallography opens up the new research field of structural physiology. Considering the fact that the structures of integral membrane proteins in their native membrane environment without artifacts from crystal contacts are critical in understanding their physiological functions, electron crystallography will continue to be an important technology for structural analysis. In this chapter, I will present several examples to highlight important advantages and to suggest future directions of this technique.

  13. The direct aromatization of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M. [Altamira Instruments, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  14. Direct Model Checking Matrix Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Hans Kleine Büning; Li-Fu Wang


    During the last decade, Model Checking has proven its efficacy and power in circuit design, network protocol analysis and bug hunting. Recent research on automatic verification has shown that no single model-checking technique has the edge over all others in all application areas. So, it is very difficult to determine which technique is the most suitable for a given model. It is thus sensible to apply different techniques to the same model. However, this is a very tedious and time-consuming task, for each algorithm uses its own description language. Applying Model Checking in software design and verification has been proved very difficult. Software architectures (SA) are engineering artifacts that provide high-level and abstract descriptions of complex software systems. In this paper a Direct Model Checking (DMC) method based on Kripke Structure and Matrix Algorithm is provided. Combined and integrated with domain specific software architecture description languages (ADLs), DMC can be used for computing consistency and other critical properties.

  15. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits. (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter


    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  16. Laboratory directed research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  17. Orthogonal two-direction multiscaling functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Changzhen; YANG Shouzhi


    The concept of a two-direction multiscaling functions is introduced.We investigate the existence of solutions of the two-direction matrix refinable equationΦ(x)=Σk∈ZP+kΦ(2x-k) +Σk∈ZP-kΦ&(k- 2x),where r×r matrices {P+k} and {P-k} are called the positive-direction and negative-direction masks,respectively.Necessary and sufficient conditions that the above two-direction matrix refinable equation has a compactly supported distributional solution are established.The definition of orthogonal two-direction multiscaling function is presented,and the orthogonality criteria for two-direction multiscaling function is established.An algorithm for constructing a class of two-direction multiscaling functions is obtained.In addition,the relation of both orthogonal two-direction multiscaling function and orthogonal multiscaling function is discussed.Finally,construction examples are given.

  18. Advance directives: role of nurse practitioners. (United States)

    Schlenk, J S


    Advance directives are documents that guide end of life decisions. Although advance directives are a fairly recent phenomenon in health care, they are grounded in both legal and ethical principles. Studies show few people have completed advance directives. Persons do not tend to complete advance directives for various reasons. Lack of knowledge has been identified, as well as belief that physicians should initiate the discussion and that the topic is appropriate only for the elderly or those in poor health. Many nurse practitioners practice in primary care settings, which are ideal for discussions about advance directives. Nurse practitioners possess the opportunities and skills to discuss advance directives with their patients.

  19. Product directivity models for parametric loudspeakers. (United States)

    Shi, Chuang; Gan, Woon-Seng


    In a recent work, the beamsteering characteristics of parametric loudspeakers were validated in an experiment. It was shown that based on the product directivity model, the locations and amplitudes of the mainlobe and grating lobes could be predicted within acceptable errors. However, the measured amplitudes of sidelobes have not been able to match the theoretical results accurately. In this paper, the original theories behind the product directivity model are revisited, and three modified product directivity models are proposed: (i) the advanced product directivity model, (ii) the exponential product directivity model, and (iii) the combined product directivity model. The proposed product directivity models take the radii of equivalent Gaussian sources into account and obtain better predictions of sidelobes for the difference frequency waves. From the comparison between measurement results and numerical solutions, all the proposed models outperform the original product directivity model in terms of selected sidelobe predictions by about 10 dB.

  20. Implementing the European SEA Directive in planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark.......The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark....

  1. Direct Interval Forecasting of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre


    This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness...

  2. Wave directional spectrum from array measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Menon, H.B.

    Using the method of Esteva (1976, 1977), whcih assumes that at the frequency band the waves approach from just a single "mean" wave direction, wave direction has been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated as a function of frequency...

  3. 38 CFR 17.259 - Direct costs. (United States)


    ... personnel or for fringe benefits, rent, publications, educational programs, training, research... Exchange of Information § 17.259 Direct costs. Direct costs to which grant funds may be applied may...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Veselin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Apai, Daniel, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85718 (United States)


    With the increasing number of directly imaged giant exoplanets, the current atmosphere models are often not capable of fully explaining the spectra and luminosity of the sources. A particularly challenging component of the atmosphere models is the formation and properties of condensate cloud layers, which fundamentally impact the energetics, opacity, and evolution of the planets. Here we present a suite of techniques that can be used to estimate the level of rotational modulations these planets may show. We propose that the time-resolved observations of such periodic photometric and spectroscopic variations of extrasolar planets due to their rotation can be used as a powerful tool to probe the heterogeneity of their optical surfaces. In this paper, we develop simulations to explore the capabilities of current and next-generation ground- and space-based instruments for this technique. We address and discuss the following questions: (1) what planet properties can be deduced from the light curve and/or spectra, and in particular can we determine rotation periods, spot coverage, spot colors, and spot spectra?; (2) what is the optimal configuration of instrument/wavelength/temporal sampling required for these measurements?; and (3) can principal component analysis be used to invert the light curve and deduce the surface map of the planet? Our simulations describe the expected spectral differences between homogeneous (clear or cloudy) and patchy atmospheres, outline the significance of the dominant absorption features of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, and provide a method to distinguish these two types of atmospheres. Assuming surfaces with and without clouds for most currently imaged planets the current models predict the largest variations in the J band. Simulated photometry from current and future instruments is used to estimate the level of detectable photometric variations. We conclude that future instruments will be able to recover not only the rotation periods

  5. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology. (United States)

    van den Daele, L


    remarkable stasis in the psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious. The theory of the unconscious that arises from the method of direct interpretation reflects a differentiated inner world with variegated landscapes of images and frameworks. The derivatives of the unconscious are determined by complex decision rules, symbol systems, and syntax. Images and dreams possess a primary autonomy from the conscious mind and arise through the configural mind, which serves the construction and synthesis of experience and knowledge. The derivatives emerge out of common human nature conjoined with concrete human experience. For this reason, dreams and images appear universal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  6. Future directions of ecosystem science (United States)

    Baron, Jill; Galvin, Kathleen A.


    , and global--have not replaced one another (Clark and Holling 1985). Instead, the effects are superimposed, creating what some perceive as impending global environmental crisis (Clark 1989, MacNeill 1989, WCED 1987). Public demands are developing for economic, political, social, and environmental efforts directed toward creating a state of global sustainability.

  7. Directional detection of galactic dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mayet, F; Santos, D


    Directional detection is a promising Dark Matter search strategy. Taking advantage on the rotation of the Solar system around the galactic center through the Dark Matter halo, it allows to show a direction dependence of WIMP events that may be a powerful tool to identify genuine WIMP events as such. Directional detection strategy requires the simultaneous measurement of the energy and the 3D track of low energy recoils, which is a common challenge for all current projects of directional detectors.

  8. Theoretical prospects for directional WIMP detection

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hare, Ciaran A J


    Direct detection of dark matter with directional sensitivity is a promising concept for improving the search for weakly interacting massive particles. With information on the direction of WIMP induced nuclear recoils one has access to the full 3-dimensional velocity distribution of the local dark matter halo and thus a potential avenue for studying WIMP astrophysics. Furthermore the unique angular signature of the WIMP recoil distribution provides a crucial discriminant from neutrinos which currently represent the ultimate background to direct detection experiments.

  9. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  10. The ECJ and the Mutual Assistance Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Hemels (Sigrid)


    textabstractIntroduction: In 1977 the European Council adopted the ‘Directive Concerning Mutual Assistance by the competent Authorities of the Member States in the Field of Direct Taxation’.3 The implementation deadline of this Directive was 1 January 1979. On 6 December 1979 the Council adopted an

  11. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed...

  12. Empirical Evaluation of Directional-Dependence Tests (United States)

    Thoemmes, Felix


    Testing of directional dependence is a method to infer causal direction that recently has attracted some attention. Previous examples by e.g. von Eye and DeShon (2012a) and extensive simulation studies by Pornprasertmanit and Little (2012) have demonstrated that under specific assumptions, directional-dependence tests can recover the true causal…

  13. 16 CFR 1000.13 - Directives System. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directives System. 1000.13 Section 1000.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.13 Directives System. The Commission maintains a Directives System which contains delegations...

  14. 12 CFR 619.9135 - Direct lender. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct lender. 619.9135 Section 619.9135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9135 Direct lender. The term direct lender refers to Farm Credit banks and associations (production credit...

  15. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.


    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  16. Direct manipulation of virtual objects (United States)

    Nguyen, Long K.

    Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This

  17. The energy efficiency directive; Die Energieeffizienzrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Benedicte [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet - Recht, Oekonomie und Politik e.V. (IKEM)


    The present article gives an overview of the recently adopted European Energy Efficiency Directive. The Directive is to take effect in early December 2012 and will supersede the Energy Services Directive and the Cogeneration Directive. The Energy Efficiency Directive is dedicated to current European energy saving goals. To this end it contains regulations that are to lead to savings in primary energy as well as final energy use. One that deserves particular mention is Art. 7, which provides a framework for the introduction of energy saving engagement systems, on the strength of which transmission system operators and/or energy suppliers can be obligated to encourage final customers to implement energy saving measures.

  18. Multipolar interference for directed light emission. (United States)

    Hancu, Ion M; Curto, Alberto G; Castro-López, Marta; Kuttge, Martin; van Hulst, Niek F


    By directing light, optical antennas can enhance light-matter interaction and improve the efficiency of nanophotonic devices. Here we exploit the interference among the electric dipole, quadrupole, and magnetic dipole moments of a split-ring resonator to experimentally realize a compact directional optical antenna. This single-element antenna design robustly directs emission even when covered with nanometric emitters at random positions, outperforming previously demonstrated nanoantennas with a bandwidth of 200 nm and a directivity of 10.1 dB from a subwavelength structure. The advantages of this approach bring directional optical antennas closer to practical applications.

  19. Graphlet-based Characterization of Directed Networks (United States)

    Sarajlić, Anida; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Pržulj, Nataša


    We are flooded with large-scale, dynamic, directed, networked data. Analyses requiring exact comparisons between networks are computationally intractable, so new methodologies are sought. To analyse directed networks, we extend graphlets (small induced sub-graphs) and their degrees to directed data. Using these directed graphlets, we generalise state-of-the-art network distance measures (RGF, GDDA and GCD) to directed networks and show their superiority for comparing directed networks. Also, we extend the canonical correlation analysis framework that enables uncovering the relationships between the wiring patterns around nodes in a directed network and their expert annotations. On directed World Trade Networks (WTNs), our methodology allows uncovering the core-broker-periphery structure of the WTN, predicting the economic attributes of a country, such as its gross domestic product, from its wiring patterns in the WTN for up-to ten years in the future. It does so by enabling us to track the dynamics of a country’s positioning in the WTN over years. On directed metabolic networks, our framework yields insights into preservation of enzyme function from the network wiring patterns rather than from sequence data. Overall, our methodology enables advanced analyses of directed networked data from any area of science, allowing domain-specific interpretation of a directed network’s topology.

  20. Non-Perturbative Flat Direction Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Basboll, A; Riva, F; West, S M; Basboll, Anders; Maybury, David; Riva, Francesco; West, Stephen M.


    We argue that supersymmetric flat direction vevs can decay non-perturbatively via preheating. Considering the case of a single flat direction, we explicitly calculate the scalar potential in the unitary gauge for a U(1) theory and show that the mass matrix for excitations around the flat direction has non-diagonal entries which vary with the phase of the flat direction vev. Furthermore, this mass matrix has 2 zero eigenvalues (associated with the excitations along the flat direction) whose eigenstates change with time. We show that these 2 light degrees of freedom are produced copiously in the non-perturbative decay of the flat direction vev. We also comment on the application of these results to the MSSM flat direction H_uL.

  1. Foreign Direct Investment in Indian Economy.


    Kapoor, Vikas


    Over the past few years, India's inward Foreign Direct investment (FDI) has attracted many scholars interest. The objective of this study is to focus on the impact that Foreign Direct investment has for Indian economic growth and development. It seeks to briefly reveal why there has been a recent surge in FDI and also the factors that prevent India from attracting foreign direct investments. Main determinants of FDI will also be revealed in this paper. In addition, this paper also compar...

  2. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar


    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  3. Directional and Attitude Stability Control Kit (United States)


    and Attitude Stability Control Kit Final Progress Report This report outlines progress on the DARPA M3 Program, project “Directional and Attitude ...2 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Directional and Attitude ...Stability Control Kit Final Progress Report Report Title This report outlines progress on the DARPA M3 Program, project “Directional and Attitude

  4. Marine Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    ,D. 1999. Understanding marine microbes- Trends and future directions. In: ?Ocean Science : Trends and future directions? (Ed.) B.L.K.Somayajulu. Indian National Science Academy and Akademia Books International, New Delhi. 12 Pp.151-175. Connon,S.A. and S... Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions D. Chandramohan Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India Introduction The planet earth is believed to have formed about 4600 million years ago and life forms originated...

  5. Evaluation and directions of the photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L.; Emery, K.A.; DeBlasio, R. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))


    The status of, directions and expectations for photovoltaic technologies are discussed and updated, with emphasis on the performances of cells and modules used in various research and commercial solar cell approaches. Current and projected research and development directions are indicated. Special aspects of the current evolution of photovoltaics from the research laboratory to the commercial arena are discussed, including new programs directed to make this energy resource a viable electricity choice for users worldwide. (Author)

  6. Spatial roles and verbal directionality in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben


    This article deals with the interaction between two subsystems of the grammar of Dinka, a Western Nilotic language: (i) the semantic role of a place adverbial as location, source or goal, and (ii) deictic directionality expressed in the verb. Some place adverbials do not encode the distinction be...... verb. In clauses with a single place adverbial, moreover, a source adverbial requires either a non-directional verb or a centripetal verb, and a location adverbial requires a non-directional verb....

  7. The far future of exoplanet direct characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Jean; Fridlund, Malcolm; White, Glenn; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Liseau, Rene; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Roettgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lunine, Jonathan; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna


    In this outlook we describe what could be the next steps of the direct characterization of habitable exoplanets after first the medium and large mission projects and investigate the benefits of the spectroscopic and direct imaging approaches. We show that after third and fourth generation missions foreseeable for the next 100 years, we will face a very long era before being able to see directly the morphology of extrasolar organisms.

  8. The far future of exoplanet direct characterization. (United States)

    Schneider, Jean; Léger, Alain; Fridlund, Malcolm; White, Glenn J; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lunine, Jonathan; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna


    We describe future steps in the direct characterization of habitable exoplanets subsequent to medium and large mission projects currently underway and investigate the benefits of spectroscopic and direct imaging approaches. We show that, after third- and fourth-generation missions have been conducted over the course of the next 100 years, a significant amount of time will lapse before we will have the capability to observe directly the morphology of extrasolar organisms.

  9. 77 FR 24344 - Airworthiness Directives; Learjet Inc. (United States)


    ... airworthiness directive system would not be needed. This commenter justified its request by providing Webster's.... John Piccola, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYan; DuBeiliang


    The problem studied in this article is the directed Kirkman packing, the resolvable directed packing which requires all blocks to be of size three except that ,each resolution class should contain either one block of size two(when v=2(mod 3)) or one block of size four (when v=l (mod 3)). A directed Kirkman packing design DKPD(v) is a resolvable directed packing of a v-set by the maximum possible number of resolution classes of this type. This article investigates the spectrum of DKPD(v) and it is found that it contains all positive integers v≥3 and v≠5,6.

  11. Adaptation to direction statistics modulates perceptual discrimination. (United States)

    Price, Nicholas S C; Prescott, Danielle L


    Perception depends on the relative activity of populations of sensory neurons with a range of tunings and response gains. Each neuron's tuning and gain are malleable and can be modified by sustained exposure to an adapting stimulus. Here, we used a combination of human psychophysical testing and models of neuronal population decoding to assess how rapid adaptation to moving stimuli might change neuronal tuning and thereby modulate direction perception. Using a novel motion stimulus in which the direction changed every 10 ms, we demonstrated that 1,500 ms of adaptation to a distribution of directions was capable of modifying human psychophysical direction discrimination performance. Consistent with previous reports, we found perceptual repulsion following adaptation to a single direction. Notably, compared with a uniform adaptation condition in which all motion directions were equiprobable, discrimination was impaired after adaptation to a stimulus comprising only directions ± 30-60° from the discrimination boundary and enhanced after adaptation to the complementary range of directions. Thus, stimulus distributions can be selectively chosen to either impair or improve discrimination performance through adaptation. A neuronal population decoding model incorporating adaptation-induced repulsive shifts in direction tuning curves can account for most aspects of our psychophysical data; however, changes in neuronal gain are sufficient to account for all aspects of our psychophysical data.

  12. China's Outward Direct and Portfolio Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng Wilson Liu; Erin H. C. Kao


    This paper analyzes developments and trends related to China's outward direct and financial investments by examining Chinese firms' overseas acquisitions, China's holdings of US Treasury securities, and the recently formally launched Qualified Domestic Institutional Investor programs. Strategies should be developed to reach optimal decisions for both direct and portfolio investments. We argue that China should have a longer-term view for both direct and portfolio investments, enabling China to become the leader in Asia while maintaining its sustainable growth objective. China should invest heavily in the development of the Asian bond market and the Asian Currency Fund when making both portfolio and direct investment decisions.

  13. Edge detection based on directional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wei-qi; LI De-sheng


    A new method for edge detection based on directional space is proposed.The principle is that:firstly,the directional differential space is set up in which the ridge edge pixels and valley edge pixels are abstracted with the help of the method of logical judgments along the direction of differential function,forming a directional roof edge map;secondly,step edge pixels are abstracted between the neighboring directional ridge edge and directional valley edge along the direction of differential function;finally,the ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map gained along different directions are combined into corresponding ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map.This method is different from classical algorithms in which the gray differential values of the mutual vertical direction are combined into one gradient value.The experiment of edge detection is made for the images of nature scenery,human body and accumulative raw material,whose result is compared with the one of classical algorithms and showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  14. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Casleton, Kent H.


    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  15. Gaze Direction Detection in Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Delorme, Richard; Zalla, Tiziana; Lefebvre, Aline; Amsellem, Frédérique; Moukawane, Sanaa; Letellier, Laurence; Leboyer, Marion; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Ramus, Franck


    Detecting where our partners direct their gaze is an important aspect of social interaction. An atypical gaze processing has been reported in autism. However, it remains controversial whether children and adults with autism spectrum disorder interpret indirect gaze direction with typical accuracy. This study investigated whether the detection of…

  16. Silicon nanostructures produced by laser direct etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Dirac, Paul Andreas Holger; Petersen, Jon Wulff


    A laser direct-write process has been applied to structure silicon on a nanometer scale. In this process, a silicon substrate, placed in a chlorine ambience, is locally heated above its melting point by a continuous-wave laser and translated by high-resolution direct-current motor stages. Only...

  17. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.42 Direct exportation. At the port of exportation, the container...

  18. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator (United States)

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.


    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  19. Communicating a direction using spin states

    CERN Document Server

    Bagán, E; Muñoz-Tàpia, R


    The communication of directions using quantum states is a useful laboratory test for some basic facts of quantum information. For a system of spin-1/2 particles there are different quantum states that can encode directions. This information can later be decoded by means of a generalized measurement. In this talk we present the optimal strategies under different assumptions.

  20. Directed Evolution of Enzymes : Library Screening Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, Hans; Kelly, Ronan M.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert


    Directed evolution has become the preferred engineering approach to generate tailor-made enzymes. The method follows the design guidelines of nature: Darwinian selection of genetic variants. This review discusses the different stages of directed evolution experiments with the focus on developments i

  1. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA (United States)

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.


    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  2. Approximation Algorithms for Directed Width Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kintali, Shiva; Kumar, Akash


    Treewidth of an undirected graph measures how close the graph is to being a tree. Several problems that are NP-hard on general graphs are solvable in polynomial time on graphs with bounded treewidth. Motivated by the success of treewidth, several directed analogues of treewidth have been introduced to measure the similarity of a directed graph to a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Directed treewidth, D-width, DAG-width, Kelly-width and directed pathwidth are some such parameters. In this paper, we present the first approximation algorithms for all these five directed width parameters. For directed treewidth and D-width we achieve an approximation factor of O(sqrt{logn}). For DAG-width, Kelly-width and directed pathwidth we achieve an O({\\log}^{3/2}{n}) approximation factor. Our algorithms are constructive, i.e., they construct the decompositions associated with these parameters. The width of these decompositions are within the above mentioned factor of the corresponding optimal width.

  3. Presenting directions with a vibrotactile torso display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van


    Vibrotactile displays covering the torso present spatial information in an intuitive way since the stimuli are directly mapped to the body coordinates; left is left, front is front, etc. The present study investigated the direction in the horizontal plane to which a specific torso location is mapped

  4. SDR (Systems Directed Reading): An Overview. (United States)

    Baugo Community Schools, Elkhart, IN.

    The objective of this project for kindergarten through fifth grade is to interest public and private educational institutions in the systematization of elementary school reading programs. Facets of Systems Directed Reading (SDR) include the use of a differentiated staffing pattern; experienced language arts unit leaders guiding and directing all…

  5. Polar-direct-drive simulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marozas, J.A.; Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Skupsky, S.; Bonino, M.J.; Collins, T.J.B.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Sangster, T.C.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.


    Polar direct drive (PDD) will allow direct-drive ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as it is configured for x-ray drive. Optimal drive uniformity is obtained via a combination of beam repointing, pulse shapes, spot shapes, and/or target design. This article describes progress in the development of standard and "Saturn" PDD target designs.

  6. Efficient Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Jie; CHEN Han-Wu; LI Zhi-Qiang; LIU Zhi-Hao


    Two protocols of quantum direct communication with authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] were recently indicated to be insecure against the authenticator Trent attacks [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 026301]. We present two efficient protocols by using four Pauli operations, which are secure against inner Trent attacks as well as outer Eve attacks. Finally, we generalize them to multiparty quantum direction communication.

  7. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries I. Direct estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten


    with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied, respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space, and we prove...

  8. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries, I: Direct estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    $-term approximation with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space...

  9. Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhammar, Carl; Machacek, Erika; Bundgaard, Anja Marie;

    The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource efficient economy. So far, the Directive has mainly been applied to set requirements...

  10. Planar antenna system for direction finding (United States)

    Mardale, Iulia-Cezara; Cocias, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Ana; Tamas, Razvan; Berescu, Serban


    Applications of direction finding techniques include detection and localization of pulsed electromagnetic sources. This paper presents the design and analysis of a planar antenna system for direction finding. Our proposed system includes 4 hybrid couplers that generate 900 shifted signals, 2 crossover couplers also known as 0dB couplers, two 450 phase shifters, two 00 phase shifters and 4 patch antennas.

  11. On the directionality of halogen bonding. (United States)

    Huber, Stefan M; Scanlon, Joseph D; Jimenez-Izal, Elisa; Ugalde, Jesus M; Infante, Ivan


    The origin of the high directionality of halogen bonding was investigated quantum chemically by a detailed comparison of typical adducts in two different orientations: linear (most stable) and perpendicular. Energy decomposition analyses revealed that the synergy between charge-transfer interactions and Pauli repulsion are the driving forces for the directionality, while electrostatic contributions are more favourable in the less-stable, perpendicular orientation.

  12. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration,...

  13. Direction coding using a tactile chair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.C. de; Erp, J.B.F. van; Kiefer, R.J.


    This laboratory study examined the possibility of using a car seat instrumented with tactile display elements (tactors) to communicate directional information to a driver. A car seat fitted with an 8 by 8 matrix of tactors embedded in the seat pan was used to code eight different directions.Localiza

  14. Verbal directionality and argument alternation in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben


    (wards) an explicit or implicit goal. The object of a directional verb may play another role in the event described by the sentence than the object of the corresponding simple (and non-directional) verb. This gives rise to so-called argument alternation, in that, for instance, an object and an instrumental adverbial...

  15. Directional coupling for quantum computing and communication. (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M


    We introduce the concept of directional coupling, i.e., the selective transfer of a state between adjacent quantum wires, in the context of quantum computing and communication. Our analysis rests upon a mathematical analogy between a dual-channel directional coupler and a composite spin system.

  16. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander


    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltr

  17. Comparison of direct and indirect radionuclide cystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, G.; Lovegrove, F.T.; Geijsel, H.; Van der Schaff, A.; Guelfi, G.


    Thirty children were studied using both direct (catheter) and indirect techniques of radionuclide cystography. Of 54 ureters able to be compared, six showed vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) on the direct study but were read as negative on the indirect cystogram, and five showed no reflux on the direct cystogram but were read as positive for VUR on the indirect study. Regarding ureters read as true positives on indirect study, if that ureter has ever shown reflux at any time, or if it drained a scarred kidney specificity was improved to 97% without changing the sensitivity. Concerns about the validity of indirect cystogram results and the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct cystogram has made direct cystography our preferred technique.

  18. Novel Random Mutagenesis Method for Directed Evolution. (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yan


    Directed evolution is a powerful strategy for gene mutagenesis, and has been used for protein engineering both in scientific research and in the biotechnology industry. The routine method for directed evolution was developed by Stemmer in 1994 (Stemmer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 10747-10751, 1994; Stemmer, Nature 370, 389-391, 1994). Since then, various methods have been introduced, each of which has advantages and limitations depending upon the targeted genes and procedure. In this chapter, a novel alternative directed evolution method which combines mutagenesis PCR with dITP and fragmentation by endonuclease V is described. The kanamycin resistance gene is used as a reporter gene to verify the novel method for directed evolution. This method for directed evolution has been demonstrated to be efficient, reproducible, and easy to manipulate in practice.

  19. Direct ophthalmoscopy on YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgersen, Nanna Jo; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Konge, Lars


    BACKGROUND: Direct ophthalmoscopy is well-suited for video-based instruction, particularly if the videos enable the student to see what the examiner sees when performing direct ophthalmoscopy. We evaluated the pedagogical effectiveness of instructional YouTube videos on direct ophthalmoscopy...... by evaluating their content and approach to visualization. METHODS: In order to synthesize main themes and points for direct ophthalmoscopy, we formed a broad panel consisting of a medical student, junior and senior physicians, and took into consideration book chapters targeting medical students and physicians...... the patient and how to examine the fundus. Time spent on fundus examination correlated with the number of views per week (Spearman's ρ=0.53; P=0.029). CONCLUSION: Videos may help overcome the pedagogical issues in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy; however, the few available videos on YouTube fail to address...

  20. Regional impacts of abolishing direct payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Priorr, Annette; Zander, Peter


    The direct payment system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) provides income transfers to European farmers. Recently, several countries including England and Sweden have advocated the elimination of direct payments after 2013. The extent to which an elimination of direct payments would affect...... with different production orientations and land management types was modeled under the presence and absence of direct payments using a combination of agent-based and bio-economic modeling. We found that the initial characteristics of the regions, such as the historical farm structure and regional site conditions......, greatly influence the impact of direct support elimination and cause regionally different development trends. The results for the four regions were summarized in four specific storylines that emphasize how much the diversity of European regions matters for future policy decisions. An explicitly regional...

  1. Deriving directions through procedural task analysis. (United States)

    Yuen, H K; D'Amico, M


    Task analysis is one of the essential components of activity analysis. Procedural task analysis involves breaking down an activity into a sequence of steps. Directions are the sequence of steps resulting from the task analysis (i.e., the product of the task analysis). Directions become a guide for caregivers or trainers use in teaching clients a specific skill. However, occupational therapy students often have difficulty in writing directions that are clear enough for caregivers or trainers to carry out. Books on activity analysis only provide examples of directions without giving guidelines on how to perform the writing process. The purposes of this paper are to describe the process of procedural task analysis and to provide a guideline for writing steps of directions.

  2. Stiff directed lines in random media. (United States)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan


    We investigate the localization of stiff directed lines with bending energy by a short-range random potential. We apply perturbative arguments, Flory scaling arguments, a variational replica calculation, and functional renormalization to show that a stiff directed line in 1+d dimensions undergoes a localization transition with increasing disorder for d>2/3. We demonstrate that this transition is accessible by numerical transfer matrix calculations in 1+1 dimensions and analyze the properties of the disorder-dominated phase in detail. On the basis of the two-replica problem, we propose a relation between the localization of stiff directed lines in 1+d dimensions and of directed lines under tension in 1+3d dimensions, which is strongly supported by identical free-energy distributions. This shows that pair interactions in the replicated Hamiltonian determine the nature of directed line localization transitions with consequences for the critical behavior of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. We support the proposed relation to directed lines via multifractal analysis, revealing an analogous Anderson transition-like scenario and a matching correlation length exponent. Furthermore, we quantify how the persistence length of the stiff directed line is reduced by disorder.

  3. Personalized direct marketing using digital publishing (United States)

    Kutty, Cheeniyil L.; Prabhakaran, Jayasree K.


    In today's cost-conscious business climate, marketing and customer service decision makers are increasingly concerned with how to increase customer response and retention rates. Companies spend large amounts of money on Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions and data acquisition but they don't know how to use the information stored in these systems to improve the effectiveness of their direct marketing campaigns. By leveraging the customer information they already have, companies can create personalized, printed direct mail programs that generate high response rates, greater returns, and stronger customer loyalty, while gaining a significant edge over their competitors. To reach the promised land of one-to-one direct marketing (personalized direct marketing - PDM), companies need an end-to-end solution for creating, managing, printing, and distributing personalized direct mail "on demand." Having access to digital printing is just one piece of the solution. A more complete approach includes leveraging personalization technology into a useful direct marketing tool that provides true one-to-one marketing, allowing variable images and text in a personalized direct mail. This paper discusses integration of CRM with a Print-on-Demand solution so as to create truly personalized printed marketing campaigns for one or many individuals based on the profile information, preferences and purchase history stored in the CRM.

  4. Seaweed to dendrite transition in directional solidification. (United States)

    Provatas, Nikolas; Wang, Quanyong; Haataja, Mikko; Grant, Martin


    We simulate directional solidification using a phase-field model solved with adaptive mesh refinement. For small surface tension anisotropy directed at 45 degrees relative to the pulling direction we observe a crossover from a seaweed to a dendritic morphology as the thermal gradient is lowered, consistent with recent experimental findings. We show that the morphology of crystal structures can be unambiguously characterized through the local interface velocity distribution. We derive semiempirically an estimate for the crossover from seaweed to dendrite as a function of thermal gradient and pulling speed.

  5. Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions: Direction of spectator flow (United States)

    Voloshin, Sergei A.; Niida, Takafumi


    In high-energy heavy-ion collisions, the directed flow of particles is conventionally measured with respect to that of the projectile spectators, which is defined as positive x direction, but it is not known if the spectators deflect in the outward or inward directions—outward or toward the center line of the collision. In this Communication we discuss how the measurements of the directed flow at midrapidity, especially in asymmetric collision such as Cu +Au , can be used to answer this question. We show that the existing data strongly favor the case that the spectators, in the ultrarelativistic collisions, on average deflect outward.

  6. Directed cell movement in pulsed electric fields. (United States)

    Franke, K; Gruler, H


    Human granulocytes exposed to pulsed electric guiding fields were investigated. The trajectories were determined from digitized pictures (phase contrast). The basic results are: (i) No directed response was induced by pulsed electric guiding fields having a zero averaged field. (ii) A directed response was induced by pulsed electric guiding fields having a non-zero averaged field. (iii) The directed response was enhanced for pulse sequences having a repetition time of 8 s. (iv) The lag-time between signal recognition and cellular response was 8-10 s. The results are discussed in the framework of a self-ignition model.

  7. Unbounded subnormal weighted shifts on directed trees

    CERN Document Server

    Budzynski, Piotr; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan


    A new method of verifying the subnormality of unbounded Hilbert space operators based on an approximation technique is proposed. Diverse sufficient conditions for subnormality of unbounded weighted shifts on directed trees are established. An approach to this issue via consistent systems of probability measures is invented. The role played by determinate Stieltjes moment sequences is elucidated. Lambert's characterization of subnormality of bounded operators is shown to be valid for unbounded weighted shifts on directed trees that have sufficiently many quasi-analytic vectors, which is a new phenomenon in this area. The cases of classical weighted shifts and weighted shifts on leafless directed trees with one branching vertex are studied.

  8. Magnetic Eigenmaps for Visualization of Directed Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fanuel, Michaël; Alaíz, Carlos M; Suykens, Johan A K


    We propose a framework for visualization of directed networks relying on the eigenfunctions of the magnetic Laplacian, called here Magnetic Eigenmaps. The magnetic Laplacian is a complex deformation of the well-known combinatorial Laplacian. Features such as density of links and directionality patterns are revealed by plotting the phases of the first magnetic eigenvectors. Directed networks being common in social science, biology or computer science, our visualization method may be relevant for the field of complex networks, as well as applied mathematics and machine learning. Illustrations of our method are given for both artificial and real-life networks.

  9. Implementing effective staff education about advance directives. (United States)

    DesRosiers, M; Navin, P


    The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990 guarantees the right to refuse medical or surgical treatment and the right to draft advance directives. This review of the current literature provides those in nursing staff development and inservice education with an overview of advance directives and their implications for nursing education and practice. Possible core subjects for inclusion in planned, purposeful, advance directive education programs are examined, including cultural sensitivity, facilitator skills, interviewing techniques, legal information, patient autonomy, and reasoning and decision making. This review provides a platform for future research.

  10. Radiation directivity rotation by acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zou, Xin-ye; Cheng, Jian-chun, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Department of Physics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Likun [Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear Dynamics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)


    We use a metamaterial-based scheme to rotate the radiation directivity of sound radiated by a source surrounded by the structure. The rotation is demonstrated through both numerical simulations and experiments. The performance persists within a broadband and is entirely independent of the location and pattern of source inside, suggesting great potential in various practical scenarios where both the signal frequency and source position may vary significantly. We have also investigated the possibility to realize versatile controls of radiation direction by tailoring the structural parameters. Our design with special directivity-steering capability may open route to loudspeaker and auditorium acoustics designs and medical ultrasound applications.

  11. Direct stigmatic imaging with curved surfaces. (United States)

    Courtial, Johannes; Oxburgh, Stephen; Tyc, Tomáš


    We study the possibilities of direct (using one intersection with each light ray) stigmatic imaging with a curved surface that can change ray directions in an arbitrary way. By purely geometric arguments we show that the only possible case of such imaging is the trivial one where the image of any point is identical to the point itself and the surface does not perform any change of the ray direction at all. We also discuss an example of a curved surface which performs indirect stigmatic imaging after twice intersecting each light ray.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qian; Gu Yongxing


    In this paper, a notation δx(ω) is derived from the counting function Nx(r,ω)of branch points of algebriod functions. With this notation, the authors give the definition of the Nevanlinna direction for algebriod functions and discuss its existence in certain condition. By this notation the authors also obtain the numbers of exceptional value of the Julia direction and Borel direction of algebriod functions are not more than 2+[δx (ω)],here [x] implies an maximum integer number which does not exceed x.

  13. Direct Democracy in Local Politics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle


    Elements of  direct democracy at the local level does exist in Denmark, but it is little known, because no formal rules regulate this aspect of political life, because results from popular initiatives and referendums are not recorded in official statistics, and because few systematic analyses have...... been published. This paper, accordingly, has an explorative nature and asks two basic questions: What is the current state of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark, and what are the prospects for a further development of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark? The paper is based...

  14. A simple model of direct gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Sibo, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Yu Yao [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China)


    In the context of direct gauge mediation Wess-Zumino models are very attractive in supersymmetry model building. Besides the spontaneous supersymmetry and R-symmetry breaking, the problems of small gaugino mass as well as {mu} and B{mu} terms should be solved so as to achieve a viable model. In this Letter, we propose a simple model as an existence proof, in which all these subjects are realized simultaneously, with no need of fine tuning. This completion also implies that much of parameter space for direct gauge mediation can be directly explored at LHC.

  15. Prisoner’s dilemma on directed networks (United States)

    Ferreira, A. L.; Lipowski, A.; Pedro, T. B.; Santos, M.; Figueiredo, W.


    We study the prisoner’s dilemma model with a noisy imitation evolutionary dynamics on directed out-homogeneous and uncorrelated directed random networks. A heterogeneous pair mean-field approximation is presented showing good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in the limit of weak selection (high noise) where we obtain analytical predictions for the critical temptations. We discuss the phase diagram as a function of temptation, intensity of noise and coordination number of the networks and we consider both the model with and without self-interaction. We compare our results with available results for non-directed lattices and networks.

  16. Directional output distance functions: endogenous directions based on exogenous normalization constraints (United States)

    In this paper we develop a model for computing directional output distance functions with endogenously determined direction vectors. We show how this model is related to the slacks-based directional distance function introduced by Fare and Grosskopf and show how to use the slacks-based function to e...

  17. Directly mapping whispering gallery modes in a microsphere through modal coupling and directional emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhua Dong; Yunfeng Xiao; Yong Yang; Zhengfu Han; Guangcan Guo; Lan Yang


    @@ We fabricate slightly deformed fused-silica microspheres in which whispering gallery modes possess remarkably directional escape emission from the microsphere boundary. With efficient flee-space excitation and collection, the lateral spatial distribution of whispering gallery modes with different azimuthal mode numbers, rn, is directly observed through modal coupling and directional emission. Excellent agreement with theory is obtained.




  19. Directional Tuning Curves, Elementary Movement Detectors, and the Estimation of the Direction of Visual Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van


    Both the insect brain and the vertebrate retina detect visual movement with neurons having broad, cosine-shaped directional tuning curves oriented in either of two perpendicular directions. This article shows that this arrangement can lead to isotropic estimates of the direction of movement: for any

  20. Memorization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier


    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express...... the functions and type-directed partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, off-the-shelf type-directed partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies...... originate in the handling of sums, which uses delimited continuations. We successfully eliminate these redundancies by extending type-directed partial evaluation with memoization capabilities. The result only works for pure functional programs, but it provides an unexpected use of code generation...

  1. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier


    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express...... the functions and type-directed partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, off-the-shelf type-directed partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies...... originate in the handling of sums, which uses delimited continuations. We successfully eliminate these redundancies by extending type-directed partial evaluation with memoization capabilities. The result only works for pure functional programs, but it provides an unexpected use of code generation...

  2. A three-port direct current converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The three-port direct current converter comprising: at least one input direct current source; at least one storage battery; a primary side circuit; a secondary side circuit; a first single magnetic component shared by the primary side circuit and the secondary side circuit, wherein the primary side...... circuit comprises a connection between the at least one input direct current source and the at least one storage battery, the primary side circuit configured for operating as a buck converter; a second magnetic component serially coupled to the first single magnetic component, wherein the first and second...... magnetic components are configured to perform a voltage step-up, wherein the secondary side circuit comprises a connection between the at least one storage battery and at least one load, the secondary side configured for operating as a tapped boost converter; wherein the three-port direct current converter...

  3. Three Magnetic Direct-Current Sensors (United States)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Stagg, David A.


    Three direct-current-measuring circuits based on magnetic (transformer) coupling, with periodic reset of magnetic flux to reverse saturation. Unidirectional and bidirectional versions demonstrated. Offers greater realibility and lower power consumption.

  4. 78 FR 78290 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers (United States)


    ..., Boston Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park... Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dowty...

  5. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  6. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  7. High Throughput Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lite Cycles, Inc. (LCI) proposes to develop a direct-detection Doppler lidar (D3L) technology called ELITE that improves the system optical throughput by more than...

  8. Direct Patient Care: A Viable Career Choice? (United States)

    Colavecchio, Ruth


    Examines nurses' attitudes about direct patient care in hospitals. Suggests a new perspective on nursing careers, one that should stimulate nursing administrators' thinking about developing programs that retain experienced clinicians, reward their practice, and acknowledge their contributions. (JOW)

  9. Directional detection of galactic Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mayet, F; Bernard, G; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Grignon, C; Guillaudin, O; Koumeir, C; Richer, J P; Santos, D; Colas, P; Ferer, E; Giomataris, I; Allaoua, A; Lebreton, L


    Directional detection of galactic Dark Matter is a promising search strategy for discriminating geniune WIMP events from background ones. We present technical progress on gaseous detectors as well as recent phenomenological studies, allowing the design and construction of competitive experiments.

  10. Wave directional spectrum from SAR imagery

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Menon, H.B.; Vethamony, P.

    wave like features, the latter appearing to be of "white noise" nature. There exists a 180 degrees ambiguity in wave direction observed from radar imageries. Based on the method of Atanassov et al (1985), a computer program has been developed...

  11. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C. (eds.)


    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  12. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.


    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  13. Directed animals, quadratic and rewriting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marckert, Jean-François


    A directed animal is a percolation cluster in the directed site percolation model. The aim of this paper is to exhibit a strong relation between in one hand, the problem of computing the generating function $\\G$ of directed animals on the square lattice, counted according to the area and the perimeter, and on the other hand, the problem to find a solution to a system of quadratic equations involving unknown matrices. The matrices solution of this problem can be finite or infinite. We were unable to find finite solutions. We present some solid clues that some infinite explicit matrices, fix points of a rewriting like system are the natural solutions of this system of equations: some strong evidences are given that the problem of finding $\\G$ reduces then to the problem of finding an eigenvector to an explicit infinite matrix. Similar properties are shown for other combinatorial questions concerning directed animals, and for different lattices.

  14. Algorithms for Junctions in Directed Acyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo


    Given a pair of distinct vertices u, v in a graph G, we say that s is a junction of u, v if there are in G internally vertex disjoint directed paths from s to u and from s to v. We show how to characterize junctions in directed acyclic graphs. We also consider the two problems in the following and derive efficient algorithms to solve them. Given a directed acyclic graph G and a vertex s in G, how can we find all pairs of vertices of G such that s is a junction of them? And given a directed acyclic graph G and k pairs of vertices of G, how can we preprocess G such that all junctions of k given pairs of vertices could be listed quickly? All junctions of k pairs problem arises in an application in Anthropology and we apply our algorithm to find such junctions on kinship networks of some brazilian indian ethnic groups.

  15. Self-Directed Learning with Feedback (United States)

    Choi, Youngeun; Anderson, William


    This article describes a weekly writing assignment named SelFeed (Self-Directed Learning with Feedback), in which students are asked to identify their own questions relevant to the lecture content and provide logical answers.

  16. Directional spin wavelets on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, Jason D; Büttner, Martin; Peiris, Hiranya V; Wiaux, Yves


    We construct a directional spin wavelet framework on the sphere by generalising the scalar scale-discretised wavelet transform to signals of arbitrary spin. The resulting framework is the only wavelet framework defined natively on the sphere that is able to probe the directional intensity of spin signals. Furthermore, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets support the exact synthesis of a signal on the sphere from its wavelet coefficients and satisfy excellent localisation and uncorrelation properties. Consequently, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets are likely to be of use in a wide range of applications and in particular for the analysis of the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We develop new algorithms to compute (scalar and spin) forward and inverse wavelet transforms exactly and efficiently for very large data-sets containing tens of millions of samples on the sphere. By leveraging a novel sampling theorem on the rotation group developed in a companion article, only hal...

  17. Direct Foreign Investment in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Hinde, Kevin


    Notes introductory undergraduate economics textbooks have no formal analysis of the rationale for direct foreign investment by multinational firms. Examines this area in an attempt to develop more content information for undergraduate courses. (RKM)

  18. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.


    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  19. Cardinal Direction Relations in Qualitative Spatial Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman L. Sabharwal


    Full Text Available Representation and reasoning with spatial information is a fundamental aspect of artificial intelligence. Qualitative methods have become prominent in spatial reasoning. In geophysical explorations, one of the aspects is to determine compass direction between the regions. In this paper, we present an efficient approach to cardinal directions between free form regions. The development is very simple, mathematically sound and can be implemented efficiently. The extension to 3D is seamless; it needs no additional formulation for transition from 2D to 3D.It has no adverse impact on the computational efficiency, as the technique is akin to 2D. This work is directly applicable to geographical information systems for location determination, robot navigation, and spatio-temporal networks databases where direction changes frequently

  20. Social Interaction in Advertising Directed to Children. (United States)

    Loughlin, Meagan; Desmond, Roger J.


    Investigates the efficacy of including peer interaction in television advertising directed to children. Results suggest that this variable provides increased liking for commercials, but does not affect product desirability. Nine references are cited. (Author/MER)

  1. Network Communication by Optical Directional Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Biolkova


    Full Text Available In this article, infrared point-to-point technologies (optical directional links are discussed which are designed for digital transmissions. Optical directional links (ODLs are transparent for the SDH/ATM, FDDI-II, Ethernet, and Token Ring protocols. Depending on type, ODL ranges are 300 m, 500 m, 1000 m and 2000 m. Steady and statistical models of ODL are presented as well as the measuring ODL arrangement and the graphs concerning the fluctuations of the received signal.

  2. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.


    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  3. Direct bonding applied to space maintenance. (United States)

    Swaine, T J; Wright, G Z


    Based on the conditions of this study, the following conclusions were reached: A success rate of 70 percent seems to justify further investigation into direct bonded space maintainers. A space maintainer directly bonded to the buccal surfaces seems to be efficient in maintaining single tooth spaces. Primary-to-primary appliances were more successful than the primary-to-permanent appliances, which suggests that incomplete first permanent molar eruption and a posterior location affect appliance durability.

  4. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  5. Direct Summands of ⊕-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nil Orhan; Derya Keskin Tütüncü; Rachid Tribak


    A module M is called ⊕-supplemented if every submodule of M has a supplement that is a direct summand of M. It is shown that if M is a ⊕-supplemented module and r(M) is a coclosed submodule of M for a left preradical r, then r(M) is a direct summand of M, and both r(M) and M/r(M) are ⊕-supplemented.

  6. Directional Wave Spectra Using Normal Spreading Function (United States)


    energy spectral density function U. g. Army Engineer Waternays Experiment Station. Coastal Engineering Research Center P. 0. lox 631, Vicksburg...Z39-18 D(f,e) = spreading function E (f,(3) = directional spectral density function f = frequency in cycles per second 8 = direction in radians...of this assumption depends on the narrow bandedness of the energy spectral density function . For fairly narrow spectra (e.g., a swell train), the

  7. Evaluation of energy roof direct utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Rossetto, L.; Viero, L.


    Energy roofs are roofing systems equipped with channels which allow both solar and atmospheric energy collection. They were conceived as cold source for heat pump systems. The behavious of an energy roof in DHW direct heating was studied; this might extend energy roof utilization all year long. The estimates were performed through more reliable recently proposed correlations for wind convection heat transfer coefficients. The advantage of annual energy roof utilization in DHW direct heating is predictable.

  8. Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min-Jie; PAN Wei


    We propose two schemes of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) combined ideas of user authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] and direct communication with dense coding [Phys. Rev. A. 68 (2003) 042317]. In these protocols, the privacy of authentication keys and the properties of the EPR pairs not only ensure the realization of identity authentication but also further improve the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the messages were broken.

  9. Facebook marketing for a direct selling company


    Egeberg, Chenette


    The purpose of the thesis was to provide recommendations for how the studied company could improve their Facebook marketing activities. The company was the Danish subsidiary of an multinational direct selling company of health and beauty products. The following research questions were devised: 1) What are the constraints and challenges for LR Denmark’s facebook marketing as a subsidiary of a Multinational Corporation and as a Direct Selling Company? 2) How can LR Denmark improve the...

  10. The clinical microscope and direct composite veneer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pascotto, Renata C; Benetti, Ana Raquel


    This paper presents the advantages and limitations related to the use of a clinical microscope in restorative dentistry, and it demonstrates the aid of magnification during preparation and restoration of a direct composite veneer. Good illumination and visibility is important to adequately viewing...... the adjacent dental tissues so that the resin composite buildup can mimic natural teeth. The reproduction of details results in a naturally esthetic direct veneer....

  11. Ecodesign Directive version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This present report reports on the main findings of the project Ecodesign Directive version 2.0 - from Energy Efficiency to Resource Efficiency. The project is financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and ran from December 2012 to June 2014.......This present report reports on the main findings of the project Ecodesign Directive version 2.0 - from Energy Efficiency to Resource Efficiency. The project is financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and ran from December 2012 to June 2014....

  12. Direct UV-written integrated optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael


    Direct UV writing is an emerging method for flexible, low cost fabrication of integrated optical waveguides and components. The performance of UV written components can be similar to that achieved with more elaborate fabrication techniques.......Direct UV writing is an emerging method for flexible, low cost fabrication of integrated optical waveguides and components. The performance of UV written components can be similar to that achieved with more elaborate fabrication techniques....

  13. Direct pumping of four levels lasing materials (United States)

    Goldring, Sharone; Lavi, Raphael; Tal, Alon; Jackel, Steven M.; Lebiush, Eyal; Tzuk, Yitshak; Azoulay, Ehud


    Heat generation and laser performance were studied in Nd:YAG oscillators pumped with a Ti:Sapphire laser in two regimes: band pumping at 802nm and direct pumping at 885nm. Slope efficiencies of 52% and 57%, when pumped at 802nm and 885nm, were obtained, respectively. Heat per unit laser output was found to be 27% lower when pumped at 885nm (direct pumping regime) as compared to traditional band pumping around 808nm.

  14. Decomposing Path : The Nanosyntax of Directional Expressions


    Pantcheva, Marina Blagoeva


    In my thesis, I investigate directional expressions cross-linguistically. I examine the morpho-syntactic structure of expressions of Goal (to the house), Source (from the house), Route (through the house), non-transitional paths (towards the house) and, finally, delimited paths (up to the house). I conclude that all these types of directional expressions are of different syntactic complexity. Precisely, Source expressions (from) are formed on the basis of Goal expressions (to) and Route expr...

  15. Bio-Inspired Micromechanical Directional Acoustic Sensor (United States)

    Swan, William; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    Conventional directional sound sensors employ an array of spatially separated microphones and the direction is determined using arrival times and amplitudes. In nature, insects such as the Ormia ochracea fly can determine the direction of sound using a hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The fly's eardrums are mechanically coupled, only separated by about 1 mm, and have remarkable directional sensitivity. A micromechanical sensor based on the fly's hearing system was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two 1 mm2 wings connected using a bridge and to the substrate using two torsional legs. The dimensions of the sensor and material stiffness determine the frequency response of the sensor. The vibration of the wings in response to incident sound at the bending resonance was measured using a laser vibrometer and found to be about 1 μm/Pa. The electronic response of the sensor to sound was measured using integrated comb finger capacitors and found to be about 25 V/Pa. The fabricated sensors showed good directional sensitivity. In this talk, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the directional sound sensor will be described. Supported by ONR and TDSI.

  16. Approximate von Neumann entropy for directed graphs. (United States)

    Ye, Cheng; Wilson, Richard C; Comin, César H; Costa, Luciano da F; Hancock, Edwin R


    In this paper, we develop an entropy measure for assessing the structural complexity of directed graphs. Although there are many existing alternative measures for quantifying the structural properties of undirected graphs, there are relatively few corresponding measures for directed graphs. To fill this gap in the literature, we explore an alternative technique that is applicable to directed graphs. We commence by using Chung's generalization of the Laplacian of a directed graph to extend the computation of von Neumann entropy from undirected to directed graphs. We provide a simplified form of the entropy which can be expressed in terms of simple node in-degree and out-degree statistics. Moreover, we find approximate forms of the von Neumann entropy that apply to both weakly and strongly directed graphs, and that can be used to characterize network structure. We illustrate the usefulness of these simplified entropy forms defined in this paper on both artificial and real-world data sets, including structures from protein databases and high energy physics theory citation networks.

  17. Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins. (United States)

    Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K


    Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins.

  18. Direct composite laminate veneers: three case reports. (United States)

    Korkut, Bora; Yanıkoğlu, Funda; Günday, Mahir


    Re-establishing a patient's lost dental esthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct and indirect laminate veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. Laminate veneers are restorations which are envisioned to correct existing abnormalities, esthetic deficiencies and discolo-rations. Laminate veneer restorations may be processed in two different ways: direct or indirect. Direct laminate veneers have no need to be prepared in the laboratory and are based on the principle of application of a composite material directly to the prepared tooth surface in the dental clinic. Indirect laminate veneers may be produced from composite materials or ceramics, which are cemented to the tooth with an adhesive resin. In this case report, direct composite laminate veneer technique used for three patients with esthetic problems related to fractures, discolorations and an old prolapsed restoration, is described and six-month follow-ups are discussed. As a conclusion, direct laminate veneer restorations may be a treatment option for patients with the esthetic problems of anterior teeth in cases similar to those reported here.

  19. The Influence of the Saccade Direction on the Direction of the Consecutive Saccade during Free Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Taniuchi


    Full Text Available Motter and Belky (1997 analyzed monkey eye movements during search tasks. They took the relative directional headings for consecutive saccades and found a slight directional bias against saccades to areas between the previously fixated stimulus and the current fixation location. In the current research, an analysis of human eye movements during free viewing was made. Eight images of natural scene were tested with 118 subjects. The subject viewed every image freely for 10 sec. The relative directional headings for consecutive saccade were broken out of the data set and analyzed for directional biases. Saccade direction polar histograms average across subjects showed directional biases: a consecutive saccade took a straight line slightly more than a left or right turn, and it went backward definitely more than the other directions.

  20. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern


    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab}=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s{sub NN}){sup 1/2}=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  1. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology. (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W


    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length--a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes--but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  2. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.


    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length—a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes—but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  3. 77 FR 46805 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive (United States)


    ... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives... Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Policy Directive. The purpose of these amendments is to implement...

  4. Optimization of direct-write polarization gratings (United States)

    Miskiewicz, Matthew N.; Escuti, Michael J.


    We recently reported on a mathematical formalism for analyzing the result of a direct-write scanning system applied to photoaligned liquid crystal films. We use that formalism to study the direct-write recording of polarization gratings (PGs). First, we evaluate three scan paths in simulation and experiment, describe their tradeoffs and practical constraints, and identify the most favorable. Second, we explore the parameter space of direct-write PGs in simulation, which includes four dimensions in general: grating period, line spacing, beam size, and spatially averaged fluence. Using this analysis, we predict that a certain portion of the parameter space should be optimal, leading to high diffraction efficiency and well-aligned PGs. Finally, we experimentally fabricate and characterize nine PGs with scan parameters within and around this optimal parameter space and conclude that the prediction is validated. This work is the first in-depth study of direct-write PGs; it identifies many challenges and solutions, and shows, for the first time, direct-write recorded PGs with quality equivalent to those recorded via holography. In particular, we demonstrate a PG (20 μm period) with first-order diffraction efficiency 99.5%, 0.2% haze, and polarization contrast of 2000.

  5. Geothermal direct heat applications program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The use of geothermal energy for direct heat purposes by the private sector within the US has been quite limited to date. However, there is a large potential market for thermal energy in such areas as industrial processing, agribusiness, and space/water heating of commercial and residential buildings. Technical and economic information is needed to assist in identifying prospective direct heat users and to match their energy needs to specific geothermal reservoirs. Technological uncertainties and associated economic risks can influence the user's perception of profitability to the point of limiting private investment in geothermal direct applications. To stimulate development in the direct heat area, the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy, issued two Program Opportunity Notices (PON's). These solicitations are part of DOE's national geothermal energy program plan, which has as its goal the near-term commercialization by the private sector of hydrothermal resources. Encouragement is being given to the private sector by DOE cost-sharing a portion of the front-end financial risk in a limited number of demonstration projects. The twenty-two projects summarized herein are direct results of the PON solicitations.

  6. Research on laser direct metal deposition (United States)

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Shi, Likai


    Laser direct deposition of metallic parts is a new manufacturing technology, which combines with computer-aided design, laser cladding and rapid prototyping. Fully dense metallic parts can be directly obtained through melting the coaxially fed powders with a high-power laser in a layer-by-layer manner. The process characteristics, system composition as well as some research and advancement on laser direct deposition are presented here. The microstructure and properties observation of laser direct formed 663 copper alloy, 316L stainless steel and Rene'95 nickel super alloy samples indicate that, the as-deposited microstructure is similar to rapidly solidified materials, with homogenous composition and free of defects. Under certain conditions, directionally solidified microstructure can be obtained. The as-formed mechanical properties are equal to or exceed those for casting and wrought annealed materials. At the same time, some sample parts with complicate shape are presented for technology demonstration. The formed parts show good surface quality and dimensional accuracy.

  7. The structure of DNA by direct imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica


    The structure of DNA was determined in 1953 by x-ray fiber diffraction. Several attempts have been made to obtain a direct image of DNA with alternative techniques. The direct image is intended to allow a quantitative evaluation of all relevant characteristic lengths present in a molecule. A direct image of DNA, which is different from diffraction in the reciprocal space, is difficult to obtain for two main reasons: the intrinsic very low contrast of the elements that form the molecule and the difficulty of preparing the sample while preserving its pristine shape and size. We show that through a preparation procedure compatible with the DNA physiological conditions, a direct image of a single suspended DNA molecule can be obtained. In the image, all relevant lengths of A-form DNA are measurable. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope that operates at 80 keV with an ultimate resolution of 1.5 Å was used for this experiment. Direct imaging of a single molecule can be used as a method to address biological problems that require knowledge at the single-molecule level, given that the average information obtained by x-ray diffraction of crystals or fibers is not sufficient for detailed structure determination, or when crystals cannot be obtained from biological molecules or are not sufficient in understanding multiple protein configurations.

  8. Directed evolution of enzymes using microfluidic chips (United States)

    Pilát, Zdeněk.; Ježek, Jan; Šmatlo, Filip; Kaůka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel


    Enzymes are highly versatile and ubiquitous biological catalysts. They can greatly accelerate large variety of reactions, while ensuring appropriate catalytic activity and high selectivity. These properties make enzymes attractive biocatalysts for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. Over the last two decades, directed evolution of enzymes has transformed the field of protein engineering. We have devised microfluidic systems for directed evolution of haloalkane dehalogenases in emulsion droplets. In such a device, individual bacterial cells producing mutated variants of the same enzyme are encapsulated in microdroplets and supplied with a substrate. The conversion of a substrate by the enzyme produced by a single bacterium changes the pH in the droplet which is signalized by pH dependent fluorescence probe. The droplets with the highest enzymatic activity can be separated directly on the chip by dielectrophoresis and the resultant cell lineage can be used for enzyme production or for further rounds of directed evolution. This platform is applicable for fast screening of large libraries in directed evolution experiments requiring mutagenesis at multiple sites of a protein structure.

  9. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection

    KAUST Repository

    Siepielski, Adam M.


    Local adaptation, adaptive population divergence and speciation are often expected to result from populations evolving in response to spatial variation in selection. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the major features that characterise the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data set includes 60 studies, consisting of 3937 estimates of selection across an average of five populations. We performed meta-analyses to explore features characterising spatial variation in directional selection. We found that selection tends to vary mainly in strength and less in direction among populations. Although differences in the direction of selection occur among populations they do so where selection is often weakest, which may limit the potential for ongoing adaptive population divergence. Overall, we also found that spatial variation in selection appears comparable to temporal (annual) variation in selection within populations; however, several deficiencies in available data currently complicate this comparison. We discuss future research needs to further advance our understanding of spatial variation in selection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Learning to trade via direct reinforcement. (United States)

    Moody, J; Saffell, M


    We present methods for optimizing portfolios, asset allocations, and trading systems based on direct reinforcement (DR). In this approach, investment decision-making is viewed as a stochastic control problem, and strategies are discovered directly. We present an adaptive algorithm called recurrent reinforcement learning (RRL) for discovering investment policies. The need to build forecasting models is eliminated, and better trading performance is obtained. The direct reinforcement approach differs from dynamic programming and reinforcement algorithms such as TD-learning and Q-learning, which attempt to estimate a value function for the control problem. We find that the RRL direct reinforcement framework enables a simpler problem representation, avoids Bellman's curse of dimensionality and offers compelling advantages in efficiency. We demonstrate how direct reinforcement can be used to optimize risk-adjusted investment returns (including the differential Sharpe ratio), while accounting for the effects of transaction costs. In extensive simulation work using real financial data, we find that our approach based on RRL produces better trading strategies than systems utilizing Q-learning (a value function method). Real-world applications include an intra-daily currency trader and a monthly asset allocation system for the S&P 500 Stock Index and T-Bills.

  11. Directed peer review in surgical pathology. (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell L; Raab, Stephen S


    Second pathologist peer review is used in many surgical laboratory quality-assurance programs to detect error. Directed peer review is 1 method of second review and involves the selection of specific case types, such as cases from a particular site of anatomic origin. The benefits of using the directed peer review method are unique and directed peer review detects both errors in diagnostic accuracy and precision and this detection may be used to improve practice. We utilize the Lean quality improvement A3 method of problem solving to investigate these issues. The A3 method defines surgical pathology diagnostic error and describes the current state in surgical pathology, performs root cause analysis, hypothesizes an ideal state, and provides opportunities for improvement in error reduction. Published data indicate that directed peer review practices may be used to prevent active cognitive errors that lead to patient harm. Pathologists also may use directed peer review data to target latent factors that contribute to error and improve diagnostic precision.

  12. Research of Direct Digital Correlative-Interferometric Radio Direction Finder with Double Correlation-convolutional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tsyporenko


    Full Text Available Introduction. In this article the unsettled part of the general problem of the research of direct digital methods of correlative-interferometric direction-finding was solved. The purpose of the article is to optimize the direction-finding of the direct digital correlative-interferometric radio direction finder with double correlation-convolutional processing by its exactness. Fundamentals of researches. As a result of the conducted researches it was defined that the basic parameter of equalization of dispersion of error of estimation of direction on the source of radio radiation for the explored radio direction finder, which ought to be optimized, is the size of frequency converting change. Optimization. It was conducted the parametrical optimization of the direct digital correlative-interferometric radio direction finder with double correlation-convolutional processing by its exactness. As a result of the modelling the dependence of middle quadratic deflection of estimation of direction from the relation of signal/noise for the different possible values of circular frequency converting shift was obtained. Conclusions. The analytical calculations and the results of the modelling fully coincided, that confirmed the rightness of the researches and the authenticity of the results of optimization.

  13. Two-direction refinable functions and two direction wavelets with high approximation order and regularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The concept of two-direction refinable functions and two-direction wavelets is introduced.We investigate the existence of distributional(or L2-stable) solutions of the two-direction refinement equation: φ(x)=∑p+kφ(mx-k)+∑p-kφ(k-mx) where m ≥ 2 is an integer. Based on the positive mask {pk+} and negative mask {p-k}, the conditions that guarantee the above equation has compactly distributional solutions or L2-stable solutions are established. Furthermore, the condition that the L2-stable solution of the above equation can generate a two-direction MRA is given. The support interval of φ(x) is discussed amply. The definition of orthogonal two-direction refinable function and orthogonal two-direction wavelets is presented, and the orthogonality criteria for two-direction refinable functions are established. An algorithm for constructing orthogonal two-direction refinable functions and their two-direction wavelets is presented. Another construction algorithm for two-direction L2-refinable functions, which have nonnegative symbol masks and possess high approximation order and regularity, is presented. Finally, two construction examples are given.

  14. Pragmatics of type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    and Schwichtenberg's normalization algorithm for the simply typed lambda-calculus. Type-directed partial evaluation thus can be used to specialize a compiled, closed program, given its type. Since Similix, let-insertion is a cornerstone of partial evaluators for call-by-value procedural languages with computational...... language) that are in direct style. The residual programs are in A-normal form. A simple corollary yields CPS (continuation-passing style) terms instead. We illustrate both transformations with two interpreters for Paulson's Tiny language, a classical example in partial evaluation.......Type-directed partial evaluation stems from the residualization of static values in dynamic contexts, given their type and the type of their free variables. Its algorithm coincides with the algorithm for coercing a subtype value into a supertype value, which itself coincides with Berger...

  15. Visibility-Aware Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai-Ho Mak; Yingcai Wu; Ming-Yuen Chan; Huamin Qu


    Direct volume rendering (DVR) is a powerful visualization technique which allows users to effectively explore and study volumetric datasets. Different transparency settings can be flexibly assigned to different structures such that some valuable information can be revealed in direct volume rendered images (DVRIs). However, end-users often feel that some risks are always associated with DVR because they do not know whether any important information is missing from the transparent regions of DVRIs. In this paper, we investigate how to semi-automatically generate a set of DVRIs and also an animation which can reveal information missed in the original DVRIs and meanwhile satisfy some image quality criteria such as coherence. A complete framework is developed to tackle various problems related to the generation and quality evaluation of visibility-aware DVRIs and animations. Our technique can reduce the risk of using direct volume rendering and thus boost the confidence of users in volume rendering systems.

  16. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim


    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... point source diffusion. A ray source corresponds better to the light that refracts through the surface of a translucent material. Using this ray source, we are able to take the direction of the incident light ray and the direction toward the point of emergence into account. We use a dipole construction...... similar to that of the standard dipole model, but we now have positive and negative ray sources with a mirrored pair of directions. Our model is as computationally efficient as existing models while it includes single scattering without relying on a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the rendered images...

  17. Dark matter direct-detection experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Undagoitia, Teresa Marrodan


    In the past decades, several detector technologies have been developed with the quest to directly detect dark matter interactions and to test one of the most important unsolved questions in modern physics. The sensitivity of these experiments has improved with a tremendous speed due to a constant development of the detectors and analysis methods, proving uniquely suited devices to solve the dark matter puzzle, as all other discovery strategies can only indirectly infer its existence. Despite the overwhelming evidence for dark matter from cosmological indications at small and large scales, a clear evidence for a particle explaining these observations remains absent. This review summarises the status of direct dark matter searches, focussing on the detector technologies used to directly detect a dark matter particle producing recoil energies in the keV energy scale. The phenomenological signal expectations, main background sources, statistical treatment of data and calibration strategies are discussed.

  18. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla


    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... or crown is made. Factors as remaining tooth structure, endodontic treatment, number of teeth, caries risk, para-functional habits, material properties, economy etc. will all have an influence, when the dentist guides the patient to choose the best solution. What is best for the tooth – direct or indirect...... rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...

  19. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo


    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  20. Recorded Step Directional Mutation for Faster Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, Ted


    Two meta-evolutionary optimization strategies described in this paper accelerate the convergence of evolutionary programming algorithms while still retaining much of their ability to deal with multi-modal problems. The strategies, called directional mutation and recorded step in this paper, can operate independently but together they greatly enhance the ability of evolutionary programming algorithms to deal with fitness landscapes characterized by long narrow valleys. The directional mutation aspect of this combined method uses correlated meta-mutation but does not introduce a full covariance matrix. These new methods are thus much more economical in terms of storage for problems with high dimensionality. Additionally, directional mutation is rotationally invariant which is a substantial advantage over self-adaptive methods which use a single variance per coordinate for problems where the natural orientation of the problem is not oriented along the axes.

  1. [Antidotes to novel direct oral anticoagulants]. (United States)

    Khorev, N G; Momot, A P; Kon'kova, V O

    During the last 10 years, several novel direct oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have entered the clinical arena and were registered in the Russian Federation for use in patients presenting with atrial fibrillation, venous thrombosis, and pulmonary artery thromboembolism. NOACs are classified into two groups: direct thrombin inhibitor (notably dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban). Their disadvantage is lack of specific antidotes in case of an emergency situation (injury, infarction, stroke requiring thrombolysis, urgent operation). The review contains the data on the existing therapeutic regimens of treating haemorrhage on the background of taking these coagulants. This is followed by analysing the present-day results of clinical trials aimed at working out pharmaceutical agents (andexanet alpha, idarucizumab, aripazine) being antidotes to direct thrombin inhibitor and the factor Xa inhibitors. Administration of these agents makes it possible to reverse coagulation and minimize the aftermaths of haemorrhage in patients taking these drugs, in emergency situations.

  2. On the existence of shortest directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Swanepoel, Konrad J


    A directed network connecting a set A to a set B is a digraph containing an a-b path for each a in A and b in B. Vertices in the directed network not in A or B are called Steiner points. We show that in a finitely compact metric space in which geodesics exist, any two finite sets A and B are connected by a shortest directed network. We also bound the number of Steiner points by a function of the sizes of A and B. Previously, such an existence result was known only for the Euclidean plane [M. Alfaro, Pacific J. Math. 167 (1995) 201-214]. The main difficulty is that, unlike the undirected case (Steiner minimal trees), the underlying graphs need not be acyclic. Existence in the undirected case was first shown by E. J. Cockayne [Canad. Math. Bull. 10 (1967) 431-450].

  3. Directional Filters for Cartoon + Texture Image Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades


    Full Text Available We present in this article a detailed analysis and implementation of the cartoon+texture decomposition algorithm proposed in [A. Buades, J.L. Lisani, 'Directional filters for color cartoon + texture image and video decomposition', Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, 2015]. This method follows the approach proposed by [A. Buades, T. Le, J-M. Morel, L. Vese, 'Cartoon+Texture Image Decomposition', IPOL 2011], based on low/high-pass filtering, but replaces the isotropic filters by a bank of low-pass directional filters. The cartoon image is obtained by filtering in the direction that leads to the largest local total variation rate reduction. This permits to improve the performance of the decomposition near image discontinuities, where an halo effect was produced by the previous method.

  4. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.


    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  5. Multicast Protocol for Uni-Directional Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皓; 陈贵海; 谢立; 孙钟秀


    A very inexpensive receive-only satellite receiver can receive high bandwidth traffic from a feeder. Therefore the connection between the feeder and the receiver is uni-directional. The existing routing protocols, such as Link-State and Distance-Vector, are designed on the premise that any links are bidirectional and they cannot handle the uni-directional links. In this paper, a dynamic multicast routing protocol is proposed, which can handle uni-directional networks. This protocol can also adapt to the dynamic change of the topology of the network and has good scalability. A formal description of the protocol by Petri net is given. Liveness,deadlock free and other properties of the protocol are proved.

  6. Dark matter direct-detection experiments (United States)

    Marrodán Undagoitia, Teresa; Rauch, Ludwig


    In recent decades, several detector technologies have been developed with the quest to directly detect dark matter interactions and to test one of the most important unsolved questions in modern physics. The sensitivity of these experiments has improved with a tremendous speed due to a constant development of the detectors and analysis methods, proving uniquely suited devices to solve the dark matter puzzle, as all other discovery strategies can only indirectly infer its existence. Despite the overwhelming evidence for dark matter from cosmological indications at small and large scales, clear evidence for a particle explaining these observations remains absent. This review summarises the status of direct dark matter searches, focusing on the detector technologies used to directly detect a dark matter particle producing recoil energies in the keV energy scale. The phenomenological signal expectations, main background sources, statistical treatment of data and calibration strategies are discussed.

  7. Disentangling Dark Matter Dynamics with Directional Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC


    Inelastic dark matter reconciles the DAMA anomaly with other null direct detection experiments and points to a non-minimal structure in the dark matter sector. In addition to the dominant inelastic interaction, dark matter scattering may have a subdominant elastic component. If these elastic interactions are suppressed at low momentum transfer, they will have similar nuclear recoil spectra to inelastic scattering events. While upcoming direct detection experiments will see strong signals from such models, they may not be able to unambiguously determine the presence of the subdominant elastic scattering from the recoil spectra alone. We show that directional detection experiments can separate elastic and inelastic scattering events and discover the underlying dynamics of dark matter models.

  8. Directed Evolution of Enzymes for Industrial Biocatalysis. (United States)

    Porter, Joanne L; Rusli, Rukhairul A; Ollis, David L


    Enzymes have the potential to catalyse a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are increasingly being sought as environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternatives to conventional catalysts used in industries ranging from bioremediation to applications in medicine and pharmaceutics. Despite the benefits, they are not without their limitations. Many naturally occurring enzymes are not suitable for use outside of their native cellular environments. However, protein engineering can be used to generate enzymes tailored for specific industrial applications. Directed evolution is particularly useful and can be employed even when lack of structural information impedes the use of rational design. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current industrial applications of enzyme technology and to show how directed evolution can be used to modify and to enhance enzyme properties. This includes a brief discussion on library generation and a more detailed focus on library screening methods, which are critical to any directed evolution experiment.

  9. A directly phase-modulated light source

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Z L; Lucamarini, M; Roberts, G L; Dynes, J F; Shields, A J


    The art of imparting information onto a light wave by optical signal modulation is fundamental to all forms of optical communication. Among many schemes, direct modulation of laser diodes stands out as a simple, robust, and cost effective method. However, the simultaneous changes in intensity, frequency and phase are a drawback which has prevented its application in the field of secure quantum communication. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a directly phase-modulated light source which overcomes the main disadvantages associated with direct modulation and is suitable for diverse applications such as coherent communications and quantum cryptography. The source separates the tasks of phase preparation and pulse generation between a pair of semiconductor lasers leading to very pure phase states. Moreover, the cavity enhanced electro-optic effect enables the first example of sub-volt halfwave phase modulation at high signal rates. The source is compact, stable and versatile, and we show its potenti...

  10. Direct Detection of Dynamical Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Thomas, Brooks


    Dynamical dark matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark-matter candidate is an ensemble of constituent fields with differing masses, lifetimes, and cosmological abundances. In this framework, it is the balancing of these quantities against each other across the ensemble as a whole which ensures phenomenological viability. In this paper, we examine the prospects for the direct detection of a DDM ensemble. In particular, we study the constraints imposed by current limits from direct-detection experiments on the parameter space of DDM models, and we assess the prospects for detecting such an ensemble and distinguishing it from traditional dark-matter candidates on the basis of data from the next generation of direct-detection experiments. For concreteness, we focus primarily on the case in which elastic scattering via spin-independent interactions dominates the interaction rate between atomic nuclei and the constituent particles of the ensemble. We also briefly discuss t...

  11. Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, R.; Ayers, C.; Wereszczak, A.


    The goal of the Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate project is to reduce the size and weight of the heat sink for power electronics used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The concept proposed in this project was to develop an innovative power electronics mounting structure, model it, and perform both thermal and mechanical finite-element analysis (FEA). This concept involved integrating cooling channels within the direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate and strategically locating these channels underneath the power electronic devices. This arrangement would then be directly cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG), essentially eliminating the conventional heat sink and associated heat flow path. The concept was evaluated to determine its manufacturability, its compatibility with WEG, and the potential to reduce size and weight while directly cooling the DBC and associated electronics with a coolant temperature of 105 C. This concept does not provide direct cooling to the electronics, only direct cooling inside the DBC substrate itself. These designs will take into account issues such as containment of the fluid (separation from the electronics) and synergy with the whole power inverter design architecture. In FY 2008, mechanical modeling of substrate and inverter core designs as well as thermal and mechanical stress FEA modeling of the substrate designs was performed, along with research into manufacturing capabilities and methods that will support the substrate designs. In FY 2009, a preferred design(s) will be fabricated and laboratory validation testing will be completed. In FY 2010, based on the previous years laboratory testing, the mechanical design will be modified and the next generation will be built and tested in an operating inverter prototype.

  12. Does climate directly influence NPP globally? (United States)

    Chu, Chengjin; Bartlett, Megan; Wang, Youshi; He, Fangliang; Weiner, Jacob; Chave, Jérôme; Sack, Lawren


    The need for rigorous analyses of climate impacts has never been more crucial. Current textbooks state that climate directly influences ecosystem annual net primary productivity (NPP), emphasizing the urgent need to monitor the impacts of climate change. A recent paper challenged this consensus, arguing, based on an analysis of NPP for 1247 woody plant communities across global climate gradients, that temperature and precipitation have negligible direct effects on NPP and only perhaps have indirect effects by constraining total stand biomass (Mtot ) and stand age (a). The authors of that study concluded that the length of the growing season (lgs ) might have a minor influence on NPP, an effect they considered not to be directly related to climate. In this article, we describe flaws that affected that study's conclusions and present novel analyses to disentangle the effects of stand variables and climate in determining NPP. We re-analyzed the same database to partition the direct and indirect effects of climate on NPP, using three approaches: maximum-likelihood model selection, independent-effects analysis, and structural equation modeling. These new analyses showed that about half of the global variation in NPP could be explained by Mtot combined with climate variables and supported strong and direct influences of climate independently of Mtot , both for NPP and for net biomass change averaged across the known lifetime of the stands (ABC = average biomass change). We show that lgs is an important climate variable, intrinsically correlated with, and contributing to mean annual temperature and precipitation (Tann and Pann ), all important climatic drivers of NPP. Our analyses provide guidance for statistical and mechanistic analyses of climate drivers of ecosystem processes for predictive modeling and provide novel evidence supporting the strong, direct role of climate in determining vegetation productivity at the global scale.

  13. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García


    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  14. [Thalidomide teratogenicity and its direct target identification]. (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi


    Half a century ago, thalidomide was developed as a sedative drug and was wildly used over 40 countries. However the drug has serious birth defects such as amelia and phocomelia. Now thalidomide is regarded as a clinically effective drug and used for the treatment of multiple myeloma under strict controls. The direct target of thalidomide had been a long-standing question. We identified cereblon as a primary direct target protein for thalidomide teratogenicity using new affinity bead technology in 2010. In this review, we introduce an overview of thalidomide teratogenicity, a story about how we identified cereblon, and recent advances in cereblon studies.

  15. Solute Redistribution in Directional Melting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@The solute redistribution in directional melting process is theoretically studied. Based on quantitative evaluations, uniform solute distribution in liquid and a quasi-steady solute distribution in solid are supposed. The discussion on the solute balance comes to a simple model for the solute redistribution in directional melting process. As an example, the variation of liquid composition during melting process of carbon steel is quantitatively evaluated using the model. Results show that the melting of an alloy starts at solidus temperature, but approaches the liquidus temperature after a very short transient process.

  16. Direct Spectrophotometric Assay for Benzaldehyde Lyase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Natalia


    Full Text Available Benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens Biovar I. (BAL, EC is a versatile catalyst for the organic synthesis of chiral α-hydroxy ketones. To allow fast assessment of enzyme activity, a direct spectrophotometric assay is desirable. Here, a new robust and easy-to-handle assay based on UV absorption is presented. The assay developed is based on the ligation of the α-hydroxy ketone (R-2,2′-furoin from 2-furaldehyde. A robust assay with direct monitoring of the product is facilitated with a convenient concentration working range minimising experimental associated with low concentrations.

  17. A direct product decomposition of QMV algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xian; SHANG Yun; LU RuQian


    We study the direct product decomposition of quantum many-valued algebras (QMV algebras)which generalizes the decomposition theorem of ortholattices (orthomodular lattices).In detail,for an idempotent element of a given QMV algebra,if it commutes with every element of the QMV algebra,it can induce a direct product decomposition of the QMV algebra.At the same time,we introduce the commutant C(S) of a set S in a QMV algebra,and prove that when S consists of idempotent elements,C(S) is a subalgebra of the QMV algebra.This also generalizes the cases of orthomodular lattices.

  18. The LUX direct dark matter search (United States)

    Murphy, A. St. J.


    As evidenced by the numerous contributions on the topic at this meeting, the IX International Conference on Interconnections between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC2015), the direct detection of dark matter remains as one of the highest priorities in both particle physics and cosmology. In 2013 the LUX direct dark matter search collaboration reported the most stringent constraints to-date on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section. Here we present a summary of that work, describe recent technical improvements, and results from new calibrations. Prospects for the future of the LUX scientific program are reported, together with the outlook for its successor project, LZ.

  19. Lipid Directed Intrinsic Membrane Protein Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S.; Thompson, James R.; Helix Nielsen, Claus;


    We demonstrate a new approach for direct reconstitution of membrane proteins during giant vesicle formation. We show that it is straightforward to create a tissue-like giant vesicle film swelled with membrane protein using aquaporin SoPIP2;1 as an illustration. These vesicles can also be easily h...... harvested for individual study. By controlling the lipid composition we are able to direct the aquaporin into specific immiscible liquid domains in giant vesicles. The oligomeric α-helical protein cosegregates with the cholesterol-poor domains in phase separating ternary mixtures....

  20. Direct CP violation in neutral kaon decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wojciech Wiślicki


    The final result of the NA48 experiment is presented and performed at the CERN SPS neutral kaon beams, on the direct CP violation parameter Re$('/)$, as measured from the decay rates of neutral kaons into two pions. The data collected in the years 1997-2001 yield the evidence for the direct CP violation with Re$('/)=(14.7± 2.2)× 10^{-4}$. Description of experimental method and systematics, comparison with the corresponding FNAL result and discussion of some implications for the theory are given.

  1. Inflationary spacetimes are incomplete in past directions. (United States)

    Borde, Arvind; Guth, Alan H; Vilenkin, Alexander


    Many inflating spacetimes are likely to violate the weak energy condition, a key assumption of singularity theorems. Here we offer a simple kinematical argument, requiring no energy condition, that a cosmological model which is inflating--or just expanding sufficiently fast--must be incomplete in null and timelike past directions. Specifically, we obtain a bound on the integral of the Hubble parameter over a past-directed timelike or null geodesic. Thus inflationary models require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime.

  2. Computer Modeling of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (United States)

    Cross, Matthew


    A computational approach to modeling direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing process is presented. The primary application of the model is for determining the temperature history of parts fabricated using DMLS to evaluate residual stresses found in finished pieces and to assess manufacturing process strategies to reduce part slumping. The model utilizes MSC SINDA as a heat transfer solver with imbedded FORTRAN computer code to direct laser motion, apply laser heating as a boundary condition, and simulate the addition of metal powder layers during part fabrication. Model results are compared to available data collected during in situ DMLS part manufacture.

  3. Direct Dark Matter Searches: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    There is overwhelming indirect evidence that dark matter exists, however, the dark matter particle has not yet been directly detected in laboratory experiments. In order to be able to identify the rare dark matter interactions with the target nuclei, such instruments have to feature a very low threshold and an extremely low radioactive background. They are therefore installed in underground laboratories to reduce cosmic ray backgrounds. I will review the status of direct dark matter searches and will discuss the perspectives for the future.

  4. Distributed Reconstruction via Alternating Direction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Wang


    Full Text Available With the development of compressive sensing theory, image reconstruction from few-view projections has received considerable research attentions in the field of computed tomography (CT. Total-variation- (TV- based CT image reconstruction has been shown to be experimentally capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In this study, a distributed reconstruction algorithm based on TV minimization has been developed. This algorithm is very simple as it uses the alternating direction method. The proposed method can accelerate the alternating direction total variation minimization (ADTVM algorithm without losing accuracy.

  5. Direct oral anticoagulants and venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Franchini


    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, consisting of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major clinical concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of management of VTE is anticoagulation, and traditional anticoagulants include parenteral heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed and licensed, including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban and thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran etexilate. This narrative review focusses on the characteristics of these direct anticoagulants and the main results of published clinical studies on their use in the prevention and treatment of VTE.

  6. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation. (United States)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui


    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  7. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance (United States)

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  8. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds. (United States)

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Bendavid, Avi; Schell, Andreas W; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J


    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing, nanophotonics and quantum communications. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensors and nanophotonics devices.

  9. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J


    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing and nanophotonics. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensing and nanophotonics devices.

  10. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia (United States)

    Saue, Triin


    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  11. Foreign direct investment in the Polish economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gutowski


    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI plays an extraordinary and increasingly important role in global and local business. This type of investment gives the country a better position to prepare for rapidly changing economic conditions. Considering the external effects of FDI, it should be assumed that the most important one is coinvolvement in the development of a country in which they are located. In the Polish economy the value of foreign direct investment is very high and it is one of the most important causes of the economic growth.

  12. Coordinating quality practices in Direct Trade coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Emil; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kerndrup, Søren


    Over the past few decades, many food niches have emerged with a specific focus on quality. In specialty coffee, micro roasters have brought about Direct Trade coffee as a way of organising an alternative around new tastes and qualities through ongoing and ‘direct’ relations to farmers...... and cooperatives. But Direct Trade also involves exporters. We ask, how do exporters and roasters work together in these new coffee relations, and what do they work on? We observe and participate in a situation where Colombian coffee exporters visit Danish roasters. They tour the roasting facilities and taste...

  13. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show that the th......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...

  14. Institutional Field for Outward Foreign Direct Investment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov


    The paper AU :3 explores the stages of development of an outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) institutional field during periods of major system change in big emerging economies. The state and its agencies appear to be the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI organizati......The paper AU :3 explores the stages of development of an outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) institutional field during periods of major system change in big emerging economies. The state and its agencies appear to be the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI...

  15. Direct dialling of Haar random unitary matrices (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas J.; Chakhmakhchyan, Levon; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Laing, Anthony


    Random unitary matrices find a number of applications in quantum information science, and are central to the recently defined boson sampling algorithm for photons in linear optics. We describe an operationally simple method to directly implement Haar random unitary matrices in optical circuits, with no requirement for prior or explicit matrix calculations. Our physically motivated and compact representation directly maps independent probability density functions for parameters in Haar random unitary matrices, to optical circuit components. We go on to extend the results to the case of random unitaries for qubits.

  16. Directional Joint Bilateral Filter for Depth Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Vu Le


    Full Text Available Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries.

  17. Foreign Direct Investment, Competition and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, Jürgen; Görg, Holger


    This paper investigates the productivity effects of inward and outward foreign direct investment using industry- and country-level data for 17 OECD countries over the period 1973 to 2001. Controlling for national and international knowledge spillovers we argue that the effects of FDI work through...... direct compositional effects as well as changing competition in the host country. Our results show that there are, on average, productivity benefits from inward FDI, although we can identify a number of countries which, on aggregate, do not appear to benefit in terms of productivity. On the other hand...

  18. Direct and indirect laryngoscopy: equipment and techniques. (United States)

    Collins, Stephen R


    Visualization of the larynx by direct or indirect means is referred to as laryngoscopy and is the principal aim during airway management for passage of a tracheal tube. This paper presents a brief background regarding the development and practice of laryngoscopy and examines the equipment and techniques for both direct and indirect methods. Patient evaluation during the airway examination is discussed, as are predictors for difficult intubation. Laryngoscope blade design, newer intubating techniques, and a variety of indirect laryngoscopic technologies are reviewed, as is the learning curve for these techniques and devices.

  19. Hybrid nanoantennas for directional emission enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusak, Evgenia; Staude, Isabelle, E-mail:; Decker, Manuel; Sautter, Jürgen; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Powell, David A.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)


    Plasmonic and dielectric nanoparticles offer complementary strengths regarding their use as optical antenna elements. While plasmonic nanoparticles are well-known to provide strong decay rate enhancement for localized emitters, all-dielectric nanoparticles can enable high directivity combined with low losses. Here, we suggest a hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantenna consisting of a gold nanorod and a silicon nanodisk, which combines all these advantages. Our numerical analysis reveals a giant enhancement of directional emission together with simultaneously high radiation efficiency (exceeding 70%). The suggested hybrid nanoantenna has a subwavelength footprint, and all parameters and materials are chosen to be compatible with fabrication by two-step electron-beam lithography.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the diversity of directions for use of direct payments in different types of individual farms. The questionnaire surveys were performed on 295 farms located in dif-ferent parts of the country. Analysed farms were divided into groups according to the amount direct support received. Based on the survey concluded that in all analysed groups the largest share of direct payments is spent on the purchase of means of production. The smallest farms also spend to a high extent, the money on household purposes (20.5% and the largest ones to finance the investment (17.7%.

  1. Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals defined without using heaps of pieces


    Feretić, Svjetlan


    Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals are two lattice models defined by Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer in 2002. The original definitions of those models involve heaps of pieces, i.e., some geometric representation of partially commutative monoids. The object of this writing is to define stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals in such a way that heaps of pieces are not involved. Our alternative definitions are equivalent to Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer's origi...

  2. Evaluation of the GlideScope Direct: A New Video Laryngoscope for Teaching Direct Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Viernes


    Full Text Available Background. Teaching direct laryngoscopy is limited by the inability of the instructor to simultaneously view the airway with the laryngoscopist. Our primary aim is to report our initial use of the GlideScope Direct, a video-enabled, Macintosh laryngoscope intended primarily as a training tool in direct laryngoscopy. Methods. The GlideScope Direct was made available to anyone who planned on performing direct laryngoscopy as the primary technique for intubation. Novices were those who had performed <30 intubations. Results. The GlideScope Direct was used 123 times as primarily a direct laryngoscope while the instructor viewed the intubation on the monitor. It was highly successful as a direct laryngoscope (93% success. Salvage by indirect laryngoscopy occurred in 7/9 remaining patients without changing equipment. Novices performed 28 intubations (overall success rate of 79%. In 6 patients, the instructor took over and successfully intubated the patient. Instructors used the video images to guide the operator in 16 (57% of those patients. Seven different instructors supervised the 28 novices, all of who subjectively felt advantaged by having the laryngoscopic view available. Conclusions. The GlideScope Direct functions similarly to a Macintosh laryngoscope and provides the instructor subjective reassurance, while providing the ability to guide the trainee laryngoscopist.

  3. European social model vs directive Bolkestein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan


    Full Text Available In this article is elaborated the actually question which is developed and discussed it the European Union is the European Social Model (ESM. It is a vision of society that combines sustainable economic growth with ever-improving living and working conditions. This implies full employment good quality jobs, equal opportunities, social protection for all, social inclusion, and involving citizens in the decisions that affect them. As the Euro-zone is struggling to move away from a dramatic slump in its economy and while the Lisbon Strategy and its potential for economic growth, strongly needs reactivation, the debates over the Europe have raised again the issue of a sustainable social agenda for the European Union. Recently, Europe's political leaders defined the ESM, specifying that it "is based on good economic performance, a high level of social protection and education and social dialogue". An important topic of the discussion nowadays is the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on services in the internal market so called "Bolkestein directive". The importance of this article is to give us the answer to the following question: would we have French goods available in French supermarkets all over Poland and no Polish services allowed in France? The EU would be unthinkable without the full implementation of the four freedoms. This is a good directive, going in the good direction.

  4. Future directions in brain injury research. (United States)

    Gennarelli, Thomas A


    This paper reviews the potential future directions that are important for brain injury research, especially with regard to concussion. The avenues of proposed research are categorized according to current concepts of concussion, types of concussion, and a global schema for globally reducing the burden of concussion.

  5. 78 FR 60798 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes (United States)


    ... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200, -300 and -200 Freighter series airplanes, and Model A340-200... prompted by a report that an airplane equipped with AOA sensors installed with conic plates recently... information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221. Examining the AD Docket...

  6. Customer Directed Advertising and Product Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Esteban; J.M. Hernandez; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)


    textabstractWe consider a market where a single seller must employ informative advertising to launch a new product of observable quality. The monopolist may use mass, targeted or customer directed advertising. We show that the choice of advertising strategy depends on the economic properties of the

  7. New Directions and Capabilities in Analytical Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary M. HIEFTJE; Timothy L. DANIELSON; Andrew M. LEACH; Denise M. MCCLENATHAN; Radislav A. POTYRAILO; Steven J. RAY; Andrew W. SZUMLAS; Michael R. WEBB; William C. WETZEL


    In this presentation, a number of recent activities in our research group will be highlighted. The studies represent a broad range in the general field of spectrochemical analysis, sometimes take entirely new directions, usually employ novel instrumentation, and all provide important new capabilities in analytical measurements.

  8. Direct and inverse problems of infrared tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sizikov, Valery S.; Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander


    regularization. A software package in MATLAB has been developed. Two numerical examples-with modeled and real input data-were solved. The proposed methodology avoids the necessity of elaborate determination of the absorption coefficient by direct (point) measurements or calculation using spectroscopic databases...

  9. Directly Specifying the Power Semicircle Distribution


    Homei, Hazhir


    A new proof for a newly proved conjecture of Soltani and Roozegar (2012) is provided; our proof does not make any use of the Stieltjes transform unlike the proof of Roozegar and Soltani (2013), and the distribution of power semicircle has been directly specified, contrary to the authors' claim in (Roozegar and Soltani 2013).

  10. Nonconsensus opinion model on directed networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, B.; Li, Q.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, E.; Wang, H.


    Dynamic social opinion models have been widely studied on undirected networks, and most of them are based on spin interaction models that produce a consensus. In reality, however, many networks such as Twitter and the World Wide Web are directed and are composed of both unidirectional and bidirectio

  11. Direct Observation of Academic Learning Time. (United States)

    Wilson, Rich


    Classroom variables associated with academic learning time (ALT)--instructional time, on-task behavior, and student success rate--are positively related to student achievement. Guidelines and forms are provided for teachers and supervisors to gather objective and usable information on these ALT components through direct classroom observation…

  12. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars


    simplifies the main stream BC lithography process, showing a broad substrate tolerance and allowing for efficient pattern transfer over wafer scale. PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are directly applied on substrates including polymers, silicon and graphene. A single oxygen...

  13. Direct Mailing Decisions for a Dutch Fundraiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-J. Jonker (Jedid-Jah); N. Piersma (Nanda); R. Potharst (Rob)


    textabstractDirect marketing firms want to transfer their message as efficiently as possible in order to obtain a profitable long-term relationship with individual customers. Much attention has been paid to address selection of existing customers and on identifying new profitable prospects. Less att

  14. Sociology and Moral Education: New Directions? (United States)

    Musgrave, P. W.


    Past work in the field is examined at four levels: the social structural, the institutional, that of action and the social psychological in both the psychological and sociological traditions. Moral choice is analyzed into three components with each component applied to moral education in an attempt to indicate worthwhile future directions for…

  15. 19 CFR 18.25 - Direct exportation. (United States)


    ... to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under § 113... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.25 Section 18.25 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  16. Directionality and locality in vowel harmony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahanta, S.


    This dissertation concentrates on vowel harmony, a well-known process of assimilation where one vowel assumes similarity with regard to a certain feature in a neighbouring vowel. Recent work on vowel harmony claims that directionality is not an independent parameter along which vowel harmony languag

  17. Light Gaugino Problem in Direct Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Ookouchi, Yutaka


    It has been known that in a wide class of direct gauge mediation models, the gaugino masses vanish at leading order in SUSY breaking. Recently, this phenomenon is understood in connection with the global structure of vacua in O'Raifeartaigh-type models. We review recent developments on this topic.

  18. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.


    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues ar

  19. Spontaneous Resolution of Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishaq, Mazhar; Arain, Muhammad Aamir; Ahmed, Saadullah; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Khan, Muhammad Dawood; Iqbal, Zamir


    Proptosis due to carotid cavernous fistula is rare sequelae of head injury. We report a case of post-traumatic, direct high flow carotid cavernous fistula that resolved spontaneously 06 weeks after carotid angiography. It however, resulted in loss of vision due to delay in early treatment. In the ca

  20. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair


    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Drob


    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the main categories (types of risks that affect the inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI in Romania, such as: country risk, political risk, economic risks, sovereign risks and so on. FDI is an important factor contributing to the economic development and to the economic growth of a country. In order to recuperate its economic handicap as compared to the other countries in the EU, Romania needs a massive inflow of foreign capital, especially in the form of direct investment. The paper also presents the evolution of FDI inflows in Romania and how they were influenced by the main factors affecting the FDI. In principle, between risk and the level of FDI inflows there is a direct dependency relationship: the higher the risk is in a country, the lower the level of FDI inflows is in that country. This is demonstrated by the empirical studies regarding FDI. These studies show that countries with high risk have major difficulties in attracting foreign investment. Therefore, it is important to identify very precisely the main risks that may affect the level of FDI inflows in Romania, in order to propose and implement strategies to mitigate these risks and to attract more foreign direct investment in Romania.

  2. Directed Energy Missions for Planetary Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Lubin, Philip; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathon; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis


    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional prop...

  3. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers (United States)

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong


    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  4. PHENIX Low Momentum Direct Photon Analysis (United States)

    Fan, Wenqing; Phenix Collaboration


    The PHENIX experiment operates with one of the major detectors at the RHIC collider. One of the major goals of PHENIX is to identify and study Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Direct photons turn out to be an excellent probe due to their small interaction cross section with the collision produced medium hence carrying information of its properties from the space-time production points. In the PHENIX direct photon measurement, a large excess of low-pT photons in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV is discovered compared to reference p+p collisions, which has been interpreted as thermal radiation from the QGP and hadron-gas (HG) medium. At the same time the excess photons have a large azimuthal anisotropy, expressed as Fourier coefficients v2 and v3. Measurements at a lower collision energy may provide new insight on the origin of the low-pT direct photons. In the experiment the current effort is to reduce the experimental uncertainties in Au+Au and p+p collisions via the photons' external conversion to di-electron pairs, and measure the direct photon yield in Cu+Au and p+Au collisions at 200 GeV as well as the yield in Au+Au collisions at lower 39 GeV and 62.4 GeV. We will present the improvements and the status of the ongoing analyses.

  5. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian


    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  6. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests (United States)

    ... Search form Search Vea esta página en español Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests Related Items Anatomy of ... DTC genetic tests often include dietary advice and sales offers for “customized” dietary supplements and cosmetics. The ...

  7. Direct Marketers and the Virginia Sales Tax


    Whittle, Bill; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-


    When farmers sell retail or to the end-user, they must collect sales tax on the gross sales price of all retail sales. For the purpose of sales tax rules, farmers making direct sales are treated like all retail merchants and are obligated to collect and remit the sales tax on all retail sales to each customer.ï_ 

  8. Direct calculation of wind turbine tip loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, D.H.; Okulov, Valery; Bhattacharjee, D.


    . We develop three methods for the direct calculation of the tip loss. The first is the computationally expensive calculation of the velocities induced by the helicoidal wake which requires the evaluation of infinite sums of products of Bessel functions. The second uses the asymptotic evaluation...

  9. Immunity of FPGA chips by direct injection


    Aurand, Tobias; Dawson, J.F.; Robinson, Martin Paul; Marvin, A.C.


    Immunity measurements of Xilinix XC3S200TQ144 and Altera EP3C10E144C7N FPGAs by direct injection are presented and the immunity of individual pins is shown to depend greatly on the load seen by nearby pins. The implications of this on in circuit immunity prediction are discussed.

  10. Bases of Radio Direction Finding, Part II (United States)


    equality of amplification factors in any operating mode. The identity of channels is chocked using the bearing of the pilot signal which is connected...34- ’ • 7 • --• • • -• • I DOC 7 7223222 PAGE dlASOf(WJtPA game .# Fig. 8.23. Circuit of raidio direction finder with the sepirate channel of

  11. Directed evolution strategies for improved enzymatic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalby Paul A


    Full Text Available Abstract The engineering of enzymes with altered activity, specificity and stability, using directed evolution techniques that mimic evolution on a laboratory timescale, is now well established. However, the general acceptance of these methods as a route to new biocatalysts for organic synthesis requires further improvement of the methods for both ease-of-use and also for obtaining more significant changes in enzyme properties than is currently possible. Recent advances in library design, and methods of random mutagenesis, combined with new screening and selection tools, continue to push forward the potential of directed evolution. For example, protein engineers are now beginning to apply the vast body of knowledge and understanding of protein structure and function, to the design of focussed directed evolution libraries, with striking results compared to the previously favoured random mutagenesis and recombination of entire genes. Significant progress in computational design techniques which mimic the experimental process of library screening is also now enabling searches of much greater regions of sequence-space for those catalytic reactions that are broadly understood and, therefore, possible to model. Biocatalysis for organic synthesis frequently makes use of whole-cells, in addition to isolated enzymes, either for a single reaction or for transformations via entire metabolic pathways. As many new whole-cell biocatalysts are being developed by metabolic engineering, the potential of directed evolution to improve these initial designs is also beginning to be realised.

  12. Reaping the Rewards of Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    After a decade of steadily growing foreign direct investment (FDI) in extractives, Tanzania is now facing a virtual ‘take off ’ in extractive FDI. One of the concerns related to these investments is whether the foreign investors are linking up sufficiently with local firms through localized supply...

  13. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks. (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim


    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  14. An Emerging Strategy of "Direct" Research. (United States)

    Mintzberg, Henry


    Discusses seven basic themes that underlie the author's "direct research" activities. These themes include reliance on research based on description and induction instead of prescription and deduction, and the measurement of many elements in real settings, supported by anecdote, instead of few variables in perceptual terms from a…

  15. Route to direct multiphoton multiple ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Nikolopoulos, G. M.; Papamihail, K. G.


    We address the concept of direct multiphoton multiple ionization in atoms exposed to intense, short-wavelength radiation and explore the conditions under which such processes dominate over the sequential. Their contribution is shown to be quite robust, even under intensity fluctuations and interacti

  16. Directed evolution: tailoring biocatalysts for industrial applications. (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren


    Current challenges and promises of white biotechnology encourage protein engineers to use a directed evolution approach to generate novel and useful biocatalysts for various sets of applications. Different methods of enzyme engineering have been used in the past in an attempt to produce enzymes with improved functions and properties. Recent advancement in the field of random mutagenesis, screening, selection and computational design increased the versatility and the rapid development of enzymes under strong selection pressure with directed evolution experiments. Techniques of directed evolution improve enzymes fitness without understanding them in great detail and clearly demonstrate its future role in adapting enzymes for use in industry. Despite significant advances to date regarding biocatalyst improvement, there still remains a need to improve mutagenesis strategies and development of easy screening and selection tools without significant human intervention. This review covers fundamental and major development of directed evolution techniques, and highlights the advances in mutagenesis, screening and selection methods with examples of enzymes developed by using these approaches. Several commonly used methods for creating molecular diversity with their advantages and disadvantages including some recently used strategies are also discussed.

  17. Affleck Dine leptogenesis via multiple flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Kohei


    We investigate the Affleck-Dine mechanism when multiple flat directions have large values simultaneously. We consider in detail the case when both $LH_u$ and $H_uH_d$ flat directions are operative with a non-renormalizable superpotential. In case Hubble induced A-terms are present for these two flat directions, their initial values are determined completely by the potential and there are no ambiguities how they are mixed. Moreover, CP is violated even when the Hubble parameter is large due to the Hubble induced A-term and cross coupling in F-term, so that the lepton asymmetry is generated just after the end of inflation. As a result, compared with the case of single flat direction, the resultant lepton-to-entropy ratio is enhanced by a factor of $H_{osc}/m_{3/2}$, where $H_{osc}$ is the Hubble parameter at the onset of oscillation and $m_{3/2}$ is the gravitino mass. However, when Hubble induced A-terms do not exist, there remains indefiniteness of initial phases and CP is violated spontaneously by the phase ...

  18. Direct measurements of the magnetocaloric effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Neves Bez, Henrique;


    We present an experimental setup recently developed at DTU Energy Conversion for measuring specific heat and direct isothermal entropy change in a varying magnetic field (DSC device) using calorimetry. The device operates in high vacuum (~1e-6 mbar) and measurements are fully automated with respe...

  19. Does Foreign Direct Investment Decrease Corruption?


    Felipe Larraín; José Tavares


    This paper assesses the effect of openness on corruption, using foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows as a measure of openness, after trade intensity is accounted for. We use a broad cross section of countries over the period 1970 to 1994 and address th

  20. Trends toward rotary steerable directional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, T.M. [Amoco Exploration and Production Technology Group, Tulsa, OK (United States)


    Directional drilling will continue to be important in the petroleum industry for the foreseeable future as reserves in offshore locations, environmentally sensitive areas and locations with restricted surface access are developed. Emphasis on re-entries to extend the life of onshore and offshore production facilities and on horizontal completions to improve production rates and ultimate recovery will continue to place demands on directional drilling technology. Efficiency improvements that may be achieved through introduction of a new technology are often not easy to quantify, even though they may be quite significant. As long as the job gets done with the currently used system, and no better system is immediately available, it is natural to concentrate efforts on improving the existing system rather than introducing a new system. Here, the discussion is aimed at showing that drilling with steerable motor directional systems is inefficient, and that a significant improvement could be gained by introduction of rotary steerable systems. The objective of this article is not to put down motors, which have provided the backbone of directional drilling for three decades, but rather to show that considerable incentive exists for pursuing an alternative system.

  1. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs (United States)

    Bardzell, Michael


    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  2. Coaxial direct-detection lidar-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a coaxial direct-detection LIDAR system for measuring velocity, temperature and/or particulate density. The system comprises a laser source for emitting a laser light beam having a lasing center frequency along an emission path. The system further comprises an optical...

  3. Explaining Adaptive Radial-Based Direction Sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bauwens (Luc); C.S. Bos (Charles); H.K. van Dijk (Herman); R.D. van Oest (Rutger)


    textabstractIn this short paper we summarize the computational steps of Adaptive Radial-Based Direction Sampling (ARDS), which can be used for Bayesian analysis of ill behaved target densities. We consider one simulation experiment in order to illustrate the good performance of ARDS relative to the

  4. On the direction of pitchfork bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Hou


    Full Text Available We present an algorithm for computing the direction of pitchfork bifurcation for two-point boundary value problems. The formula is rather involved, but its computational evaluation is quite feasible. As an application, we obtain a multiplicity result.

  5. The Decline of Direct Newspaper Competition. (United States)

    Rosse, James N.


    Describes the decline of direct newspaper competition in terms of the loss of effective newspaper market segmentation. Examines the following influences on market segmentation: shift in advertising demand, advertiser preferences for differentiated audiences, shift in subscriber demand, growth of alternative media, increasing production costs, and…

  6. Children's Memory for Goal-Directed Events. (United States)

    Levorato, M. Chiara


    Investigates whether children's representations of the linguistic description of a goal-directed event was similar to their representation of the same event observed visually. Finds that mode of presentation did not affect the recall of most important actions, but that verbal description led to recall characterized by greater cohesion than visual…

  7. 12 CFR 222.43 - Direct disputes. (United States)


    ... with the furnisher, such as direct disputes relating to whether there is or has been identity theft or... information; a police report; a fraud or identity theft affidavit; a court order; or account statements. (e... number, telephone number(s), or address(es); (ii) The identity of past or present employers;...

  8. 12 CFR 717.43 - Direct disputes. (United States)


    ..., such as direct disputes relating to whether there is or has been identity theft or fraud against the... information; a police report; a fraud or identity theft affidavit; a court order; or account statements. (e... number, telephone number(s), or address(es); (ii) The identity of past or present employers;...

  9. Considering foreign direct investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs


    The present paper examines the aspect of relational assets and relates it to the strategic decision on undertaking foreign direct investment (FDI). The point of departure is the increasing importance of FDI globally as well as in the Danish economy, and the observation that even though Denmark...

  10. Forms and terminology of Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    It is apparent that some confusion exits both among researchers and political actors about the various forms of direct democracy. Various institutions such as IRI and IDEA, various countries such as Switzerland and California, and various authors such as Pier Vincenzo Uleri and David Altman present...

  11. Wave directional spectrum from SAR imagery

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Menon, H.B.; Vethamony, P.

    to be of "white noise" nature. There exists a 180° ambiguity in wave direction observed from radar imageries. Based on the method of Atanassov et al (1985), a computer program has been developed for the removal of the 180° ambiguity by using two images of the same...

  12. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben


    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct...

  13. Real-time directional wave data collection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.; Pednekar, P.S.

    The wave measurements carried out along the east and west coasts off India at 13 locations using the directional waverider buoys are referred in this paper. The total number of buoy days are 4501 and out of which the data collected are 4218 days...

  14. New Developments on Direct Conversion of Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gengliang


    Three new developments for direct conversion of CH4 are briefly introduced in this article: (1)Homogeneous catalysis by means of transition metals and their coordination complexes; (2) Chemically mimic enzymes of Methane Monooxygenase (MMO); and (3) Direct carboxylation of CH4 by CO2 to produce acetic acid in a heterogeneous catalytic system. Laboratory study for the two homogeneous systems of Hg(II)/H2SO4 and Pt(II) coordination complex/H2SO4 shows that the CH4 conversion rate is over 90% at a selectivity of 80% and an over 70% one-pass yield of an ester of methanol is reached. But the constraints of kinetics in these two systems must be overcome before engineering development. Both Rh(II) coordination complex/photocatalysis and chemi cally mimic MMO systems are in the exploratory stage. Since the direct conversion of CH4 in these two systems can be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure, their potentially industrial benefit will be great. The study on direct reaction of CH4 with CO2 to yield acetic acid is also at the early stage of development, but the important value of this reaction for environmental protection must be emphasized besides its economic benefits.

  15. Toward the direct design of waverider airframes (United States)

    Kinsey, Dawn Daniel


    A waverider is a hypersonic vehicle that keeps the bow shock attached to its leading edges. This class of vehicles originated in the late 1950's as a theoretical construct. Since the late 1980's there has been a resurgence of waverider research and an explosion of waverider applications. Waveriders have traditionally been and are still primarily designed using inverse methods, wherein the flowfield is known and the body surfaces are formed by collecting streamlines or streamsurfaces out of the flowfield. In the work presented here, the advantages of using a more conventional direct-design method for waveriders are investigated. The tools necessary to construct a practical Computational Fluid Dynamics design code are evaluated. As a start, a 3-D steady Euler code is built. The code uses an adaptive Cartesian mesh which allows arbitrary body shapes. The strengths and weaknesses of the code and direct-design method will be discussed. Several test cases and a simple design study are performed. These show that off-design conditions are easily simulated. A case study reveals that small changes in the body shape can significantly impact the lift-to-drag ratio. This points to an advantage of the direct-design method. Because the direct method does not constrain the design space, it can be used to look for optimum shapes between those found using inverse methods.

  16. The Direct Method of Cash Flows. (United States)

    Bosserman, David C.; Fischer, Mary


    Explains to college/university business officers how to comply with Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statements Nos. 34, 35, and 9, which require the direct method of presenting cash flows from operating activities and reconciliation of operating cash flows to operating income by fiscal year 2001. Institutions are urged to begin immediately…

  17. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie


    and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats...

  18. Why Foreign Direct Investment- Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Luçi


    Full Text Available Among other financial inflows, foreign direct investment makes a major stimulus to economic growth in many developing countries. The ability to deal with two major obstacles, namely, the shortages of financial resources and the lack of technology and skills, has put foreign direct investments in the centre of attention for policy-makers, particularly in developing countries. Albania is committed to maintaining an open environment for investments. This is vital for a long-term and sustainable economic growth. As a lowsavings developing economy, with high domestic investment requirements, Albania needs to attract foreign direct investment in order to support domestic investment financing requirements. However, Albania has not been successful in obtaining substantial and consistent FDI inflows. Furthermore, the meagre inflows that the country has received have not been utilized appropriately to enhance the economic performance. The type of FDI and its structural composition matter as much for economic growth. This paper reviews the recent evidence on the scale of FDI to Albania. The paper reviews also some of the main areas of the existing policy framework for inward FDI in Albania among the major factors determining foreign companies' decisions to invest in Albania. We discuss these issues and try to make the case for a more coherent, harmonized and transparent framework to cover all foreign direct investment into Albania. The regulation of inward investment is one of several policy and institutional variables likely to influence the volume of FDI.

  19. Constraint solving for direct manipulation of features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, D.; Oliveira, P.; Noort, A.; Bidarra, R.


    In current commercial feature modeling systems, support for direct manipulation of features is not commonly available. This is partly due to the strong reliance of such systems on constraints, but also to the lack of speed of current constraint solvers. In this paper, an approach to the optimization

  20. 12 CFR 334.43 - Direct disputes. (United States)


    ... performance or other conduct concerning an account or other relationship with the furnisher, such as direct... consumer report regarding an account or other relationship with the furnisher that bears on the consumer's..., as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section) such as name(s), date of birth, Social...

  1. Direct access : Lessons learnt from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Northcott, A.; Brocklehurst, P.; Jerkovic-Cosic, K.; Reinders, J. J.; McDermott, I.; Tickle, M.


    Objective To use a qualitative approach to examine the perceptions of policy makers, general dental practitioners, dental hygienists, dental students and dental hygiene students in the Netherlands following the introduction of a direct access policy in 2006. Methods Semi-structured interviews and fo

  2. Foreign Direct Investments into Denmark before 1939

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Strandskov, Jesper


    waves, which were primarily directed towards 'new' industries. The article thus offers a link to Danish economic history in general. The material also enables a comparison with FDI into Norway and Sweden over the same period. For the purposes of allowing a discussion of the comparative aspect, FDI...

  3. The Location Choice of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann


    The choice of location of foreign direct investments (FDI) by multinational enterprises (MNEs) has been the subject of intense scrutiny for decades and continues to be so. Yet, the vast diversity in methodological approaches, levels of analysis, and empirical evidence precludes a comprehensive...

  4. Global Oligopolistic Competition and Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Hoenen, Anne K.


    to a key insight of the early IB literature, namely, that foreign direct investment (FDI) often is driven by strategic interaction among MNCs in oligopolistic industries. Instead, the contemporary IB literature focuses on the FDI as a way to reduce transaction costs and/or as a way to leverage and build...

  5. 77 FR 64765 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes (United States)


    ..., Operational Check of Centre Tank Fuel Pump GFI, of the Airbus A318/A319/A320 Aircraft Maintenance Manual. Note...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320... on A320 family aeroplanes, for which the canisters become uncovered during normal operation,...

  6. 77 FR 41886 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes (United States)


    .... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320... from the reservoir to the off-wing slide in automatic or manual mode. As a result, the aspirator will... 15636, March 16, 2012) to refer to Airbus Mandatory Service Bulletin A320-53-1227, Revision 05,...

  7. 78 FR 54377 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes (United States)


    .... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and... brown deposit (iron oxide). The results of the technical investigations have also concluded that A320... instructions in the applicable Goodrich component maintenance manual instead of a new THSA part. DAL...

  8. 78 FR 22175 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes (United States)


    .... SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319, A320...-latches through the instructions of the cargo conversion manual. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure..., A320 and A321 aeroplanes do not withstand the ] maximum loads in accordance with the...

  9. 78 FR 60667 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes (United States)


    .../A319/A320/A321 Airplane Flight Manual. (ii) Reserved. (5) For service information identified in this AD.... SUMMARY: We are superseding airworthiness directive (AD) 2012-26-51 for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. AD 2012- 26-51 required revising the airplane flight manual (AFM) to...

  10. Universality for directed polymers in thin rectangles

    CERN Document Server

    Auffinger, Antonio; Corwin, Ivan


    We consider the fluctuations of the free energy of positive temperature directed polymers in thin rectangles (N,N^{\\alpha}), \\alpha < 3/14. For general weight distributions with finite fourth moment we prove that the distribution of these fluctuations converges as N goes to infinity to the GUE Tracy-Widom distribution.

  11. Direction of Contents Development for SMART Education (United States)

    Park, YoungSun; An, SangJin; Lee, YoungJun


    The aim of this study is to suggest a direction of developing SMART education contents for its effective implementation by analyzing the status of educational informatization policies in Korea. Korean government has built the information and communication infrastructure, and provided teachers and students with various kinds of contents. And, in…

  12. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling (United States)

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA


    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  13. 78 FR 75515 - Veterinary Feed Directive (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 514 and 558 RIN 0910-AG95 Veterinary Feed... Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its animal drug regulations regarding veterinary feed directive (VFD..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-220), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  14. Compressive direct measurement of the quantum wavefunction

    CERN Document Server

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Boyd, Robert W


    The direct measurement of a complex wavefunction has been recently realized by using weak-values. In this paper, we introduce a method that exploits sparsity for compressive measurement of the transverse spatial wavefunction of single photons. The procedure involves a weak measurement in random projection operators in the spatial domain followed by a post-selection in the momentum basis.

  15. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength (United States)

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb


    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  16. Directed Technical Change and Climate Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Löschel, A.; Reilly, J.


    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward-looking CGE model that captures empirical links between CO2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We find the cost-effe

  17. Controlled quantum teleportation and secure direct communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ting; Yan Feng-Li; Wang Zhi-Xi


    We present a controlled quantum teleportation protocol. In the protocol, quantum information of an unknown state of a 2-level particle is faithfully transmitted from a sender Alice to a remote receiver Bob via an initially shared triplet of entangled particles under the control of the supervisor Charlie. The distributed entangled particles shared by Alice, Bob and Charlie function as a quantum information channel for faithful transmission. We also propose a controlled and secure direct communication scheme by means of this teleportation. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, Alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states and transmits them to Bob supervised by Charlie using this controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded message directly by the measurement on his qubit. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits Alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret message between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if perfect quantum channel is used. The special feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side to co-operate.

  18. Cryptochrome 2 mediates directional magnetoreception in cockroaches (United States)

    Bazalova, Olga; Kvicalova, Marketa; Valkova, Tereza; Slaby, Pavel; Bartos, Premysl; Netusil, Radek; Tomanova, Katerina; Braeunig, Peter; Lee, How-Jing; Sauman, Ivo; Damulewicz, Milena; Provaznik, Jan; Pokorny, Richard; Dolezel, David; Vacha, Martin


    The ability to perceive geomagnetic fields (GMFs) represents a fascinating biological phenomenon. Studies on transgenic flies have provided evidence that photosensitive Cryptochromes (Cry) are involved in the response to magnetic fields (MFs). However, none of the studies tackled the problem of whether the Cry-dependent magnetosensitivity is coupled to the sole MF presence or to the direction of MF vector. In this study, we used gene silencing and a directional MF to show that mammalian-like Cry2 is necessary for a genuine directional response to periodic rotations of the GMF vector in two insect species. Longer wavelengths of light required higher photon fluxes for a detectable behavioral response, and a sharp detection border was present in the cyan/green spectral region. Both observations are consistent with involvement of the FADox, FAD•− and FADH– redox forms of flavin. The response was lost upon covering the eyes, demonstrating that the signal is perceived in the eye region. Immunohistochemical staining detected Cry2 in the hemispherical layer of laminal glia cells underneath the retina. Together, these findings identified the eye-localized Cry2 as an indispensable component and a likely photoreceptor of the directional GMF response. Our study is thus a clear step forward in deciphering the in vivo effects of GMF and supports the interaction of underlying mechanism with the visual system. PMID:26811445

  19. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  20. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue (United States)

    Fridman, Gregory

    For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

  1. Ascertaining directionality information from incident nuclear radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, Brian C. [Purdue University (United States); Lapinskas, Joseph R. [QSA Global, Inc. (United States); Wang Jing; Webster, Jeffrey A. [Purdue University (United States); McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A and M University (United States); Taleyarkhan, Rusi P., E-mail: [Purdue University (United States)


    Highlights: > Use of tensioned metastable fluids for detection of fast neutron radiation. > Monitored neutrons with 100% gamma photon blindness capability. > Monitored direction of incoming neutron radiation from special nuclear material emissions. > Ascertained directionality of neutron source to within 30 deg. and with 80% confidence with 2000 detection events at rate of 30-40 per second. > Conducted successful blind test for determining source of neutrons from a hidden neutron emitting source. > Compared results with MCNP5-COMSOL based multi-physics model. - Abstract: Unprecedented capabilities for the detection of nuclear particles via tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detection (ATMFD) systems were assessed for determining directionality of incoming fast neutrons. This paper presents advancements that expand on these accomplishments, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on demand enlargement of the detector sensitive volume. Advances in the development of ATMFD systems were accomplished utilizing a combination of experimentation and theoretical modeling. Modeling methodologies include Monte-Carlo based nuclear particle transport using MCNP5 and multi-physics based assessments accounting for acoustic, structural, and electromagnetic coupling of the ATMFD system via COMSOL's multi-physics simulation platform. Benchmarking and qualification studies have been conducted with a 1 Ci Pu-Be neutron-gamma source. These results show that the specific ATMFD system used for this study can enable detection of directionality of incoming fast neutrons from the neutron source to within 30{sup o} with 80% confidence; this required {approx}2000 detection events which could be collected within {approx}50 s at a detection rate of {approx}30-40 per second. Blind testing was


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)


    Upcoming direct-imaging experiments may detect a new class of long-period, highly luminous, tidally powered extrasolar gas giants. Even though they are hosted by {approx} Gyr-'old' main-sequence stars, they can be as 'hot' as young Jupiters at {approx}100 Myr, the prime targets of direct-imaging surveys. They are on years-long orbits and presently migrating to 'feed' the 'hot Jupiters'. They are expected from 'high-e' migration mechanisms, in which Jupiters are excited to highly eccentric orbits and then shrink semimajor axis by a factor of {approx}10-100 due to tidal dissipation at close periastron passages. The dissipated orbital energy is converted to heat, and if it is deposited deep enough into the atmosphere, the planet likely radiates steadily at luminosity L {approx} 100-1000 L{sub Jup}(2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} L{sub Sun }) during a typical {approx} Gyr migration timescale. Their large orbital separations and expected high planet-to-star flux ratios in IR make them potentially accessible to high-contrast imaging instruments on 10 m class telescopes. {approx}10 such planets are expected to exist around FGK dwarfs within {approx}50 pc. Long-period radial velocity planets are viable candidates, and the highly eccentric planet HD 20782b at maximum angular separation {approx}0.''08 is a promising candidate. Directly imaging these tidally powered Jupiters would enable a direct test of high-e migration mechanisms. Once detected, the luminosity would provide a direct measurement of the migration rate, and together with mass (and possibly radius) estimate, they would serve as a laboratory to study planetary spectral formation and tidal physics.

  3. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram


    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital baseb

  4. Direct PLUS Loan Basics: Parent Loans for Students. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The Direct PLUS Loan is one of the low-interest loans provided by the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. The U.S. Department of Education delivers loan proceeds through the student's school, and parents are responsible for repaying the Department. This booklet answers parents' questions about the loan program, including: (1) Am I…

  5. Direct Loans: A Better Way To Borrow. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    The Web site provides information on the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program for both professionals and borrowers. For professionals, it provides information on conferences, promissory notes, regulations, laws, and relevant links, as well as technical assistance, and other publications and guides. For…

  6. Direction-Dependence Analysis: A Confirmatory Approach for Testing Directional Theories (United States)

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; von Eye, Alexander


    The concept of direction dependence has attracted growing attention due to its potential to help decide which of two competing linear regression models (X ? Y or Y ? X) is more likely to reflect the correct causal flow. Several tests have been proposed to evaluate hypotheses compatible with direction dependence. In this issue, Thoemmes (2015)…

  7. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships With Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior. (United States)

    Clemans, Katherine H; Graber, Julia A; Bettencourt, Amie F


    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6 yrs). Factor analysis revealed two primary factors which corresponded to adult-directed and peer-directed respect orientations. Results suggested that adult-directed respect was associated with lower levels of aggression and social manipulation, whereas peer-directed respect was associated with higher levels of these behaviors. The role of peer-directed respect as a risk factor for negative social behavior in adolescence is discussed.

  8. Five disruptive technology directions for 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; W. Heath Jr., Robert; Lozano, Angel


    New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive ...... MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications. The key ideas for each technology are described, along with their potential impact on 5G and the research challenges that remain.......New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive...

  9. Guidelines for Direct Adhesive Composite Restoration. (United States)

    Society Of Cariology And Endodontology, Chinese Stomatological Association Csa


    Direct adhesive composite restoration, a technique to restore tooth defects by bonding composite resin materials, has been widely used in the restoration of dental caries or other tooth defects. Retention of composite resin restoration mainly relies on bonding strength between the materials and dental tissue. The clinical outcomes rely greatly on the regulated clinical practice of dentists. In 2011, the Society of Cariology and Endodontology of Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA) published the 'Practices and evaluation criteria of composite resin bonded restoration (Discussion Version)'. Since then, opinions and comments regarding the 'Discussion Version' have been widely circulated within the Society. The final version of the guideline was based on systematic reviews of scientific literature and requirements for the edit of technical guidelines, and through several rounds of discussions, revisions and supplements. The society recommends this guideline for clinicians to use in their practices, when conducting direct composite restorations.

  10. Direct impact aerosol sampling by electrostatic precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braden, Jason D.; Harter, Andrew G.; Stinson, Brad J.; Sullivan, Nicholas M.


    The present disclosure provides apparatuses for collecting aerosol samples by ionizing an air sample at different degrees. An air flow is generated through a cavity in which at least one corona wire is disposed and electrically charged to form a corona therearound. At least one grounded sample collection plate is provided downstream of the at least one corona wire so that aerosol ions generated within the corona are deposited on the at least one grounded sample collection plate. A plurality of aerosol samples ionized to different degrees can be generated. The at least one corona wire may be perpendicular to the direction of the flow, or may be parallel to the direction of the flow. The apparatus can include a serial connection of a plurality of stages such that each stage is capable of generating at least one aerosol sample, and the air flow passes through the plurality of stages serially.

  11. Development of Direct-Use Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.


    A geothermal direct-use project utilizes a natural resource, a flow of geothermal fluid at elevated temperatures, which is capable of providing heat and/or cooling to buildings, greenhouses, aquaculture ponds, and industrial processes. Geothermal utilization requires matching the varied needs of the user and characteristics of the resource in order to development a successful project. Each application is unique; guidelines are provided for the logical steps required to implement a project. Recommended temperature and flows are suggested for spas and pools, space and district heating, greenhouse and aquaculture pond heating, and industrial applications. Guidelines are provided for selecting the necessary equipment for successfully implementing a direct-use project, including downhole pumps, piping, heat exchangers, and heat convectors. Additionally, the relationship between temperature, flow rate, and the use of heat exchangers to provide heat to a space with hot water or hot air is provided for a number of applications, with suggested 'rules of thumb'.

  12. Direct NOE simulation from long MD trajectories (United States)

    Chalmers, G.; Glushka, J. N.; Foley, B. L.; Woods, R. J.; Prestegard, J. H.


    A software package, MD2NOE, is presented which calculates Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) build-up curves directly from molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories. It differs from traditional approaches in that it calculates correlation functions directly from the trajectory instead of extracting inverse sixth power distance terms as an intermediate step in calculating NOEs. This is particularly important for molecules that sample conformational states on a timescale similar to molecular reorientation. The package is tested on sucrose and results are shown to differ in small but significant ways from those calculated using an inverse sixth power assumption. Results are also compared to experiment and found to be in reasonable agreement despite an expected underestimation of water viscosity by the water model selected.

  13. Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wavefunction

    CERN Document Server

    Lundeen, Jeff S; Patel, Aabid; Stewart, Corey; Bamber, Charles; 10.1038/nature10120


    Central to quantum theory, the wavefunction is the complex distribution used to completely describe a quantum system. Despite its fundamental role, it is typically introduced as an abstract element of the theory with no explicit definition. Rather, physicists come to a working understanding of the wavefunction through its use to calculate measurement outcome probabilities via the Born Rule. Presently, scientists determine the wavefunction through tomographic methods, which estimate the wavefunction that is most consistent with a diverse collection of measurements. The indirectness of these methods compounds the problem of defining the wavefunction. Here we show that the wavefunction can be measured directly by the sequential measurement of two complementary variables of the system. The crux of our method is that the first measurement is performed in a gentle way (i.e. weak measurement) so as not to invalidate the second. The result is that the real and imaginary components of the wavefunction appear directly ...

  14. Pragmatic directions and children's word learning. (United States)

    Clark, E V; Grossman, J B


    The present study tested the hypothesis that children as young as two use what adults tell them about meaning relations when they make inferences about new words. 18 two-year-olds (mean age 2;2) and 18 three-year-olds (mean age 3;2) learned two new terms (a) with instructions either (i) to treat one term as a superordinate to the other, or (ii) to replace one term with another; and (b) with no instruction given about how two new words might be related. Children were attentive to both kinds of instructions or pragmatic directions, and made use of them in their word-learning. When they received no instruction relating the two new words, they resorted to a range of coping strategies to assign and relate meanings to each other. These findings support the view that children's learning of new word meanings is guided by the pragmatic directions adults offer.

  15. Nonmedian Direct Products of Graphs with Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Krop, Elliot


    A \\emph{median graph} is a connected graph in which, for every three vertices, there exists a unique vertex $m$ lying on the geodesic between any two of the given vertices. We show that the only median graphs of the direct product $G\\times H$ are formed when $G=P_k$, for any integer $k\\geq 3$ and $H=P_l$, for any integer $l\\geq 2$, with a loop at an end vertex, where the direct product is taken over all connected graphs $G$ on at least three vertices or at least two vertices with at least one loop, and connected graphs $H$ with at least one loop.

  16. Discrete directional wavelet bases for image compression (United States)

    Dragotti, Pier L.; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Vetterli, Martin; Beferull-Lozano, Baltasar


    The application of the wavelet transform in image processing is most frequently based on a separable construction. Lines and columns in an image are treated independently and the basis functions are simply products of the corresponding one dimensional functions. Such method keeps simplicity in design and computation, but is not capable of capturing properly all the properties of an image. In this paper, a new truly separable discrete multi-directional transform is proposed with a subsampling method based on lattice theory. Alternatively, the subsampling can be omitted and this leads to a multi-directional frame. This transform can be applied in many areas like denoising, non-linear approximation and compression. The results on non-linear approximation and denoising show very interesting gains compared to the standard two-dimensional analysis.

  17. Ion irradiation induced direct damage to DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Su, Wenhui


    Ion beams have been widely applied in a few biological research fields such as radioactive breeding, health protection, and tumor therapy. Up to now many interesting and impressive achievements in biology and agriculture have been made. Over the past several decades, scientists in biology, physics, and chemistry have pursued investigations focused on understanding the mechanisms of these radiobiological effects of ion beams. From the chemical point of view, these effects are due to the ion irradiation induced biomolecular damage, direct or indirect. In this review, we will present a chemical overview of the direct effects of ion irradiation upon DNA and its components, based on a review of literature combined with recent experimental results. It is suggested that, under ion bombardment, a DNA molecule undergoes a variety of processes, including radical formation, atomic displacement, intramolecular bond-scissions, emission of fragments, fragment recombination and molecular crosslink, which may lead to genetic...

  18. Agreement dynamics on directed random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, Antonio L


    When agreement-dynamics models are placed on a directed random graph, a fraction of sites $\\exp(-z)$, where $z$ is the average degree, becomes permanently fixed or flickering. In the Voter model, which has no surface tension, such zealots or flickers freely spread their opinions and that makes the system disordered. For models with a surface tension, like the Ising model or the Naming Game model, their role is limited and such systems are ordered at large~$z$. However, when $z$ decreases, the density of zealots or flickers increases, and below a certain threshold ($z\\sim 1.9-2.0$) the system becomes disordered. Our results show that the agreement dynamics on directed networks is much different from their undirected analogues.

  19. [Transcranial direct current stimulation for depressive disorders]. (United States)

    Aust, S; Palm, U; Padberg, F; Bajbouj, M


    Major depressive disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide but approximately 20-30 % of patients do not respond to standard guideline conform treatment. Recent neuroimaging studies in depressive patients revealed altered activation patterns in prefrontal brain areas and that successful cognitive behavioral therapy and psychopharmacological interventions are associated with a reversal of these neural alterations. Therefore, a direct modulation of prefrontal brain activation by non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) seems to be a promising and innovative approach for the treatment of depressive disorders. In addition, recent neuropsychological findings indicated an augmentation of positive tDCS effects by simultaneous external activation of the stimulated brain area, for example by cognitive training tasks. Based on these findings, the possibility to augment cognitive-emotional learning processes during cognitive behavioral therapy by simultaneous tDCS to increase antidepressive therapeutic effects is discussed in this article.

  20. Scaling effects in direct shear tests (United States)

    Orlando, A.D.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.


    Laboratory experiments of the direct shear test were performed on spherical particles of different materials and diameters. Results of the bulk friction vs. non-dimensional shear displacement are presented as a function of the non-dimensional particle diameter. Simulations of the direct shear test were performed using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation results show Considerable differences with the physical experiments. Particle level material properties, such as the coefficients of static friction, restitution and rolling friction need to be known a priori in order to guarantee that the simulation results are an accurate representation of the physical phenomenon. Furthermore, laboratory results show a clear size dependency on the results, with smaller particles having a higher bulk friction than larger ones. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Sensorless vector and direct torque control

    CERN Document Server

    Vas, Peter


    This is the first comprehensive book on sensorless high performance a.c. drives. It is essential reading for anyone interested in acquiring a solid background on sensorless torque-controlled drives. It presents a detailed and unified treatment of sensorless vector-controlled and direct-torque controlled drive systems. It also discusses the applications of artificial intelligence to drives. Where possible, space vector theory is used and emphasis is laid on detailed mathematical and physical analysis. Sensorless drive schemes for different types of permanent magnet synchronous motors, synchronous reluctance motors, and induction motors are also presented. These include more than twenty vector drives e.g. five types of MRAS-based vector drives, and eleven types of direct-torque-controlled (DTC) drives, e.g. the ABB DTC drive. However, torque-controlled switched reluctance motor drives are also discussed due to their emerging importance. The book also covers various drive applications using artificial intellige...

  2. Direct dark matter detection: the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    Baudis, Laura


    Direct dark matter searches are promising techniques to identify the nature of dark matter particles. I describe the future of this field of research, focussing on the question of what can be achieved in the next decade. I will present the main techniques and R&D projects that will allow to build so-called ultimate WIMP detectors, capable of probing spin-independent interactions down to the unimaginably low cross section of 1e-48 cm2, before the irreducible neutrino background takes over. If a discovery is within the reach of a near-future dark matter experiment, these detectors will be able to constrain WIMP properties such as its mass, scattering cross section and possibly spin. With input from the LHC and from indirect searches, direct detection experiments will hopefully allow to determine the local density and to constrain the local phase-space structure of our dark matter halo.

  3. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Kokuti


    Full Text Available We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees.

  4. Direct flash steam geothermal power plant assessment (United States)

    Alt, T. E.


    The objective was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. System and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate are discussed. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  5. Direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bourg, N; Dupuis, G; Barroca, T; Bon, P; Lécart, S; Fort, E; Lévêque-Fort, S


    Evanescent light excitation is widely used in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to confine light and reduce background noise. Herein we propose a method of exploiting evanescent light in the context of emission. When a fluorophore is located in close proximity to a medium with a higher refractive index, its near-field component is converted into light that propagates beyond the critical angle. This so-called Supercritical Angle Fluorescence (SAF) can be captured using a hig-NA objective and used to determine the axial position of the fluorophore with nanometer precision. We introduce a new technique for 3D nanoscopy that combines direct STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM) imaging with dedicated detection of SAF emission. We demonstrate that our approach of a Direct Optical Nanoscopy with Axially Localized Detection (DONALD) yields a typical isotropic 3D localization precision of 20 nm.

  6. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.


    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  7. Dark Matter directional detection with MIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Riffard, Q; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Guillaudin, O; Lamblin, J; Mayet, F; Muraz, J -F; Richer, J -P; Santos, D; Lebreton, L; Maire, D; Busto, J; Brunner, J; Fouchez, D


    Directional detection is a promising direct Dark Matter (DM) search strategy. The angular distribution of the nuclear recoil tracks from WIMP events should present an anisotropy in galactic coordinates. This strategy requires both a measurement of the recoil energy with a threshold of about 5 keV and 3D recoil tracks down to few millimeters. The MIMAC project, based on a \\textmu-TPC matrix, with $CF_4$ and $CHF_3$, is being developed. In June 2012, a bi-chamber prototype was installed at the LSM (Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane). A preliminary analysis of the first four months data taking allowed, for the first time, the observation of recoils from the $\\mathrm{^{222}Rn}$ progeny.

  8. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler (United States)

    Rapier, Pascal M.


    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  9. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.


    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  10. Directional Solidification Assisted by Liquid Metal Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; Langhong LOU


    An overview of the development and current status of the directional solidification process assisted by liquid metal cooling (LMC) has been presented in this paper. The driving force of the rapid development of the LMC process has been analyzed by considering the demands of (1) newer technologies that can provide higher thermal gradients for alleviated segregation in advanced alloy systems, and (2) better production yield of the large directionally solidified superalloy components. The brief history of the industrialization of the LMC process has been reviewed, followed by the discussion on the LMC parameters including selection of the cooling media, using of the dynamic baffle, and the influence of withdrawal rates and so on. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the traditional superalloys processed by LMC, as well as the new alloys particularly developed for LMC process were then described. Finally, future aspects concerning the LMC process have been summarized.

  11. Optical gears in a nanophotonic directional coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Fengchun; Zhang, Heran; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xu-Guang; Jia, Baohua; Liu, Songhao


    Gears are rotating machines, meshing with each other by teeth to transmit torque. Interestingly, the rotating directions of two meshing gears are opposite, clockwise and counterclockwise. Although this opposite handedness motion has been widely investigated in machinery science, the analogue behavior of photons remains undiscovered. Here, we present a simple nanophotonic directional coupler structure which can generate two meshing gears of angular momentum (AM) of light, optical gears. Due to the abrupt phase shift effect and birefringence effect, the AM states of photons vary with the propagation distance in two adjacent waveguides of the coupler. Thus, by the choice of coupling length, it is able to obtain two light beams with opposite handedness of AM, confirming the appearance of optical gears. The full control in the handedness of output beams is achieved via tuning the relative phase between two orthogonal modes at the input ports. Optical gears thus offer the possibility of exploring light-matter inter...

  12. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson


    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  13. Naturalness from Runaways in Direct Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer-Nameki, Sakura; /UC, Santa Barbara /King' s Coll. London; Tamarit, Carlos; /UC, Santa Barbara; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC


    Postulating that the NMSSM singlet is a meson of a microscopic confining theory opens up new model-building possibilities. Based on this, we construct calculable models of direct mediation that solve the {mu}/B{mu} problem and simultaneously lead to realistic phenomenology. The singlet that couples to the Higgs fields develops a runaway produced by soft interactions, then stabilized by a small superpotential perturbation. The mechanism is first realized in an O'Raifeartaigh model of direct gauge mediation with metastable supersymmetry breaking. Focusing then on the microscopic theory, we argue that super QCD with massless and massive flavors in the free magnetic phase gives rise to this dynamics in the infrared. A deformation of the SQCD superpotential leads to large spontaneous R-symmetry breaking, gaugino masses naturally at the scale of the Higgs mass parameters, and absence of CP violating phases.

  14. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P.; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun


    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  15. Direct amino acid analyses of mozzarella cheese. (United States)

    Hoskins, M N


    The amino acid content of mozzarella (low moisture, part skim milk) and asadero cheeses was determined by the column chromatographic method. Data from the direct analyses of the mozzarella cheeses were compared with the calculated amino acid composition reported in tables in Agriculture Handbook No. 8-1. Phenylalanine and tyrosine contents were found to be higher in the direct analyses than in the calculated data in Handbook No. 8-1 (1.390 gm and 1.127 gm for phenylalanine, and 1.493 gm and 1.249 gm for tyrosine per 100 gm edible portion, respectively). That is of particular concern in the dietary management of phenylketonuria, in which accuracy in computing levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine is essential.

  16. Explaining Variations in Implementation of EU Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Versluis


    Full Text Available Uneven implementation of Community law across the European Union is common practice. Differences in implementation of EU directives differences in degree of domestic adjustment are, according to variables identified in the Europeanization literature, to be explained by variations in the degree of fit and the availability of mediating factors. The analysis of the implementation of the Seveso II and Safety Data Sheets Directives in the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain shows, however, that these identified factors alone do not suffice to explain the observed differences. This article pleas for a closer look at the role of 'issue salience' as a complementary factor that constraints or stimulates the existing mediating factors in the Europeanization literature.

  17. Minimizing ADMs on WDM Directed Fiber Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU FengFeng (周丰丰); CHEN GuoLiang (陈国良); XU YinLong (许胤龙); GU Jun (顾钧)


    This paper proposes a polynomial-time algorithm for Minimum WDM/SONET Add/Drop Multiplexer Problem (MADM) on WDM directed fiber trees whether or not wavelength converters are used. It runs in time O(m2n), where n and m are the number of nodes of the tree and the number of the requests respectively. Incorporating T. Erlebach et al.'s work into the proposed algorithm, it also reaches the lower bound of the required wavelengths with greedy algorithms for the case without wavelength converters. Combined with some previous work, the algorithm reduces the number of required wavelengths greatly while using minimal number of ADMs for the case with limited wavelength converters. The experimental results show the minimal number of required ADMs on WDM directed fiber trees.

  18. Direct current power delivery system and method (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin


    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  19. Matters of time directionality in gravitation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nickner, Christophe


    Several issues related to time directionality as they arise from a semi-classical perspective are discussed which are all directly or indirectly relevant to gravitation theory. Important clarifications are achieved regarding in particular the concept of negative energy and the associated notion of negative mass. Several difficulties traditionally associated with the possibility for matter to occupy negative energy states are discussed and solutions to the problems they represent are suggested. Generalized gravitational field equations which allow to fulfill the requirements set by the axioms derived from this analysis are provided. A revised formulation of the discrete symmetry operations based on the lessons learned while addressing the problem of negative energy is proposed which gives rise to an improved notion of time reversal. A symmetry operation which allows to provide the missing element needed to obtain a truly complete set of discrete symmetry operations is introduced which involves a reversal of th...

  20. Direct formate fuel cells: A review (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.


    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.